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Sample records for pollution atmospherique sur

  1. Caracterisation, modelisation et validation du transfert radiatif d'atmospheres non standard; impact sur les corrections atmospheriques d'images de teledetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zidane, Shems

    This study is based on data acquired with an airborne multi-altitude sensor on July 2004 during a nonstandard atmospheric event in the region of Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec. By non-standard atmospheric event we mean an aerosol atmosphere that does not obey the typical monotonic, scale height variation employed in virtually all atmospheric correction codes. The surfaces imaged during this field campaign included a diverse variety of targets : agricultural land, water bodies, urban areas and forests. The multi-altitude approach employed in this campaign allowed us to better understand the altitude dependent influence of the atmosphere over the array of ground targets and thus to better characterize the perturbation induced by a non-standard (smoke) plume. The transformation of the apparent radiance at 3 different altitudes into apparent reflectance and the insertion of the plume optics into an atmospheric correction model permitted an atmospheric correction of the apparent reflectance at the two higher altitudes. The results showed consistency with the apparent validation reflectances derived from the lowest altitude radiances. This approach effectively confirmed the accuracy of our non-standard atmospheric correction approach. This test was particularly relevant at the highest altitude of 3.17 km : the apparent reflectances at this altitude were above most of the plume and therefore represented a good test of our ability to adequately correct for the influence of the perturbation. Standard atmospheric disturbances are obviously taken into account in most atmospheric correction models, but these are based on monotonically decreasing aerosol variations with increasing altitude. When the atmospheric radiation is affected by a plume or a local, non-standard pollution event, one must adapt the existing models to the radiative transfer constraints of the local perturbation and to the reality of the measurable parameters available for ingestion into the model. The

  2. Etude de l'impact de la valorisation energetique de pneus hors d'usage, dans une cimenterie, sur les emissions gazeuses par modelisation de la dispersion atmospherique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bredin, Nathalie

    La génération incéssante de déchets nécessite le développement de nouvelles technologies, telle que la valorisation énergétique, pour en disposer. Une filière appropriée pour valoriser énergétiquement les déchets est le procédé cimentier. L'industrie du ciment est une des grandes consommatrices d'énergie. La température nécessaire à la préparation du ciment se situe aux environs de 1450°C pour faire réagir la matière première (cru) qui est sous forme poudreuse et constituée principalement de roches calcaires, argileuses, schisteuses,... Les gaz de combustion ont un long temps de résidence dans les fours. De plus, le mode de fonctionnement des fours est responsable d'un effet de lessivage des gaz acides par le cru alcalin. Ces propriétés font du procédé cimentier un bon candidat pour la valorisation énergétique des déchets. Les déchets interessants pour les cimenteries sont, entre autres, les huiles usées, les solvants usés et les pneus usés qui ont un pouvoir calorifique équivalent à celui du charbon. Les rejets à l'atmosphère des cimenteries sont principalement des émissions gazeuses. Ainsi, l'impact de la valorisation de pneus usés sur les émissions gazeuses de la cimenterie Saint-Laurent de Joliette a été étudié, à l'aide de l'outil qu'est la modélisation de la dispersion atmosphérique. Le modèle utilisé ISC-ST2, Industrial Source Complex-Short Term, est de type gaussien. L'analyse des concentrations maximales horaires et moyennes sur différentes périodes de temps (1 heure, 8 heures, ..., 1 an) des émissions gazeuses dans l'air ambiant montre que celles-ci sont en deçà des normes émises par le gouvernement québécois et par la Communauté Urbaine de Montréal. L'étude de la distribution géographique des polluants, d'après les concentrations annuelles, dans un rayon de 5 km autour de la cimenterie montre que le fait d'utiliser des pneus comme combustible de substitution n'a qu'un faible impact sur la

  3. Effets de la pollution de l’air sur la santé

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Faire connaître aux médecins de famille les effets de la pollution atmosphérique sur la santé et indiquer quels conseils donner aux patients vulnérables pour qu’ils soient moins exposés. Sources de l’information On a consulté MEDLINE à l’aide des termes relatifs à la pollution atmosphérique et à ses effets indésirables. On a révisé les articles en anglais publiés entre janvier 2008 et décembre 2009. La plupart des études contenaient des preuves de niveau II. Principal message Au Canada, la pollution de l’air extérieur cause une morbidité et une mortalité importantes. Elle peut affecter le système respiratoire (exacerbation de l’asthme et de la maladie pulmonaire obstructive chronique) et le système cardiovasculaire (déclencher l’arythmie, l’insuffisance cardiaque et les AVC). La cote air santé (CAS) est un nouvel outil de communication mis au point par Santé Canada et Environnement Canada qui indique sur une échelle de 1 à 10, le risque pour la santé causé par la pollution atmosphérique. La CAS est largement diffusée dans les médias et cet outil pourrait être utile au médecin de famille pour inciter les patients à haut risque (comme ceux qui souffrent d’asthme, de maladie pulmonaire obstructive chronique ou d’insuffisance cardiaque) à réduire leur exposition à la pollution atmosphérique. Conclusion Le médecin de famille peut se servir de la CAS et de ses messages sur la santé pour enseigner aux asthmatiques et aux autres patients à risque élevé la façon de réduire les risques pour la santé causés par la pollution atmosphérique.

  4. Caracterisation environnementale des emissions atmospheriques d'une source fixe et creation d'un outil de gestion dynamique =

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, Marie-Claude

    Une caracterisation des emissions atmospheriques provenant des sources fixes en operation, alimentees au gaz et a l'huile legere, a ete conduite aux installations visees des sites no.1 et no.2. La caracterisation et les calculs theoriques des emissions atmospheriques aux installations des sites no.1 et no.2 presentent des resultats qui sont en dessous des valeurs reglementaires pour des conditions d'operation normales en periode hivernale et par consequent, a de plus fortes demandes energetiques. Ainsi, pour une demande energetique plus basse, le taux de contaminants dans les emissions atmospheriques pourrait egalement etre en dessous des reglementations municipales et provinciales en vigueur. Dans la perspective d'une nouvelle reglementation provinciale, dont les termes sont discutes depuis 2005, il serait souhaitable que le proprietaire des infrastructures visees participe aux echanges avec le Ministere du Developpement Durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs (MDDEP) du Quebec. En effet, meme si le principe de droit acquis permettrait d'eviter d'etre assujetti a la nouvelle reglementation, l'application de ce type de principe ne s'inscrit pas dans ceux d'un developpement durable. L'âge avance des installations etudiees implique la planification d'un entretien rigoureux afin d'assurer les conditions optimales de combustion en fonction du type de combustible. Des tests de combustion sur une base reguliere sont donc recommandes. Afin de supporter le processus de suivi et d'evaluation de la performance environnementale des sources fixes, un outil d'aide a la gestion de l'information environnementale a ete developpe. Dans ce contexte, la poursuite du developpement d'un outil d'aide a la gestion de l'information environnementale faciliterait non seulement le travail des personnes affectees aux inventaires annuels mais egalement le processus de communication entre les differents acteurs concernes tant intra- qu'inter-etablissement. Cet outil serait egalement un bon

  5. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  6. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  7. In situ airborne measurements of aerosol optical properties during photochemical pollution events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, M.; van Dingenen, R.; Roger, J. C.; Despiau, S.; Cachier, H.

    2005-02-01

    Dry aerosol optical properties (scattering, absorbing coefficients, and single scattering albedo) were derived from in situ airborne measurements during two photochemical pollution events (25 and 26 June) observed during the Experience sur Site pour Contraindre les Modeles de Pollution atmospherique et de Transport d'Emissions (ESCOMPTE) experiment. Two flights were carried out during daytime (one during the morning and one at noon) over a domain, allowing the investigation of how an air pollution event affects the particle optical properties. Both horizontal distribution and vertical profiles are presented. Results from the horizontal mapping show that plumes of enhanced scattering and absorption are formed in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) during the day in the sea breeze-driven outflow of the coastal urban-industrial area of Marseille-Fos de Berre. The domain-averaged scattering coefficient (at 550 nm) over land σs changes from 35 (28) Mm-1 during land breeze to 63 (43) Mm-1 during sea breeze on 25 June (26 June), with local maxima reaching > 100 Mm-1. The increase in the scattering coefficient is associated with new particle formation, indicative of secondary aerosol formation. Simultaneously, the domain-averaged absorption coefficient increases from 5.6 (3.4) Mm-1 to 9.3 (8.0) Mm-1. The pollution plume leads to strong gradients in the single scattering albedo ωo over the domain studied, with local values as low as 0.73 observed inside the pollution plume. The role of photochemistry and secondary aerosol formation during the 25 June case is shown to increase ωo and to make the aerosol more `reflecting' while the plume moves away from the sources. The lower photochemical activity, observed in the 26 June case, induces a relatively higher contribution of black carbon, making the aerosol more absorbing. Results from vertical profiles at a single near-urban location in the domain indicate that the changes in optical properties happen almost entirely within

  8. La pollution des Baies de Morlaix et de Lannion par les hydrocarbures de l' ``Amoco Cadiz'': Répartition sur les fonds et évolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beslier, A.; Birrien, J. L.; Cabioch, L.; Larsonneur, C.; Le Borgne, L.

    1980-03-01

    Distribution of hydrocarbons from the “Amoco Cadiz” oil spill in sublittoral sediments, north of Brittany. The quantitative distribution of hydrocarbons in the sublittoral sediments, north of Brittany (France), was followed and recorded for the first year after the spill (March, 1978). Following preliminary observations in spring of 1978, 250 stations were sampled in August from the Bay of Lannion to Portsall at water depths down to 70 m. Subsequently, 40 stations were studied at three-month intervals. During the summer of 1978, the widest polluted sublittoral areas were localised in the Bays of Morlaix and Lannion down to depths of about 30 m and even deeper in some places. In these two bays, the distribution of hydrocarbons showed: (1) deposition near the coasts hit by the slicks, mostly after adsorption by fine sedimentary particles; (2) redistribution of particulate and adsorbed oil towards low hydrodynamic energy areas favourable to deposition of fine particles. In autumn and winter, the coarse sediments became progressively less polluted. Oil, often in significant quantities, remained or was reconcentrated in the fine sediments of the inner bay parts. Consequently, the hydrodynamic structure ot the area (waves, tidal currents) has played an important role in the deposition and redistribution of the hydrocarbons on sublittoral bottoms.

  9. Determination des Parametres Atmospheriques des Etoiles Naines Blanches de Type DB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchamp, Alain

    1995-01-01

    Les etoiles naines blanches dont les spectres visibles sont domines par des raies fortes d'helium neutre sont subdivisees en trois classes, DB (raies d'helium neutre seulement), DBA (raies d'helium neutre et d'hydrogene) et DBZ (raies d'helium neutre et d'elements lourds). Nous analysons trois echantillons de spectres observes de ces types de naines blanches. Les echantillons consistent, respectivement, de 48 spectres dans le domaine du visible (3700-5100 A). 24 dans l'ultraviolet (1200-3100 A) et quatre dans la partie rouge du visible (5100-6900) A). Parmi les objets de l'echantillon visible, nous identifions quatre nouvelles DBA, ainsi que deux nouvelles DBZ, auparavant classees DB. L'analyse nous permet de determiner spectroscopiquement les parametres atmospheriques, soit la temperature effective, la gravite de surface, ainsi que l'abondance relative de l'hydrogene, N(H)/N(He), dans le cas des DBA. Pour les objets plus chauds que ~15,000 K, la gravite de surface determinee est fiable, et nous obtenons les masses stellaires avec une relation masse -rayon theorique. Les exigences propres a l'analyse de ces objets ont requis d'importantes ameliorations dans la modelisation de leurs atmospheres et distributions de flux de radiation emis par ces derniers. Nous avons inclus dans les modeles d'atmospheres, pour la premiere fois a notre connaissance, les effets dus a la molecule He_sp{2 }{+}, ainsi que l'equation d'etat de Hummer et Mihalas (1988), qui tient compte des perturbations entre particules dans le calcul des populations des differents niveaux atomiques. Nous traitons la convection dans le cadre de la theorie de la longueur de melange. Trois grilles de modeles d'atmospheres a l'ETL (equilibre thermodynamique local) ont ete produites, pour un ensemble de temperatures effectives, gravites de surface et abondances d'hydrogene couvrant les proprietes des etoiles de nos echantillons; elles sont caracterisees par differentes parametrisations appelees, respectivement

  10. Atmospheric Turbulence Research at DFVLR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    the chairmanship of Dr G.Coupry. Ce rapport fournit une synthese des travaux effecues au DFVLR sur Ia turbulence atmospherique , avec une description des...Turbulent trarsport in the convective bundary layer. Proc. EUPASAP Sympos. on Aircraft Measurements in Relation to Air pollution , Garmscd, -.- 9. Sept...convective boundayr layer structure for usne in pollution dispersion model . J. Climate App1. Meteorol., 25, 1609-1624. Wygaard. J.C., 1986-: Measrment

  11. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention as other types of pollution, such as air pollution, or water pollution. The air around us is ... Air Act Overview Home Progress Cleaning the Air Air Pollution Challenges Requirements and History Role of Science and ...

  12. Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  13. Les torsions sur testicules cryptorchides

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Amri, Najmeddine; Chambeh, Wahib; Braiek, Salem; Kamel, Rafik El

    2010-01-01

    Résumé But : La cryptorchidie est une pathologie assez fréquente en urologie. Elle est associée à un risque élevé d’infertilité et de dégénérescence. Elle semble aussi être associée à un risque important de torsion. Cette entité est très peu abordée dans la littérature. Nous rapportons tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide observés à notre service dans le but de mieux caractériser cette pathologie et de réduire ainsi le taux d’orchidectomies. Méthodologie : Il s’agit d’une étude rétrospective portant sur tous les cas de torsion sur testicule cryptorchide opérés dans notre service d’urologie entre 1999 et 2007. Les patients ont fait l’objet d’une description basée sur le résumé de leurs observations. Résultats : Les patients étaient âgés de 7 mois à 39 ans. La torsion touchait le testicule droit dans 53 % des cas. Le tableau clinique comportait une douleur au niveau de la région inguinale d’apparition soudaine avec une masse sous-cutanée inflammatoire et douloureuse à ce niveau et surtout un hémiscrotum homolatéral vide. Dans 60 % des cas, le diagnostic était tardif et une orchidectomie a été réalisée. Dans les autre cas, un abaissement du testicule a été réalisé avec orchidopexie controlatéral dans le même temps opératoire. Conclusion : Bien qu’il s’agisse d’une pathologie peu courante, la torsion sur testicule cryptorchide doit être étudiée davantage. Le diagnostic précoce permettra de sauver et d’abaisser le testicule et faciliter ainsi le dépistage d’une éventuelle dégénérescence. PMID:21191497

  14. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  15. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  16. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  17. Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, H. J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Deals with water pollution in the following categories: a global view, self purification, local pollution, difficulties in chemical analysis, and remedies for water pollution. Emphasizes the extent to which man's activities have modified the cycles of certain elements. (GS)

  18. Fires Burning near Big Sur, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fires near Big Sur, Calif., continued to burn unchecked when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on Sunday, June 29. In Northern California alone, fires have consumed more than 346,000 acres.At least 18,000 people have deployed to attempt to extinguish or control the flames. Air quality as far away as San Francisco has been adversely impacted by the dense clouds of smoke and ash blowing towards the northwest. The satellite image combines a natural color portrayal of the landscape with thermal infrared data showing the active burning areas in red. The dark area in the lower right is a previous forest fire.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 35.4 by 57 kilometers (21.9 by 34.2 miles) Location: 36.1 degrees North latitude, 121.6 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49 feet) Dates Acquired: June 29

  19. Fires Burning near Big Sur, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Fires near Big Sur, Calif., continued to burn unchecked when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on Sunday, June 29. In Northern California alone, fires have consumed more than 346,000 acres.At least 18,000 people have deployed to attempt to extinguish or control the flames. Air quality as far away as San Francisco has been adversely impacted by the dense clouds of smoke and ash blowing towards the northwest. The satellite image combines a natural color portrayal of the landscape with thermal infrared data showing the active burning areas in red. The dark area in the lower right is a previous forest fire.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 35.4 by 57 kilometers (21.9 by 34.2 miles) Location: 36.1 degrees North latitude, 121.6 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 3, 2, and 1 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49 feet) Dates Acquired: June 29

  20. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  1. Pollution Probe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chant, Donald A.

    This book is written as a statement of concern about pollution by members of Pollution Probe, a citizens' anti-pollution group in Canada. Its purpose is to create public awareness and pressure for the eventual solution to pollution problems. The need for effective government policies to control the population explosion, conserve natural resources,…

  2. Le Point sur... Astronomie IV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    Cet ouvrage regroupe des articles de mise au point sollicités par le rédacteur en chef de la rubrique Astronomie des Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. Les textes se proposent de faire découvrir aux lecteurs, dans les principales disciplines de l'astronomie, les résultats les plus remarquables des dernières années.Leurs auteurs sont des spécialistes participant activement à l'accroissement des connaissances dans des domaines faisant l'objet de recherches intensives. Ces mises au point sur des questions particulièrement importantes de l'astronomie sont rédigées soit en français, soit en anglais et accompagnées d'une bibliographie détaillée.

  3. Fires Burning near Big Sur, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-30

    Fires near Big Sur, Calif., continued to burn unchecked when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ASTER instrument on NASA Terra satellite captured this image on Sunday, June 29, 2008.

  4. Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitbeil, Fred W., III

    1973-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of the many factors contributing to air and water pollution, outlines the chemical reactions involved in producing toxic end-products, and describes some of the consequences of pollutants on human health and ecosystems. (JR)

  5. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjust the font size, or print this page. Water Pollution Table of Contents What is NIEHS Doing? Further Reading For Educators Introduction Water pollution is any contamination of water with chemicals ...

  6. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  7. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  8. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  9. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  10. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  11. Pockmarks off Big Sur, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N.; Greene, H. Gary; Rehder, G.; Lorenson, T.; Lee, H.

    2002-01-01

    A pockmark field was discovered during EM-300 multi-beam bathymetric surveys on the lower continental slope off the Big Sur coast of California. The field contains ??? 1500 pockmarks which are between 130 and 260 m in diameter, and typically are 8-12 m deep located within a 560 km2 area. To investigate the origin of these features, piston cores were collected from both the interior and the flanks of the pockmarks, and remotely operated vehicle observation (ROV) video and sampling transects were conducted which passed through 19 of the pockmarks. The water column within and above the pockmarks was sampled for methane concentration. Piston cores and ROV collected push cores show that the pockmark field is composed of monotonous fine silts and clays and the cores within the pockmarks are indistinguishable from those outside the pockmarks. No evidence for either sediment winnowing or diagenetic alteration suggestive of fluid venting was obtained. 14C measurements of the organic carbon in the sediments indicate continuous sedimentation throughout the time resolution of the radiocarbon technique ( ??? 45000 yr BP), with a sedimentation rate of ??? 10 cm per 1000 yr both within and between the pockmarks. Concentrations of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon, sulfate, chloride, and ammonium in pore water extracted from within the cores are generally similar in composition to seawater and show little change with depth, suggesting low biogeochemical activity. These pore water chemical gradients indicate that neither significant accumulations of gas are likely to exist in the shallow subsurface ( ??? 100 m) nor is active fluid advection occurring within the sampled sediments. Taken together the data indicate that these pockmarks are more than 45000 yr old, are presently inactive, and contain no indications of earlier fluid or gas venting events. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. AirMSPI PODEX BigSur Terrain Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-13

    ... Browse Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Big Sur target (Big Sur, California) 02/03/2013 Terrain-projected   Select ...   Version number   For more information, see the Data Product Specifications (DPS)   ...

  13. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  14. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is likely to reach levels that could be ... high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while you're outside. ... pollution levels are usually lower. Choose easier outdoor activities ( ...

  15. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  16. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  17. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  18. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  19. Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  20. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  1. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  2. Atmospheric pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution (AP), its causes, and measures to prevent or reduce it are examined in reviews and reports presented at a workshop held in Damascus, Syria in August 1985. Topics discussed include AP and planning studies, emission sources, pollutant formation and transformation, AP effects on man and vegetation, AP control, atmospheric dispersion mechanisms and modeling, sampling and analysis techniques, air-quality monitoring, and applications. Diagrams, graphs, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  3. Urban pollution.

    PubMed

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Caciari, Tiziana; Di Giorgio, Valeria; André, Jean-Claude; Palermo, Paola; Andreozzi, Giorgia; Nardone, Nadia; Schifano, Maria Pia; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Ciarrocca, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution represents a health risk for people living in urban environment. Urban air consists in a complex mixture of chemicals and carcinogens and its effects on health can be summarized in acute respiratory effects, neoplastic nonneoplastic (e.g. chronic bronchitis) chronic respiratory effects, and effects on other organs and systems. Air pollution may be defined according to origin of the phenomena that determine it: natural causes (natural fumes, decomposition, volcanic ash) or anthropogenic causes which are the result of human activities (industrial and civil emissions). Transport is the sector that more than others contributes to the deterioration of air quality in cities. In this context, in recent years, governments of the territory were asked to advance policies aimed at solving problems related to pollution. In consideration of the many effects on health caused by pollution it becomes necessary to know the risks from exposure to various environmental pollutants and to limit and control their effects. Many are the categories of "outdoor" workers, who daily serve the in urban environment: police, drivers, newsagents, etc.

  4. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  5. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  6. Pollution Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannan, Donald A.

    1972-01-01

    Stresses briefly the need for individuals' actions for controlling the environmental pollution. A number of projects are suggested for teachers to involve children in this area. Simulated discussion groups of sellers'' and consumers, use of pictures, onion juice, and a water filtration contest are a few of the sources used. (PS)

  7. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We all need clean water. People need it to grow crops and to operate factories, and for drinking and recreation. Fish and wildlife depend on ... and phosphorus make algae grow and can turn water green. Bacteria, often from sewage spills, can pollute ...

  8. MOLD POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mold pollution is the growth of molds in a building resulting in a negative impact on the use of that structure. The negative impacts generally fall into two categories: destruction of the structure itself and adverse health impacts on the building's occupants. It is estimated...

  9. Air pollution.

    PubMed

    Le, Nhu D; Sun, Li; Zidek, James V

    2010-01-01

    Toxic air pollutants are continuously released into the air supply. Various pollutants come from chemical facilities and small businesses, such as automobile service stations and dry cleaning establishments. Others, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and other volatile organic chemicals, arise primarily from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels (coal and petroleum) and are emitted from sources that include car exhausts, home heating and industrial power plants. Pollutants in the atmosphere also result from photochemical transformations; for example, ozone is formed when molecular oxygen or nitrogen interacts with ultraviolet radiation. An association between air pollution exposure and lung cancer has been observed in several studies. The evidence for other cancers is far less conclusive. Estimates of the population attributable risk of cancer has varied substantially over the last 40 years, reflecting the limitations of studies; these include insufficient information on confounders, difficulties in characterizing associations due to a likely lengthy latency interval, and exposure misclassification. Although earlier estimates were less than one percent, recent cohort studies that have taken into account some confounding factors, such as smoking and education amongst others, suggest that approximately 3.6% of lung cancer in the European Union could be due to air pollution exposure, particularly to sulphate and fine particulates. A separate cohort study estimated 5-7% of lung cancers in European never smokers and ex-smokers could be due to air pollution exposure. Therefore, while cigarette smoking remains the predominant risk factor, the proportion of lung cancers attributable to air pollution may be higher than previously thought. Overall, major weaknesses in all air-pollution-and-cancer studies to date have been inadequate characterization of long-term air pollution exposure and imprecise or no measurements of covariates. It has only been in the last

  10. Sur8 mediates tumorigenesis and metastasis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Mi; Kaduwal, Saluja; Lee, Kug Hwa; Park, Jong-Chan; Jeong, Woo-Jeong; Choi, Kang-Yell

    2016-01-01

    Sur8, a scaffold protein of the Ras pathway, interacts with Ras and Raf and modulates the Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Here we show that Sur8 is overexpressed in established human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines and CRC patient tissues. Moreover, Sur8 expression is increased during liver metastasis in CRC patients. Sur8 knockdown decreases ERK and Akt activities in CRC cell lines, regardless of their K-Ras, B-Raf or PI3K mutation status. Overexpression or knockdown of Sur8 increases or decreases, respectively, the proliferation or transformation of CRC cell lines. Sur8 knockdown attenuates the migration and invasion of HCT116 CRC cells. Subcutaneous or orthotopic injection of HCT116 cells harboring a doxycycline (Dox)-mediated Sur8 knockdown system in nude mice resulted in decreased tumorigenic potential and inhibited the liver metastatic potential of HCT116 cells. Taken together, our data support the role of Sur8 as a promoter of tumorigenesis and liver metastasis in CRC through its modulation of the Ras-ERK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. PMID:27469030

  11. Regard sur les lazarets en terre canadienne

    PubMed Central

    Milot, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Puisant dans les nombreuses références qu’offrent les publications médicales canadiennes du milieu du XIXe siècle à nos jours, l’auteur fait découvrir l’existence de lazarets en terre canadienne, décrit l’impact de la maladie sur les conditions vie des lépreux qui y étaient confinés et en souligne les contrecoups tant sur le plan physique et psychologique que social. Il présente un bref aperçu de la maladie, ses symptômes, ses signes ainsi que ses complications oculaires et rappelle les premiers moyens thérapeutiques à base d’huile de chaulmoogra introduits dans la colonie de Tracadie vers 1901. Il illustre son propos en évoquant la vie dans les lazarets de l’île de Sheldrake (1844–1848) et de Tracadie (1848–1965) au Nouveau-Brunswick, puis dans ceux des îles D’Arcy (1891–1924) et de Bentinck (1924–1957) en Colombie-Britannique. PMID:19352451

  12. Adolescence et pornographie sur la toile

    PubMed Central

    Haza, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Dans cet article, nous abordons la question de l’accès à la pornographie sur Internet par les adolescents. Nous déclinons plusieurs facettes de ces rencontres: la rencontre «fortuite», quand les adolescents sont confrontés à des images intempestives, des publicités ou spams avec des contenus pornographiques; la rencontre «spectatrice», quand les adolescents cherchent activement des vidéos ou photos mettant en scène la sexualité; et enfin la rencontre «actrice», quand les adolescents se mettent en scène eux-mêmes, seuls ou à plusieurs, de façon pornographique sur le Net. A partir d’exemple, nous réfléchissons aux enjeux de ces rencontres virtuelles précoces de la sexualité adulte par rapport au développement adolescent et à la représentation de leur propre sexualité en construction. PMID:22876261

  13. Water Pollution. Project COMPSEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lantz, H. B., Jr.

    This is an introductory program on water pollution. Examined are the cause and effect relationships of water pollution, sources of water pollution, and possible alternatives to effect solutions from our water pollution problems. Included is background information on water pollution, a glossary of pollution terminology, a script for a slide script…

  14. Technical Programme 1993 (Le Programme Technique, 1993)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    Symposium sur "Les Effets de la Propagation Atmospherique a travers des Obscurcissants Naturels et Artificiels sur le Rayonnement des Ondes Millimetriques...for Small Gas Turbines" Reunion du Panel et Symposium sur "Les Technologies pour les Petites Turbines a Gaz " 4-8 CANADA TIP Panel Meeting/Specialists

  15. Lithiase géante sur enterocystoplastie

    PubMed Central

    Elmortaji, Khalid; Elomri, Ghassane; Bennani, Saad; Rabii, Redouane; Aboutaib, Rachid; Meziane, Fethi

    2014-01-01

    La formation des lithiases est une complication fréquente des entérocystoplasties après cystectomie radicale pour tumeur de vessie infiltrante. Le délai d'apparition dépend des facteurs de risque favorisants notamment les infections urinaires. Néanmoins la survenue de lithiase géante sur néovessie reste exceptionnelle, seulement 5 cas ont été rapportés dans la littérature. Nous rapportons dans ce travail, le cas d'une lithiase géante compliquant une entérocystoplastie chez un malade suivi pour tumeur de vessie infiltrante. PMID:25932070

  16. AirMSPI PODEX Big Sur Ellipsoid Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-11

    ... Browse Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Big Sur target 02/03/2013 Ellipsoid-projected   Select link to ...   Version number   For more information, see the  Data Product Specifications (DPS) ...

  17. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  18. Indoor Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    We usually think of air pollution as being outdoors, but the air in your house or office could also be polluted. Sources of indoor pollution include Mold and pollen Tobacco smoke Household products ...

  19. River and Stream Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coloring Science Experiments Stories Lessons River and Stream Pollution Kids Homepage Topics Pollution River and Stream Pollution ... stream in the first place by disturbing the land as little as possible. Farmers and construction workers ...

  20. Lignes directrices canadiennes sur la rhinosinusite chronique

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter un résumé clinique des lignes directrices canadiennes sur la rhinosinusite chronique (RSC) qui comporte des recommandations pertinentes aux médecins de famille. Qualité des données Les auteurs des lignes directrices ont effectué une recherche documentaire systématique dans la littérature médicale et ont rédigé une ébauche de recommandations. Une cote a été donnée à la fois en fonction de la fiabilité des données probantes et de la solidité des recommandations. On a sollicité les commentaires d’experts en contenu de l’extérieur, ainsi que l’aval des sociétés médicales (Association pour la microbiologie médicale et l’infectiologie Canada, Société canadienne d’allergie et d’immunologie clinique, Canadian Society of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery, Association canadienne des médecins d’urgence et Regroupement canadien des médecins de famille en santé respiratoire). Message principal Le diagnostic d’une RSC se fonde sur le type et la durée des symptômes et une constatation objective d’une inflammation de la muqueuse nasale ou des sinus paranasaux. La rhinosinusite chronique est catégorisée en fonction de la présence ou de l’absence de polypes nasaux et cette distinction entraîne des différences dans le traitement. On traite la rhinosinusite chronique avec polypes nasaux au moyen de corticostéroïdes par voie intranasale. Des antibiotiques sont recommandés quand les symptômes indiquent une infection (douleur ou purulence). Pour une RSC sans polypes nasaux, on recommande des corticostéroïdes par voie intranasale et des antibiotiques de deuxième ligne (par ex. combinaisons amoxicilline–acide clavulanique ou fluoroquinolones à activité accrue contre Gram positif). Une irrigation avec une solution saline, des stéroïdes par voie orale et des tests d’allergies pourraient être appropriées. Si le patient ne répond pas au traitement, il faudrait envisager d

  1. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  2. Automobiles and pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Degobert, P.

    1995-12-31

    This book explores the impact automobile emissions have on air pollution, focusing objectively on the share of pollution that can actually be attributed to the use of vehicles. Automobiles and Pollution begins with a presentation of general information on atmospheric pollution, including its regulatory aspects. The book`s focus then shifts to a more in-depth analysis of how pollutants can be eliminated from car exhaust emissions. Automobiles and Pollution will serve as a thorough and up-to-date reference for the specialist, and an informative primer to the nonspecialist needing an objective opinion on the subject.

  3. Finding the SurPriSe: A Case Study of a Faculty Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Roberta M.

    2014-01-01

    This article details a faculty learning community (FLC) that started in 2009 on the campus of a Midwestern University and has evolved into an interdisciplinary research, teaching and social community of practice and learning called SurPriSe. SurPriSe is an acronym that reflects the interest area of the FLC; Sur for surveillance, Pri for privacy,…

  4. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  5. Optimal pollution trading without pollution reductions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  6. The Pollution Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lillian

    1981-01-01

    Presented are methods to help teachers continue the environmental awareness programs they have already started by providing up-to-date information and activities dealing with air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste disposal. (Author/KC)

  7. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  8. Kookaburras and Polluted Streams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Julie; Harrison, Terry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of teachers in environmental education. Presents two simulations on water pollution in order to explore pollution of the environment and investigate the life and ecology of a native bird or investigate predator/prey relationships. (ASK)

  9. Kookaburras and Polluted Streams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Julie; Harrison, Terry

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of teachers in environmental education. Presents two simulations on water pollution in order to explore pollution of the environment and investigate the life and ecology of a native bird or investigate predator/prey relationships. (ASK)

  10. Pollution of Florida's rivers.

    PubMed

    Cromartie, R S

    1991-12-01

    Pollution of Florida's waterways is a serious problem. Sources of pollution include sewage, storm water runoff, faulty septic tanks, improperly constructed landfills, and obstruction by causeway bridges. Some of the major causes and solutions are discussed.

  11. Exploring Oil Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  12. The Pollution Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lillian

    1981-01-01

    Presented are methods to help teachers continue the environmental awareness programs they have already started by providing up-to-date information and activities dealing with air pollution, water pollution, and solid waste disposal. (Author/KC)

  13. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  14. Coastal management at Ojo de Liebre, Baja California Sur

    Treesearch

    Frederico Salinas-Zavala; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Diego Valez-Zamudio; Aradit. Castelanos-Vera

    2000-01-01

    We analyzed the biotic, abiotic, and human components interacting at the coastal zone of the Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Using geographic information systems, satellite images, and the main biological, physical, and socioeconomic components, we developed an environmental characterization of the zone. According with the natural features of the...

  15. Mining activities and arsenic in a Baja California Sur watershed

    Treesearch

    Alejandro Naranjo-Pulido; Alfredo Ortega-Rubio; Baudillo Acost-Vargas; Lia Rodriguez-Mendez; Marcos Acevedo-Beltran; Cerafina Arguelles-Mendez

    2000-01-01

    Mining is one of the most important sources of income for the Baja California Sur state. This state is the second most important area for mineral (gold, silver, copper) and non-mineral (salt) mining activities in the Mexican Republic. In the San Antonio-El Triunfo region, mineral-mining activities flourished during the 19th century. Tons of debris containing a high...

  16. Traditional medicine of Baja California Sur (Mexico). I.

    PubMed

    Dimayuga, R E; Agundez, J

    1986-08-01

    This study deals with the medicinal use of 30 plants collected in the Municipio de Los Cabos and part of the Municipio de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The plants were all taxonomically identified at least to genus level, and their medicinal use, as described to us by elder people, is discussed.

  17. Antimicrobial screening of medicinal plants from Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Encarnación Dimayuga, R; Keer Garcia, S

    1991-02-01

    The ethanolic extracts of 72 plants belonging to 35 different families, and used in traditional medicine in Baja California Sur (México), were tested for antimicrobial activity in vitro using the filter paper disk assay method. Activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis (Gram-positive microorganisms), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative microorganisms) and Candida albicans (yeast) is discussed.

  18. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  19. Air Pollution Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Health Service (DHEW), Rockville, MD.

    This catalog lists the universities, both supported and not supported by the Division of Air Pollution, which offer graduate programs in the field of air pollution. The catalog briefly describes the programs and their entrance requirements, the requirements, qualifications and terms of special fellowships offered by the Division of Air Pollution.…

  20. Air Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; O'Donnell, Patrick A.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on air pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of air pollution and involves students in processes of…

  1. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  2. The Other Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  3. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  4. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  5. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  6. The Other Water Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution, water pollution not released at one specific identifiable point, now accounts for 50 percent of the nation's water pollution problem. Runoff is the primary culprit and includes the following sources: agriculture, mining, hydrologic modifications, and urban runoff. Economics, legislation, practices, and management of this…

  7. Water Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavaroni, Charles W.; And Others

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on water pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of water pollution and involves students in processes of…

  8. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  9. Discriminatory Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaull, Julian

    1976-01-01

    Described are the patterns of air pollution in certain large urban areas. Persons in poverty, in occupations below the management or professional level, in low-rent districts, and in black population are most heavily exposed to air pollution. Pollution paradoxically is largely produced by high energy consuming middle-and upper-class households.…

  10. Microorganisms and Chemical Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the importance of microorganisms in chemical pollution and pollution abatement. Selected chemical pollutants are chosen to illustrate that microorganisms synthesize hazardous substances from reasonably innocuous precursors, while others act as excellent environmental decontaminating agents by removing undesirable natural and synthetic…

  11. Remote measurement of pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A summary of the major conclusions and recommendations developed by the panels on gaseous air pollution, water pollution, and particulate air pollution is presented. It becomes evident that many of the trace gases are amenable to remote sensing; that certain water pollutants can be measured by remote techniques, but their number is limited; and that a similar approach to the remote measurement of specific particulate pollutants will follow only after understanding of their physical, chemical, and radiative properties is improved. It is also clear that remote sensing can provide essential information in all three categories that can not be obtained by any other means.

  12. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  13. Sensing land pollution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowden, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Land pollution is described in numerous ways by various societies. Pollutants of land are material by-products of human activity and range from environmentally ineffective to positively toxic. The pollution of land by man is centuries old and correlates directly with economy, technology and population. In order to remotely sense land pollution, standards or thresholds must be established. Examples of the potential for sensing land pollution and quality are presented. The technological capabilities for remotely sensed land quality is far advanced over the judgment on how to use the sensed data. Until authoritative and directive decisions on land pollution policy are made, sensing of pollutants will be a random, local and academic affair.

  14. Water Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of water pollution and water pollution treatment systems is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of pollution such as lake bottom vegetation, synthetic organic pollutants, heat pollution, radioactive substance pollution, and human and industrial waste products are discussed. Several types of water purification…

  15. Demarcating SurA Activities Required for Outer Membrane Targeting of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Adhesins

    PubMed Central

    Obi, Ikenna R.

    2013-01-01

    SurA is a periplasmic protein folding factor involved in chaperoning and trafficking of outer membrane proteins across the Gram-negative bacterial periplasm. In addition, SurA also possesses peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity. We have previously reported that in enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, SurA is needed for bacterial virulence and envelope integrity. In this study, we investigated the role of SurA in the assembly of important Yersinia adhesins. Using genetic mutation, biochemical characterization, and an in vitro-based bacterial host cell association assay, we confirmed that surface localization of the invasin adhesin is dependent on SurA. As a surA deletion also has some impact on the levels of individual components of the BAM complex in the Yersinia outer membrane, abolished invasin surface assembly could reflect both a direct loss of SurA-dependent periplasmic targeting and a potentially compromised BAM complex assembly platform in the outer membrane. To various degrees, the assembly of two other adhesins, Ail and the pH 6 antigen fibrillum PsaA, also depends on SurA. Consequently, loss of SurA leads to a dramatic reduction in Yersinia attachment to eukaryotic host cells. Genetic complementation of surA deletion mutants indicated a prominent role for SurA chaperone function in outer membrane protein assembly. Significantly, the N terminus of SurA contributed most of this SurA chaperone function. Despite a dominant chaperoning role, it was also evident that SurA isomerization activity did make a modest contribution to this assembly process. PMID:23589578

  16. Le point sur les amas de galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre, M.

    galaxies jouent donc un rôle de premier plan dans toute étude cosmologique et par conséquent, sont indispensables à notre compréhension globale de l'univers. Dans l'introduction générale, nous détaillons cet aspect fondamental en montrant comment l'étude des amas peut contribuer à contraindre les scénarios cosmologiques. Une fois le contexte scientifique délimité, les chapitres suivants s'attachent à présenter les diverses propriétés des amas et leur évolution cosmique observée dans diverses longueurs d'onde principalement dans les domaines visible (galaxies), X (gaz) et radio (gaz et particules). Nous verrons que l'étude détaillée d'un amas implique celle de l'interaction entre ses différentes composantes et est un passage obligé pour remonter au paramètre ultime (ou premier) qu'est sa masse. Loin d'être un détour ennuyeux, ceci sera l'occasion d'aborder des phénomènes physiques extrêmement variés tel l'aspect multi-phases du milieu intra-amas, les sursauts de formation d'étoiles et l'évolution morphologique des galaxies capturées par les amas, ou bien encore, l'interaction entre le plasma intra-amas et les particules relativistes accélérées lors de la fusion entre deux amas. Bien sûr, pour chaque longueur d'onde, nous ne manquerons pas de décrire simplement les techniques d'observation et d'analyse mises en oeuvre ; celles-ci sont particulièrement intéressantes dans le cas de l'instrumentation spatiale. Nous terminerons en présentant des projets d'observatoires pour l'horizon 2010 et leur impact prévu sur l'étude des amas de galaxies.

  17. Pollution tolerant protozoa in polluted wetland.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi-Di; Chen, Ying; Wang, Li; Yao, Lin; Pan, Xu-Ming; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2017-02-16

    This study for the first time confirmed that eight dominating protozoan species, Cryptomonas erosa, Euglena axyuris, Euglena caudate, Euglena gasterosteus, Euglena acus, Vorticella campanula, Vorticella convallaria and Epistylis lacustris, were the pollution tolerant species at chemical oxygen demand 54-104mg/L. These species cannot be used as indicator for clean water quality as commonly believed. The protozoa can be actively participating in the energy transfer chain between nano-planktonic and higher plants in polluted wetlands.

  18. Modeling the energy balance in Marseille: Sensitivity to roughness length parameterizations and thermal admittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuzere, M.; De Ridder, K.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.

    2008-08-01

    During the ESCOMPTE campaign (Experience sur Site pour COntraindre les Modeles de Pollution atmospherique et de Transport d'Emissions), a 4-day intensive observation period was selected to evaluate the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS), a nonhydrostatic meteorological mesoscale model that was optimized with a parameterization for thermal roughness length to better represent urban surfaces. The evaluation shows that the ARPS model is able to correctly reproduce temperature, wind speed, and direction for one urban and two rural measurements stations. Furthermore, simulated heat fluxes show good agreement compared to the observations, although simulated sensible heat fluxes were initially too low for the urban stations. In order to improve the latter, different roughness length parameterization schemes were tested, combined with various thermal admittance values. This sensitivity study showed that the Zilitinkevich scheme combined with and intermediate value of thermal admittance performs best.

  19. Expression and purification of a soluble ESX-binding core domain of SUR2.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Kyung-Hwa; Jun, Kyu-Yeon; Kim, Eun Young; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2013-01-01

    For HER2 overexpression, the ESX transcription factor must interact with both the HER2 promoter and Sur2, a subunit of human mediator complex, using its Ets domain and transactivation domain, respectively. HER2 overexpression is a marker of poor prognosis in various types of cancers. Thus, interfering with the ESX-Sur2 interaction has been suggested as a novel strategy for the treatment of HER2 positive cancers. To design small molecule inhibitors against the ESX-Sur2 interaction, it is necessary to identify the structure of the interface of ESX-Sur2 binding. Therefore, in this study, we determined the optimal conditions for the overexpression and purification of a new version of Sur2, Sur2391-582, which was able to bind to ESX. To stabilize (His)6-Sur2391-582, various different buffered conditions over a wide range of pH and ionic strengths were examined. The molecular mass of (His)6-Sur2391-582 was determined using mass spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. The purified (His)6-Sur2391-582 protein displayed the same biological properties as that of the Sur2 full-length protein.

  20. Pollution control system

    SciTech Connect

    Voliva, B.H.; Bernstein, I.B.

    1984-09-25

    A pollution control system is disclosed wherein condensable pollutants are removed from a high-temperature gas stream by counterflow contact in a vertical tower with downwardly flowing, relatively cool absorbent oil. The absorbent is at a sufficiently low temperature so as to rapidly condense a portion of the pollutants in order to form a fog of fine droplets of pollutant entrained by the gas stream, which fog is incapable of being absorbed by the absorbent. The remainder of the condensable pollutants is removed by downwardly flowing absorbent oil, and the gas and entrained fog are directed from the tower to gas/droplet separation means, such as an electrostatic precipitator. The fog is thereby separated from the gas and substantially pollutant-free gas is discharged to the atmosphere.

  1. Etude des effets du martelage repetitif sur les contraintes residuelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hacini, Lyes

    L'assemblage par soudage peut engendrer des contraintes residuelles. Ces contraintes provoquent des fissurations prematurees et un raccourcissement de la duree de vie des composants. Dans ce contexte, le martelage robotise est utilise pour relaxer ces contraintes residuelles. Trois volets sont presentes: le premier est l'evaluation des effets des impacts unitaires repetes sur le champ de contraintes developpe dans des plaques d'acier inoxydable austenitique 304L vierges ou contenant des contraintes residuelles initiales. Dans la deuxieme partie de ce projet, le martelage est applique grace au robot SCOMPI. Les contraintes residuelles induites et relaxees par martelage sont ensuite mesurees par la methode des contours, qui a ete adaptee a cet effet. Dans la troisieme partie, le martelage est modelise par la methode des elements finis. Un modele axisymetrique developpe grace au logiciel ANSYS permet de simuler des impacts repetes d'un marteau elastique sur une plaque ayant un comportement elastoplastique.

  2. Industrial waste pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and effects of industrial waste pollution in the Chesapeake Bay are discussed. The sources of inorganic and organic pollution entering the bay are described. The four types of pollutants are defined as: (1) inorganic chemical wastes, (2) naturally occurring organic wastes, (3) synthetic organic wastes (exotics) and (4) thermal effluents. The ecological behavior of industrial wastes in the surface waters is analyzed with respect to surface film phenomena, interfacial phenomena, and benthis phenomena

  3. Traditional medicine of Baja California Sur (Mexico). II.

    PubMed

    Encarnacion Dimayuga, R; Fort Murillo, R; Luis Pantoja, M

    1987-08-01

    Continuing our studies of traditional medicine, as used in rural areas of Baja California Sur, now we wish to report on the medicinal uses of 49 more plants. Some of the more complex recipes of these medicinal plants, are discussed in the present paper. The information presented here was collected in the Municipio of Los Cabos and part of the Municipio of La Paz, B.C.S., Mexico.

  4. Alternate Fuels Use in a Vehicular Gas Turbine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    prellminalre a ete entreprlse ä la pression atmospherique en absence du convergent ä retour, afin de peroettre l’observatlon directe de la zone de...gives higher performance : better temperature distribution, lower emission of pollutants , higher efficiency. On the other hand, cold start seemed...pression atmospherique n’a pas permis de juger de la resistance thermo-mecanique du foyer ainsi que l’efficacite du refroidissement par multi

  5. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water ... Gases Impact on Weather Health Effects Take Action Water Pollution Water Pollution Home Chemicals and Pollutants Natural Disasters ...

  6. Effets des electrons secondaires sur l'ADN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudaiffa, Badia

    Les interactions des electrons de basse energie (EBE) representent un element important en sciences des radiations, particulierement, les sequences se produisant immediatement apres l'interaction de la radiation ionisante avec le milieu biologique. Il est bien connu que lorsque ces radiations deposent leur energie dans la cellule, elles produisent un grand nombre d'electrons secondaires (4 x 104/MeV), qui sont crees le long de la trace avec des energies cinetiques initiales bien inferieures a 20 eV. Cependant, il n'y a jamais eu de mesures directes demontrant l'interaction de ces electrons de tres basse energie avec l'ADN, du principalement aux difficultes experimentales imposees par la complexite du milieu biologique. Dans notre laboratoire, les dernieres annees ont ete consacrees a l'etude des phenomenes fondamentaux induits par impact des EBE sur differentes molecules simples (e.g., N2, CO, O2, H2O, NO, C2H 4, C6H6, C2H12) et quelques molecules complexes dans leur phase solide. D'autres travaux effectues recemment sur des bases de l'ADN et des oligonucleotides ont montre que les EBE produisent des bris moleculaires sur les biomolecules. Ces travaux nous ont permis d'elaborer des techniques pour mettre en evidence et comprendre les interactions fondamentales des EBE avec des molecules d'interet biologique, afin d'atteindre notre objectif majeur d'etudier l'effet direct de ces particules sur la molecule d'ADN. Les techniques de sciences des surfaces developpees et utilisees dans les etudes precitees peuvent etre etendues et combinees avec des methodes classiques de biologie pour etudier les dommages de l'ADN induits par l'impact des EBE. Nos experiences ont montre l'efficacite des electrons de 3--20 eV a induire des coupures simple et double brins dans l'ADN. Pour des energies inferieures a 15 eV, ces coupures sont induites par la localisation temporaire d'un electron sur une unite moleculaire de l'ADN, ce qui engendre la formation d'un ion negatif transitoire

  7. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  8. Air Pollution Surveillance Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, George B.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes atmospheric data monitoring as part of total airpollution control effort. Summarizes types of gaseous, liquid and solid pollutants and their sources; contrast between urban and rural environmental air quality; instrumentation to identify pollutants; and anticipated new non-wet chemical physical and physiochemical techniques tor cetection…

  9. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  10. Nonpoint Source Pollution.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zaki Uddin; Sakib, Salman; Gang, Daniel Dianchen

    2016-10-01

    Research advances on non-point source pollution in the year 2015 have been depicted in this review paper. Nonpoint source pollution is mainly caused by agricultural runoff, urban stormwater, and atmospheric deposition. Modeling techniques of NPS with different tools are reviewed in this article.

  11. River Pollution: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Describes a unit on river pollution and analytical methods to use in assessing temperature, pH, flow, calcium, chloride, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved nitrogen, detergents, heavy metals, sewage pollution, conductivity, and sediment cores. Suggests tests to be carried out and discusses significance of results. (JM)

  12. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  13. River Pollution: Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Describes a unit on river pollution and analytical methods to use in assessing temperature, pH, flow, calcium, chloride, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, dissolved nitrogen, detergents, heavy metals, sewage pollution, conductivity, and sediment cores. Suggests tests to be carried out and discusses significance of results. (JM)

  14. Eutrophication. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Medine, A.J.; Porcella, D.B.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the process of eutrophication with respect to the sources and transport of pollutants is presented. Topics include the mathematical modeling of nutrient loading, eutrophication, and aquatic ecosystems. Biological and environmental indicators of eutrophication are reviewed, and the interactions between various chemical and biological pollutants are considered. Several lake management projects are discussed. (KRM)

  15. Air Pollution and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, R. D., Ed.

    This book is an authoritative reference and practical guide designed to help the plant engineer identify and solve industrial air pollution problems in order to be able to meet current air pollution regulations. Prepared under the editorial supervision of an experienced chemical engineer, with each chapter contributed by an expert in his field,…

  16. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  17. Pollution and Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larr, Allison S.; Neidell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Childhood is a particularly sensitive time when it comes to pollution exposure. Allison Larr and Matthew Neidell focus on two atmospheric pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--that can harm children's health in many ways. Ozone irritates the lungs, causing various respiratory symptoms; it can also damage the lung lining or aggravate lung…

  18. Automotive Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raudenbush, David B.

    Intended for a 1- or 2-month curriculum in auto mechanics, this student manual on automotive pollution control was developed by a subject matter specialist at an area vocational school and tested in a vocational auto shop. Intended either for use in an integrated curriculum or for use in teaching pollution control as a separate course, these 12…

  19. Pollution, An Environmental Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    This document, written for teachers, outlines the causes and extent of environmental problems relating to air pollution, water pollution, the use of fertilizers and pesticides, land use, and population density. A short bibliography includes references to periodicals and books dealing with teaching methods as well as references for background…

  20. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  1. Canadian Experiences in Pollutant Reporting - the National Pollutant Release Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Discussion of Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory, including experiences with pollutant reporting, highlights of 2012 NPRI data, changes to the NPRI over time and current activities and priorities.

  2. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  3. Evaluation of pollution monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Lannes, W.; Richards, G.; Goodman, M.

    1996-03-01

    Pollution monitors have been used primarily for three main tasks. They are: (1) Pollution severity measurement, in which the main aim is to establish the pollution severity in one area; (2) Maintenance, in which the aim is to measure the pollution level in order to initiate maintenance; and (3) Insulator characterization, in which the main aim is to establish a comparative study of the behavior of various insulators at the same testing site. In accomplishing the maintenance task, it is generally recognized that it is difficult to measure only one parameter and make good decisions on when to perform maintenance. This is one of the reasons for the interest in fuzzy logic and neural networks to combine pollution monitor inputs with weather data to improve the accuracy of predicting the need for maintenance. An extension of the maintenance task is to study the possibility of using a pollution monitor as a early warning detector of impending insulator flashover. This study addresses the use of pollution monitors to predict insulator flashover.

  4. Air pollutants and cough.

    PubMed

    Joad, Jesse P; Sekizawa, Shin-ichi; Chen, Chao-Yin; Bonham, Ann C

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to air pollution is associated with respiratory symptoms and decreases in lung function. This paper reviews recent literature showing that exposure to particulate matter, irritant gases, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), mixed pollutants, and molds is associated with an increase in cough and wheeze. Some pollutants, like particulate matter and mixed pollutants, appear to increase cough at least as much as wheeze. Others, like irritant gases, appear to increase wheeze more than cough. For ETS, exposure during childhood is associated with cough and wheeze in adulthood, suggesting that the pollutant permanently alters some important aspect of the lungs, immune system or nervous system. We have shown in animal studies that pollutants change the neural control of airways and cough. Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure lengthened stimulated apnoea, increased the number of stimulated coughs, and augmented the degree of stimulated bronchoconstriction. The mechanisms included enhanced reactivity of the peripheral sensory neurones and second-order neurones in the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). NTS effects were due to a substance P mechanism at least in part. Ozone and allergen increased the intrinsic excitability of second-order neurones in the NTS. The animal studies suggest that the cough and wheeze experienced by humans exposed to pollutants may involve plasticity in the nervous system.

  5. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  6. Vasodilation induced by oxygen/glucose deprivation is attenuated in cerebral arteries of SUR2 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Adebiyi, Adebowale; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological functions of arterial smooth muscle cell ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels, which are composed of inwardly rectifying K+ channel 6.1 and sulfonylurea receptor (SUR)-2 subunits, during metabolic inhibition are unresolved. In the present study, we used a genetic model to investigate the physiological functions of SUR2-containing KATP channels in mediating vasodilation to hypoxia, oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) or metabolic inhibition, and functional recovery following these insults. Data indicate that SUR2B is the only SUR isoform expressed in murine cerebral artery smooth muscle cells. Pressurized SUR2 wild-type (SUR2wt) and SUR2 null (SUR2nl) mouse cerebral arteries developed similar levels of myogenic tone and dilated similarly to hypoxia (<10 mmHg Po2). In contrast, vasodilation induced by pinacidil, a KATP channel opener, was ∼71% smaller in SUR2nl arteries. Human cerebral arteries also expressed SUR2B, developed myogenic tone, and dilated in response to hypoxia and pinacidil. OGD, oligomycin B (a mitochondrial ATP synthase blocker), and CCCP (a mitochondrial uncoupler) all induced vasodilations that were ∼39–61% smaller in SUR2nl than in SUR2wt arteries. The restoration of oxygen and glucose following OGD or removal of oligomycin B and CCCP resulted in partial recovery of tone in both SUR2wt and SUR2nl cerebral arteries. However, SURnl arteries regained ∼60–82% more tone than did SUR2wt arteries. These data indicate that SUR2-containing KATP channels are functional molecular targets for OGD, but not hypoxic, vasodilation in cerebral arteries. In addition, OGD activation of SUR2-containing KATP channels may contribute to postischemic loss of myogenic tone. PMID:21784985

  7. Candida albicans SUR7 contributes to secretion, biofilm formation, and macrophage killing

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Candida albicans SUR7 has been shown to be required for plasma membrane organization and cell wall synthesis, but its role in virulence is not known. Using a bioinformatics strategy, we previously identified several novel putative secretion pathway proteins potentially involved in virulence, including the C. albicans homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae endocytosis-related protein Sur7p. We therefore generated a C. albicans sur7Δ null mutant and examined its contribution to key virulence attributes. Results Structurally, the C. albicans sur7Δ mutant was impaired in response to filamentation-inducing conditions, and formed aberrant hyphae with extensive accumulation of plasma membrane-derived structures within the cell. Absence of SUR7 resulted in a temperature-sensitive growth defect at high temperatures (42°C), which was partially rescued by addition of NaCl. We next examined the role of the SUR7 paralog C. albicans FMP45 in this temperature-sensitive phenotype. Analysis of C. albicans Fmp45p-GFP demonstrated co-localization of Fmp45p with Sur7p and increased fluorescence in the plasma membrane in the presence of high salt. We next focused on key virulence-related phenotypes. The C. albicans sur7Δ null mutant exhibited secretory defects: reduced lipase secretion, and increased levels of secreted Sap2p. The null mutant was hyper-susceptible to sub-inhibitory concentrations of caspofungin, but not amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine. Functionally, the sur7Δ mutant demonstrated increased adhesion to polystyrene and of note, was markedly defective in biofilm formation. In an in vitro macrophage model of virulence, the sur7Δ mutant was impaired in macrophage killing. Conclusions Plasma membrane and cell wall organization are important for cell morphology, and alterations of these structures contributed to impairment of several key virulence-associated phenotypes in the C. albicans sur7Δ mutant. PMID:20433738

  8. Requirement of Sur2 for Efficient Replication of Mouse Adenovirus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lei; Stevens, Jennitte L.; Berk, Arnold J.; Spindler, Katherine R.

    2004-01-01

    Mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1) early region 1A (E1A) encodes a virulence gene in viral infection of mice. To broaden our understanding of the functions of E1A in MAV-1 pathogenesis, an unbiased experimental approach, glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown, was used to screen for cellular proteins that interact with E1A protein. We identified mouse Sur2, a subunit of Mediator complex, as a protein that binds to MAV-1 E1A. The interaction between Sur2 and MAV-1 E1A was confirmed in virus-infected cells. Conserved region 3 (CR3) of MAV-1 E1A was mapped as the region required for Sur2-E1A interaction, as is the case for human adenovirus E1A. Although it has been proposed that human adenovirus E1A recruits the Mediator complex to transactivate transcription of viral early genes, Sur2 function in adenovirus replication has not been directly tested previously. Studies on the functions of Sur2 with mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed that there was a multiplicity-dependent growth defect of MAV-1 in Sur2−/− MEFs compared to Sur2+/+ MEFs. Comparison of the viral DNA and viral mRNA levels in Sur2+/+ and Sur2−/− MEFs confirmed that Sur2 was important for efficient viral replication. The viral replication defects in Sur2−/− MEFs appeared to be due at least in part to a defect in viral early gene transcription. PMID:15542641

  9. Pollution and Infant Health

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I review recent research showing that even relatively low levels of pollution can affect infants' health. This research attempts to go beyond documenting correlations by using sharp changes in pollution levels, carefully selecting control groups (including unexposed siblings as controls for exposed children), and considering behavioral responses to pollution such as maternal mobility. Poor and minority children are more likely to be affected and differential exposure could be responsible for some of the observed group-level differences in health at birth. Policymakers concerned about the roots of inequality should consider the role played by environmental exposures of pregnant mothers. PMID:27134646

  10. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  11. Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Balmes, John R.; Collard, Harold R.

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution exposure is a well-established risk factor for several adverse respiratory outcomes, including airways diseases and lung cancer. Few studies have investigated the relationship between air pollution and interstitial lung disease (ILD) despite many forms of ILD arising from environmental exposures. There are potential mechanisms by which air pollution could cause, exacerbate, or accelerate the progression of certain forms of ILD via pulmonary and systemic inflammation as well as oxidative stress. This article will review the current epidemiologic and translational data supporting the plausibility of this relationship and propose a new conceptual framework for characterizing novel environmental risk factors for these forms of lung disease. PMID:25846532

  12. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Takeshi; Tamae, Kazuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution. PMID:22247659

  13. A Recommended Methodology for Quantifying NDE/NDI Based on Aircraft Engine Experience (Le Projet de Methodologie Pour l’Evaluation du Controle Non- Destructif Fonde sur l’Experience Acquise sur les moteurs d’Avions)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    A Recommended Methodology for Quantifying NDE/NDI Based on Aircraft Engine Experience--Translation(Le Projet de Methodologie Pour l’Evaluation du Controle Non-Destructif Fonde sur l’Experience Acquise sur les moteurs d’Avions)

  14. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  15. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  16. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  17. Particle Pollution Designations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This area provides information on the process EPA, the states, and the tribes follow to designate areas as attainment (meeting) or nonattainment (not meeting) the particle pollution air quality standards.

  18. Landsat and water pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castruccio, P.; Fowler, T.; Loats, H., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Report presents data derived from satellite images predicting pollution loads after rainfall. It explains method for converting Landsat images of Eastern United States into cover maps for Baltimore/five county region.

  19. Exploring Pesticide Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Examines environmental problems associated with the use of pesticides, and suggests thirty learning activities designed to give elementary school children a better understanding of the problem of pesticide pollution. (JR)

  20. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  1. Investigating Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using live plants and cigarette smoke to demonstrate the effects of air pollution on a living organism. Procedures include growth of the test plants in glass bottles, and construction and operation of smoking machine. (CS)

  2. Profiting from pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    LoPilato, A.J.; Eng, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    In the case of pollution prevention, national environmental goals coincide with industry`s economic interests. Most, if not all businesses have strong incentives to reduce the toxicity and quantities of wastes generated. These incentives include not only the ever increasing cost of compliance within a growing framework of regulations, but may include a firms desire to reduce the risk of criminal and civil liability, reduce overall operating costs, improve employee morale and participation, enhance corporate image in the community and insure protection of both public health and the environment. Although some businesses may invest in a pollution prevention program because it is the green thin to do, most businesses will weight their initial and long-term pollution prevention program investments on sound economic analyses. An effective pollution prevention program can provide cost savings that will more than offset the initial development and implementation costs.

  3. Air pollution surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Morgan, G B; Ozolins, G; Tabor, E C

    1970-10-16

    Atmospheric surveillance is necessary in order to identify airborne pollutants, to establish ambient concentrations of these pollutants, and to record their trends and patterns. Air pollutants may occur in the form of gases, liquids, and solids, both singly and in combination. Gaseous pollutants make up about 90 percent of the total mass emitted to the atmosphere with particulates and aerosols accounting for the remaining 10 percent. Small particulates are of particular importance because they may be in the respirable size range. These small particles may contain biologically active elements and compounds. Furthermore, they tend to remain in the atmosphere where they interfere with both solar and terrestrial infrared radiation, which may affect climate on a global basis.

  4. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  5. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a chapter for John Wiley & Son's Mechanical Engineers' Handbook, and covers issues involving air pollution control. Various technologies for controlling sulfur oxides is considered including fuel desulfurization. It also considers control of nitrogen oxides including post...

  6. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  7. Fate of pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chapta, S.C.; Boyer, J.M. )

    1990-06-01

    A literature review is presented of the fate of pollutants in sediment and water systems. Topics of discussion include the following: modeling, observations, and general studies; chlorinated xenobiotic chemicals; nonchlorinated xenobiotic chemicals; pesticides; heavy metals; and radionuclides.

  8. Controlling Indoor Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nero, Anthony V, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the health risks posed by indoor air pollutants, such as airborne combustion products, toxic chemicals, and radioactivity. Questions as to how indoor air might be regulated. Calls for new approaches to environmental protection. (TW)

  9. The Polluter Pays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Martyn

    1975-01-01

    Presents part of the winning entry in the competition organized by Stirling University (England). The extract presented forms the conclusion to a wide ranging essay which covered the various forms of pollution. (EB)

  10. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  11. Nurses join pollution fight.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Catharine

    2016-08-10

    Most of us are aware of outdoor air pollution: spend time in any traffic-clogged street, and you can taste the chemicals. Even spring days in the countryside can be spoiled by ozone haze. But a report published earlier this year by the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) and the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health (RCPCH) revealed that air pollution is much more than an inconvenience - it is a major health risk.

  12. Marine pollution data services

    SciTech Connect

    Abram, R.J.

    1980-09-01

    The Nat'l Oceanographic Data Center of NOAA is responsible for building and maintaining a global data base on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of world oceans. Data relevant to pollution studies, primarily those associated with oil spills, are included. Inventory and retrieval systems utilized are described. International programs provide extensive data for this marine pollution information service. (1 diagram, 1 map, 2 photos)

  13. 46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from the...

  14. 46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from the...

  15. 46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from the...

  16. 46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from the...

  17. 46 CFR 7.130 - Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. 7.130 Section 7.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.130 Point Conception, CA to Point Sur, CA. (a) A line drawn from the...

  18. The big sur ecoregion sudden oak death adaptive management project: ecological monitoring

    Treesearch

    Allison C. Wickland; Kerri M. Frangioso; David M. Rizzo; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2008-01-01

    The Big Sur area is one of the most ecologically diverse regions in California. Land preservation efforts are well established in Big Sur, including numerous preserves, state parks and the Los Padres National Forest. However, there are still many conservation threats that cut across these areas including exotic species (plants, animals, and pathogens) and alterations...

  19. Endothelial SUR-8 Acts in an ERK-Independent Pathway During Atrioventricular Cushion Development

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jing; Chen, Muyun; Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiao; Xu, Tian; Zhuang, Yuan; Han, Min; Xu, Rener

    2010-01-01

    SUR-8, a conserved leucine-rich repeats protein, was first identified as a positive regulator of Ras pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans. Biochemical studies indicated that SUR-8 interacts with Ras and Raf, leading to the elevated ERK activity. However, the physiological role of SUR-8 during mammalian development remains unclear. Here we found that germline deletion of SUR-8 in mice resulted in early embryonic lethality. Inactivated SUR-8 specifically in mouse endothelial cells (ECs) revealed that SUR-8 is essential for embryonic heart development. SUR-8 deficiency in ECs resulted in late embryonic lethality, and the mutant mice displayed multiple cardiac defects. The reduced endothelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) and the reduced mesenchyme proliferation phase were observed in the atrioventricular canal (AVC) within the mutant hearts, leading to the formation of hypoplastic endocardial cushions. However, ERK activation did not appear to be affected in mutant ECs, suggesting that SUR-8 may act in an ERK-independent pathway to regulate AVC development. Developmental Dynamics 239:2005–2013, 2010 © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20549726

  20. Voluntary pollution reduction programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, E.B.

    1997-08-01

    Despite claims that the government is reducing the amount of environmental regulation, the sheer amount of regulatory language has actually increased yearly. Yet based on media reports and citizen claims, pollution appears to go unchecked. Citizens condemn a perceived lack of government regulation of industrial pollution, while industries find themselves mired in increasingly complex regulatory programs that are sometimes far removed from real world situations. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) decision-makers have responded to these concerns by designing regulatory programs that abandon traditional command-and-control regulatory schemes as ill-suited to today`s pollution problems and the interests of these stakeholders. This paper analyzes the use of voluntary pollution control programs in place of command-and-control regulation. It is proposed that voluntary programs may serve as carrots to entice regulated entities to reduce pollution, but that there are a number of hurdles to their effective implementation that preclude them from being embraced as effective environmental regulatory tools. This paper reviews why agencies have moved from command-and-control regulation and examines current voluntary pollution control programs. This paper also contemplates the future of such programs.

  1. Pollution liability. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning court decisions regarding pollution liability. Specific aspects of pollution legislation that must be proven to establish liability are discussed. Federal, state, or civil exemptions to pollution laws are detailed. Pollution liability insurance is examined. Punitive assessments providing economic recovery and clean up costs to injured parties are briefly considered. Specific court decisions are used to highlight general principles of pollution liability. (Contains a minimum of 225 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils'…

  3. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  4. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils'…

  5. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  6. Lignes directrices simplifiées sur les lipides

    PubMed Central

    Allan, G. Michael; Lindblad, Adrienne J.; Comeau, Ann; Coppola, John; Hudson, Brianne; Mannarino, Marco; McMinis, Cindy; Padwal, Raj; Schelstraete, Christine; Zarnke, Kelly; Garrison, Scott; Cotton, Candra; Korownyk, Christina; McCormack, James; Nickel, Sharon; Kolber, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Produire un guide de pratique clinique comportant une approche simplifiée à la prévention primaire des maladies cardiovasculaires (MCV), en insistant sur l’estimation du risque de MCV et la prise en charge des profils lipidiques à l’intention des cliniciens de soins primaires et leurs équipes; nous avons recherché la contribution de professionnels des soins primaires qui n’avaient que peu ou pas de conflits d’intérêts et nous nous sommes concentrés sur les données probantes de la plus haute qualité accessibles. Méthodes Neuf professionnels de la santé (4 médecins de famille, 2 internistes, 1 infirmière praticienne, 1 infirmière autorisée et 1 pharmacienne) et 1 membre non votant (pharmacienne gestionnaire de projet) formaient le comité principal appelé le Lipid Pathway Committee (le comité). La sélection des membres s’est fondée sur la profession, le milieu de pratique et son emplacement. Les membres ont divulgué tous leurs conflits d’intérêts potentiels ou réels. Le processus d’élaboration des lignes directrices était itératif et s’appuyait sur des affichages en ligne, une révision détaillée des données probantes, des réunions par téléphone et en ligne. Le comité a cerné 12 questions prioritaires à répondre. Le groupe de révision des données probantes a répondu à ces questions. À la suite d’un examen des réponses, les principales recommandations ont été formulées par consensus du comité. Nous avons produit une ébauche des lignes directrices qui a ensuite été peaufinée, distribuée à un groupe de cliniciens (médecins de famille, autres spécialistes, pharmaciens, infirmières et infirmières praticiennes) et à des patients pour obtenir de la rétroaction, la réviser en conséquence et le comité l’a ensuite finalisée. Recommandations Des recommandations sont présentées concernant le dépistage et les analyses, les évaluations du risque, le suivi, de même que le r

  7. Structure of Thermotoga maritima Stationary Phase Survival Protein SurE: A Novel Acid Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, R.-G.; Skarina, T.; Katz, J.E.; Beasley, S.; Khachatryan, A.; Vyas, S.; Arrowsmith, C.H.; Clarke, S.; Edwards, A.; Joachimiak, A.; Savchenko, A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background The rpoS, nlpD, pcm, and surE genes are among many whose expression is induced during the stationary phase of bacterial growth. rpoS codes for the stationary-phase RNA polymerase σ subunit, and nlpD codes for a lipoprotein. The pcm gene product repairs damaged proteins by converting the atypical isoaspartyl residues back to L-aspartyls. The physiological and biochemical functions of surE are unknown, but its importance in stress is supported by the duplication of the surE gene in E. coli subjected to high-temperature growth. The pcm and surE genes are highly conserved in bacteria, archaea, and plants. Results The structure of SurE from Thermotoga maritima was determined at 2.0 Å. The SurE monomer is composed of two domains; a conserved N-terminal domain, a Rossman fold, and a C-terminal oligomerization domain, a new fold. Monomers form a dimer that assembles into a tetramer. Biochemical analysis suggests that SurE is an acid phosphatase, with an optimum pH of 5.5–6.2. The active site was identified in the N-terminal domain through analysis of conserved residues. Structure-based site-directed point mutations abolished phosphatase activity. T. maritima SurE intra- and inter-subunit salt bridges were identified that may explain the SurE thermostability. Conclusions The structure of SurE provided information about the protein’s fold, oligomeric state, and active site. The protein possessed magnesium-dependent acid phosphatase activity, but the physiologically relevant substrate(s) remains to be identified. The importance of three of the assigned active site residues in catalysis was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:11709173

  8. Structure of thermotoga maritima stationary phase survival protein SurE : a novel acid phosphatase.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, R.-G; Skarina, T.; Katz, J. E.; Khachatryan, A; Vyas, S.; Arrowsmith, C. H.; Clarke, S.; Edwards, A.; Joachimiak, A.; Savchenko, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Toronto; Univ. of California; Clinical Genomics Centre /Proteomics, Univ. Health Network

    2001-11-01

    Background: The rpoS, nlpD, pcm, and surE genes are among many whose expression is induced during the stationary phase of bacterial growth. rpoS codes for the stationary-phase RNA polymerase {sigma} subunit, and nlpD codes for a lipoprotein. The pcm gene product repairs damaged proteins by converting the atypical isoaspartyl residues back to L-aspartyls. The physiological and biochemical functions of surE are unknown, but its importance in stress is supported by the duplication of the surE gene in E. coli subjected to high-temperature growth. The pcm and surE genes are highly conserved in bacteria, archaea, and plants. Results: The structure of SurE from Thermotoga maritima was determined at 2.0 Angstroms. The SurE monomer is composed of two domains; a conserved N-terminal domain, a Rossman fold, and a C-terminal oligomerization domain, a new fold. Monomers form a dimer that assembles into a tetramer. Biochemical analysis suggests that SurE is an acid phosphatase, with an optimum pH of 5.5-6.2. The active site was identified in the N-terminal domain through analysis of conserved residues. Structure-based site-directed point mutations abolished phosphatase activity. T. maritima SurE intra- and intersubunit salt bridges were identified that may explain the SurE thermostability. Conclusions: The structure of SurE provided information about the protein's fold, oligomeric state, and active site. The protein possessed magnesium-dependent acid phosphatase activity, but the physiologically relevant substrate(s) remains to be identified. The importance of three of the assigned active site residues in catalysis was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis.

  9. Respiratory cancers and pollution.

    PubMed

    Ding, N; Zhou, N; Zhou, M; Ren, G-M

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the major public health problem worldwide, irrespective of the socio-economic status of the countries. Even though the overall mortality from cancer is higher in the western countries, the cancer burden is on the rise in under-developed countries, with a projected 81-100% increase by 2030, mostly due to pollution and tobacco use. Respiratory cancers affect the lung, larynx, trachea, and bronchus and depending on the location of the cancer, the symptoms change and also the risks, incidence and survival outcomes differ accordingly. Besides tobacco use, chronic exposure to household pollution is known to be associated with elevated risk of lung cancer and other cancers. Women and children living in severe poverty in the underdeveloped countries are exposed most to household air pollution and, thus, suffer its consequences maximally, and household air pollution, specifically arising from solid fuel burning, which accounts for nearly 4 million deaths throughout the world annually. Cancers affecting the respiratory tract, including both nasopharyngeal cancer and lung cancer, are strongly associated with pollution from coal and other solid fuel burning. Lung cancer, which is of two types, small cell lung carcinoma and the non-small cell lung cancer, is the most common and fatal cancer. Even though tobacco has been viewed as the major risk for respiratory cancers, it is now evident that household pollution, exposure to asbestos, chromium and arsenic etc, all pose a significant risk for respiratory cancers. Preventive steps to curtail the many sources of air pollution by improving living conditions and reducing the occupational exposure hazards like welding, industrial work etc., are markedly needed to control the incidence of respiratory cancers.

  10. Method for measuring pollutant formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annen, Kurt (Inventor); Stickler, David B. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Diagnostic methods for determining an instantaneous rate of pollutant formation in a combustion system are based on measurement of chemiluminescence intensity generated simultaneously with the formation of the pollutant. The chemiluminescent signal is generated by an analog reaction which occurs in parallel with a key step in the formation of a specific pollutant of interest. The connection between the analog reaction and the pollution reaction is such that the chemiluminescent signal indicates the local, instantaneous formation rate of the pollutant of interest.

  11. Analysis of the sources and dynamic processes leading to the increase of atmospheric CO2, black carbon and other trace species during recent urban pollution events in the Paris megacity region : a synergy of resources provided by the IPSL OCAPI platform.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueref-Remy, I.; Foret, G.; Beekmann, M.; Brégonzio-Rozier, L.; Favez, O.; Gros, V.; Moreau-Guigon, E.; Vogel, F. R.; Belviso, S.; Ghersi, V.; Dupont, J. C.; Bodichon, R.; Cailteau-Fischbach, C.; Baisnee, D.; Peinado, F.; Haeffelin, M.; DeCola, P.; Turnbull, J. C.; Chelin, P.; Te, Y. V.; Formenti, P.; Doussin, J. F.; Gratien, A.; Desboeufs, K. V.; Ramage, K.; Jeseck, P.; Delmotte, M.; Ramonet, M.; Michoud, V.; Ravetta, F.

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays, more than 50% of the global population leave in urban centers which activities generate large anthropogenic emissions of CO2 (more than 70% of fossil fuel CO2 comes from urbanized/industrialized areas) and reactive gases that endanger our climate, the health of human beings and surrounding ecosystems. The worst situations are encountered during urban pollution events that usually form under anticyclonic conditions. Analyzing the contribution of the local and regional sources of urban CO2 and co-emitted species vs the remote ones, as well as the nature of these sources and the dynamical processes that lead to the building of such events can provide interesting knowledge for helping urban policy makers to better identify the role of anthropogenic/biogenic sources on the urban air composition and to take proper decisions in matter of CO2 and pollutants sources mitigation. With 12 million of people, Paris (France) is the second megacity in Europe. In 2016, two pollution events occured in the Paris region during which the instrumental platform OCAPI (http://observations.ipsl.fr/composition-atmospherique-en-idf.html) from IPSL (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) was mobilized in collaboration with air quality governing actors (AIRPARIF, INERIS) to collect a bunch of observations. Five sites located in the urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Paris were equiped with in-situ analyzers (CO2, CO, black carbon, 13CO2, COS) ; Fourier transform spectrometers for column measurements (XCO2, XCO, XCOS), particle filters (for aerosols size and content analysis) ; air samples (levoglucosan, 14CO2, VOCs) ; and Lidar profilers (boundary layer height ; wind profiles). These data, combined with a backtrajectories analysis, give information about the dynamical processes that lead to the formation of the pollution events and on the contribution of local, regional and remote sources. The analysis of the correlations between the trace species and of the isotopic content of carbon in

  12. Immunotoxicity of air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.A.; Gardner, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The most common ubiquitous air pollutants, as well as some point source (e.g. metals) air pollutants, decrease the function of pulmonary host defense mechanisms against infection. Most of this knowledge is based on animal studies and involves cellular antibacterial defenses such as alveolar macrophages and mucociliary clearance. Information on viral infectivity is more sparse. Since there is no routine treatment for viral infections which have a relatively high rate of occurrence, this gap in knowledge is of concern. Given the major gaps in knowledge, resaonably accurate assessment of the immunotoxicity of air pollutants is not possible. When the limited data base is reviewed relative to ambient levels of the common pollutants, it appears that acute exposures to O3 and H2SO4 and chronic exposures to NO2 are the major exposures of concern for immunotoxic effects. It is critical to point out, however, that until information is available for chronic exposures to low levels of metals and for exposures to common organic vapors, the immunotoxicity of air pollutants cannot be assessed adequately.

  13. Automated Pollution Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Patterned after the Cassini Resource Exchange (CRE), Sholtz and Associates established the Automated Credit Exchange (ACE), an Internet-based concept that automates the auctioning of "pollution credits" in Southern California. An early challenge of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Cassini mission was allocating the spacecraft's resources. To support the decision-making process, the CRE was developed. The system removes the need for the science instrument manager to know the individual instruments' requirements for the spacecraft resources. Instead, by utilizing principles of exchange, the CRE induces the instrument teams to reveal their requirements. In doing so, they arrive at an efficient allocation of spacecraft resources by trading among themselves. A Southern California RECLAIM air pollution credit trading market has been set up using same bartering methods utilized in the Cassini mission in order to help companies keep pollution and costs down.

  14. Marine pollution: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentukevičienė, Marina; Brannvall, Evelina

    2008-01-01

    This overview of marine pollution follows the methodology as proposed below. Firstly, well-known databases (Science Direct, GeoRef, SpringerLINK, etc.) on technological research were studied. All collected references were divided into 27 sections following the key words associated with marine pollution, oil spills, alien species migration, etc. The most commercially promising research and development (R & D) activities seem to be market-oriented sections: detection of oil spills at sea, containment and recovery of floating oil at sea, detection of oil spills on land, disposal of oil and debris on land, alien species migration prevention from ballast water and underwater hull cleaning in water, NOx and SOx emissions, pollutions from ship-building and repair, and biogeochemical modelling. Great market demands for commercially patented innovations are very attractive for initiating new R & D projects.

  15. Air pollution and allergens.

    PubMed

    Bartra, J; Mullol, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Jáuregui, I; Montoro, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that the prevalence of allergic diseases has increased in recent decades in the industrialized world. Exposure to environmental pollutants may partially account for this increased prevalence. In effect, air pollution is a growing public health problem. In Europe, the main source of air pollution due to particles in suspension is represented by motor vehicles--particularly those that use diesel fuel. Diesel exhaust particles (DEPs) are composed of a carbon core upon which high-molecular weight organic chemical components and heavy metals deposit. Over 80% of all DEPs are in the ultrafine particle range (< 0.1 pm in diameter). Air pollutants not only have a direct or indirect effect upon the individual, but also exert important actions upon aeroallergens. Pollen in heavily polluted zones can express a larger amount of proteins described as being allergenic. Through physical contact with the pollen particles, DEPs can disrupt the former, leading to the release of paucimicronic particles and transporting them by air--thus facilitating their penetration of the human airways. Climate change in part gives rise to variations in the temperature pattern characterizing the different seasons of the year. Thus, plants may vary their pollination calendar, advancing and prolonging their pollination period. In addition, in the presence of high CO2 concentrations and temperatures, plants increase their pollen output. Climate change may also lead to the extinction of species, and to the consolidation of non-native species--with the subsequent risk of allergic sensitization among the exposed human population. In conclusion, there is sufficient scientific evidence on the effect of air pollution upon allergens, increasing exposure to the latter, their concentration and/or biological allergenic activity.

  16. SUR1-Associated Mechanisms Are Not Involved in Ischemic Optic Neuropathy 1 Day Post-Injury

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, James D.; Guo, Yan; Bernstein, Steven L.

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injury after central nervous system (CNS) injury presents a major health care challenge with few promising treatments. Recently, it has become possible to reduce edema after CNS injury by antagonizing a sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) regulated ion channel expressed after injury. SUR1 upregulation after injury is a necessary precondition for the formation of this channel, and has been implicated in white matter injury after clinical spinal cord trauma. Glibenclamide, an SUR1 antagonist, appears to have neuroprotective effect against cerebral stroke in an open-label small clinical trial and great effectiveness in reducing damage after varied experimental CNS injury models. Despite its importance in CNS injuries, SUR1 upregulation appears to play no part in rodent anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rAION) injury as tested by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical staining of rAION-injured rat optic nerve (ON). Furthermore, the SUR1 antagonist glibenclamide administered immediately after rAION injury provided no protection to proximal ON microvasculature 1 day post-injury but may reduce optic nerve head edema in a manner unrelated to ON SUR1 expression. Our results suggest that there may be fundamental differences between rAION optic nerve ischemia and other CNS white matter injuries where SUR1 appears to play a role. PMID:27560494

  17. Aerospace air pollution issues.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R E; Rayman, R B

    1996-02-01

    Practitioners of aerospace medicine are mindful of the environmental effects, particularly air pollution, caused by aviation and spaceflight operations. To an aerospace medicine specialist, the environment includes not only the air, water, and soil of the earth, but also the cabin milieu of aircraft and space vehicles where crews must work, sleep, and in some cases, live. Consequently, this article will address the following areas of concern: cabin air quality of aircraft, cabin air quality of space vehicles, noise, air pollution, and aerial spraying.

  18. Viruses and marine pollution.

    PubMed

    Danovaro, R; Armeni, M; Corinaldesi, C; Mei, M L

    2003-03-01

    This short review summarises the present knowledge on pollutant impacts on marine viruses, virus-host systems and their potential ecological implications. Excess nutrients from sewage and river effluents are a primary cause of marine eutrophication and mucilage formation, often related to the development of large viral assemblages. At the same time, hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyl and pesticides alter ecosystem functioning and can determinate changes in the virus-host interactions, thus increasing the potential of viral infection. All these pollutants might have synergistic effects on the virus-host system and are able to induce prophage, thus increasing the impact of viruses on marine ecosystems.

  19. ``Astrophysique sur Mesure'', E-learning in Astronomy and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosser, Benoît; Delsanti, Audrey; Guillaume, Damien; Balança, Christian; Balkowski, Chantal

    2011-06-01

    ``Astrophysique sur Mesure'' (astrophysics made-to-measure) is a set of e-learning programmes started 4 years ago at the Paris Observatory. In order to deliver attractive and efficient programmes, we have added many multimedia tools to usual lectures: animations, Java applets. The programmes are presented on two different platforms. The first one offers the content of all the lectures in free access. A second platform with restricted access is provided to registered students taking part in the e-learning program and benefiting from the help of tutors. The development of these programs helps to increase the sphere of influence of astronomy taught at the Paris Observatory, hence to increase the presence of astronomy in various degree courses. Instead of teaching classical astronomy lectures to a happy few, we can bring astronomy and astrophysics to a wider audience.

  20. [Marine algae of Baja California Sur, Mexico: nutritional value].

    PubMed

    Carrillo Domínguez, Silvia; Casas Valdez, Margarita; Ramos Ramos, Felipe; Pérez-Gil, Fernando; Sánchez Rodríguez, Ignacio

    2002-12-01

    The Baja California Peninsula is one of the richest regions of seaweed resources in México. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition of some marine algae species of Baja California Sur, with an economical potential due to their abundance and distribution, and to promote their use as food for human consumption and animal feeding. The algae studied were Green (Ulva spp., Enteromorpha intestinalis, Caulerpa sertularoides, Bryopsis hypnoides), Red (Laurencia johnstonii, Spyridia filamentosa, Hypnea valentiae) and Brown (Sargassum herporizum, S. sinicola, Padina durvillaei, Hydroclathrus clathrathus, Colpomenia sinuosa). The algae were dried and ground before analysis. In general, the results showed that algae had a protein level less than 11%, except L. johnstonii with 18% and low energy content. The ether extract content was lower than 1%. However, the algae were a good source of carbohydrates and inorganic matter.

  1. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to identifying chemical pollution in the marine environment and assessing the effects of such pollution on living marine resources is described. Such a study requires knowing: what pollutants organisms are exposed to, which pollutants are accumulated; the fate of pollutants taken up by organisms, and biological changes caused by the pollutants. Analytical limitations of such studies are noted. Examples of specific interdisciplinary laboratory and field investigations are presented, for instance, the finding of liver tumors in flatfish that accumulated sediment-bound naphthalene.

  2. Pollution from pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines.

  3. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  4. Controlling Population with Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  5. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  6. Testing for Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Artice

    Three experiments are presented in this Science Study Aid to provide the teacher with some fundamental air pollution activities. The first experiment involved particulates, the second deals with microorganisms, and the third looks at gases in the atmosphere. Each activity outlines introductory information, objectives, materials required, procedure…

  7. Pollution Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Research Ventures, Inc.'s visiplume is a portable, microprocessor-controlled air pollution monitor for measuring sulfur dioxide emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants, and facilities that manufacture sulfuric acid. It observes smokestack plumes at a distance from the stack obviating the expense and difficulty of installing sample collectors in each stack and later analyzing the samples.

  8. Water Pollution Control Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  9. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  10. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to prevent pollution and reduce risk in communities, homes, workplaces, and ecosystems. This goal must be based in large part on the application of the best available science and technology associat...

  11. Air Pollution Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association, New York, NY.

    As the dangers of polluted air to the health and welfare of all individuals became increasingly evident and as the complexity of the causes made responsibility for solutions even more difficult to fix, the National Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease Association felt obligated to give greater emphasis to its clean air program. To this end they…

  12. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  13. Exploring Detergent Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the ecological dangers of certain types of detergents, and the action taken by government agencies and detergent manufacturers to alleviate the problem. Describes classroom activities and instructional procedures designed to illustrate detergent characteristics and the effects of detergent pollution. (MLH)

  14. Groundwater pollution microbiology

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Gerba, C.P.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides a survey of available information on groundwater pollution microbiology. It is useful as a starting point for students and professionals investigating this topic. Subjects discussed include bacteria and virus movement through soils, carcinogenicity of some organic chemicals detected in groundwater, sampling techniques, and land treatment systems. Include references to the journal literature and a subject index.

  15. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  16. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  17. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  18. Water Pollution Control Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A special report on the state of the water pollution control industry reveals that due to forthcoming federal requirements, sales and the backlogs should increase; problems may ensue because of shortages of materials and inflation. Included are reports from various individual companies. (MLB)

  19. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. Chemistry for Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Larry

    This booklet presents some methods of quantitative chemical analysis currently used in the field of fresh water pollution control. Only those tests that may be performed with little or no special reagents or pieces of equipment are listed. The booklet addresses the following determinations: (1) acidity; (2) alkalinity; (3) chloride; (4) hardness;…

  1. Exploring Detergent Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the ecological dangers of certain types of detergents, and the action taken by government agencies and detergent manufacturers to alleviate the problem. Describes classroom activities and instructional procedures designed to illustrate detergent characteristics and the effects of detergent pollution. (MLH)

  2. Fecal Pollution of Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  3. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to prevent pollution and reduce risk in communities, homes, workplaces, and ecosystems. This goal must be based in large part on the application of the best available science and technology associat...

  4. Laser Detection of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, C. K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the use of laser spectroscopy in determining the presence of specific gaseous constituents. Three of currently used modes for laser detection of pollution are reviewed; (1) long-path measurements; (2) laser raman (differential absorption) measurements; and (3) optoacoustic detection. (HM)

  5. Fecal Pollution of Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal pollution of water from a health point of view is the contamination of water with disease-causing organisms (pathogens) that may inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of mammals, but with particular attention to human fecal sources as the most relevant source of human illnesse...

  6. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

  7. Microbial bioconversion of pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Golovleva, L.A.; Aliyeva, R.M.; Naumova, R.P.; Gvozdyak, P.I. )

    1992-01-01

    Microorganisms totally detoxicate xenobiotics of various chemical structures, which are serious and, in some cases, very hazardous pollutants. At present, the efforts of a number of researchers promoted the establishment in this country of a collection of microorganisms able to degrade volatile toxic pollutants--toluene, isomeric xylenes, styrene, alpha-methylstyrene, crotonaldehyde; widely distributed xenobiotics chlorobenzoic acids; isomeric aryldicarboxylic acids; and ecologically hazardous pollutants such as aromatic nitrocompounds. The active strains-destructors are mainly representatives of the genera Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus. Research into their physiological characteristics, key enzymes, pathways of xenobiotics degradation, genetic mechanisms determining the degradation of these foreign compounds, and behaviour of the strains in a real environment made it possible to develop the theoretical principles of using these microbial cultures to purify real industrial wastes and remediate polluted areas of soil and water. Improvement of the methods of immobilizing the active xenobiotics-degrading strains on cheap and efficient carriers made it possible to significantly intensify the cleanup process of industrial wastes and eliminate a number of problems during the development of the biotechnologies for industrial waste cleanup. Successfully operated at present are the biotechnologies of the local cleanup of waste waters of terephthalate production, microbial purification of industrial waste waters in nylon-66 production from hexamethylenediamine, purification of coke production wastes from phenols, waste waters of polyisocyanate production from aromatic amines, local purification of waste waters in synthetic rubber production from alpha-methylstyrene, acetaldehyde production wastes from crotonaldehyde and mercury. 97 references.

  8. Controlling Population with Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  9. Laser Detection of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, C. K. N.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the use of laser spectroscopy in determining the presence of specific gaseous constituents. Three of currently used modes for laser detection of pollution are reviewed; (1) long-path measurements; (2) laser raman (differential absorption) measurements; and (3) optoacoustic detection. (HM)

  10. Investigating Ocean Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBeau, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade class project to investigate two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…

  11. Investigating Ocean Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBeau, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Describes a fifth-grade class project to investigate two major forms of ocean pollution: plastics and oil. Students work in groups and read, discuss, speculate, offer opinions, and participate in activities such as keeping a plastics journal, testing the biodegradability of plastics, and simulating oil spills. Activities culminate in…

  12. Measuring River Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  13. Chemistry for Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Larry

    This booklet presents some methods of quantitative chemical analysis currently used in the field of fresh water pollution control. Only those tests that may be performed with little or no special reagents or pieces of equipment are listed. The booklet addresses the following determinations: (1) acidity; (2) alkalinity; (3) chloride; (4) hardness;…

  14. Measuring River Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayyavoo, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The Don River watershed is located within Canada's most highly urbanized area--metropolitan Toronto. Many residential and commercial uses, including alterations to the river's course with bridges, have had a significant impact on the Don's fauna and flora. Pollutants have degraded the river's water quality, a situation exacerbated by the…

  15. AIR POLLUTION AND HUMMINGBIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multidisciplinary team of EPA-RTP ORD pulmonary toxicologists, engineers, ecologists, and statisticians have designed a study of how ground-level ozone and other air pollutants may influence feeding activity of the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris). Be...

  16. Sulfur Dioxide Pollution Monitor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    The sulfur dioxide pollution monitor described in this document is a government-owed invention that is available for licensing. The background of the invention is outlined, and drawings of the monitor together with a detailed description of its function are provided. A sample stream of air, smokestack gas or the like is flowed through a…

  17. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  18. Environmental Pollution and Climatic Change,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    anthropogenic modification of global climage , numerical experiment of climatic change , cooling in the northern hemisphere, environmental influence on the Japan...The paper discusses environmental pollution and climatic change . Discussions begin on atmospheric pollution on a global scale, followed by

  19. INTEGRATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype computer-based decision support system was designed to provide small businesses with an integrated pollution prevention methodology. Preliminary research involved compilation of an inventory of existing pollution prevention tools (i.e., methodologies, software, etc.),...

  20. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  1. INTEGRATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype computer-based decision support system was designed to provide small businesses with an integrated pollution prevention methodology. Preliminary research involved compilation of an inventory of existing pollution prevention tools (i.e., methodologies, software, etc.),...

  2. Taos Smart Growth Implementation Assistance: Concepts for the Paseo del Pueblo Sur Corridor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes a technical assistance project with Taos, NM, to help make development along State Highway 68, the Paseo del Pueblo Sur commercial corridor, economically stronger and more attractive.

  3. Remote Sensing of Water Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, P. G.

    1971-01-01

    Remote sensing, as a tool to aid in the control of water pollution, offers a means of making rapid, economical surveys of areas that are relatively inaccessible on the ground. At the same time, it offers the only practical means of mapping pollution patterns that cover large areas. Detection of oil slicks, thermal pollution, sewage, and algae are discussed.

  4. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  5. In Search of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

  6. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  7. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  8. In Search of Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckendorf, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution is no longer just a local issue; it is a global problem. The atmosphere is a very dynamic system. Pollution not only changes in chemical composition after it is emitted, but also is transported on local and global air systems hundreds and even thousands of miles away. Some of the pollutants that are major health concerns are not even…

  9. Air Pollutants Minimalization of Pollutant Absorber with Condensation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhiat, Yayat; Catur Wibowo, Firmanul; Oktarisa, Yuvita

    2017-05-01

    Industrial development has implications for pollution, one of it is air pollution. The amount of air pollutants emitted from industrial depend on several factors which are capacity of its fuel, high chimneys and atmospheric stability. To minimize pollutants emitted from industries is created a tool called Pollutant Absorber (PA) with a condensing system. Research & Development with the approach of Design for Production was used as methodology in making PA. To test the function of PA, the simulation had been done by using the data on industrial emissions Cilegon industrial area. The simulation results in 15 years period showed that the PA was able to minimize the pollutant emissions of SO2 by 38% NOx by 37% and dust by 64%. Differences in the absorption of pollutants shows the weakness of particle separation process in the separator. This condition happen because the condensation process is less optimal during the absorption and separation in the separator.

  10. Modelisations des effets de surface sur les jets horizontaux subsoniques d'hydrogene et de methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Luis Fernando

    Le developpement des codes et de normes bases sur une methodologie scientifique requiert la capacite de predire l'etendue inflammable de deversements gazeux d'hydrogene sous differentes conditions. Des etudes anterieures ont deja etabli des modeles bases sur les lois de conservation de la mecanique des fluides basees sur des correlations experimentales qui permettent de predire la decroissance de la concentration et de la vitesse d'un gaz le long de l'axe d'un jet libre vertical. Cette etude s'interesse aux effets de proximite a une surface horizontale parallele sur un jet turbulent. Nous nous interessons a son impact sur l'etendue du champ de la concentration et sur l'enveloppe inflammable en particulier. Cette etude est comparative : l'hydrogene est compare au methane. Ceci permet de degager l'influence des effets de difference de la densite sur le comportement du jet, et de comparer le comportement de l'hydrogene aux correlations experimentales, qui ont ete essentiellement etablies pour le methane. Un modele decrivant l'evolution spatio-temporelle du champ de concentration du gaz dilue est propose, base sur la mecanique des fluides computationnelle. Cette approche permet de varier systematiquement les conditions aux frontieres (proximite du jet a la surface, par exemple) et de connaitre en detail les proprietes de l'ecoulement. Le modele est implemente dans le code de simulations par volumes finis de FLUENT. Les resultats des simulations sont compares avec les lois de similitudes decoulant de la theorie des jets d'ecoulements turbulents libres ainsi qu'avec les resultats experimentaux disponibles. L'effet de la difference des masses molaires des constituantes du jet et des constituantes du milieu de dispersion est egalement etudie dans le contexte du comportement d'echelle de la region developpee du jet.

  11. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6” to...

  12. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6” to...

  13. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6” to...

  14. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6” to...

  15. 46 CFR 7.135 - Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. 7.135 Section 7.135 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.135 Point Sur, CA to Cape Blanco, OR. (a) A line drawn from Monterey Harbor Light “6” to...

  16. Managing Air Quality - Air Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  17. China's water pollution by persistent organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lian-Jun; Maruya, Keith A; Snyder, Shane A; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2012-04-01

    Available data were reviewed to assess the status of contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), in drinking water sources and coastal waters of China. The levels of POPs in China's waters were generally at the high end of the global range. A comparison of China's regulatory limits indicated that PCBs in rivers and coastal water may pose potential human health risk. Occurrence of DDTs in some rivers of China may also pose health risk to humans using the regulatory limits of DDTs recommended by the European Union. Future monitoring of POPs in China's waters should be directed towards analytes of concern (e.g. PCBs and PCDD/Fs) and to fill data gaps for analytes (e.g. PBDEs, PCDD/Fs, and chlordane) and in watersheds/regions (e.g. West China) where data are scarce.

  18. Indoor air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, D.R. )

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and tight building' syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.88 references.

  19. Lead polluters get punished

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Department of Justice last week cracked down on 36 US companies for polluting the environment with lead. EPA slapped fines totaling more than $10 million on 12 of the offending companies, and Justice filed 24 civil complaints. Hank Habicht, deputy administrator of the EPA, said that his agency's initiative comes after 8 months of intense - and presumably successful - efforts at locating and documenting lead pollution in the soil, air, and water supply. Most feared has been lead's ability to damage the intellectual development of children. This caused the agency, Habicht said, to look beyond the usual suspect - lead in the water supply - to lead-laced dirt in residential areas. Meanwhile, the Department of Justice is using the EPA contamination data as well. Twenty US attorneys have been assigned to pore over the federal environmental statutes, including the Clean Water Act and the Superfund Law, in order to file civil complaints.

  20. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for air pollution source identification are reviewed, and some results obtained with them are evaluated. Described techniques include remote sensing from satellites and aircraft, on-site monitoring, and the use of injected tracers and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of a large number of trace elements in ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed in detail. Sampling and analysis techniques are described, and it is shown that elemental constituents can be related to specific source types such as those found in the earth's crust and those associated with specific industries. Source identification sytems are noted which utilize charged particle X-ray fluorescence analysis of original field data.

  1. Air pollution source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The techniques available for source identification are reviewed: remote sensing, injected tracers, and pollutants themselves as tracers. The use of the large number of trace elements in the ambient airborne particulate matter as a practical means of identifying sources is discussed. Trace constituents are determined by sensitive, inexpensive, nondestructive, multielement analytical methods such as instrumental neutron activation and charged particle X-ray fluorescence. The application to a large data set of pairwise correlation, the more advanced pattern recognition-cluster analysis approach with and without training sets, enrichment factors, and pollutant concentration rose displays for each element is described. It is shown that elemental constituents are related to specific source types: earth crustal, automotive, metallurgical, and more specific industries. A field-ready source identification system based on time and wind direction resolved sampling is described.

  2. Indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Gold, D R

    1992-06-01

    This article summarizes the health effects of indoor air pollutants and the modalities available to control them. The pollutants discussed include active and passive exposure to tobacco smoke; combustion products of carbon monoxide; nitrogen dioxide; products of biofuels, including wood and coal; biologic agents leading to immune responses, such as house dust mites, cockroaches, fungi, animal dander, and urine; biologic agents associated with infection such as Legionella and tuberculosis; formaldehyde; and volatile organic compounds. An approach to assessing building-related illness and "tight building" syndrome is presented. Finally, the article reviews recent data on hospital-related asthma and exposures to potential respiratory hazards such as antineoplastic agents, anesthetic gases, and ethylene oxide.

  3. Air pollution estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, Y.N.

    1997-12-31

    Global and limited area pollutant transport models based on the 3-D transport diffusion equation are considered provided that the air velocity field is known. As a first approximation, climatic monthly mean velocities are taken, though more precise velocity field can be obtained with a special dynamic model. The problem of pollutant flows through the open horizontal and vertical boundaries is discussed. Different boundary conditions are set at the {open_quotes}inflow{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}outflow{close_quotes} parts of such boundaries in order to get the well-posed problems according to Hadamard when either solution is unique and stable to initial perturbations. In the non-diffusion limit, these conditions are reduced to the well-known ones for the pure advection problem, when the only {open_quotes}inflow{close_quotes} boundary conditions are to be set, while the {open_quotes}outflow{close_quotes} conditions are not prescribed, and determined by the characteristics method.

  4. Bioremediation of groundwater pollution.

    PubMed

    Crawford, R L

    1991-06-01

    Significant progress has been made in the past year towards an understanding of the microbial processes in subsurface environments that may allow natural microbial populations to be employed for bioremediation of groundwater pollution. Among the highlights were: the discovery of several previously unknown xenobiotic-degrading abilities in groundwater microorganisms; progress in using the unique abilities of methanotrophs to oxidize halogenated solvents; and characterizations of microbial populations from subsurface soils.

  5. Groundwater pollution abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, D.M.; Holm, L.W.; Saunders, D.L.

    1987-05-12

    A method is described for for pollution abatement in groundwaters, comprising the steps of: drilling a series of wells into an aquifer, ahead of an advancing front of water which contains one or more contaminants. The wells are disposed along a line approximately parallel to the advancing front; and introducing, through the wells and into the aquifer, a particulate adsorbent material which can adsorb at least one contaminant.

  6. Megacities and atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Molina, Mario J; Molina, Luisa T

    2004-06-01

    About half of the world's population now lives in urban areas because of the opportunity for a better quality of life. Many of these urban centers are expanding rapidly, leading to the growth of megacities, which are defined as metropolitan areas with populations exceeding 10 million inhabitants. These concentrations of people and activity are exerting increasing stress on the natural environment, with impacts at urban, regional and global levels. In recent decades, air pollution has become one of the most important problems of megacities. Initially, the main air pollutants of concern were sulfur compounds, which were generated mostly by burning coal. Today, photochemical smog--induced primarily from traffic, but also from industrial activities, power generation, and solvents--has become the main source of concern for air quality, while sulfur is still a major problem in many cities of the developing world. Air pollution has serious impacts on public health, causes urban and regional haze, and has the potential to contribute significantly to climate change. Yet, with appropriate planning, megacities can efficiently address their air quality problems through measures such as application of new emission control technologies and development of mass transit systems. This review is focused on nine urban centers, chosen as case studies to assess air quality from distinct perspectives: from cities in the industrialized nations to cities in the developing world. While each city--its problems, resources, and outlook--is unique, the need for a holistic approach to the complex environmental problems is the same. There is no single strategy in reducing air pollution in megacities; a mix of policy measures will be needed to improve air quality. Experience shows that strong political will coupled with public dialog is essential to effectively implement the regulations required to address air quality problems.

  7. Innovation for Pollution Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Kinetic Controls Inc.'s refuse-fired steam generating facility led to the development of an air pollution equipment control device. The device is currently marketed by two NASA/Langley Research Center employees. It automatically senses and compensates for the changes in smoke composition when refuse is used as a fuel by adjusting the precipitator's voltage and current to permit maximum collection of electrically charged dust particles. The control adapts to any electrostatic precipitator and should have extensive commercial applications.

  8. Intercontinental Transport of Air Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, David; Whung, Pai-Yei; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The development of the global economy goes beyond raising our standards of living. We are in an ear of increasing environmental as well as economic interdependence. Long-range transport of anthropogenic atmospheric pollutants such as ozone, ozone precursors, airborne particles, heavy metals (such as mercury) and persistent organic pollutants are the four major types of pollution that are transported over intercontinental distances and have global environmental effects. The talk includes: 1) an overview of the international agreements related to intercontinental transport of air pollutants, 2) information needed for decision making, 3) overview of the past research on intercontinental transport of air pollutants - a North American's perspective, and 4) future research needs.

  9. The Economics of Pollution; Part Three: Can Pollution Be Controlled? Teaching About: Can Pollution Be Controlled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolozin, Harold; Reilly, Patricia R.

    In this third of three articles on the economics of pollution control general statements from several sources present a background which questions our ability to devise the necessary tools to fight pollution, even if adequate expenditures of money are provided. In the struggle to control pollution, the economist, it is believed, can provide…

  10. The Economics of Pollution; Part Three: Can Pollution Be Controlled? Teaching About: Can Pollution Be Controlled?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolozin, Harold; Reilly, Patricia R.

    In this third of three articles on the economics of pollution control general statements from several sources present a background which questions our ability to devise the necessary tools to fight pollution, even if adequate expenditures of money are provided. In the struggle to control pollution, the economist, it is believed, can provide…

  11. PHARMACEUTICALS AS UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processes and human influence. Although this galaxy of targeted chemicals might be minuscule compared with the universe of both known and yet-to-be identified chemicals, an implicit assumption is that these selective lists of chemicals are responsible for the most significant share of risk with respect to environmental or economic impairment or to human health. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) comprise a particularly large and diverse array of unregulated pollutants that occur in the environment from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use. Although the concentration of any individual PPCP rarely ever exceeds the sub-ppm level (if present in drinking water, concentrations of individual PPCPs are generally less than the ppt-ppb level), evidence is accumulating that these trace-Ievel pollutants are ubiquitous, they can have a continuous presence regardless of environmental half-lives ( e.g., where sanitary wastewaters enter the environment), and the numbers of distinct and varied chemical entities could be extremely large (given that thousands are in commercial use). The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-ar

  12. Issues of Rural Light Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, W. H.; Hammer, R. L.; Hammer, A.

    2001-12-01

    Light pollution is generally considered mostly an urban problem. Common sources of light pollution are poorly designed lighting of streets, parking lots, businesses and advertizing signs and for security. These sources, and the amount of light pollution generated, increase with population density. Nevertheless, light pollution can also be significant in rural areas. Rural light pollution differs from that in urban settings, both in the types of pollution and in the means that must be employed to control it. In the country the offending sources are often isolated lights such as from farm barns, vacation cottages, radio and cell phone towers, and road intersections. A culture of strong property rights and privacy rights affects attempts to control rural light pollution. We describe how some of these issues may be addressed based on the results from an Eagle Scout project carried out in central Michigan.

  13. Outdoor air pollution and asthma

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. PMID:24792855

  14. Outdoor air pollution and asthma.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Michael; Balmes, John R

    2014-05-03

    Traffic and power generation are the main sources of urban air pollution. The idea that outdoor air pollution can cause exacerbations of pre-existing asthma is supported by an evidence base that has been accumulating for several decades, with several studies suggesting a contribution to new-onset asthma as well. In this Series paper, we discuss the effects of particulate matter (PM), gaseous pollutants (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide), and mixed traffic-related air pollution. We focus on clinical studies, both epidemiological and experimental, published in the previous 5 years. From a mechanistic perspective, air pollutants probably cause oxidative injury to the airways, leading to inflammation, remodelling, and increased risk of sensitisation. Although several pollutants have been linked to new-onset asthma, the strength of the evidence is variable. We also discuss clinical implications, policy issues, and research gaps relevant to air pollution and asthma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Baseline heavy metals and metalloid values in blood of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ley-Quiñónez, C; Zavala-Norzagaray, A A; Espinosa-Carreón, T L; Peckham, H; Marquez-Herrera, C; Campos-Villegas, L; Aguirre, A A

    2011-09-01

    Environmental pollution due to heavy metals is having an increased impact on marine wildlife accentuated by anthropogenic changes in the planet including overfishing, agricultural runoff and marine emerging infectious diseases. Sea turtles are considered sentinels of ecological health in marine ecosystems. The objective of this study was to determine baseline concentrations of zinc, cadmium, copper, nickel, selenium, manganese, mercury and lead in blood of 22 clinically healthy, loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta), captured for several reasons in Puerto López Mateos, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Zinc was the most prevalent metal in blood (41.89 μg g⁻¹), followed by Selenium (10.92 μg g⁻¹). The mean concentration of toxic metal Cadmium was 6.12 μg g⁻¹ and 1.01μg g⁻¹ respectively. Mean concentrations of metals followed this pattern: Zn>Se>Ni>Cu>Mn>Cd>Pb and Hg. We can conclude that blood is an excellent tissue to measure in relatively non-invasive way baseline values of heavy metals in Caretta caretta.

  16. Air pollution and airway disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, F J; Fussell, J C

    2011-08-01

    Epidemiological and toxicological research continues to support a link between urban air pollution and an increased incidence and/or severity of airway disease. Detrimental effects of ozone (O(3)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM), as well as traffic-related pollution as a whole, on respiratory symptoms and function are well documented. Not only do we have strong epidemiological evidence of a relationship between air pollution and exacerbation of asthma and respiratory morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but recent studies, particularly in urban areas, have suggested a role for pollutants in the development of both asthma and COPD. Similarly, while prevalence and severity of atopic conditions appear to be more common in urban compared with rural communities, evidence is emerging that traffic-related pollutants may contribute to the development of allergy. Furthermore, numerous epidemiological and experimental studies suggest an association between exposure to NO(2) , O(3) , PM and combustion products of biomass fuels and an increased susceptibility to and morbidity from respiratory infection. Given the considerable contribution that traffic emissions make to urban air pollution researchers have sought to characterize the relative toxicity of traffic-related PM pollutants. Recent advances in mechanisms implicated in the association of air pollutants and airway disease include epigenetic alteration of genes by combustion-related pollutants and how polymorphisms in genes involved in antioxidant pathways and airway inflammation can modify responses to air pollution exposures. Other interesting epidemiological observations related to increased host susceptibility include a possible link between chronic PM exposure during childhood and vulnerability to COPD in adulthood, and that infants subjected to higher prenatal levels of air pollution may be at greater risk of developing respiratory conditions

  17. A functional role of the C-terminal 42 amino acids of SUR2A and SUR2B in the physiology and pharmacology of cardiovascular ATP-sensitive K(+) channels.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2005-07-01

    The ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel is composed of four pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits and four sulfonylurea receptors (SUR). Intracellular ATP inhibits K(ATP) channels through Kir6.2. SUR is an ABC protein bearing transmembrane domains and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBD1 and NBD2). SUR increases the open probability of K(ATP) channels by interacting with ATP and ADP through NBDs and with K(+) channel openers such as nicorandil through its transmembrane domain. Because NBDs and the drug receptor allosterically interact with each other, nucleotides and drugs probably activate K(ATP) channels by causing the same conformational change of SUR. SUR2A and SUR2B have the identical drug receptor and NBDs and differ only in the C-terminal 42 amino acids (C42). Nonetheless, nicorandil ~100 times more potently activates SUR2B/Kir6.2 than SUR2A/Kir6.2 channels. Based on our allosteric model, we have analyzed the interaction between NBDs and the drug receptor in SUR2A and SUR2B and found that both nucleotide-bound NBD1 and NBD2 more strongly induce the conformational change in SUR2B than SUR2A. Therefore, C42 modulates the function of not only NBD2 which is close to C42 in a primary structure but NBD1 which is more than 630 amino acid N-terminal to C42. This raises the possibility that in the presence of nucleotides, NBD1 and NBD2 dimerize to induce the conformational change and that the dimerization enables C42 to gain access to both NBDs. Modulation of the nucleotide-NBD1 and -NBD2 interactions by C42 would determine the stability of the nucleotide-dependent dimer and thus, the physiological and pharmacological properties of K(ATP) channels.

  18. Sur Lago area, Venezuela: Three dimensional integrated seismic interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Growcott, A.; McIan, A.; Ramirez, R. )

    1993-02-01

    In 1988, 550 square km of 3D seismic data were acquired in the Sur Del Lago area. The aims of the survey were (1) To better define structures already identified from the existing 1 [times] 1 km 2D seismic grid at the level of potential Cretaceous limestone reservoirs and (2) To further study the prospectivity of potential structural and stratigraphic traps within the Tertiary section. Detailed interpretation of the 3D survey using an interactive workstation led to an improved structural definition at the Cogollo limestone level and the identification of fault related inversion lineaments and basement related Cretaceous limestone structures. Based upon the new seismic interpretation a 4 well exploration project was planned. The new program commenced with the drilling of exploration well SLA-7-IX in 1991 which proved commercial amounts of hydrocarbons in the western part of the area. Detailed information collected from the exploration wells includes a comprehensive electric log suite, ditch cuttings and vertical seismic profiles. The information is being used as detailed lithological, stratigraphic and seismic data input for velocity modeling, ray trace modeling, seismic attribute analysis, and reservoir characterization software in order to further understand the structural and stratigraphic potential of the area.

  19. Effets de la formation sur la violence conjugale

    PubMed Central

    Zaher, Eman; Keogh, Kelly; Ratnapalan, Savithiri

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Décrire et évaluer l’efficacité de la formation concernant la violence conjugale pour améliorer les connaissances et permettre la reconnaissance et la prise en charge par les médecins des femmes victimes de violence. Sources des données On a fait une recension dans la base de données des révisions systématiques de Cochrane, MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC et EMBASE pour trouver des articles publiés entre le 1e janvier 2000 et le 1e novembre 2012. Des recherches manuelles ont complété cette recension pour cerner des articles pertinents à l’aide d’une stratégie de recherche combinant des textes, mots et expressions MeSH. Sélection des études On a choisi des études randomisées contrôlées qui portaient sur des interventions éducatives à l’intention des médecins et fournissaient des données sur les effets des interventions. Synthèse On a inclus 9 études randomisées contrôlées qui décrivaient différentes approches pédagogiques et diverses mesures des résultats. Trois études examinaient les effets d’interventions éducatives pour des médecins en formation postdoctorale et ont constaté une augmentation des connaissances, mais il n’y a eu aucun changement dans le comportement en ce qui a trait à l’identification des victimes de violence conjugale. Six études portaient sur des interventions éducatives pour des médecins en pratique active. Trois d’entre elles utilisaient une approche à multiples facettes pour les médecins, qui combinait une formation ainsi que des interventions de soutien de la part du système pour changer les comportements des médecins, comme une sensibilisation générale accrue à la violence conjugale au moyen de brochures et d’affiches, des aide-mémoire pour rappeler aux médecins comment identifier les victimes, des moyens pour faciliter l’accès des médecins à des services de soutien pour les victimes, la réalisation d’audits et la fourniture de rétroaction. Les

  20. Approaches to the Implementation of Environment Pollution Prevention Technologies at Military Bases (Approches de l’application des techniques de prevention de la pollution sur les bases militaires)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    radioactive metal, promethium -147. The use of promethium proved unsatisfactory as the radiation energy from it was much reduced, leading to lower light...in Budapest, Hungary, 5-7 May 1999, and published in RTO MP-39. 18-2 legacy consists of sites contaminated with radium, as the promethium has all...Materials and their Properties Luminising Materials Half Life Toxicity "Environmental Persistence" Radium-226 1600 yrs High Promethium -147

  1. Mobile Instruments Measure Atmospheric Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    As a part of NASA's active research of the Earth s atmosphere, which has included missions such as the Atmospheric Laboratory of Applications and Science (ATLAS, launched in 1992) and the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS, launched on the Earth Probe satellite in 1996), the Agency also performs ground-based air pollution research. The ability to measure trace amounts of airborne pollutants precisely and quickly is important for determining natural patterns and human effects on global warming and air pollution, but until recent advances in field-grade spectroscopic instrumentation, this rapid, accurate data collection was limited and extremely difficult. In order to understand causes of climate change and airborne pollution, NASA has supported the development of compact, low power, rapid response instruments operating in the mid-infrared "molecular fingerprint" portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments, which measure atmospheric trace gases and airborne particles, can be deployed in mobile laboratories - customized ground vehicles, typically - to map distributions of pollutants in real time. The instruments must be rugged enough to operate rapidly and accurately, despite frequent jostling that can misalign, damage, or disconnect sensitive components. By measuring quickly while moving through an environment, a mobile laboratory can correlate data and geographic points, revealing patterns in the environment s pollutants. Rapid pollutant measurements also enable direct determination of pollutant sources and sinks (mechanisms that remove greenhouse gases and pollutants), providing information critical to understanding and managing atmospheric greenhouse gas and air pollutant concentrations.

  2. Air Pollution. Protecting Parks and Wilderness from Nearby Pollution Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    gram required strict emission controls on major new stationary sources of air pollution that are located near the 158 national parks and wilder...Few Sources Near PSD permit requirements cover very few sources of air pollution around Class I areas. As further described in appendix 11, 99...meteorological conditions, nearby sources can account for the major portion of pollutants that reach Class I areas, and in a number of national parks

  3. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  4. Towards sustainable pollution management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jern, N. G. W.

    2017-03-01

    It is often overlooked pollution control itself may not be entirely free from adverse impact on the environment if considered from a more holistic perspective. For example mechanised wastewater treatment is energy intensive and so has a carbon footprint because of the need to move air to supply oxygen to the aerobic treatment process. The aerobic treatment process then results in excess bio-sludge which requires disposal and if such is not appropriately performed, then there is risk of surface and groundwater contamination. This presentation explores the changes which have been investigated and are beginning to be implemented in wastewater, sludge, and agro-industrial wastes management which are more environmentally benign. Three examples shall be used to illustrate the discussion. The first example uses the conventional sewage treatment system with a unit process arrangement which converts carbonaceous pollutants from soluble and colloidal forms to particulate forms with an aerobic process before attempting energy recovery with an anaerobic process. Such an arrangement does, however, result in a negative energy balance. This is not withstanding the fact there is potentially more energy in sewage than is required to treat it if that energy can be effectively harvested. The latter can be achieved by removing the carbonaceous pollutants before the aerobic process and thereby using the aerobic process for polishing instead of treating. The carbonaceous pollutants so recovered then becomes the feed for the anaerobic process. Unfortunately conventional anaerobic sludge digestion only removes 35-45% of the organic material fed. Since biogas production (and hence energy recovery) is linked to the amount of organic material which can be degraded anaerobically, the effectiveness of the anaerobic digestion process needs to be improved. Contrary to a commonly held belief wherein methanogenesis is the “bottleneck” in anaerobic processes, hydrolysis is in sludge digestion

  5. Scrubbing away pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Valenti, M.

    1996-12-01

    A grid scrubbing method that is said to consume less energy and incur less downtime for maintenance than traditional tower technologies is being used to control industrial emissions at pulp and paper plants and at other factories. The catenary-grid-scrubber system is designed to enhance mixing of flue gas with the reagent chemicals, reduce hardware size, and cut capital costs. Flue gas from an industrial process is sent to the catenary grid scrubber, where velocity and pressure create a fluidized bed of water and chemical reagent in the grid to remove pollutants.

  6. Ocean Pollution Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The Ocean Pollution Research Center (OPRC) is a University of Miami center based at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science (RSMAS) and with significant involvement by the College of Engineering. It was formed in 1992 out of concerns for potential oil spills placing at risk the fragile ecosystems of the Florida Keys. OPRC's scope also includes the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and the South Atlantic Bight. Focus is on the physical transport of oil spills and information management for response operations. Studies of the fates and effects of oil spills are also undertaken.

  7. Remote air pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion and comparison of the Raman method, the resonance and fluorescence backscatter method, long path absorption methods and the differential absorption method for remote air pollution measurement. A comparison of the above remote detection methods shows that the absorption methods offer the most sensitivity at the least required transmitted energy. Topographical absorption provides the advantage of a single ended measurement, and differential absorption offers the additional advantage of a fully depth resolved absorption measurement. Recent experimental results confirming the range and sensitivity of the methods are presented.

  8. Pollution Detection Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Barringer Research, Inc.'s COSPEC IVB (correlation spectrometer) can sense from a considerable distance emissions from a volcanic eruption. Remote sensor is capable of measuring sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide in the atmosphere. An associated product, GASPEC, a compression of Non-dispersive Gas Filter Spectrometer, is an infrared/ultraviolet gas analyzer which can be used as either a ground based detector or in aircraft/spacecraft applications. Extremely sensitive, it is useful in air pollution investigations for detecting a variety of trace elements, vapors, which exist in the atmosphere in small amounts.

  9. Aquatic pollution, 2nd ed

    SciTech Connect

    Laws, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    This book systematically covers all aspects of water pollution in marine and freshwater systems. Didactic style, frequent use of case studies and an extensive bibliography facilitate understanding of fundamental concepts. Offers basic, relevant ecological and toxicological information. Straightforward presentation of the scientific aspects of environmental issues. Information updated, particularly the discussion of toxicology and the case studies of water pollution. Three new chapters on acid rain, groundwater pollution and plastics are added.

  10. Degreaser System Pollution Prevention Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    AD-A242 110 ESL-TR-90-33 / Degreaser System Pollution Prevention Evaluation S OCT- - I -91 M.F. SZABO, M.T. NUTTER PEI ASSOCIATES, INC. 11499 CHESTER...TITLE (include Security Ciasi,fcation) Deqredser System Pollution Prevention Evaluation 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Szabo, Mic hael Francis; fNutter, Hark...for reducing emissions of TCA through various pollution prevention options. The degreaser utilizes a lip vent suction system that results in excessive

  11. Western forests and air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses.

  12. Enforcing pollution control laws

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.S.; Harrington, W.; Vaughan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The heightened environmental consciousness of the 1970s prompted passage of a multitude of ambitious and unprecedented laws designed to clean up the environment and protect it for future generations. But beyond the mere passing of laws lay the difficult tasks of implementing, monitoring, and enforcing them. The authors of this book describe the current state of air and water pollution monitoring and enforcement activity a decade later, within the context of relevant legal, technological, and statistical developments. They mediate between the concerns of the theoretical literature-where it is generally assumed that violations are discovered and punished-and the real world-where violations are rarely discovered and almost never punished. Monitoring and enforcement procedures to date have been aimed at achieving initial rather than continuing compliance with regulations. The authors contend that it is time for a new approach focusing on the enduring problems of compliance. Economic models are used to show the extent of the difficulties involved in monitoring and enforcing pollution control laws on a continuous basis.

  13. UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM CUMULATIVE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) as environmental pollutants is a multifaceted issue whose scope continues to become better delineated since the escalation of concerted attention beginning in the 1980s. PPCPs typically occur as trace environmental pollutants (primarily in surface but also in ground waters) as a result of their widespread, continuous, combined usage in a broad range of human and veterinary therapeutic activities and practices. With respect to the risk-assessment paradigm, the growing body of published work has focused primarily on the origin and occurrence of these substances. Comparatively less is known about human and ecological exposure, and even less about the known or even potential hazards associated with exposure to these anthropogenic substances, many of which are highly bioactive. The continually growing, worldwide importance of freshwater resources underscores the need for ensuring that any aggregate or cumulative impacts on water supplies and resultant potential for human or ecological exposure be minimized. This has prompted the more recent investigations on waste treatment processes for one of the major sources of environmental disposition, namely sewage. Despite the paucity of health effects data for long-term, simultaneous exposure to multiple xenobiotics (particularly PPCPS) at low doses (a major toxicological issue that can be described by the

  14. Light Pollution and Wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffek, J.

    2008-12-01

    for Educational Program IYA Dark Skies Education Session Fall American Geophysical Union San Francisco, December 15-19, 2008 Light Pollution and Wildlife This is a very exciting time to be a part of the mission to keep the nighttime skies natural. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009 is developing programs for all areas of Dark Skies Awareness. For many years the issue of light pollution focused on the impact to the astronomy industry. While this is an important area, research has shown that light pollution negatively impacts wildlife, their habitat, human health, and is a significant waste of energy. Since the message and impact of the effects of light pollution are much broader now, the message conveyed to the public must also be broader. Education programs directed at youth are a new frontier to reach out to a new audience about the adverse effects of too much artificial light at night. The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) has developed educational presentations using the National Science Teachers Association Education Standards. These programs focus on youth between the ages of 5 to 17exploring new territory in the education of light pollution. The IDA education programs are broken down into three age groups; ages 5-9, 8-13, 12 and older. The presentations come complete with PowerPoint slides, discussion notes for each slide, and workbooks including age appropriate games to keep young audiences involved. A new presentation reflects the growing area of interest regarding the effects of too much artificial light at night on wildlife. This presentation outlines the known problems for ecosystems caused by artificial light at night. Insects are attracted to artificial lights and may stay near that light all night. This attraction interferes with their ability to migrate, mate, and look for food. Such behavior leads to smaller insect populations. Fewer insects in turn affect birds and bats, because they rely on insects as a food source. The IDA

  15. Tackling cross-media pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Tangley, L.

    1985-02-01

    Environmental problems caused by cycling of pollutants from air to land to water have been recognized. Because of the lack of a holistic environmental approach, pollution control measures fail to account for the exposure of the ecosystem to pollutants anywhere other than the medium covered by that particular law. Examples presented in the paper include: acid rain and groundwater pollution; disposal of sludge from smokestack scrubbers; control of cadmium, 1,3-butadiene and chlorinated solvents. The efforts of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Electric Power Research Institute and industry in addressing these problems are described.

  16. Biological monitoring of airborne pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ditz, D.W. )

    1990-01-01

    Common plants such as grasses, mosses, and even goldenrod may turn out to have a new high-tech role as monitors of airborne pollution from solid waste incinerators. Certain plants that respond to specific pollutants can provide continuous surveillance of air quality over long periods of time: they are bio-indicators. Other species accumulate pollutants and can serve as sensitive indicators of pollutants and of food-chain contamination: they are bio-accumulators. Through creative use of these properties, biological monitoring can provide information that cannot be obtained by current methods such as stack testing.

  17. Sur domains that associate with and gate KATP pores define a novel gatekeeper.

    PubMed

    Babenko, Andrey P; Bryan, Joseph

    2003-10-24

    Structure-function analyses of K+ channels identify a common pore architecture whose gating depends on diverse signal sensing elements. The "gatekeepers" of the long, ATP-inhibited KIR6.0 pores of KATP channels are ABC proteins, SURs, receptors for channel opening and closing drugs. Several competing models for SUR/KIR coupling exist. We show that SUR TMD0, the N-terminal bundle of five transmembrane helices, specifically associates with KIR6.2, forcing nearly silent pores to burst like native KATP channels and enhancing surface expression. Inclusion of adjacent submembrane residues of L0, the linker between TMD0 and the stimulatory nucleotide- and drug-binding ABC core, generates constitutively active channels, whereas additional cytoplasmic residues counterbalance this activation establishing a relationship between the mean open and burst times of intact pores. SUR fragments, lacking TMD0, fail to modulate KIR. TMD0 is thus the domain that anchors SUR to the KIR pore. Consistent with data on chimeric ABCC/KIRs and a modeled channel structure, we propose that interactions of TMD0-L0 with the outer helix and N terminus of KIR bidirectionally modulate gating. The results explain and predict pathologies associated with alteration of the 5' ends of clustered ABCC8 (9)/KCNJ11 (8) genes.

  18. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  19. Optimal Pollution Trading without Pollution Reductions : A Note

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  20. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  1. Water Pollution Scrubber Activity Simulates Pollution Control Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Edward C., III; Waggoner, Todd C.

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory activity caused students to think actively about water pollution. The students realized that it would be easier to keep water clean than to remove pollutants. They created a water scrubbing system allowing them to pour water in one end and have it emerge clean at the other end. (JOW)

  2. Optimal Pollution Trading without Pollution Reductions : A Note

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many kinds of water pollution occur in pulses, e.g., agricultural and urban runoff. Ecosystems, such as wetlands, can serve to regulate these pulses and smooth pollution distributions over time. This smoothing reduces total environmental damages when “instantaneous” damages are m...

  3. ATP-sensitive potassium currents from channels formed by Kir6 and a modified cardiac mitochondrial SUR2 variant

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Nitin T; Shi, Nian-Qing; Makielski, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) are found in both the sarcoplasmic reticulum (sarcKATP) and the inner membrane of mitochondria (mitoKATP). SarcKATP are composed of a pore containing subunit Kir6.2 and a regulatory sulfonylurea receptor subunit (SUR2), but the composition of mitoKATP remains unclear. An unusual intra-exonic splice variant of SUR2 (SUR2A-55) was previously identified in mitochondria of mammalian heart and brain, and by analogy with sarcKATP we proposed SUR2A-55 as a candidate regulatory subunit of mitoKATP. Although SUR2A-55 lacks the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD) and 2 transmembrane domains (TMD), it has a hybrid TMD and retains the second NBD. It resembles a hemi-ABC transporter suggesting it could multimerize to function as a regulatory subunit. A putative mitochondrial targeting signal in the N-terminal domain of SUR2A-55 was removed by truncation and when co-expressed with Kir6.1 and Kir6.2 it targeted to the plasma membrane and yielded KATP currents. Single channel conductance, mean open time, and burst open time of SUR2A-55 based KATP was similar to the full-length SUR2A based KATP. However, the SUR2A-55 KATP were 70-fold less sensitive to block by ATP, and twice as resistant to intracellular Ca2+ inhibition compared with the SUR2A KATP, and were markedly insensitive to KATP drugs, pinacidil, diazoxide, and glybenclamide. These results suggest that the SUR2A-55 based channels would tend to be open under physiological conditions and in ischemia, and could account for cardiac and mitochondrial phenotypes protective for ischemia. PMID:24037327

  4. A pollutant removal prediction tool for stormwater derived diffuse pollution.

    PubMed

    Revitt, D Michael; Scholes, Lian; Ellis, J Bryan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development of a methodology to theoretically assess the effectiveness of structural BMPs with regard to their treatment of selected stormwater pollutants (metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and herbicides). The result is a prioritisation, in terms of pollutant removal efficiency, of 15 different BMPs which can inform stormwater managers and other stakeholders of the best available options for the treatment of urban runoff pollutants of particular environmental concern. Regardless of the selected pollutant, infiltration basins and sub-surface flow constructed wetlands are predicted to perform most efficiently with lagoons, porous asphalt and sedimentation tanks being the least effective systems for the removal of pollutants. The limitations of the approach in terms of the variabilities in BMP designs and applications are considered. (c) IWA Publishing 2008.

  5. Environmental pollutants and skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Baudouin, C; Charveron, M; Tarroux, R; Gall, Y

    2002-01-01

    We are increasingly exposed to environmental pollution. Pollutants can be inhaled, ingested or come into contact with the skin depending on the form in which they occur. On metabolization, activation, or accumulation, pollutants can become extremely toxic for the vital organs and this is often related to a strong genotoxic effect. Since the skin acts as a barrier between the organism and the environment, it is frequently directly exposed to pollution. It is very often degraded by polluting agents and acts as an inlet toward other tissues. Numerous studies in man recognize and demonstrate the carcinogenic power of certain pollutants in the digestive and respiratory tracts. The "pollutants" that react most specifically with the skin are: ultraviolet radiation, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene), volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene), heavy metals, and ozone. Ultraviolet radiation, a "physical" pollutant, has been described as being the factor responsible for most skin cancers in man. The genotoxicity of UV light is well documented (type of lesion or mutation, etc.) and its carcinogenic effect is clearly demonstrated in vivo in man. A few epidemiological studies describe the carcinogenicity of certain pollutants such as arsenic or lead on the skin. However, most of the evidence for the role of pollutants in skin cancers comes from in vivo animal studies or from in vitro studies (e.g., PAHs). In this report, different studies are presented to illustrate the research strategies developed to investigate the mechanism of action of "chemical" pollutants and their potential role in human skin pathology. All the study models and the associated techniques of investigation are tools for a better understanding and thus more efficient prevention of the deleterious effects caused by the environment.

  6. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... and air pollution . Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution The burden of air pollution is not evenly shared. Poorer people and some ... exposure to pollutants. Learn more about disparities and air pollution . Living Near Highways Being in heavy traffic, or ...

  7. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brungs, W. A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) water quality; (2) pesticide pollutants; (3) chemical pollutants; (4) miscellaneous pollutants; and (5) physical factors of pollution on freshwater fish. A list of 338 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Effects of Pollution on Freshwater Fish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brungs, W. A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of pollution on freshwater fish, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) water quality; (2) pesticide pollutants; (3) chemical pollutants; (4) miscellaneous pollutants; and (5) physical factors of pollution on freshwater fish. A list of 338 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Agriculture and water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, G. William

    The attempt by certain jurisdictions to preserve a rural lifestyle by means of farmland preservation may produce some unwanted side effects, such as polluted water supplies. While there are many excellent and important reasons to preserve high-quality agricultural land for food production, efforts to retain or encourage agricultural activities in areas experiencing rapid population growth may produce some serious environmental problems.For the entire post-WW II period the United States has experienced almost continuous suburban sprawl. Many incorporated areas, experiencing rapid development, have attempted to preserve open-space and less-developed land uses by actively attempting to preserve agricultural activities. Often the most recent migrants to a growing municipality exemplify the ‘last in’ syndrome by being among the most vociferous in attempting to halt further development.

  10. Sanitation without pollution.

    PubMed

    Winblad, U

    2000-01-01

    The most effective way of protecting drinking water resources from domestic sewage is to use technologies that do not produce sewage. This paper gives an overview of emerging alternatives in the form of ecological sanitation systems for urban and peri-urban areas. A key feature of ecological sanitation is that it regards human excreta as a resource to be recycled rather than as waste to be disposed of. Examples given include ecological sanitation systems based on dehydration and decomposition from Mexico, El Salvador, Sweden, India and Vietnam. These systems need neither water for flushing, nor pipelines for transport, nor treatment plants and arrangements for the disposal of toxic sludge. Large scale application of ecological sanitation would lead to less environmental pollution, reduced water consumption, considerable savings on sewers and treatment plants and increased employment. In addition it would provide valuable resources for food production and wasteland development.

  11. Pollution: a global threat.

    PubMed

    McCrink-Goode, Melissa

    2014-07-01

    Over the past several decades, several large-scale seemingly unrelated events have unfolded in all corners of the world. Within the oceans, coral reef systems have been facing unprecedented mass bleaching episodes, sea turtles worldwide are currently experiencing an epidemic in the form of fibropapilloma, and global phytoplankton populations have declined by 40%. Within the Earth's terrestrial systems, similar phenomena have appeared in the form of colony collapse disorder (CCD) currently devastating honey bee colonies, White Nose Syndrome decimating bat populations, and the chytrid fungus plaguing amphibian populations. On the surface these events appear to be unrelated yet at the root of each phenomenon there appears an underlying threat - pollution. This paper will investigate the commonality of these occurrences as well as investigate the current and potential solutions to the threat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  13. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  14. Pollution prevention by design

    SciTech Connect

    Crumpler, P.

    1997-10-01

    Waste is a common problem throughout the companies comprising the chemical process industries (CPI). It is especially a concern to those who manage solid waste, wastewater systems, hazardous waste or air-pollution-control devices--typically systems for handling end-of-the-pipe wastes. Regardless of its type, waste is almost always composed of purchased raw materials that did not become part of a final product. For example, some chemical manufacturers, such as liquid latex producers, have found that their wastewater stream is a dilute form of their primary product. Much of this waste is the result of process inefficiencies that cause entrapment and loss of raw materials. These are conventionally disposed through equipment cleaning. However, rethinking and improving process design, piping and vessel design and material-handling techniques can improve process efficiency. The result is reduced waste generation, reduced operating costs, cleaner equipment and increased profits.

  15. Screening and isolation of PHB-producing bacteria in a polluted marine microbial mat.

    PubMed

    López-Cortés, Alejandro; Lanz-Landázuri, Alberto; García-Maldonado, José Q

    2008-07-01

    The characteristics of microbial mats within the waste stream from a seafood cannery were compared to a microbial community at a pristine site near a sandy beach at Puerto San Carlos, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Isolation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB)-producing bacteria, recognition of brightly refractile cytoplasmatic inclusions, lipophilic stains with Sudan Black and Nile Red, and chemical extraction of PHB were used as a culture-dependent strategy for the detection of PHB-producing bacteria. The culture-independent approach included denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of phylotypes of 16S rRNA of microbial communities from environmental samples. Significant differences in community structure were found among the polluted and pristine sites. These differences were correlated with the physicochemical characteristics of the seawater column. At the polluted site, the seawater was rich in nutrients (ammonia, phosphates, and organic matter), compared to the pristine location. Partial sequencing of 16S rDNA of cultures of bacteria producing PHB included Bacillus and Staphylococcus at both sites; Paracoccus and Micrococcus were found only at the polluted site and Rhodococcus and Methylobacterium were found only at the pristine site. Bands of the sequences of 16S rDNA from both field samples in the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses affiliated closely only with bacterial sequences of cultures of Bacillus and Staphylococcus. High concentrations of organic and inorganic nutrients at the polluted site had a clear effect on the composition and diversity of the microbial community compared to the unpolluted site.

  16. Phytotoxicity of Air Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.

    1984-01-01

    Pisum sativum L. cv Alsweet (garden pea) and Lycopersicon esculentum flacca Mill. (tomato) were used to evaluate the phytotoxicity of SO2 and O3 in the light and dark. Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers and exposed to SO2 or O3 in the light or dark at the same environmental conditions at which they were grown. The pea plants were treated with fusicoccin to ensure open stomata in the dark; the stomata of the tomato mutant remained open in the dark. Both species exhibited 64% to 80% less foliar necrosis following exposure to SO2 (0.5 to 1.0 microliter per liter for 2 hours) in the light than in the dark. The decrease in SO2 injury for light versus dark exposed plants was greater in fully expanded than expanding leaves. Both species exhibited 30% greater foliar necrosis following exposure to O3 (0.2 microliter per liter for 2 hours) in the light than dark. The increase in O3 injury in the light versus dark was similar for leaves at all stages of expansion. Leaf conductance to water vapor was 7% to 11% and 23% higher in the light than dark for fusicoccin-treated peas and tomato plants, respectively, indicating greater foliar uptake of both pollutants in the light than dark. Thus, the decreased SO2 toxicity in the light was not associated with pollutant uptake, but rather the metabolism of SO2. In contrast, the increased toxicity of O3 in the light was at least in part associated with increased uptake or could not be separated from it. PMID:16663549

  17. Pollution Analyzing and Monitoring Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    Compiled in this book is basic, technical information useful in a systems approach to pollution control. Descriptions and specifications are given of what is available in ready made, on-the-line commercial equipment for sampling, monitoring, measuring and continuously analyzing the multitudinous types of pollutants found in the air, water, soil,…

  18. Air pollution injury to plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seibert, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The injuries to plants by oxidant air pollution can be used as biological indicators of pollution episodes. Bel W3 tobacco is often used as an indicator organism. Dogwood is another potential indicator organism. Specific growing procedures used for indicator organisms are described, as are diagnostic criteria for the type and extent of injuries.

  19. Children, Pediatricians, and Polluted Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    Explored are children's vulnerability and the pediatrician's role in relation to the problems posed by air pollution. Research is noted to have included a search of biomedical literature over the past 10 years; attendance at medical meetings; conferences with air pollution researchers, environmental protection administrators, and specialists in…

  20. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  1. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  2. National priorities in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.M.; Leschine, T.M.; Landy, R.B.

    1988-02-01

    The National Ocean Pollution Program Office (NOPPO) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration is required by the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act (PL 95-273) to make recommendations on the federal program in marine pollution research, development, and monitoring, and promote interagency cooperation in these areas. The first step in evaluating the Federal effort in ocean pollution research is to identify the marine pollution needs and problems that are facing the nation. To broaden the knowledge base used in identifying and prioritizing these issues, NOPPO has consulted pollution experts outside as well as within the Federal Government using the Priorities Worksheet for National Marine Pollution Problems and Needs. The worksheet was mailed out in January 1987 to over 250 participants representing the following sectors of the ocean community: the Legislative and Executive Branches of the Federal Government, conservation groups, sport and commercial fisheries, offshore petroleum and mining interests, the ports and recreation industries, state and regional governments, and researchers in the marine pollution field. The list of participants was developed with the assistance of a steering committee.

  3. NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-point source pollution is a diffuse source that is difficult to measure and is highly variable due to different rain patterns and other climatic conditions. In many areas, however, non-point source pollution is the greatest source of water quality degradation. Presently, stat...

  4. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  5. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  6. Burning crude oil without pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude oil can be burned at drilling sites by two-stage combustion process without producing pollution. Process allows easier conformance to strict federal or state clean air standards without installation of costly pollution removal equipment. Secondary oil recovery can be accomplished with injection of steam heating by burning oil.

  7. Air Pollution and Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  8. Mixing and transport. [Water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, P.J.W.

    1982-06-01

    The mixing and transport of water pollution is the subject of this literature review with 110 references. The environmental transport of pollutants is examined in streams, rivers, reservoirs, ponds, estuaries, salt marshes and coastal waters. The dynamics of fluid flow, and the physical properties of jets, plumes, and stratified fluids are discussed. (KRM)

  9. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  10. Children, Pediatricians, and Polluted Air.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Dorothy Noyes

    Explored are children's vulnerability and the pediatrician's role in relation to the problems posed by air pollution. Research is noted to have included a search of biomedical literature over the past 10 years; attendance at medical meetings; conferences with air pollution researchers, environmental protection administrators, and specialists in…

  11. Air Pollution, Causes and Cures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manufacturing Chemists Association, Washington, DC.

    This commentary on sources of air pollution and air purification treatments is accompanied by graphic illustrations. Sources of carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and hydrocarbons found in the air are discussed. Methods of removing these pollutants at their source are presented with cut-away diagrams of the facilities and technical…

  12. Effects of Inevitable Environmental Pollutants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Krakow, Joanne

    This paper examines the effects of unavoidable pollutants on fetal development in humans. Inevitable pollutants such as radiation, pesticides, gases and lead found in the air, water, and food of our industrialized society are discussed as well as psychological correlates of industrialization and urbanization such as stress, increased noise levels…

  13. Air pollution and allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haejin; Bernstein, Jonathan A

    2009-03-01

    Over the past several decades, there has been increased awareness of the health effects of air pollution and much debate regarding the role of global warming. The prevalence of asthma and allergic disease has risen in industrialized countries, and most epidemiologic studies focus on possible causalities between air pollution and these conditions. This review examines salient articles and summarizes findings important to the interaction between allergies and air pollution, specifically volatile organic compounds, global warming, particulate pollutants, atopic risk, indoor air pollution, and prenatal exposure. Further work is necessary to determine whether patients predisposed to developing allergic disease may be more susceptible to the health effects of air pollutants due to the direct interaction between IgE-mediated disease and air pollutants. Until we have more definitive answers, patient education about the importance of good indoor air quality in the home and workplace is essential. Health care providers and the general community should also support public policy designed to improve outdoor air quality by developing programs that provide incentives for industry to comply with controlling pollution emissions.

  14. NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Non-point source pollution is a diffuse source that is difficult to measure and is highly variable due to different rain patterns and other climatic conditions. In many areas, however, non-point source pollution is the greatest source of water quality degradation. Presently, stat...

  15. Mild hypoxia in vivo regulates cardioprotective SUR2A: A role for Akt and LDH.

    PubMed

    Mohammed Abdul, Khaja Shameem; Jovanović, Sofija; Du, Qingyou; Sukhodub, Andriy; Jovanović, Aleksandar

    2015-05-01

    High-altitude residents have lower mortality rates for ischaemic heart disease and this is ascribed to cardiac gene remodelling by chronic hypoxia. SUR2A is a cardioprotective ABC protein serving as a subunit of sarcolemmal ATP-sensitive K(+) channels. The purpose of this study was to determine whether SUR2A is regulated by mild hypoxia in vivo and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Mice were exposed to either 21% (control) or 18% (mild hypoxia) oxygen for 24h. Exposure to 18% oxygen did not affect partial pressure of O(2) (PO(2)) and CO(2) (PCO(2)) in the blood, haematocrit or level of ATP in the heart. However, hypoxia increased myocardial lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and lactate as well as NAD(+) without affecting total NAD. SUR2A levels were significantly increased as well as myocardial resistance to ischaemia-reperfusion. Exposure to 18% oxygen did not phosphorylate extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERK1/2) or AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), but it phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt). An inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K), LY294002 (0.2mg/mouse), abolished all observed effects of hypoxia. LDH inhibitors, galloflavin (50 μM) and sodium oxamate (80 mM) significantly decreased levels of SUR2A in heart embryonic H9c2 cells, while inactive mutant LDH form, gly193-M-LDH increased cellular sensitivity towards stress induced by 2,4-dinitrophenol (10mM). Treatment of H9c2 cells with sodium lactate (30 mM) increased intracellular lactate, but did not affect LDH activity or SUR2A levels. We conclude that PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and LDH play a crucial role in increase of cardiac SUR2A induced by in vivo exposure to 18% oxygen. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Ischemic preconditioning in the hippocampus of a knockout mouse lacking SUR1-based K(ATP) channels.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Alvaro; Nakazaki, Mitsuhiro; Goodman, J Clay; Barrios, Roberto; Onetti, Carlos G; Bryan, Joseph; Aguilar-Bryan, Lydia

    2003-01-01

    ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels have been implicated in the mechanism of neuronal ischemic preconditioning. To evaluate the role of neuronal/beta-cell-type K(ATP) channels, SUR1 null (Sur1KO) mice lacking (K(IR)6.x/SUR1)(4) K(ATP) channels were subjected to a preconditioning protocol with the use of double carotid occlusion. Wild-type C57BL/6 and Sur1KO mice were subjected to a double carotid block for 40 minutes with or without a 20-minute preconditioning block. After a 10-day reperfusion period, damage was assessed histologically in the hippocampal CA1, CA2, and CA3 areas and in the dentate gyrus. The neuroprotective effects of intracerebroventricular injections of diazoxide, which selectively affects mitochondria versus opening SUR1-type K(ATP) channels, and 5-hydroxydecanoate, a selective blocker of mitoK(ATP) channels, were evaluated with the same protocol. Neurons in the CA1 region of both Sur1KO and wild-type animals subjected to a 20-minute ischemic insult were protected equally from neuronal damage produced by a subsequent 40-minute ischemic period. Pretreatment with diazoxide protected both Sur1KO and wild-type neurons, while 5-hydroxydecanoate augmented neurodegeneration in both strains of animals when administered before a 20-minute bout of ischemia. SUR1-based K(ATP) channels are not obligatory for neuronal preconditioning or augmentation of neurodegeneration by 5-hydroxydecanoate.

  17. Survival of Phytophthora ramorum following wildfires in the sudden oak death-impacted forests of the Big Sur region

    Treesearch

    Maia M. Beh; Margaret Metz; Kerri Frangioso; David Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    The summer of 2008 brought the first wildfires to occur in known Phytophthora ramorum-infested forests in California, with the largest individual fire burning in the Big Sur region of the central coast (Monterey County) (Metz et al. 2011). More than 100,000 ha in Big Sur were ultimately burned that summer, providing a natural experiment to examine...

  18. Air pollution: impact and prevention.

    PubMed

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M

    2012-10-01

    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution.

  19. Psychological reactions to air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.W.; Colome, S.D.; Shearer, D.F.

    1988-02-01

    Interviews with a large representative sample of Los Angeles residents reveal that these citizens are somewhat aware and concerned about air pollution, but not knowledgeable about its causes. Direct behaviors to reduce causes of pollution or one's exposure to it are rare. A moderate percentage of people seek out information about air pollution or complain about it. Fewer follow state health advisories by reducing automobile driving or restricting activity during air pollution episodes. Preliminary modeling of citizen compliance with air pollution health advisories suggest that personal beliefs about negative health effects are a important predictor of compliance. Finally, modest but significant relationships are noted between ambient photochemical oxidants and anxiety symptoms. The latter finding controls for age, socioeconomic status, and temperature.

  20. Air pollution: Impact and prevention

    PubMed Central

    SIERRA-VARGAS, MARTHA PATRICIA; TERAN, LUIS M

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. PMID:22726103

  1. [Groundwater pollution risk mapping method].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-na; Li, Guang-he

    2010-04-01

    Based on methods for groundwater vulnerability assessment not involving in contamination source elements, and lack of the systemic and effective techniques and parameter system on groundwater pollution risk mapping in present, through analyzing the structure of groundwater system and characteristics of contaminant sources, and coupling groundwater intrinsic vulnerability with contaminant sources, the integrated multi-index models were developed to evaluate the risk sources of groundwater contaminant and form the groundwater pollution risk mapping in this paper. The models had been used to a large-scale karst groundwater source of northern China as a case study. The results indicated that vulnerability assessment overlaid risk pollution sources of groundwater could effectively confirm the high risk regions of groundwater pollution, and the methods might provide necessary support for the supervision of groundwater pollution.

  2. Influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite du laiton monophase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholley, Airy

    La connaissance des proprietes et du comportement d'un materiau en usinage est primordiale pour optimiser son utilisation et obtenir une usinabilite maximale. Dans ce but, l'etude de la modification de la ductilite par traitement thermiques sur plusieurs criteres d'usinabilite tels que les efforts de coupe, la rugosite, les bavures et la formation du copeau a ete menee sur le laiton monophase. A cette fin, l'influence du traitement thermique sur la microstructure du laiton a d'abord ete etudiee. La taille des grains et la durete ont permis de determiner les proprietes mecaniques des etats metallurgiques. Des essais de percage ont ensuite ete effectues sur les etats metallurgiques H01 (99HV), OS100 (88HV) et OS250 (47HV) pour regarder l'influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite. Cette etude experimentale a permis de comprendre l'influence du taux de laminage et de la temperature de recuit sur les proprietes mecaniques. Les essais d'usinabilite ont ensuite permis de prouver que les efforts de coupe sont dependants des conditions de coupe mais pas de la ductilite dans les etats metallurgiques testes. La taille des bavures augmente avec la ductilite et la vitesse de coupe, et diminue avec l'avance. La rugosite de la surface des trous apres l'usinage a egalement ete etudiee. Il a aussi ete prouve par une etude sur les copeaux que la temperature croit avec la vitesse de coupe. L'analyse de la segmentation des copeaux n'a en revanche pas permis de trouver une correlation significative avec les traitements thermiques testes. Enfin, le revetement de l'outil a montre une grande importance sur l'usinabilite du materiau. Il a ete conclu que l'usinabilite du laiton C26000 (CuZn30) est meilleure lorsqu'on travaille dans un etat metallurgique dur. Ces conclusions sont valables pour le laiton monophase etudie, il serait interessant d'examiner aussi le cas des laitons biphases.

  3. Demonstration of the Marine Towed Array on Bahia Salinas del Sur Vieques, Puerto Rico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Manne Towed Array cooducted a MEC sur ey of the Sahli Salinas del Sur and adjacent areas . The Bahia encompasses an area of 0.5)(0.75 nautical miles...Waler depths ~ary from breakmg surf to Slightly over 30 ft. The bay bottom consists of areas of open sand, areas covered bymarine sea grasses, and...Naval gunfire. The entire Bahia lies within the Live Impact Area 01 a former Naval training range, which was used for over 50 years by ships and

  4. Cardiovascular effects of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Bourdrel, Thomas; Bind, Marie-Abèle; Béjot, Yannick; Morel, Olivier; Argacha, Jean-François

    2017-07-20

    Air pollution is composed of particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide and ozone. PM is classified according to size into coarse particles (PM10), fine particles (PM2.5) and ultrafine particles. We aim to provide an original review of the scientific evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies examining the cardiovascular effects of outdoor air pollution. Pooled epidemiological studies reported that a 10μg/m(3) increase in long-term exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an 11% increase in cardiovascular mortality. Increased cardiovascular mortality was also related to long-term and short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Exposure to air pollution and road traffic was associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis, as shown by premature aortic and coronary calcification. Short-term increases in air pollution were associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and acute heart failure. The risk was increased even when pollutant concentrations were below European standards. Reinforcing the evidence from epidemiological studies, numerous experimental studies demonstrated that air pollution promotes a systemic vascular oxidative stress reaction. Radical oxygen species induce endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activation and some proatherogenic changes in lipoproteins, which initiate plaque formation. Furthermore, air pollution favours thrombus formation, because of an increase in coagulation factors and platelet activation. Experimental studies also indicate that some pollutants have more harmful cardiovascular effects, such as combustion-derived PM2.5 and ultrafine particles. Air pollution is a major contributor to cardiovascular diseases. Promotion of safer air quality appears to be a new challenge in cardiovascular disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of pollution on freshwater organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Phipps, G.L.; Harden, M.J.; Leonard, E.N.; Roush, T.H; Spehar, D.L.; Stephan, C.E.; Pickering, Q.H.; Buikema, A.L. Jr.

    1984-06-01

    This review includes subjects in last year's reviews on effects of pollution on freshwater invertebrates and effects of pollution on freshwater fish and amphibians. This review also includes information on the effects of pollution on freshwater plants. 625 references.

  6. Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Contact Us Share Transportation, Air Pollution, and Climate Change Accomplishments & Successes View successes from the Clean Air ... and engines that cause harmful health effects and climate change. Overview of air pollution from transportation Carbon Pollution ...

  7. Pollution prevention through total quality

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltz, D.L.; Byrant, M.G.; Eggers, D.M.; Gough, R.W.; Schlosberg, W.H.

    1993-05-01

    Application of Total Quality to AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division's (KCD) Pollution Prevention Program has created a dynamic and focused effort to significantly reduce process inefficiencies and waste generation. KCD is demonstrating TQ's usefulness by empowering associates and obtaining their buy-in and ownership of pollution prevention principles. Specific pollution prevention working groups include: establishing a comprehensive recycling process; (2) capitalizing on Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM) expertise; and (3) encouraging the internal implementation of ECM. TQ produces the performance results that promote and sustain plant-wide pollution prevention goals and activities. KCD uses AlliedSignall's nine step Process Improvement Problem/Solving Model'' (Appendix A). Although this program only formally began within the past year, many of the tools have been used over the last eight years to achieve pollution prevention objectives. This paper focuses on the new attitude and gives examples of how each of the nine steps is being used in the KCD Pollution Prevention Program. This paper describe s each step of the process and provides specific pollution prevention examples.

  8. Pollution prevention through total quality

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltz, D.L.; Byrant, M.G.; Eggers, D.M.; Gough, R.W.; Schlosberg, W.H.

    1993-05-01

    Application of Total Quality to AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division`s (KCD) Pollution Prevention Program has created a dynamic and focused effort to significantly reduce process inefficiencies and waste generation. KCD is demonstrating TQ`s usefulness by empowering associates and obtaining their buy-in and ownership of pollution prevention principles. Specific pollution prevention working groups include: establishing a comprehensive recycling process; (2) capitalizing on Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM) expertise; and (3) encouraging the internal implementation of ECM. TQ produces the performance results that promote and sustain plant-wide pollution prevention goals and activities. KCD uses AlliedSignall`s nine step ``Process Improvement Problem/Solving Model`` (Appendix A). Although this program only formally began within the past year, many of the tools have been used over the last eight years to achieve pollution prevention objectives. This paper focuses on the new attitude and gives examples of how each of the nine steps is being used in the KCD Pollution Prevention Program. This paper describe s each step of the process and provides specific pollution prevention examples.

  9. Fiscal Year 2014 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  10. Air Pollution, Climate, and Heart Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mittleman MA . New insights into pollution and the cardiovascular system: 2010 to 2012. ... Association, American Stroke Association . Heart disease, stroke, and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov/ ...

  11. Fiscal Year 2015 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  12. Air Pollution: Current and Future Challenges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Despite the dramatic progress to date, air pollution continues to threaten Americans’ health and welfare. The main obstacles are climate change, conventional air pollution, and ozone layer depletion.

  13. Groundwater abstraction pollution risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Lytton, L; Howe, S; Sage, R; Greenaway, P

    2003-01-01

    A generic groundwater pollution risk assessment methodology has been developed to enable the evaluation and ranking of the potential risk of pollution to groundwater abstractions. The ranking can then be used to prioritise risk management or mitigation procedures in a robust and quantifiable framework and thus inform business investment decisions. The risk assessment consider the three components of the pollution transport model: source-pathway-receptor. For groundwater abstractions these correspond to land use (with associated pollutants and shallow subsurface characteristics), aquifer and the abstraction borehole. An hierarchical approach was chosen to allow the risk assessment to be successfully carried out with different quality data for different parts of the model. The 400-day groundwater protection zone defines the catchment boundary that form the spatial limit of the land use audit for each receptor. A risk score is obtained for each land use (potential pollution source) within the catchment. These scores are derived by considering the characteristics (such as load, persistence and toxicity) of all pollutants pertaining to each land use, their on-site management and the potential for the unsaturated subsurface to attenuate their effects in the event of a release. Risk scores are also applied to the aquifer characteristics (as pollutant pathway) and to the abstraction borehole (as pollutant receptor). Each risk score is accompanied by an uncertainty score which provides a guide to the confidence in the data used to compile the risk assessment. The application of the methodology has highlighted a number of problems in this type of work and results of initial case studies are being used to trial alternative scoring methods and a more simplified approach to accelerate the process of pollution risk assessment.

  14. Polluting Black space.

    PubMed

    Bonam, Courtney M; Bergsieker, Hilary B; Eberhardt, Jennifer L

    2016-11-01

    Social psychologists have long demonstrated that people are stereotyped on the basis of race. Researchers have conducted extensive experimental studies on the negative stereotypes associated with Black Americans in particular. Across 4 studies, we demonstrate that the physical spaces associated with Black Americans are also subject to negative racial stereotypes. Such spaces, for example, are perceived as impoverished, crime-ridden, and dirty (Study 1). Moreover, these space-focused stereotypes can powerfully influence how connected people feel to a space (Studies 2a, 2b, and 3), how they evaluate that space (Studies 2a and 2b), and how they protect that space from harm (Study 3). Indeed, processes related to space-focused stereotypes may contribute to social problems across a range of domains-from racial disparities in wealth to the overexposure of Blacks to environmental pollution. Together, the present studies broaden the scope of traditional stereotyping research and highlight promising new directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Pollution reducing aircraft propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, R.

    1980-07-29

    An aircraft pollution reducing propulsion airfoil system comprising a wing having upper and lower surfaces comprising wing skin plates extending longitudinally on the wing and being spaced one from another in chordwise directions, spars extending into the wing between the surfaces, stringer ducts extending along internal sides of the wing surfaces, the stringers having relatively rigid surface-supporting structure and having outward directed openings extending across the wing surfaces, interrupting the wing surfaces between edges of the wing skin plates, the ducts thereby forming stringer structural elements supporting the wing skin plates, the outward directed openings of the stringer ducts being arranged perpendicularly to the wing surfaces in a leading portion of the wing and tangential to the wing surfaces in a trailing portion of the wing surfaces, suction means connected to the stringer ducts with perpendicular opening for drawing gas into the ducts through those openings and blowing means connected to the ducts with tangential openings for flowing gas out of the tangential openings, combustion means connected to the suction means and to the blowing meanas for accelerating gas through the means.

  16. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  17. Light pollution: responses and remedies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizon, Bob

    Light-pollution is the modern scourge of optical astronomy. More and more observing sites are being lost as the glare of city lighting blots out the night sky. Professional astronomical observatories are located far from cities, but amateur astronomers often do not have this luxury. This book considers the two available strategies open to astronomers - get rid of the light pollution by lobbying Authorities and Standards Organisations, and minimise its effects by using the correct instrumentation. The book contains an extensive detailed catalogue of deep-sky and other objects that - despite what one might believe - can be seen from variously light-polluted sites, for practical observers.

  18. Air pollution: brown skies research.

    PubMed Central

    Tattersfield, A. E.

    1996-01-01

    Direct information on the health effects of air pollution in humans relies mainly on chamber studies and epidemiological studies. Although chamber studies have limitations they allow the acute effects of individual pollutants to be studied in well characterised subjects under controlled conditions. Most chamber studies have shown relatively small falls in lung function and relatively small increases in bronchial reactivity at the concentrations of ozone, SO2, and NO2 that occur even during high pollution episodes in the UK. The possible exception is SO2 where sensitive asthmatic patients may show a greater response at concentrations that are seen from time to time in certain areas and in proximity to power stations. There is no convincing evidence of potentiation between pollutants in chamber studies. Epidemiological studies are more difficult to carry out and require considerable epidemiological and statistical expertise to deal with the main problem-confounding by other factors. Although the health effects seen with current levels of pollution are small compared with those seen in the 1950s and close to the limits of detection, this should not be interpreted as being unimportant. A small effect may have large consequences when the population exposed is large (the whole population in this case). Recent data suggest that particles have more important health effects than the pollutant gases that have been studied. Much of this information comes from the USA though the findings are probably applicable in the UK. More information is needed on the size of the health effects that occur during the three types of air pollution episodes seen in this country and the relative contributions of particles, pollutant gases, pollen, and other factors such as temperature. Research into air pollution declined in the UK following the introduction of the Clean Air Acts; it is now increasing again following pressure from certain individuals and ginger groups, including the British

  19. Persistent pollutants urban rivers sediment survey: implications for pollution control.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C; Clarke, R; D'Arcy, B J; Heal, K V; Wright, P W

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of diffuse urban sources of pollution on watercourses are quantified. A survey of nine urban streams in Scotland for persistent pollutants in stream sediments is described, together with sediments from SUDS ponds. Determinands reported are: PAHs, total hydrocarbons, and toxic metals (As, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd). Results highlight hydrocarbons as a major urban pollutant, and show significant sediment contamination by toxic metals. The metals that occurred in the highest concentrations varied across the nine streams, but Pb, Cr, Ni, Zn and Cu most frequently present exceeded sediment quality standards. The pattern of contamination by PAHs suggested that pyrolytic sources were more ubiquitous and present in greater quantities than oil spill sources in these urban catchments. Exceptions were the sites below industrial estates. The findings indicate that four levels of activity will be needed to control urban diffuse sources of pollution: reductions in quantities of toxic pollutants used by manufacturers in the motor and construction industries; housekeeping measures to minimise storage and handling risks for oil and chemicals; public engagement to minimise polluting activities such as dumping oil and chemicals, and private car use; use of SUDS technology, including retro-fits in the worst affected urban areas.

  20. Identifying tsunami deposits using shell taphonomy: Sur lagoon, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, S.; Reinhardt, E.; Rothaus, R.; Boyce, J.

    2007-05-01

    On November 28th, 1945 an 8.1 magnitude earthquake focused in the eastern portion of the Makran subduction zone (Arabian Sea) generated a powerful tsunami that destroyed many coastal villages in Pakistan and India. Reports indicate that the tsunami also caused significant damage in Muscat, Oman, although its effects elsewhere in Oman are unknown. A thick bivalve dominated shell horizon was discovered inside the Sur lagoon, which is located on the eastern promontory of Oman (200 km south of Muscat). This shell deposit is significant because it is laterally extensive (> 1 km2), extends deep within the lagoon (>2 km), ranges in thickness from 5 - 25 cm at the sample localities, contains numerous subtidal and offshore bivalve species, and articulated subtidal and offshore bivalve species are abundant. Although there is an absence of typical tsunami indicators such as allochthonous sediment in and around the lagoon, verbal accounts, cultural evidence recovered during coring, and the absence of strong storms during the past 100 years indicates that this shell unit was caused by the 1945 tsunami. In this setting, it would be advantageous to have another proxy for tsunami detection and risk prediction. The use of shell taphonomy is one of the potential indicators and here we present new evidence of its utility. We sampled this unit in eight locations, and compared the shell taphonomy to surface shell samples collected from beach and reworked horizons in the lagoon, and to shell samples from a known tsunami and corresponding storm/ballast deposit in Israel (Reinhardt et al., 2006). Taphonomic analysis yielded promising results, as the two tsunami horizons shared excellent agreement between the amount of fragmented shells, and the percentage of shells displaying angular breaks. Both of these categories were significantly different from the percentage of fragments and angular fragments recovered from the reworked, beach, and storm/ballast deposits, indicating different

  1. The Classroom as Big Sur: Notes on the Liaison Between Evaluation and Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneeden, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Bill Frisell's new album ("Big Sur") was heralded with a short documentary about its impulse and inception: Frisell's retreat to an isolated coastal ranch in Central California. In the video, he describes the influence of the place, the dramatic and evocative landscape, and how it ultimately became the subject and theme for the…

  2. The Classroom as Big Sur: Notes on the Liaison Between Evaluation and Professional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneeden, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Bill Frisell's new album ("Big Sur") was heralded with a short documentary about its impulse and inception: Frisell's retreat to an isolated coastal ranch in Central California. In the video, he describes the influence of the place, the dramatic and evocative landscape, and how it ultimately became the subject and theme for the…

  3. The Proposed Creation of University System in the Province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alviento, Severino G.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the level of acceptability of the proposed amalgamation of the three Public Higher Education Institutions in Ilocos Sur. It employed the descriptive method of research. The respondents of the study are the 3rd and 4th year AB Political Science and BSE major in Social Science students and the 4th year BEED students of…

  4. Reflections on "Petit Battement sur le Cou de Pied": Is It Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskevska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article presents multiple perspectives of "petit battement sur le cou de pied". These perspectives include historical, biomechanical, and pedagogic points of view. The article offers useful information for ballet specialists and applied research studies aimed at ballet pedagogy. (Contains 2 tables and 5 figures.)

  5. Seafloor Rocks and Sediments of the Continental Shelf From Monterey Bay to Point Sur, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, Stephen L.; Anima, Roberto J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Wong, Florence L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction Acoustic swath mapping of the greater Monterey Bay area continental shelf from Point Ano Nuevo to Point Sur reveals complex patterns of rock outcrops on the shelf, and coarse sand bodies that occur in distinct depressions on the inner and mid-shelves. This publication portrays the seafloor components in a 36- by 48-inch map sheet at 1:100,000 scale.

  6. Reflections on "Petit Battement sur le Cou de Pied": Is It Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskevska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This article presents multiple perspectives of "petit battement sur le cou de pied". These perspectives include historical, biomechanical, and pedagogic points of view. The article offers useful information for ballet specialists and applied research studies aimed at ballet pedagogy. (Contains 2 tables and 5 figures.)

  7. Quantification of sudden oak death tree mortality in the Big Sur ecoregion of California

    Treesearch

    Douglas A. Shoemaker; Christopher B. Oneal; David M. Rizzo; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2008-01-01

    Big Sur is one of the most ecologically diverse regions in California and well recognized as a biodiversity hotspot for global conservation priority. Currently the region is experiencing substantial environmental change due to the invasion of Phytophthora ramorum, the plant pathogen causing the forest disease known as sudden oak death. First...

  8. Atmospheric chemistry and air pollution.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S; Marley, Nancy A

    2003-04-07

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.

  9. Space, Energy, Pollution--Which?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Brian

    1973-01-01

    Criticizes the rapidly escalating expenditures in space exploration and suggests the establishment of a moderate unmanned space program in place of the space shuttle in an effort to allocate enough budget for energy research and pollution control. (CC)

  10. Measuring Impacts of Pollution Prevention

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Applicants that are awarded EPA Pollution Prevention Grants must report the environmental and economic benefits achieved across all media from the implementation of the grant, which helps achieve EPA’s P2 targets.

  11. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  12. Indoor Pollution: The Invisible Enemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruba, Alan

    1984-01-01

    The problems associated with poor indoor air quality in school and university facilities are more serious than is generally recognized. Common pollutants in educational and office facilities are listed, and possible adverse effects are cited. (TE)

  13. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  14. Lincoln Urban Pollutant Reduction Strategies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This project reviewed existing materials related to Antelope Creek, primarily the Antelope Creek Watershed Basin Management Plan and any resources such as ordinances to categorize and evaluate any potential sources of pollutants.

  15. Energy Slaves and Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Sam S.

    1974-01-01

    Modern man pays a price, pollution, with the dependency shift from humans as converters of energy for work to machines as converters of energy. Emphasis is placed on electromechanical appliances and their respective power ratings. (EB)

  16. Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

  17. Immunomodulation by Persistent Organic Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widely distnbuted in the environment, are resistant to degradation, and increase in concentration (biomagnify) in the food chain. Concentrations in apical predators may be tens to hundreds of times greater than concentrations in their pref...

  18. Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, James W.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

  19. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  20. Exploring Water Pollution. Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    Lists over 30 outdoor science activities dealing with water formation, erosion, pollution, and other water-related topics. Provides, in addition, a selected bibliography of films, tapes, booklets and pamphlets, and filmstrips as additional reference materials. (CP)

  1. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  2. Indoor Pollution: The Invisible Enemy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruba, Alan

    1984-01-01

    The problems associated with poor indoor air quality in school and university facilities are more serious than is generally recognized. Common pollutants in educational and office facilities are listed, and possible adverse effects are cited. (TE)

  3. Space, Energy, Pollution--Which?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Brian

    1973-01-01

    Criticizes the rapidly escalating expenditures in space exploration and suggests the establishment of a moderate unmanned space program in place of the space shuttle in an effort to allocate enough budget for energy research and pollution control. (CC)

  4. Energy Slaves and Environmental Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanc, Sam S.

    1974-01-01

    Modern man pays a price, pollution, with the dependency shift from humans as converters of energy for work to machines as converters of energy. Emphasis is placed on electromechanical appliances and their respective power ratings. (EB)

  5. Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, James W.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

  6. Instrumentation for Air Pollution Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollowell, Craig D.; McLaughlin, Ralph D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the techniques which form the basis of current commercial instrumentation for monitoring five major gaseous atmospheric pollutants (sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, oxidants, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons). (JR)

  7. Immunomodulation by Persistent Organic Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are widely distnbuted in the environment, are resistant to degradation, and increase in concentration (biomagnify) in the food chain. Concentrations in apical predators may be tens to hundreds of times greater than concentrations in their pref...

  8. Mining Upgrades to Reduce Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Settlement with Southern Coal Corporation and 26 affiliates requires the companies to comprehensively upgrade their coal mining and processing operations to prevent polluted wastewater from threatening rivers and streams and communities across Appalachia.

  9. TRI Pollution Prevention Reporting Tipsheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    TRI Pollution Prevention Reporting Tipsheet is provided to encourage and assist TRI facilities with reporting optional P2 information on their TRI reporting forms, and to facilitate information sharing within and across organizations.

  10. Ecosystem Effects of Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ground level ozone is absorbed by the leaves of plants, where it can reduce photosynthesis, damage leaves and slow growth. It can also make sensitive plants more susceptible to certain diseases, insects, harsh weather and other pollutants.

  11. Remote Sensing of Environmental Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental pollution is a problem of international scope and concern. It can be subdivided into problems relating to water, air, or land pollution. Many of the problems in these three categories lend themselves to study and possible solution by remote sensing. Through the use of remote sensing systems and techniques, it is possible to detect and monitor, and in some cases, identify, measure, and study the effects of various environmental pollutants. As a guide for making decisions regarding the use of remote sensors for pollution studies, a special five-dimensional sensor/applications matrix has been designed. The matrix defines an environmental goal, ranks the various remote sensing objectives in terms of their ability to assist in solving environmental problems, lists the environmental problems, ranks the sensors that can be used for collecting data on each problem, and finally ranks the sensor platform options that are currently available.

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE PAGES

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  13. Arsenic pollution sources.

    PubMed

    Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a widely dispersed element in the Earth's crust and exists at an average concentration of approximately 5 mg/kg. There are many possible routes of human exposure to arsenic from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Arsenic occurs as a constituent in more than 200 minerals, although it primarily exists as arsenopyrite and as a constituent in several other sulfide minerals. The introduction of arsenic into drinking water can occur as a result of its natural geological presence in local bedrock. Arsenic-containing bedrock formations of this sort are known in Bangladesh, West Bengal (India), and regions of China, and many cases of endemic contamination by arsenic with serious consequences to human health are known from these areas. Significant natural contamination of surface waters and soil can arise when arsenic-rich geothermal fluids come into contact with surface waters. When humans are implicated in causing or exacerbating arsenic pollution, the cause can almost always be traced to mining or mining-related activities. Arsenic exists in many oxidation states, with arsenic (III) and (V) being the most common forms. Similar to many metalloids, the prevalence of particular species of arsenic depends greatly on the pH and redox conditions of the matrix in which it exists. Speciation is also important in determining the toxicity of arsenic. Arsenic minerals exist in the environment principally as sulfides, oxides, and phosphates. In igneous rocks, only those of volcanic origin are implicated in high aqueous arsenic concentrations. Sedimentary rocks tend not to bear high arsenic loads, and common matrices such as sands and sandstones contain lower concentrations owing to the dominance of quartz and feldspars. Groundwater contamination by arsenic arises from sources of arsenopyrite, base metal sulfides, realgar and orpiment, arsenic-rich pyrite, and iron oxyhydroxide. Mechanisms by which arsenic is released from minerals are varied and are accounted for by

  14. Control of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Noyes, O R; Hamdy, M K; Muse, L A

    1976-01-01

    When a 203Ng(NO3)2 solution was kept at 25 degrees C in glass or polypropylene containers, 50 and 80% of original radioactivity was adsorbed to the containers' walls after 1 and 4 days, respectively. However, no loss in radioactivity was observed if the solution was supplemented with HgCl as carrier (100 mug Hg2+/ml) and stored in either container for 13 days. When 203Hg2+ was dissolved in glucose basal salt broth with added carrier, levels of 203Hg2+ in solution (kept in glass) decreased to 80 and 70% of original after 1 and 5 days and decreased even more if stored in polypropylene (60 and 40% of original activity after 1 and 4 days, respectively). In the absence of carrier, decreases of 203Hg2+ activities in media stored in either container were more pronounced due to chemisorption (but) not diffusion. The following factors affecting the removal of mercurials from aqueous solution stored in glass were examined: type and concentration of adsorbent (fiber glass and rubber powder); pH; pretreatment of the rubber; and the form of mercury used. Rubber was equally effective in the adsorption of organic and inorganic mercury. The pH of the aqueous 203Hg2+ solution was not a critical factor in the rate of adsorption of mercury by the rubber. In addition, the effect of soaking the rubber in water for 18 hr did not show any statistical difference when compared with nontreated rubber. It can be concluded that rubber is a very effective adsorbent of mercury and, thus, can be used as a simple method for control of mercury pollution.

  15. Fish populations surviving estrogen pollution.

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Claus

    2014-02-10

    Among the most common pollutants that enter the environment after passing municipal wastewater treatment are estrogens, especially the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol that is used in oral contraceptives. Estrogens are potent endocrine disruptors at concentrations frequently observed in surface waters. However, new genetic analyses suggest that some fish populations can be self-sustaining even in heavily polluted waters. We now need to understand the basis of this tolerance.

  16. Eisosomes promote the ability of Sur7 to regulate plasma membrane organization in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong X.; Douglas, Lois M.; Veselá, Petra; Rachel, Reinhard; Malinsky, Jan; Konopka, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The plasma membrane of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans forms a protective barrier that also mediates many processes needed for virulence, including cell wall synthesis, invasive hyphal morphogenesis, and nutrient uptake. Because compartmentalization of the plasma membrane is believed to coordinate these diverse activities, we examined plasma membrane microdomains termed eisosomes or membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC), which correspond to ∼200-nm-long furrows in the plasma membrane. A pil1∆ lsp1∆ mutant failed to form eisosomes and displayed strong defects in plasma membrane organization and morphogenesis, including extensive cell wall invaginations. Mutation of eisosome proteins Slm2, Pkh2, and Pkh3 did not cause similar cell wall defects, although pkh2∆ cells formed chains of furrows and pkh3∆ cells formed wider furrows, identifying novel roles for the Pkh protein kinases in regulating furrows. In contrast, the sur7∆ mutant formed cell wall invaginations similar to those for the pil1∆ lsp1∆ mutant even though it could form eisosomes and furrows. A PH-domain probe revealed that the regulatory lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate was enriched at sites of cell wall invaginations in both the sur7∆ and pil1∆ lsp1∆ cells, indicating that this contributes to the defects. The sur7∆ and pil1∆ lsp1∆ mutants displayed differential susceptibility to various types of stress, indicating that they affect overlapping but distinct functions. In support of this, many mutant phenotypes of the pil1∆ lsp1∆ cells were rescued by overexpressing SUR7. These results demonstrate that C. albicans eisosomes promote the ability of Sur7 to regulate plasma membrane organization. PMID:27009204

  17. Intramolecular interaction of SUR2 subtypes for intracellular ADP-Induced differential control of K(ATP) channels.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Kenji; Kinoshita, Kengo; Matsuoka, Tetsuro; Fujita, Akikazu; Fujikado, Takashi; Tano, Yasuo; Nakamura, Haruki; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2002-03-22

    ATP-sensitive K+ (K(ATP)) channels are composed of sulfonylurea receptors (SURs) and inwardly rectifying Kir6.2-channels. The C-terminal 42 amino acid residues (C42) of SURs are responsible for ADP-induced differential activation of K(ATP) channels in SUR-subtypes. By examining ADP-effect on K(ATP) channels containing various chimeras of SUR2A and SUR2B, we identified a segment of 7 residues at central portion of C42 critical for this phenomenon. A 3-D structure model of the region containing the second nucleotide-binding domain (NBD2) of SUR and C42 was developed based on the structure of HisP, a nucleotide-binding protein forming the bacterial Histidine transporter complex. In the model, the polar and charged residues in the critical segment located within a distance that allows their electrostatic interaction with Arg1344 at the Walker-A loop of NBD2. Therefore, the interaction might be involved in the control of ADP-induced differential activation of SUR2-subtype K(ATP) channels.

  18. Photolysis Assisted Pollution Analysis (PAPA)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanst, P.L.

    1994-12-31

    Photolysis Assisted Pollution Analysis (PAPA) combines the infrared method of gas measurement with a boost of high-speed photochemical activity. PAPA goes beyond standard infrared absorption techniques by using a compound conversion process that selects reactive gases from among the non-reactive and reveals their spectra. At the same time the technique renders invisible the spectra of water and carbon dioxide. In PAPA, three infrared spectra are recorded: the first through an empty absorption cell, the second through the cell containing sample, and the third through the cell with sample, after photochemical transformation. Ozone molecules, oxygen atoms and hydroxyl radicals are formed. From the three spectra, the computer extracts the concentrations of pollutant gases. In a single experiment, many gases may be measured. In PAPA, no calibration chemicals are needed. The calibration comes from the software package, which contains a library of digitized quantitative reference spectra. The PAPA method can measure pollutant gases down to parts-per-billion concentration levels, including especially: (1) nitrogen oxides and other nitrogen-containing pollutants, (2) organic pollutant gases, including acids, aldehydes, ethers, esters, ketones, hydrocarbons, and halogenated compounds, (3) isoprene, pinenes and other reactive hydrocarbons, (4) benzene and other aromatic compounds, including halogenated species, and (5) hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, mercaptans and other sulfur-containing pollutants.

  19. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in...

  20. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in...

  1. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in...

  2. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in...

  3. METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFPPT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Tool (MFFPPT) is being developed to allow the metal finishing industry an easy method to evaluate potential pollution prevention options. In order to reduce the quantity of pollutants generated by a process, the sources of pollutants within ...

  4. 33 CFR 146.45 - Pollution incidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution incidents. 146.45...) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.45 Pollution incidents. Oil pollution.... Additional provisions concerning liability and compensation because of oil pollution are contained in...

  5. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the...

  6. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the...

  7. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990, 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the...

  8. METAL FINISHING FACILITY POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOL (MFFPPT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Metal Finishing Facility Pollution Tool (MFFPPT) is being developed to allow the metal finishing industry an easy method to evaluate potential pollution prevention options. In order to reduce the quantity of pollutants generated by a process, the sources of pollutants within ...

  9. Combined air and water pollution control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, Billy C. (Inventor); Jarrell, Lamont (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A bioaquatic air pollution control system for controlling both water and atmospheric pollution is disclosed. The pollution control system includes an exhaust for directing polluted gases out of a furnace and a fluid circulating system which circulates fluid, such as waste water, from a source, past the furnace where the fluid flow entrains the pollutants from the furnace. The combined fluid and pollutants are then directed through a rock/plant/microbial filtering system. A suction pump pumps the treated waste water from the filter system past the exhaust to again entrain more pollutants from the furnace where they are combined with the fluid (waste water) and directed to the filter system.

  10. Évolution des lignes directrices sur le traitement de la dyslipidémie

    PubMed Central

    John Bosomworth, N.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comprendre comment les nouvelles lignes directrices sur la prise en charge du risque cardiovasculaire publiées par l’American Heart Association et l’American College of Cardiology (AHA-ACC) peuvent être interprétées et utilisées dans le contexte canadien. Sources des données Les lignes directrices de l’AHA-ACC ont été examinées, de même que toutes les références. Des recherches indépendantes dans PubMed ont été effectuées pour inclure l’ajout aux statines d’autres antihyperlipidémiants et l’emploi de calculatrices médicales visant à aider le patient à comprendre. Message principal Les nouvelles lignes directrices de l’AHA-ACC s’appuient sur les meilleures données probantes disponibles actuellement en matière de traitement de la dyslipidémie. Cela inclut le risque cardiovasculaire (CV) sur 10 ans comme seuil thérapeutique au lieu du taux de cholestérol des lipoprotéines de faible densité, de même que l’abandon des cibles thérapeutiques de lipoprotéines de faible densité. On met de plus en plus l’accent sur les interventions alimentaires et l’exercice, avec l’amorce d’un effort pour quantifier l’effet de ces interventions. Les statines constituent la principale intervention pharmacologique, et l’ajout d’autres médicaments pour accentuer la baisse lipidique n’est plus recommandé. En ce qui concerne l’application au Canada, les tables de risque de Framingham sont plus appropriées pour évaluer le risque que les équations de cohortes regroupées utilisées aux États-Unis. Les calculatrices du risque de maladie cardiovasculaire (MCV) devraient contenir de l’information sur l’âge cardiovasculaire et devraient pouvoir illustrer le risque et les interventions de rechange afin d’aider le patient à comprendre et de favoriser la prise de décision éclairée. Conclusion L’attention sur les meilleures données probantes concernant le risque CV peut simplifier le traitement de la

  11. Environmental factors and atmospheric pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Frampton, M.W.; Samet, J.M.; Utell, M.J. )

    1991-12-01

    Respiratory infections result from complex interactions between the infectious organism and the host, and exposure to environmental pollutants may alter host resistance. The atmospheric pollutants implicated in respiratory infections include acidic aerosols, particles, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and household allergens. An extensive epidemiological literature has been established linking environmental tobacco smoke to increased occurrence of lower respiratory tract infections in children; exposure to smoke from cooking and heating fires may also increase the risk of serious infections. Experimental evidence suggests that exposure to nitrogen dioxide and acidic aerosols may impair specific host defense mechanisms. Individuals with underlying lung or heart disease, as well as infants and the elderly, are among those most susceptible to the effects of environmental pollutants. Efforts should be directed toward reducing the exposure of children to environmental tobacco smoke and products of unvented combustion while investigations continue.40 references.

  12. Oil pollution control: A history

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, S.Z.

    1987-01-01

    Oil pollution has been a major environmental concern since the 1920s. The search for a solution has ranged from prevention to partial measures coupled with compensation and remedial action. Although recent measures appear to have 'solved' the problem, this book offers a different assessment of the efforts of governments and the oil and maritime industries. It also provides the first comprehensive story of control policies and practices, using primary and secondary sources, thus providing a unique perspective to current approaches. Numerous factors - personalities, state policies, developments in the oil and shipping industries, public agitation, and scientific studies - are identified in a framework useful for analyzing any environmental problem. The book concludes that oil pollution control sets the model for other marine pollution problems, with potentially alarming results.

  13. Inland Evolution of the Coastal Front During IOP-2, 25 January 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Bejerknes, J., 1919: On the structure of moving cyclones. GQfrL EubL, 1, 1-8. -, 1932: Explorations de quelques perturbations atmospheriques a raide...Atmospheric Turbulence and Air Pollution Modelling. Atmospheric Sciences Library, 358 pp. Palmen, E. and C.W. Newton, 1969: Atmospheric Circulation

  14. Microphysical and Electrical Modeling of Convective Clouds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    Program, AK-50, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. VWrifi6 par P. Laroche, Chef de la Division "Environnement Atmospherique " Vu et approuv6, Le Directeur Scientifique...storm cells on a new one growing, we can introduce in our model a "seeding effect": the new cell develops in an atmosphere polluted by small ice crystals

  15. Passive 19.3 GHz Radiometer and Aerosol Data from the North Sea during MARSEN I, September-October 1979.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-13

    MODIFIED CONTINENTAL 3.0- [ 0.17 2! y > 0.06, CONTINENTAL, POLLUTED CONTINENTAL 3. ro 2.0- 1.0 20 30 40 SO 60 70 so 90 100 R. H. (% Fig. 15 - Plot...Chemistry of Sea/Air Particulate Exchange Processes; Summary and Recommendations, Journal de Recherches Atmospheriques , 8, pp 509-513. (3) Blanchard

  16. Chemotactic selection of pollutant degrading soil bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Hazen, T.C.

    1991-03-04

    A method is described for identifying soil microbial strains which may be bacterial degraders of pollutants. This method includes: Placing a concentration of a pollutant in a substantially closed container; placing the container in a sample of soil for a period of time ranging from one minute to several hours; retrieving the container and collecting its contents; microscopically determining the identity of the bacteria present. Different concentrations of the pollutant can be used to determine which bacteria respond to each concentration. The method can be used for characterizing a polluted site or for looking for naturally occurring biological degraders of the pollutant. Then bacteria identified as degraders of the pollutant and as chemotactically attracted to the pollutant are used to innoculate contaminated soil. To enhance the effect of the bacteria on the pollutant, nutrients are cyclicly provided to the bacteria then withheld to alternately build up the size of the bacterial colony or community and then allow it to degrade the pollutant.

  17. A new species of Rhadinella (Serpentes: Colubridae) from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Gustavo; Dávila-Galavíz, Luis Fernando; Flores-Villela, Oscar; Campbell, Jonathan A

    2016-04-12

    We describe a new species of Rhadinella from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero, Mexico, a region where the genus was previously unknown. This diminutive species is a member of a group of snakes previously allocated in the Rhadinaea godmani group, and more recently transferred to the genus Rhadinella. These snakes may have conspicuous dark longitudinal striping on a pale brown to orange background or may have dark brown to blackish dorsal ground coloration, which mostly or completely obfuscates a pattern of longitudinal striping. The new species is mostly dark with barely discernible slightly paler or darker striping (depending on how striping is interpreted). The closest relative of the new species, on the basis of morphological similarities and biogeography, appears to be Rhadinella donaji which occurs to the east in the Sierra Madre del Sur of Oaxaca about 275 km from the type-locality of the new species.

  18. Influence des inclusions sur la rupture d'un acier faiblement allié

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausild, P.; Berdin, C.; Bompard, P.; Prioul, C.

    2003-03-01

    L'étude de la rupture d'un acier faiblement allié dans le domaine de la transition ductile fragile a permis de mettre en évidence la présence croissante, avec la température de sollicitation, d'amas d'inclusions de seconde phase sur les surfaces de rupture. On montre, à l'aide de modélisations par éléments finis, que ces amas jouent néanmoins un rôle mineur dans le déclenchement du clivage. En revanche, leur influence sur la propagation de la rupture ductile est importante. On peut alors expliquer l'anisotropie de la résilience en prenant en compte la géométrie des inclusions et leur répartition spatiale.

  19. Réalisation de réseaux sur polymères par laser UV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castex, M. C.; Fischer, A.; Simeonov, D.; Adès, D.; Siove, A.

    2003-06-01

    Nous présentons ici une méthode très simple de réalisation de réseaux d'amplitude de pas sub-micronique sur des films polymères à base de carbazote déposés sur des substrat de silice. Les réseaux sont fabriqués en irradiant avec un faisceau laser à 193nm un masque de phase placé au contact du film. La qualité des réseaux obtenus permet désormais d'envisager la réalisation de micro-cavités lasers de type planaire permettant de sélectionner une émission laser monomode autour de 400nm.

  20. The Nucleotide-Binding Sites of SUR1: A Mechanistic Model

    PubMed Central

    Vedovato, Natascia; Ashcroft, Frances M.; Puljung, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels comprise four pore-forming Kir6.2 subunits and four modulatory sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. The latter belong to the ATP-binding cassette family of transporters. KATP channels are inhibited by ATP (or ADP) binding to Kir6.2 and activated by Mg-nucleotide interactions with SUR. This dual regulation enables the KATP channel to couple the metabolic state of a cell to its electrical excitability and is crucial for the KATP channel’s role in regulating insulin secretion, cardiac and neuronal excitability, and vascular tone. Here, we review the regulation of the KATP channel by adenine nucleotides and present an equilibrium allosteric model for nucleotide activation and inhibition. The model can account for many experimental observations in the literature and provides testable predictions for future experiments. PMID:26682803

  1. [Environmental pollution and skin aging].

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, A

    2011-08-01

    Extrinsic skin aging is the skin aging process induced by environmental factors. The most prominent environmental factor leading to extrinsic skin aging is the sun; therefore extrinsic skin aging is also known as photoaging. However, numerous studies in recent years have shown that smoking leads to extrinsic skin aging. Further, very recently it has been shown, that environmental pollution by traffic is also associated with the occurrence of signs of extrinsic skin aging. Thus, in preventive skin aging strategies the long-term exposure towards air pollution by traffic must also be considered.

  2. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, S.C.

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  3. Lidar applications to pollution studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Fuller, W. H., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of lidar (laser radar) to the measurement of air pollution. Lidar techniques and instrumentation utilizing elastic, Raman, and fluorescence scattering are discussed. Data showing measurements of the mixing of particulate pollutants in the atmosphere are presented. These data include: simultaneous two-wavelength results, isopleths showing the temporal dynamics of particulate mixing, measurements of the top of the earth's mixing layer, and measurements in a valley with restricted circulation and mixing. All measurements are compared with simultaneous radiosonde and/or aircraft-mounted temperature probe support. In addition, a second generation lidar system presently under development is described.

  4. Probing planetary pollution from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack

    1991-01-01

    The data sets obtained from instruments that have measured carbon monoxide and tropospheric ozone from space are reviewed. These instruments include a gas cell correlation radiometer named MAPS (Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites), the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, and the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment. Particular attention is given to differential absorption lidar technology which can determine the vertical distribution of aerosols and selected trace gases with considerably more resolution than passive remote sensing techniques. The current plans for monitoring pollution from spaceborne platforms are also discussed.

  5. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  6. Fish populations surviving estrogen pollution

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Among the most common pollutants that enter the environment after passing municipal wastewater treatment are estrogens, especially the synthetic 17α-ethinylestradiol that is used in oral contraceptives. Estrogens are potent endocrine disruptors at concentrations frequently observed in surface waters. However, new genetic analyses suggest that some fish populations can be self-sustaining even in heavily polluted waters. We now need to understand the basis of this tolerance. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/12/1 PMID:24512617

  7. Light Pollution: The Global View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, H. E.

    2003-04-01

    It is only since recent years that the importance of the effects of outdoor lighting on the night-time environment and on the physical and mental health of humans is recognized on a wider scale. The related issue of light pollution is a particularly complex one, with potential conflicts of interest between the utilities, environmentalists, astronomers, the lighting industry and various government departments. Energy politics are always a sensitive issue, and light pollution is no exception to this rule. The effects of light pollution on flora, fauna -including humans and their widely varying night-time activities- are often subtle and need extensive field studies to be quantified in a sensible manner. The present conference, initiated by Commission 50 of the International Astronomical Union, is an attempt to bring together the astronomical community, the lighting industry, end-users, the utilities, and public authorities for a discussion and an exchange of ideas and information that will create goodwill among these groups and will thus contribute to making the global efforts to reduce pollution more efficient and effective. Radio frequency pollution was also discussed in the context of radio astronomy and its efforts to create radio-quiet zones in collaboration with the government authorities that allocate frequency bands to the various users -mainly the telecommunications industry- and to protect the major planned and present radio observatories of the world. The 3-day conference was attended by more than 130 representatives from 12 countries of all the above-mentioned groups, and a wide range of topics was discussed. Some of the highlights were: The presentation of the 1st world atlas of artificial night sky brightness (Cinzano et al.); the article by the International Darksky Association on their world-wide efforts to curb light pollution (Alvarez del Castillo et al.); the laws controlling light pollution implemented in Spain (Diaz et al.) and Chile (Sanhueza et

  8. The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Phil

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)

  9. The Pollution Detectives, Part III: Roadside Lead Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Phil

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simple test tube method developed lead analysis of samples of roadside soil. The relationship between the results and the traffic flow indicate car exhausts are the major source of lead pollution. Materials and procedures are detailed. An example of results is provided. (Author/CW)

  10. ABCC9/SUR2 in the brain: implications for hippocampal sclerosis of aging and a potential therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Peter T.; Jicha, Gregory A.; Wang, Wang-Xia; Ighodaro, Eseosa; Artiushin, Sergey; Nichols, Colin G.; Fardo, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The ABCC9 gene and its polypeptide product, SUR2, are increasingly implicated in human neurologic disease, including prevalent diseases of the aged brain. SUR2 proteins are a component of the ATP-sensitive potassium (“KATP”) channel, a metabolic sensor for stress and/or hypoxia that has been shown to change in aging. The KATP channel also helps regulate the neurovascular unit. Most brain cell types express SUR2, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, vascular smooth muscle, pericytes, and endothelial cells. Thus it is not surprising that ABCC9 gene variants are associated with risk for human brain diseases. For example, Cantu syndrome is a result of ABCC9 mutations; we discuss neurologic manifestations of this genetic syndrome. More common brain disorders linked to ABCC9 gene variants include hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging), sleep disorders, and depression. HS-Aging is a prevalent neurological disease with pathologic features of both neurodegenerative (aberrant TDP-43) and cerebrovascular (arteriolosclerosis) disease. As to potential therapeutic intervention, the human pharmacopeia features both SUR2 agonists and antagonists, so ABCC9/SUR2 may provide a “druggable target”, relevant perhaps to both HS-Aging and Alzheimer’s disease. We conclude that more work is required to better understand the roles of ABCC9/SUR2 in the human brain during health and disease conditions. PMID:26226329

  11. The Sur7 Protein Regulates Plasma Membrane Organization and Prevents Intracellular Cell Wall Growth in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Francisco J.; Douglas, Lois M.; Rosebrock, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The Candida albicans plasma membrane plays important roles in cell growth and as a target for antifungal drugs. Analysis of Ca-Sur7 showed that this four transmembrane domain protein localized to stable punctate patches, similar to the plasma membrane subdomains known as eisosomes or MCC that were discovered in S. cerevisiae. The localization of Ca-Sur7 depended on sphingolipid synthesis. In contrast to S. cerevisiae, a C. albicans sur7Δ mutant displayed defects in endocytosis and morphogenesis. Septins and actin were mislocalized, and cell wall synthesis was very abnormal, including long projections of cell wall into the cytoplasm. Several phenotypes of the sur7Δ mutant are similar to the effects of inhibiting β-glucan synthase, suggesting that the abnormal cell wall synthesis is related to activation of chitin synthase activity seen under stress conditions. These results expand the roles of eisosomes by demonstrating that Sur7 is needed for proper plasma membrane organization and cell wall synthesis. A conserved Cys motif in the first extracellular loop of fungal Sur7 proteins is similar to a characteristic motif of the claudin proteins that form tight junctions in animal cells, suggesting a common role for these tetraspanning membrane proteins in forming specialized plasma membrane domains. PMID:18799621

  12. ABCC9/SUR2 in the brain: Implications for hippocampal sclerosis of aging and a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Peter T; Jicha, Gregory A; Wang, Wang-Xia; Ighodaro, Eseosa; Artiushin, Sergey; Nichols, Colin G; Fardo, David W

    2015-11-01

    The ABCC9 gene and its polypeptide product, SUR2, are increasingly implicated in human neurologic disease, including prevalent diseases of the aged brain. SUR2 proteins are a component of the ATP-sensitive potassium ("KATP") channel, a metabolic sensor for stress and/or hypoxia that has been shown to change in aging. The KATP channel also helps regulate the neurovascular unit. Most brain cell types express SUR2, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, vascular smooth muscle, pericytes, and endothelial cells. Thus it is not surprising that ABCC9 gene variants are associated with risk for human brain diseases. For example, Cantu syndrome is a result of ABCC9 mutations; we discuss neurologic manifestations of this genetic syndrome. More common brain disorders linked to ABCC9 gene variants include hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging), sleep disorders, and depression. HS-Aging is a prevalent neurological disease with pathologic features of both neurodegenerative (aberrant TDP-43) and cerebrovascular (arteriolosclerosis) disease. As to potential therapeutic intervention, the human pharmacopeia features both SUR2 agonists and antagonists, so ABCC9/SUR2 may provide a "druggable target", relevant perhaps to both HS-Aging and Alzheimer's disease. We conclude that more work is required to better understand the roles of ABCC9/SUR2 in the human brain during health and disease conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of surface antigen protein 1 (SurA1) from Acinetobacter baumannii and its role in virulence and fitness.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Liu, Zeng-Shan; Hu, Pan; Cai, Ling; Fu, Bao-Quan; Li, Yan-Song; Lu, Shi-Ying; Liu, Nan-Nan; Ma, Xiao-Long; Chi, Dan; Chang, Jiang; Shui, Yi-Ming; Li, Zhao-Hui; Ahmad, Waqas; Zhou, Yu; Ren, Hong-Lin

    2016-04-15

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative bacillus that causes nosocomial infections, such as bacteremia, pneumonia, and meningitis and urinary tract and wound infections. In the present study, the surface antigen protein 1 (SurA1) gene of A. baumannii strain CCGGD201101 was identified, cloned and expressed, and then its roles in fitness and virulence were investigated. Virulence was observed in the human lung cancer cell lines A549 and HEp-2 at one week after treatment with recombinant SurA1. One isogenic SurA1 knock-out strain, GR0015, which was derived from the A. baumannii strain CCGGD201101 isolated from diseased chicks in a previous study, highlighted the effect of SurA1 on fitness and growth. Its growth rate in LB broth and killing activity in human sera were significantly decreased compared with strain CCGGD201101. In the Galleria mellonella insect model, the isogenic SurA1 knock-out strain exhibited a lower survival rate and decreased dissemination. These results suggest that SurA1 plays an important role in the fitness and virulence of A. baumannii.

  14. N-terminal transmembrane domain of the SUR controls trafficking and gating of Kir6 channel subunits

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kim W.; Zhang, Hailin; Logothetis, Diomedes E.

    2003-01-01

    The sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, assembles with a potassium channel subunit (Kir6) to form the ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) complex. Although SUR is an important regulator of Kir6, the specific SUR domain that associates with Kir6 is still unknown. All functional ABC proteins contain two transmembrane domains but some, including SUR and MRP1 (multidrug resistance protein 1), contain an extra N-terminal transmembrane domain called TMD0. The functions of any TMD0s are largely unclear. Using Xenopus oocytes to coexpress truncated SUR constructs with Kir6, we demonstrated by immunoprecipitation, single-oocyte chemiluminescence and electrophysiological measurements that the TMD0 of SUR1 strongly associated with Kir6.2 and modulated its trafficking and gating. Two TMD0 mutations, A116P and V187D, previously correlated with persistent hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy, were found to disrupt the association between TMD0 and Kir6.2. These results underscore the importance of TMD0 in KATP channel function, explaining how specific mutations within this domain result in disease, and suggest how an ABC protein has evolved to regulate a potassium channel. PMID:12881418

  15. The Bacillus stearothermophilus NUB36 surA gene encodes a thermophilic sucrase related to Bacillus subtilis SacA.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Ferenci, T

    1996-07-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the surA gene, encoding a sucrase from Bacillus stearothermophilus NUB36, was determined. surA was composed of 1338 bp and encoded 445 amino acid residues. The deduced polypeptide of M(r) 51519 showed strong sequence similarity to sucrose and sucrose phosphate hydrolases from Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Vibrio alginolyticus, and contained the 'sucrose box' residues thought to be important for catalysis of the transfer of fructose from sucrose. The enzyme was partially purified using affinity chromotography from extracts of Escherichia coli containing the cloned surA. SurA displayed an optimum temperature for sucrose hydrolysis of 55 degrees C and high stability. The M(r) of SurA determined by gel filtration was 105,000, which suggested that the active form of the enzyme is a dimer. SurA exhibited an apparent Km of 40 mM for sucrose but, unlike the homologous B. subtilis enzyme, had no detectable sucrose phosphate hydrolase activity.

  16. Office of Naval Research (ONR) Support for R/V Point Sur Ship Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-07

    WORK UNIT NUMBER N/A 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) San Jose State university Research Foundation 210 N. Fourth St...Enterprise Program Analyst San Jose State University Research Foundation Subject: ONR RV Pt Sur Award N00014-15-1 -2123 Enclosed is the Final...Marine Laboratories No longer employed at MLML Grant Administration: San Jose State University Research Foundation (SJSURF) 210 N. Fourth St. 4th

  17. Carcinome papillaire sur kyste du tractus thyréoglosse: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Dbab, Lamia; Nouri, Hassan; Iguelouane, Nassim; Rochdi, Youssef; Aderdour, Lahcen; Raji, Abdelaziz

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif de ce travail est de présenté deux cas de carcinomes papillaire sur kystes du tractus thyréoglosse (KTT) et d'exposer notre attitude thérapeutique. Il s'agit de deux patientes, une âgée de 30 ans et l'autre de 45 ans, qui ont été opéré dans notre centre. Le diagnostic du carcinome papillaire sur KTT a été retenu après étude anatomopathologique du kyste après exérèse selon la technique de Sistrunk. Une thyroïdectomie totale suivie d'une irathérapie et d'une hormonothérapie freinatrice a été réalisé chez l'une des patientes, pour l'autre une thyroïdectomie totale associée à une hormonothérapie freinatrice a été préconisé. L'évolution été favorable après un recule de 4 ans pour la première patiente et de 2 ans pour la deuxième. La thyroïdectomie totale après exérèse complète du KTT est le traitement recommandé pour le carcinome papillaire sur KTT. Il a été démontré qu'un cancer latent de la thyroïde peut être développé même après des années après l'exérèse du KTT. Le traitement du carcinome papillaire sur KTT est bien codifié, permettant un excellent pronostic. PMID:26848352

  18. [Polyplacophoran communities (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) at Bahia de La Paz, Baja California Sur, México].

    PubMed

    García Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez Ruiz, Migdalia

    2007-03-01

    Eight species of polyplacophorans have been reported from La Bahia de la Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. We add Lepidochitona beanii, Chaetopleura lurida, Stenoplax limaciformis, S. mariposa, Lepidozona clathrata, L. serrata and Acanthochitona arragonites, increasing the known number of species to 15. Ordination analysis of five chiton communities at the site suggests a correlation of wave exposure to species composition and diversity: communities with intermediate wave exposure have more species (richness) and higher diversity (Shannon's index).

  19. Effects of environmental pollutants on gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Wu, Sisheng; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2017-03-01

    Environmental pollutants have become an increasingly common health hazard in the last several decades. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the profound relationship between gut microbiota and our health. Gut microbiota are very sensitive to drugs, diet, and even environmental pollutants. In this review, we discuss the possible effects of environmental pollutants including antibiotics, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, pesticides, nanomaterials, and food additives on gut microbiota and their subsequent effects on health. We emphasize that gut microbiota are also essential for the toxicity evaluation of environmental pollution. In the future, more studies should focus on the relationship between environmental pollution, gut microbiota, and human health.

  20. Potential toxicity of resuspended particulate matter and sediments: Environmental samples from the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer and Thermaikos Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotou, E.; Gremare, A.; Charles, F.; Hatzianestis, I.; Sklivagou, E.

    2005-12-01

    This contribution attempts to determine whether, and to what degree, environmental samples of resuspended particulate matter and sediments exert a toxicological impact. Further, an attempt is made also to screen the toxic level of potentially hazardous sites, based upon established sediment toxicity criteria. Therefore, a rapid, cost-effective and highly sensitive biotest (bioluminescence assay, based upon marine bacteria) has been applied on: biological fluid extracts; bottom sediments; and sediment trap samples. Samples were taken either from the Bay of Banyuls-sur-Mer (northwestern Mediterranean, France) or Thermaikos Gulf (northeastern Mediterranean, Greece). Biological fluid extracts and sediment trap samples corresponded to periods of resuspension events, or preceding and following such events. The results have revealed that the sampling strategy and biotest implemented in this study might be a useful tool for screening the toxicity of resuspended matter and sediments. Resuspension events appear to be able to exert an influence on the chemical forms of the micro-pollutants; thus on their bioavailability and toxicity. Nevertheless, based upon chemical analysis combined with the bioassay, the toxic level of the sediment samples could be determined, with the level at potentially hazardous sites being characterised.

  1. Description of industrial pollution in Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2007-03-21

    Toxic substances released into the environment (to both air and water) by many types of industries might be related with the occurrence of some malignant tumours and other diseases. The publication of the EPER (European Pollutant Emission Register) Spanish data allows to investigate the presence of geographical mortality patterns related to industrial pollution. The aim of this paper is to describe industrial air and water pollution in Spain in 2001, broken down by activity group and specific pollutant, and to plot maps depicting emissions of carcinogenic substances. All information on industrial pollution discharge in 2001 was drawn from EPER-Spain public records provided by the European Commission server. We described the distribution of the number of industries and amounts discharged for each pollutant, as well as emission by pollutant group and the industrial activities associated with each pollutant. Maps of Spain were drawn up, with UTM coordinates being used to plot pollutant foci, and circles with an area proportional to the emission to depict pollution emission values. The EPER-Spain contained information on 1,437 industrial installations. The industrial plants that discharge pollutant substances into air and water above the pollutant-specific EPER threshold were mainly situated in the Autonomous Regions of Aragon, Andalusia and Catalonia and in Catalonia, the Basque Country and Andalusia respectively. Pollution released in 2001 into air approached 158 million Mt. Emissions into water were over 8 million Mt. A few single industrial plants are responsible for the highest percentage of emissions, thus rendering monitoring of their possible health impact on the surrounding population that much simpler. Among European countries Spain is the leading polluter in almost one third of all EPER-registered pollutant substances released into the air and ranks among the top three leading polluters in two-thirds of all such substances. Information obtained through

  2. Compensation for oil pollution damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matugina, E. G.; Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu V.; Klyuchnikov, A. S.; Vusovich, O. V.

    2015-11-01

    The commitment of national industries to traditional energy sources, as well as constantly growing energy demand combined with adverse environmental impact of petroleum production and transportation urge to establish and maintain an appropriate legal and administrative framework for oil pollution damage compensation. The article considers management strategies for petroleum companies that embrace not only production benefits but also environmental issues.

  3. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

  4. Remote measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allario, F.; Hoell, J.; Seals, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration and vertical distribution of atmospheric ammonia and ozone are remotely sensed, using dual-C02-laser multichannel infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer (1HS). Innovation makes atmospheric pollution measurements possible with nearly-quantum-noise-limited sensitivity and ultrafine spectral resolution.

  5. Groundwater Pollution and Vulnerability Assessment.

    PubMed

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan

    2017-10-01

    Groundwater is a critical resource that serve as a source of drinking water to large human population and, provide long-term water for irrigation purposes. In recent years; however, this precious resource being increasingly threatened, due to natural and anthropogenic activities. A variety of contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, endocrine disruptors, and biological agents detected in the groundwater sources of both developing and developed nations. In this review paper, various studies have been included that documented instances of groundwater pollution and vulnerability to emerging contaminants of concern, pesticides, heavy metals, and leaching potential of various organic and inorganic contaminants from poorly managed residual waste products (biosolids, landfills, latrines, and septic tanks etc.). Understanding vulnerability of groundwater to pollution is critical to maintain the integrity of groundwater. A section on managed artificial recharge studies is included to highlight the sustainable approaches to groundwater conservation, replenishment and sustainability. This review paper is the synthesis of studies published in last one year that either documented the pollution problems or evaluated the vulnerability of groundwater pollution.

  6. Testing Water for Bacterial Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillner, Harry

    This autoinstructional lesson deals with the study of water pollution control. It is a learning activity directed toward high school students of biology and/or ecology. A general knowledge of microbiology techniques is regarded as a prerequisite for the lesson. Behavioral objectives are given. Emphasis is placed on use of techniques and materials…

  7. Water Pollution in School Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1979-01-01

    Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

  8. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  9. Careers in Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

  10. Environmental Pollution, A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, VA.

    This bibliography on environmental pollution is comprised primarily of reports of federally sponsored research by such departments and agencies as HEW, Interior, AEC, NASA, Defense, Transportation, and others. The reports were selected from Clearinghouse announcement journals during the period 1968 through April 1970. The bibliography contains…

  11. Japanese Industry Boosts Pollution Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Michael K.

    1975-01-01

    In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)

  12. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  13. Oceanic processes in marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Champ, M.A. ); Park, P.K. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following areas: disposal of low-level radioactive wastes in oceans; disposal of coal wastes in marine environments; the role of pollution conventions and regulation of oil disposal; and monitoring of high-level radioactive waste disposal sites in oceans.

  14. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  15. Air Pollution Control, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    This book contains five major articles in areas of current importance in air pollution control. They are written by authors who are actively participating in the areas on which they report. It is the aim of each article to completely cover theory, experimentation, and practice in the field discussed. The contents are as follows: Emissions,…

  16. Careers in Water Pollution Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    Described are the activities, responsibilities, and educational and training requirements of the major occupations directly concerned with water pollution control. Also provided is an overview of employment trends, salaries, and projected demand for employees. Included in the appendix is a list of colleges and universities which offer…

  17. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  18. Water Pollution in School Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Abraham

    1979-01-01

    Water pollution curriculum units of four environmental secondary science programs in Britain, Germany, Israel, and the United States are examined. Comparisons reveal the use of quite different approaches in central topic selection, use of the laboratory and other media, controversial issues, and teacher-student roles. (CS)

  19. Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Joe O.

    Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

  20. Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, George K., Ed.

    The objective of a two-day Symposium on Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution of the Operations Research Society of America at the 137th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27-28, 1970 in Chicago, Illinois, was not to raise the litany of a systems approach as the answer to all environmental…

  1. Environmental Pollution, A Selective Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information, Springfield, VA.

    This bibliography on environmental pollution is comprised primarily of reports of federally sponsored research by such departments and agencies as HEW, Interior, AEC, NASA, Defense, Transportation, and others. The reports were selected from Clearinghouse announcement journals during the period 1968 through April 1970. The bibliography contains…

  2. Air pollution and allergic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Eric B.; Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Ryan, Patrick H.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP) has been implicated in asthma development, persistence, and exacerbation. This exposure is highly significant because increasingly large segments of the population worldwide reside in zones that have high levels of TRAP (1), including children since schools are often located in high traffic pollution exposure areas. Recent findings Recent findings include epidemiologic and mechanistic studies that shed new light on the impact of traffic pollution on allergic diseases and the biology underlying this impact. In addition, new innovative methods to assess and quantify traffic pollution have been developed to assess exposure and identify vulnerable populations and individuals. Summary This review will summarize the most recent findings in each of these areas. These findings will have substantial impact on clinical practice and research by development of novel methods to quantify exposure and identify at-risk individuals, as well as mechanistic studies that identify new targets for intervention for individuals most adversely affected by TRAP exposure. PMID:26474340

  3. Air pollution and brain damage.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Azzarelli, Biagio; Acuna, Hilda; Garcia, Raquel; Gambling, Todd M; Osnaya, Norma; Monroy, Sylvia; DEL Tizapantzi, Maria Rosario; Carson, Johnny L; Villarreal-Calderon, Anna; Rewcastle, Barry

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to complex mixtures of air pollutants produces inflammation in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Because the nasal cavity is a common portal of entry, respiratory and olfactory epithelia are vulnerable targets for toxicological damage. This study has evaluated, by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemical expression of nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-kappaB) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosae, olfactory bulb, and cortical and subcortical structures from 32 healthy mongrel canine residents in Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC), a highly polluted urban region. Findings were compared to those in 8 dogs from Tlaxcala, a less polluted, control city. In SWMMC dogs, expression of nuclear neuronal NF-kappaB and iNOS in cortical endothelial cells occurred at ages 2 and 4 weeks; subsequent damage included alterations of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), degenerating cortical neurons, apoptotic glial white matter cells, deposition of apolipoprotein E (apoE)-positive lipid droplets in smooth muscle cells and pericytes, nonneuritic plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles. Persistent pulmonary inflammation and deteriorating olfactory and respiratory barriers may play a role in the neuropathology observed in the brains of these highly exposed canines. Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's may begin early in life with air pollutants playing a crucial role.

  4. Japanese Industry Boosts Pollution Spending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAbee, Michael K.

    1975-01-01

    In response to tightening emission standards imposed by the government, Japanese industry will increase its capital spending on pollution control equipment to account for about 20 percent of all industrial capital spending. Preferential treatment and loans from government-affiliated financial institutions are available for projects. (Author/MLH)

  5. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  6. Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledbetter, Joe O.

    Two facets of the engineering control of air pollution (the analysis of possible problems and the application of effective controls) are covered in this two-volume text. Part A covers Analysis, and Part B, Prevention and Control. (This review is concerned with Part A only.) This volume deals with the terminology, methodology, and symptomatology…

  7. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…

  8. Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacko, George K., Ed.

    The objective of a two-day Symposium on Systems Approach to Environmental Pollution of the Operations Research Society of America at the 137th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, December 27-28, 1970 in Chicago, Illinois, was not to raise the litany of a systems approach as the answer to all environmental…

  9. Title III hazardous air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author presents an overview of the key provisions of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. The key provisions include the following: 112(b) -- 189 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP); 112(a) -- Major Source: 10 TPY/25 TPY; 112(d) -- Application of MACT; 112(g) -- Modifications; 112(I) -- State Program; 112(j) -- The Hammer; and 112(r) -- Accidental Release Provisions.

  10. [Current data on atmospheric pollutions].

    PubMed

    Festy, B; Petit-Coviaux, F; Le Moullec, Y

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric pollutions (AP) are very important for human health and ecological equilibrium. They may be natural or anthropogenic and in this later case they can appear outdoor or indoor. Urban air pollution is the most known form of AP. Its main sources are industries, individual and collective heating and now mainly automobile traffic in most cities. Classical AP indicators are SO2, particles, NOx, CO and Pb measured in networks. Important factors of AP are amounts of pollutants emitted and local climatic and meteorological characteristics. Health effects of AP peaks and of AP background levels are not well known. But generally, mean AP levels of SO2 and particles decreased in the last years in most towns as the consequence of collective actions on the three main sources of AP and on fuels, emission and immission levels; but more is wanted about motor-cars. Progress are necessary for limitation of three major ecological risks: "acid-rain" (SO2 and NOx derivatives, ozone,...) which participates in lake and forest attacks; "green house" effects whose air CO2 concentration increase is the main responsible, and stratospheric ozone depletion mainly due to freons (CFC); the consequences of these two last phenomena are not well known but ecological and health risk exist. Besides, indoor air pollution (IAP) is very important because we live more than 20 h a day indoor. IAP may be occupational (a lot of chemical or biological agents) or not. In the later case air pollutants are very various: CO, NOx and particles from heating or cooking, formaldehyde from wood glue, plywood or urea-formol foams, radon and derivatives in some granitic countries, odd jobs products, cosmetics, aero-allergens of chemical or biological origins, microbes,... Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is also an important pollutant complex. Risks of IAP are real or potential: acute risk is obvious for CO, aero-allergens, formaldehyde, NOx,...); irritations are produced by ETS, formaldehyde, solvants

  11. Environmental costs of mercury pollution.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Goodsite, Michael E

    2006-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) has been used for millennia in many applications, primarily in artisanal mining and as an electrode in the chlor-alkali industry. It is anthropogenically emitted as a pollutant from coal fired power plants and naturally emitted, primarily from volcanoes. Its unique chemical characteristics enable global atmospheric transport and it is deposited after various processes, ultimately ending up in one of its final sinks, such as incorporated into deep sediment or bioaccumulated, primarily in the marine environment. All forms of Hg have been established as toxic, and there have been no noted biological benefits from the metal. Throughout time, there have been notable incidents of Hg intoxication documented, and the negative health effects have been documented to those chronically or acutely exposed. Today, exposure to Hg is largely diet or occupationally dependent, however, many are exposed to Hg from their amalgam fillings. This paper puts a tentative monetary value on Hg polluted food sources in the Arctic, where local, significant pollution sources are limited, and relates this to costs for strategies avoiding Hg pollution and to remediation costs of contaminated sites in Sweden and Japan. The case studies are compiled to help policy makers and the public to evaluate whether the benefits to the global environment from banning Hg and limiting its initial emission outweigh the benefits from its continued use or lack of control of Hg emissions. The cases we studied are relevant for point pollution sources globally and their remediation costs ranged between 2,500 and 1.1 million US dollars kg(-1) Hg isolated from the biosphere. Therefore, regulations discontinuing mercury uses combined with extensive flue gas cleaning for all power plants and waste incinerators is cost effective.

  12. ESTIMATING URBAN WET-WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads in urban watersheds emanating from wet-weather flow discharge. Equations for pollutant loading estimates will focus on the effects of wastewater characteristics, sewer flow carrying velocity, and sewer-solids depositi...

  13. Airplanes on Air Pollution: Discover-AQ

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's launching a new mission, summer 2011, designed to gather data on air pollution and help expand our understanding of how it affects us, and that could allow pollutants to be monitored more pr...

  14. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  15. Pollution of ground water in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, S.; Key, A.

    1956-01-01

    This paper discusses pollution of ground water in 20 countries of the European region, giving for each an account of the geology and hydrogeology, water supplies, the extent and nature of ground water pollution, and the legal, administrative, and technical means of controlling that pollution. For the countries not considered in the preceding article on surface water pollution, an account is also given of the superficial physical features, rainfall, population, and industries. A general discussion follows of such questions as the ways in which ground water pollution may occur, the factors mitigating or aggravating pollution, and ways of protection against pollution. The authors consider that the problem of ground water pollution in Europe may well be more serious than it would appear to be on the evidence so far obtained. PMID:13374533

  16. Can Air Pollution Heighten Alzheimer's Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163365.html Can Air Pollution Heighten Alzheimer's Risk? Fine particles from power plants ... 1, 2017 WEDNESDAY, Feb. 1, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Air pollution may cause more than just lung disease: New ...

  17. Cross-State Air Pollution Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Cross-State Air Pollution Rule (CSAPR), requires states to significantly improve air quality by reducing power plant emissions that contribute to ozone and/or fine particle pollution in other states.

  18. Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Air Pollution and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Aug 30,2016 ... or Longer-Term Acute short-term effects of air pollution tend to strike people who are elderly or ...

  19. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  20. Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Edgar R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)

  1. Ground water. [Water pollution monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Emrich, G.H.

    1982-06-01

    A literature review dealing with the occurrences, extent, and sampling of groundwater pollution is presented. Groundwater sampling procedures for various contaminants, and geophysical methods designed to investigate groundwater pollution are reviewed. (KRM)

  2. Advancing Environmental Justice through Pollution Prevention

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Report represents the efforts of the NEJAC on the topic of Advancing Environmental Justice through Pollution Prevention to identify and discuss the myriad of opportunities in applying pollution prevention to benefit environmental justice communities.

  3. Environmental Law and the Export of Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John F.

    1984-01-01

    Environmental problems do not stop at state boundaries; they reach beyond local or national jurisdictions and require international control. Problems concerning air quality, water pollution, and indirect pollution are discussed. Environmental legislation can have a significant impact. (RM)

  4. Tested Demonstrations. Gasoline Vapor: An Invisible Pollutant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Edgar R.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a demonstration concerning the air pollution aspects of gasoline vapor which provides an estimation of the vapor pressure of test fuel, the molecular weight of the vapor, and illustrates a method of controlling the pollution. (SL)

  5. Pollution as a Form of Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael Pugh

    1986-01-01

    Proposes that a case-study approach to pollution problems can enhance the environmental awareness of students. Presents background information and instructional ideas for case studies on water pollution, cars, and the urban environment. (ML)

  6. EPA RESEARCH IN URBAN STORMWATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This state-of-the-art on the Environmental Protection Agency' s research in urban stormwater and combined sewer overflow pollution control describes the major elements of the Urban Runoff Pollution Control Program. roblem definition, users assistance tools, management alternative...

  7. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES (CHAPTER 65)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter discusses the use of technologies for reducing air pollution emissions from stationary sources, with emphasis on the control of combustion gen-erated air pollution. Major stationary sources include utility power boilers, industrial boilers and heaters, metal smelting ...

  8. EPA RESEARCH IN URBAN STORMWATER POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This state-of-the-art on the Environmental Protection Agency' s research in urban stormwater and combined sewer overflow pollution control describes the major elements of the Urban Runoff Pollution Control Program. roblem definition, users assistance tools, management alternative...

  9. Etude du stockage de l'hydrogene sur des nanostructures de carbone microporeuses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Le stockage de l'hydrogene par adsorption sur des adsorbants nano-structures a ete etudie sous differentes conditions de pression et de temperature. Les adsorbants etudies sont principalement des nanotubes de carbone a simple paroi ainsi que des structures metallo-organiques. Les mesures ont ete realisees a l'aide de systemes gravimetriques et volumetriques tres sensibles specialement mis au point pour de petits echantillons necessitant un degazage in situ. Les appareils developpes, au nombre de quatre, comprennent deux systemes gravimetriques et deux systemes volumetriques. Ensemble, ces systemes couvrent la plage de pressions (0-100) bars ainsi que la plage de temperatures (77-295) K. Les differentes analyses montrent que l'adsorption d'hydrogene sur les adsorbants nano-structures etudies est maximale a 77 K et varie entre environ (1.5 et 4) % masse. A temperature ambiante, l'adsorption croit lineairement avec la pression et demeure sous les 1% masse pour des pressions inferieures a 100 bars. L'adsorption d'hydrogene sur ces materiaux dans ces conditions se compare notamment a celle obtenue sur des charbons actives. La modelisation de l'adsorption a egalement ete realisee dans des conditions cryogeniques a l'aide du modele de Dubinin-Astakhov sous une forme adaptee pour l'adsorption supercritique. Les enthalpies d'adsorption calculees a partir de ce modele varient sous les 6 kJ/mole et sont donc consistantes avec des processus de physisorption. L'applicabilite du modele de Dubinin-Astakhov suggere que l'adsorption d'hydrogene puisse etre representee par un processus de remplissage des pores par un pseudo-liquide. Ces travaux s'inscrivent dans un contexte ou la capacite d'adsorption reelle des nanostructures de carbone est sujette a la controverse. En consequence, l'approche experimentale adoptee se distingue par les differentes demarches mises de l'avant pour l'obtention de mesures fiables sur des echantillons de faibles masses ainsi que par son caractere

  10. Pollution Abatement and Control Expenditures Survey (PACE)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pollution Abatement Costs and Expenditures (PACE) survey is the most comprehensive national source of pollution abatement costs and expenditures related to environmental protection for the manufacturing sector of the United States. The PACE survey collects facility-level data on pollution abatement capital expenditures and operating costs associated with compliance to local, state, and federal regulations and voluntary or market-driven pollution abatement activities.

  11. Change of Cerebral Oxygenation during Surfactant Treatment in Preterm Infants: "LISA" versus "InSurE" Procedures.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Giovanna; Coviello, Caterina; Gozzini, Elena; Bianconi, Tommaso; Bresci, Cecilia; Leonardi, Valentina; Dani, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to compare the effects on cerebral oxygenation in preterm infants of two different procedures for surfactant administration: the LISA (low-invasive method of surfactant administration) and the InSurE (Intubation, SURfactant administration, Extubation). Study Design Twenty premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome were assigned to receive surfactant either by "LISA" (n = 10) or "InSurE" (n = 10) procedure. Patients were continuously studied by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the measurement of cerebral regional oxygenation (rSO2C) and calculation of cerebral fractional oxygen extraction rate (cFTOE), and NIRS data were recorded 30 minutes before (T0) surfactant administration, during the procedure (Tproc), and 30 (T1), 60 (T2T2), and 120 minutes (T3) afterward. Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was studied in the anterior cerebral artery at T0, T1, and T3. Results SpO2 significantly decreased at Tproc in comparison with T0, T1, T2, and T3 and the decrease was higher in the LISA than in the InSurE group. rSO2C was lower at tproc and T3 in the LISA than in the InSurE group. cFTOE was higher at tproc, t2, and t3 in the LISA group than in the InSurE group. CBFV did not change during the study periods in both groups. Conclusions The LISA and InSurE procedures transiently decreased rSO2C in our population, and the decrease was higher in the LISA group. Consistently, there was a contemporary increase in cFTOE that was higher in the LISA than in the InSurE group, suggesting that it represents a compensatory mechanism.

  12. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of operational...

  13. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of operational...

  14. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of operational...

  15. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 250.300 Section 250.300... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.300 Pollution prevention. (a) During the exploration, development, production, and...

  16. 32 CFR 700.832 - Environmental pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental pollution. 700.832 Section 700.832... Commanding Officers in General § 700.832 Environmental pollution. The commanding officer shall cooperate with... environmental pollution. If the requirements of any environmental law cannot be achieved because of operational...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state. ...

  18. 40 CFR 52.740 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.740 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.740 Interstate pollution. (a) The... levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state. ...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state....

  20. 40 CFR 52.740 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.740 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.740 Interstate pollution. (a) The... levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state....

  2. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state....

  4. 40 CFR 52.740 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.740 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.740 Interstate pollution. (a) The... levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state....

  5. 40 CFR 52.740 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.740 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.740 Interstate pollution. (a) The... levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state....

  6. 40 CFR 52.740 - Interstate pollution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.740 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.740 Interstate pollution. (a) The... levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state....

  7. Product Guide/1972 [Air Pollution Control Association].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reprinted in this pamphlet is the fifth annual directory of air pollution control products as compiled in the "Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association" for December, 1971. The 16-page guide lists manufacturers of emission control equipment and air pollution instrumentation under product classifications as derived from McGraw-Hill's "Air…

  8. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the source... and alternatives and must discuss potential pollution prevention measures when such measures are feasible for incorporation into the proposal or alternatives. Where pollution cannot be prevented, the...

  9. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 42 U.S.C. 13101(b), established a national policy to prevent or reduce pollution at the source... and alternatives and must discuss potential pollution prevention measures when such measures are feasible for incorporation into the proposal or alternatives. Where pollution cannot be prevented, the...

  10. Air Pollution. Environmental Ecological Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkway School District, Chesterfield, MO.

    This unit, designed for senior high school students, focuses on air pollution by examining its effect on man, plants and animals, the causes of air pollution, and possible solutions to the air pollution problems. It approaches each of these topics through both natural science and social science perspectives. The unit is divided into seven separate…

  11. Air Pollution in the World's Megacities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Barbara T., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Reports findings of the Global Environment Monitoring System study concerning air pollution in the world's megacities. Discusses sources of air pollution, air pollution impacts, air quality monitoring, air quality trends, and control strategies. Provides profiles of the problem in Beijing, Los Angeles, Mexico City, India, Cairo, Sao Paulo, and…

  12. The Crisis in Air Pollution Manpower Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Dade W.

    1974-01-01

    Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university programs.…

  13. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  14. Metal pollution of river Msimbazi, Tanzania

    SciTech Connect

    Ak'habuhaya, J.; Lodenius, M. )

    1988-01-01

    The Misimbazi River in Dar es Salaam is polluted with industrial, urban and agricultural waste waters. A preliminary investigation on the extent of metal pollution (Hg, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Ni, Cd, Mn, Al) was made from samples of sediments and biological indicators. The metal concentrations were in general low, but some of our results indicated industrial pollution.

  15. Showdown Shapes Up Over Pollution Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Discusses technological, legislative, and administrative problems facing the implementation of the 1972 air and water pollution control acts. Indicates that a congressional reworking on the pollution laws appears to be in the offing which could lead to a softening of environmental deadlines and a change in spending for pollution controls. (CC)

  16. Computer Model Simulates Air Pollution Over Roads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1972

    1972-01-01

    A sophisticated modeling technique which predicts pollutant movement accurately and may aid in the design of new freeways is reported. EXPLOR (Examination of Pollution Levels of Roadways) was developed specifically to predict pollutant concentrations in a milewide corridor traversed by a roadway. (BL)

  17. Showdown Shapes Up Over Pollution Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Discusses technological, legislative, and administrative problems facing the implementation of the 1972 air and water pollution control acts. Indicates that a congressional reworking on the pollution laws appears to be in the offing which could lead to a softening of environmental deadlines and a change in spending for pollution controls. (CC)

  18. Guide to Pollution Prevention in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppino, Tony; Gilbert, Reg

    The purpose of this guide is to help citizen advocates create and improve the environmental practices of industry and government in the Great Lakes Basin. The practices advocated focus on pollution prevention instead of relying solely on pollution control. An introduction examines the larger issues of pollution prevention and zero discharge as the…

  19. Cuticular features as indicators of environmental pollution

    Treesearch

    G. K. Sharma

    1976-01-01

    Several leaf cuticular features such as stomatal frequency, stomatal size, trichome length, type, and frequency, and subsidiary cell complex respond to environmental pollution in different ways and hence can be used as indicators of environmental pollution in an area. Several modifications in cuticular features under polluted environments seem to indicate ecotypic or...

  20. The Dusty Accretion of Polluted White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsor, A.; Farihi, J.; Wyatt, M. C.; van Lieshout, R.

    2017-03-01

    Infrared observations of polluted white dwarfs provide key insights into the accretion processes in action. The standard model for the observed infrared excesses is a flat, opaque, dust disc. The infrared observations are inconsistent with the presence of such a disc around all polluted white dwarfs. We discuss potential explanations for the absence of an infrared excess for many polluted white dwarfs.