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Sample records for pollution health study

  1. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    In health studies, traffic-related air pollution is associated with adverse respiratory effects. Due to cost and participant burden of personal measurements, health studies often estimate exposures using local ambient air monitors. Since outdoor levels do not necessarily reflect ...

  2. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (S...

  3. Air pollution and health studies in China--policy implications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Jiang, Songhui; Hong, Chuanjie

    2011-11-01

    During the rapid economic development in China, ambient air pollutants in major cities, including PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < or =10 microm) and SO2 have been reduced due to various measures taken to reduce or control sources of emissions, whereas NO2 is stable or slightly increased. However, air pollution levels in China are still at the higher end of the world level. Less information is available regarding changes in national levels of other pollutants such as PM2.5 and ozone. The Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection (MOEP) set an index for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" to evaluate the efficacy of air pollution control strategy in the country. Total SO2 emissions declined for the first time in 2007. Chinese epidemiologic studies evidenced adverse health effects of ambient air pollution similar to those reported from developed countries, though risk estimates on mortality/morbidity per unit increase of air pollutant are somewhat smaller than those reported in developed countries. Disease burden on health attributable to air pollution is relatively greater in China because of higher pollution levels. Improving ambient air quality has substantial and measurable public health benefits in China. It is recommended that the current Chinese air quality standards be updated/revised and the target for "controlling/reducing total SO2 emissions" be maintained and another target for "reducing total NO2 emissions" be added in view of rapid increase in motor vehicles. Continuous and persistent efforts should be taken to improve ambient air quality.

  4. Assessment of health effects in epidemiologic studies of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Samet, J M; Speizer, F E

    1993-01-01

    As we increasingly recognize the complexity of the pollutants in indoor and outdoor microenvironments, a broad array of inhaled mixtures has assumed scientific, public health, and regulatory importance. Few adverse effects of environmental pollutants are specific, that is, uniquely associated with a single agent; the adverse effects that might be considered in an investigation of the consequences of exposure to an inhaled complex mixture are generally nonspecific. In the context of this paper, we will refer to binary mixtures as complex, though we realize that a more precise definition of complexity would restrict the term to mixtures of three or more constituents. Their causes potentially include not only pollutant exposures through the medium of inhaled air but other environmental agents, such as infectious organisms and radiation, and inherent characteristics of the exposed persons, such as atopy. We review the outcome measures that have been used in epidemiologic studies of the health effects of single pollutants and complex mixtures. Some of these outcome measures have been carefully standardized, whereas others need similar standardization and modification to improve sensitivity and specificity for investigating the health effects of air pollution. PMID:8206024

  5. Webinar Presentation: Air Pollution, Social and Psychosocial Stress, and Respitory Health in the Southern California Children's Health Study

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Air Pollution, Social and Psychosocial Stress, and Respitory Health in the Southern California Children's Health Study, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Exposome held on May 11, 2016.

  6. Spatial modeling of air pollution in studies of its short-term health effects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duncan; Shaddick, Gavin

    2010-12-01

    In studies that estimate the short-term effects of air pollution on health, daily measurements of pollution concentrations are often available from a number of monitoring locations within the study area. However, the health data are typically only available in the form of daily counts for the entire area, meaning that a corresponding single daily measure of pollution is required. The standard approach is to average the observed measurements at the monitoring locations, and use this in a log-linear health model. However, as the pollution surface is spatially variable this simple summary is unlikely to be an accurate estimate of the average pollution concentration across the region, which may lead to bias in the resulting health effects. In this article, we propose an alternative approach that jointly models the pollution concentrations and their relationship with the health data using a Bayesian spatio-temporal model. We compare this approach with the simple spatial average using a simulation study, by investigating the impact of spatial variation, monitor placement, and measurement error in the pollution data. An epidemiological study from Greater London is then presented, which estimates the relationship between respiratory mortality and four different pollutants.

  7. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T; Eckel, Sandrah P; Breton, Carrie V; Gilliland, Frank D

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes in urban areas around the world. Children are highly sensitive to the adverse effects of air pollution due to their rapidly growing lungs, incomplete immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity. The Children's Health Study (CHS) is a continuing series of longitudinal studies that first began in 1993 and has focused on demonstrating the chronic impacts of air pollution on respiratory illnesses from early childhood through adolescence. A large body of evidence from the CHS has documented that exposures to both regional ambient air and traffic-related pollutants are associated with increased asthma prevalence, new-onset asthma, risk of bronchitis and wheezing, deficits of lung function growth, and airway inflammation. These associations may be modulated by key genes involved in oxidative-nitrosative stress pathways via gene-environment interactions. Despite successful efforts to reduce pollution over the past 40 years, air pollution at the current levels still brings many challenges to public health. To further ameliorate adverse health effects attributable to air pollution, many more toxic pollutants may require regulation and control of motor vehicle emissions and other combustion sources may need to be strengthened. Individual interventions based on personal susceptibility may be needed to protect children's health while control measures are being implemented.

  8. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health effects of air pollution Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that is not clean can hurt ... important to know about the health effects that air pollution can have on you and others. Once you ...

  9. Ecological bias in studies of the short-term effects of air pollution on health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaddick, Gavin; Lee, Duncan; Wakefield, Jonathan

    2013-06-01

    There has been a great deal of research into the short-term effects of air pollution on health with a large number of studies modelling the association between aggregate disease counts and environmental exposures measured at point locations, for example via air pollution monitors. In such cases, the standard approach is to average the observed measurements from the individual monitors and use this in a log-linear health model. Hence such studies are ecological in nature being based on spatially aggregated health and exposure data. Here we investigate the potential for bias in the estimates of the effects on health when estimating the short-term effects of air pollution on health. Such ecological bias may occur if a simple summary measure, such as a daily mean, is not a suitable summary of a spatially variable pollution surface. We assess the performance of commonly used models when confronted with such issues using simulation studies and compare their performance with a model specifically designed to acknowledge the effects of exposure aggregation. In addition to simulation studies, we apply the models to a case study of the short-term effects of particulate matter on respiratory mortality using data from Greater London for the period 2002-2005. We found a significant increased risk of 3% (95% CI 1-5%) associated with the average of the previous three days exposure to particulate matter (per 10 μg m-3 PM10).

  10. Effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children: a cross-sectional study

    SciTech Connect

    Spinaci, S.; Arossa, W.; Bugiani, M.; Natale, P.; Bucca, C.; de Candussio, G.

    1985-09-01

    To investigate the effects of air pollution on the respiratory health of children, a subject of some controversy, a comparative study was undertaken of 2,385 school children who lived in central urban, peripheral urban, and suburban areas. Daily monitoring of sulfur dioxide and total suspended particle concentrations in all areas showed that pollutant concentrations in central and peripheral urban areas were above commonly accepted safety levels for respiratory health, while concentrations in the suburban area were within acceptable limits. A questionnaire administered to each mother assessed environmental exposure to pollutants in the household, the occurrence of respiratory symptoms as well as lung diseases as diagnosed by a physician, and general information. Children were interviewed about smoking habits and any acute respiratory symptoms. Children also performed standard lung function tests. Results showed that children from both urban areas had lessened pulmonary function and a higher prevalence of bronchial secretion with common colds than did those from the suburban area. These differences persisted after corrections for exposure to indoor pollutants, active or passive smoking, socioeconomic status, and sex. Parental cigarette smoking was related to a fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second and an increased incidence of acute respiratory illnesses and chronic cough in children. Although boys had higher lung volumes and lower air flow, regression analysis showed no significant influence of the interactions sex-geographic area and sex-smoking on lung function. It was concluded that air pollution has a significant effect on the respiratory health of children.

  11. [Time series studies of air pollution by fires and the effects on human health].

    PubMed

    do Carmo, Cleber Nascimento; Hacon, Sandra de Souza

    2013-11-01

    Burnoffs (intentional fires for agricultural purposes) and forest fires of large proportions have been observed in various regions of the planet. Exposure to high levels of air pollutants emitted by fires can be responsible for various harmful effects on human health. In this article, the literature on estimating acute effects of air pollution on human health by fires in the regions with the highest number of fires on the planet, using a time series approach is summarized. An attempt was made to identify gaps in knowledge. The study consisted of a narrative review, in which the characteristics of the selected studies were grouped by regions of the planet with a higher incidence of burnoffs: Amazon, America, Australia and Asia. The results revealed a large number of studies in Australia, few studies in the Amazon and great heterogeneity in the results on the significant effects on human health.

  12. Evaluating the application of multipollutant exposure metrics in air pollution health studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Health effects associated with air pollution are typically evaluated using a single-pollutant approach, yet people are exposed to mixtures consisting of multiple pollutants that may have independent or combined effects on human health. Development of metrics that re...

  13. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A.; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009–December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m3 for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies. PMID:25838615

  14. Air Quality in Lanzhou, a Major Industrial City in China: Characteristics of Air Pollution and Review of Existing Evidence from Air Pollution and Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqun; Li, Min; Bravo, Mercedes A; Jin, Lan; Nori-Sarma, Amruta; Xu, Yanwen; Guan, Donghong; Wang, Chengyuan; Chen, Mingxia; Wang, Xiao; Tao, Wei; Qiu, Weitao; Zhang, Yawei; Bell, Michelle L

    2014-10-01

    Air pollution contributes substantially to global health burdens; however, less is known about pollution patterns in China and whether they differ from those elsewhere. We evaluated temporal and spatial heterogeneity of air pollution in Lanzhou, an urban Chinese city (April 2009-December 2012), and conducted a systematic review of literature on air pollution and health in Lanzhou. Average levels were 141.5, 42.3, and 47.2 µg/m(3) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), NO2, and SO2, respectively. Findings suggest some seasonality, particularly for SO2, with higher concentrations during colder months relative to warmer months, although a longer time frame of data is needed to evaluate seasonality fully. Correlation coefficients generally declined with distance between monitors, while coefficients of divergence increased with distance. However, these trends were not statistically significant. PM10 levels exceeded Chinese and other health-based standards and guidelines. The review identified 13 studies on outdoor air pollution and health. Although limited, the studies indicate that air pollution is associated with increased risk of health outcomes in Lanzhou. These studies and the high air pollution levels suggest potentially serious health consequences. Findings can provide guidance to future epidemiological studies, monitor placement programs, and air quality policies.

  15. The effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of Canadian children: A systematic review of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Magico, Adam; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Rowe, Brian H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Outdoor air pollution is a global problem with serious effects on human health, and children are considered to be highly susceptible to the effects of air pollution. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a comprehensive and updated systematic review of the literature reporting the effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. METHODS: Searches of four electronic databases between January 2004 and November 2014 were conducted to identify epidemiological studies evaluating the effect of exposure to outdoor air pollutants on respiratory symptoms, lung function measurements and the use of health services due to respiratory conditions in Canadian children. The selection process and quality assessment, using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, were conducted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty-seven studies that were heterogeneous with regard to study design, population, respiratory outcome and air pollution exposure were identified. Overall, the included studies reported adverse effects of outdoor air pollution at concentrations that were below Canadian and United States standards. Heterogeneous effects of air pollutants were reported according to city, sex, socioeconomic status and seasonality. The present review also describes trends in research related to the effect of air pollution on Canadian children over the past 25 years. CONCLUSION: The present study reconfirms the adverse effects of outdoor air pollution on the respiratory health of children in Canada. It will help researchers, clinicians and environmental health authorities identify the available evidence of the adverse effect of outdoor air pollution, research gaps and the limitations for further research. PMID:25961280

  16. Air Pollution Affects Community Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shy, Carl M.; Finklea, John F.

    1973-01-01

    Community Health and Environmental Surveillance System (CHESS), a nationwide program relating community health to environmental quality, is designed to evaluate existing environmental standards, obtain health intelligence for new standards, and document health benefits of air pollution control. (BL)

  17. [Prevention and control of air pollution needs to strengthen further study on health damage caused by air pollution].

    PubMed

    Wu, T C

    2016-08-06

    Heath issues caused by air pollution such as particulate matter (PM) are much concerned and focused among air, water and soil pollutions because human breathe air for whole life span. Present comments will review physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10; Dose-response associations of PM10, PM2.5 and their components with mortality and risk of cardiopulmonary diseases, early health damages such as the decrease of lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage; And the roles of genetic variations and epigenetic changes in lung functions and heart rate variability, DNA damage related to PMs and their components. This comments list some limitations and perspectives about the associations of air pollution with health.

  18. Environmental health indicators and a case study of air pollution in Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Cifuentes, Luis A; Davis, Devra L; Cushing, Erin; Telles, Adriana Gusman; Gouveia, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Environmental health indicators (EHIs) are applied in a variety of research and decision-making settings to gauge the health consequences of environmental hazards, to summarize complex information, or to compare policy impacts across locations or time periods. While EHIs can provide a useful means of conveying information, they also can be misused. Additional research is needed to help researchers and policy-makers understand categories of indicators and their appropriate application. In this article, we review current frameworks for environmental health indicators and discuss the advantages and limitations of various forms. A case study EHI system was developed for air pollution and health for urban Latin American centers in order to explore how underlying assumptions affect indicator results. Sixteen cities were ranked according to five indicators that considered: population exposed, children exposed, comparison to health-based guidelines, and overall PM(10) levels. Results indicate that although some overall patterns in rankings were observed, cities' relative rankings were highly dependent on the indicator used. In fact, a city that was ranked best under one indicator was ranked worst with another. The sensitivity of rankings, even when considering a simple case of a single pollutant, highlights the need for clear understanding of EHIs and how they may be affected by underlying assumptions. Careful consideration should be given to the purpose, assumptions, and limitations of EHIs used individually or in combination in order to minimize misinterpretation of their implications and enhance their usefulness.

  19. Cross-sectional health study in polluted and nonpolluted agricultural settlements in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Goren, A.I.; Brenner, S.; Hellmann, S.

    1988-08-01

    During the summer of 1984 a health survey was carried out among the population of six rural settlements, three in a polluted and three in a low polluted area. Residents of these settlements between 6 and 65 years of age filled out an ATS-NHLI health questionnaire and performed the following pulmonary function tests (PFT): FVC, FEV/sub 1/, FEV/sub 1//FVC, PEF, FEF/sub 50/, and FEF/sub 75/. A trend of higher prevalence of reported respiratory symptoms and diseases characterizes children growing up in a polluted rural as compared with a low polluted rural area. The relative risks (calculated from logistic models) for children from the polluted area to have sputum with cold is 2.13, cough accompanied by sputum 3.89, and for their siblings to have respiratory diseases 3.02, as compared with 1.00 in the low polluted area. A trend of lower PFT characterizes children from the polluted area, with significantly reduced PEF. The trends for adults in the two areas were similar to those for the children. The relative risks for adults from the polluted area to have sputum is 1.7 and cough accompanied by sputum 2.6, as compared with 1.0 in the low polluted area. PEF is significantly lower among adults from the polluted area, while FEF/sub 50/ and FEF/sub 75/ are lower (not significantly) among adults from the low polluted area.

  20. Modeling exposures to traffic-related air pollutants for the NEXUS respiratory health study of asthmatic children in Detroit, MI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Near-Road EXposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) was designed to investigate associations between exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the respiratory health of asthmatic children living near major roadways in Detroit, MI. A combination of modeli...

  1. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  2. Bayesian latent variable modelling in studies of air pollution and health.

    PubMed

    Salway, Ruth; Lee, Duncan; Shaddick, Gavin; Walker, Stephen

    2010-11-20

    This paper describes the use of Bayesian latent variable models in the context of studies investigating the short-term effects of air pollution on health. Traditional Poisson or quasi-likelihood regression models used in this area assume that consecutive outcomes are independent (although the latter allows for overdispersion), which in many studies may be an untenable assumption as temporal correlation is to be expected. We compare this traditional approach with two Bayesian latent process models, which acknowledge the possibility of short-term autocorrelation. These include an autoregressive model that has previously been used in air pollution studies and an alternative based on a moving average structure that we describe here. A simulation study assesses the performance of these models when there are different forms of autocorrelation in the data. Although estimated risks are largely unbiased, the results show that assuming independence can produce confidence intervals that are too narrow. Failing to account for the additional uncertainty which may be associated with (positive) correlation can result in confidence/credible intervals being too narrow and thus lead to incorrect conclusions being made about the significance of estimated risks. The methods are illustrated within a case study of the effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on respiratory mortality in the elderly in London, between 1997 and 2003.

  3. Air pollution and cardiovascular health in Mandi-Gobindgarh, Punjab, India - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nautiyal, Jyoti; Garg, M L; Kumar, Manoj Sharma; Khan, Asif Ali; Thakur, Jarnail S; Kumar, Rajesh

    2007-12-01

    Large number of epidemiological studies to know the effect of air pollution on the general mortality and morbidity, and the cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality are concentrated in USA and Europe. Regional differences in air pollution necessitate regional level health effects studies. Present study is a cross sectional pilot study from India, an Asian country. A sample of population from an industrial town 'Mandi Gobindgarh' and a nonindustrial town 'Morinda' were selected. A cross-sectional household survey was done in both the towns. One hundred subjects were selected from each of the towns. Ambient air quality data was collected for both towns over a period of 10-months to assess seasonal variations. In the present study the average PM10 (particulate matter with < or = 10 microm aerodynamic diameter) levels in Morinda were 99.54 microg/m3 and in Mandi Gobindgarh 161.20 microg/m3. As per NAAQS the permitted levels of PM10 is 50 microg/m3 taken as annual average (arithmetic mean). Elemental analysis of the aerosol samples found the concentration levels to be higher in Mandi- Gobindgarh than Morinda. The population in Gobindgarh shows a higher prevalence of symptoms of angina and cardiovascular disease considered in the study as compared to Morinda. When the same data is viewed in terms of male and female population, the female population is found to show these symptoms marginally higher than their counterparts. Considering the results of present study it can be stated that the increased levels of different pollutants and the higher prevalence of cardiovascular symptoms in Mandi-Gobindgarh (Industrial town) than the Morinda (Non-Industrial town) is because of the association of PM pollution with cardiovascular diseases. Keeping in view the current status of literature, further studies in this direction are needed in a country like India. Such data will also be globally relevant.

  4. Using Models to Enhance Exposure Characterization for Air Pollution Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States and the United Kingdom are faced with increasing challenges in determining the human health impact of air pollutants emitted locally. Often, these pollutants can be toxic at relatively low doses, are highly reactive, or generate large gradients across space beca...

  5. Epilogue of the Health-Pollution Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neyman, Jerzy

    1973-01-01

    Reviews the Sixth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics and Probability, in which participants sought to establish a realistic cross-section of contemporary statistical thinking about the effects of pollution on health. Present information of health effects of pollutants is fragmental, and further studies are urgently required for…

  6. [Attaching importance to study on acute health risk assessment and adaptation of air pollution and climate change].

    PubMed

    Shi, X M

    2017-03-10

    Air pollution and climate change have become key environmental and public health problems around the world, which poses serious threat to human health. How to assess and mitigate the health risks and increase the adaptation of the public have become an urgent topic of research in this area. The six papers in this issue will provide important and rich information on design, analysis method, indicator selection and setting about acute health risk assessment and adaptation study of air pollution and climate change in China, reflecting the advanced conceptions of multi-center and area-specific study and multi-pollutant causing acute effect study. However, the number and type of the cities included in these studies were still limited. In future, researchers should further expand detailed multi-center and multi-area study coverage, conduct area specific predicting and early warning study and strengthen adaptation study.

  7. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T.; Eckel, Sandrah P.; Breton, Carrie V.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is one of the leading contributors to adverse respiratory health outcomes in urban areas around the world. Children are highly sensitive to the adverse effects of air pollution due to their rapidly growing lungs, incomplete immune and metabolic functions, patterns of ventilation and high levels of outdoor activity. The Children’s Health Study (CHS) is a continuing series of longitudinal studies that first began in 1993 and has focused on demonstrating the chronic impacts of air pollution on respiratory illnesses from early childhood through adolescence. A large body of evidence from the CHS has documented that exposures to both regional ambient air and traffic-related pollutants are associated with increased asthma prevalence, new-onset asthma, risk of bronchitis and wheezing, deficits of lung function growth, and airway inflammation. These associations may be modulated by key genes involved in oxidative-nitrosative stress pathways via gene-environment interactions. Despite successful efforts to reduce pollution over the past 40 years, air pollution at the current levels still brings many challenges to public health. To further ameliorate adverse health effects attributable to air pollution, many more toxic pollutants may require regulation and control of motor vehicle emissions and other combustion sources may need to be strengthened. Individual interventions based on personal susceptibility may be needed to protect children’s health while control measures are being implemented. PMID:25694817

  8. Adult air pollution exposure and risk of infertility in the Nurses' Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingaiah, S.; Hart, J.E; Laden, F.; Farland, L.V.; Hewlett, M.M.; Chavarro, J.; Aschengrau, A.; Missmer, S.A

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is there an association between air pollution exposures and incident infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER Increased exposure to air pollution is associated with an increased incidence of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Exposures to air pollution have been associated with lower conception and fertility rates. However, the impact of pollution on infertility incidence is unknown. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Prospective cohort study using data collected from 116 430 female nurses from September 1989 to December 2003 as part of the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Infertility was defined by report of attempted conception for ≥12 months without success. Participants were able to report if evaluation was sought and if so, offer multiple clinical indications for infertility. After exclusion, 36 294 members were included in the analysis. Proximity to major roadways and ambient exposures to particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10), between 2.5 and 10 microns (PM2.5–10), and less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) were determined for residential addresses for the 36 294 members between the years of 1993 and 2003. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazard models with time-varying covariates. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Over 213 416 person-years, there were 2508 incident reports of infertility. Results for overall infertility were inconsistent across exposure types. We observed a small increased risk for those living closer to compared to farther from a major road, multivariable adjusted HR = 1.11 (CI: 1.02–1.20). This was consistent for those reporting primary or secondary infertility. For women living closer to compared to farther from a major road, for primary infertility HR = 1.05 (CI: 0.94–1.17), while for secondary infertility HR = 1.21 (CI: 1.07–1.36). In addition, the HR for every 10 µg/m3 increase in cumulative PM2.5–10

  9. [Quantified study on human health impact caused by coal-burning air pollution in China].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yinlong; He, Gongli; Liu, Fan; Hong, Yanfen

    2002-10-01

    To develop the mathematics model of exposure to coal-burning pollution; To confirm the exposure level of coal-burning pollutants by source analysis of atmospheric particulates; To establish the quantilification technology and methods of human health impact. Combinating the methods of epidemiology, environmental chemistry and contaminated aerography. We obtained the data of human historical expose to PM10, PM2.5, and Bap etc. that can't be obtained from the general inspect and the contribution rate of coal-burning as well as the status of coal-burning air pollutants. Confirming the degree of human health impact due to coal-burning pollutants, which included: The occurrence risk of respiratory symptoms and COPD of adults in heavily polluted area was 1.7 and 1.5 times of that of relatively clean area respectively; FVC and FEF50 of pupils decreased 194 ml and 172 ml respectively with the increasing of every unit of the Ln(PM10). FVC and FEF50 of pupils decreased 69 ml and 119 ml respectively with the increase of every unit of the Ln(SO2). Both the indices of non-specific and humoral immunity of pupils in heavily and medium polluted areas were worse than those in relatively clean area.

  10. Do pollution time-series studies contain uncontrolled or residual confounding by risk factors for acute health events?

    PubMed

    Bukowski, John

    2008-07-01

    Acute health effects from air pollution are based largely on weak associations identified in time-series studies comparing daily air pollution levels to daily mortality. Much of this mortality is due to cardiovascular disease. Time-series studies have many potential limitations, but are not thought to be confounded by traditional cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., smoking status or hypertension) because these chronic risk factors are not obviously associated with daily pollution levels. However, acute psychobehavioral variants of these risk factors (e.g., smoking patterns and episodes of stress on any given day) are plausible confounders for the associations observed in time-series studies, given that time-series studies attempt to predict acute rather than chronic health outcomes. There is a fairly compelling literature on the strong link between cardiovascular events and daily "triggers" such as stress. Stress-related triggers are plausibly associated with daily pollution levels through surrogate stressors such as ambient temperature, daily workload, local traffic congestion, or other correlates of air pollution. For example, variables such as traffic congestion and industrial activity increase both stress-related health events and air pollution, suggesting the potential for classical confounding. Support for this argument is illustrated through examples of the well-demonstrated relationship between emotional stress and heart attack/stroke.

  11. Monitoring air pollution effects on children for supporting public health policy: the protocol of the prospective cohort MAPEC study

    PubMed Central

    Feretti, D; Ceretti, E; De Donno, A; Moretti, M; Carducci, A; Bonetta, S; Marrese, M R; Bonetti, A; Covolo, L; Bagordo, F; Villarini, M; Verani, M; Schilirò, T; Limina, R M; Grassi, T; Monarca, S; Casini, B; Carraro, E; Zani, C; Mazzoleni, G; Levaggi, R; Gelatti, U

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genotoxic biomarkers have been studied largely in adult population, but few studies so far have investigated them in children exposed to air pollution. Children are a high-risk group as regards the health effects of air pollution and some studies suggest that early exposure during childhood can play an important role in the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. The objective of the project is to evaluate the associations between the concentration of urban air pollutants and biomarkers of early biological effect in children, and to propose a model for estimating the global risk of early biological effects due to air pollutants and other factors in children. Methods and analysis Two biomarkers of early biological effects, DNA damage by the comet assay and the micronuclei (MN) test, will be investigated in oral mucosa cells of 6–8-year-old children. Concurrently, some toxic airborne pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and nitro-PAH) and in vitro air mutagenicity and toxicity in ultra-fine air particulates (PM0.5) will be evaluated. Furthermore, demographic and socioeconomic variables, other sources of exposures to air pollutants and lifestyle variables will be assessed by a structured questionnaire. The associations between sociodemographic, environmental and other exposure variables and biomarkers of early biological effect using univariate and multivariate models will be analysed. A tentative model for calculating the global absolute risk of having early biological effects caused by air pollution and other variables will be proposed. Ethics and dissemination The project has been approved by the Ethics Committees of the local Health Authorities. The results will be communicated to local Public Health Agencies, for supporting educational programmes and health policy strategies. LIFE+2012 Environment Policy and Governance. LIFE12 ENV/IT/000614. PMID:25227631

  12. Ambient air pollution and population health: overview.

    PubMed

    Krewski, Daniel; Rainham, Daniel

    2007-02-01

    In November 2003 approximately 200 researchers, stakeholders, and policymakers from more than 40 countries gathered to discuss the science and policy implications of air pollution and human health as part of the AIRNET/NERAM Strategies for Clean Air and Health initiative. The purpose of this paper is to review the more than 35 research posters presented at the conference, including exposure, toxicological, and epidemiological studies of air pollution. Collectively, these papers support previous evidence that both short- and long-term exposures to particulate air pollution have adverse population health impacts, including effects on children. Cellular studies also suggest that air pollution can cause mutagenic and oxidative effects, raising concerns about carcinogenicity and cellular regeneration. Studies of biomarkers, such as Clara-cell proteins and lymphocyte damage assessment, provide further evidence of air pollution effects at the cellular level. Other studies have focused on improvements to measurement and sources of air pollution. These studies suggest that particle mass rather than particle composition may be a more useful indicator of potential human health risk. It is well known that emissions from transportation sources are a major contributor to ambient air pollution in large urban centres. Epidemiologic researchers are able to reduce bias due to misclassification and improve exposure assessment models by allocating air pollution exposure according to distance from traffic sources or land-use patterns. The close association between traffic patterns and air pollution concentrations provides a potential basis for the development of transport policies and regulations with population health improvements as a primary objective. The results of the research presented here present opportunities and challenges for the development of policies for improvements to air quality and human health. However, there remains the challenge of how best to achieve these

  13. Air pollutant monitoring for the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.

    2002-11-01

    This report describes the methodology and presents the summary results of the air pollutant monitoring program conducted by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in support of the East Bay Children's Respiratory Health Study. The full study is examining the effects of chronic exposure to traffic-related pollutants on respiratory health among 3rd and 4th grade children attending ten neighborhood elementary schools in the San Francisco East Bay Area (Hayward, San Leandro and Oakland, CA). The demographically similar schools are located at varying distances from the I-880 and CA-92 freeways. Several schools were selected because they are located within 300 m in the predominant downwind direction (east) from either of the freeways. Measurements of multiple pollutants were made outdoors at the schools over 1-2 week intervals for 14 weeks in spring and eight weeks in fall 2001 using a custom-designed and validated package of commercially available monitoring equipment. Particulate matter was sampled over all hours (24 h per day) or during schools hours only with battery-operated programmable pumps and inlet devices for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}. These pumps were modified to allow for up to 10 days of continuous operation. Fine particle mass and black carbon (BC) were determined from the collected filters. Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and NO{sub 2}) were measured with passive samplers. Carbon monoxide (CO) was measured continuously with an electrochemical sensor. Gasoline-related volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured with passive samplers during three 4-week intervals in spring 2001 and two 4-week periods in early 2002. All samplers were deployed in a metal cabinet located outside at each school. Ranges of study average pollutant concentrations (all-hours) at the ten individual schools were: NO{sub x}, 33-68 ppb; NO{sub 2}, 19-31 ppb; PM{sub 10} mass, 27-32 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; PM{sub 2.5} mass, 12-15 {micro}g/m{sup 3}; and BC associated with PM{sub 2.5}, 0

  14. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies: Evaluation for Ambient PM2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health studies of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates, which fail to account for indoor attenuation of ambient PM2.5 and time indoors. To address these limitations, we developed an air pollution exposure model for individuals (E...

  15. A feasibility study on assessing public health impacts of cumulative air pollution reduction activities in a small geographic area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Objective: The rnain objective ofthis study was to examine the feasibility ofconducting a local (e.g., city level) assessment ofthe public health impacts ofcumulative air pollution reduction activities (a.k.a. accountability) from the federal, state, local and vo...

  16. Characterization of Ambient Air Pollution Measurement Error in a Time-Series Health Study using a Geostatistical Simulation Approach.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Gretchen T; Mulholland, James A; Russell, Armistead G; Gass, Katherine; Strickland, Matthew J; Tolbert, Paige E

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, geostatistical modeling has been used to inform air pollution health studies. In this study, distributions of daily ambient concentrations were modeled over space and time for 12 air pollutants. Simulated pollutant fields were produced for a 6-year time period over the 20-county metropolitan Atlanta area using the Stanford Geostatistical Modeling Software (SGeMS). These simulations incorporate the temporal and spatial autocorrelation structure of ambient pollutants, as well as season and day-of-week temporal and spatial trends; these fields were considered to be the true ambient pollutant fields for the purposes of the simulations that followed. Simulated monitor data at the locations of actual monitors were then generated that contain error representative of instrument imprecision. From the simulated monitor data, four exposure metrics were calculated: central monitor and unweighted, population-weighted, and area-weighted averages. For each metric, the amount and type of error relative to the simulated pollutant fields are characterized and the impact of error on an epidemiologic time-series analysis is predicted. The amount of error, as indicated by a lack of spatial autocorrelation, is greater for primary pollutants than for secondary pollutants and is only moderately reduced by averaging across monitors; more error will result in less statistical power in the epidemiologic analysis. The type of error, as indicated by the correlations of error with the monitor data and with the true ambient concentration, varies with exposure metric, with error in the central monitor metric more of the classical type (i.e., independent of the monitor data) and error in the spatial average metrics more of the Berkson type (i.e., independent of the true ambient concentration). Error type will affect the bias in the health risk estimate, with bias toward the null and away from the null predicted depending on the exposure metric; population-weighting yielded the

  17. Health effects of outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, Dave M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. Sources of information MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December 2009. Most studies provided level II evidence. Main message Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Conclusion Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. PMID:21841106

  18. Air Pollution and Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lave, Lester B.; Seskin, Eugene P.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews studies statistically relating air pollution to mortality and morbidity rates for respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, cancer and infant mortality. Some data recalculated. Estimates 50 percent air pollution reduction will save 4.5 percent (2080 million dollars per year) of all economic loss (hospitalization, income loss) associated…

  19. Measuring the benefits from air pollution abatement on human health and welfare: a case study of Jacksonville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Erfani-Ezati, G.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test benefit measures of air pollution to human health and welfare. Two market approaches, labor market (wage rate) and housing market (property value), were employed to estimate benefits from improvements in air quality. Indices of air pollution used in this study were sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and total suspended particulate matter (TSP). Using the labor market approach as a measure of benefits from improved air quality, a Mortality Effect Model (MEM) was developed. Then, the model was utilized to quantify the estimates of the pollution mortality relationship for the city of Jacksonville. The resulting pollution related mortality function was then monetized by applying estimates of individual's willingness to pay for mortality reductions. The MEM was estimated using multiple regression analysis. TSP showed no statistically significant association with mortality rates. The significance of the estimated coefficient for the pollution variable SO/sub 2/ supported the contention that some form of air pollution bears a positive and significant relationship to mortality rates. By utilizing a willingness to pay estimate for mortality reductions, it was concluded that individuals in Jacksonville would be willing to pay a minimum of $10 million annually, in order to maintain SO/sub 2/ concentrations at a level of 1% below the average for 1972.

  20. Air Pollutants and Health: An Epidemiologic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    A ten year study, being conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health in six cities since 1974, is a survey of children and adults for the health effects of pollutant levels. The environment is being monitored for: (1) sulfur dioxide, (2) sulfates, and (3) respirable particulates. (BT)

  1. Environmental Pollution and Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enormous progress has been made in identifying chemicals in the environment that adversely affect human health. The environment is cleaner, and, partly as a result, people are living longer and healthier lives. Major uncertainties remain, however, regarding the enormous number o...

  2. Internal exposure to organochlorine pollutants and cadmium and self-reported health status: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Van Larebeke, Nik; Sioen, Isabelle; Hond, Elly Den; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Nawrot, Tim; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Schoeters, Greet; Baeyens, Willy

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, based on the Flemish biomonitoring programs, we describe the associations between internal exposure to organochlorine pollutants and to cadmium (measured in 2004-2005 for adults aged 50-65 years) and self-reported health status obtained through a questionnaire in November 2011. Dioxin-like activity in serum showed a significant positive association with risk of cancer for women. After adjustment for confounders and covariates, the odds ratio for an exposure equal to the 90th percentile was 2.4 times higher than for an exposure equal to the 10th percentile. For both men and women dioxin-like activity and serum hexachlorobenzene (HCB) showed a significant positive association with risk of diabetes and of hypertension. Detailed analysis suggested that an increase in BMI might be part of the mechanism through which HCB contributes to diabetes and hypertension. Serum dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) concentration showed a significant positive association with diabetes and hypertension in men, but not in women. Serum polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 118 showed a significant positive association with diabetes in both men and women, and after adjustment for correlated exposures, also with hypertension in men. Urinary cadmium concentrations showed a significant positive association with hypertension. Urinary cadmium concentrations were (in 2004-2005) significantly higher in persons who felt in less than good health (in 2011) than in persons who felt in very good health. After adjustment for correlated exposures (to HCB, p,p'-DDE and PCB118) marker PCBs showed a significant negative association with diabetes and hypertension. Serum p,p'-DDE showed in men a significant negative association with risk of diseases based on atheromata. Our findings suggest that exposure to pollutants can lead to an important increase in the risk of diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hypertension. Some pollutants may possibly also decrease the risk of some health

  3. Health Effects of Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Education Report and Newsletter, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Summarizes health hazards associated with air pollution, highlighting the difficulty in establishing acceptable thresholds of exposure. Respiratory disease, asthma, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other problems are addressed. Indicates that a wide range of effects from any one chemical exists and that there are differences in sensitivity to…

  4. Health risks and air pollution--error analysis for a cross-sectional mortality study

    SciTech Connect

    Pickles, J.H.

    1986-06-01

    An attempt is made to analyze in quantitative terms the uncertainties in multiple regression estimates of the effects of air pollution on death rates. A range of factors--statistical fluctuations in numbers of deaths, differences in local age distribution, differences in smoking habits, errors in estimated pollution levels, migration, and variability of the characterization of socioeconomic effects--are assessed as potential sources of error. Both the precision and the robustness of the regression calculation are shown to be poor. Examples and illustrative calculations are given based on a study of U. K. death rates around the 1971 Census.

  5. The use of wind fields in a land use regression model to predict air pollution concentrations for health exposure studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arain, M. A.; Blair, R.; Finkelstein, N.; Brook, J. R.; Sahsuvaroglu, T.; Beckerman, B.; Zhang, L.; Jerrett, M.

    A methodology is developed to include wind flow effects in land use regression (LUR) models for predicting nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) concentrations for health exposure studies. NO 2 is widely used in health studies as an indicator of traffic-generated air pollution in urban areas. Incorporation of high-resolution interpolated observed wind direction from a network of 38 weather stations in a LUR model improved NO 2 concentration estimates in densely populated, high traffic and industrial/business areas in Toronto-Hamilton urban airshed (THUA) of Ontario, Canada. These small-area variations in air pollution concentrations that are probably more important for health exposure studies may not be detected by sparse continuous air pollution monitoring network or conventional interpolation methods. Observed wind fields were also compared with wind fields generated by Global Environmental Multiscale-High resolution Model Application Project (GEM-HiMAP) to explore the feasibility of using regional weather forecasting model simulated wind fields in LUR models when observed data are either sparse or not available. While GEM-HiMAP predicted wind fields well at large scales, it was unable to resolve wind flow patterns at smaller scales. These results suggest caution and careful evaluation of regional weather forecasting model simulated wind fields before incorporating into human exposure models for health studies. This study has demonstrated that wind fields may be integrated into the land use regression framework. Such integration has a discernable influence on both the overall model prediction and perhaps more importantly for health effects assessment on the relative spatial distribution of traffic pollution throughout the THUA. Methodology developed in this study may be applied in other large urban areas across the world.

  6. Accountability studies of air pollution and health effects: lessons learned and recommendations for future natural experiment opportunities.

    PubMed

    Rich, David Q

    2017-03-01

    To address limitations of observational epidemiology studies of air pollution and health effects, including residual confounding by temporal and spatial factors, several studies have taken advantage of 'natural experiments', where an environmental policy or air quality intervention has resulted in reductions in ambient air pollution concentrations. Researchers have examined whether the population impacted by these air quality improvements, also experienced improvements in various health indices (e.g. reduced morbidity/mortality). In this paper, I review key accountability studies done previously and new studies done over the past several years in Beijing, Atlanta, London, Ireland, and other locations, describing study design and analysis strengths and limitations of each. As new 'natural experiment' opportunities arise, several lessons learned from these studies should be applied when planning a new accountability study. Comparison of health outcomes during the intervention to both before and after the intervention in the population of interest, as well as use of a control population to assess whether any temporal changes in the population of interest were also seen in populations not impacted by air quality improvements, should aid in minimizing residual confounding by these long term time trends. Use of either detailed health records for a population, or prospectively collected data on relevant mechanistic biomarkers coupled with such morbidity/mortality data may provide a more thorough assessment of if the intervention beneficially impacted the health of the community, and if so by what mechanism(s). Further, prospective measurement of a large suite of air pollutants may allow a more thorough understanding of what pollutant source(s) is/are responsible for any health benefit observed. The importance of using multiple statistical analysis methods in each paper and the difference in how the timing of the air pollution/outcome association may impact which of these

  7. Does Mental Health Status Influence Susceptibility to the Physiologic Effects of Air Pollution? A Population Based Study of Canadian Children

    PubMed Central

    Dales, Robert E.; Cakmak, Sabit

    2016-01-01

    Background Both air pollution exposure and the presence of mental illness are associated with an increased risk of physical illness. Objective To determine whether or not children with less favourable mental health are more susceptible to pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of ambient air pollution, compared to those who are mentally healthy. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional study of 1,883 children between the ages of 6 and 17 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures population survey between 2007 and 2009. Subjects were assigned the air pollution values obtained from the National Air Pollution monitor closest to their neighborhood. Lung function, heart rate and blood pressure were stratified by indicators of mental health. The latter were ascertained by questions about feelings of happiness, a diagnosed mood disorder, and the emotional symptom subscale of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Among those who reported a mood disorder, an interquartile increase in ozone was associated with increases in systolic and diastolic pressures of 3.8 mmHg (95% CI 1.6, 5.9) and 3.0mmHg (95%CI 0.9, 5.2) respectively, and a decreases in FVC of 7.6% (95% CI 2.9, 12.3). No significant changes in these variables were observed in those who did not report a mood disorder. Among those with unfavourable emotional symptoms, ozone was associated with a 6.4% (95% CI 1.7, 11.3) increase in heart rate, a 4.1% (95%CI 1.2, 7.1) increase in systolic blood pressure, and a 6.0% (95% CI 1.4, 10.6) decrease in FEVl. No significant effect was seen in these variables among those with no emotional symptoms. Conclusions In the Canadian population, children who report mood disorders or unfavourable emotional symptoms appear to be more vulnerable to the adverse physiologic effects of air pollution. PMID:28030615

  8. A community participatory study of cardiovascular health and exposure to near-highway air pollution: study design and methods.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Christina H; Patton, Allison P; Lane, Kevin; Laws, M Barton; Marden, Aaron; Carrasco, Edna; Spengler, John; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Zamore, Wig; Durant, John L; Brugge, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Current literature is insufficient to make causal inferences or establish dose-response relationships for traffic-related ultrafine particles (UFPs) and cardiovascular (CV) health. The Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) is a cross-sectional study of the relationship between UFP and biomarkers of CV risk. CAFEH uses a community-based participatory research framework that partners university researchers with community groups and residents. Our central hypothesis is that chronic exposure to UFP is associated with changes in biomarkers. The study enrolled more than 700 residents from three near-highway neighborhoods in the Boston metropolitan area in Massachusetts, USA. All participants completed an in-home questionnaire and a subset (440+) completed an additional supplemental questionnaire and provided biomarkers. Air pollution monitoring was conducted by a mobile laboratory equipped with fast-response instruments, at fixed sites, and inside the homes of selected study participants. We seek to develop improved estimates of UFP exposure by combining spatiotemporal models of ambient UFP with data on participant time-activity and housing characteristics. Exposure estimates will then be compared with biomarker levels to ascertain associations. This article describes our study design and methods and presents preliminary findings from east Somerville, one of the three study communities.

  9. A community participatory study of cardiovascular health and exposure to near-highway air pollution: study design and methods

    PubMed Central

    Patton, Allison P.; Lane, Kevin; Laws, M. Barton; Marden, Aaron; Carrasco, Edna; Spengler, John; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Zamore, Wig; Durant, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Current literature is insufficient to make causal inferences or establish dose-response relationships for traffic-related ultrafine particles (UFPs) and cardiovascular (CV) health. The Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) is a cross-sectional study of the relationship between UFP and biomarkers of CV risk. CAFEH uses a community-based participatory research framework that partners university researchers with community groups and residents. Our central hypothesis is that chronic exposure to UFP is associated with changes in biomarkers. The study enrolled more than 700 residents from three near-highway neighborhoods in the Boston metropolitan area in Massachusetts, USA. All participants completed an in-home questionnaire and a subset (440 +) completed an additional supplemental questionnaire and provided biomarkers. Air pollution monitoring was conducted by a mobile laboratory equipped with fast-response instruments, at fixed sites, and inside the homes of selected study participants. We seek to develop improved estimates of UFP exposure by combining spatiotemporal models of ambient UFP with data on participant time-activity and housing characteristics. Exposure estimates will then be compared with biomarker levels to ascertain associations. This article describes our study design and methods and presents preliminary findings from east Somerville, one of the three study communities. PMID:23612527

  10. CO Pollution: a comparative study during high traffic conditions in the cities of Athens, Naples and Islamabad. Health impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polichetti, Juliano; Grigoropoulos, Konstantinos; Ferentinos, George; Tselentis, Vasilios; Nastos, Panagiotis; Xatzioakeimidis, Konstantinos; Dimas, Konstantinos; Khan, Ubaidullah

    2010-05-01

    Since the 19th century anthropogenic activities in urban areas have increased dramatically due to socio-economic evolution, increased urbanization and transport needs. Fifty seven years ago London experienced the impacts of an acute atmospheric pollution episode, due to elevated levels of black carbon aerosols (BC) and SO2, leading to the realization that uncontrolled emissions to the atmosphere lead to severe impacts on human health. Many large cities (Mega cities) in the developed and developing world have, for the last two decades, been plagued by high levels of atmospheric pollution, a problem that the European and worldwide scientific community are at present studying with measurable success. However, due to rapid industrial development and the ever increasing traffic, many more studies are required to support decision makers and governments on measures to reduce atmospheric pollution and mitigate the associated serious health effects on the population. Registered health problems are numerous and dramatic in all ages groups, but particularly so in infants, and patients suffering from chronic diseases due to increased levels of pollutants and nocive substance inhaled, entering the lungs and blood stream and finally being deposited in several organs. Recent studies indicate that cardiac arrhythmias associated to increased atmospheric pollution pose a serious threat to human health. K.N.Grigoropoulos,et al.2008. This study is based on monitoring and mapping CO levels in six areas 3 different cities i.e. Athens, Naples and Islamabad, the objective being to present and analyze the spatial and temporal variability of carbon monoxide (CO) levels leading to the estimation of the concentration levels and the quantities inhaled by pedestrians on a daily basis. It is well know that exposure to carbon monoxide concentration values in excess of 200ppm for 2-3 h usually create headaches, tiredness, fatigue and nausea, whereas human exposure of values of 800 ppm for over

  11. Health effects of particulate air pollution: time for reassessment?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A; Bates, D V; Raizenne, M E

    1995-01-01

    Numerous studies have observed health effects of particulate air pollution. Compared to early studies that focused on severe air pollution episodes, recent studies are more relevant to understanding health effects of pollution at levels common to contemporary cities in the developed world. We review recent epidemiologic studies that evaluated health effects of particulate air pollution and conclude that respirable particulate air pollution is likely an important contributing factor to respiratory disease. Observed health effects include increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, increased hospitalizations and other health care visits for respiratory and cardiovascular disease, increased respiratory morbidity as measured by absenteeism from work or school or other restrictions in activity, and increased cardiopulmonary disease mortality. These health effects are observed at levels common to many U.S. cities including levels below current U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for particulate air pollution. Images Figure 1. PMID:7656877

  12. A prevalence study on outdoor air pollution and respiratory diseases in children in Zasavje, Slovenia, as a lever to trigger evidence-based environmental health activities.

    PubMed

    Kukec, Andreja; Farkas, Jerneja; Erzen, Ivan; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the population burden of respiratory diseases in the Zasavje region of Slovenia that can be attributed to outdoor air pollution in order to gain relevant grounds for evidence based public health activities. In 2008, 981 schoolchildren (age 6 to 12 years) were observed in a prevalence study. The prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases (CRD) and frequent acute respiratory symptoms (FARS) was related to the level of outdoor air pollution in the local environment (low, moderate and high pollution areas). Logistic regression was used as a method for statistical analysis. The prevalence of CRD was 3.0 % in low pollution areas, 7.5 % in moderate pollution areas, and 9.7 % in high pollution areas (p=0.005). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.91-times higher odds for CRD were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.017). The prevalence of FARS was: 7.8 % in low pollution areas, 13.3 % in moderate pollution areas and 15.9 % in high pollution areas (p=0.010). After adjustment for the effects of confounders, 2.02-times higher odds for FARS were registered in high pollution areas in comparison to low pollution areas (p=0.023). The study confirmed a significantly higher prevalence of CRD and FARS in children living in high pollution areas of Zasavje. These results at least partially prompted mutual understanding and cross-sectoral cooperation - prerequisites for solving complex problems involving the impact of air pollution on health.

  13. Modeling dispersion of traffic-related pollutants in the NEXUS health study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dispersion modeling tools have traditionally provided critical information for air quality management decisions, but have been used recently to provide exposure estimates to support health studies. However, these models can be challenging to implement, particularly in near-road s...

  14. Applicability of the environmental relative moldiness index for quantification of residential mold contamination in an air pollution health effects study.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ali; Burke, Janet; Vesper, Stephen; Batterman, Stuart; Vette, Alan; Godwin, Christopher; Chavez-Camarena, Marina; Norris, Gary

    2014-01-01

    The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n = 112) to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI). The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5 ± 7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n = 52) were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r = 0.69, n = 66). Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r = 0.58, n = 28). These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies.

  15. Health risk of air pollution on people living with major chronic diseases: a Canadian population-based study

    PubMed Central

    To, Teresa; Feldman, Laura; Simatovic, Jacqueline; Gershon, Andrea S; Dell, Sharon; Su, Jiandong; Foty, Richard; Licskai, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to use health administrative and environmental data to quantify the effects of ambient air pollution on health service use among those with chronic diseases. We hypothesised that health service use would be higher among those with more exposure to air pollution as measured by the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI). Setting Health administrative data was used to quantify health service use at the primary (physician office visits) and secondary (emergency department visits, hospitalisations) level of care in Ontario, Canada. Participants We included individuals who resided in Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2010, who were ever diagnosed with one of 11 major chronic diseases. Outcome measures Rate ratios (RR) from Poisson regression models were used to estimate the short-term impact of incremental unit increases in AQHI, nitrogen dioxide (NO2; 10 ppb), fine particulate matter (PM2.5; 10 µg/m3) and ozone (O3; 10 ppb) on health services use among individuals with each disease. We adjusted for age, sex, day of the week, temperature, season, year, socioeconomic status and region of residence. Results Increases in outpatient visits ranged from 1% to 5% for every unit increase in the 10-point AQHI scale, corresponding to an increase of about 15 000 outpatient visits on a day with poor versus good air quality. The greatest increases in outpatient visits were for individuals with non-lung cancers (AQHI:RR=1.05; NO2:RR=1.14; p<0.0001) and COPD (AQHI:RR=1.05; NO2:RR=1.12; p<0.0001) and in hospitalisations, for individuals with diabetes (AQHI:RR=1.04; NO2:RR=1.07; p<0.0001) and COPD (AQHI:RR=1.03; NO2:RR=1.09; p<1.001). The impact remained 2 days after peak AQHI levels. Conclusions Among individuals with chronic diseases, health service use increased with higher levels of exposure to air pollution, as measured by the AQHI. Future research would do well to measure the utility of targeted air quality advisories based on the AQHI to

  16. A Need for Better Studies to Identify Those Populations at Greatest Risk of a Pollutant-Related Health Effect

    EPA Science Inventory

    This invited editorial on a paper accepted for publication in the Journal of Pediatrics details scientific advances needed to improve the identification of those populations at greatest risk of a pollutant-related health effect with a primary focus on air pollution.

  17. Health impact of air pollution to children.

    PubMed

    Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed

  18. Ambient carbon monoxide and daily mortality in three Chinese cities: the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES).

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Pan, Guowei; Zhang, Yanping; Xu, Qun; Zeng, Guang; Xu, Xiaohui; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2011-11-01

    Ambient carbon monoxide (CO) is an air pollutant primarily generated by traffic. CO has been associated with increased mortality and morbidity in developed countries, but few studies have been conducted in Asian developing countries. In the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES), the short-term associations between ambient CO and daily mortality were examined in three Chinese cities: Shanghai, Anshan and Taiyuan. Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions were used to adjust for long-term and seasonal trend of mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. Effect estimates were obtained for each city and then for the cities combined. In both individual-city and combined analysis, significant associations of CO with both total non-accidental and cardiovascular mortality were observed. In the combined analysis, a 1 mg/m(3) increase of 2-day moving average concentrations of CO corresponded to 2.89% (95%CI: 1.68, 4.11) and 4.17% (95%CI: 2.66, 5.68) increase of total and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. CO was not significantly associated with respiratory mortality. Sensitivity analyses showed that our findings were generally insensitive to alternative model specifications. In conclusion, ambient CO was associated with increased risk of daily mortality in these three cities. Our findings suggest that the role of exposure to CO and other traffic-related air pollutants should be further investigated in China.

  19. Solid Waste, Air Pollution and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupchik, George J.; Franz, Gerald J.

    1976-01-01

    This article examines the relationships among solid waste disposal, air pollution, and human disease. It is estimated that solid waste disposal contributes 9.7 percent of the total air pollution and 9.9 percent of the total air pollution health effect. Certain disposal-resource recovery systems can be implemented to meet air quality standards. (MR)

  20. Ambient air pollution and lung disease in China: health effects, study design approaches and future research.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jeffrey H; Wendt, Christine; Lo, Charles; Zhou, Guangbiao; Hertz, Marshall; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2015-09-01

    Ambient air pollution in China has worsened following dramatic increases in industrialization, automobile use and energy consumption. Particularly bothersome is the increase in the PM2.5 fraction of pollutants. This fraction has been associated with increasing rates of cardio-respiratory disease in China and elsewhere. Ambient pollutant levels have been described in many of China's cities and are comparable to previous levels in southern California. Lung cancer mortality in China has increased since the 1970s and has been higher in men and in urban areas, the exact explanation for which has not been determined. The estimation of individual risk for Chinese citizens living in areas of air pollution will require further research. Occupational cohort and case-control designs each have unique attributes that could make them helpful to use in this setting. Other important future research considerations include detailed exposure assessment and the possible use of biomarkers as a means to better understand and manage the threat posed by air pollution in China.

  1. Air Pollution and Pulmonary Tuberculosis: A Nested Case–Control Study among Members of a Northern California Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Geneé S.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Garcia, Cynthia; Shan, Jun; Baxter, Roger; Herring, Amy H.; Richardson, David B.; Van Rie, Annelies; Emch, Michael; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2016-01-01

    , Gammon MD. 2016. Air pollution and pulmonary tuberculosis: a nested case-control study among members of a Northern California health plan. Environ Health Perspect 124:761–768; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408166 PMID:26859438

  2. An integrated Bayesian model for estimating the long-term health effects of air pollution by fusing modelled and measured pollution data: A case study of nitrogen dioxide concentrations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guowen; Lee, Duncan; Scott, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The long-term health effects of air pollution can be estimated using a spatio-temporal ecological study, where the disease data are counts of hospital admissions from populations in small areal units at yearly intervals. Spatially representative pollution concentrations for each areal unit are typically estimated by applying Kriging to data from a sparse monitoring network, or by computing averages over grid level concentrations from an atmospheric dispersion model. We propose a novel fusion model for estimating spatially aggregated pollution concentrations using both the modelled and monitored data, and relate these concentrations to respiratory disease in a new study in Scotland between 2007 and 2011.

  3. Nanoparticle pollution and associated increasing potential risks on environment and human health: a case study of China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Yang, Tiantian; Jin, Jin

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are (1) to discuss the mechanism of nanoparticle lifecycle and estimate the impacts of its associated pollution on environment and human health; and (2) to provide recommendation to policy makers on how to leverage nanopollution and human health along with the rapid development of economics in China. Manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) could either directly or indirectly impair human health and the environment. Exposures to MNP include many ways, such as via inhalation, ingestion, direct contact, or the use of consumer products over the lifecycle of the product. In China, the number of people exposed to MNP has been increasing year by year. To better provide medical care to people exposed to MNP, the Chinese government has established many disease control and prevention centers over China. However, the existing facilities and resources for controlling MNP are still not enough considering the number of people impacted by MNP and the number of ordinary workers in the MNP related industry applying for their occupational identification through the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. China should assess the apparent risk environment and human health being exposed to MNP and develop action plans to reduce the possibility of direct contacts between human beings and the emerging nanomaterials. In addition, we suggest more comprehensive studies on the MNP behavior and the development of quantitative approaches to measure MNP transport, and persistence should be carried out.

  4. CRITICAL HEALTH ISSUES OF CRITERIA AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter summarizes the key health information on ubiquitous outdoor air pollutants that can cause adverse health effects at current or historical ambient levels in the United States. Of the thousands of air pollutants, very few meet this definition. The Clean Air Act (CA...

  5. A simulation study to determine the attenuation and bias in health risk estimates due to exposure measurement error in bi-pollutant models

    EPA Science Inventory

    To understand the combined health effects of exposure to ambient air pollutant mixtures, it is becoming more common to include multiple pollutants in epidemiologic models. However, the complex spatial and temporal pattern of ambient pollutant concentrations and related exposures ...

  6. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  7. Comparison of Remote Sensing and Fixed-Site Monitoring Approaches for Examining Air Pollution and Health in a National Study Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnet, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; vanDonkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6e10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 mg m3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20e64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/ allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05).

  8. Comparison of remote sensing and fixed-site monitoring approaches for examining air pollution and health in a national study population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'homme, Genevieve; Dobbin, Nina A.; Sun, Liu; Burnett, Richard T.; Martin, Randall V.; Davidson, Andrew; Cakmak, Sabit; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Lamsal, Lok N.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Peters, Paul A.; Johnson, Markey

    2013-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) has emerged as a cutting edge approach for estimating ground level ambient air pollution. Previous studies have reported a high correlation between ground level PM2.5 and NO2 estimated by RS and measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites. The current study examined associations between air pollution and adverse respiratory and allergic health outcomes using multi-year averages of NO2 and PM2.5 from RS and from regulatory monitoring. RS estimates were derived using satellite measurements from OMI, MODIS, and MISR instruments. Regulatory monitoring data were obtained from Canada's National Air Pollution Surveillance Network. Self-reported prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma, current asthma, allergies, and chronic bronchitis were obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (a national sample of individuals 12 years of age and older). Multi-year ambient pollutant averages were assigned to each study participant based on their six digit postal code at the time of health survey, and were used as a marker for long-term exposure to air pollution. RS derived estimates of NO2 and PM2.5 were associated with 6-10% increases in respiratory and allergic health outcomes per interquartile range (3.97 μg m-3 for PM2.5 and 1.03 ppb for NO2) among adults (aged 20-64) in the national study population. Risk estimates for air pollution and respiratory/allergic health outcomes based on RS were similar to risk estimates based on regulatory monitoring for areas where regulatory monitoring data were available (within 40 km of a regulatory monitoring station). RS derived estimates of air pollution were also associated with adverse health outcomes among participants residing outside the catchment area of the regulatory monitoring network (p < 0.05). The consistency between risk estimates based on RS and regulatory monitoring as well as the associations between air pollution and health among participants living outside the catchment area for

  9. Air pollution and health in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Schwela, D

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, recent reviews of the World Health Organization, other review papers, and more recent literature on the human health effects of current air pollution trends in urban areas are reviewed and summarized as follows: Sulphur dioxide. Some studies, but not others, found associations between sulphur dioxide (SO2) exposure and daily mortality and morbidity. Single-pollutant correlations sometimes disappeared when other pollutants, especially suspended particulate matter (SPM), were included. Cross-sectional studies with asthmatics revealed significant, non-threshold relations between SO2 and decrements of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). Nitrogen dioxide. Weak associations between short-term nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure from gas cooking and respiratory symptoms and a decrement in lung function parameters were found in children, but not consistently in exposed women. With long-term exposure, children, but not adults, exhibit increased respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, and increased incidences of chronic cough, bronchitis, and conjunctivitis. A causal relationship between NO2 exposure and adverse health effects has not yet been established. Carbon monoxide. Binding of CO in the lungs with hemoglobin in the blood forms carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), which impairs the transport of oxygen. The health effects of CO include hypoxia, neurological deficits and neurobehavioral changes, and increases in daily mortality and hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases. The latter persists even at very low CO levels, indicating no threshold for the onset of these effects. Whether the relation between daily mortality and exposure to CO are causal or whether CO might act as a proxy for SPM is still an open question. Ambient CO may have even more serious health consequences than does COHb formation and at lower levels than that mediated through elevated COHb levels. Ozone. Short-term acute effects of O3 include pulmonary function decrements

  10. [The healthiness of the air: historical analysis of the studies on the relationship between health and air pollution in living and working places].

    PubMed

    Riva, M A; Cesana, G C

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between air pollution and health had already been postulated by ancient authors. In the Eighteenth century, Bernardino Ramazzini, the founder of the Occupational Medicine, reported in its works relevant considerations against air pollution and its damages. During the Enlightenment, the studies on the eudiometry conducted by the physic Marsilio Landriani can be considered a first attempt to connect the measurement of air quality to medical issues. In the following centuries, Industrial Revolution and the diffusion of domestic heating were a determining factor in worsening the air quality. Despite specific legislations on smoke abatement, some air pollution "disasters" occurred during the last century. In conclusion, this historical analysis showed the complex evolution of the knowledge on the relationship between health and air pollution. Nowadays, an important contribution to the current scientific and political debate on this issue has been provided also by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

  11. Air pollution and health effects: A study of medical visits among children in Santiago, Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Ostro, B D; Eskeland, G S; Sanchez, J M; Feyzioglu, T

    1999-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies conducted in the last several years have reported associations between exposure to airborne particulate matter, measured as PM10 (<10 microm in diameter), and daily morbidity and mortality. However, much of the evidence involves effects on the elderly population; there is less evidence about the effects of particulates on children, especially those under 2 years of age. To examine these issues, we conducted time-series analyses of 2 years of daily visits to primary health care clinics in Santiago, Chile, where counts were computed for either upper or lower respiratory symptoms and for cohorts of children 3-15 years of age and below age 2. Daily PM10 and ozone measurements and meteorological variables were available from instruments located in downtown Santiago. The multiple regression analysis indicates a statistically significant association between PM10 and medical visits for lower respiratory symptoms in children ages 3-15 and in children under age 2. PM10 is also associated with medical visits related to upper respiratory symptoms in the older cohort, while ozone is associated with visits related to both lower and upper respiratory symptoms in the older cohort. For children under age 2, a 50- microg/m3 change in PM10 (the approximate interquartile range) is associated with a 4-12% increase in lower respiratory symptoms. For children 3-15 years of age, the increase in lower respiratory symptoms ranges from 3 to 9% for a 50- microg/m3 change in PM10 and 5% per 50 ppb change in ozone. These magnitudes are similar to results from studies of children undertaken in Western industrial nations. PMID:9872719

  12. Health, wealth, and air pollution: advancing theory and methods.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Marie S; Jerrett, Michael; Kawachi, Ichiro; Levy, Jonathan I; Cohen, Aaron J; Gouveia, Nelson; Wilkinson, Paul; Fletcher, Tony; Cifuentes, Luis; Schwartz, Joel

    2003-01-01

    The effects of both ambient air pollution and socioeconomic position (SEP) on health are well documented. A limited number of recent studies suggest that SEP may itself play a role in the epidemiology of disease and death associated with exposure to air pollution. Together with evidence that poor and working-class communities are often more exposed to air pollution, these studies have stimulated discussion among scientists, policy makers, and the public about the differential distribution of the health impacts from air pollution. Science and public policy would benefit from additional research that integrates the theory and practice from both air pollution and social epidemiologies to gain a better understanding of this issue. In this article we aim to promote such research by introducing readers to methodologic and conceptual approaches in the fields of air pollution and social epidemiology; by proposing theories and hypotheses about how air pollution and socioeconomic factors may interact to influence health, drawing on studies conducted worldwide; by discussing methodologic issues in the design and analysis of studies to determine whether health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution are modified by SEP; and by proposing specific steps that will advance knowledge in this field, fill information gaps, and apply research results to improve public health in collaboration with affected communities. PMID:14644658

  13. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    PubMed Central

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simões; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies. PMID:21655765

  14. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy.

    PubMed

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simoes; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário do Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies.

  15. Health Effects of Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Inhaling ozone can cause coughing, shortness of breath, worse asthma or bronchitis symptoms, and irritation and damage to airways.You can reduce your exposure to ozone pollution by checking air quality where you live.

  16. The Effects of Urban Form on Ambient Air Pollution and Public Health Risk: A Case Study in Raleigh, North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Daniel A.; Huegy, Joseph; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2014-01-01

    Since motor vehicles are a major air pollution source, urban designs that decrease private automobile use could improve air quality and decrease air pollution health risks. Yet, the relationships among urban form, air quality, and health are complex and not fully understood. To explore these relationships, we model the effects of three alternative development scenarios on annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in ambient air and associated health risks from PM2.5 exposure in North Carolina’s Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area. We integrate transportation demand, land-use regression, and health risk assessment models to predict air quality and health impacts for three development scenarios: current conditions, compact development, and sprawling development. Compact development slightly decreases (−0.2%) point estimates of regional annual average PM2.5 concentrations, while sprawling development slightly increases (+1%) concentrations. However, point estimates of health impacts are in opposite directions: compact development increases (+39%) and sprawling development decreases (−33%) PM2.5-attributable mortality. Further, compactness increases local variation in PM2.5 concentrations and increases the severity of local air pollution hotspots. Hence, this research suggests that while compact development may improve air quality from a regional perspective, it may also increase the concentration of PM2.5 in local hotspots and increase population exposure to PM2.5. Health effects may be magnified if compact neighborhoods and PM2.5 hotspots are spatially co-located. We conclude that compactness alone is an insufficient means of reducing the public health impacts of transportation emissions in automobile-dependent regions. Rather, additional measures are needed to decrease automobile dependence and the health risks of transportation emissions. PMID:25490890

  17. The Effects of Urban Form on Ambient Air Pollution and Public Health Risk: A Case Study in Raleigh, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Theodore J; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Huegy, Joseph; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2015-05-01

    Since motor vehicles are a major air pollution source, urban designs that decrease private automobile use could improve air quality and decrease air pollution health risks. Yet, the relationships among urban form, air quality, and health are complex and not fully understood. To explore these relationships, we model the effects of three alternative development scenarios on annual average fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) concentrations in ambient air and associated health risks from PM2.5 exposure in North Carolina's Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill area. We integrate transportation demand, land-use regression, and health risk assessment models to predict air quality and health impacts for three development scenarios: current conditions, compact development, and sprawling development. Compact development slightly decreases (-0.2%) point estimates of regional annual average PM2.5 concentrations, while sprawling development slightly increases (+1%) concentrations. However, point estimates of health impacts are in opposite directions: compact development increases (+39%) and sprawling development decreases (-33%) PM2.5-attributable mortality. Furthermore, compactness increases local variation in PM2.5 concentrations and increases the severity of local air pollution hotspots. Hence, this research suggests that while compact development may improve air quality from a regional perspective, it may also increase the concentration of PM2.5 in local hotspots and increase population exposure to PM2.5 . Health effects may be magnified if compact neighborhoods and PM2.5 hotspots are spatially co-located. We conclude that compactness alone is an insufficient means of reducing the public health impacts of transportation emissions in automobile-dependent regions. Rather, additional measures are needed to decrease automobile dependence and the health risks of transportation emissions.

  18. Seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate air pollution on mortality in the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Renjie; Peng, Roger D.; Meng, Xia; Zhou, Zhijun; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological findings concerning the seasonal variation in the acute effect of particulate matter (PM) are inconsistent. We investigated the seasonality in the association between PM with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10) and daily mortality in 17 Chinese cities. We fitted the “main” time-series model after adjustment for time-varying confounders using smooth functions with natural splines. We established a “seasonal” model to obtain the season-specific effect estimates of PM10, and a “harmonic” model to show the seasonal pattern that allows PM10 effects to vary smoothly with the day in a year. At the national level, a 10 μg/m3 increase in the two-day moving average concentrations (lag 01) of PM10 was associated with 0.45% [95% posterior interval (PI), 0.15% to 0.76%], 0.17% (95% PI, −0.09% to 0.43%), 0.55% (95% PI, 0.15% to 0.96%) and 0.25% (95%PI, −0.05% to 0.56%) increases in total mortality for winter, spring, summer and fall, respectively. For the smoothly-varying plots of seasonality, we identified a two-peak pattern in winter and summer. The observed seasonal pattern was generally insensitive to model specifications. Our analyses suggest that the acute effect of particulate air pollution could vary by seasons with the largest effect in winter and summer in China. To our knowledge, this is the first multicity study in developing countries to analyze the seasonal variations of PM-related health effects. PMID:23500824

  19. Air Pollution Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI) in Health Studies: Evaluation for Ambient PM2.5 in Central North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution health studies of fine particulate matter (diameter ≤2.5 μm, PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of indoor infiltration of ambient PM2.5 and time indoors can induce exposure errors. We developed an...

  20. Pulmonary Health Effects of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Ozlem Kar; Zhang, Jingjing; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the review Air pollution continues to be a major public health concern affecting nine out of ten individuals living in urban areas worldwide. Exposure to air pollution is the ninth leading risk factor for cardiopulmonary mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the current literature for the most recent updates on health effects of specific air pollutants and their impact on asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and respiratory infection. Recent findings A total of 53 publications were reviewed to establish new insights as to how air pollution is associated with pulmonary morbidity and mortality. Considerable past evidence suggests that air pollution is an important factor that enhances pulmonary disease, while also causing greater harm in susceptible populations, such as children, the elderly and those of low socio-economic status worldwide. Asthma, COPD, lung cancer and respiratory infections all seem to be exacerbated due to exposure to a variety of environmental air pollutants with the greatest effects due to particulate matter (PM), ozone and nitrogen oxides. New publications reviewed reaffirm these findings. Summary Continued vigilence will be essential to lessen the effects of air pollution on human health and pulmonary disease. Cooperation at a multi-national level will be required on the part of governments, industry, energy-based enterprises and the public working together to solve our air quality issues at the local, national and global level. PMID:26761628

  1. Gender Differences in Respiratory Health of School Children Exposed to Rail Yard–Generated Air Pollution: The ENRRICH Study

    PubMed Central

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Soret, Sam; Ghamsary, Mark; Rizzo, Nico; Baum, Marti; Juma, David; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Studies about environmental burdens often explore overall community risk. Increasing evidence suggests, however, differential burdens by gender and age. The purpose of the authors’ research was to determine if gender-related difference exists among children in a region plagued with poor air quality and if increased exposure to pollutants from a major goods movement rail yard influences the relationship. Using a cross-sectional study design, the authors provided respiratory screening for children at two elementary schools. Compared to females, males were at significantly greater odds of exhibiting elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) but less likely to exhibit reduced lung volume. Even in an area of overall poor air quality, the authors found that male children were a vulnerable subpopulation for greater elevated FeNO, while females were at increased risk for reduced lung capacity. Understanding differential burdens in vulnerable subpopulations is critical to providing timely and responsive strategies targeted towards health-based prevention and intervention activities. PMID:26867286

  2. "Air pollution in Delhi: Its Magnitude and Effects on Health".

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Sa; Nongkynrih, Baridalyne; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is responsible for many health problems in the urban areas. Of late, the air pollution status in Delhi has undergone many changes in terms of the levels of pollutants and the control measures taken to reduce them. This paper provides an evidence-based insight into the status of air pollution in Delhi and its effects on health and control measures instituted. The urban air database released by the World Health Organization in September 2011 reported that Delhi has exceeded the maximum PM10 limit by almost 10-times at 198 μg/m3. Vehicular emissions and industrial activities were found to be associated with indoor as well as outdoor air pollution in Delhi. Studies on air pollution and mortality from Delhi found that all-natural-cause mortality and morbidity increased with increased air pollution. Delhi has taken several steps to reduce the level of air pollution in the city during the last 10 years. However, more still needs to be done to further reduce the levels of air pollution.

  3. [Air pollution, climate change and health].

    PubMed

    Ballester, Ferran

    2005-01-01

    Emissions into the atmosphere related to the climate change may further worsen the effects which air pollution has on the health of our citizens, not only indirectly due to the impact of weather phenomenon, but directly, due to the direct effects pollutants have on health. However, the efforts throughout most of the world have been aimed at dealing with these two problems separately for too many years. In fact, it is very often believed that the climate's health-safeguarding benefits would be achieved in the long term. To the contrary, what has become obvious over recent years is that the actions for reducing the emissions of polluting gases could redound in beneficial effects in the short term due to the reduction of the impact of air pollutants on the health of our citizens. This article presents the possible risks of the pollutants most closely related to climate changes, such as ozone and fine particles. Bearing in mind the uncertainties and unknowns related to this subject, the main implications for the policies related to this matter in Spain, as well as the needs for research are set out herein. In this regard, both from the standpoint of monitoring as well as research, it is considered necessary for an epidemiological monitoring system of the effects of air pollution and the relationship thereof to global changes to be established.

  4. Air pollution and population health: a global challenge.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2008-03-01

    "Air pollution and population health" is one of the most important environmental and public health issues. Economic development, urbanization, energy consumption, transportation/motorization, and rapid population growth are major driving forces of air pollution in large cities, especially in megacities. Air pollution levels in developed countries have been decreasing dramatically in recent decades. However, in developing countries and in countries in transition, air pollution levels are still at relatively high levels, though the levels have been gradually decreasing or have remained stable during rapid economic development. In recent years, several hundred epidemiological studies have emerged showing adverse health effects associated with short-term and long-term exposure to air pollutants. Time-series studies conducted in Asian cities also showed similar health effects on mortality associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and ozone (O(3)) to those explored in Europe and North America. The World Health Organization (WHO) published the "WHO Air Quality Guidelines (AQGs), Global Update" in 2006. These updated AQGs provide much stricter guidelines for PM, NO(2), SO(2) and O(3). Considering that current air pollution levels are much higher than the WHO-recommended AQGs, interim targets for these four air pollutants are also recommended for member states, especially for developing countries in setting their country-specific air quality standards. In conclusion, ambient air pollution is a health hazard. It is more important in Asian developing countries within the context of pollution level and population density. Improving air quality has substantial, measurable and important public health benefits.

  5. A cohort study with children living in an air-polluted region--a model for public health.

    PubMed

    Marth, E; Haselbacher-Marko, S; Schaffler, K

    1996-11-01

    Regions with heavy industry are in many ways regions of crisis. The health of the population is primarily affected by the different air pollutants. Dust, with all its organic (dioxins and furans) and inorganic (heavy metals) contents, makes up the greatest part of the air-borne pollutants. The influence on health of environmental pollution was ascertained through the determination of different parameters (functional methods and determination of physiological parameters). This influence could be observed in children over a period of 8 years with regular investigations (e.g. determination of pulmonary function by spirometry and immunological parameters). Besides this exogenous load the persons are exposed to other environmental stresses-shift work, unemployment, alcoholism and divorce-which have a particular influence on the attitude and the upbringing of the children. Sixty per cent of the children in this polluted region ate no breakfast in the morning. Consequently it could be shown that the blood sugar in 70% of the children was below 70 mg/dl. Additionally, a relatively high amount of COHb (2.5% to 3%), and an increased concentration of serum IgE (47% of children with a concentration over 100 IU/ml), could be detected. Through a change in the environmental awareness of the children and their consequent influence, an effort should be made to achieve a positive effect on the health of the whole population. The children were given a chance to participate in various sports for the whole day during a week in the mountains at 1200 m. The teachers exercised with the children for at least 8 h per day. Besides gymnastics the program consisted of downhill and cross-country skiing. In addition, the children were offered a balanced and natural diet and they were instructed accordingly. This week of activity led to a clear reduction of the concentration of COHb, but to a far less clear improvement in the concentration of blood sugar and the pulmonary function.

  6. Characterization of ambient air pollution for stochastic health models

    SciTech Connect

    Batterman, S.A.

    1981-08-01

    This research is an analysis of various measures of ambient air pollution useful in cross-sectional epidemiological investigations and rick assessments. The Chestnut Ridge area health effects investigation, which includes a cross-sectional study of respiratory symptoms in young children, is used as a case study. Four large coal-fired electric generating power plants are the dominant pollution sources in this area of western Pennsylvania. The air pollution data base includes four years of sulfur dioxide and five years of total suspended particulate concentrations at seventeen monitors. Some 70 different characterizations of pollution are constructed and tested. These include pollutant concentrations at various percentiles and averaging times, exceedence measures which show the amount of time a specified threshold concentration is exceeded, and several dosage measures which transform non-linear dose-response relationships onto pollutant concentrations.

  7. Persistent organic pollutants and male reproductive health

    PubMed Central

    Vested, Anne; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Environmental contaminants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made bioaccumulative compounds with long half-lives that are found throughout the world as a result of heavy use in a variety of consumer products during the twentieth century. Wildlife and animal studies have long suggested adverse effects of exposure to these compounds on human reproductive health, which, according to the endocrine disrupter hypothesis, are ascribed to the compounds’ potential to interfere with endocrine signaling, especially when exposure occurs during certain phases of fetal and childhood development. An extensive number of epidemiological studies have addressed the possible effects of exposure to POPs on male reproductive health, but the results are conflicting. Thus far, most studies have focused on investigating exposure and the different reproductive health outcomes during adulthood. Some studies have addressed the potential harmful effects of fetal exposure with respect to malformations at birth and/or reproductive development, whereas only a few studies have been able to evaluate whether intrauterine exposure to POPs has long-term consequences for male reproductive health with measurable effects on semen quality markers and reproductive hormone levels in adulthood. Humans are not exposed to a single compound at a time, but rather, to a variety of different substances with potential divergent hormonal effects. Hence, how to best analyze epidemiological data on combined exposures remains a significant challenge. This review on POPs will focus on current knowledge regarding the potential effects of exposure to POPs during fetal and childhood life and during adulthood on male reproductive health, including a critical revision of the endocrine disruption hypothesis, a comment on pubertal development as part of reproductive development and a comment on how to account for combined exposures in epidemiological research. PMID:24369135

  8. Environmental pollution, chromosomes, and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In mid-May, 1980, President Carter declared a state of emergency at the Love Canal area, near Niagara Falls, New York. The reason for this was for the U.S. to underwrite the relocation costs ($3-5 million) of some 2500 residents who, according to a report by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) may have suffered damaged chromosomes. These injuries were apparently caused by contact with toxic wastes that had been dumped in the area in the years prior to development for housing.That the toxic compounds exist in the Love Canal and Niagara Falls subsurface zones, including public water supplies, appears to be established fact. That the residents of the Love Canal area suffered chromosomal damage may be established fact as well. Whether or not these two findings can be linked to ill health of the residents is another matter. Recently, the EPA report has been described as having ‘close to zero scientific significance,’ and has been ‘discredited’(Science, 208, 123a, 1980). The reasons for this disparity go beyond differences of opinion, beyond possible inadequacies of the EPA study, and even beyond problems that probably will arise from future studies, including those now in the planning stages. The problem is that even if victims have easily recognizable injuries from toxic substances (injury that apparently has not occurred to Love Canal residents), medical science usually cannot show a causal relationship. Even chromosomal damage is, at best, difficult to interpret. In ideal studies of significant populations and control groups, the association of toxic chemical to chromosome damage and to cancer and birth defects is indirect and, up to now, has been shown to have little or no significance to an individual member of the exposed population.

  9. Some current challenges in research on air pollution and health.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    This commentary addresses some of the diverse questions of current interest with regard to the health effects of air pollution, including exposure-response relationships, toxicity of inhaled particles and risks to health, multipollutant mixtures, traffic-related pollution, accountability research, and issues with susceptibility and vulnerability. It considers the challenges posed to researchers as they attempt to provide useful evidence for policy-makers relevant to these issues. This commentary accompanies papers giving the results from the ESCALA project, a multi-city study in Latin America that has an overall goal of providing policy-relevant results. While progress has been made in improving air quality, driven by epidemiological evidence that air pollution is adversely affecting public health, the research questions have become more subtle and challenging as levels of air pollution dropped. More research is still needed, but also novel methods and approaches to address these new questions.

  10. Coarse particles and mortality in three Chinese cities: the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES).

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Li, Yi; Ma, Yanjun; Pan, Guowei; Zeng, Guang; Xu, Xiaohui; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2011-11-01

    Evidence concerning the health risks of coarse particles (PM(10-2.5)) is limited. There have been no multi-city epidemiologic studies of PM(10-2.5) in developing Asian countries. We examine the short-term association between PM(10-2.5) and daily mortality in three Chinese cities: Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenyang. PM(10-2.5) concentrations were estimated by subtracting PM(2.5) from PM(10) measurements. Data were analyzed using the over-dispersed generalized linear Poisson models. The average daily concentrations of PM(10-2.5) were 101 μg/m(3) for Beijing (2007-2008), 50 μg/m(3) for Shanghai (2004-2008), and 49 μg/m(3) for Shenyang (2006-2008). In the single-pollutant models, the three-city combined analysis showed significant associations between PM(10-2.5) and daily mortality from both total non-accidental causes and from cardiopulmonary diseases. A 10-μg/m(3) increase in 1-day lagged PM(10-2.5) was associated with a 0.25% (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.42) increase in total mortality, 0.25% (95% CI: 0.10 to 0.40) increase in cardiovascular mortality, and 0.48% (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.76) increase in respiratory mortality. However, these associations became statistically insignificant after adjustment for PM(2.5). PM(2.5) was significantly associated with mortality both before and after adjustment for PM(10-2.5). In conclusion, there were no statistically significant associations between PM(10-2.5) and daily mortality after adjustment for PM(2.5) in the three Chinese cities.

  11. Health Effects of Environmental Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This booklet notes that for a long time the American people were willing to pay any price for progress. Now may refuse to accept an environment that menaces their health and lowers their enjoyment of life. They are embracing a new environmental consciousness, a broader vision of reality, a more profound sense of their place in nature. Among the…

  12. A novel approach for exposure assessment in air pollution epidemiological studies using neuro-fuzzy inference systems: Comparison of exposure estimates and exposure-health associations.

    PubMed

    Blanes-Vidal, Victoria; Cantuaria, Manuella Lech; Nadimi, Esmaeil S

    2017-04-01

    Many epidemiological studies have used proximity to sources as air pollution exposure assessment method. However, proximity measures are not generally good surrogates because of their complex non-linear relationship with exposures. Neuro-fuzzy inference systems (NFIS) can be used to map complex non-linear systems, but its usefulness in exposure assessment has not been extensively explored. We present a novel approach for exposure assessment using NFIS, where the inputs of the model were easily-obtainable proximity measures, and the output was residential exposure to an air pollutant. We applied it to a case-study on NH3 pollution, and compared health effects and exposures estimated from NFIS, with those obtained from emission-dispersion models, and linear and non-linear regression proximity models, using 10-fold cross validation. The agreement between emission-dispersion and NFIS exposures was high (Root-mean-square error (RMSE) =0.275, correlation coefficient (r)=0.91) and resulted in similar health effect estimates. Linear models showed poor performance (RMSE=0.527, r=0.59), while non-linear regression models resulted in heterocedasticity, non-normality and clustered data. NFIS could be a useful tool for estimating individual air pollution exposures in epidemiological studies on large populations, when emission-dispersion data are not available. The tradeoff between simplicity and accuracy needs to be considered.

  13. Acute Health Impact of Air Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, T.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution not only has long term health impact, but can affect health through acute exposure. This paper, using air pollution index (API) as overall evaluation of air quality, blood pressure and vital capacity as health outcomes, focuses on the acute health impact of air pollution in China. Current result suggests that after controlling smoking history, occupational exposure, income and education, API is positively associated with blood pressure and negatively associated with vital capacity. The associations became stronger for people with hypertension or pulmonary functional diseases, which indicates that these people are more sensitive to air pollution. Among three pollutants which API measures, that is inhalable particles (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), PM10 is most statistically associated with blood pressure increase and vital capacity decrease. Further study will focusing on the following two questions. The first question is how various time lags affect the associations among API, blood pressure and vital capacity. The second question is how differently people in various cohorts reacts to acute exposure to air pollution. The differences in reactions of blood pressure and vital capacity between people in urban and rural areas, genders, various age cohorts, distinct income and education groups will be further studied.

  14. [Air pollution and health - counselling options for physicians].

    PubMed

    Künzli, Nino; Kutlar, Meltem

    2013-12-01

    While air quality is usually an environmental condition patients can little do about, there are a few options and decisions that modify the personal exposure and risk. Location - in particular the residence - time and activity are the key determinants of personal exposure. Traffic-related primary pollutants such as ultrafine particles or diesel soot are highly concentrated along busy roads but reach urban background concentrations already some 100 - 200 meters off. Morbidity and mortality follow this spatial pattern, which is usually attributed to these pollutants. Depending on ventilation systems, indoor exposure can be substantially lower. Studies done in China confirm that the use of face masks in extremely polluted cities can reduce exposure, resulting in lower inflammatory and cardiovascular responses. A diet rich in antioxidants appears to also reduce some of the oxidative and inflammatory effects of air pollution and treatments such as leucotrien receptor antagonists or statins pay interfere with some of the adverse effects of pollution. However, the benefits, if any, are unlikely to be large. A quantitative comparison of the various pollution related health effects - namely from smoking, passive smoking and air pollution - reveal a typical paradox to be well understood: the individual risks related to air pollution and that one may reduce through personal decisions are rather small. However, given the large number of people exposed (i. e. in essence the entire population), the overall air pollution related health burden is rather substantial. This underscores that sustained clean air policies are indeed the most important and efficient solution to reduce the air pollution related health effects.

  15. Gender Differences and Effect of Air Pollution on Asthma in Children with and without Allergic Predisposition: Northeast Chinese Children Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Chen, Tao; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ma, Ya-Nan; Ren, Wan-Hui; Lee, Yungling Leo; Zhao, Ya-Dong; He, Qin-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Background Males and females exhibit different health responses to air pollution, but little is known about how exposure to air pollution affects juvenile respiratory health after analysis stratified by allergic predisposition. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between air pollutants and asthmatic symptoms in Chinese children selected from multiple sites in a heavily industrialized province of China, and investigate whether allergic predisposition modifies this relationship. Methodology/Principal Findings 30139 Chinese children aged 3-to-12 years were selected from 25 districts of seven cities in northeast China in 2009. Information on respiratory health was obtained using a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. Routine air-pollution monitoring data was used for particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO). A two-stage regression approach was applied in data analyses. The effect estimates were presented as odds ratios (ORs) per interquartile changes for PM10, SO2, NO2, O3, and CO. The results showed that children with allergic predisposition were more susceptible to air pollutants than children without allergic predisposition. Amongst children without an allergic predisposition, air pollution effects on asthma were stronger in males compared to females; Current asthma prevalence was related to PM10 (ORs = 1.36 per 31 µg/m3; 95% CI, 1.08–1.72), SO2 (ORs = 1.38 per 21 µg/m3; 95%CI, 1.12–1.69) only among males. However, among children with allergic predisposition, more positively associations between air pollutants and respiratory symptoms and diseases were detected in females; An increased prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was significantly associated with SO2 (ORs = 1.48 per 21 µg/m3; 95%CI, 1.21–1.80), NO2 (ORs = 1.26 per 10 µg/m3; 95%CI, 1.01–1.56), and current asthma with O3 (ORs = 1

  16. Review of air pollution and health impacts in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Hassan, Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Noor Akma

    2003-06-01

    In the early days of abundant resources and minimal development pressures, little attention was paid to growing environmental concerns in Malaysia. The haze episodes in Southeast Asia in 1983, 1984, 1991, 1994, and 1997 imposed threats to the environmental management of Malaysia and increased awareness of the environment. As a consequence, the government established Malaysian Air Quality Guidelines, the Air Pollution Index, and the Haze Action Plan to improve air quality. Air quality monitoring is part of the initial strategy in the pollution prevention program in Malaysia. Review of air pollution in Malaysia is based on the reports of the air quality monitoring in several large cities in Malaysia, which cover air pollutants such as Carbon monoxide (CO), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Ozone (O3), and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The results of the monitoring indicate that Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) are the predominant pollutants. Other pollutants such as CO, O(x), SO2, and Pb are also observed in several big cities in Malaysia. The air pollution comes mainly from land transportation, industrial emissions, and open burning sources. Among them, land transportation contributes the most to air pollution. This paper reviews the results of the ambient air quality monitoring and studies related to air pollution and health impacts.

  17. Effects of ambient air pollution measurement error on health effect estimates in time-series studies: a simulation-based analysis.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Matthew J; Gass, Katherine M; Goldman, Gretchen T; Mulholland, James A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated bias caused by spatial variability and spatial heterogeneity in outdoor air-pollutant concentrations, instrument imprecision, and choice of daily pollutant metric on risk ratio (RR) estimates obtained from a Poisson time-series analysis. Daily concentrations for 12 pollutants were simulated for Atlanta, Georgia, at 5 km resolution during a 6-year period. Viewing these as being representative of the true concentrations, a population-level pollutant health effect (RR) was specified, and daily counts of health events were simulated. Error representative of instrument imprecision was added to the simulated concentrations at the locations of fixed site monitors in Atlanta, and these mismeasured values were combined to create three different city-wide daily metrics (central monitor, unweighted average, and population-weighted average). Given our assumptions, the median bias in the RR per unit increase in concentration was found to be lowest for the population-weighted average metric. Although the Berkson component of error caused bias away from the null in the log-linear models, the net bias due to measurement error tended to be towards the null. The relative differences in bias among the metrics were lessened, although not eliminated, by scaling results to interquartile range increases in concentration.

  18. Impact of air pollution on vitamin D deficiency and bone health in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Feizabad, Elham; Hossein-Nezhad, Arash; Maghbooli, Zhila; Ramezani, Majid; Hashemian, Roxana; Moattari, Syamak

    2017-12-01

    The association between air pollution and bone health was evaluated in adolescents in the city of Tehran. This study is essentially ecological. Vitamin D deficiency among adolescents has been reported at higher rates in polluted areas than in non-polluted areas. Additionally, residence in polluted areas is associated with lower levels of bone alkaline phosphatase.

  19. A Study of the Combined Effects of Physical Activity and Air Pollution on Mortality in Elderly Urban Residents: The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Mendez, Michelle Ann; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Hertel, Ole; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity reduces, whereas exposure to air pollution increases, the risk of premature mortality. Physical activity amplifies respiratory uptake and deposition of air pollutants in the lung, which may augment acute harmful effects of air pollution during exercise. Objectives We aimed to examine whether benefits of physical activity on mortality are moderated by long-term exposure to high air pollution levels in an urban setting. Methods A total of 52,061 subjects (50–65 years of age) from the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, living in Aarhus and Copenhagen, reported data on physical activity in 1993–1997 and were followed until 2010. High exposure to air pollution was defined as the upper 25th percentile of modeled nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels at residential addresses. We associated participation in sports, cycling, gardening, and walking with total and cause-specific mortality by Cox regression, and introduced NO2 as an interaction term. Results In total, 5,534 subjects died: 2,864 from cancer, 1,285 from cardiovascular disease, 354 from respiratory disease, and 122 from diabetes. Significant inverse associations of participation in sports, cycling, and gardening with total, cardiovascular, and diabetes mortality were not modified by NO2. Reductions in respiratory mortality associated with cycling and gardening were more pronounced among participants with moderate/low NO2 [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.72 and 0.55; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.73, respectively] than with high NO2 exposure (HR = 0.77; 95% CI: 0.54, 1.11 and HR = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.55, 1.18, p-interaction = 0.09 and 0.02, respectively). Conclusions In general, exposure to high levels of traffic-related air pollution did not modify associations, indicating beneficial effects of physical activity on mortality. These novel findings require replication in other study populations. Citation Andersen ZJ, de Nazelle A, Mendez MA, Garcia-Aymerich J, Hertel O, Tjønneland A, Overvad

  20. Pollution's Price--The Cost in Human Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the detrimental effects of air pollution, and especially sulfur dioxide, on human health. Any relaxation of existing national air pollution standards because of the energy crisis could be costly in terms of the nation's health. (JR)

  1. Human health effects of air pollution.

    PubMed Central

    Folinsbee, L J

    1993-01-01

    Over the past three or four decades, there have been important advances in the understanding of the actions, exposure-response characteristics, and mechanisms of action of many common air pollutants. A multidisciplinary approach using epidemiology, animal toxicology, and controlled human exposure studies has contributed to the database. This review will emphasize studies of humans but will also draw on findings from the other disciplines. Air pollutants have been shown to cause responses ranging from reversible changes in respiratory symptoms and lung function, changes in airway reactivity and inflammation, structural remodeling of pulmonary airways, and impairment of pulmonary host defenses, to increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. Quantitative and qualitative understanding of the effects of a small group of air pollutants has advanced considerably, but the understanding is by no means complete, and the breadth of effects of all air pollutants is only partially understood. PMID:8354181

  2. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China.

    PubMed

    Kan, Haidong; Chen, Renjie; Tong, Shilu

    2012-07-01

    As the largest developing country, China has been changing rapidly over the last three decades and its economic expansion is largely driven by the use of fossil fuels, which leads to a dramatic increase in emissions of both ambient air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs). China is now facing the worst air pollution problem in the world, and is also the largest emitter of carbon dioxide. A number of epidemiological studies on air pollution and population health have been conducted in China, using time-series, case-crossover, cross-sectional, cohort, panel or intervention designs. The increased health risks observed among Chinese population are somewhat lower in magnitude, per amount of pollution, than the risks found in developed countries. However, the importance of these increased health risks is greater than that in North America or Europe, because the levels of air pollution in China are very high in general and Chinese population accounts for more than one fourth of the world's totals. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that climate change has already affected human health directly and indirectly in China, including mortality from extreme weather events; changes in air and water quality; and changes in the ecology of infectious diseases. If China acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the resultant air pollution, it will reap not only the health benefits associated with improvement of air quality but also the reduced GHG emissions. Consideration of the health impact of air pollution and climate change can help the Chinese government move forward towards sustainable development with appropriate urgency.

  3. Impact of traffic-related air pollution on health.

    PubMed

    Jakubiak-Lasocka, J; Lasocki, J; Siekmeier, R; Chłopek, Z

    2015-01-01

    Road transport contributes significantly to air quality problems through vehicle emissions, which have various detrimental impacts on public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of traffic-related air pollution on health of Warsaw citizens, following the basics of the Health Impact Assessment (HIA) method, and evaluate its social cost. PM10 was chosen as an indicator of traffic-related air pollution. Exposure-response functions between air pollution and health impacts were employed. The value of statistical life (VSL) approach was used for the estimation of the cost of mortality attributable to traffic-related air pollution. Costs of hospitalizations and restricted activity days were assessed basing on the cost of illness (COI) method. According to the calculations, about 827 Warsaw citizens die in a year as a result of traffic-related air pollution. Also, about 566 and 250 hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively, and more than 128,453 restricted activity days can be attributed to the traffic emissions. From the social perspective, these losses generate the cost of 1,604 million PLN (1 EUR-approx. 4.2 PLN). This cost is very high and, therefore, more attention should be paid for the integrated environmental health policy.

  4. Industrial water pollution, water environment treatment, and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Zhiming

    2016-11-01

    The negative health effects of water pollution remain a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. The Chinese government is making great efforts to strengthen water environment treatment; however, no studies have evaluated the effects of water treatment on human health by water pollution in China. This study evaluated the association between water pollution and health outcomes, and determined the extent to which environmental regulations on water pollution may lead to health benefits. Data were extracted from the 2011 and 2013 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Random effects model and random effects Logit model were applied to study the relationship between health and water pollution, while a Mediator model was used to estimate the effects of environmental water treatment on health outcomes by the intensity of water pollution. Unsurprisingly, water pollution was negatively associated with health outcomes, and the common pollutants in industrial wastewater had differential impacts on health outcomes. The effects were stronger for low-income respondents. Water environment treatment led to improved health outcomes among Chinese people. Reduced water pollution mediated the associations between water environment treatment and health outcomes. The results of this study offer compelling evidence to support treatment of water pollution in China.

  5. Investigating the role of transportation models in epidemiologic studies of traffic related air pollution and health effects.

    PubMed

    Shekarrizfard, Maryam; Valois, Marie-France; Goldberg, Mark S; Crouse, Dan; Ross, Nancy; Parent, Marie-Elise; Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2015-07-01

    In two earlier case-control studies conducted in Montreal, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a marker for traffic-related air pollution was found to be associated with the incidence of postmenopausal breast cancer and prostate cancer. These studies relied on a land use regression model (LUR) for NO2 that is commonly used in epidemiologic studies for deriving estimates of traffic-related air pollution. Here, we investigate the use of a transportation model developed during the summer season to generate a measure of traffic emissions as an alternative to the LUR model. Our traffic model provides estimates of emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the level of individual roads, as does the LUR model. Our main objective was to compare the distribution of the spatial estimates of NOx computed from our transportation model to the distribution obtained from the LUR model. A secondary objective was to compare estimates of risk using these two exposure estimates. We observed that the correlation (spearman) between our two measures of exposure (NO2 and NOx) ranged from less than 0.3 to more than 0.9 across Montreal neighborhoods. The most important factor affecting the "agreement" between the two measures in a specific area was found to be the length of roads. Areas affected by a high level of traffic-related air pollution had a far better agreement between the two exposure measures. A comparison of odds ratios (ORs) obtained from NO2 and NOx used in two case-control studies of breast and prostate cancer, showed that the differences between the ORs associated with NO2 exposure vs NOx exposure differed by 5.2-8.8%.

  6. Air pollution threatens the health of children in China

    SciTech Connect

    Millman, A.; Tang, D.L.; Perera, F.P.

    2008-09-15

    China's rapid economic development has come at the cost of severe environmental degradation, most notably from coal combustion. Outdoor air pollution is associated with >300 000 deaths, 20 million cases of respiratory illness, and a health cost of >500 billion renminbi (>3% of gross domestic product) annually. The young are particularly susceptible to air pollution, yet there has been only limited recognition of its effects on children's health and development. To fill this gap, we reviewed relevant published environmental studies, biomedical and molecular/epidemiologic research, and economic and policy analyses. China relies on coal for about 70% to 75% of its energy needs, consuming 1.9 billion tons of coal each year. In addition to CO{sub 2}, the major greenhouse gas, coal burning in China emits vast quantities of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sulfur dioxide, arsenic, and mercury. Seventy percent of Chinese households burn coal or biomass for cooking and heating, which contaminates indoor air. Adverse effects of combustion-related air pollution include reduced fetal and child growth, pulmonary disease including asthma, developmental impairment, and increased risk of cancer. A prospective molecular epidemiologic study of newborns in Chongqing has demonstrated direct benefits to children's health and development from the elimination of a coal-burning plant. Recognition of the full health and economic cost of air pollution to Chinese children and the benefits of pollution reduction should spur increased use of renewable energy, energy efficiency, and clean-fuel vehicles. This is a necessary investment for China's future.

  7. Health risk of inhalation exposure to sub-10 µm particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in an urban-industrial area in South Africa: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Mokgobu, Matlou Ingrid; Mukhola, Murembiwa Stanley

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the health risks associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3). Design The study is an ecological study that used the year 2014 hourly ambient pollution data. Setting The study was conducted in an industrial area located in Pretoria West, South Africa. The area accommodates a coal-fired power station, metallurgical industries such as a coke plant and a manganese smelter. Data and method Estimate of possible health risks from exposure to airborne PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 was performed using the US Environmental Protection Agency human health risk assessment framework. A scenario-assessment approach where normal (average exposure) and worst-case (continuous exposure) scenarios were developed for intermediate (24-hour) and chronic (annual) exposure periods for different exposure groups (infants, children, adults). The normal acute (1-hour) exposure to these pollutants was also determined. Outcome measures Presence or absence of adverse health effects from exposure to airborne pollutants. Results Average annual ambient concentration of PM10, NO2 and SO2 recorded was 48.3±43.4, 11.50±11.6 and 18.68±25.4 µg/m3, respectively, whereas the South African National Ambient Air Quality recommended 40, 40 and 50 µg/m3 for PM10, NO2 and SO2, respectively. Exposure to an hour's concentration of NO2, SO2, CO and O3, an 8-hour concentration of CO and O3, and a 24-hour concentration of PM10, NO2 and SO2 will not likely produce adverse effects to sensitive exposed groups. However, infants and children, rather than adults, are more likely to be affected. Moreover, for chronic annual exposure, PM10, NO2 and SO2 posed a health risk to sensitive individuals, with the severity of risk varying across exposed groups. Conclusions Long-term chronic exposure to airborne PM10, NO2 and SO2 pollutants may result in health risks among the study population. PMID:28289048

  8. [Principle for strategic decision based on population health risk in emergence environmental cadmium pollution control].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi

    2012-05-01

    The principles for strategic decision in emergence environmental pollution control was summarized based on population health risk and features of emergence events of environmental cadmium pollution. Main task and strategies for the events control was suggested in emergency treatment and post-event for water and soil cadmium pollution respectively. The work, monitoring method, key problems for both environment cadmium pollution and human health risk, and main content of health education for cadmium exposure people was proposed in follow-up action, at meanwhile, achievements of study on human health effects caused by environmental cadmium pollution was introduced briefly over recent years.

  9. Human health risks in megacities due to air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurjar, B. R.; Jain, A.; Sharma, A.; Agarwal, A.; Gupta, P.; Nagpure, A. S.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    This study evaluates the health risks in megacities in terms of mortality and morbidity due to air pollution. A new spreadsheet model, Risk of Mortality/Morbidity due to Air Pollution (Ri-MAP), is used to estimate the excess numbers of deaths and illnesses. By adopting the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline concentrations for the air pollutants SO 2, NO 2 and total suspended particles (TSP), concentration-response relationships and a population attributable-risk proportion concept are employed. Results suggest that some megacities like Los Angeles, New York, Osaka Kobe, Sao Paulo and Tokyo have very low excess cases in total mortality from these pollutants. In contrast, the approximate numbers of cases is highest in Karachi (15,000/yr) characterized by a very high concentration of total TSP (˜670 μg m -3). Dhaka (7000/yr), Beijing (5500/yr), Karachi (5200/yr), Cairo (5000/yr) and Delhi (3500/yr) rank highest with cardiovascular mortality. The morbidity (hospital admissions) due to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) follows the tendency of cardiovascular mortality. Dhaka and Karachi lead the rankings, having about 2100/yr excess cases, while Osaka-Kobe (˜20/yr) and Sao Paulo (˜50/yr) are at the low end of all megacities considered. Since air pollution is increasing in many megacities, and our database of measured pollutants is limited to the period up to 2000 and does not include all relevant components (e.g. O 3), these numbers should be interpreted as lower limits. South Asian megacities most urgently need improvement of air quality to prevent excess mortality and morbidity due to exceptionally high levels of air pollution. The risk estimates obtained from Ri-MAP present a realistic baseline evaluation for the consequences of ambient air pollution in comparison to simple air quality indices, and can be expanded and improved in parallel with the development of air pollution monitoring networks.

  10. Health benefit modelling and optimization of vehicular pollution control strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonawane, Nayan V.; Patil, Rashmi S.; Sethi, Virendra

    2012-12-01

    This study asserts that the evaluation of pollution reduction strategies should be approached on the basis of health benefits. The framework presented could be used for decision making on the basis of cost effectiveness when the strategies are applied concurrently. Several vehicular pollution control strategies have been proposed in literature for effective management of urban air pollution. The effectiveness of these strategies has been mostly studied as a one at a time approach on the basis of change in pollution concentration. The adequacy and practicality of such an approach is studied in the present work. Also, the assessment of respective benefits of these strategies has been carried out when they are implemented simultaneously. An integrated model has been developed which can be used as a tool for optimal prioritization of various pollution management strategies. The model estimates health benefits associated with specific control strategies. ISC-AERMOD View has been used to provide the cause-effect relation between control options and change in ambient air quality. BenMAP, developed by U.S. EPA, has been applied for estimation of health and economic benefits associated with various management strategies. Valuation of health benefits has been done for impact indicators of premature mortality, hospital admissions and respiratory syndrome. An optimization model has been developed to maximize overall social benefits with determination of optimized percentage implementations for multiple strategies. The model has been applied for sub-urban region of Mumbai city for vehicular sector. Several control scenarios have been considered like revised emission standards, electric, CNG, LPG and hybrid vehicles. Reduction in concentration and resultant health benefits for the pollutants CO, NOx and particulate matter are estimated for different control scenarios. Finally, an optimization model has been applied to determine optimized percentage implementation of specific

  11. Study of air pollutant detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutshall, P. L.; Bowles, C. Q.

    1974-01-01

    The application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS) to the detection of air pollutants was investigated. Current methods are reviewed for measuring contaminants of fixed gases, sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and particulates. Two enriching devices: the dimethyl silicone rubber membrane separator, and the selective adsorber of polyethylene foam were studied along with FIMS. It is concluded that the membrane enricher system is not a suitable method for removing air pollutants. However, the FIMS shows promise as a useable system for air pollution detection.

  12. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NOx, PM2.5, and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between −10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NOx), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM2.5, due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization. PMID:26670242

  13. Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shih Ying; Vizuete, William; Breen, Michael; Isakov, Vlad; Arunachalam, Saravanan

    2015-12-08

    Human exposure to air pollution in many studies is represented by ambient concentrations from space-time kriging of observed values. Space-time kriging techniques based on a limited number of ambient monitors may fail to capture the concentration from local sources. Further, because people spend more time indoors, using ambient concentration to represent exposure may cause error. To quantify the associated exposure error, we computed a series of six different hourly-based exposure metrics at 16,095 Census blocks of three Counties in North Carolina for CO, NO(x), PM(2.5), and elemental carbon (EC) during 2012. These metrics include ambient background concentration from space-time ordinary kriging (STOK), ambient on-road concentration from the Research LINE source dispersion model (R-LINE), a hybrid concentration combining STOK and R-LINE, and their associated indoor concentrations from an indoor infiltration mass balance model. Using a hybrid-based indoor concentration as the standard, the comparison showed that outdoor STOK metrics yielded large error at both population (67% to 93%) and individual level (average bias between -10% to 95%). For pollutants with significant contribution from on-road emission (EC and NO(x)), the on-road based indoor metric performs the best at the population level (error less than 52%). At the individual level, however, the STOK-based indoor concentration performs the best (average bias below 30%). For PM(2.5), due to the relatively low contribution from on-road emission (7%), STOK-based indoor metric performs the best at both population (error below 40%) and individual level (error below 25%). The results of the study will help future epidemiology studies to select appropriate exposure metric and reduce potential bias in exposure characterization.

  14. Indoor Air Pollutants and Health in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    El-Sadig, Mohamed; Leith, David; Kalsbeek, William; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Couper, David; Funk, William E.; Zoubeidi, Taoufik; Chan, Ronna L.; Trent, Chris B.; Davidson, Christopher A.; Boundy, Maryanne G.; Kassab, Maamoon M.; Hasan, Mohamed Y.; Rusyn, Ivan; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive global data on the health effects of indoor air pollutants are lacking. There are few large population-based multi–air pollutant health assessments. Further, little is known about indoor air health risks in the Middle East, especially in countries undergoing rapid economic development. Objectives: To provide multifactorial indoor air exposure and health data, we conducted a population-based study of indoor air pollution and health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a population-based sample of 628 households in the UAE. Indoor air pollutants [sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), formaldehyde (HCHO), carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter] were measured using passive samplers over a 7-day period. Health information was collected from 1,590 household members via in-person interviews. Results: Participants in households with quantified SO2, NO2, and H2S (i.e., with measured concentrations above the limit of quantification) were twice as likely to report doctor-diagnosed asthma. Participants in homes with quantified SO2 were more likely to report wheezing symptoms {ever wheezing, prevalence odds ratio [POR] 1.79 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05, 3.05]; speech-limiting wheeze, POR 3.53 (95% CI: 1.06, 11.74)}. NO2 and H2S were similarly associated with wheezing symptoms. Quantified HCHO was associated with neurologic symptoms (difficulty concentrating POR 1.47; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.13). Burning incense daily was associated with increased headaches (POR 1.87; 95% CI: 1.09, 3.21), difficulty concentrating (POR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.70, 5.58), and forgetfulness (POR 2.68: 95% CI: 1.47, 4.89). Conclusions: This study provides new information regarding potential health risks from pollutants commonly found in indoor environments in the UAE and other countries. Multipollutant exposure and health assessments in cohort studies are needed to better characterize health effects

  15. UBIQUITOUS POLLUTION FROM HEALTH AND COSMETIC ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processses and human influence. Although this galaxy of targeted chemicals might be miniuscule compared with the universe of both known and yet-to-be identified chemicals, an implicit assumption is that these selective lists of chemicals are responsible for the most significant share of risk with respect to environmental or economic impairment or to human health.Pharmaceuticals and person care products (PPCPs) comprise a particularly large and diverse array of unregulated pollutants that occur in the environment from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use. Although the concentration of any individual PPCP are generally less than ppt-ppb), evidence is accumulateing that these trace-level pollutants are ubiquitous, they can have a continuous presence regardless of environment half-lives (especially where sanitary wastewaters enter the environment), and the numbers of distinct and varied chemical entities could be extremely large (given that thousands are in commerical use). The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Locat

  16. The state of scientific evidence on air pollution and human health in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Anobha; Bell, Michelle L

    2013-07-01

    Air pollution has been linked to acute and chronic health effects. However, the majority of evidence is based in North America and Europe, with a growing number of studies in Asia and Latin America. Nepal is one of the many South Asian countries where little such research has been conducted. We summarized the state of scientific evidence and identify research gaps based on the existing literature on air pollution and human health in Nepal. We performed a systematic literature search to identify relevant studies. Studies were categorized as those that estimate: (1) health impacts of indoor air pollution, (2) health impacts of outdoor air pollution, (3) health burdens from outdoor air pollution in Nepal based on existing concentration-response relationships from elsewhere, or (4) exposure and air quality but do not link to health. We identified 89 studies, of which 23 linked air pollution to health impacts. The remainder focused on exposure and air quality, demonstrating high pollution levels. The few health studies focused mainly on indoor air (n=15), especially in rural areas and during cooking. Direct exposure measurements were for short time periods; most studies used indirect exposure methods (e.g., questionnaire). Most health studies had small sample sizes with almost all focusing on respiratory health. Although few studies have examined air pollution and health in Nepal, the existing studies indicate high pollution levels and suggest large health impacts. Nepal's dearth of scientific research on air pollution and health is not unique and likely is similar to that of many other developing regions. Future research with larger studies and more health outcomes is needed. Key challenges include data availability.

  17. Indoor Air Pollution (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Videos Games Experiments For Teachers Home ... Pollutants Natural Disasters Drinking Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Indoor Air Pollution The Basics We ...

  18. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and miscla...

  19. Outdoor air pollution and respiratory health in Asia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhong, Nanshan

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid economic development occurring in the last decade in many countries of Asia, the level of air pollution has increased from both industrial and motor vehicle emissions. Compared with Europe and North America, the potential health effects of this increasing air pollution in Asia remain largely unmeasured. Recent data published by the Health Effects Institute from some major cities in India and China reveal that a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with an increase in mortality of 0.6% in daily all-natural cause mortality, with higher risks being found at extremes of high temperatures and in the lowest economically advantaged population. Other Asian studies have confirmed the link between hospital admissions for the worsening of COPD and the increase in asthma prevalence to levels of outdoor air pollutants. Although potential health effects appear to be similar to already-published Western data, it is important that further studies be carried out in Asia that will inform the public and the authorities of the necessity to curb levels of outdoor air pollutants to acceptable levels.

  20. Environmental pollution and child health in central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, E F; Schell, L M; Marshall, E G; Carpenter, D O; Suk, W A; Zejda, J E

    1998-01-01

    For the last 50 years, the economic and industrial development of the nations of Central and Eastern Europe has been achieved at the cost of environmental degradation. The health risks posed by this pollution to children and the steps necessary to ameliorate such risks are only beginning to be investigated. At a recent conference in Poland, sponsored in part by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, participants from 11 countries in the region, together with scientists from Western Europe and the United States, met to share information regarding pediatric environmental health in Central and Eastern Europe, to consider methodologic issues in the design and conduct of such studies, and to discuss preventive strategies. This report summarizes the deliberations, outlines problem areas such as heavy metals and air pollution, delineates research and training needs to help Central and Eastern Europeans deal more effectively with such problems, and recommends specific future actions and collaborative efforts. PMID:9618345

  1. Water pollution and human health in China.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, C; Maurer, C; Wang, Y; Xue, S; Davis, D L

    1999-01-01

    China's extraordinary economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization, coupled with inadequate investment in basic water supply and treatment infrastructure, have resulted in widespread water pollution. In China today approximately 700 million people--over half the population--consume drinking water contaminated with levels of animal and human excreta that exceed maximum permissible levels by as much as 86% in rural areas and 28% in urban areas. By the year 2000, the volume of wastewater produced could double from 1990 levels to almost 78 billion tons. These are alarming trends with potentially serious consequences for human health. This paper reviews and analyzes recent Chinese reports on public health and water resources to shed light on what recent trends imply for China's environmental risk transition. This paper has two major conclusions. First, the critical deficits in basic water supply and sewage treatment infrastructure have increased the risk of exposure to infectious and parasitic disease and to a growing volume of industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and algal toxins. Second, the lack of coordination between environmental and public health objectives, a complex and fragmented system to manage water resources, and the general treatment of water as a common property resource mean that the water quality and quantity problems observed as well as the health threats identified are likely to become more acute. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10090702

  2. Origin and assessment of groundwater pollution and associated health risk: a case study in an industrial park, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiyue; Wu, Jianhua; Qian, Hui; Lyu, Xinsheng; Liu, Hongwei

    2014-08-01

    Groundwater quality which relates closely to human health has become as important as its quantity due to the demand for safe water. In the present study, an entropy-weighted fuzzy water quality index (WQI) has been proposed for performing groundwater quality assessment in and around an industrial park, northwest China, where domestic water requirements are solely met by groundwater. The human health risk was assessed with the model recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the sources of major ions and main contaminants were also analyzed. The study shows that groundwater in the study area has been contaminated conjunctively by natural processes and industrial and agricultural activities. Nitrate, manganese (Mn), fluoride, total dissolved solids, total hardness and sulfate are major contaminants influencing groundwater quality. Nitrate and heavy metals such as Mn are mainly affected by human agricultural activities and industrial production, while other contaminants are mainly originated from mineral weathering and water-rock interactions. The results of water quality assessment suggest that half of the groundwater samples collected are of medium quality thus require pretreatment before human consumption. The mean health risk caused by the consumption of contaminated groundwater in the area is 8.42 × 10(-5) per year which surpasses the maximum acceptable level (5 × 10(-5) per year) recommended by the International Commission on Radiologic Protection. The entropy-weighted fuzzy WQI proposed in this study can not only assign proper weights to parameters but also treat uncertainties associated with water quality classification. This study will be of interest to international environmentalists and hydrogeologists. It will also be useful in regional groundwater management and protection.

  3. Adverse health effects of air pollutants in a nonsmoking population.

    PubMed

    Pope, C A

    1996-07-17

    Utah Valley has provided an interesting and unique opportunity to evaluate the health effects of respirable particulate air pollution (PM10). Residents of this valley are predominantly nonsmoking members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The area has moderately high average PM10 levels with periods of highly elevated PM10 concentrations due to local emissions being trapped in a stagnant air mass near the valley floor during low-level temperature inversion episodes. Due to a labor dispute, there was intermittent operation of the single largest pollution source, an old integrated steel mill. Levels of other common pollutants including sulfur dioxide, ozone, and acidic aerosol are relatively low. Studies specific to Utah Valley have observed that elevated PM10 concentrations are associated with: (1) decreased lung function; (2) increased incidence of respiratory symptoms; (3) increased school absenteeism; (4) increased respiratory hospital admissions; and (5) increased mortality, especially respiratory and cardiovascular mortality.

  4. A Comparison of Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants: Application to Epidemiology Studies in Detroit, Michigan

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vehicles are major sources of air pollutant emissions, and individuals living near large roads endure high exposures and health risks associated with traffic-related air pollutants. Air pollution epidemiology, health risk, environmental justice, and transportation planning studi...

  5. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials.

  6. Effects on health of air pollution: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Harari, Sergio; Martinelli, Ida; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Air pollution is a complex and ubiquitous mixture of pollutants including particulate matter, chemical substances and biological materials. There is growing awareness of the adverse effects on health of air pollution following both acute and chronic exposure, with a rapidly expanding body of evidence linking air pollution with an increased risk of respiratory (e.g., asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer) and cardiovascular disease (e.g., myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular accidents). Elderly subjects, pregnant women, infants and people with prior diseases appear especially susceptible to the deleterious effects of ambient air pollution. The main diseases associated with exposure to air pollutants will be summarized in this narrative review.

  7. [Study on the risk assessment method of regional groundwater pollution].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Wang, Zong-Qing; Li, Ding-Long; Sun, Hong-Wei

    2013-02-01

    Based on the boundary elements of system risk assessment, the regional groundwater pollution risk assessment index system was preliminarily established, which included: regional groundwater specific vulnerability assessment, the regional pollution sources characteristics assessment and the health risk assessment of regional featured pollutants. The three sub-evaluation systems were coupled with the multi-index comprehensive method, the risk was characterized with the Spatial Analysis of ArcMap, and a new method to evaluate regional groundwater pollution risk that suitable for different parts of natural conditions, different types of pollution was established. Take Changzhou as an example, the risk of shallow groundwater pollution was studied with the new method, and found that the vulnerability index of groundwater in Changzhou is high and distributes unevenly; The distribution of pollution sources is concentrated and has a great impact on groundwater pollution risks; Influenced by the pollutants and pollution sources, the values of health risks are high in the urban area of Changzhou. The pollution risk of shallow groundwater is high and distributes unevenly, and distributes in the north of the line of Anjia-Xuejia-Zhenglu, the center of the city and the southeast, where the human activities are more intense and the pollution sources are intensive.

  8. Indoor air pollution in rural China: cooking fuels, stoves, and health status.

    PubMed

    Peabody, John W; Riddell, Travis J; Smith, Kirk R; Liu, Yaping; Zhao, Yanyun; Gong, Jianghui; Milet, Meredith; Sinton, Jonathan E

    2005-01-01

    Solid fuels are a major source of indoor air pollution, but in less developed countries the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution are poorly understood. The authors conducted a large cross-sectional study of rural Chinese households to determine associations between individual health status and domestic cooking as a source of indoor air pollution. The study included measures of health status as well as measures of indoor air-pollution sources, such as solid cooking fuels and cooking stoves. Compared with other fuel types, coal was associated with a lower health status, including negative impacts on exhaled carbon monoxide level, forced vital capacity, lifetime prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, and health care utilization. Decreasing household coal use, increasing use of improved stove technology, and increasing kitchen ventilation may decrease the short-term health effects of indoor air pollution.

  9. Using biochemical and isotope geochemistry to understand the environmental and public health implications of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River, Iberia: a freshwater bivalve study.

    PubMed

    Company, R; Serafim, A; Lopes, B; Cravo, A; Shepherd, T J; Pearson, G; Bebianno, M J

    2008-11-01

    Lead is a natural component of aquatic ecosystems with no known biological role and is highly toxic. Its toxicity stems from its ability to mimic biologically important metals and to produce membrane damage through lipid peroxidation (LPO). Most lead poisoning symptoms are thought to occur by interfering with an essential enzyme, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), the activity of which is markedly inhibited by lead. The purpose of this work was to study the levels and effects of lead pollution (responses of ALAD and oxidative stress biomarker LPO) in the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along the lower Guadiana River (Portugal and Spain); a major river system impacted by historic mining pollution and more recent anthropogenic inputs. The results show that the enzymatic activity of ALAD is negatively correlated with the total Pb concentration of the whole tissue suggesting that ALAD has considerable potential as a biomarker of lead exposure in C. fluminea. To identify the sources of lead to which bivalves have been exposed, high precision (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)/Pb ratios for C. fluminea confirm that historical mining activities in the Iberian Pyrite Belt are the dominant source of lead pollution in the lower Guadiana River. The isotope patterns however exhibit marked seasonal and geographic variation in response to rainfall and river water management. Locally, other anthropogenic sources of lead have been detected in C. fluminea close to population centres, thus adding to its versatility as a freshwater bio-indicator. Overall, the study highlights the value of natural ecosystems as monitors of water quality and their importance for public health assessment and surveillance.

  10. Air Pollution and Health: Emerging Information on Susceptible Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Outdoor air pollution poses risks to human health in communities around the world, and research on populations who are most susceptible continues to reveal new insights. Human susceptibility to adverse health effects from exposure to air pollution can be related to underlying dis...

  11. The Effects of Organic Pollutants in Soil on Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Lynn

    2013-04-01

    The soil has always been depository of the organic chemicals produced naturally or anthropogenically. Soil contamination is a serious human and environmental problem. A large body of evidence has shown the risks of adverse health effects with the exposure to contaminated soil due to the large quantities of organic chemicals used in agriculture and urban areas that have a legacy of environmental pollution linked to industrial activities, coal burning, motor vehicle emissions, waste incineration and waste dumping. In agricultural areas, because of the effort to provide adequate quantities of agricultural products, farmers have been using an increasing amount of organic chemicals, but the resulting pollution has enormous potential for environmental damage. The types of organic pollutants commonly found in soils are polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, herbicides and organic fuels, especially gasoline and diesel. Another source of soil pollution is the complex mixture of organic chemicals, metals and microorganisms in the effluent from septic systems, animal wastes and other sources of biowaste. The soils of the world are a vast mixture of chemicals and although conditions are such that an individual is rarely exposed to a single compound, the great majority of people are exposed to a vast chemical mixture of organics, their metabolites, and other compounds at low concentrations Human exposure to organic pollutants in the soil is an area of toxicology that is very difficult to study due to the low concentration of the pollutants. The toxicological studies of single organic pollutants found in soils are limited and research on the metabolites and of chemical mixtures is very limited. The majority of toxicological studies are conducted at relatively high doses and for short periods of exposure. This makes the application of this data to exposure

  12. Ambient Air Pollution and Neurotoxicity on Brain Structure: Evidence from Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Wang, Xinhui; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Serre, Marc L.; Driscoll, Ira; Casanova, Ramon; McArdle, John J.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Chui, Helena C.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the putative adverse effects of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on brain volumes in older women. Methods We conducted a prospective study of 1403 community-dwelling older women without dementia enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS), 1996–8. Structural brain MRI scans were performed at age of 71–89 years in 2005–6 to obtain volumetric measures of gray matter (GM) and normal-appearing white matter (WM). Given residential histories and air monitoring data, we used a spatiotemporal model to estimate cumulative PM2.5 exposure in 1999–2006. Multiple linear regression was employed to evaluate the associations between PM2.5 and brain volumes, adjusting for intracranial volumes and potential confounders. Results Older women with greater PM2.5 exposures had significantly smaller WM, but not GM volumes, independent of geographic region, demographics, socioeconomic status, lifestyles, and clinical characteristics including cardiovascular risk factors. For each inter-quartile increment (3.49 µg/m3) of cumulative PM2.5 exposure, the average WM volume (95% confidence interval) was 6.23 (3.72–8.74) cm3 in the total brain and 4.47 (2.27–6.67) cm3 lower in the association areas, equivalent to 1–2 years of brain aging. The adverse PM2.5 effects on smaller WM volumes were present in frontal and temporal lobes and corpus callosum (all p-values <0.01). Hippocampal volumes did not differ by PM2.5 exposure. Interpretation PM2.5 exposure may contribute to WM loss in older women. Future studies are needed to determine whether exposures result in myelination disturbance, disruption of axonal integrity, damages to oligodendrocytes, or other WM neuropathologies. PMID:26075655

  13. Potential adverse health effects of persistent organic pollutants on sea turtles: evidences from a cross-sectional study on Cape Verde loggerhead sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Camacho, María; Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; López Jurado, Luis F; Medina, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Orós, Jorge

    2013-08-01

    The Cape Verde nesting population of loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) is the third largest population of this species in the world. For conservation purposes, it is essential to determine how these reptiles respond to different types of anthropogenic contaminants. We evaluated the presence of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the plasma of adult nesting loggerheads from Boa Vista Island, Cape Verde, and studied the effects of the contaminants on the health status of the turtles using hematological and biochemical parameters. All turtles had detectable levels of non-dioxin like PCBs, whereas dioxin-like congeners (DL-PCBs) were detected in only 30% of the turtles. Packed cell volume decreased with higher concentrations of PCBs, which suggests that PCB exposure could result in anemia in sea turtles. In addition, a negative association between some OCPs and white blood cells (WBC) and thrombocyte estimate was noted. The DDT-metabolite, p,p'-DDE was negatively correlated with the Na/K ratio and, additionally, a number of correlations between certain PAHs and electrolyte balances were found, which suggest that exposure to these environmental contaminants could affect the kidneys and salt glands in sea turtles. Additionally, several correlations were observed between these environmental pollutants (OCPs and PAHs) and enzyme activity (GGT, ALT, ALP and amylase) and serum protein levels, pointing to the possibility that these contaminants could induce adverse metabolic effects in sea turtles. Our results indicate that anthropogenic pollutants are present in the Cape Verde loggerhead turtle nesting population and could exert negative effects on several health parameters. Because of the importance of this loggerhead nesting population, protective regulations at national and international levels as well as international action are necessary for assuring the conservation of this population.

  14. A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiyuan; Ma, Zongwei; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Yuan, Zengwei; Huang, Lei

    2014-01-15

    Heavy metal pollution has pervaded many parts of the world, especially developing countries such as China. This review summarizes available data in the literature (2005-2012) on heavy metal polluted soils originating from mining areas in China. Based on these obtained data, this paper then evaluates the soil pollution levels of these collected mines and quantifies the risks these pollutants pose to human health. To assess these potential threat levels, the geoaccumulation index was applied, along with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended method for health risk assessment. The results demonstrate not only the severity of heavy metal pollution from the examined mines, but also the high carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks that soil heavy metal pollution poses to the public, especially to children and those living in the vicinity of heavily polluted mining areas. In order to provide key management targets for relevant government agencies, based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg, As, and Ni are selected as the priority control heavy metals; tungsten, manganese, lead-zinc, and antimony mines are selected as the priority control mine categories; and southern provinces and Liaoning province are selected as the priority control provinces. This review, therefore, provides a comprehensive assessment of soil heavy metal pollution derived from mines in China, while identifying policy recommendations for pollution mitigation and environmental management of these mines.

  15. Effect of air pollution on athlete health and performance.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth William

    2012-05-01

    Unfavourable effects on the respiratory and the cardiovascular systems from short-term and long-term inhalation of air pollution are well documented. Exposure to freshly generated mixed combustion emissions such as those observed in proximity to roadways with high volumes of traffic and those from ice-resurfacing equipment are of particular concern. This is because there is a greater toxicity from freshly generated whole exhaust than from its component parts. The particles released from emissions are considered to cause oxidative damage and inflammation in the airways and the vascular system, and may be related to decreased exercise performance. However, few studies have examined this aspect. Several papers describe deleterious effects on health from chronic and acute air pollution exposure. However, there has been no research into the effects of long-term exposure to air pollution on athletic performance and a paucity of studies that describe the effects of acute exposure on exercise performance. The current knowledge of exercising in the high-pollution environment and the consequences that it may have on athlete performance are reviewed.

  16. Respiratory health effects of indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Perez-Padilla, R; Schilmann, A; Riojas-Rodriguez, H

    2010-09-01

    Domestic pollution is relevant to health because people spend most of their time indoors. One half of the world's population is exposed to high concentrations of solid fuel smoke (biomass and coal) that are produced by inefficient open fires, mainly in the rural areas of developing countries. Concentrations of particulate matter in kitchens increase to the range of milligrams per cubic meter during cooking. Solid fuel smoke possesses the majority of the toxins found in tobacco smoke and has also been associated with a variety of diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in women, acute respiratory infection in children and lung cancer in women (if exposed to coal smoke). Other tobacco smoke-associated diseases, such as tuberculosis, asthma, respiratory tract cancer and interstitial lung diseases, may also be associated with solid fuel smoke inhalation, but evidence is limited. As the desirable change to clean fuels is unlikely, efforts have been made to use efficient, vented wood or coal stoves, with varied success due to inconsistent acceptance by the community.

  17. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  18. Monitoring of metal pollution in waterways across Bangladesh and ecological and public health implications of pollution.

    PubMed

    Kibria, Golam; Hossain, Md Maruf; Mallick, Debbrota; Lau, T C; Wu, Rudolf

    2016-12-01

    Using innovative artificial mussels technology for the first time, this study detected eight heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, U, Zn) on a regular basis in waterways across Bangladesh (Chittagong, Dhaka and Khulna). Three heavy metals, viz. Co, Cr and Hg were always below the instrumental detection levels in all the sites during the study period. Through this study, seven metal pollution "hot spots" have been identified, of which, five "hot spots" (Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb) were located in the Buriganga River, close to the capital Dhaka. Based on this study, the Buriganga River can be classified as the most polluted waterway in Bangladesh compared to waterways monitored in Khulna and Chittagong. Direct effluents discharged from tanneries, textiles are, most likely, reasons for elevated concentrations of heavy metals in the Buriganga River. In other areas (Khulna), agriculture and fish farming effluents may have caused higher Cu, U and Zn in the Bhairab and Rupsa Rivers, whereas untreated industrial discharge and ship breaking activities can be linked to elevated Cd in the coastal sites (Chittagong). Metal pollution may cause significant impacts on water quality (irrigation, drinking), aquatic biodiversity (lethal and sub-lethal effects), food contamination/food security (bioaccumulation of metals in crops and seafood), human health (diseases) and livelihoods of people associated with wetlands.

  19. Asbestos and silicate pollution: Public health. July 1976-March 1989 (Citations from Pollution Abstracts). Report for July 1976-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the occurence and effects of asbestos and silicate pollution as a public health risk. This bibliography covers research on the epidemiological and medical studies involving exposure to asbestos and silicates, ingestion of asbestos, and methods to measure asbestos and silicate pollution. Topics include cancer risks, asbestos in drinking water, hazards of silica dust inahalation, and hazard management and abatement. Asbestos and silicate pollution in the workplace, and asbestos removal technology are found in separate published bibliographies. (Contains 104 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  20. Household air pollution and its effects on health.

    PubMed

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity.

  1. Household air pollution and its effects on health

    PubMed Central

    Apte, Komalkirti; Salvi, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution is a leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in Southeast Asia and the third leading cause of disability-adjusted life years globally. There are at least sixty sources of household air pollution, and these vary from country to country. Indoor tobacco smoking, construction material used in building houses, fuel used for cooking, heating and lighting, use of incense and various forms of mosquito repellents, use of pesticides and chemicals used for cleaning at home, and use of artificial fragrances are some of the various sources that contribute to household air pollution. Household air pollution affects all stages of life with multi-systemic health effects, and its effects are evident right from pre-conception to old age. In utero exposure to household air pollutants has been shown to have health effects which resonate over the entire lifetime. Exposures to indoor air pollutants in early childhood also tend to have repercussions throughout life. The respiratory system bears the maximum brunt, but effects on the cardiovascular system, endocrine system, and nervous system are largely underplayed. Household air pollutants have also been implicated in the development of various types of cancers. Identifying household air pollutants and their health implications helps us prepare for various health-related issues. However, the real challenge is adopting changes to reduce the health effects of household air pollution and designing innovative interventions to minimize the risk of further exposure. This review is an attempt to understand the various sources of household air pollution, the effects on health, and strategies to deal with this emergent risk factor of global mortality and morbidity. PMID:27853506

  2. UNDERSTANDING THE EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HUMAN HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modern air pollution regulation is first and foremost motivated by concerns about the effects of air pollutants on human health and secondarily by concerns about its effects on ecosystems, cultural artifacts, and quality of life values such as visibility. This order of priority ...

  3. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... You can protect your family by checking the air quality forecasts in your community and avoiding exercising or working outdoors when the unhealthy air is expected. Big polluters and some members of ...

  4. Community Perceptions of Air Pollution and Related Health Risks in Nairobi Slums

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ng, Nawi; Muindi, Kanyiva; Oti, Samuel; van de Vijver, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people’s response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people’ perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were lowamong the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks. PMID:24157509

  5. The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accumulating evidence suggests that air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists...

  6. Promoting Good Prenatal Health: Air Pollution and Pregnancy (January 2010)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    simple steps for pregnant women and new mothers/parents to avoid common environmental exposures which can cause health problems and adverse birth outcomes; including tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, particle pollution, ozone,

  7. Associations between short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide and mortality in 17 Chinese cities: the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES).

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Samoli, Evangelia; Wong, Chit-Ming; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zongshuang; Chen, Bingheng; Kan, Haidong

    2012-09-15

    Few multi-city studies in Asian developing countries have examined the acute health effects of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). In the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES), we investigated the short-term association between NO(2) and mortality in 17 Chinese cities. We applied two-stage Bayesian hierarchical models to obtain city-specific and national average estimates for NO(2). In each city, we used Poisson regression models incorporating natural spline smoothing functions to adjust for long-term and seasonal trend of mortality, as well as other time-varying covariates. We examined the associations by age, gender and education status. We combined the individual-city estimates of the concentration-response curves to get an overall NO(2)-mortality association in China. The averaged daily concentrations of NO(2) in the 17 Chinese cities ranged from 26 μg/m(3) to 67 μg/m(3). In the combined analysis, a 10-μg/m(3) increase in two-day moving averaged NO(2) was associated with a 1.63% [95% posterior interval (PI), 1.09 to 2.17], 1.80% (95% PI, 1.00 to 2.59) and 2.52% (95% PI, 1.44 to 3.59) increase of total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. These associations remained significant after adjustment for ambient particles or sulfur dioxide (SO(2)). Older people appeared to be more vulnerable to NO(2) exposure. The combined concentration-response curves indicated a linear association. Conclusively, this largest epidemiologic study of NO(2) in Asian developing countries to date suggests that short-term exposure to NO(2) is associated with increased mortality risk.

  8. A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure studies rely on detailed characterization of air quality, either from sparsely located routine ambient monitors or from central monitoring sites that may lack spatial representativeness. Alternatively, some studies use models of various complexities to characterize local...

  9. [Light pollution. A connection between ecology and health].

    PubMed

    Jedidi, H; Depierreux, F; Jedidi, Z; Beckers, A

    2015-11-01

    Light pollution is defined as the abnormal and disturbing nocturnal presence of light, its adverse consequences on flora, fauna, and, ecosystems, and its suspected or proven effects on human health. Light pollution is a quite recent and increasing phenomenon within our society; it leads to a major environmental damage not only on wildlife, but also on human health (cancers, obesity, fatigue, depression...). The solutions to this problem are however simple, efficient and, de facto, inexpensive because they involve a substantial energy saving.

  10. HEALTH CARE GUIDE TO POLLUTION PREVENTION IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Care Guide to Pollution Prevention Implementation through Environmental Management Systems provides example EMS procedures and forms used in four ISO 14001 EMS certified hospitals. The latest revisions include more EMS hospital case studies, more compliance resources, ...

  11. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities.

    PubMed

    Romero-Lankao, Patricia; Qin, Hua; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy

    2013-04-01

    This paper explores whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  12. Exploration of health risks related to air pollution and temperature in three Latin American cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Lankao, P.; Borbor Cordova, M.; Qin, H.

    2013-12-01

    We explore whether the health risks related to air pollution and temperature extremes are spatially and socioeconomically differentiated within three Latin American cities: Bogota, Colombia, Mexico City, Mexico, and Santiago, Chile. Based on a theoretical review of three relevant approaches to risk analysis (risk society, environmental justice, and urban vulnerability as impact), we hypothesize that health risks from exposure to air pollution and temperature in these cities do not necessarily depend on socio-economic inequalities. To test this hypothesis, we gathered, validated, and analyzed temperature, air pollution, mortality and socioeconomic vulnerability data from the three study cities. Our results show the association between air pollution levels and socioeconomic vulnerabilities did not always correlate within the study cities. Furthermore, the spatial differences in socioeconomic vulnerabilities within cities do not necessarily correspond with the spatial distribution of health impacts. The present study improves our understanding of the multifaceted nature of health risks and vulnerabilities associated with global environmental change. The findings suggest that health risks from atmospheric conditions and pollutants exist without boundaries or social distinctions, even exhibiting characteristics of a boomerang effect (i.e., affecting rich and poor alike) on a smaller scale such as areas within urban regions. We used human mortality, a severe impact, to measure health risks from air pollution and extreme temperatures. Public health data of better quality (e.g., morbidity, hospital visits) are needed for future research to advance our understanding of the nature of health risks related to climate hazards.

  13. Evaluation of Nationwide Health Costs of Air Pollution and Cigarette Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. R.; Justus, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    The findings of this study indicate cigarette smoking causes more respiratory diseases than does air pollution. The 1970 nationwide health cost of respiratory diseases is estimated at $6.22 billion. The effect of air pollution accounts for between 1 and 5 percent of this total cost while cigarette smoking represents 68 percent. (MLB)

  14. The effects of air pollution on the health of children

    PubMed Central

    Buka, Irena; Koranteng, Samuel; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R

    2006-01-01

    The present article is intended to inform paediatricians about the associations between ambient air pollution and adverse health outcomes in children within the context of current epidemiological evidence. The majority of the current literature pertains to adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, other respiratory symptoms, and deficits in lung function and growth, as well as exposure to ambient levels of criteria air pollutants. In addition to the above, the present article highlights mortality, pregnancy outcomes, vitamin D deficiency and alteration in the immune system of children. Some of the data on the impact of improved air quality on children’s health are provided, including the reduction of air pollution in former East Germany following the reunification of Germany, as well as the reduction in the rates of childhood asthma events during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, due to a reduction in local motor vehicle traffic. However, there are many other toxic air pollutants that are regularly released into the air. These pollutants, which are not regularly monitored and have not been adequately researched, are also potentially harmful to children. Significant morbidity and mortality is attributed to ambient air pollution, resulting in a significant economic cost to society. As Canada’s cities grow, air pollution issues need to be a priority in order to protect the health of children and support sustainable development for future generations. PMID:19030320

  15. Health effects associated with passenger vehicles: monetary values of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed; Madany, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is regarded as one of the highest priorities in environmental protection in both developed and developing countries. High levels of air pollution have adverse effects on human health that might cause premature death. This study presents the monetary value estimates for the adverse human health effects resulted from ambient air pollution. It aids decision makers to set priorities in the public health relevance of pollution abatement. The main driver of policymaker is the need to reduce the avoidable cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality from pollutant exposures. The monetary valuation involves 2 steps: (i) relate levels of pollutants to mortality and morbidity (concentration-response relationships) and (ii) apply unit economic values. Cost of air pollution associated with passenger vehicles running over a major traffic bridge (6th of October Elevated Highway) is presented as a case study to demonstrate the use of monetary value of air pollution. The study proves that the cost of air pollution is extremely high and should not be overlooked.

  16. The Outdoor Air Pollution and Brain Health Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Block, Michelle L.; Elder, Alison; Auten, Rick L.; Bilbo, Staci D.; Chen, Honglei; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Costa, Daniel; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Dorman, David C.; Gold, Diane; Gray, Kimberly; Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Kaufman, Joel D.; Kleinman, Michael T.; Kirshner, Annette; Lawler, Cindy; Miller, David S.; Nadadur, Sri; Ritz, Beate; Semmens, Erin O.; Tonelli, Leonardo H.; Veronesi, Bellina; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that outdoor air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system (CNS) health and disease. To address this issue, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health convened a panel of research scientists that was assigned the task of identifying research gaps and priority goals essential for advancing this growing field and addressing an emerging human health concern. Here, we review recent findings that have established the effects of inhaled air pollutants in the brain, explore the potential mechanisms driving these phenomena, and discuss the recommended research priorities/approaches that were identified by the panel. PMID:22981845

  17. Long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and incident lung cancer in California adults: results from the AHSMOG study.Adventist Health Study on Smog.

    PubMed Central

    Beeson, W L; Abbey, D E; Knutsen, S F

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and risk of incident lung cancer in nonsmoking California adults. A cohort study of 6,338 nonsmoking, non-Hispanic, white Californian adults, ages 27-95, was followed from 1977 to 1992 for newly diagnosed cancers. Monthly ambient air pollution data were interpolated to zip code centroids according to home and work location histories, cumulated, and then averaged over time. The increased relative risk (RR) of incident lung cancer in males associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in 100 ppb ozone (O3) was 3.56 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.35-9.42]. Incident lung cancer in males was also positively associated with IQR increases for mean concentrations of particulate matter <10 microm (PM10; RR = 5.21; CI, 1.94-13.99) and SO2 (RR = 2.66; CI, 1.62-4.39). For females, incident lung cancer was positively associated with IQR increases for SO2 (RR = 2.14; CI, 1.36-3.37) and IQR increases for PM10 exceedance frequencies of 50 microg/m3 (RR = 1.21; CI, 0.55-2.66) and 60 microg/m3 (RR = 1.25; CI, 0.57-2.71). Increased risks of incident lung cancer were associated with elevated long-term ambient concentrations of PM10 and SO2 in both genders and with O3 in males. The gender differences for the O3 and PM10 results appeared to be partially due to gender differences in exposure. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9831542

  18. Evaluating impacts of air pollution in China on public health: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Mauzerall, Denise L.

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution concentrations, and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We use Zaozhuang, a city in eastern China heavily dependent on coal, as a case study to quantify the impacts that air pollution in eastern China had on public health in 2000 and the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual (BAU), through the implementation of best available emission control technology (BACT) and advanced coal gasification technologies (ACGT). We use an integrated assessment approach, utilizing state-of-the-science air quality and meteorological models, engineering, epidemiology, and economics, to achieve this objective. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang, using the "willingness-to-pay" metric, was equivalent to 10% of Zaozhuang's GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have more than tripled. With no new air pollution controls implemented between 2000 and 2020 but with projected increases in energy use, we estimate health damages from air pollution exposure to be equivalent to 16% of Zaozhuang's projected 2020 GDP. BACT and ACGT (with only 24% penetration in Zaozhuang and providing 2% of energy needs in three surrounding municipalities) could reduce the potential health damage of air pollution in 2020 to 13% and 8% of projected GDP, respectively. Benefits to public health, of substantial monetary value, can be achieved through the use of BACT; health benefits from the use of ACGT could be even larger. Despite significant uncertainty associated with each element of the integrated assessment approach, we demonstrate that substantial benefits to public health could be achieved in this region of eastern China through the use of additional pollution controls and particularly from the

  19. Cardio-Respiratory Effects of Air Pollution in a Panel Study of Outdoor Physical Activity and Health in Rural Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stieb, David M.; Shutt, Robin; Kauri, Lisa; Mason, Sarah; Chen, Li; Szyszkowicz, Mieczyslaw; Dobbin, Nina A.; Rigden, Marc; Jovic, Branka; Mulholland, Marie; Green, Martin S.; Liu, Ling; Pelletier, Guillaume; Weichenthal, Scott A.; Dales, Robert E.; Luginaah, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine cardio-respiratory effects of air pollution in rural older adults exercising outdoors. Methods: Adults 55 and over completed measurements of blood pressure, peak expiratory flow and oximetry daily, and of heart rate variability, endothelial function, spirometry, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide and urinary oxidative stress markers weekly, before and after outdoor exercise, for 10 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models. Results: Pooled estimates combining 2013 (n = 36 participants) and 2014 (n = 41) indicated that an interquartile increase in the air quality health index (AQHI) was associated with a significant (P < 0.05) increase in heart rate (2.1%) and significant decreases in high frequency power (−19.1%), root mean square of successive differences (−9.5%), and reactive hyperemia index (−6.5%). Conclusions: We observed acute subclinical adverse effects of air pollution in rural older adults exercising outdoors.

  20. Assessing the health benefits of air pollution reduction for children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eva Y; Gohlke, Julia; Griffith, William C; Farrow, Scott; Faustman, Elaine M

    2004-02-01

    Benefit-cost analyses of environmental regulations are increasingly mandated in the United States. Evaluations of criteria air pollutants have focused on benefits and costs associated with adverse health effects. Children are significantly affected by the health benefits of improved air quality, yet key environmental health policy analyses have not previously focused specifically on children's effects. In this article we present a "meta-analysis" approach to child-specific health impacts derived from the U.S. Clean Air Act (CAA). On the basis of data from existing studies, reductions in criteria air pollutants predicted to occur by 2010 because of CAA regulations are estimated to produce the following impacts: 200 fewer expected cases of postneonatal mortality; 10,000 fewer asthma hospitalizations in children 1-16 years old, with estimated benefits ranging from 20 million U.S. dollars to 46 million U.S. dollars (1990 U.S. dollars); 40,000 fewer emergency department visits in children 1-16 years old, with estimated benefits ranging from 1.3 million U.S. dollars to 5.8 million U.S. dollars; 20 million school absences avoided by children 6-11 years old, with estimated benefits of 0.7-1.8 billion U.S. dollars; and 10,000 fewer infants of low birth weight, with estimated benefits of 230 million U.S. dollars. Inclusion of limited child-specific data on hospitalizations, emergency department visits, school absences, and low birth weight could be expected to add 1-2 billion U.S. dollars (1990 U.S. dollars) to the 8 billion U.S. dollars in health benefits currently estimated to result from decreased morbidity, and 600 million U.S. dollars to the 100 billion U.S. dollars estimated to result from decreased mortality. These estimates highlight the need for increased consideration of children's health effects. Key needs for environmental health policy analyses include improved information for children's health effects, additional life-stage-specific information, and improved

  1. Pollution Prevention Wipe Application Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.P.; Modderman, W.E.; Montoya, M.G.

    1999-02-10

    As part of a pollution prevention program, a study was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories and at the Amarillo, ''Pantex Plant'' to identify a suitable replacement solvent(s) for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. Current cleaning is performed using solvents (e.g. acetone, toluene, MEK, alcohols) that are classified as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCW) materials. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has assigned four characteristics as the criteria for determining whether a material is identified as hazardous under RCRA: Ignitability, Corrosivity, Reactivity and Toxicity. Within the DOE and DoD sector, these solvents are used with hand wipes to clean surfaces prior to O-ring replacement, to remove decals for new labeling, to clean painted surfaces prior to reconditioning, and for other general maintenance purposes. In some cases, low level radioactive contamination during cleaning necessitates that the RCIL4 solvent-containing wipes be classified as mixed waste. To avoid using RCRA materials, cleaning candidates were sought that had a flashpoint greater than 140 F, a pH between 2.5 and 12.5, and did not fail the reactivity and toxicity criteria. Three brominated cleaners, two hydrofluoroether azeotropes and two aliphatic hydrocarbon cleaner formulations were studied as potential replacements. Cleaning efficacy, materials compatibility, corrosion and accelerated aging studies were conducted and used to screen potential candidates. Hypersolve NPB (an n-propyl bromide based formulation) consistently ranked high in removing typical contaminants for weapons applications.

  2. Respiratory health outcomes and air pollution in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Abdo, Nour; Khader, Yousef S; Abdelrahman, Mostafa; Graboski-Bauer, Ashley; Malkawi, Mazen; Al-Sharif, Munjed; Elbetieha, Ahmad M

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to air pollution can cause detrimental health and be an economic burden. With newly developed equipment, monitoring of different air pollutants, identifying the sources, types of air pollutants and their corresponding concentrations, and applying mitigation intervention techniques became a crucial step in public health protection. Countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) are highly exposed to dust storms, have high levels of particulate matter (PM) concentrations, and have a unique climatic as well as topographic and socio-economic structure. This is the first study conducted to systemically and qualitatively assess the health impacts of air pollution in the EMR, identify susceptible populations, and ascertain research and knowledge gaps in the literature to better inform decisions by policy makers. We screened relevant papers and reports published between 2000 and 2014 in research databases. A total of 36 published studies met the inclusion criteria. A variety of indoor and outdoor exposures associated with various acute and chronic respiratory health outcomes were included. Respiratory health outcomes ranged in severity, from allergies and general respiratory complaints to lung cancer and mortality. Several adverse health outcomes were positively associated with various indoor/outdoor air pollutants throughout the EMR. However, epidemiological literature concerning the EMR is limited to a few studies in a few countries. More research is needed to elucidate the health outcomes of air pollution. Standardized reliable assessments on the national level for various air pollutants in different regions should be implemented and made publically available for researchers to utilize in their research. Moreover, advancing and utilizing more sound epidemiological designs and studies on the effect of air pollution on the respiratory health outcomes is needed to portray the actual situation in the region.

  3. Interaction between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and other important health conditions and measurable air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagev, D. P.; Mendoza, D. L.; Rea, S.; Sorensen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Adverse health effects have been associated with urban pollutant exposure arising from close proximity to highly-emitting sources and atmospheric mixing. The relative air pollution exposure dose and time effects on various diseases remains unknown. This study compares the increased risk of health complications when patients are exposed to short term high-levels of air pollution vs. longer term exposure to lower levels of air pollution. We used the electronic medical record of an integrated hospital system based in Utah, Intermountain Healthcare, to identify a cohort of patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) who were seen between 2009-2014. We determined patient demographics as well as comorbidity data and healthcare utilization. To determine the approximate air pollution dose and time exposure, we used the Hestia highly-resolved emissions inventory for Salt Lake County, Utah in conjunction with emissions based on the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). Hourly emissions of CO2 and criteria air pollutants were gridded at a 0.002o x 0.002o resolution for the study years. The resulting emissions were transported using the CALPUFF and AERMOD dispersion models to estimate air pollutant concentrations at an hourly 0.002o x 0.002oresolution. Additionally, pollutant concentrations were estimated at each patient's home and work address to estimate exposure. Multivariate analysis adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities and severity of COPD was performed to determine association between air pollution exposure and the risk of hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visit for COPD exacerbation and an equivalency estimate for air pollution exposure was developed. We noted associations with air pollution levels for each pollutant and hospitalizations and ED visits for COPD and other patient comorbidities. We also present an equivalency estimate for dose of air pollution exposure and health outcomes. This analysis compares the increased risk of

  4. Air pollution exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies.

    PubMed

    Özkaynak, Halûk; Baxter, Lisa K; Dionisio, Kathie L; Burke, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the health effects of outdoor air pollution have traditionally relied upon surrogates of personal exposures, most commonly ambient concentration measurements from central-site monitors. However, this approach may introduce exposure prediction errors and misclassification of exposures for pollutants that are spatially heterogeneous, such as those associated with traffic emissions (e.g., carbon monoxide, elemental carbon, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter). We review alternative air quality and human exposure metrics applied in recent air pollution health effect studies discussed during the International Society of Exposure Science 2011 conference in Baltimore, MD. Symposium presenters considered various alternative exposure metrics, including: central site or interpolated monitoring data, regional pollution levels predicted using the national scale Community Multiscale Air Quality model or from measurements combined with local-scale (AERMOD) air quality models, hybrid models that include satellite data, statistically blended modeling and measurement data, concentrations adjusted by home infiltration rates, and population-based human exposure model (Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation, and Air Pollutants Exposure models) predictions. These alternative exposure metrics were applied in epidemiological applications to health outcomes, including daily mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, daily hospital emergency department visits, daily myocardial infarctions, and daily adverse birth outcomes. This paper summarizes the research projects presented during the symposium, with full details of the work presented in individual papers in this journal issue.

  5. Indoor air pollution: Acute adverse health effects and host susceptibility

    SciTech Connect

    Zummo, S.M.; Karol, M.H.

    1996-01-01

    Increased awareness of the poor quality of indoor air compared with outdoor air has resulted in a significant amount of research on the adverse health effects and mechanisms of action of indoor air pollutants. Common indoor air agents are identified, along with resultant adverse health effects, mechanisms of action, and likely susceptible populations. Indoor air pollutants range from biological agents (such as dust mites) to chemical irritants (such as nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, and isocyanates). These agents may exert their effects through allergic as well as nonallergic mechanisms. While the public does not generally perceive poor indoor air quality as a significant health risk, increasing reports of illness related to indoor air and an expanding base of knowledge on the health effects of indoor air pollution are likely to continue pushing the issue to the forefront.

  6. Air pollution, athletic health and performance at the Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to briefly review air pollution and its effects on athletes' health and performance and to examine air quality (AQ) at specific Olympic Summer Games between 1964 and 2008. It will focus on any attempts made by the cities hosting these Olympics to improve AQ for the Games and if undertaken, how successful these were. The author had a medical role at five of the seven Olympic Games that will be examined and hence has personal experiences. Information was obtained from the readily accessible official reports of the Olympic Games, relevant published papers and books and the internet. For each of these seven Olympic Games, monitoring AQ was far below current acceptable standards and for the majority, minimal or no data on major pollutants was available. From what can be ascertained, at these Games, AQ varied but was less than optimal in most if not all. Nevertheless, there were few reported or known unfavorable effects on the health of Olympic athletes. To date, there have been few reported consequences of sub-optimal AQ at Olympic Games. The focus on AQ at Olympic Games has gradually increased over the past five decades and is expected to continue into the future.

  7. Survey of Ambient Air Pollution Health Risk Assessment Tools.

    PubMed

    Anenberg, Susan C; Belova, Anna; Brandt, Jørgen; Fann, Neal; Greco, Sue; Guttikunda, Sarath; Heroux, Marie-Eve; Hurley, Fintan; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Medina, Sylvia; Miller, Brian; Pandey, Kiran; Roos, Joachim; Van Dingenen, Rita

    2016-09-01

    Designing air quality policies that improve public health can benefit from information about air pollution health risks and impacts, which include respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and premature death. Several computer-based tools help automate air pollution health impact assessments and are being used for a variety of contexts. Expanding information gathered for a May 2014 World Health Organization expert meeting, we survey 12 multinational air pollution health impact assessment tools, categorize them according to key technical and operational characteristics, and identify limitations and challenges. Key characteristics include spatial resolution, pollutants and health effect outcomes evaluated, and method for characterizing population exposure, as well as tool format, accessibility, complexity, and degree of peer review and application in policy contexts. While many of the tools use common data sources for concentration-response associations, population, and baseline mortality rates, they vary in the exposure information source, format, and degree of technical complexity. We find that there is an important tradeoff between technical refinement and accessibility for a broad range of applications. Analysts should apply tools that provide the appropriate geographic scope, resolution, and maximum degree of technical rigor for the intended assessment, within resources constraints. A systematic intercomparison of the tools' inputs, assumptions, calculations, and results would be helpful to determine the appropriateness of each for different types of assessment. Future work would benefit from accounting for multiple uncertainty sources and integrating ambient air pollution health impact assessment tools with those addressing other related health risks (e.g., smoking, indoor pollution, climate change, vehicle accidents, physical activity).

  8. Feasibility of assessing the public health impacts of air pollution reduction programs on a local scale: New Haven accountability case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: New approaches on how to link health surveillance data with environmental and population exposure information are needed in order to examine the health benefits of risk management decisions. Objective: This study's objective was to examine the feasibility of conductin...

  9. Health Risks Associated with Oil Pollution in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Udofia, Emilia A.; Ekong, Ibanga; Ebuk, Godwin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although there is considerable public concern about the environmental impacts of oil pollution in the Niger Delta of Nigeria, actual evidence on the pathological and psychological effects in the health of local communities is minimally known. We sought to associate the perspective measures of exposure to oil pollution with health outcomes (inventory of health symptoms and functional capacity limitations) and determine how emotional reactions to environmental risks moderate these health outcomes. Method: The study was conducted with 600 participants selected from five local government areas in Akwa Ibom State where oil pollution is rampant. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data on the respondents’ exposure to oil pollution, self-rated health and disease symptoms, perception of risk of exposure and emotional reactions to local oil pollution. Results: Most of the participants lived in areas with visible oil pollution and/or near gas flaring facilities and regularly suffered direct exposure to oil in their environment. High level of emotional distress was a part of everyone's life for the study population. Risk perception in the study area was mediated, to a large extent, by dreaded hazards (catastrophic fears of pipeline explosions and oil spill fire), visual cues (gas flares and smoke stacks) and chemosensory cues (off-flavor in drinking water). The exposure metrics were found to be significant predictors of the health effects and influencing factors (emotional reactions). Multi-levels models suggest that at the individual level, the demographic variables and direct contact with oil pollution were important mediators of functional capacity limitation. At the community level, emotional distress from fear of the sources of exposure was an important mediator of the health symptoms. Conclusions: This study documents high levels of disease symptoms and environmental distress (worry, annoyance and intolerance) associated with oil pollution

  10. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  11. Urban air pollution and health inequities: a workshop report.

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Over the past three decades, an array of legislation with attendant regulations has been implemented to enhance the quality of the environment and thereby improve the public's health. Despite the many beneficial changes that have followed, there remains a disproportionately higher prevalence of harmful environmental exposures, particularly air pollution, for certain populations. These populations most often reside in urban settings, have low socioeconomic status, and include a large proportion of ethnic minorities. The disparities between racial/ethnic minority and/or low-income populations in cities and the general population in terms of environmental exposures and related health risks have prompted the "environmental justice" or "environmental equity" movement, which strives to create cleaner environments for the most polluted communities. Achieving cleaner environments will require interventions based on scientific data specific to the populations at risk; however, research in this area has been relatively limited. To assess the current scientific information on urban air pollution and its health impacts and to help set the agenda for immediate intervention and future research, the American Lung Association organized an invited workshop on Urban Air Pollution and Health Inequities held 22-24 October 1999 in Washington, DC. This report builds on literature reviews and summarizes the discussions of working groups charged with addressing key areas relevant to air pollution and health effects in urban environments. An overview was provided of the state of the science for health impacts of air pollution and technologies available for air quality monitoring and exposure assessment. The working groups then prioritized research needs to address the knowledge gaps and developed recommendations for community interventions and public policy to begin to remedy the exposure and health inequities. PMID:11427385

  12. Water Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... adjust the font size, or print this page. Water Pollution Table of Contents Health Studies & Clinical Trials ... Trials GuLF Study What NIEHS is Doing on Water Pollution Survival of the resilient: rapid killifish evolution ...

  13. A new air quality perception scale for global assessment of air pollution health effects.

    PubMed

    Deguen, Séverine; Ségala, Claire; Pédrono, Gaëlle; Mesbah, Mounir

    2012-12-01

    Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements.

  14. Can the Air Pollution Index be used to communicate the health risks of air pollution?

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Hua-Zhang; Guo, Yuming; Ou, Chun-Quan; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2015-10-01

    The validity of using the Air Pollution Index (API) to assess health impacts of air pollution and potential modification by individual characteristics on air pollution effects remain uncertain. We applied distributed lag non-linear models (DLNMs) to assess associations of daily API, specific pollution indices for PM10, SO2, NO2 and the weighted combined API (APIw) with mortality during 2003-2011 in Guangzhou, China. An increase of 10 in API was associated with a 0.88% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.27%) increase of non-accidental mortality at lag 0-2 days. Harvesting effects appeared after 2 days' exposure. The effect estimate of API over lag 0-15 days was statistically significant and similar with those of pollutant-specific indices and APIw. Stronger associations between API and mortality were observed in the elderly, females and residents with low educational attainment. In conclusion, the API can be used to communicate health risks of air pollution.

  15. Lidar applications to pollution studies.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Fuller, W. H., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of lidar (laser radar) to the measurement of air pollution. Lidar techniques and instrumentation utilizing elastic, Raman, and fluorescence scattering are discussed. Data showing measurements of the mixing of particulate pollutants in the atmosphere are presented. These data include: simultaneous two-wavelength results, isopleths showing the temporal dynamics of particulate mixing, measurements of the top of the earth's mixing layer, and measurements in a valley with restricted circulation and mixing. All measurements are compared with simultaneous radiosonde and/or aircraft-mounted temperature probe support. In addition, a second generation lidar system presently under development is described.

  16. One Health and the Environment: Toxic Cyanobacteria, a Case Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants in ambient exposure situations. ...

  17. PPCPS AS UBIQUITOUS POLLUTANTS FROM HEALTH AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is no abstract available for this product. If further information is requested, please refer to the bibliographic citation and contact the person listed under Contact field. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than parts per billion, ppb). IAG with USGS ends in FY05. APM 20 due in FY05.Subtask 2: Coordination of interagency research and public outreach activities for PPCPs. Participate on NSTC Health and Environment subcommittee working group on PPCPs. Web site maintenance and expansion, invited technical presentations, invited articles for peer-reviewed journals, interviews for media, responding to public inquiries. S

  18. Health Impacts of Air Pollution Under a Changing Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, P. L.; Knowlton, K.; Rosenthal, J.; Hogrefe, C.; Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W.

    2003-12-01

    Outdoor air pollution remains a serious public health problem in cities throughout the world. In the US, despite considerable progress in reducing emissions over the past 30 years, as many as 50,000 premature deaths each year have been attributed to airborne particulate matter alone. Tropospheric ozone has been associated with increased daily mortality and hospitalization rates, and with a variety of related respiratory problems. Weather plays an important role in the transport and transformation of air pollution. In particular, a warming climate is likely to promote the atmospheric reactions that are responsible for ozone and secondary aerosol production, as well as increasing emissions of many of their volatile precursors. Increasingly, efforts to address urban air pollution problems throughout the world will be complicated by trends and variability in climate. The New York Climate and Health Project (NYCHP) is developing and applying tools for integrated assessment of health impacts from air pollution and heat associated with climate and land-use changes in the New York City metropolitan region. Global climate change is modeled over the 21st century based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A2 greenhouse gas emissions scenario using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Global Atmosphere-Ocean Model (GCM). Meteorological fields are downscaled to a 36 km grid over the eastern US using the Penn State/NCAR MM5 mesoscale meteorological model. MM5 results are then used as input to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for simulating air quality, with emissions based on the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE). To date, simulations have been performed for five summer seasons each during the 1990s and the 2050s. An evaluation of the present-day climate and air quality predictions indicates that the modeling system largely captures the observed climate-ozone system. Analysis of future-year predictions

  19. Sex-specific difference of the association between ambient air pollution and the prevalence of obesity in Chinese adults from a high pollution range area: 33 Communities Chinese Health Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Meng; Qian, Zhengmin; Vaughn, Michael; Boutwell, Brian; Ward, Patrick; Lu, Tao; Lin, Shao; Zhao, Yang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Qing; Qin, Xiao-Di; Zhu, Yu; Chen, Wen; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Experimental data suggests that exposure to airborne fine particulate matter is associated with obesity. There is little supporting epidemiologic evidence of this, however. To evaluate the effects of ambient air pollution on the prevalence of obesity among adults living in a primarily industrial province of northeast China, 24,845 Chinese adults between the ages of 18 and 74 were randomly recruited from 33 communities in 11 districts of three northeastern Chinese cities during 2009. The participants' weight and height were measured. Three-year (2006-2008) average concentrations of particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and ozone (O3) were calculated from monitoring stations in each of the 11 districts. Two-level logistic regressions models were used to examine the effects of pollutants exposure. Overall, 35.3% (8764) were overweight and 5.8% (1435) were obese. After adjusting for confounding factors, significant associations between concentrations of air pollutants and prevalence of obesity were found. When the analysis was stratified by sex, the associations were significant only in women. Among women, an increased prevalence of obesity was associated with an interquartile range increase in PM10 (19 μg/m3; odds ratio [ORs] = 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.06-1.32), NO2 (9 μg/m3; ORs = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.09-1.41), and O3 (22 μg/m3; ORs = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30). Associations were stronger among older participants. In conclusion, this study reveals a positive association between the long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and increased prevalence of obesity, and that these associations were more apparent in women than in men.

  20. Death, Disease, and Dirty Power. Mortality and health damage due to air pollution from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Conrad G.

    2000-10-01

    The Clean Air Task Force, on behalf of the Clear the Air campaign, commissioned Abt Associates to quantify the health impacts of fine particle air pollution, commonly known as soot, from power plants, as well as the expected benefits (avoidable deaths, hospitalizations, etc.) of policies that would reduce fine particle pollution from power plants. The health effects analyzed include death, hospitalizations, emergency room visits, asthma attacks, and a variety of lesser respiratory symptoms. This report summarizes the findings of the Abt Associates study, reviews the contribution of power plants to fine particle pollution, and discusses policies that will reduce power plant fine particle pollution and thus save thousands of lives. Key findings include: Fine particle pollution from US power plants cuts short the lives of over 30,000 people each year. In more polluted areas, fine particle pollution can shave several years off its victims' lives. Hundreds of thousands of Americans suffer from asthma attacks, cardiac problems and upper and lower respiratory problems associated with fine particles from power plants. The elderly, children, and those with respiratory disease are most severely impacted by fine particle pollution from power plants. Metropolitan areas with large populations near coal-fired power plants feel their impacts most acutely - their attributable death rates are much higher than in areas with few or no coal-fired power plants. Power plants outstrip all other polluters as the largest source of sulfates - the major component of fine particle pollution - in the US Approximately two-thirds (over 18,000) of the deaths due to fine particle pollution from power plants could be avoided by implementing policies that cut power plant sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide pollution 75 percent below 1997 emission levels. Fine particle pollution is responsible for increased risk of death and shortened life spans. Abt Associates' findings are based on a body of well

  1. Implications of soil pollution with heavy metals for public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juozulynas, Algirdas; Jurgelėnas, Antanas; Butkienė, Birutė; Greičiūtė, Kristina; Savičiūtė, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Soil of military grounds is often polluted with heavy metals. Their concentrations may be dosens of times higher in polluted regions. The affected soils are permeable, so the pollutions can get into water and spread to the environment. Into human and animal organisms they can get with food and water. Heavy metals are very dangerous for people's health, and we must know their accumulation places, intensity of scatter and integral risk for health. The purpose of this work was to establish links between zones polluted with heavy metals and morbidity caused by pollution with heavy metals. The morbidity caused by heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ca and other) in the polluted regions is 1.4-1.5 times higher for adults and teenagers and 1.5-3.9 times higher for children aged under 14 years than the mean morbidity of the same diseases in Lithuania. Hypothetically, it is possible to prognosticate that this problem will grow in future because the ratio of the newly registered and the existing cases of morbidity for children aged under 14 years is 1.3-1.5 times higher than for adults.

  2. Public's Health Risk Awareness on Urban Air Pollution in Chinese Megacities: The Cases of Shanghai, Wuhan and Nanchang.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Hui; Hu, Yongxin; Feng, Sha; Chu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yanyan; Wang, Chiyu; Zhang, Yuxuan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-08-25

    This study assessed the public's health risk awareness of urban air pollution triggered by three megacities in China, and the data are the responses from a sample size of 3868 megacity inhabitants from Shanghai, Nanchang and Wuhan. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the respondents' demographics, perceived health risks from air pollution and sources of health-related knowledge on urban air pollution. Chi-square tests were used to examine if participants' demographics were associated with participant's general attitudes towards current air quality and the three perceived highest health risks due to urban air pollution. We found low rate of satisfaction of current urban air quality as well as poor knowledge of air pollution related indicator. Participants' gender, age and travel experience were found to be associated with the satisfaction of current air quality. The knowledge of air pollution related indicator was significantly affected by respondents' education, monthly income, health status, and sites of study. As many as 46.23% of the participants expressed their feelings of anxiety when exposed to polluted air, especially females, older adults and those with poor health conditions. Most participants believed that coughs/colds, eye problems and skin allergies were the three highest health risks due to urban air pollution based on public education through television/radio, internet and newspaper/magazine. Further public health education is needed to improve public awareness of air pollution and its effects.

  3. Public’s Health Risk Awareness on Urban Air Pollution in Chinese Megacities: The Cases of Shanghai, Wuhan and Nanchang

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaojun; Zhu, Hui; Hu, Yongxin; Feng, Sha; Chu, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yanyan; Wang, Chiyu; Zhang, Yuxuan; Yuan, Zhaokang; Lu, Yuanan

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the public’s health risk awareness of urban air pollution triggered by three megacities in China, and the data are the responses from a sample size of 3868 megacity inhabitants from Shanghai, Nanchang and Wuhan. Descriptive analyses were used to summarize the respondents’ demographics, perceived health risks from air pollution and sources of health-related knowledge on urban air pollution. Chi-square tests were used to examine if participants’ demographics were associated with participant’s general attitudes towards current air quality and the three perceived highest health risks due to urban air pollution. We found low rate of satisfaction of current urban air quality as well as poor knowledge of air pollution related indicator. Participants’ gender, age and travel experience were found to be associated with the satisfaction of current air quality. The knowledge of air pollution related indicator was significantly affected by respondents’ education, monthly income, health status, and sites of study. As many as 46.23% of the participants expressed their feelings of anxiety when exposed to polluted air, especially females, older adults and those with poor health conditions. Most participants believed that coughs/colds, eye problems and skin allergies were the three highest health risks due to urban air pollution based on public education through television/radio, internet and newspaper/magazine. Further public health education is needed to improve public awareness of air pollution and its effects. PMID:27571088

  4. Assessment of metals pollution and health risk in dust from nursery schools in Xi'an, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhang, Xiaolan; Li, Loretta Y; Chen, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations, pollution and health risks of metals in dust from nursery schools in Xi'an, China were determined. In comparison with local soil, dust samples have elevated metals concentrations except for Mn. The results indicate no distinct pollution of Mn, Ni, As and Ba in the dust, while Cu, Co and Zn are moderate pollution, Pb is significant pollution, and Cr with large pollution range. Most samples presented moderately polluted by metals. The non-cancer risks of the studied metals are within the safe range, and the cancer risks of As, Co, Cr and Ni are also within the currently acceptable range.

  5. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2015-10-14

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution.

  6. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution. PMID:26473905

  7. High Concentrations of Ozone Air Pollution on Mount Everest: Health Implications for Sherpa Communities and Mountaineers.

    PubMed

    Semple, John L; Moore, G W Kent; Koutrakis, Petros; Wolfson, Jack M; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2016-12-01

    Semple, John L., G.W. Kent Moore, Petros Koutrakis, Jack M. Wolfson, Paolo Cristofanelli, and Paolo Bonasoni. High concentrations of ozone air pollution on Mount Everest: health implications for Sherpa communities and mountaineers. High Alt Med Biol. 17:365-369, 2016.-Introduction: Populations in remote mountain regions are increasingly vulnerable to multiple climate mechanisms that influence levels of air pollution. Few studies have reported on climate-sensitive health outcomes unique to high altitude ecosystems. In this study, we report on the discovery of high-surface ozone concentrations and the potential impact on health outcomes on Mount Everest and the high Himalaya.

  8. Trends in health burden of ambient particulate matter pollution in Iran, 1990-2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2010.

    PubMed

    Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Sharifi, Farshad; Djalalinia, Shirin; Khajavi, Alireza; Nejatifar, Masoumeh; Asayesh, Hamid; Mansourian, Morteza; Qorbani, Mostafa; Ansari, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to report the assessment of trends in deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributed to ambient particulate matter (PM) pollution from 1990 to 2010 by sex and age in Iran. We used the data of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2010 Study, and then we extracted its data on Iran for the years 1990, 2005, and 2010. The proportion of deaths and the DALYs caused by specific risk factors were assessed by using the comparative risk assessment and calculating the attributed burden of exposure level to each risk factor compared with the theoretical minimum level of risk exposure. Uncertainties in distribution of exposure, relative risks, and relevant outcomes calculation were disseminated into the estimates of the attributable deaths and DALYs. We found that the age-standardized death rate attributed to ambient PM pollution decreased to 27.90 cases per 100,000 populations from 1990 to 2010 [86, 95% uncertainty interval (UI) 76-97 to 62; 95% UI 54-71 per 100,000 populations, respectively]. This was mainly because of greater decrease in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) than in the other diseases attributed to PM pollution. Despite a decrease in the total DALYs and mortality rate attributed to PM pollution, the death percent increased by 6.94%, 95% UI 6.06-7.90% from 1990 to 2010. The number of the DALYs and death in age groups of more than 70 years increased in 2010 compared to that in 1990. The median percent change of the DALYs and death for all age groups shows that the DALYs and death increased by 6% (95% UI 8-19%) and 45% (95% UI 30-60%), respectively, in 2010 in comparison to that in 1990. The increase in the DALYs and mortality attributable to PM pollution emphasizes the necessity of the effective interventions for improving air quality, as well as for increasing the public awareness to reduce the exposure of vulnerable age groups to PM pollution.

  9. PIXE pollution studies across Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Innegraeve, O.; Blanchet, X.; Muntele, C. I.; Muntele, I. C.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Popa-Simil, L.; Voiculescu, D.; Racolta, P. M.; Ila, D.

    2002-01-01

    We collected vegetation and soil samples from various locations along a route covering Eastern and Western Europe. We measured the level of elemental pollution in different places uniformly spread across the continent to determine which of them may have common sources. To achieve these objectives, samples were collected along the main roads from Romania to Portugal and analyzed using in-air PEE (Particle-Induced X-ray Emission).

  10. Prenatal Air Pollution Exposures, DNA Methyl Transferase Genotypes, and Associations with Newborn LINE1 and Alu Methylation and Childhood Blood Pressure and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in the Children’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Breton, Carrie V.; Yao, Jin; Millstein, Josh; Gao, Lu; Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Mack, Wendy; Whitfield-Maxwell, Lora; Lurmann, Fred; Hodis, Howard; Avol, Ed; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although exposure to ambient air pollutants increases cardiovascular disease risk in adults little is known about the effects of prenatal exposure. Genetic variation and epigenetic alterations are two mechanisms that may influence the effects of early-life exposures on cardiovascular phenotypes. Objectives: We investigated whether genetic and epigenetic variation modify associations between prenatal air pollution on markers of cardiovascular risk in childhood. Methods: We used linear regression analysis to investigate the associations between prenatal pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, O3), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE1) and AluYb8 DNA methylation levels measured in newborn blood spot tests, and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and blood pressure (BP) in 459 participants as part of the Children’s Health Study. Interaction terms were also included to test for effect modification of these associations by genetic variation in methylation reprogramming genes. Results: Prenatal exposure to NO2 in the third trimester of pregnancy was associated with higher systolic BP in 11-year-old children. Prenatal exposure to multiple air pollutants in the first trimester was associated with lower DNA methylation in LINE1, whereas later exposure to O3 was associated with higher LINE1 methylation levels in newborn blood spots. The magnitude of associations with prenatal air pollution varied according to genotype for 11 SNPs within DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), DNA methyltransferase 3 Beta (DNMT3B), Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2), and Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) genes. Although first-trimester O3 exposure was not associated with CIMT and systolic BP overall, associations within strata of DNMT1 or DNMT3B were observed, and the magnitude and the direction of these associations depended on DNMT1 genotypes. Conclusions: Genetic and epigenetic variation in DNA methylation reprogramming genes and in LINE1 retrotransposons may play important roles in

  11. POLLUTION AND ECOSYSTEM HEALTH - ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summers, Kevin. 2004. Pollution and Ecosystem Health - Assessing Ecological Condition of Coastal Ecosystems. Presented at the White Water to Blue Water (WW2BW) Miami Conference, 21-26 March 2004, Miami, FL. 1 p. (ERL,GB R973).

    Throughout the coastal regions and Large Mari...

  12. Seasonal variation of air pollution index: Hong Kong case study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xie-Kang; Lu, Wei-Zhen

    2006-05-01

    Air pollution is an important and popular topic in Hong Kong as concerns have been raised about the health impacts caused by vehicle exhausts in recent years. In Hong Kong, sulphur dioxide SO2, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) are major air pollutants caused by the dominant usage of diesel fuel by goods vehicles and buses. These major pollutants and the related secondary pollutant, e.g., ozone (O3), become and impose harmful impact on human health in Hong Kong area after the northern shifting of major industries to Mainland China. The air pollution index (API), a referential parameter describing air pollution levels, provides information to enhance the public awareness of air pollutions in time series since 1995. In this study, the varying trends of API and the levels of related air pollutants are analyzed based on the database monitored at a selected roadside air quality monitoring station, i.e., Causeway Bay, during 1999-2003. Firstly, the original measured pollutant data and the resultant APIs are analyzed statistically in different time series including daily, monthly, seasonal patterns. It is found that the daily mean APIs in seasonal period can be regarded as stationary time series. Secondly, the auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) method, implemented by Box-Jenkins model, is used to forecast the API time series in different seasonal specifications. The performance evaluations of the adopted models are also carried out and discussed according to Bayesian information criteria (BIC) and root mean square error (RMSE). The results indicate that the ARMA model can provide reliable, satisfactory predictions for the problem interested and is expecting to be an alternative tool for practical assessment and justification.

  13. Health effects of particulate air pollution and airborne desert dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelieveld, J.; Pozzer, A.; Giannadaki, D.; Fnais, M.

    2013-12-01

    Air pollution by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has increased strongly with industrialization and urbanization. In the past decades this increase has taken place at a particularly high pace in South and East Asia. We estimate the premature mortality and the years of human life lost (YLL) caused by anthropogenic PM2.5 and airborne desert dust (DU2.5) on regional and national scales (Giannadaki et al., 2013; Lelieveld et al., 2013). This is based on high-resolution global model calculations that resolve urban and industrial regions in relatively great detail. We apply an epidemiological health impact function and find that especially in large countries with extensive suburban and rural populations, air pollution-induced mortality rates have been underestimated given that previous studies largely focused on the urban environment. We calculate a global premature mortality by anthropogenic aerosols of 2.2 million/year (YLL ≈ 16 million/year) due to lung cancer and cardiopulmonary disease. High mortality rates by PM2.5 are found in China, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan and Indonesia. Desert dust DU2.5 aerosols add about 0.4 million/year (YLL ≈ 3.6 million/year). Particularly significant mortality rates by DU2.5 occur in Pakistan, China and India. The estimated global mean per capita mortality caused by airborne particulates is about 0.1%/year (about two thirds of that caused by tobacco smoking). We show that the highest premature mortality rates are found in the Southeast Asia and Western Pacific regions (about 25% and 46% of the global rate, respectively) where more than a dozen of the most highly polluted megacities are located. References: Giannadaki, D., A. Pozzer, and J. Lelieveld, Modeled global effects of airborne desert dust on air quality and premature mortality, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (submitted), 2013. Lelieveld, J., C. Barlas, D. Giannadaki, and A. Pozzer, Model calculated global, regional and megacity premature mortality due to air pollution by ozone

  14. What health professionals should know about the health effects of air pollution and climate change on children and pregnant mothers

    PubMed Central

    Poursafa, Parinaz; Kelishadi, Roya

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health professionals face the adverse health effects of climate change and air pollution in their practices. This review underscores the effects of these environmental factors on maternal and children's health, as the most vulnerable groups to climate change and air pollution. METHODS: We reviewed electronic databases for a search of the literature to find relevant studies published in English from 1990 to 2011. RESULTS: Environmental factors, notably climate change and air pollution influence children's health before conception and continue during pregnancy, childhood, and adolescence. Experts have suggested that such health hazards may represent the greatest public health challenge that humanity has faced. The accumulation of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, primarily from burning fossil fuels, results in warming which has an impact on air pollution particularly on levels of ozone and particulates. Heat-related health effects include increased rates of pregnancy complications, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, low birth weight, renal effects, vector-borne diseases as malaria and dengue, increased diarrheal and respiratory disease, food insecurity, decreased quality of foods (notably grains), malnutrition, water scarcity, exposures to toxic chemicals, worsened poverty, natural disasters and population displacement. Air pollution has many adverse health effects for mothers and children. In addition to short-term effects like premature labour, intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal and infant mortality rate, malignancies (notably leukaemia and Hodgkin lymphoma), respiratory diseases, allergic disorders and anaemia, exposure to criteria air pollutants from early life might be associated with increase in stress oxidative, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction which in turn might have long-term effects on chronic non-communicable diseases. CONCLUSIONS: Health professionals have an exclusive capability to help prevent and reduce the harmful effects of

  15. Climate change, extreme weather events, air pollution and respiratory health in Europe.

    PubMed

    De Sario, M; Katsouyanni, K; Michelozzi, P

    2013-09-01

    Due to climate change and other factors, air pollution patterns are changing in several urbanised areas of the world, with a significant effect on respiratory health both independently and synergistically with weather conditions; climate scenarios show Europe as one of the most vulnerable regions. European studies on heatwave episodes have consistently shown a synergistic effect of air pollution and high temperatures, while the potential weather-air pollution interaction during wildfires and dust storms is unknown. Allergen patterns are also changing in response to climate change, and air pollution can modify the allergenic potential of pollens, especially in the presence of specific weather conditions. The underlying mechanisms of all these interactions are not well known; the health consequences vary from decreases in lung function to allergic diseases, new onset of diseases, exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases, and premature death. These multidimensional climate-pollution-allergen effects need to be taken into account in estimating both climate and air pollution-related respiratory effects, in order to set up adequate policy and public health actions to face both the current and future climate and pollution challenges.

  16. "What We Breathe Impacts Our Health: Improving Understanding of the Link between Air Pollution and Health".

    PubMed

    West, J Jason; Cohen, Aaron; Dentener, Frank; Brunekreef, Bert; Zhu, Tong; Armstrong, Ben; Bell, Michelle L; Brauer, Michael; Carmichael, Gregory; Costa, Dan L; Dockery, Douglas W; Kleeman, Michael; Krzyzanowski, Michal; Künzli, Nino; Liousse, Catherine; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Martin, Randall V; Pöschl, Ulrich; Pope, C Arden; Roberts, James M; Russell, Armistead G; Wiedinmyer, Christine

    2016-05-17

    Air pollution contributes to the premature deaths of millions of people each year around the world, and air quality problems are growing in many developing nations. While past policy efforts have succeeded in reducing particulate matter and trace gases in North America and Europe, adverse health effects are found at even these lower levels of air pollution. Future policy actions will benefit from improved understanding of the interactions and health effects of different chemical species and source categories. Achieving this new understanding requires air pollution scientists and engineers to work increasingly closely with health scientists. In particular, research is needed to better understand the chemical and physical properties of complex air pollutant mixtures, and to use new observations provided by satellites, advanced in situ measurement techniques, and distributed micro monitoring networks, coupled with models, to better characterize air pollution exposure for epidemiological and toxicological research, and to better quantify the effects of specific source sectors and mitigation strategies.

  17. Road-traffic pollution and asthma – using modelled exposure assessment for routine public health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Elspeth C; Maheswaran, Ravi; Daly, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Asthma is a common disease and appears to be increasing in prevalence. There is evidence linking air pollution, including that from road-traffic, with asthma. Road traffic is also on the increase. Routine surveillance of the impact of road-traffic pollution on asthma, and other diseases, would be useful in informing local and national government policy in terms of managing the environmental health risk. Several methods for exposure assessment have been used in studies examining the association between asthma and road traffic pollution. These include comparing asthma prevalence in areas designated as high and low pollution areas, using distance from main roads as a proxy for exposure to road traffic pollution, using traffic counts to estimate exposure, using vehicular miles travelled and using modelling techniques. Although there are limitations to all these methods, the modelling approach has the advantage of incorporating several variables and may be used for prospective health impact assessment. The modelling approach is already in routine use in the United Kingdom in support of the government's strategy for air quality management. Combining information from such models with routinely collected health data would form the basis of a routine public health surveillance system. Such a system would facilitate prospective health impact assessment, enabling policy decisions concerned with road-traffic to be made with knowledge of the potential implications. It would also allow systematic monitoring of the health impacts when the policy decisions and plans have been implemented. PMID:15485575

  18. Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: biologic mechanisms and who's at risk?

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C A

    2000-01-01

    This article briefly summarizes the epidemiology of the health effects of fine particulate air pollution, provides an early, somewhat speculative, discussion of the contribution of epidemiology to evaluating biologic mechanisms, and evaluates who's at risk or is susceptible to adverse health effects. Based on preliminary epidemiologic evidence, it is speculated that a systemic response to fine particle-induced pulmonary inflammation, including cytokine release and altered cardiac autonomic function, may be part of the pathophysiologic mechanisms or pathways linking particulate pollution with cardiopulmonary disease. The elderly, infants, and persons with chronic cardiopulmonary disease, influenza, or asthma are most susceptible to mortality and serious morbidity effects from short-term acutely elevated exposures. Others are susceptible to less serious health effects such as transient increases in respiratory symptoms, decreased lung function, or other physiologic changes. Chronic exposure studies suggest relatively broad susceptibility to cumulative effects of long-term repeated exposure to fine particulate pollution, resulting in substantive estimates of population average loss of life expectancy in highly polluted environments. Additional knowledge is needed about the specific pollutants or mix of pollutants responsible for the adverse health effects and the biologic mechanisms involved. PMID:10931790

  19. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2013-04-15

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed-volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2-NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration-response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, "U" shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2-NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion must

  20. Air pollution and health risks due to vehicle traffic

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Traffic congestion increases vehicle emissions and degrades ambient air quality, and recent studies have shown excess morbidity and mortality for drivers, commuters and individuals living near major roadways. Presently, our understanding of the air pollution impacts from congestion on roads is very limited. This study demonstrates an approach to characterize risks of traffic for on- and near-road populations. Simulation modeling was used to estimate on- and near-road NO2 concentrations and health risks for freeway and arterial scenarios attributable to traffic for different traffic volumes during rush hour periods. The modeling used emission factors from two different models (Comprehensive Modal Emissions Model and Motor Vehicle Emissions Factor Model version 6.2), an empirical traffic speed–volume relationship, the California Line Source Dispersion Model, an empirical NO2–NOx relationship, estimated travel time changes during congestion, and concentration–response relationships from the literature, which give emergency doctor visits, hospital admissions and mortality attributed to NO2 exposure. An incremental analysis, which expresses the change in health risks for small increases in traffic volume, showed non-linear effects. For a freeway, “U” shaped trends of incremental risks were predicted for on-road populations, and incremental risks are flat at low traffic volumes for near-road populations. For an arterial road, incremental risks increased sharply for both on- and near-road populations as traffic increased. These patterns result from changes in emission factors, the NO2–NOx relationship, the travel delay for the on-road population, and the extended duration of rush hour for the near-road population. This study suggests that health risks from congestion are potentially significant, and that additional traffic can significantly increase risks, depending on the type of road and other factors. Further, evaluations of risk associated with congestion

  1. Air Pollution and Health: Bridging the Gap from Health Outcomes: Conference Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    “Air Pollution and Health: Bridging the Gap from Sources to Health Outcomes,” an international specialty conference sponsored by the American Association for Aerosol Research, was held to address key uncertainties in our understanding of adverse health effects related to air po...

  2. Developing an indicator for the chronic health impact of traffic-related pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lepicier, Veronique; Chiron, Mireille; Joumard, Robert

    2013-01-15

    The goal of this study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. This indicator must make it possible to compare different situations, for example different Urban Travel Plans, or technical innovations. Our work is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts and, more particularly, those which relate to the atmospheric pollution caused by transport. We then define a health impact indicator based on the traffic emissions, named IISCEP for Chronic health impact indicator of pollutant emission. Here health is understood in a restricted meaning, excluding well-being. Only primary pollutants can be considered, as the inputs are emission data and an indicator must be simple. The indicator is calculated as the sum of each pollutant emission multiplied by a dispersion and exposition factor and a substance specific toxicity factor taking account of the severity. Last, two examples are shown using the IISCEP: comparison between petrol and diesel vehicles, and Nantes urban district in 2008 vs 2002. Even if it could still be improved, IISCEP is a straightforward indicator which can be used to gauge the chronic effects of inhaling primary pollutants. It can only be used in comparisons, between different scenarios or different technologies. The quality of the emissions data and the choice of the pollutants that are considered are the two essential factors that determine its validity and reliability. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal of the study is to develop an emission based indicator for the health impact of the air pollution caused by traffic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is based on a literature survey of methods for evaluating health impacts related to the atmospheric pollution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We define a composite indicator based on the traffic emissions and on local data as dispersion conditions and population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The

  3. Potential Health Effects from Groundwater Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyer, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the growing awareness of potential toxicological effects of synthetic organic chemicals contaminating groundwater. Problems concerning pesticides, chlorination, epidemiologic studies, cancer, nephrotoxicity, and considerations of risk are addressed. Additional research in this area is advocated. (DH)

  4. The health benefits of reducing air pollution in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Broome, Richard A; Fann, Neal; Cristina, Tina J Navin; Fulcher, Charles; Duc, Hiep; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2015-11-01

    Among industrialised countries, fine particle (PM2.5) and ozone levels in the Sydney metropolitan area of Australia are relatively low. Annual mean PM2.5 levels have historically remained below 8 μg/m(3) while warm season (November-March) ozone levels occasionally exceed the Australian guideline value of 0.10 ppm (daily 1 h max). Yet, these levels are still below those seen in the United States and Europe. This analysis focuses on two related questions: (1) what is the public health burden associated with air pollution in Sydney; and (2) to what extent would reducing air pollution reduce the number of hospital admissions, premature deaths and number of years of life lost (YLL)? We addressed these questions by applying a damage function approach to Sydney population, health, PM2.5 and ozone data for 2007 within the BenMAP-CE software tool to estimate health impacts and economic benefits. We found that 430 premature deaths (90% CI: 310-540) and 5800 YLL (95% CI: 3900-7600) are attributable to 2007 levels of PM2.5 (about 2% of total deaths and 1.8% of YLL in 2007). We also estimate about 630 (95% CI: 410-840) respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions attributable to 2007 PM2.5 and ozone exposures. Reducing air pollution levels by even a small amount will yield a range of health benefits. Reducing 2007 PM2.5 exposure in Sydney by 10% would, over 10 years, result in about 650 (95% CI: 430-850) fewer premature deaths, a gain of 3500 (95% CI: 2300-4600) life-years and about 700 (95% CI: 450-930) fewer respiratory and cardiovascular hospital visits. These results suggest that substantial health benefits are attainable in Sydney with even modest reductions in air pollution.

  5. The impact of biodiesel on pollutant emissions and public health.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Robert L

    2007-09-01

    An overview of recent studies of the impact of biodiesel and biodiesel blends on air pollutant emissions and health effects is provided. Biodiesel blends of 20% produce reductions of 15% or higher (depending upon engine model and test cycle) in emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, total hydrocarbons, and a group of toxic compounds including vapor-phase hydrocarbons from C1 to C12, aldehydes and ketones up to C8, and selected semivolatile and particle-phase PAH and NPAH. Based on the studies reviewed and recently acquired data, individual engines may show oxides of nitrogen increasing or decreasing, but on average there appears to be no net effect for blends of 20% biodiesel--the most common biodiesel blend. Exhaust from a diesel engine operating on 100% biodiesel was also shown to have only modest adverse effects in an animal exposure study. Studies of the impact of biodiesel on particle size have not produced consistent results and additional research in this area is needed. Biodiesel is also shown to significantly reduce life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions in comparison to petroleum diesel.

  6. Application environmental epidemiology to vehicular air pollution and health effects research.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R; Chetlapally, Satish Kumar; Bagvandas, M

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular pollution is one of the major contributors to the air pollution in urban areas and perhaps and accounts for the major share of anthropogenic green-house gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides. Knowledge of human health risks related to environmental exposure to vehicular pollution is a current concern. Analyze the range health effects are attributed varied constituents of vehicular air pollution examine evidence for a causal association to specific health effect. In many instances scenario involves exposure to very low doses of putative agents for extended periods, sometimes the period could mean over a lifetime of an individual and yet may result in small increase in health risk that may be imperceptible. Secondary data analysis and literature review. In environmental exposures, traditional epidemiological approaches evaluating mortality and morbidity indicators display many limiting factors such as nonspecificity of biological effects latency time between exposure and magnitude of the effect. Long latency period between exposure and resultant disease, principally for carcinogenic effects and limitation of epidemiological studies for detecting small risk increments. The present paper discusses the methodological challenges in studying vehicular epidemiology and highlights issues that affect the validity of epidemiological studies in vehicular pollution.

  7. AIR POLLUTION AND INFANT HEALTH: LESSONS FROM NEW JERSEY*

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet; Neidell, Matthew; Schmieder, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    We examine the impact of three “criteria” air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother’s residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. Our work offers three important innovations: First, we use the exact addresses of mothers to select those closest to air monitors to improve the accuracy of air quality exposure. Second, we include maternal fixed effects to control for unobserved characteristics of mothers. Third, we examine interactions of air pollution with smoking and other risk factors for poor infant health outcomes. We find consistently negative effects of exposure to carbon monoxide, both during and after birth, with effects considerably larger for smokers and older mothers. Since automobiles are the main source of carbon monoxide emissions, our results have important implications for regulation of automobile emissions. PMID:19328569

  8. Air pollution and infant health: Lessons from New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet; Neidell, Matthew; Schmieder, Johannes F

    2009-05-01

    We examine the impact of three "criteria" air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother's residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. Our work offers three important innovations. First, we use the exact addresses of mothers to select those closest to air monitors to improve the accuracy of air quality exposure. Second, we include maternal fixed effects to control for unobserved characteristics of mothers. Third, we examine interactions of air pollution with smoking and other risk factors for poor infant health outcomes. We find consistently negative effects of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), both during and after birth, with effects considerably larger for smokers and older mothers. Since automobiles are the main source of carbon monoxide emissions, our results have important implications for regulation of automobile emissions.

  9. Industrial workers' health and environmental pollution under the new international division of labor: the Taiwan experience.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, M S; Huang, C L

    1997-01-01

    Using Taiwan as an example, this paper conducts a historical analysis of the relationship between economic development in the new international division of labor and environmental pollution and industrial workers' health. Three industries-asbestos, plastic, and dye-were chosen for case studies. We trace the emergence of each industry in Taiwan and study each industry's protection of workers' health and environmental quality. Under the new international division of labor, the state's prioritization of economic development leads to lenient regulation. Under such state policies, employers have few incentives to invest in the protection of their workers' health and in the control of environmental pollution. Workers and the public are constrained in their efforts to protect their own health and prevent environmental pollution. This situation is exemplified by the deplorable working conditions and inadequate environmental pollution controls in the asbestos, plastic, and dye industries. Workers' health and the public's health are greatly compromised by economic development in the new international division of labor. Images p1228-a p1228-b PMID:9240119

  10. Current State of the Evidence: Air Pollution Impacts on Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a consistent association between ambient levels of air pollution and adverse human health effects, including mortality and morbidity. Many of these studies have relied on the US Air Quality System (AQS) for exposure assessment. The AQS is a...

  11. TRAFFIC-RELATED AIR POLLUTION AND CHILDREN'S RESPIRATORY HEALTH: BEYOND PROXIMITY TO MAJOR ROADWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: Previous studies of the respiratory health impact of mobile source air pollutants on

    children have relied heavily on simple exposure metrics such as proximity to roadways and traffic

    density near the home or school. Few studies have conducted area-wide...

  12. E-Alerts: Environmental pollution and control (environmental health and safety). E-mail newsletter

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Topics of discussion include the following: Effects of pollution on public health and safety; Toxicology; Industrial health; Physiology; Psychology; Clinical medicine; Radiobiology; Animals used as research experimental models.

  13. Environmental pollutants and child health-A review of recent concerns.

    PubMed

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Gascon, Mireia; Valvi, Damaskini; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, many new studies have evaluated associations between environmental pollutants and child health. This review aims to provide a broad summary of this literature, comparing the state of epidemiological evidence for the effects of a wide range of environmental contaminants (air pollutants, heavy metals, organochlorine compounds, perfluoroalkyl substances, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pesticides, phthalates and bisphenol A) on child health outcomes. The review addresses effects on foetal growth and prematurity, neurodevelopment, respiratory and immune health, and childhood growth and obesity. Findings of recent prospective studies and meta-analyses have corroborated previous good evidence, often at lower exposure levels, for effects on foetal growth of air pollution and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), for neurotoxic effects of lead, methylmercury, PCBs and organophosphate pesticides, and for respiratory health effects of air pollution. Moderate evidence has emerged for a potential role of environmental pollutants in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism (lead, PCBs, air pollution), respiratory and immune health (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene - DDE - and PCBs), and obesity (DDE). In addition, there is now moderate evidence that certain chemicals of relatively recent concern may be associated with adverse child health outcomes, specifically perfluorooctanoate and foetal growth, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers and neurodevelopment. For other chemicals of recent concern, such as phthalates and bisphenol A, the literature is characterised by large inconsistencies preventing strong conclusions. In conclusion, since most of the recent literature evaluates common exposures in the general population, and not particularly high exposure situations, this accumulating body of evidence suggests that the unborn and young child require more protection than is currently provided. Large, coordinated research efforts are needed to improve

  14. [Long-term health effects of air pollution: results of the European project ESCAPE].

    PubMed

    Stafoggia, Massimo; Cesaroni, Giulia; Galassi, Claudia; Badaloni, Chiara; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution has been recently classified among the top ten risk factors for mortality worldwide. The evidence on the long-term effects of air pollutants is mounting, mostly from multi-centre American studies or longitudinal studies conducted in single European cohorts. Recently, the EU-funded project ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) involved more than 30 cohort studies with the aim of producing pooled estimates of the long-term health effects of ambient air pollution at European level. The project developed a standardized and flexible methodology to estimate chronic exposure to several air pollutants, applied such estimates to existing cohorts in Europe, and analyzed the exposure-response relationships with different health endpoints, including adverse pregnancy outcomes, respiratory diseases among children, cardio-respiratory diseases among adults, cause-specific mortality and lung cancer incidence. One of the most important results has been the detection of relevant health effects of particulate matter at concentrations below the current air quality limit values in Europe.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Pollution and Neurodevelopment: A Public Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future. PMID:25772154

  16. Health effects of metropolitan traffic-related air pollutants on street vendors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongtip, P.; Thongsuk, W.; Yoosook, W.; Chantanakul, S.

    Traffic-related air pollutants are a commonly important source of air pollution. Research on the effects of multiple traffic-related air pollutants on street vendors is scarce. This study evaluated the health effect of traffic-related air pollutants in street vendors. It was designed as a panel study, covering 61 d of data collection, on the daily concentration of air pollutants and daily percentage of respiratory and other health symptoms reported. An adjusted odds ratio was used to estimate the risk of developing respiratory and other adverse health symptoms for street vendors exposed to multiple air pollutants, fine particulate (PM 2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), ozone (O 3), carbon monoxide (CO) and total volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), after controlling for confounding factors. In the first model, significant associations were found with the adjusted odds ratios of 1.022 and 1.027 for eye irritation and dizziness for PM 2.5 respectively. The adjusted odds ratio of total VOCs was 1.381 for phlegm, 4.840 for chest tightness and 1.429 for upper respiratory symptoms, and the adjusted odds ratio for CO was 1.748 for a sore throat and 1.880 for a cold and 1.655 for a cough. In the second model, the effect of PM 2.5, total VOCs and CO gave a slightly lower effect with the symptoms. The results clearly show the health effects of traffic-related air pollutants on street vendors, and imply suggestions about how to reduce exposure of street vendors.

  17. Effects of air pollution on children’s pulmonary health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabaku, Afrim; Bejtja, Gazmend; Bala, Silvana; Toci, Ervin; Resuli, Jerina

    2011-12-01

    IntroductionMany reports regarding the effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health have appeared in the scientific literature. Some investigators found increases in persistent cough and phlegm, bronchitis, and early respiratory infections in communities with poor air quality. The purpose of this survey was to compare the pulmonary function of children living in urban area of Tirana city with children living in suburban area of the city. Material and methodsThis survey is carried out during 2004-2005 period on 238 children living in urban area and in 72 children living in suburban area, measuring dynamic pulmonary function. A questionnaire was used to collect data on sex, current respiratory symptoms, allergy diagnosed by the physician, parent education and smoking habit of parents, presence of animals, synthetic carpets and moulds in their houses. The selection of schools, and children included in this survey was done by randomized method. Also, we have measured and classic air pollutants. ResultsComparing the results of values of pulmonary function of two groups of children, we have shown that differences were significant ( p 0.001), whereas comparing symptoms were for cough ( p 0.011) and for phlegm ( p 0.032). The level of particulate matter (PM10) and total suspended matter (TSP) were over the recommended limit values, whereas the levels of other pollutants have resulted within recommended levels of World Health Organization (WHO) ConclusionsThe results of this survey suggest that air pollution is associated with respiratory health of children causing a slight decrease in values of pulmonary function in children of urban area compared with those of suburban area.

  18. SEMEN QUALITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OF YOUNG CZECH MEN EXPOSED TO SEASONAL AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semen quality and reproductive health of young Czech men exposed to seasonal air pollution.

    Selevan SG, Borkovec L, Slott VL, Zudova Z, Rubes J, Evenson DP, Perreault SD.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA.

    This study of male repr...

  19. [Viral pollution studies of water environments].

    PubMed

    Iftimovici, R; Iordan, L; Chelaru, M

    1989-01-01

    Virus pollution was studied in 734 water samples collected from the Dîmboviţa River (310), lakes inside the town of Bucharest (136) and swimming pools (288). The results showed that the works carried out these last years to regularize the Dîmboviţa led to a reduction of the virus pollution rate from 16.6-26.9% in 1984 to 4.16-5% in 1988. As for the lake and swimming pool waters, the pollution rate is directly proportional to the applied general hygiene measures. In summer, in drained lakes strictly controlled from the domestic and industrial sewage discharge point of view, the pollution rate was no higher than 6%, while in the lakes receiving sewage the frequency of isolations was between 12.5 and 18.75%. The same situation was found for swimming pools. A microepidemics of blepharoconjunctivitis was recorded in 1988 at a sport base: viruses were isolated from 20% of the water samples collected from its swimming pool, while virus pollution was about zero in the swimming pool water of some big hotels in Bucharest.

  20. Health and Cellular Impacts of Air Pollutants: From Cytoprotection to Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Andreau, Karine; Leroux, Melanie; Bouharrour, Aida

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution as one of the ravages of our modern societies is primarily linked to urban centers, industrial activities, or road traffic. These atmospheric pollutants have been incriminated in deleterious health effects by numerous epidemiological and in vitro studies. Environmental air pollutants are a heterogeneous mixture of particles suspended into a liquid and gaseous phase which trigger the disruption of redox homeostasis—known under the term of cellular oxidative stress—in relation with the establishment of inflammation and cell death via necrosis, apoptosis, or autophagy. Activation or repression of the apoptotic process as an adaptative response to xenobiotics might lead to either acute or chronic toxicity. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the central role of oxidative stress induced by air pollutants and to focus on the subsequent cellular impacts ranging from cytoprotection to cytotoxicity by decreasing or stimulating apoptosis, respectively. PMID:22550588

  1. Assessment of Air Pollution Impacts on Population Health in Bejaia City, Northern Algeria

    PubMed Central

    BENAISSA, Fatima; ALKAMA, Rezak; ANNESI-MAESANO, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background To assess the health impact of air pollution on Bejaia population in the north of Algeria, we carried out a descriptive epidemiologic inquiry near the medical establishments of three areas. Methods From hospital admissions registers, we collected data on the hospital mortality and admissions relating to the various cardiorespiratory pathologies generated by this type of pollution. In parallel, data on the automobile fleet of Bejaia and other measurements were exploited to show that the pollutants concentrations are strongly correlated with the urban traffic concentration. Results This study revealed that the whole of the population is touched, but the sensitivity to pollution can show variations according to the age, the sex and the residence place. Population of Bejaia town marked the most raised death and morbidity rates, followed by that of Kherrata. Weak rates are recorded for the rural population of Feraoun. Stronger correlation (>0.9) is evident amongst CO and deaths due to asthma and COPD in Béjaia city. Conclusion This approach enables us to conclude that the population of Béjaia could not escape the urban pollution generated by her old automobile fleet. Installation of a monitoring and measuring site of air pollution in this city could provide a beneficial tool to protect its inhabitants by informing on air quality they breathe and the measures to following order to minimize the impacts on their health and by alerting the authorities during the critical situations. PMID:26175976

  2. Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

    2007-02-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media

  3. Exposure information in environmental health research: current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed

    McKone, Thomas E; Ryan, P Barry; Ozkaynak, Halûk

    2009-01-01

    Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health effect studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking, and accountability assessments are examples of health effect studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factor data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges, and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used case studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air-pollutant exposure to evaluate health effects for air pollution. One of the overarching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health effect studies requires both goal setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities for meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another overarching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure-assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media monitoring, and/or personal

  4. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G.; Clougherty, Jane E.; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors—including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)—as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions. PMID:26690474

  5. Nutritional Solutions to Reduce Risks of Negative Health Impacts of Air Pollution.

    PubMed

    Péter, Szabolcs; Holguin, Fernando; Wood, Lisa G; Clougherty, Jane E; Raederstorff, Daniel; Antal, Magda; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-10

    Air pollution worldwide has been associated with cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, particularly in urban settings with elevated concentrations of primary pollutants. Air pollution is a very complex mixture of primary and secondary gases and particles, and its potential to cause harm can depend on multiple factors-including physical and chemical characteristics of pollutants, which varies with fine-scale location (e.g., by proximity to local emission sources)-as well as local meteorology, topography, and population susceptibility. It has been hypothesized that the intake of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients may ameliorate various respiratory and cardiovascular effects of air pollution through reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation. To date, several studies have suggested that some harmful effects of air pollution may be modified by intake of essential micronutrients (such as B vitamins, and vitamins C, D, and E) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Here, we review the existing literature related to the potential for nutrition to modify the health impacts of air pollution, and offer a framework for examining these interactions.

  6. Air pollution in Athens basin and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Economopoulou, Alexia A; Economopoulos, Alexander P

    2002-12-01

    An inventory of air pollution sources within the Athens basin is carried out for the years 1989, 1992 and 1998 and the results are inputted in a climatological model for predicting ambient concentrations. Despite of the significant growth in the number of road vehicles and the deteriorating traffic, the emissions and ambient concentrations of fine particulates, CO, NOx and VOC appear to remain reasonably constant over for the period 1989 to 1998, while these of SO2 and Pb are reduced, mainly due to the renewal of vehicle fleet, the use of catalytic technologies and the improved quality of the used fuel. The results further indicate that for CO, NOx and VOC the major source is road traffic, while for PM2.5 and SO2 both space heating and traffic share responsibility. The air pollutant concentrations monitored by the network of 11 stations are reviewed and statistics related to air quality guidelines are presented. As fine particulate levels are not monitored, approximate PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations are derived from black smoke ones on basis of experimentally determined conversion factors. The computed and monitored air pollution levels are compared and found in reasonable agreement. The results of the above analysis show that the levels of all 'classical' pollutants, with the exception of SO2 and Pb, exceed significantly the WHO guidelines and are thus expected to exert a significant health impact. The latter could be quantified in relation to the PM2.5 or PM10 levels on the basis of risk assessment information developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). The results show that the existing levels of fine particle concentrations in Athens increase significantly the mortality and morbidity, and reduce the average longevity of the entire population from 1.3 to 1.7 years.

  7. Noninvasive effects measurements for air pollution human studies: methods, analysis, and implications.

    PubMed

    Mirowsky, Jaime; Gordon, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Human exposure studies, compared with cell and animal models, are heavily relied upon to study the associations between health effects in humans and air pollutant inhalation. Human studies vary in exposure methodology, with some work conducted in controlled settings, whereas other studies are conducted in ambient environments. Human studies can also vary in the health metrics explored, as there exists a myriad of health effect end points commonly measured. In this review, we compiled mini reviews of the most commonly used noninvasive health effect end points that are suitable for panel studies of air pollution, broken into cardiovascular end points, respiratory end points, and biomarkers of effect from biological specimens. Pertinent information regarding each health end point and the suggested methods for mobile collection in the field are assessed. In addition, the clinical implications for each health end point are summarized, along with the factors identified that can modify each measurement. Finally, the important research findings regarding each health end point and air pollutant exposures were reviewed. It appeared that most of the adverse health effects end points explored were found to positively correlate with pollutant levels, although differences in study design, pollutants measured, and study population were found to influence the magnitude of these effects. Thus, this review is intended to act as a guide for researchers interested in conducting human exposure studies of air pollutants while in the field, although there can be a wider application for using these end points in many epidemiological study designs.

  8. Economic evaluation of the air pollution effect on public health in China's 74 cities.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lei, Yalin; Pan, Dongyan; Yu, Chen; Si, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    Air deterioration caused by pollution has harmed public health. The existing studies on the economic loss caused by a variety of air pollutants in multiple cities are lacking. To understand the effect of different pollutants on public health and to provide the basis of the environmental governance for governments, based on the dose-response relation and the willingness to pay, this paper used the latest available data of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from January 2015 to June 2015 in 74 cities by establishing the lowest and the highest limit scenarios. The results show that (1) in the lowest and highest limit scenario, the health-related economic loss caused by PM10 and SO2 represented 1.63 and 2.32 % of the GDP, respectively; (2) For a single city, in the lowest and the highest limit scenarios, the highest economic loss of the public health effect caused by PM10 and SO2 was observed in Chongqing; the highest economic loss of the public health effect per capita occurred in Hebei Baoding. The highest proportion of the health-related economic loss accounting for GDP was found in Hebei Xingtai. The main reason is that the terrain conditions are not conducive to the spread of air pollutants in Chongqing, Baoding and Xingtai, and the three cities are typical heavy industrial cities that are based on coal resources. Therefore, this paper proposes to improve the energy structure, use the advanced production process, reasonably control the urban population growth, and adopt the emissions trading system in order to reduce the economic loss caused by the effects of air pollution on public health.

  9. The avoidable health effects of air pollution in three Latin American cities: Santiago, São Paulo, and Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Davis, Devra L; Gouveia, Nelson; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Cifuentes, Luis A

    2006-03-01

    Urban centers in Latin American often face high levels of air pollution as a result of economic and industrial growth. Decisions with regard to industry, transportation, and development will affect air pollution and health both in the short term and in the far future through climate change. We investigated the pollution health consequences of modest changes in fossil fuel use for three case study cities in Latin American: Mexico City, Mexico; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. Annual levels of ozone and particulate matter were estimated from 2000 to 2020 for two emissions scenarios: (1) business-as-usual based on current emissions patterns and regulatory trends and (2) a control policy aimed at lowering air pollution emissions. The resulting air pollution levels were linked to health endpoints through concentration-response functions derived from epidemiological studies, using local studies where available. Results indicate that the air pollution control policy would have vast health benefits for each of the three cities, averting numerous adverse health outcomes including over 156,000 deaths, 4 million asthma attacks, 300,000 children's medical visits, and almost 48,000 cases of chronic bronchitis in the three cities over the 20-year period. The economic value of the avoided health impacts is roughly 21 to 165 billion Dollars (US). Sensitivity analysis shows that the control policy yields significant health and economic benefits even with relaxed assumptions with regard to population growth, pollutant concentrations for the control policy, concentration-response functions, and economic value of health outcomes. This research demonstrates the health and economic burden from air pollution in Latin American urban centers and the magnitude of health benefits from control policies.

  10. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Maldonado, Alejandra

    2017-01-25

    This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA-a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception.

  11. Racial Differences in Perceptions of Air Pollution Health Risk: Does Environmental Exposure Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.; Maldonado, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    This article extends environmental risk perception research by exploring how potential health risk from exposure to industrial and vehicular air pollutants, as well as other contextual and socio-demographic factors, influence racial/ethnic differences in air pollution health risk perception. Our study site is the Greater Houston metropolitan area, Texas, USA—a racially/ethnically diverse area facing high levels of exposure to pollutants from both industrial and transportation sources. We integrate primary household-level survey data with estimates of excess cancer risk from ambient exposure to industrial and on-road mobile source emissions of air toxics obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Statistical analysis is based on multivariate generalized estimation equation models which account for geographic clustering of surveyed households. Our results reveal significantly higher risk perceptions for non-Hispanic Black residents and those exposed to greater cancer risk from industrial pollutants, and also indicate that gender influences the relationship between race/ethnicity and air pollution risk perception. These findings highlight the need to incorporate measures of environmental health risk exposure in future analysis of social disparities in risk perception. PMID:28125059

  12. Sources of Indoor Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Leonarte, Virginia; Ballester, Ferran; Tenías, José Maria

    2009-01-01

    We carried out bibliographic searches in PubMed and Embase.com for the period from 1996 to 2008 with the aim of reviewing the scientific literature on the relationship between various sources of indoor air pollution and the respiratory health of children under the age of five. Those studies that included adjusted correlation measurements for the most important confounding variables and which had an adequate population size were considered to be more relevant. The results concerning the relationship between gas energy sources and children's respiratory health were heterogeneous. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion in the poorest countries was found to be an important risk factor for lower respiratory tract infections. Solvents involved in redecorating, DYI work, painting, and so forth, were found to be related to an increased risk for general respiratory problems. The distribution of papers depending on the pollution source showed a clear relationship with life-style and the level of development. PMID:20168984

  13. Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: Measurements, health impacts, and interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.J.; Smith, K.R.

    2007-06-15

    Nearly all China's rural residents and a shrinking fraction of urban residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and/or heating. Consequently, global meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution from solid fuel use in China is responsible for approximately 420,000 premature deaths annually, more than the approximately 300,000 attributed to urban outdoor air pollution in the country. Our objective in this review was to help elucidate the extent of this indoor air pollution health hazard. We reviewed approximately 200 publications in both Chinese- and English language journals that reported health effects, exposure characteristics, and fuel/stove intervention options. Observed health effects include respiratory illnesses, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, weakening of the immune system, and reduction in lung function. Arsenic poisoning and fluorosis resulting from the use of 'Poisonous' coal have been observed in certain regions of China. Although attempts have been made in a few studies to identify specific coal smoke constituents responsible for specific adverse health effects, the majority of indoor air measurements include those of only particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and/or nitrogen dioxide. These measurements indicate that pollution levels in households using solid fuel generally exceed China's indoor air quality standards. Intervention technologies ranging from simply adding a chimney to the more complex modernized bioenergy program are available, but they can be viable only with coordinated support from the government and the commercial sector.

  14. Household Air Pollution Exposure and Influence of Lifestyle on Respiratory Health and Lung Function in Belizean Adults and Children: A Field Study

    PubMed Central

    Kurti, Stephanie P.; Kurti, Allison N.; Emerson, Sam R.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Smith, Joshua R.; Harms, Craig A.; Rosenkranz, Sara K.

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) contributes to the global burden of disease. Our primary purpose was to determine whether HAP exposure was associated with reduced lung function and respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in Belizean adults and children. Our secondary purpose was to investigate whether lifestyle (physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption (FV)) is associated with reported symptoms. Belizean adults (n = 67, 19 Male) and children (n = 23, 6 Male) from San Ignacio Belize and surrounding areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Data collection took place at free walk-in clinics. Investigators performed initial screenings and administered questionnaires on (1) sources of HAP exposure; (2) reported respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms and (3) validated lifestyle questionnaires. Participants then performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO). There were no significant associations between HAP exposure and pulmonary function in adults. Increased exhaled CO was associated with a significantly lower forced expiratory volume in 1-s divided by forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) in children. Exposed adults experienced headaches, burning eyes, wheezing and phlegm production more frequently than unexposed adults. Adults who met PA guidelines were less likely to experience tightness and pressure in the chest compared to those not meeting guidelines. In conclusion, adults exposed to HAP experienced greater respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms, which may be attenuated by lifestyle modifications. PMID:27367712

  15. Integrated Assessment of Health-related Economic Impacts of U.S. Air Pollution Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saari, R. K.; Rausch, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We examine the environmental impacts, health-related economic benefits, and distributional effects of new US regulations to reduce smog from power plants, namely: the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule. Using integrated assessment methods, linking atmospheric and economic models, we assess the magnitude of economy-wide effects and distributional consequences that are not captured by traditional regulatory impact assessment methods. We study the Cross-State Air Pollution Rule, a modified allowance trading scheme that caps emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide from power plants in the eastern United States and thus reduces ozone and particulate matter pollution. We use results from the regulatory regional air quality model, CAMx (the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions), and epidemiologic studies in BenMAP (Environmental Benefits Mapping and Analysis Program), to quantify differences in morbidities and mortalities due to this policy. To assess the economy-wide and distributional consequences of these health impacts, we apply a recently developed economic and policy model, the US Regional Energy and Environmental Policy Model (USREP), a multi-region, multi-sector, multi-household, recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium economic model of the US that provides a detailed representation of the energy sector, and the ability to represent energy and environmental policies. We add to USREP a representation of air pollution impacts, including the estimation and valuation of health outcomes and their effects on health services, welfare, and factor markets. We find that the economic welfare benefits of the Rule are underestimated by traditional methods, which omit economy-wide impacts. We also quantify the distribution of benefits, which have varying effects across US regions, income groups, and pollutants, and we identify factors influencing this distribution, including the geographic variation of pollution and population as well as underlying

  16. Health risk assessment of cadmium pollution emergency for urban populations in Foshan City, China.

    PubMed

    Dou, Ming; Zhao, Peipei; Wang, Yanyan; Li, Guiqiu

    2017-01-30

    With rapid socioeconomic development, water pollution emergency has become increasingly common and could potentially harm the environment and human health, especially heavy metal pollution. In this paper, we investigate the Cd pollution emergency that occurred in the Pearl River network, China, in 2005, and we build a migration and transformation model for heavy metals to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of Cd concentrations under various scenarios of Cd pollution emergency in Foshan City. Moreover, human health hazard and carcinogenic risk for local residents of Foshan City were evaluated. The primary conclusions were as follows: (1) the number of carcinogen-affected people per year under scenario 1 reached 254.41 when the frequency was 0.1 year/time; specifically, the number of people with cancer per year in the area of the Datang, Lubao, and Nanbian waterworks was 189.36 accounting for 74% of the total number per year; (2) at the frequency of 5 years/time, the Lubao waterwork is the only one in extremely high- or high-risk grade, while besides it, the risk grade in the Datang, Nanbian, Xinan, Shitang, and Jianlibao waterworks is in the extremely high or high grade when the frequency is 0.1 year/time; (3) when Cd pollution accidents with the same level occurs again, Cd concentration decreases to a low level in the water only if the migration distance of Cd is at least 40-50 km. Based on the health risk assessment of Cd pollution, this study gives the recommendation that the distance should keep above 50 km in tidal river network of the Pearl River Delta between those factories existing the possibility of heavy metal pollution and the drinking water source. Only then can the public protect themselves from hazardous effects of higher levels of heavy metal.

  17. The Impact of Future Emissions Changes on Air Pollution Concentrations and Related Human Health Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikolajczyk, U.; Suppan, P.; Williams, M.

    2015-12-01

    Quantification of potential health benefits of reductions in air pollution on the local scale is becoming increasingly important. The aim of this study is to conduct health impact assessment (HIA) by utilizing regionally and spatially specific data in order to assess the influence of future emission scenarios on human health. In the first stage of this investigation, a modeling study was carried out using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with Chemistry to estimate ambient concentrations of air pollutants for the baseline year 2009, and for the future emission scenarios in southern Germany. Anthropogenic emissions for the baseline year 2009 are derived from the emission inventory provided by the Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research (TNO) (Denier van der Gon et al., 2010). For Germany, the TNO emissions were replaced by gridded emission data with a high spatial resolution of 1/64 x 1/64 degrees. Future air quality simulations are carried out under different emission scenarios, which reflect possible energy and climate measures in year 2030. The model set-up included a nesting approach, where three domains with horizontal resolution of 18 km, 6 km and 2 km were defined. The simulation results for the baseline year 2009 are used to quantify present-day health burdens. Concentration-response functions (CRFs) for PM2.5 and NO2 from the WHO Health risks of air Pollution in Europe (HRAPIE) project were applied to population-weighted mean concentrations to estimate relative risks and hence to determine numbers of attributable deaths and associated life-years lost. In the next step, future health impacts of projected concentrations were calculated taking into account different emissions scenarios. The health benefits that we assume with air pollution reductions can be used to provide options for future policy decisions to protect public health.

  18. Health effects of fluoride pollution caused by coal burning.

    PubMed

    Ando, M; Tadano, M; Yamamoto, S; Tamura, K; Asanuma, S; Watanabe, T; Kondo, T; Sakurai, S; Ji, R; Liang, C; Chen, X; Hong, Z; Cao, S

    2001-04-23

    Recently a huge amount of fluoride in coal has been released into indoor environments by the combustion of coal and fluoride pollution seems to be increasing in some rural areas in China. Combustion of coal and coal bricks is the primary source of gaseous and aerosol fluoride and these forms of fluoride can easily enter exposed food products and the human respiratory tract. Major human fluoride exposure was caused by consumption of fluoride contaminated food, such as corn, chilies and potatoes. For each diagnostic syndrome of dental fluorosis, a log-normal distribution was observed on the logarithm of urinary fluoride concentration in students in China. Urinary fluoride content was found to be a primary health indicator of the prevalence of dental fluorosis in the community. In the fluorosis areas, osteosclerosis in skeletal fluorosis patients was observed with a high prevalence. A biochemical marker of bone resorption, urinary deoxypyridinoline content was much higher in residents in China than in residents in Japan. It was suggested that bone resorption was stimulated to a greater extent in residents in China and fluoride may stimulate both bone resorption and bone formation. Renal function especially glomerular filtration rate was very sensitive to fluoride exposure. Inorganic phosphate concentrations in urine were significantly lower in the residents in fluorosis areas in China than in non-fluorosis area in China and Japan. Since airborne fluoride from the combustion of coal pollutes extensively both the living environment and food, it is necessary to reduce fluoride pollution caused by coal burning.

  19. Modeling Spatial and Temporal Variability of Residential Air Exchange Rates for the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution health studies often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variability of residential infiltration of outdoor pollutants can induce exposure errors and lead to bias and incorrect confidence intervals in health effect estimates. Th...

  20. Health impact assessment of air pollution in Valladolid, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Cárdaba Arranz, Mario; Muñoz Moreno, María Fe; Armentia Medina, Alicia; Alonso Capitán, Margarita; Carreras Vaquer, Fernando; Almaraz Gómez, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the attributable and targeted avoidable deaths (ADs; TADs) of outdoor air pollution by ambient particulate matter (PM10), PM2.5 and O3 according to specific WHO methodology. Design Health impact assessment. Setting City of Valladolid, Spain (around 300 000 residents). Data sources Demographics; mortality; pollutant concentrations collected 1999–2008. Main outcome measures Attributable fractions; ADs and TADs per year for 1999–2008. Results Higher TADs estimates (shown here) were obtained when assuming as ‘target’ concentrations WHO Air Quality Guidelines instead of Directive 2008/50/EC. ADs are considered relative to pollutant background levels. All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (all ages): 52 ADs (95% CI 39 to 64); 31 TADs (95% CI 24 to 39).All-cause mortality associated to PM10 (<5 years): 0 ADs (95% CI 0 to 1); 0 TADs (95% CI 0 to 1). All-cause mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30 years): 326 ADs (95% CI 217 to 422); 231 TADs (95% CI 153 to 301). Cardiopulmonary and lung cancer mortality associated to PM2.5 (>30 years): ▸ Cardiopulmonary: 186 ADs (95% CI 74 to 280); 94 TADs (95% CI 36 to 148). ▸ Lung cancer : 51 ADs (95% CI 21 to 73); 27 TADs (95% CI 10 to 41).All-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortality associated to O3 (all ages): ▸ All-cause: 52ADs (95% CI 25 to 77) ; 31 TADs (95% CI 15 to 45). ▸ Respiratory: 5ADs (95% CI −2 to 13) ; 3 TADs (95% CI −1 to 8). ▸ Cardiovascular: 30 ADs (95% CI 8 to 51) ; 17 TADs (95% CI 5 to 30). Negative estimates which should be read as zero were obtained when pollutant concentrations were below counterfactuals or assumed risk coefficients were below one. Conclusions Our estimates suggest a not negligible negative impact on mortality of outdoor air pollution. The implementation of WHO methodology provides critical information to distinguish an improvement range in air pollution control. PMID:25326212

  1. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-07-11

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations and the health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO) standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m³), São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years' gain) and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m³, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population.

  2. Prediction of asthma exacerbations among children through integrating air pollution, upper atmosphere, and school health surveillances.

    PubMed

    Jayawardene, Wasantha Parakrama; Youssefagha, Ahmed Hassan; Lohrmann, David Kurt; El Afandi, Gamal Salah

    2013-01-01

    Climatic factors and air pollution are important in predicting asthma exacerbations among children. This study was designed to determine if a relationship exists between asthma exacerbations among elementary school children and the combined effect of daily upper atmosphere observations (temperature, relative humidity, dew point, and mixing ratio) and daily air pollution (particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone) and, if so, to predict asthma exacerbations among children using a mathematical model. Using an ecological study design, school health records of 168,825 students in elementary schools enrolled in "Health eTools for Schools" within 49 Pennsylvania counties were analyzed. Data representing asthma exacerbations were originally recorded by school nurses as the type of treatment given to a student during a clinic visit on a particular day. Daily upper atmosphere measurements from ground level to the 850-mb pressure level and air pollution measurements were obtained. A generalized estimating equation model was used to predict the occurrence of >48 asthma exacerbations, the daily mean for 2008-2010. The greatest occurrence of asthma among school children was in the fall, followed by summer, spring, and winter. Upper atmosphere temperature, dew point, mixing ratio, and six air pollutants as well as their interactions predicted the probability of asthma exacerbations occurring among children. Monitoring of upper atmosphere observation data and air pollutants over time can be a reliable means for predicting increases of asthma exacerbations among elementary school children. Such predictions could help parents and school officials implement effective precautionary measures.

  3. Assessment of urban air pollution and it's probable health impact.

    PubMed

    Barman, S C; Kumar, N; Singh, R; Kisku, G C; Khan, A H; Kidwai, M M; Murthy, R C; Negi, M P S; Pandey, P; Verma, A K; Jain, G; Bhargava, S K

    2010-11-01

    The present study deals with the quantitative effect of vehicular emission on ambient air quality during May 2006 in urban area of Lucknow city. In this study SPM, RSPM, SO2, NOx and 7 trace metals associated with RSPM were estimated at 10 representative locations in urban area and one village area for control. Beside this, air quality index (AQI), health effects of different metals and mortality were assessed. The 24 hr average concentration of SPM, RSPM, SO2 and NOx was found to be 382.3, 171.5, 24.3 and 33.8 microg m(-3) respectively in urban area and these concentrations were found to be significantly (p < 0.01) higher by 94.8, 134.8, 107.4 and 129.6% than control site respectively The 24 hr mean of SPM and RSPM at each location of urban area were found to be higher than prescribed limit of National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) except SPM for industrial area. The 24 hr mean concentration of metals associated with RSPM was found to be higher than the control site by 52.3, 271.8, 408.9, 75.81, 62.7, 487.54 and 189.5% for Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn and Cr respectively. The inter correlation of metals Pb with Mn, Fe and Cr; Zn with Ni and Cr; Ni with Cr; Mn with Fe and Cu with Cr showed significant positive relation either at p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 level. Metals Pb, Mn and Cr (p < 0.01) and Cu (p < 0.05) showed significant positive correlation with RSPM. These results indicate that ambient air quality in the urban area is affected adversely due to emission and accumulation of SPM, RSPM, SO2, NOx and trace metals. These pollutants may pose detrimental effect on human health, as exposure of these are associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, neurological impairments, increased risk of preterm birth and even mortality and morbidity.

  4. A Modeling Methodology to Support Evaluation Public Health Impacts on Air Pollution Reduction Programs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental public health protection requires a good understanding of types and locations of pollutant emissions of health concern and their relationship to environmental public health indicators. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the methodologies, data sources, and tools...

  5. Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J; Fussell, Julia C

    2015-08-01

    Despite past improvements in air quality, very large parts of the population in urban areas breathe air that does not meet European standards let alone the health-based World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. Over the last 10 years, there has been a substantial increase in findings that particulate matter (PM) air pollution is not only exerting a greater impact on established health endpoints, but is also associated with a broader number of disease outcomes. Data strongly suggest that effects have no threshold within the studied range of ambient concentrations, can occur at levels close to PM2.5 background concentrations and that they follow a mostly linear concentration-response function. Having firmly established this significant public health problem, there has been an enormous effort to identify what it is in ambient PM that affects health and to understand the underlying biological basis of toxicity by identifying mechanistic pathways-information that in turn will inform policy makers how best to legislate for cleaner air. Another intervention in moving towards a healthier environment depends upon the achieving the right public attitude and behaviour by the use of optimal air pollution monitoring, forecasting and reporting that exploits increasingly sophisticated information systems. Improving air quality is a considerable but not an intractable challenge. Translating the correct scientific evidence into bold, realistic and effective policies undisputedly has the potential to reduce air pollution so that it no longer poses a damaging and costly toll on public health.

  6. A cooperative reduction model for regional air pollution control in China that considers adverse health effects and pollutant reduction costs.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yujing; Zhao, Laijun; Xue, Jian; Hu, Qingmi; Xu, Xiang; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-12-15

    How to effectively control severe regional air pollution has become a focus of global concern recently. The non-cooperative reduction model (NCRM) is still the main air pollution control pattern in China, but it is both ineffective and costly, because each province must independently fight air pollution. Thus, we proposed a cooperative reduction model (CRM), with the goal of maximizing the reduction in adverse health effects (AHEs) at the lowest cost by encouraging neighboring areas to jointly control air pollution. CRM has two parts: a model of optimal pollutant removal rates using two optimization objectives (maximizing the reduction in AHEs and minimizing pollutant reduction cost) while meeting the regional pollution control targets set by the central government, and a model that allocates the cooperation benefits (i.e., health improvement and cost reduction) among the participants according to their contributions using the Shapley value method. We applied CRM to the case of sulfur dioxide (SO2) reduction in Yangtze River Delta region. Based on data from 2003 to 2013, and using mortality due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as the health endpoints, CRM saves 437 more lives than NCRM, amounting to 12.1% of the reduction under NCRM. CRM also reduced costs by US $65.8×10(6) compared with NCRM, which is 5.2% of the total cost of NCRM. Thus, CRM performs significantly better than NCRM. Each province obtains significant benefits from cooperation, which can motivate them to actively cooperate in the long term. A sensitivity analysis was performed to quantify the effects of parameter values on the cooperation benefits. Results shown that the CRM is not sensitive to the changes in each province's pollutant carrying capacity and the minimum pollutant removal capacity, but sensitive to the maximum pollutant reduction capacity. Moreover, higher cooperation benefits will be generated when a province's maximum pollutant reduction capacity increases.

  7. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-08-06

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution.

  8. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution. PMID:27509512

  9. Characteristics and health impacts of particulate matter pollution in China (2001-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Fajardo, Oscar; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2013-02-01

    In this study, a systematic overview of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) pollution in China was conducted based on the dataset from national monitoring network from 2001 to 2011. The long-term trend, spatial and temporal distributions, and health impacts of PM10 pollution were evaluated. It was found that the annual PM10 concentration decreased from 116.0 μg m-3 in 2001 to 85.3 μg m-3 in 2011. The days with PM10 concentration above the new Chinese ambient air quality standard dropped from 66 (18%) in 2001 to 28 (7.8%) in 2011, while the days exceeding the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline decreased from 294 (80.5%) in 2001 to 250 (68.5%) in 2011. PM10 pollution in northern China is much worse than that in southern China. Six of nine most polluted cities (>110 μg m-3) are in the north, while six cleanest cities (<50 μg m-3) are all in the south. The seasonal average PM10 concentrations in 2001-2011 for all cities are 104.4 μg m-3 (spring), 75.3 μg m-3 (summer), 94.7 μg m-3 (autumn), and 118.4 μg m-3 (winter), respectively, indicating that winter and spring are the most polluted seasons. Different health endpoints due to PM10 pollution show similar trends. Taking premature mortality between 2001 and 2011 as an example, the ratio of deaths due to PM10 pollution to all causes of deaths dropped from 13.5% to 11.6% and 511,000 deaths are avoided due to the concentration reduction, though the absolute damage number due to PM10 pollution increased from 418,000 to 514,000 because of increasing urban population. These results indicate that PM10 pollution in China has been eased significantly over the last decade, mainly due to the application of emission control measures. However, the PM10 concentration remains at a high level comparing with the WHO guideline and its health impacts are still significant.

  10. Pollution and skin: from epidemiological and mechanistic studies to clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Krutmann, Jean; Liu, Wei; Li, Li; Pan, Xiaochuan; Crawford, Martha; Sore, Gabrielle; Seite, Sophie

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the health effects associated with air pollution have been intensively studied. Most studies focus on air pollution effects on the lung and the cardiovascular system. More recently, however, epidemiological and mechanistic studies suggest that air pollution is also affecting skin integrity. This state-of-the-art review focuses on this latter aspect; it was developed with the collaboration of European and Chinese board of experts with specific interests in environmental health, clinical and basic research in dermatology and cosmetic dermatology. A literature review limited to pollution and health effects and (sensitive) skin was performed using PubMed. Review and original articles were chosen. We summarize the existing scientific evidence that air pollution exerts detrimental effects on human skin, discuss potential clinical implications and suggest specific and unspecific cosmetic protective measures.

  11. Respiratory Health Symptoms among Students Exposed to Different Levels of Air Pollution in a Turkish City

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Hülya; Gaga, Eftade O.; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Özden, Özlem; Ayvaz, Özkan; Özel, Sevda; Güngör, Günay

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were chosen based on the pollutant distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11–1.99; p = 0.008), tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22–2.02; p = 0.001), morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19–2.75; p = 0.006) were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air pollution and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify pollutant zones and persons at risk. PMID:21695031

  12. A system for evaluating the impact of noise pollution on the population's health.

    PubMed

    Bressane, Adriano; Mochizuki, Patricia Satie; Caram, Rosana Maria; Roveda, José Arnaldo Frutuoso

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a support system for the evaluation of noise pollution, applied to the central urban area of Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Brazil. Data were obtained from noise measurements and interviews with the population, generating the following indicators: equivalent sound level (Leq ), traffic noise index (LTNI ), and a participatory diagnosis (Dp ), integrated through a fuzzy inference system (FIS). The proposed system allowed classifying the measurement points according to the degree of impact of noise pollution on the population's health (IPS ) in the study area. Impact was considered significant in 31.4% of the measurement points and very significant in 62.9%. The FIS can be adjusted to local conditions, allowing generalization and thus also supporting noise pollution evaluation and respective environmental noise management in other geographic areas.

  13. Do perceived job insecurity and annoyance due to air and noise pollution predict incident self-rated poor health? A prospective analysis of independent and joint associations using a German national representative cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Natalie; Loerbroks, Adrian; Bolte, Gabriele; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Background Current economic and social change has contributed to increasing job insecurity and traffic-related pollution in residential areas. Both job insecurity and exposure to noise and air pollution are known determinants of population health and can concur in peoples' lives. This may hold true particularly for socially disadvantaged subpopulations. Nevertheless, the potential independent and joint links of those exposures to health have been rarely examined so far. We aimed to contribute to the scarce body of evidence. Methods Information on perceived job insecurity and exposures to noise and air pollution as expressed by annoyance as well as on self-rated health were gathered from 2 waves of the population-based German Socio-Economic Panel (2009 and 2011, N=6544). We performed multivariable Poisson regression to examine the independent and joint risk of poor health in 2011 by perceived job insecurity and annoyance due to noise and air pollution in 2009. Results After the 2-year follow-up in 2011, 571 (8.7%) participants rated their health as poor. The risk of reporting incident poor health was increased by roughly 40% in employees reporting high versus low perceived job insecurity and annoyance due to noise and air pollution, respectively. This risk increased when both exposures were present at higher levels (risk ratio=1.95 (1.49 to 2.55)). Conclusions Work-related and environmental exposures may accumulate and have a joint health impact. Elaboration on the link between occupational and residential exposures is warranted in the light of their concurrence and their implications for health inequities. PMID:28115332

  14. Hazard identification of environmental pollutants by combining results from ecological and biomarker studies: an example

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Linking exposures from environmental pollutants with adverse health effects is difficult because these exposures are usually low-dose and ill-defined. According to several investigators, a series of multidisciplinary, multilevel studies is needed to address this prob...

  15. Modeling Air Pollution Exposure Metrics for the Diabetes and Environment Panel Study (DEPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution health studies of fine particulate matter (PM) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. To improve exposure assessments, we developed and evaluated an exposure model for individuals (EMI), which predicts five tiers of individual-level exposure metric...

  16. Health hazards associated with windsurfing on polluted water.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Poirier, C; Meyer, F M

    1986-01-01

    We documented the risks associated with windsurfing on sewage polluted water. Seventy-nine windsurfers and 41 controls were studied over a nine-day period for occurrence of symptoms of gastroenteritis, otitis, conjunctivitis, and skin infection. Relative risks were 2.9 for occurrence of one or more of these symptoms and 5.5 for symptoms of gastroenteritis. Relative risk increased with the reported number of falls into the water. PMID:3706597

  17. Health hazards associated with windsurfing on polluted water

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E.; Poirier, C.; Meyer, F.M.

    1986-06-01

    We documented the risks associated with windsurfing on sewage polluted water. Seventy-nine windsurfers and 41 controls were studied over a nine-day period for occurrence of symptoms of gastroenteritis, otitis, conjunctivitis, and skin infection. Relative risks were 2.9 for occurrence of one or more of these symptoms and 5.5 for symptoms of gastroenteritis. Relative risk increased with the reported number of falls into the water.

  18. Clearing the air and breathing freely: the health politics of air pollution and asthma.

    PubMed

    Brown, Phil; Mayer, Brian; Zavestoski, Stephen; Luebke, Theo; Mandelbaum, Joshua; McCormick, Sabrina

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the growing debate around environmental causes of asthma in the context of federal regulatory disputes, scientific controversy, and environmental justice activism. A multifaceted form of social discovery of the effect of air pollution on asthma has resulted from multipartner and multiorganizational approaches and from intersectoral policy that deals with social inequality and environmental justice. Scientists, activists, health voluntary organizations, and some government agencies and officials have identified various elements of the asthma and air pollution connection. To tackle these issues, they have worked through a variety of collaborations and across different sectors of environmental regulation, public health, health services, housing, transportation, and community development. The authors examine the role of activist groups in discovering the increased rates of asthma and framing it as a social and environmental issue; give an overview of the current knowledge base on air pollution and asthma, and the controversies within science; and situate that science in the regulatory debate, discussing the many challenges to the air quality researchers. They then examine the implications of the scientific and regulatory controversies over linking air pollution to increases in asthma. The article concludes with a discussion of how alliances between activists and scientists lead to new research strategies and innovations.

  19. Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public health--a review.

    PubMed

    Azizullah, Azizullah; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan; Richter, Peter; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2011-02-01

    Water pollution is one of the major threats to public health in Pakistan. Drinking water quality is poorly managed and monitored. Pakistan ranks at number 80 among 122 nations regarding drinking water quality. Drinking water sources, both surface and groundwater are contaminated with coliforms, toxic metals and pesticides throughout the country. Various drinking water quality parameters set by WHO are frequently violated. Human activities like improper disposal of municipal and industrial effluents and indiscriminate applications of agrochemicals in agriculture are the main factors contributing to the deterioration of water quality. Microbial and chemical pollutants are the main factors responsible exclusively or in combination for various public health problems. This review discusses a detailed layout of drinking water quality in Pakistan with special emphasis on major pollutants, sources of pollution and the consequent health problems. The data presented in this review are extracted from various studies published in national and international journals. Also reports released by the government and non-governmental organizations are included.

  20. Nonpoint source pollution, environmental quality, and ecosystem health in China: introduction to the special section.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minghua; Xu, Jianming

    2011-01-01

    The rapid economic and industrial growth of China, exemplified by a 10-fold increase in its gross domestic product in the past 15 years, has lifted millions of its citizens out of poverty but has simultaneously led to severe environmental problems. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 2.4 million deaths in China per year could be attributed to degraded environmental quality. Much of China's soil, air, and water are polluted by xenobiotic contaminants, such as heavy metals and organic compounds. In addition, soil quality is degraded by erosion, desertification, and nutrient runoff. Air quality is further compromised by particulates, especially in heavily populated areas. Research shows that 80% of urban rivers in China are significantly polluted, and poor water quality is a key contributor to poverty in rural China. Economic and industrial growth has also greatly expanded the demand for water sources of appropriate quality; however, pollution has markedly diminished usable water resource quantity. Desertification and diminishing water resources threaten future food security. In recent years, China's government has increased efforts to reverse these trends and to improve ecosystem health. The Web of Science database showed that the percentage of articles on China devoting to environmental sciences increased dramatically in recent years. In addition, the top 25 institutes publishing the papers in environmental sciences were all in China. This special issue includes seven articles focusing on nonpoint source pollution, environmental quality, and ecosystem health in China. The major issues, and results of these studies, are discussed in this introduction.

  1. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework.

    PubMed

    Thurston, George D; Kipen, Howard; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Balmes, John; Brook, Robert D; Cromar, Kevin; De Matteis, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Frampton, Mark W; Grigg, Jonathan; Heederik, Dick; Kelly, Frank J; Kuenzli, Nino; Laumbach, Robert; Peters, Annette; Rajagopalan, Sanjay T; Rich, David; Ritz, Beate; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandstrom, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sunyer, Jordi; Brunekreef, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air pollution studies.This current report seeks to integrate the latest science into a general framework for interpreting the adversity of the human health effects of air pollution. Rather than trying to provide a catalogue of what is and what is not an adverse effect of air pollution, we propose a set of considerations that can be applied in forming judgments of the adversity of not only currently documented, but also emerging and future effects of air pollution on human health. These considerations are illustrated by the inclusion of examples for different types of health effects of air pollution.

  2. Estimates of health risk from exposure to radioactive pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, R.E.; Nelson, N.S.; Ellett, W.H.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1981-11-01

    A dosimetric and health effects analysis has been performed for the Office of Radiation Programs of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess potential hazards from radioactive pollutants. Contemporary dosimetric methods were used to obtain estimates of dose rates to reference organs from internal exposures due to either inhalation of contaminated air or ingestion of contaminated food, or from external exposures due to either immersion in contaminated air or proximity to contaminated ground surfaces. These dose rates were then used to estimate the number of premature cancer deaths arising from such exposures and the corresponding number of years of life lost in a cohort of 100,000 persons, all simultaneously liveborn and all going through life with the same risks of dying from competing causes. The risk of dying from a competing cause for a given year was taken to be the probability of dying from all causes as given in a recent actuarial life table for the total US population.

  3. Application of alternative spatiotemporal metrics of ambient air pollution exposure in a time-series epidemiological study in Atlanta

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure error in studies of ambient air pollution and health that use city-wide measures of exposure may be substantial for pollutants that exhibit spatiotemporal variability. Alternative spatiotemporal metrics of exposure for traffic-related and regional pollutants were applied...

  4. The effect of future outdoor air pollution on human health and the contribution of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Lamarque, J.; Shindell, D.; Collins, W.; Dalsoren, S. B.; Faluvegi, G. S.; Folberth, G.; Horowitz, L. W.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R.; Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Bergmann, D. J.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Cionni, I.; Doherty, R. M.; Eyring, V.; Josse, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, D.; Righi, M.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S. A.; Szopa, S.; Zeng, G.

    2013-12-01

    At present, exposure to outdoor air pollution from ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) causes over 2 million deaths per year, due to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. Future ambient concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 will be affected by both air pollutant emissions and climate change. Here we estimate the potential impact of future outdoor air pollution on premature human mortality, and isolate the contribution of future climate change due to its effect on air quality. We use modeled present-day (2000) and future global ozone and PM2.5 concentrations from simulations with an ensemble of chemistry-climate models from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). Future air pollution was modeled for global greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions in the four IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, for 2030, 2050 and 2100. All model outputs are regridded to a common 0.5°x0.5° horizontal resolution. Future premature mortality is estimated for each RCP scenario and year based on changes in concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 relative to 2000. Using a health impact function, changes in concentrations for each RCP scenario are combined with future population and cause-specific baseline mortality rates as projected by a single independent scenario in which the global incidence of cardiopulmonary diseases is expected to increase. The effect of climate change is isolated by considering the difference between air pollutant concentrations from simulations with 2000 emissions and a future year climate and simulations with 2000 emissions and climate. Uncertainties in the results reflect the uncertainty in the concentration-response function and that associated with variability among models. Few previous studies have quantified the effects of future climate change on global human health via changes in air quality, and this is the first such study to use an ensemble of global models.

  5. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  6. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kirk R; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C Arden; Thun, Michael J; Thurston, George

    2009-12-19

    In this report we review the health effects of three short-lived greenhouse pollutants-black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352,000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies.

  7. Quantifying the health impacts of air pollution under a changing climate-a review of approaches and methodology.

    PubMed

    Sujaritpong, Sarunya; Dear, Keith; Cope, Martin; Walsh, Sean; Kjellstrom, Tord

    2014-03-01

    Climate change has been predicted to affect future air quality, with inevitable consequences for health. Quantifying the health effects of air pollution under a changing climate is crucial to provide evidence for actions to safeguard future populations. In this paper, we review published methods for quantifying health impacts to identify optimal approaches and ways in which existing challenges facing this line of research can be addressed. Most studies have employed a simplified methodology, while only a few have reported sensitivity analyses to assess sources of uncertainty. The limited investigations that do exist suggest that examining the health risk estimates should particularly take into account the uncertainty associated with future air pollution emissions scenarios, concentration-response functions, and future population growth and age structures. Knowledge gaps identified for future research include future health impacts from extreme air pollution events, interactions between temperature and air pollution effects on public health under a changing climate, and how population adaptation and behavioural changes in a warmer climate may modify exposure to air pollution and health consequences.

  8. How robust are the estimated effects of air pollution on health? Accounting for model uncertainty using Bayesian model averaging.

    PubMed

    Pannullo, Francesca; Lee, Duncan; Waclawski, Eugene; Leyland, Alastair H

    2016-08-01

    The long-term impact of air pollution on human health can be estimated from small-area ecological studies in which the health outcome is regressed against air pollution concentrations and other covariates, such as socio-economic deprivation. Socio-economic deprivation is multi-factorial and difficult to measure, and includes aspects of income, education, and housing as well as others. However, these variables are potentially highly correlated, meaning one can either create an overall deprivation index, or use the individual characteristics, which can result in a variety of pollution-health effects. Other aspects of model choice may affect the pollution-health estimate, such as the estimation of pollution, and spatial autocorrelation model. Therefore, we propose a Bayesian model averaging approach to combine the results from multiple statistical models to produce a more robust representation of the overall pollution-health effect. We investigate the relationship between nitrogen dioxide concentrations and cardio-respiratory mortality in West Central Scotland between 2006 and 2012.

  9. Impacts of Air Pollution on Health in Eastern China: Implications for future air pollution and energy policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D.

    2004-12-01

    Our objective is to establish the link between energy consumption and technologies, air pollution and resulting impacts on public health in eastern China. We quantify the impacts that air pollution in the Shandong region of eastern China has on public health in 2000 and quantify the benefits in improved air quality and health that could be obtained by 2020, relative to business-as-usual, through the implementation of new energy technology. We first develop a highly-resolved emission inventory for the year 2000 for the Shandong region of China including emissions from large point, area, mobile and biogenic sources. We use the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System (SMOKE) to process emissions from this inventory for use in the Community Multi-scale Air Quality modeling system (CMAQ) which we drive with the NCAR/PSU MM5 meso-scale meteorology model. We evaluate the inventory by comparing CMAQ results with available measurements of PM10 and SO2 from air pollution indices (APIs) reported in various Chinese municipalities during 2002-2004. We use epidemiological dose-response functions to quantify health impacts and values of a statistical life (VSL) and years-of-life-lost (YLL) to establish a range for the monetary value of these impacts. To examine health impacts and their monetary value, we focus explicitly on Zaozhuang, a coal-intensive city in the Shandong region of eastern China, and quantify the mortalities and morbidities resulting from air pollutants emitted from this city in 2000, and in 2020 using business-as-usual, best-available control technology, and advanced coal gasification technology scenarios. In all scenarios most health damages arise from exposure to particulate matter. We find that total health damages due to year 2000 anthropogenic emissions from Zaozhuang accounted for 4-10% of its GDP. If all health damages resulting from coal use were internalized in the market price of coal, the year 2000 price would have doubled. With no new

  10. Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: inpatient health impacts and economic valuation.

    PubMed

    Othman, Jamal; Sahani, Mazrura; Mahmud, Mastura; Ahmad, Md Khadzir Sheikh

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD).

  11. Health assessment of environmental pollutants: proliferative and degenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.O.

    1988-12-01

    In order to achieve a balanced approach to risk assessment between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects one must examine the risk of disease or death in the general population exposed to a particular air pollutant that can be related quantitatively to intensity and duration of exposures (National Academy of Sciences, 1983). Such risk assessment should be based upon careful evaluation of scientific findings of dose-response relationships in the chronically exposed population. Quantitative assessment of environmentally produced disease in man has proven to be complex and demanding. A variety of factors play important roles in this task. As an example, there are induction-latency periods for chronic diseases, including cancer, which may range from five to twenty-five years. The diseases themselves, whether proliferative or degenerative, may follow several stages of progression. There is only sparse epidemiological data on serious health effects that may be due to environmental as compared to occupational exposures. Exposures to chemical or radiological air contaminants do not occur singly but to a multiplicity of agents, and disease processes are frequently markedly affected by the interaction of a variety of factors, particularly that of cigarette smoking. There is growing recognition of potentially sensitive subpopulations, including the elderly and the very young, but adequate techniques for assessing the magnitude of increased risks to these groups have not yet been developed.

  12. Household Air Pollution from Coal and Biomass Fuels in China: Measurements, Health Impacts, and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Smith, Kirk R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Nearly all China’s rural residents and a shrinking fraction of urban residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and/or heating. Consequently, global meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution from solid fuel use in China is responsible for approximately 420,000 premature deaths annually, more than the approximately 300,000 attributed to urban outdoor air pollution in the country. Our objective in this review was to help elucidate the extent of this indoor air pollution health hazard. Data sources We reviewed approximately 200 publications in both Chinese- and English-language journals that reported health effects, exposure characteristics, and fuel/stove intervention options. Conclusions Observed health effects include respiratory illnesses, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, weakening of the immune system, and reduction in lung function. Arsenic poisoning and fluorosis resulting from the use of “poisonous” coal have been observed in certain regions of China. Although attempts have been made in a few studies to identify specific coal smoke constituents responsible for specific adverse health effects, the majority of indoor air measurements include those of only particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and/or nitrogen dioxide. These measurements indicate that pollution levels in households using solid fuel generally exceed China’s indoor air quality standards. Intervention technologies ranging from simply adding a chimney to the more complex modernized bioenergy program are available, but they can be viable only with coordinated support from the government and the commercial sector. PMID:17589590

  13. Two Mechanisms: The Role of Social Capital and Industrial Pollution Exposure in Explaining Racial Disparities in Self-Rated Health.

    PubMed

    Ard, Kerry; Colen, Cynthia; Becerra, Marisol; Velez, Thelma

    2016-10-19

    This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%. Our other indicator of cognitive social capital, cognitive linking as represented by engagement in politics, decreases the gap in health between Hispanics and Whites by 32%, but has little impact on African Americans. We also assessed whether the gap in health was explained by respondents' estimated exposure to toxicity-weighted air pollutants from large industrial facilities over the previous year. Our results show that accounting for exposure to these toxins has no effect on the racial gap in self-rated health in these data. This paper contributes to the neighborhood effects literature by examining the impact that estimated annual industrial air pollution, and multiple measures of social capital, have on explaining the racial gap in health in a sample of individuals nested within communities across the United States.

  14. Two Mechanisms: The Role of Social Capital and Industrial Pollution Exposure in Explaining Racial Disparities in Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    Ard, Kerry; Colen, Cynthia; Becerra, Marisol; Velez, Thelma

    2016-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%. Our other indicator of cognitive social capital, cognitive linking as represented by engagement in politics, decreases the gap in health between Hispanics and Whites by 32%, but has little impact on African Americans. We also assessed whether the gap in health was explained by respondents’ estimated exposure to toxicity-weighted air pollutants from large industrial facilities over the previous year. Our results show that accounting for exposure to these toxins has no effect on the racial gap in self-rated health in these data. This paper contributes to the neighborhood effects literature by examining the impact that estimated annual industrial air pollution, and multiple measures of social capital, have on explaining the racial gap in health in a sample of individuals nested within communities across the United States. PMID:27775582

  15. Characterization of PM2.5, gaseous pollutants, and meteorological interactions in the context of time-series health effects models.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kazuhiko; Thurston, George D; Silverman, Robert A

    2007-12-01

    Associations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone with morbidity and mortality have been reported in many recent observational epidemiology studies. These studies often considered other gaseous co-pollutants also as potential confounders, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). However, because each of these air pollutants can have different seasonal patterns and chemical interactions, the estimation and interpretation of each pollutant's individual risk estimates may not be straightforward. Multi-collinearity among the air pollution and weather variables also leaves the possibility of confounding and over- or under-fitting of meteorological variables, thereby potentially influencing the health effect estimates for the various pollutants in differing ways. To investigate these issues, we examined the temporal relationships among air pollution and weather variables in the context of air pollution health effects models. We compiled daily data for PM less than 2.5 mum (PM2.5), ozone, NO2, SO2, CO, temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, and barometric pressure for New York City for the years 1999-2002. We conducted several sets of analyses to characterize air pollution and weather data interactions, to assess different aspects of these data issues: (1) spatial/temporal variation of PM2.5 and gaseous pollutants measured at multiple monitors; (2) temporal relationships among air pollution and weather variables; and (3) extent and nature of multi-collinearity of air pollution and weather variables in the context of health effects models. The air pollution variables showed a varying extent of intercorrelations with each other and with weather variables, and these correlations also varied across seasons. For example, NO2 exhibited the strongest negative correlation with wind speed among the pollutants considered, while ozone's correlation with PM2.5 changed signs across the seasons (positive in summer and negative in

  16. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    PubMed Central

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  17. What can individuals do to reduce personal health risks from air pollution?

    PubMed

    Laumbach, Robert; Meng, Qingyu; Kipen, Howard

    2015-01-01

    In many areas of the world, concentrations of ambient air pollutants exceed levels associated with increased risk of acute and chronic health problems. While effective policies to reduce emissions at their sources are clearly preferable, some evidence supports the effectiveness of individual actions to reduce exposure and health risks. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution can be reduced on high air pollution days by staying indoors, reducing outdoor air infiltration to indoors, cleaning indoor air with air filters, and limiting physical exertion, especially outdoors and near air pollution sources. Limited evidence suggests that the use of respirators may be effective in some circumstances. Awareness of air pollution levels is facilitated by a growing number of public air quality alert systems. Avoiding exposure to air pollutants is especially important for susceptible individuals with chronic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, children, and the elderly. Research on mechanisms underlying the adverse health effects of air pollution have suggested potential pharmaceutical or chemopreventive interventions, such as antioxidant or antithrombotic agents, but in the absence of data on health outcomes, no sound recommendations can be made for primary prevention. Health care providers and their patients should carefully consider individual circumstances related to outdoor and indoor air pollutant exposure levels and susceptibility to those air pollutants when deciding on a course of action to reduce personal exposure and health risks from ambient air pollutants. Careful consideration is especially warranted when interventions may have unintended negative consequences, such as when efforts to avoid exposure to air pollutants lead to reduced physical activity or when there is evidence that dietary supplements, such as antioxidants, have potential adverse health effects. These potential complications of partially effective personal interventions to reduce exposure or

  18. Using soil health to assess ecotoxicological impacts of pollutants on soil microflora.

    PubMed

    Bécaert, Valérie; Deschênes, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Microorganisms are essential for a properly functioning soil ecosystem. However, few methods allow an ecotoxicological evaluation of pollutant impact on the soil microbial community. This review proposes the use of the concept of soil health as an ecotoxicological evaluation tool for soil microflora. Initially limited to sustainable agriculture, the concept of soil health is now being applied to novel situations including contaminated and remediated soils. A large amount of work has been published in the last few decades on soil health indicators, and a review of the most relevant studies is presented here. The most cited work is that of the S-5518 committee set up in 1997 by the Soil Science Society of America (SSSA), which proposed to define soil quality as being "the capacity of a soil to function within the limits of an ecosystem, to support biological production, to maintain environmental quality and to support fauna and flora health." The soil health indicators reviewed here are the ones based on this definition because it relates well to sustainability and durability of the soil functions. Several indicators proposed in these studies could be employed in the evaluation of the ecotoxicological impact of pollutants on the soil microbial community, including microbial diversity, microbial activity, and functional stability. However, research is still required to unify the concept, to set threshold values, and to standardize methodologies.

  19. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Karina Camasmie; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and ozone concentrations and the health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO) standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m3), São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years’ gain) and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m3, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population. PMID:27409629

  20. Environmental pollutions associated to conflicts in Iraq and related health problems.

    PubMed

    Al-Shammari, Ahmed Majeed

    2016-06-01

    Several wars and a 13-year embargo as well as several years of civil war with the recent war on terrorism have cumulatively damaged Iraq's land, air, water, and health infrastructure. The sand particles in Iraq contain toxic substances, which dates back to the pollution caused by military actions that disassemble the desert sands and turn it into light dust. This dust reaches cities as dust storms that effect most Iraqi cities. The presence of depleted uranium (DU) in the Iraqi food chain is documented by measuring the uranium in animals organs in different Iraqi cities with the highest concentration in the south of Iraq. One of the major sites of pollution in Iraq is the Al-twaitha nuclear research site. The nuclear research reactors were destroyed in the 1991 Gulf War. Barrels containing radioactive materials and sources were stolen from the site in the 2003 war. This resulted in considerable radioactive pollution at the site and in its surrounding areas. Soil sample have been found to be contaminated by Cs-137and Co-60. Cancer and birth defects are most associated with the environmental pollution caused by the conflicts. All studies related to this by Iraqi researchers are discussed in this review. From studying the Iraqi scientific publications, we can conclude that Basrah, Baghdad, Faluja, Mosul and Thi-Qar are the most effected cities in Iraq. This review concludes that the presence of a heavily contaminated environment with war related pollutants in most of the Iraqi cities needs much attention and huge effort to reduce the related health problems.

  1. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-01-01

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range. PMID:26287229

  2. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Airborne Heavy Metals Collected from Beijing Bus Stations.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Wenji; Yan, Xing; Shu, Tongtong; Xiong, Qiulin; Chen, Fantao

    2015-08-17

    Airborne dust, which contains high levels of toxic metals, is recognized as one of the most harmful environment component. The purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals pollution in dustfall from bus stations in Beijing, and to perform a risk assessment analysis for adult passengers. The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The spatial distribution, pollution level and potential health risk of heavy metals were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping technology, geo-accumulation index and health risk assessment model, respectively. The results indicate that dust samples have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The nine metals can be divided into two categories in terms of spatial distribution and pollution level. Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb and Zn reach contaminated level and have similar spatial patterns with hotspots distributed within the Fifth Ring Road. While the hot spot areas of Co and V are always out of the Fifth Ring Road. Health risk assessment shows that both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks of selected metals were within the safe range.

  3. Economic evaluation of health losses from air pollution in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Yu, Xueying; Wang, Ying; Fan, Chunyang

    2016-06-01

    Aggravated air pollution in Beijing, China has caused serious health concern. This paper comprehensively evaluates the health losses from illness and premature death caused by air pollution in monetary terms. We use the concentration of PM10 as an indicator of the pollution since it constitutes the primary pollutant in Beijing. By our estimation, air pollution in Beijing caused a health loss equivalent to Ұ583.02 million or 0.03 % of its GDP. Most of the losses took the form of depreciation in human capital that resulted from premature death. The losses from premature deaths were most salient for people of either old or young ages, with the former group suffering from the highest mortality rates and the latter group the highest per capital losses of human capitals from premature death. Policies that target on PM10 emission reduction, urban vegetation expansion, and protection of vulnerable groups are all proposed as possible solutions to air pollution risks in Beijing.

  4. Potential impact of climate change on air pollution-related human health effects.

    PubMed

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Liao, Kuo-Jen; Delucia, Anthony J; Deck, Leland; Amar, Praveen; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-07-01

    The potential health impact of ambient ozone and PM2.5 concentrations modulated by climate change over the United States is investigated using combined atmospheric and health modeling. Regional air quality modeling for 2001 and 2050 was conducted using CMAQ Modeling System with meteorology from the GISS Global Climate Model, downscaled regionally using MM5,keeping boundary conditions of air pollutants, emission sources, population, activity levels, and pollution controls constant. BenMap was employed to estimate the air pollution health outcomes at the county, state, and national level for 2050 caused by the effect of meteorology on future ozone and PM2.5 concentrations. The changes in calculated annual mean PM2.5 concentrations show a relatively modest change with positive and negative responses (increasing PM2.5 levels across the northeastern U.S.) although average ozone levels slightly decrease across the northern sections of the U.S., and increase across the southern tier. Results suggest that climate change driven air quality-related health effects will be adversely affected in more then 2/3 of the continental U.S. Changes in health effects induced by PM2.5 dominate compared to those caused by ozone. PM2.5-induced premature mortality is about 15 times higher then that due to ozone. Nationally the analysis suggests approximately 4000 additional annual premature deaths due to climate change impacts on PM2.5 vs 300 due to climate change-induced ozone changes. However, the impacts vary spatially. Increased premature mortality due to elevated ozone concentrations will be offset by lower mortality from reductions in PM2.5 in 11 states. Uncertainties related to different emissions projections used to simulate future climate, and the uncertainties forecasting the meteorology, are large although there are potentially important unaddressed uncertainties (e.g., downscaling, speciation, interaction, exposure, and concentration-response function of the human health studies).

  5. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xujia; Hong, Chaopeng; Zheng, Yixuan; Zheng, Bo; Guan, Dabo; Gouldson, Andy; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-10-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO2, 28% of NOx, 26% of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m-3, the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies.

  6. Acute health effects of PM10 pollution on symptomatic and asymptomatic children

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, C.A. 3d.; Dockery, D.W. )

    1992-05-01

    This study assessed the association between daily changes in respiratory health and respirable particulate pollution (PM10) in Utah Valley during the winter of 1990-1991. During the study period, 24-h PM10 concentrations ranged from 7 to 251 micrograms/m3. Participants included symptomatic and asymptomatic samples of fifth- and sixth-grade students. Relatively small but statistically significant (p less than 0.01) negative associations between peak expiratory flow (PEF) and PM10 were observed for both the symptomatic and asymptomatic samples. The association was strongest for the symptomatic children. Large associations between the incidence of respiratory symptoms, especially cough, and PM10 pollution were also observed for both samples. Again the association was strongest for the symptomatic sample. Immediate and delayed PM10 effects were observed. Respiratory symptoms and PEF changes were more closely associated with 5-day moving-average PM10 levels than with concurrent-day levels. These associations were also observed at PM10 levels below the 24-h standard of 150 micrograms/m3. This study indicates that both symptomatic and asymptomatic children may suffer acute health effects of respirable particulate pollution, with symptomatic children suffering the most.

  7. Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, N.; Perez-Padilla, R.; Albalak, R.

    2000-01-01

    Around 50% of people, almost all in developing countries, rely on coal and biomass in the form of wood, dung and crop residues for domestic energy. These materials are typically burnt in simple stoves with very incomplete combustion. Consequently, women and young children are exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution every day. There is consistent evidence that indoor air pollution increases the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and of acute respiratory infections in childhood, the most important cause of death among children under 5 years of age in developing countries. Evidence also exists of associations with low birth weight, increased infant and perinatal mortality, pulmonary tuberculosis, nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, cataract, and, specifically in respect of the use of coal, with lung cancer. Conflicting evidence exists with regard to asthma. All studies are observational and very few have measured exposure directly, while a substantial proportion have not dealt with confounding. As a result, risk estimates are poorly quantified and may be biased. Exposure to indoor air pollution may be responsible for nearly 2 million excess deaths in developing countries and for some 4% of the global burden of disease. Indoor air pollution is a major global public health threat requiring greatly increased efforts in the areas of research and policy-making. Research on its health effects should be strengthened, particularly in relation to tuberculosis and acute lower respiratory infections. A more systematic approach to the development and evaluation of interventions is desirable, with clearer recognition of the interrelationships between poverty and dependence on polluting fuels. PMID:11019457

  8. Heavy metal pollution and health risk assessment in the Wei River in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuefu; Duan, Jinming; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Guan, Jianling; Beecham, Simon; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2015-03-01

    From data collected monthly at 26 monitoring cross sections in the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region of China during the period 2008-2012, the temporal pollution characteristics of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr(VI), Pb, and As) were analyzed based on a heavy metal pollution index (HPI). The monthly HPI values of the five heavy metals in the river fluctuated greatly in 2008 and then declined gradually with time. This general trend of reduction in HPI appears not to have a seasonal variation and most likely resulted from the continued improvement in heavy metal pollution control strategies implemented by local environmental agencies combined with a significant improvement in wastewater treatment capacities. Among the five heavy metals, Cd and Pb were below 0.1 and 3 μg L(-1), respectively, at all the sampling points in the studied areas in the year 2012. The detection rates of As, Hg, and Cr(VI) were in the order of Hg > Cr(VI) > As. Hg, Cr(VI), and As exceeded, in a month of the dry season in 2012, the standard limits for category III surface waters according to the China Environment Quality Standards for Surface Water (CEQSSW). Based on the assessment using the HPI method, the pollution status of these heavy metals in water of the Wei River in the Shaanxi Region was generally at an acceptable level, but exhibited distinctive characteristics between the main stream river and tributaries. Most of the tributaries were more seriously polluted than the main river. A health risk assessment was conducted based on the Human Health Risk Assessment (HHRA) method recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Apart from As, the health risk for the five heavy metals in the region were at acceptable levels for drinking water sources (hazard quotient (HQ) < 1, carcinogenic risk (CR) ranged from 10(-4)-10(-6)) according to the Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund (RAGS), USEPA. Arsenic was identified as the most important pollutant of concern

  9. Nitrate pollution study in the aquifer of Dakar (Senegal).

    PubMed

    Tandia, A A; Diop, E S; Gaye, C B; Travi, Y

    2000-01-01

    Dakar is a peninsula inhabited by a population of about 2 million people in 1996. In some dug wells and piezometers, the nitrate content (NO3.) in the groundwater is above the World Health Organization (WHO) limit of 50 mg/l. In the unconfined part of the aquifer of the peninsula, all the samples from wells are contaminated by high nitrate contents which increased over time from 100 mg/l in 1987 to more than 250 mg/l in 1996. Only a limited area is affected by nitrate pollution in the confined layer. The results indicate anthropogenic pollution, a fact which indicates the increasing risk of pollution of drinking-water resources. Studies in the unsaturated zone and familiarity with the sanitation practices in the area indicate that the horizontal and vertical flux are linked mainly to defective septic tanks and direct organic waste elimination into the soil by more than 40% of the inhabitants. The correlation between tritium values (3H) and nitrate shows that the source of nitrate is recent. The relation of oxygen 18 (18O) to deuterium (2H) in water with high nitrate levels indicates that the concentrations of nitrate have been identified in evaporated points.

  10. Bayesian kernel machine regression for estimating the health effects of multi-pollutant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bobb, Jennifer F; Valeri, Linda; Claus Henn, Birgit; Christiani, David C; Wright, Robert O; Mazumdar, Maitreyi; Godleski, John J; Coull, Brent A

    2015-07-01

    Because humans are invariably exposed to complex chemical mixtures, estimating the health effects of multi-pollutant exposures is of critical concern in environmental epidemiology, and to regulatory agencies such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, most health effects studies focus on single agents or consider simple two-way interaction models, in part because we lack the statistical methodology to more realistically capture the complexity of mixed exposures. We introduce Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) as a new approach to study mixtures, in which the health outcome is regressed on a flexible function of the mixture (e.g. air pollution or toxic waste) components that is specified using a kernel function. In high-dimensional settings, a novel hierarchical variable selection approach is incorporated to identify important mixture components and account for the correlated structure of the mixture. Simulation studies demonstrate the success of BKMR in estimating the exposure-response function and in identifying the individual components of the mixture responsible for health effects. We demonstrate the features of the method through epidemiology and toxicology applications.

  11. Teplice program--the impact of air pollution on human health.

    PubMed Central

    Srám, R J; Benes, I; Binková, B; Dejmek, J; Horstman, D; Kotĕsovec, F; Otto, D; Perreault, S D; Rubes, J; Selevan, S G; Skalík, I; Stevens, R K; Lewtas, J

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the Teplice Program is to investigate and assess the impact of air pollution on the health of the population in the district of Teplice, Czech Republic. Characterization of the air pollutants demonstrated unusually high concentrations during winter inversions of fine particles dominated by acidic sulfates, genotoxic organic compounds, and toxic trace elements. The major source of airborne fine particles is the burning of coal for heating and power. Human exposure and biomarker studies demonstrated large seasonal variations in air pollution within the Teplice District and higher seasonal average pollution levels than the comparative district, Prachatice. Personal exposures to fine particles and organic carcinogens [e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)] were correlated with excretion of PAH metabolites in urine, several trace metals in blood, and DNA adducts in white blood cells. Respiratory and neurobehavioral studies of school children were conducted using questionnaires and clinical measures. A significantly higher prevalence of adverse respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function were found in the Teplice district than in Prachatice. The neurobehavioral studies indicated significantly higher teacher referrals for clinical assessment in Teplice, but the majority of objective performance measures did not differ. Reproductive studies were conducted in both males and females. A study of the effects of exposure on pregnancy and birth found an excess prevalence of low birth weight and premature births in Teplice; these adverse effects were more common in infants conceived in the winter and whose mothers were smokers. Based on questionnaires and medical examination, the reproductive development of young men was not different between districts and seasons, however, measures of semen quality suggest that exposure to high levels of air pollution are associated with transient decrements in semen quality. PMID:8879999

  12. Integrating health on air quality assessment--review report on health risks of two major European outdoor air pollutants: PM and NO₂.

    PubMed

    Costa, Solange; Ferreira, Joana; Silveira, Carlos; Costa, Carla; Lopes, Diogo; Relvas, Hélder; Borrego, Carlos; Roebeling, Peter; Miranda, Ana Isabel; Teixeira, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of air pollution on the public's health has become an increasingly critical component in policy discussion. Recent data indicate that more than 70% of the world population lives in cities. Several studies reported that current levels of air pollutants in urban areas are associated with adverse health risks, namely, cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. IARC recently classified outdoor air pollution and related particulate matter (PM) as carcinogenic to humans. Despite the air quality improvements observed over the last few years, there is still continued widespread exceedance within Europe, particularly regarding PM and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The European Air Quality Directive 2008/50/EC requires Member States to design appropriate air quality plans for zones where air quality does not comply with established limit values. However, in most cases, air quality is only quantified using a combination of monitored and modeled data and no health impact assessment is carried out. An integrated approach combining the effects of several emission abatement measures on air quality, impacts on human health, and associated implementation costs enables an effective cost-benefit analysis and an added value to the decision-making process. Hence, this review describes the basic steps and tools for integrating health into air quality assessment (health indicators, exposure-response functions). In addition, consideration is given to two major outdoor pollutants: PM and NO2. A summary of the health metrics used to assess the health impact of PM and NO2 and recent epidemiologic data are also described.

  13. Status and determinants of individual actions to reduce health impacts of air pollution in US adults.

    PubMed

    Lissåker, Claudia T K; Talbott, Evelyn O; Kan, Haidong; Xu, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Although regulation of emissions is the primary strategy to reduce air pollution-related morbidity, individual-level interventions are also helpful in mitigating health impacts. We used data from 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to study the prevalence of individual-level action among the US adult population if informed of air pollution, and to see if this differed by demographic and health factors. Only 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.6-15.4%) of participants aware of air quality reported changing their individual behaviors. Males (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56-0.77) and those without cardiovascular disease (AOR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.47-0.71) were least likely to take action. Results show that individual action was infrequent among the population. Health promotion of individual intervention is necessary, and this effort may need to target specific subgroups of the population. Further studies on effective individual interventions are needed.

  14. Low-carbon energy policy and ambient air pollution in Shanghai, China: a health-based economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changhong; Chen, Bingheng; Wang, Bingyan; Huang, Cheng; Zhao, Jing; Dai, Yi; Kan, Haidong

    2007-02-01

    Energy and related health issues are of growing concern worldwide today. To investigate the potential public health and economic impact of ambient air pollution under various low-carbon energy scenarios in Shanghai, we estimated the exposure level of Shanghai residents to air pollution under various planned scenarios, and assessed the public health impact using concentration-response functions derived from available epidemiologic studies. We then estimated the corresponding economic values of the health effects based on unit values for each health outcome. Our results show that ambient air pollution in relation to low-carbon energy scenarios could have a significant impact on the future health status of Shanghai residents, both in physical and monetary terms. Compared with the base case scenario, implementation of various low-carbon energy scenarios could prevent 2804-8249 and 9870-23,100 PM10-related avoidable deaths (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. It could also decrease incidence of several relevant diseases. The corresponding economic benefits could reach 507.31-1492.33 and 2642.45-6192.11 million U.S. dollars (mid-value) in 2010 and 2020, respectively. These findings illustrate that a low-carbon energy policy will not only decrease the emission of greenhouse gases, but also play an active role in the reduction of air pollutant emissions, improvement of air quality, and promotion of public health. Our estimates can provide useful information to local decision-makers for further cost-benefit analysis.

  15. The impact of communicating information about air pollution events on public health.

    PubMed

    McLaren, J; Williams, I D

    2015-12-15

    Short-term exposure to air pollution has been associated with exacerbation of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study investigated the relationship between emergency hospital admissions for asthma, COPD and episodes of poor air quality in an English city (Southampton) from 2008-2013. The city's council provides a forecasting service for poor air quality to individuals with respiratory disease to reduce preventable admissions to hospital and this has been evaluated. Trends in nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter concentrations were related to hospital admissions data using regression analysis. The impacts of air quality on emergency admissions were quantified using the relative risks associated with each pollutant. Seasonal and weekly trends were apparent for both air pollution and hospital admissions, although there was a weak relationship between the two. The air quality forecasting service proved ineffective at reducing hospital admissions. Improvements to the health forecasting service are necessary to protect the health of susceptible individuals, as there is likely to be an increasing need for such services in the future.

  16. Health impacts due to particulate air pollution in Volos City, Greece.

    PubMed

    Moustris, Konstantinos P; Proias, George T; Larissi, Ioanna K; Nastos, Panagiotis T; Koukouletsos, Konstantinos V; Paliatsos, Athanasios G

    2016-01-01

    There is great consensus among the scientific community that suspended particulate matter is considered as one of the most harmful pollutants, particularly the inhalable particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) causing respiratory health problems and heart disorders. Average daily concentrations exceeding established standard values appear, among other cases, to be the main cause of such episodes, especially during Saharan dust episodes, a natural phenomenon that degrades air quality in the urban area of Volos. In this study the AirQ2.2.3 model, developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) European Center for Environment and Health, was used to evaluate adverse health effects by PM10 pollution in the city of Volos during a 5-year period (2007-2011). Volos is a coastal medium size city in the Thessaly region. The city is located on the northern side of the Gulf of Pagassitikos, on the east coast of Central Greece. Air pollution data were obtained by a fully automated monitoring station, which was established by the Municipal Water Supply and Sewage Department in the Greater Area of Volos, located in the centre of the city. The results of the current study indicate that when the mean annual PM10 concentration exceeds the corresponding European Union (EU) threshold value, the number of hospital admissions for respiratory disease (HARD) is increased by 25% on average. There is also an estimated increase of about 2.5% in HARD compared to the expected annual HARD cases for Volos. Finally, a strong correlation was found between the number of days exceeding the EU daily threshold concentration ([PM10] ≥ 50 μg m(-3)) and the annual HARD cases.

  17. High-resolution modelling of health impacts from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Geels, Camilla; Hansen, Kaj M.; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Silver, Jeremy D.

    2014-05-01

    A high-resolution assessment of health impacts from air pollution and related external cost has been conducted for Denmark using the integrated EVA model system. The EVA system has been further developed by implementing an air quality model with a 1 km x 1 km resolution covering the whole of Denmark. New developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over several decades. Furthermore, the sensitivity of health impacts to model resolution will be studied. We have developed an integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. In Brandt et al. (2013a; 2013b), the EVA system was used to assess the impacts in Europe and Denmark from the past, present and future total air pollution levels as well as the contribution from the major anthropogenic emission sectors. The EVA system was applied using the hemispheric chemistry-transport model, the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM), with nesting capability for higher resolution over Europe (50 km x 50 km) and Northern Europe (16.7 km x 16.7 km). In this study an Urban Background Model (UBM) has been further developed to cover the whole of Denmark with a 1 km x 1 km resolution and the model has been implemented as a part of the integrated model system, EVA. The EVA system is based on the impact-pathway methodology. The site-specific emissions will result (via atmospheric transport and chemistry) in a concentration distribution, which together with detailed population data, are used to estimate the population-level exposure. Using exposure-response functions and economic valuations, the exposure is transformed into impacts on human health and related external costs. In this study

  18. Dirty air, dirty power. Mortality and health damage due to air pollution from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Conrad G.; Padian, M.

    2004-06-15

    The Clean Air Task Force commissioned Abt Associates, the consulting firm relied upon by US EPA to assess the health benefits of many of the agency's air regulatory programs. The report documents the asthma attacks, hospitalisations, lost work and school days, and premature deaths linked to pollution from power plants. A first report was released in 2000. The 2004 report documents for the first time the number of heart attacks and lung cancer deaths that would be caused by power plants in 2010 and 2020. It compares the premature deaths that would result under the Bush administration's air pollution plan, the existing US Clean Air Act, and a proposal sponsored by Senator Jim Jeffords to strengthen the Clean Air Act. In general it was found that the administration's plan would produce the fewest benefits. The full study is available from the EPA, abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database. 65 refs., 2 apps.

  19. Air pollution, avoidance behaviour and children's respiratory health: evidence from England.

    PubMed

    Janke, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Despite progress in air pollution control, concerns remain over the health impact of poor air quality. Governments increasingly issue air quality information to enable vulnerable groups to avoid exposure. Avoidance behaviour potentially biases estimates of the health effects of air pollutants. But avoidance behaviour imposes a cost on individuals and therefore may not be taken in all circumstances. This paper exploits panel data at the English local authority level to estimate the relationship between children's daily hospital emergency admissions for respiratory diseases and common air pollutants, while allowing for avoidance behaviour in response to air pollution warnings. A 1% increase in nitrogen dioxide or ozone concentrations increases hospital admissions by 0.1%. For the subset of asthma admissions - where avoidance is less costly - there is evidence of avoidance behaviour. Ignoring avoidance behaviour, however, does not result in statistically significant underestimation of the health effect of air pollution.

  20. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of short-lived greenhouse pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kirk R.; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T.; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W.; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B.; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C. Arden; Thun, Michael J.; Thurston, George

    2014-01-01

    In this report we review the health effects of three short-lived greenhouse pollutants—black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352 000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies. PMID:19942276

  1. Pollution and health risk of potentially toxic metals in urban road dust in Nanjing, a mega-city of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enfeng; Yan, Ting; Birch, Gavin; Zhu, Yuxin

    2014-04-01

    Spatial variations in concentrations of a suite of potentially toxic metals (Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca in road dusts (n=99) from urban trunk roads (TR) in Nanjing, a mega-city in China, were established. Metal pollution levels, sources and human health risk (non-carcinogenic) were studied. In contrast to previous studies, we labeled the indicative metals relating to non-exhaust traffic emissions by comparing metal pollution between crossroad and park road dusts, and then anthropogenic sources of metals in TR dusts were assessed combining their spatial pollution patterns, principal component analysis and Pb isotopic compositions. Results showed that the metals were enriched in TR dusts compared to background soil concentrations with mean enrichment factors (EFs) of 2.2-23, indicating considerable anthropogenic influence. The degrees of metal pollution ranged from minimal to extremely high and ranked by Ca>Cu>Pb≈Zn>Cr≈Fe>Ni≈Ba>Mn on average. Pollution of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in TR dusts resulted primarily from industrial emissions (e.g., coal combustion and smelting) and high pollution levels were found close to suburb industrial complexes, whereas pollution of Ba and Ca was mainly related to construction/demolition sources and was generally distributed homogeneously. The relatively minor contribution of non-exhaust traffic emissions to metal pollution in TR dusts was considered to be due to overwhelming industrial and construction/demolition contributions, as well as to the dilution effect of natural soil particles. Ingestion appears to be the major route of exposure for road dust for both adults and children, followed by dermal contact. The non-carcinogenic health risk resulting from exposure to the potentially toxic metals in TR dusts was within the safe level based on the Hazard Index (HI), except in pollution hotspots where exposure to Pb, Cr, and Cu may be hazardous to children.

  2. Impacts of soil and water pollution on food safety and health risks in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yonglong; Song, Shuai; Wang, Ruoshi; Liu, Zhaoyang; Meng, Jing; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jenkins, Alan; Ferrier, Robert C; Li, Hong; Luo, Wei; Wang, Tieyu

    2015-04-01

    Environmental pollution and food safety are two of the most important issues of our time. Soil and water pollution, in particular, have historically impacted on food safety which represents an important threat to human health. Nowhere has that situation been more complex and challenging than in China, where a combination of pollution and an increasing food safety risk have affected a large part of the population. Water scarcity, pesticide over-application, and chemical pollutants are considered to be the most important factors impacting on food safety in China. Inadequate quantity and quality of surface water resources in China have led to the long-term use of waste-water irrigation to fulfill the water requirements for agricultural production. In some regions this has caused serious agricultural land and food pollution, especially for heavy metals. It is important, therefore, that issues threatening food safety such as combined pesticide residues and heavy metal pollution are addressed to reduce risks to human health. The increasing negative effects on food safety from water and soil pollution have put more people at risk of carcinogenic diseases, potentially contributing to 'cancer villages' which appear to correlate strongly with the main food producing areas. Currently in China, food safety policies are not integrated with soil and water pollution management policies. Here, a comprehensive map of both soil and water pollution threats to food safety in China is presented and integrated policies addressing soil and water pollution for achieving food safety are suggested to provide a holistic approach.

  3. Bayesian modeling of air pollution health effects with missing exposure data.

    PubMed

    Molitor, John; Molitor, Nuoo-Ting; Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob; Gauderman, Jim; Berhane, Kiros; Thomas, Duncan

    2006-07-01

    The authors propose a new statistical procedure that utilizes measurement error models to estimate missing exposure data in health effects assessment. The method detailed in this paper follows a Bayesian framework that allows estimation of various parameters of the model in the presence of missing covariates in an informative way. The authors apply this methodology to study the effect of household-level long-term air pollution exposures on lung function for subjects from the Southern California Children's Health Study pilot project, conducted in the year 2000. Specifically, they propose techniques to examine the long-term effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure on children's lung function for persons living in 11 southern California communities. The effect of nitrogen dioxide exposure on various measures of lung function was examined, but, similar to many air pollution studies, no completely accurate measure of household-level long-term nitrogen dioxide exposure was available. Rather, community-level nitrogen dioxide was measured continuously over many years, but household-level nitrogen dioxide exposure was measured only during two 2-week periods, one period in the summer and one period in the winter. From these incomplete measures, long-term nitrogen dioxide exposure and its effect on health must be inferred. Results show that the method improves estimates when compared with standard frequentist approaches.

  4. Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, H H; Bahadori, T; Vallarino, J; Spengler, J D

    2000-01-01

    This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevalence in the United States, their physicochemical behavior, and the magnitude of their potential health threat. The health effects data included in this review primarily include results from epidemiologic studies; however, some findings from animal studies are also discussed when no other information is available. Health effects findings for each pollutant are related in this review to corresponding information about outdoor, indoor, and personal exposures and pollutant sources. Images Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 9 PMID:10940240

  5. A simulation study to quantify the impacts of exposure measurement error on air pollution health risk estimates in copollutant time-series models.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BackgroundExposure measurement error in copollutant epidemiologic models has the potential to introduce bias in relative risk (RR) estimates. A simulation study was conducted using empirical data to quantify the impact of correlated measurement errors in time-series analyses of a...

  6. Teplice Program--The Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of the Teplice Program is to investigate and assess the impact of air pollution on the health of the population in the district of Teplice, Czech Republic. Characterization of the air pollutants demonstrated unusually high concentrations during winter inversions of fine p...

  7. Pollution, Health, and Avoidance Behavior: Evidence from the Ports of Los Angeles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Enrico; Neidell, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    A pervasive problem in estimating the costs of pollution is that optimizing individuals may compensate for increases in pollution by reducing their exposure, resulting in estimates that understate the full welfare costs. To account for this issue, measurement error, and environmental confounding, we estimate the health effects of ozone using daily…

  8. Air Pollution and Its Effects on an Individual's Health and Exercise Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, A. I. Clifford

    1988-01-01

    Air Pollution is a common environmental stressor affecting the training and competitive performance of athletes, commonly irritating the eyes, nose, and throat. The health and exercise effects of such primary and secondary air pollutants as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, air particulates, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide are discussed. (CB)

  9. Use of Multi-Objective Air Pollution Monitoring Sites and Online Air Pollution Monitoring System for Total Health Risk Assessment in Hyderabad, India

    PubMed Central

    Anjaneyulu, Y.; Jayakumar, I.; Bindu, V. Hima; Sagareswar, G.; Rao, P.V. Mukunda; Rambabu, N.; Ramani, K. V.

    2005-01-01

    A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad “it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM”. These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000–15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced

  10. Use of multi-objective air pollution monitoring sites and online air pollution monitoring system for total health risk assessment in Hyderabad, India.

    PubMed

    Anjaneyulu, Y; Jayakumar, I; Hima Bindu, V; Sagareswar, G; Mukunda Rao, P V; Rambabu, N; Ramani, K V

    2005-08-01

    A consensus has been emerging among public health experts in developing countries that air pollution, even at current ambient levels, aggravates respiratory and cardiovascular diseases and leads to premature mortality. Recent studies have also presented well-founded theories concerning the biological mechanisms involved and the groups of people that are probably more susceptible to health effects caused or exacerbated by inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM.). On the basis of prognostic studies carried out in Center for Environment, JNT University, Hyderabad "it has been estimated that in Hyderabad some 1,700 to 3,000 people per year die prematurely as a result of inhaling PM". These figures reflect only the effects of acute exposure to air pollution. If the long-term effects of chronic exposure are taken into account, 10,000-15,000 people a year could die prematurely in Hyderabad. This estimate of the chronic effects is based on other studies, which are not completely comparable with the Hyderabad situation. While the study designs and analyses in these other studies may indeed be different or irrelevant to Hyderabad, the fact they were carried out in other countries is irrelevant. Taking into account these considerations, a model for total health risk assessment for the city of Hyderabad, and its state of Andhra Pradesh in India has been developed using a multi-objective air pollution monitoring network and online and real time air pollution monitoring stations. For the model studies a number of potential monitoring sites were screened for general and site-specific criteria in a geographic information system (GIS) environment that may, on a local basis, affect the representativeness of the data collected. Local features that may affect either the chemical or meteorological parameters are evaluated to assure a minimum of interference. Finally, for monitoring air pollution, an online and real-time monitoring system was designed using advanced

  11. FECAL POLLUTION, PUBLIC HEALTH AND MICROBIAL SOURCE TRACKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial source tracking (MST) seeks to provide information about sources of fecal water contamination. Without knowledge of sources, it is difficult to accurately model risk assessments, choose effective remediation strategies, or bring chronically polluted waters into complian...

  12. Short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: results of the APHEA project in Paris.

    PubMed Central

    Dab, W; Medina, S; Quénel, P; Le Moullec, Y; Le Tertre, A; Thelot, B; Monteil, C; Lameloise, P; Pirard, P; Momas, I; Ferry, R; Festy, B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To quantify the short term respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution in the Paris area. DESIGN: Time series analysis of daily pollution levels using Poisson regression. SETTING: Paris, 1987-92. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Air pollution was monitored by measurement of black smoke (BS) (15 monitoring stations), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 13 microns in diameter (PM13), and ozone (O3) (4 stations). Daily mortality and general admissions to public hospitals due to respiratory causes were considered. The statistical analysis was based on a time series procedure using linear regression modelling followed by a Poisson regression. Meterological variables, epidemics of influenza A and B, and strikes of medical staff were included in the models. The mean daily concentration of PM13 and daily 1 hour maximum of SO2 significantly affected daily mortality from respiratory causes. An increase in the concentration of PM13 of 100 micrograms/m3 above its 5th centile value increased the risk of respiratory death by 17%. PM13 and BS were also associated with hospital admissions due to all respiratory diseases (4.1% increased risk when the BS level exceeded its 5th centile value by 100 micrograms/m3). SO2 levels consistently influenced hospital admissions for all respiratory diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. Asthma was also correlated with NO2 levels. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that even though the relative risk is weak in areas with low levels of pollution, ambient air pollution, and especially particulate matter and SO2, nonetheless require attention because of the number of people exposed and the existence of high risk groups. PMID:8758223

  13. Toward a better understanding of the impact of mass transit air pollutants on human health.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kumar, Pawan; Szulejko, Jan E; Adelodun, Adedeji A; Junaid, Muhammad Faisal; Uchimiya, Minori; Chambers, Scott

    2017-05-01

    Globally, modern mass transport systems whether by road, rail, water, or air generate airborne pollutants in both developing and developed nations. Air pollution is the primary human health concern originating from modern transportation, particularly in densely-populated urban areas. This review will specifically focus on the origin and the health impacts of carbonaceous traffic-related air pollutants (TRAP), including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and elemental carbon (EC). We conclude that the greatest current challenge regarding urban TRAP is understanding and evaluating the human health impacts well enough to set appropriate pollution control measures. Furthermore, we provide a detailed discussion regarding the effects of TRAP on local environments and pedestrian health in low and high traffic-density environments.

  14. Health risk assessment of groundwater arsenic pollution in southern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Residents of the Pingtung Plain, Taiwan, use groundwater for drinking. However, monitoring results showed that a considerable portion of groundwater has an As concentration higher than the safe drinking water regulation of 10 μg/L. Considering residents of the Pingtung Plain continue to use groundwater for drinking, this study attempted to evaluate the exposure and health risk from drinking groundwater. The health risk from drinking groundwater was evaluated based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target risk (TR) established by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The results showed that the 95th percentile of HQ exceeded 1 and TR was above the safe value of threshold value of 10(-6). To illustrate significant variability of the drinking water consumption rate and body weight of each individual, health risk assessments were also performed using a spectrum of daily water intake rate and body weight to reasonably and conservatively assess the exposure and health risk for the specific subgroups of population of the Pingtung Plain. The assessment results showed that 0.01-7.50 % of the population's HQ levels are higher than 1 and as much as 77.7-93.3 % of the population being in high cancer risk category and having a TR value >10(-6). The TR estimation results implied that groundwater use for drinking purpose places people at risk of As exposure. The government must make great efforts to provide safe drinking water for residents of the Pingtung Plain.

  15. [Influence of smoking and industrial air pollutants on respiratory health of nickel industry workers].

    PubMed

    Shilov, V V; Siurin, S A

    2015-01-01

    Studies covered respiratory health of 1530 workers of nickel industry, among which were 796 (52.0%) smokers. Findings are that tobacco smoke combined with nickel industry hazards cause potentized negative effects in respiratory organs, with earlier and more frequent chronic bronchitis. For isolated influence of these factors, chronic bronchitis risk is higher from exposure to tobacco smoke vs. occupational hazards (OR = 2.48; DI 1.49-4.13). Chronic obstructive lung disease development in nickel industry workers is caused by smoking. Industrial air pollutants appeared to have no potentizing effect on COLD formation, as well as on toxic pneumosclerosis formation.

  16. Dioxins: Toxicity and health risks. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicology of dioxins and the health risks associated with dioxin exposure. Articles include mortality and physiological studies of major dioxin contamination, including the Seveso and Love Canal incidents. The biochemistry of dioxin poisoning, environmental impacts, sources of dioxin pollution, metabolism of dioxins by microorganisms, and carcinogenicity are considered. The citations also examine occupational exposure, and risk assessment of exposure of the general public to dioxin. References to Agent Orange exposure during the Vietnam War are cited. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Urban air pollution, poverty, violence and health--Neurological and immunological aspects as mediating factors.

    PubMed

    Kristiansson, Marianne; Sörman, Karolina; Tekwe, Carmen; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2015-07-01

    Rapid rural-urban migration has created overcrowded areas characterized by concentrated poverty and increases in indoor and outdoor air pollutants. These "hotspots" constitute an increased risk of violence and disease outbreaks. We hypothesize that the effects of poverty and associated air pollution-related stress on impaired cognitive skills are mediated by inflammatory cytokines. A research framework is proposed, encompassing (i) an epidemiological investigation of associations between poverty, high concentrations of air pollutants, violence and health, (ii) a longitudinal follow-up of working memory capacities and inflammatory markers, and (iii) intervention programs aiming to strengthen employability and decreased exposures to toxic air pollutants.

  18. [Monitoring of environmental pollution in Armenia and certain issues on reproductive health and cytogenetic status of organism].

    PubMed

    Tadevosian, N S; Muradian, S A; Tadevosian, A E; Khachatrian, B G; Dzhandzhapanian, A N; Parsadanian, G G; Pogosian, S B; Gevorkian, N B; Guloian, A A

    2012-01-01

    Investigations aimed at the study on the state of environment from the point of pollution by organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites (HCH, DDT, DDE and DDD), as well as on possible unfavorable impact due to carriage of mentioned persistent organic pollutants (POPs) towards reproductive health and cytogenetic status of organism were done. In parallel, monitoring of possible mutagenic components of the environment was also conducted. As to obtained data, residues of organochlorine pesticides are continually determined with high frequency both in environmental media, agricultural foodstuffs and biomedia of rural population of observed region (Aragatsotn marz, Armenia). No changes in mutagenic background were registered. The represented results of the study make fragment of complex social-hygienic, monitoring investigations on environmental quality that would further serve as a platform for working out the recommendations on reduction of environmental pollution and improvement of health protection issues in Armenia.

  19. Noise pollution and annoyance: An urban soundscapes study

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva Vianna, Karina Mary; Alves Cardoso, Maria Regina; Rodrigues, Rui Manuel Calejo

    2015-01-01

    Since 1972, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared noise as a pollutant. Over the last decades, the quality of the urban environment has attracted the interest of researchers due to the growing urban sprawl, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of noise exposure in six urban soundscapes: Areas with high and low levels of noise in scenarios of leisure, work, and home. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in two steps: Evaluation of noise levels, with the development of noise maps, and health related inquiries. 180 individuals were interviewed, being 60 in each scenario, divided into 30 exposed to high level of noise and 30 to low level. Chi-Square test and Ordered Logistic Regression Model (P < 0,005). 70% of the interviewees reported noticing some source of noise in the selected scenarios and it was observed an association between exposure and perception of some source of noise (P < 0.001). 41.7% of the interviewees reported some degree of annoyance, being that this was associated with exposure (P < 0.001). There was also an association between exposure in different scenarios and reports of poor quality of sleep (P < 0.001). In the scenarios of work and home, the chance of reporting annoyance increased when compared with the scenario of leisure. We conclude that the use of this sort of assessment may clarify the relationship between urban noise exposure and health. PMID:25913551

  20. Noise pollution and annoyance: an urban soundscapes study.

    PubMed

    de Paiva Vianna, Karina Mary; Alves Cardoso, Maria Regina; Rodrigues, Rui Manuel Calejo

    2015-01-01

    Since 1972, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared noise as a pollutant. Over the last decades, the quality of the urban environment has attracted the interest of researchers due to the growing urban sprawl, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of noise exposure in six urban soundscapes: Areas with high and low levels of noise in scenarios of leisure, work, and home. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in two steps: Evaluation of noise levels, with the development of noise maps, and health related inquiries. 180 individuals were interviewed, being 60 in each scenario, divided into 30 exposed to high level of noise and 30 to low level. Chi-Square test and Ordered Logistic Regression Model (P < 0,005). 70% of the interviewees reported noticing some source of noise in the selected scenarios and it was observed an association between exposure and perception of some source of noise (P < 0.001). 41.7% of the interviewees reported some degree of annoyance, being that this was associated with exposure (P < 0.001). There was also an association between exposure in different scenarios and reports of poor quality of sleep (P < 0.001). In the scenarios of work and home, the chance of reporting annoyance increased when compared with the scenario of leisure. We conclude that the use of this sort of assessment may clarify the relationship between urban noise exposure and health.

  1. The air quality and health impacts of domestic trans-boundary pollution in various regions of China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Y; Yim, S H L

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the most pressing environmental problems in China. Literature has reported that outdoor air pollution leads to adverse health problems every year in China. Recent measurement studies found the important regional nature of particulates in China. Trans-boundary air pollution within China has yet to be fully understood. This study aimed to comprehensively understand the processes of domestic trans-boundary air pollution in China and to apportion the impacts of emissions in different regions on air quality and public health. We applied a state-of-the-art air quality model to simulate air quality in China and then adapted a form of integrated concentration-response function for China to estimate the resultant amount of premature mortality due to exposures to PM2.5. Our findings show that domestic trans-boundary impacts (TBI), on average, account for 27% of the total PM2.5 in China. We estimated that outdoor air pollution caused ~870,000 (95% CI: 130,000-1500,000) premature mortalities in China in 2010, of which on average 18% are attributed to TBI. Among all the regions, North China is the largest contributor to TBI due to 41% of the health impacts of its emissions occurring in other regions. Taiwan (TW) is the smallest contributor to TBI occurring in China, contributing 2% of the national TBI, while TBI causes 22% of the premature mortalities due to outdoor air pollution in TW. Our findings pinpoint the significant impacts of TBI on public health in China, indicating the need for cross-region cooperation to mitigate the air quality impacts and the nation's resultant health problems.

  2. Over-fitting Time Series Models of Air Pollution Health Effects: Smoothing Tends to Bias Non-Null Associations Towards the Null.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Simulation studies have previously demonstrated that time-series analyses using smoothing splines correctly model null health-air pollution associations. Methods: We repeatedly simulated season, meteorology and air quality for the metropolitan area of Atlanta from cyc...

  3. Raman scattering studies of pollutant systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwiesow, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Results and techniques for laboratory measurements of Raman scattering cross sections and depolarization ratios of atmospheric gases as a function of the incident photon energy are discussed. Referred to N2, the cross section of H2O changes by a factor of 2 as the incident photon energy is changed by 5%. Less striking results are obtained for SO2, NO and other atmospheric gases. Tentative results are given for spectral features of scattering from polluted air-water interfaces. Raman lidar is assessed as a potentially useful aid in remote sensing of atmospheric and water-borne pollution distributions at least in near-source concentrations.

  4. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    PubMed

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another.

  5. Health impact metrics for air pollution management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Martenies, Sheena E.; Wilkins, Donele; Batterman, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) inform policy and decision making by providing information regarding future health concerns, and quantitative HIAs now are being used for local and urban-scale projects. HIA results can be expressed using a variety of metrics that differ in meaningful ways, and guidance is lacking with respect to best practices for the development and use of HIA metrics. This study reviews HIA metrics pertaining to air quality management and presents evaluative criteria for their selection and use. These are illustrated in a case study where PM2.5 concentrations are lowered from 10 to 8 µg/m3 in an urban area of 1.8 million people. Health impact functions are used to estimate the number of premature deaths, unscheduled hospitalizations and other morbidity outcomes. The most common metric in recent quantitative HIAs has been the number of cases of adverse outcomes avoided. Other metrics include time-based measures, e.g., disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), monetized impacts, functional-unit based measures, e.g., benefits per ton of emissions reduced, and other economic indicators, e.g., cost-benefit ratios. These metrics are evaluated by considering their comprehensiveness, the spatial and temporal resolution of the analysis, how equity considerations are facilitated, and the analysis and presentation of uncertainty. In the case study, the greatest number of avoided cases occurs for low severity morbidity outcomes, e.g., asthma exacerbations (n=28,000) and minor-restricted activity days (n=37,000); while DALYs and monetized impacts are driven by the severity, duration and value assigned to a relatively low number of premature deaths (n=190 to 230 per year). The selection of appropriate metrics depends on the problem context and boundaries, the severity of impacts, and community values regarding health. The number of avoided cases provides an estimate of the number of people affected, and monetized impacts facilitate additional economic analyses

  6. Health impact metrics for air pollution management strategies.

    PubMed

    Martenies, Sheena E; Wilkins, Donele; Batterman, Stuart A

    2015-12-01

    Health impact assessments (HIAs) inform policy and decision making by providing information regarding future health concerns, and quantitative HIAs now are being used for local and urban-scale projects. HIA results can be expressed using a variety of metrics that differ in meaningful ways, and guidance is lacking with respect to best practices for the development and use of HIA metrics. This study reviews HIA metrics pertaining to air quality management and presents evaluative criteria for their selection and use. These are illustrated in a case study where PM2.5 concentrations are lowered from 10 to 8μg/m(3) in an urban area of 1.8 million people. Health impact functions are used to estimate the number of premature deaths, unscheduled hospitalizations and other morbidity outcomes. The most common metric in recent quantitative HIAs has been the number of cases of adverse outcomes avoided. Other metrics include time-based measures, e.g., disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), monetized impacts, functional-unit based measures, e.g., benefits per ton of emissions reduced, and other economic indicators, e.g., cost-benefit ratios. These metrics are evaluated by considering their comprehensiveness, the spatial and temporal resolution of the analysis, how equity considerations are facilitated, and the analysis and presentation of uncertainty. In the case study, the greatest number of avoided cases occurs for low severity morbidity outcomes, e.g., asthma exacerbations (n=28,000) and minor-restricted activity days (n=37,000); while DALYs and monetized impacts are driven by the severity, duration and value assigned to a relatively low number of premature deaths (n=190 to 230 per year). The selection of appropriate metrics depends on the problem context and boundaries, the severity of impacts, and community values regarding health. The number of avoided cases provides an estimate of the number of people affected, and monetized impacts facilitate additional economic analyses

  7. PM 0,5 and Health effects in an extreme pollution episode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoropoulos, K. N.; Nastos, P. T.; Gialouris, A.; Zontanos, M.; Saratsiotis, D.; Mavroidakos, J.; Khan, U.; Tissera, W. A.

    2009-04-01

    The mega cities' pollution problem during the last two decades, occupied the whole European scientific community, Asia and the U.S.A. The atmosphere remains suffocating due to rapid industrial development and the ever increasing traffic. Registered health problems are numerous and dramatic in all ages groups, but particularly in infants, old people and patients suffering chronic diseases. After 1980 many governments applied restrictions to maintain a clearer atmosphere. Particulate matters are everywhere, they are inhaled, they enter the lungs, migrate through the blood stream and finally, they deposit in several organs which leads to severe consequences. Wind remains the only restraining factor of PM concentrations, but this is not the desired solution. The issue of atmospheric pollution and its influence on health are both the main aim of this study, which consists of monitoring and mapping PM 0.5 in six areas of Athens and examining the relation of the quantity inhaled by pedestrians and number of health incidents during an acute pollution episode in GAA in November 2008.In this empirical model, values of PM inhaled by humans at a height of two metres above ground are shown as number/ litre and μg/m3. In fact, a lot of patients appeared in the city's hospital emergency centres needing assistance. Most of them exhibit the PM symptomatology which includes: dyspnea, dry cough, lacrimation, headache, arrhythmias. This symptoms are firstly by K.N.Grigoropoulos et al. 2008 (Fresenious Environment Bulletin issue b September 2008.pp 1426-1431) Although this situation is already widely known to everyone, governments continue to ignore it systematically. The time is probably right for the European Community to apply restrictions on PM1.

  8. The modifying effect of socioeconomic status on the relationship between traffic, air pollution and respiratory health in elementary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Cakmak, Sabit; Hebbern, Christopher; Cakmak, Jasmine D; Vanos, Jennifer

    2016-07-15

    The volume and type of traffic and exposure to air pollution have been found to be associated with respiratory health, but few studies have considered the interaction with socioeconomic status at the household level. We investigated the relationships of respiratory health related to traffic type, traffic volume, and air pollution, stratifying by socioeconomic status, based on household income and education, in 3591 schoolchildren in Windsor, Canada. Interquartile range changes in traffic exposure and pollutant levels were linked to respiratory symptoms and objective measures of lung function using generalised linear models for three levels of income and education. In 95% of the relationships among all cases, the odds ratios for reported respiratory symptoms (a decrease in measured lung function), based on an interquartile range change in traffic exposure or pollutant, were greater in the lower income/education groups than the higher, although the odds ratios were in most cases not significant. However, in up to 62% of the cases, the differences between high and low socioeconomic groups were statistically significant, thus indicating socioeconomic status (SES) as a significant effect modifier. Our findings indicate that children from lower socioeconomic households have a higher risk of specific respiratory health problems (chest congestion, wheezing) due to traffic volume and air pollution exposure.

  9. Assessment of health and economic effects by PM2.5 pollution in Beijing: a combined exposure-response and computable general equilibrium analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guizhi; Gu, SaiJu; Chen, Jibo; Wu, Xianhua; Yu, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Assessment of the health and economic impacts of PM2.5 pollution is of great importance for urban air pollution prevention and control. In this study, we evaluate the damage of PM2.5 pollution using Beijing as an example. First, we use exposure-response functions to estimate the adverse health effects due to PM2.5 pollution. Then, the corresponding labour loss and excess medical expenditure are computed as two conducting variables. Finally, different from the conventional valuation methods, this paper introduces the two conducting variables into the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model to assess the impacts on sectors and the whole economic system caused by PM2.5 pollution. The results show that, substantial health effects of the residents in Beijing from PM2.5 pollution occurred in 2013, including 20,043 premature deaths and about one million other related medical cases. Correspondingly, using the 2010 social accounting data, Beijing gross domestic product loss due to the health impact of PM2.5 pollution is estimated as 1286.97 (95% CI: 488.58-1936.33) million RMB. This demonstrates that PM2.5 pollution not only has adverse health effects, but also brings huge economic loss.

  10. Respiratory health effects of ambient air pollution: an update.

    PubMed

    Sava, Francesco; Carlsten, Chris

    2012-12-01

    There is new evidence for ambient air pollution (AAP) leading to an increased incidence of respiratory diseases in adults. Research has demonstrated that co-exposures have the potential to dramatically augment the effects of AAP and lower the threshold of effect of a given pollutant. Interactions between genes related to oxidative stress and AAP seem to significantly alter the effect of AAP on an individual and population basis. A better definition of vulnerable populations may bolster local or regional efforts to remediate AAP. Advances in genetic research tools have the potential to identify candidate genes that can guide further research.

  11. Air pollution around schools is linked to poorer student health and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Mohai, Paul; Kweon, Byoung-Suk; Lee, Sangyun; Ard, Kerry

    2011-05-01

    Exposing children to environmental pollutants during important times of physiological development can lead to long-lasting health problems, dysfunction, and disease. The location of children's schools can increase their exposure. We examined the extent of air pollution from industrial sources around public schools in Michigan to find out whether air pollution jeopardizes children's health and academic success. We found that schools located in areas with the highest air pollution levels had the lowest attendance rates-a potential indicator of poor health-and the highest proportions of students who failed to meet state educational testing standards. Michigan and many other states currently do not require officials considering a site for a new school to analyze its environmental quality. Our results show that such requirements are needed. For schools already in existence, we recommend that their environmental quality should be investigated and improved if necessary.

  12. Bivalve mollusks in metal pollution studies: from bioaccumulation to biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Zuykov, Michael; Pelletier, Emilien; Harper, David A T

    2013-09-01

    Contemporary environmental challenges have emphasized the need to critically assess the use of bivalve mollusks in chemical monitoring (identification and quantification of pollutants) and biomonitoring (estimation of environmental quality). Many authors, however, have considered these approaches within a single context, i.e., as a means of chemical (e.g. metal) monitoring. Bivalves are able to accumulate substantial amounts of metals from ambient water, but evidence for the drastic effects of accumulated metals (e.g. as a TBT-induced shell deformation and imposex) on the health of bivalves has not been documented. Metal bioaccumulation is a key tool in biomonitoring; bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of various metals in relation to bivalves are described in some detail including the development of biodynamic metal bioaccumulation model. Measuring metal in the whole-body or the tissue of bivalves themselves does not accurately represent true contamination levels in the environment; these data are critical for our understanding of contaminant trends at sampling sites. Only rarely has metal bioaccumulation been considered in combination with data on metal concentrations in parts of the ecosystem, observation of biomarkers and environmental parameters. Sclerochemistry is in its infancy and cannot be reliably used to provide insights into the pollution history recorded in shells. Alteration processes and mineral crystallization on the inner shell surface are presented here as a perspective tool for environmental studies.

  13. Study of electromagnetic radiation pollution in an Indian city.

    PubMed

    Dhami, A K

    2012-11-01

    Electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phone towers is a form of environmental pollution and is a new health hazard, especially to children and patients. The present studies were taken to estimate the microwave/RF pollution by measuring radiation power densities near schools and hospitals of Chandigarh city in India. The cell phone radiations were measured using a handheld portable power density meter TES 593 and specific absorption rates were estimated from the measured values. These values of electromagnetic radiation in the environment were compared with the levels at which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The values were also compared with the international exposure limits set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The highest measured power density was 11.48 mW/m(2) which is 1,148% of the biological limit. The results indicated that the exposure levels in the city were below the ICNIRP limit, but much above the biological limit.

  14. Dispersion Modeling of Traffic-Related Air Pollutant Exposures and Health Effects Among Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, Stuart; Ganguly, Rajiv; Isakov, Vlad; Burke, Janet; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Snyder, Michelle; Robins, Thomas; Lewis, Toby

    2015-01-01

    Vehicular traffic is a major source of ambient air pollution in urban areas. Traffic-related air pollutants, including carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, and diesel exhaust emissions, have been associated with adverse human health effects, especially in areas near major roads. In addition to emissions from vehicles, ambient concentrations of air pollutants include contributions from stationary sources and background (or regional) sources. Although dispersion models have been widely used to evaluate air quality strategies and policies and can represent the spatial and temporal variation in environments near roads, the use of these models in health studies to estimate air pollutant exposures has been relatively limited. This paper summarizes the modeling system used to estimate exposures in the Near-Roadway Exposure and Urban Air Pollutant Study, an epidemiological study that examined 139 children with asthma or symptoms consistent with asthma, most of whom lived near major roads in Detroit, Michigan. Air pollutant concentrations were estimated with a hybrid modeling framework that included detailed inventories of mobile and stationary sources on local and regional scales; the RLINE, AERMOD, and CMAQ dispersion models; and monitored observations of pollutant concentrations. The temporal and spatial variability in emissions and exposures over the 2.5-year study period and at more than 300 home and school locations was characterized. The paper highlights issues with the development and understanding of the significance of traffic-related exposures through the use of dispersion models in urban-scale exposure assessments and epidemiology studies. PMID:26139957

  15. Aquatic vegetation and water pollution control: public health implications.

    PubMed Central

    Dinges, R

    1978-01-01

    Results obtained from pilot studies and the operation of a plant scale treatment facility located at the Williamson Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant at Austin, Texas, demonstrate that culture of the water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes in shallow earthen basins is effective in the removal of algae, fecal coliform bacteria dn deleterious impurities from wastewater stabilization pond effluent. Stabilization ponds followed by hyacinth culture constitute an economical, low energy treatment system which reduces significantly those potential health hazards associated with wastewaters. Harvested hyacinths represent a useful product which could be converted into compost, or used directly as a soil amendment. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:736183

  16. Near-highway pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust: A review of epidemiologic evidence of cardiac and pulmonary health risks

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L; Rioux, Christine

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence of a distinct set of freshly-emitted air pollutants downwind from major highways, motorways, and freeways that include elevated levels of ultrafine particulates (UFP), black carbon (BC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO). People living or otherwise spending substantial time within about 200 m of highways are exposed to these pollutants more so than persons living at a greater distance, even compared to living on busy urban streets. Evidence of the health hazards of these pollutants arises from studies that assess proximity to highways, actual exposure to the pollutants, or both. Taken as a whole, the health studies show elevated risk for development of asthma and reduced lung function in children who live near major highways. Studies of particulate matter (PM) that show associations with cardiac and pulmonary mortality also appear to indicate increasing risk as smaller geographic areas are studied, suggesting localized sources that likely include major highways. Although less work has tested the association between lung cancer and highways, the existing studies suggest an association as well. While the evidence is substantial for a link between near-highway exposures and adverse health outcomes, considerable work remains to understand the exact nature and magnitude of the risks. PMID:17688699

  17. Air pollution and fasting blood glucose: A longitudinal study in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Linping; Zhou, Yong; Li, Shanshan; Williams, Gail; Kan, Haidong; Marks, Guy B; Morawska, Lidia; Abramson, Michael J; Chen, Shuohua; Yao, Taicheng; Qin, Tianbang; Wu, Shouling; Guo, Yuming

    2016-01-15

    Limited studies have examined the associations between air pollutants [particles with diameters of 10 μm or less (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and fasting blood glucose (FBG). We collected data for 27,685 participants who were followed during 2006 and 2008. Generalized Estimating Equation models were used to examine the effects of air pollutants on FBG while controlling for potential confounders. We found that increased exposure to NO2, SO2 and PM10 was significantly associated with increased FBG levels in single pollutant models (p<0.001). For exposure to 4 days' average of concentrations, a 100 μg/m(3) increase in SO2, NO2, and PM10 was associated with 0.17 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.15-0.19), 0.53 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.42-0.65), and 0.11 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.07-0.15) increase in FBG, respectively. In the multi-pollutant models, the effects of SO2 were enhanced, while the effects of NO2 and PM10 were alleviated. The effects of air pollutants on FBG were stronger in female, elderly, and overweight people than in male, young and underweight people. In conclusion, the findings suggest that air pollution increases the levels of FBG. Vulnerable people should pay more attention on highly polluted days to prevent air pollution-related health issues.

  18. Can air pollution negate the health benefits of cycling and walking?

    PubMed

    Tainio, Marko; de Nazelle, Audrey J; Götschi, Thomas; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Rojas-Rueda, David; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Kelly, Paul; Woodcock, James

    2016-06-01

    Active travel (cycling, walking) is beneficial for the health due to increased physical activity (PA). However, active travel may increase the intake of air pollution, leading to negative health consequences. We examined the risk-benefit balance between active travel related PA and exposure to air pollution across a range of air pollution and PA scenarios. The health effects of active travel and air pollution were estimated through changes in all-cause mortality for different levels of active travel and air pollution. Air pollution exposure was estimated through changes in background concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), ranging from 5 to 200μg/m3. For active travel exposure, we estimated cycling and walking from 0 up to 16h per day, respectively. These refer to long-term average levels of active travel and PM2.5 exposure. For the global average urban background PM2.5 concentration (22μg/m3) benefits of PA by far outweigh risks from air pollution even under the most extreme levels of active travel. In areas with PM2.5 concentrations of 100μg/m3, harms would exceed benefits after 1h 30min of cycling per day or more than 10h of walking per day. If the counterfactual was driving, rather than staying at home, the benefits of PA would exceed harms from air pollution up to 3h 30min of cycling per day. The results were sensitive to dose-response function (DRF) assumptions for PM2.5 and PA. PA benefits of active travel outweighed the harm caused by air pollution in all but the most extreme air pollution concentrations.

  19. Panel discussion review: Session two - Interpretation of Observed Associations between Multiple Ambient Air Pollutants and Health Effects in Epidemiologic Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution epidemiologic research has often utilized ambient air concentrations measured from centrally located monitors as a surrogate measure of exposure to these pollutants. Associations between these ambient concentrations and health outcomes such as lung function, hospita...

  20. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran.

  1. Effects of air pollution on human health and practical measures for prevention in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghorani-Azam, Adel; Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer. Several reports have revealed the direct association between exposure to the poor air quality and increasing rate of morbidity and mortality mostly due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Air pollution is considered as the major environmental risk factor in the incidence and progression of some diseases such as asthma, lung cancer, ventricular hypertrophy, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, psychological complications, autism, retinopathy, fetal growth, and low birth weight. In this review article, we aimed to discuss toxicology of major air pollutants, sources of emission, and their impact on human health. We have also proposed practical measures to reduce air pollution in Iran. PMID:27904610

  2. Measurement of inflammation and oxidative stress following drastic changes in air pollution during the Beijing Olympics: a panel study approach.

    PubMed

    Kipen, Howard; Rich, David; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Lu, Shou-en; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuedan; Zhang, Jim Junfeng

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality in epidemiology studies. Frequently, oxidative and nitrosative stress are hypothesized to mediate these pollution effects, however precise mechanisms remain unclear. This paper describes the methodology for a major panel study to examine air pollution effects on these and other mechanistic pathways. The study took place during the drastic air pollution changes accompanying the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, China. After a general description of air pollution health effects, we provide a discussion of panel studies and describe the unique features of this study that make it likely to provide compelling results. This study should lead to a clearer and more precise definition of the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress, as well as other mechanisms, in determining acute morbidity and mortality from air pollution exposure.

  3. Measurement of inflammation and oxidative stress following drastic changes in air pollution during the Beijing Olympics: a panel study approach

    PubMed Central

    Kipen, Howard; Rich, David; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Guangfa; Hu, Min; Lu, Shou-en; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuedan; Zhang, Jim (Junfeng)

    2014-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality in epidemiology studies. Frequently, oxidative and nitrosative stress are hypothesized to mediate these pollution effects, however precise mechanisms remain unclear. This paper describes the methodology for a major panel study to examine air pollution effects on these and other mechanistic pathways. The study took place during the drastic air pollution changes accompanying the 2008 Olympics in Beijing, China. After a general description of air pollution health effects, we provide a discussion of panel studies and describe the unique features of this study that make it likely to provide compelling results. This study should lead to a clearer and more precise definition of the role of oxidative and nitrosative stress, as well as other mechanisms, in determining acute morbidity and mortality from air pollution exposure. PMID:20716299

  4. Outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Dakik, Habib; Elias, Elias; Abou Abbas, Linda; Levêque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor air pollution is increasingly considered as a serious threat for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of this study is to investigate the association between outdoor pollutants and cardiovascular diseases among adults in Lebanon and to examine the possible moderator effect of cigarette smoking status on this association. A multicenter case-control study was conducted between October 2011 and October 2012. Cases were hospitalized patients diagnosed with CVD by a cardiologist while the control group subjects were free of any cardiac diseases. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, self-rated global health, pollution exposure, and other risk factors was collected using a questionnaire. The results of the logistic regression revealed that living near busy highway (OR 5.04, 95% CI (4.44-12.85), P < 0.001) and close to local diesel generator (OR 4.76, 95% CI (2.07-10.91), P < 0.001) was significantly associated with CVD. The association between the CVD and exposure to outside pollutants differed by cigarette smoking status. A clear difference was noted between nonsmokers and current smokers OR 4.6, 95% CI (1.10-19.25) and OR 10.11, 95% CI (7.33-20.23), respectively. Forthcoming studies are needed to clarify the potential link between outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon. Public health interventions must be implemented to reduce air pollution and to improve air quality.

  5. Combining environment and health information systems for the assessment of atmospheric pollution on human health.

    PubMed

    Skouloudis, Andreas N; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-08-01

    The use of emerging technologies for environmental monitoring with satellite and in-situ sensors have become essential instruments for assessing the impact of environmental pollution on human health, especially in areas that require high spatial and temporal resolution. This was until recently a rather difficult problem. Regrettably, with classical approaches the spatial resolution is frequently inadequate in reporting environmental causes and health effects in the same time scale. This work examines with new tools different levels of air-quality with sensor monitoring with the aim to associate those with severe health effects. The process established here facilitates the precise representation of human exposure with the population attributed in a fine spatial grid and taking into account environmental stressors of human exposure. These stressors can be monitored with innovative sensor units with a temporal resolution that accurately describes chronic and acute environmental burdens. The current understanding of the situation in densely populated areas can be properly analyzed, before commitments are made for reductions in total emissions as well as for assessing the effects of reduced trans-boundary fluxes. In addition, the data processed here with in-situ sensors can assist in establishing more effective regulatory policies for the protection of vulnerable population groups and the satellite monitoring instruments permit abatement strategies that are close to real-time over large geographical areas.

  6. Summary of the workshop on methodologies for environmental public health tracking of air pollution effects.

    PubMed

    Matte, Thomas D; Cohen, Aaron; Dimmick, Fred; Samet, Jonathan; Sarnat, Jeremy; Yip, Fuyuen; Jones, Nicholas

    2009-12-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established the Environmental Public Health Tracking (EPHT) program to support state and local projects that characterize the impact of the environment on health. The projects involve compiling, linking, analyzing, and disseminating environmental and health surveillance information, thereby engaging stakeholders and guiding actions to improve public health. One of the EPHT objectives is to track the public health impact of ambient air pollution with analyses that are timely and relevant to state and local stakeholders. To address methodological issues relevant to this objective, in January 2008, government officials and researchers from the USA, Canada, and Europe gathered in Baltimore, Maryland for a 2-day workshop. Using commissioned papers and presentations on key methodological issues as well as examples of previous air pollution impact assessments, work group discussions produced a set of consensus recommendations for the EPHT program. These recommendations noted the need for data that will encourage local stakeholders to support continued progress in air pollution control. The limitations of using only local data for analyses were also noted. To improve local estimates of air pollution health impacts, methods were recommended that "borrow strength" from other evidence. An incremental approach to implementing such methods was recommended. The importance and difficulty of communicating uncertainties in local health impact assessments was emphasized, as was the need for coordination among different agencies conducting health impact assessments.

  7. Summary and Findings of the EPA and CDC Symposium on Air Pollution Exposure and Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) co-organized a symposium on "Air Pollution Exposure and Health" at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina on September 19–20, 2006. The symposium brought together health and environmenta...

  8. Transformations in understanding the health impacts of air pollutants in the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2009-02-01

    The transformations of air pollution in the 20th century are well known. The century opened with urban atmospheres polluted by the combustion products of burning coal: smoke and sulfur dioxide. At the millennium these pollutants had almost vanished, replaced by the pollutants, both primary and secondary, a function of fossil-fuelled vehicles. However transitions in terms of health outcomes have been equally dramatic. Fine particulate matter causes notable cardiovascular problems such as increased incidence of stroke and heart attack, although the mechanism remains somewhat unclear. Cancer inducing air pollutants remain a concern, but in addition more recently there has been a rising interest in the presence of neurotoxins and endocrine disrupting substances in the environment.

  9. Case-Crossover Analysis of Air Pollution Health Effects: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Application

    PubMed Central

    Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Taracido, Margarita; Tobias, Aurelio; Saez, Marc; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background Case-crossover is one of the most used designs for analyzing the health-related effects of air pollution. Nevertheless, no one has reviewed its application and methodology in this context. Objective We conducted a systematic review of case-crossover (CCO) designs used to study the relationship between air pollution and morbidity and mortality, from the standpoint of methodology and application. Data sources and extraction A search was made of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Reports were classified as methodologic or applied. From the latter, the following information was extracted: author, study location, year, type of population (general or patients), dependent variable(s), independent variable(s), type of CCO design, and whether effect modification was analyzed for variables at the individual level. Data synthesis The review covered 105 reports that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 24 addressed methodological aspects, and the remainder involved the design’s application. In the methodological reports, the designs that yielded the best results in simulation were symmetric bidirectional CCO and time-stratified CCO. Furthermore, we observed an increase across time in the use of certain CCO designs, mainly symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. The dependent variables most frequently analyzed were those relating to hospital morbidity; the pollutants most often studied were those linked to particulate matter. Among the CCO-application reports, 13.6% studied effect modification for variables at the individual level. Conclusions The use of CCO designs has undergone considerable growth; the most widely used designs were those that yielded better results in simulation studies: symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. However, the advantages of CCO as a method of analysis of variables at the individual level are put to little use. PMID:20356818

  10. Measurement error in epidemiologic studies of air pollution based on land-use regression models.

    PubMed

    Basagaña, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Foraster, Maria; Marrugat, Jaume; Elosua, Roberto; Künzli, Nino

    2013-10-15

    Land-use regression (LUR) models are increasingly used to estimate air pollution exposure in epidemiologic studies. These models use air pollution measurements taken at a small set of locations and modeling based on geographical covariates for which data are available at all study participant locations. The process of LUR model development commonly includes a variable selection procedure. When LUR model predictions are used as explanatory variables in a model for a health outcome, measurement error can lead to bias of the regression coefficients and to inflation of their variance. In previous studies dealing with spatial predictions of air pollution, bias was shown to be small while most of the effect of measurement error was on the variance. In this study, we show that in realistic cases where LUR models are applied to health data, bias in health-effect estimates can be substantial. This bias depends on the number of air pollution measurement sites, the number of available predictors for model selection, and the amount of explainable variability in the true exposure. These results should be taken into account when interpreting health effects from studies that used LUR models.

  11. A review of traffic-related air pollution exposure assessment studies in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Han, Xianglu; Naeher, Luke P

    2006-01-01

    Exposure assessment studies in the developing world are important. Although recent years have seen an increasing number of traffic-related pollution exposure studies, exposure assessment data on this topic are still limited. Differences among measuring methods and a lack of strict quality control in carrying out exposure assessment make it difficult to generalize and compare findings between studies. In this article, exposure assessment studies carried out in the developing world on several traffic-related air pollutants are reviewed. These pollutants include particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition, it discusses advantages and disadvantages of various monitoring methods (ambient fixed-site monitoring, microenvironment monitoring, and personal exposure assessment using portable samplers) for these pollutants in exposure assessment studies. Also included in this paper is a brief introduction of standards for these pollutants in ambient air or in occupational settings established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The review ends with a summary of the limitations and gaps in recent studies and suggestions for future research in the developing world.

  12. Exposure prediction approaches used in air pollution epidemiology studies: Keyfindings and future recommendations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many epidemiologic studies of the health effects of exposure to ambient air pollution use measurements from central-site monitors as their exposure estimate. However, measurements from central-site monitors may lack the spatial and temporal resolution required to capture exposure...

  13. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 2. Outdoor air pollution

    PubMed Central

    Abelsohn, Alan; Stieb, David; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    AIR POLLUTION CONTRIBUTES TO PREVENTABLE ILLNESS AND DEATH. Subgroups of patients who appear to be more sensitive to the effects of air pollution include young children, the elderly and people with existing chronic cardiac and respiratory disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. It is unclear whether air pollution contributes to the development of asthma, but it does trigger asthma episodes. Physicians are in a position to identify patients at particular risk of health effects from air pollution exposure and to suggest timely and appropriate actions that these patients can take to protect themselves. A simple tool that uses the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) can help physicians take patients' environmental exposure histories to assess those who may be at risk. As public health advocates, physicians contribute to the primary prevention of illness and death related to air pollution in the population. In this article we review the origins of air pollutants, the pathophysiology of health effects, the burden of illness and the clinical implications of smog exposure using the illustrative case of an adolescent patient with asthma. PMID:12000251

  14. Decline of Ambient Air Pollution Levels and Improved Respiratory Health in Swiss Children

    PubMed Central

    Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Grize, Leticia; Gassner, Markus; Takken-Sahli, Kathy; Sennhauser, Felix H.; Neu, Urs; Schindler, Christian; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    The causality of observed associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children is still subject to debate. If reduced air pollution exposure resulted in improved respiratory health of children, this would argue in favor of a causal relation. We investigated whether a rather moderate decline of air pollution levels in the 1990s in Switzerland was associated with a reduction in respiratory symptoms and diseases in school children. In nine Swiss communities, 9,591 children participated in cross-sectional health assessments between 1992 and 2001. Their parents completed identical questionnaires on health status and covariates. We assigned to each child an estimate of regional particles with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 μg/m3 (PM10) and determined change in PM10 since the first survey. Adjusted for socioeconomic, health-related, and indoor factors, declining PM10 was associated in logistic regression models with declining prevalence of chronic cough [odds ratio (OR) per 10-μg/m3 decline = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54–0.79], bronchitis (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55–0.80), common cold (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68–0.89), nocturnal dry cough (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60–0.83), and conjunctivitis symptoms (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70–0.95). Changes in prevalence of sneezing during pollen season, asthma, and hay fever were not associated with the PM10 reduction. Our findings show that the reduction of air pollution exposures contributes to improved respiratory health in children. No threshold of adverse effects of PM10 was apparent because we observed the beneficial effects for relatively small changes of rather moderate air pollution levels. Current air pollution levels in Switzerland still exceed limit values of the Swiss Clean Air Act; thus, children’s health can be improved further. PMID:16263523

  15. Decline of ambient air pollution levels and improved respiratory health in Swiss children.

    PubMed

    Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Grize, Leticia; Gassner, Markus; Takken-Sahli, Kathy; Sennhauser, Felix H; Neu, Urs; Schindler, Christian; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2005-11-01

    The causality of observed associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children is still subject to debate. If reduced air pollution exposure resulted in improved respiratory health of children, this would argue in favor of a causal relation. We investigated whether a rather moderate decline of air pollution levels in the 1990s in Switzerland was associated with a reduction in respiratory symptoms and diseases in school children. In nine Swiss communities, 9,591 children participated in cross-sectional health assessments between 1992 and 2001. Their parents completed identical questionnaires on health status and covariates. We assigned to each child an estimate of regional particles with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 microg/m3 (PM10) and determined change in PM10 since the first survey. Adjusted for socioeconomic, health-related, and indoor factors, declining PM10 was associated in logistic regression models with declining prevalence of chronic cough [odds ratio (OR) per 10-microg/m3 decline = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.79], bronchitis (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55-0.80), common cold (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.89), nocturnal dry cough (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83), and conjunctivitis symptoms (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95). Changes in prevalence of sneezing during pollen season, asthma, and hay fever were not associated with the PM10 reduction. Our findings show that the reduction of air pollution exposures contributes to improved respiratory health in children. No threshold of adverse effects of PM10 was apparent because we observed the beneficial effects for relatively small changes of rather moderate air pollution levels. Current air pollution levels in Switzerland still exceed limit values of the Swiss Clean Air Act; thus, children's health can be improved further.

  16. Atmospheric pollution due to mobile sources and effects on human health in Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Kagawa, J

    1994-01-01

    Following the rapid economic growth after World War II, diseases associated with environmental pollution frequently occurred due to delayed implementation of countermeasures against environmental pollution. These diseases are exemplified by Minamata disease, Itai-itai disease, chronic arsenic poisoning, and Yokkaichi asthma. After multiple episodes of these pollution-related diseases were experienced, the government and the private sector made joint efforts to reduce environmental pollution. As a result of these efforts and because of changes in the industrial structure, pollution-related diseases have declined. Instead, however, air pollution from automobile exhaust and the health effects of automobile exhaust on people living along roads with heavy traffic began to attract the public's attention after an increase in the use of automobiles. The epidemiological surveys carried out by the Environmental Agency and the Tokyo Metropolitan Government also have suggested unfavorable effects of automobile-caused air pollution on people living in large cities or along major roads. To solve this problem, it seems imperative to promote the reasonable use of automobiles and to work toward more efficient transportation of goods based on analyses of city structure, the life-styles of city dwellers, and the socioeconomic composition of cities. In addition, the discharge of pollutants from automobiles could be controlled. PMID:7529709

  17. Atmospheric pollution due to mobile sources and effects on human health in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, J

    1994-10-01

    Following the rapid economic growth after World War II, diseases associated with environmental pollution frequently occurred due to delayed implementation of countermeasures against environmental pollution. These diseases are exemplified by Minamata disease, Itai-itai disease, chronic arsenic poisoning, and Yokkaichi asthma. After multiple episodes of these pollution-related diseases were experienced, the government and the private sector made joint efforts to reduce environmental pollution. As a result of these efforts and because of changes in the industrial structure, pollution-related diseases have declined. Instead, however, air pollution from automobile exhaust and the health effects of automobile exhaust on people living along roads with heavy traffic began to attract the public's attention after an increase in the use of automobiles. The epidemiological surveys carried out by the Environmental Agency and the Tokyo Metropolitan Government also have suggested unfavorable effects of automobile-caused air pollution on people living in large cities or along major roads. To solve this problem, it seems imperative to promote the reasonable use of automobiles and to work toward more efficient transportation of goods based on analyses of city structure, the life-styles of city dwellers, and the socioeconomic composition of cities. In addition, the discharge of pollutants from automobiles could be controlled.

  18. High-Resolution Modelling of Health Impacts from Air Pollution for Denmark using the Integrated Model System EVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael S.; Bønløkke, Jakob; Christensen, Jesper H.; Hansen, Kaj M.; Hertel, Ole; Im, Ulas; Jensen, Steen S.; Ketzel, Matthias; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Sigsgaard, Torben; Geels, Camilla

    2015-04-01

    We have developed an integrated health impact assessment system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution; Brandt et al., 2013a; 2013b), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health impacts and health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The system is used to support policymaking with respect to emission control. The EVA system has previously been used to assess the health impacts based on results from a regional model DEHM (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model; Brandt et al., 2012). In this study we have used a coupling of two chemistry transport models to calculate the air pollution concentration at different scales; the DEHM model to calculate the air pollution levels with a resolution down to 5.6 km x 5.6 km and the UBM model (Urban Background Model ; Berkowicz, 2000; Brandt et al., 2001) to further calculate the air pollution at 1 km x 1 km resolution for Denmark using results from DEHM as boundary conditions. Both the emission data based on the SPREAD model (Plejdrup and Gyldenkærne, 2011) as well as the population density has been represented in the model system with the same high resolution. The new developments of the integrated model system will be presented as well as results for health impacts and related external costs over the years 2006-2014 for Denmark. Furthermore, a sensitivity study of the health impact using coarse and fine resolutions in the model system has been carried out to evaluate the effect of improved description of the geographical population distribution with respect to location of local emissions. References Berkowicz, R., 2000. A Simple Model for Urban Background Pollution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 65, 1/2, 259-267. Brandt, J., J. H. Christensen, L. M. Frohn, F. Palmgren, R. Berkowicz and Z. Zlatev, 2001: "Operational air pollution forecasts from European to local scale". Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 35, Sup. No. 1, pp. S91-S98, 2001 Brandt

  19. [Establishment of Method for Health Risk Assessment of Pollutants from Fixed Sources].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Wu, Huan-bo

    2016-05-15

    A health risk assessment method of pollutants from fixed sources was developed by applying AERMOD model in the health risk assessment. The method could directly forecast the health risks of toxic pollutants from source by some exposure pathway. Using the established method, in combination with the data of sources and traditional health risk assessment method as well as the measured data of PAHs in inhalation particle matter (PM₁₀) in Lanzhou, the health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) in PM₁₀ from the three fire power plants and the health risk of PAHs and BaP in PM₁₀ at the receptor point by inhalation exposure in heating and non-heating seasons was calculated, respectively. Then the contribution rates of the health risk caused by the three fire power plants to the health risk at the receptor point were calculated. The results showed that the contribution rates were not associated with sex and age, but were associated with time period and risk types. The contribution rates in the non-heating seasons were greater than those in heating seasons, and the contribution rates of the carcinogenic risk index were greater than those of the cancer risk value. The reliability of the established method was validated by comparing with the traditional method. This method was applicable to health risk assessment of toxic pollutants from all fixed sources and environmental risk assessment of environmental impact assessment.

  20. Evaluation of indoor air pollution and its effect on human health in Beijing's rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Hansheng; Liu, Youcheng )

    1989-01-01

    Average exposures to SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, Inhalable Particles (IP), common bacteria and streptococci were monitored in 1986 in 24 new and old village households in the northern suburb of Beijing. Four hundred and fifty school children were also measured and observed for chronic and acute respiratory symptoms and illnesses, pulmonary function, immune response, carboxyhemoglobin level and eye response time to signals so as to evaluate the effects of rural indoor air pollution on human health. The results of air monitoring data showed that the new heating systems were effective in reducing the indoor concentrations of the measured pollutants by 23 to 76% in winter, but present concentrations still exceed China's Standard because of inadequate house design. Health outcomes suggested that children in the new village demonstrated signs of improvement for better health. The implications of different factors affecting indoor air pollution are evaluated and discussed.

  1. Public Health Hotspots Of Exposure To Air Pollution From Biomass Burning In Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, M. E.; Defries, R. S.; Kasibhatla, P. S.; Shindell, D. T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Kinney, P. L.; Randerson, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Fire is one of the most significant instruments of land use change; forests and grasslands are burned to create and maintain agricultural fields or other anthropogenic landscapes. Although fire emissions have been studied for their climatic and atmospheric effects, less is known about their impact on global public health. In this study, we combine satellite-derived fire emissions and atmospheric modeling to estimate exposure in Southeast Asia to particulate matter and ozone, which have a demonstrated detrimental health impact. Regional emissions can vary by a factor of twenty or more interannually due to the combined influence of prolonged drought conditions from El Nino, land use policies, and high fuel loads in tropical forests and peat. High fire years in the region, such as the 1997-1998 El Nino, can have a profound effect on global trace gas and aerosol loads. We conducted daily simulations of surface fine particulate matter and ozone concentrations for the 1997-2007 period using the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv2) within two atmospheric models: Harvard’s GEOS-CHEM and the NASA GISS Global Climate Model. The results from each model are compared and validated by field-based and remote sensing datasets. The public health risk from each pollutant is assessed with current air quality regulations published by the World Health Organization (WHO). Our preliminary results demonstrate that regions experiencing substantial fire activity can increase the percentage of days per year exceeding WHO air quality guidelines by more than 20%. These anomalies are localized in regions close to burning centers, and more so for heavier pollutants like particulate matter. In addition, the population exposed to particulate matter and ozone above WHO guidelines can increase during high fire years by up to 70% and 50% over the decadal mean, respectively. Our results implicate fires as a serious public health risk to cardiovascular diseases, which the WHO estimates are a

  2. The health and visibility cost of air pollution: a comparison of estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Delucchi, Mark A; Murphy, James J; McCubbin, Donald R

    2002-02-01

    Air pollution from motor vehicles, electricity-generating plants, industry, and other sources can harm human health, injure crops and forests, damage building materials, and impair visibility. Economists sometimes analyze the social cost of these impacts, in order to illuminate tradeoffs, compare alternatives, and promote efficient use of scarce resource. In this paper, we compare estimates of the health and visibility costs of air pollution derived from a meta-hedonic price analysis, with an estimate of health costs derived from a damage-function analysis and an estimate of the visibility cost derived from contingent valuation. We find that the meta-hedonic price analysis produces an estimate of the health cost that lies at the low end of the range of damage-function estimates. This is consistent with hypotheses that on the one hand, hedonic price analysis does not capture all of the health costs of air pollution (because individuals may not be fully informed about all of the health effects), and that on the other hand, the value of mortality used in the high-end damage function estimates is too high. The analysis of the visibility cost of air pollution derived from a meta-hedonic price analysis produces an estimate that is essentially identical to an independent estimate based on contingent valuation. This close agreement lends some credence to the estimates. We then apply the meta hedonic-price model to estimate the visibility cost per kilogram of motor vehicle emissions.

  3. Linking Asthma Exacerbation and Air Pollution Data: A Step Toward Public Health and Environmental Data Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faruque, Fazlay; Finley, Richard; Marshall, Gailen; Brackin, Bruce; Li, Hui; Williams, Worth; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Luvall, Jeffrey; Rickman, Doug; Crosson, Bill

    2006-01-01

    Studies have shown that reducing exposure to triggers such as air pollutants can reduce symptoms and the need for medication in asthma patients. However, systems that track asthma are generally not integrated with those that track environmental hazards related to asthma. Tlvs lack of integration hinders public health awareness and responsiveness to these environmental triggers. The current study is a collaboration between health and environmental professionals to utilize NASA-derived environmental data to develop a decision support system (DSS) for asthma prediction, surveillance, and intervention. The investigators link asthma morbidity data from the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC) and Mississippi Department of Health (MDH) with air quality data from the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) and remote sensing data from NASA. Daily ambient environmental hazard data for PM2.5 and ozone are obtained from the MDEQ air quality monitoring locations and are combined with remotely sensed data from NASA to develop a state-wide spatial and time series profile of environmental air quality. These data are then used to study the correlation of these measures of air quality variation with the asthma exacerbation incidence throughout the state over time. The goal is to utilize these readily available measures to allow real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbations. GeoMedStat, a DSS previously developed for biosurveillance, will integrate these measures to monitor, analyze and report the real-time risk assessment for asthma exacerbation throughout the state.

  4. How Does Air Pollution Threaten Basic Human Rights? The Case Study of Bulgaria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmedova, Aylin Hasanova

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to analyze the relationship between air pollution and human rights. It investigates whether air pollution threatens basic human rights such as the right to health, life, and the environment. Air pollution represents a major threat both to health and to the environment. Despite the adoption of numerous…

  5. Medication use modifies the health effects of particulate sulfate air pollution in children with asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, A; Dockery, D W; Heinrich, J; Wichmann, H E

    1997-01-01

    Previous controlled studies have indicated that asthma medication modifies the adverse effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on lung function and asthma symptoms. The present report analyzed the role of medication use in a panel study of children with mild asthma. Children from Sokolov (n = 82) recorded daily peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements, symptoms, and medication use in a diary. Linear and logistic regression analyses estimated the impact of concentrations of sulfate particles with diameters less than 2.5 microns, adjusting for linear trend, mean temperature, weekend (versus weekday), and prevalence of fever in the sample. Fifty-one children took no asthma medication, and only 31 were current medication users. Most children were treated with theophylline; only nine used sprays containing beta-agonist. For the nonmedicated children, weak associations between a 5-day mean of sulfates and respiratory symptoms were observed. Medicated children, in contrast, increased their beta-agonist use in direct association with an increase in 5-day mean of sulfates, but medication use did not prevent decreases in PEF and increases in the prevalence of cough attributable to particulate air pollution. Medication use was not a confounder but attenuated the associations between particulate air pollution and health outcomes. Images Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B PMID:9189709

  6. Indoor Air Pollution, Tobacco Smoke, and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repace, James L.; Lowrey, Alfred H.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental and theoretical investigation into the range and nature of exposure of the nonsmoking public to respirable suspended particulates from cigarette smoke is reported. An assessment of public health policy implications is presented. (Author/RE)

  7. Ms No. 02858: Organohalogen Pollutants and Human Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past century, a vast number of organic chemicals have been manufactured and used in industrial, agricultural, public health, consumer products and other applications. The organohalogens, including chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated compounds, are ubiquitous in th...

  8. Bourdieu does environmental justice? Probing the linkages between population health and air pollution epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Buzzelli, Michael

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature faces a number of conceptual and methodological shortcomings. The purpose of this paper is to probe ways in which these shortcomings can be remedied via recent developments in related literatures: population health and air pollution epidemiology. More sophisticated treatment of social structure, particularly if based on Pierre Bourdieu's relational approach to forms of capital, can be combined with the methodological rigour and established biological pathways of air pollution epidemiology. The aim is to reformulate environmental justice research in order to make further meaningful contributions to the wider movement concerned with issues of social justice and equity in health research.

  9. Is the air pollution health research community prepared to support a multipollutant air quality management framework?

    PubMed

    Mauderly, Joe L; Burnett, Richard T; Castillejos, Margarita; Ozkaynak, Halûk; Samet, Jonathan M; Stieb, David M; Vedal, Sverre; Wyzga, Ronald E

    2010-06-01

    Ambient air pollution is always encountered as a complex mixture, but past regulatory and research strategies largely focused on single pollutants, pollutant classes, and sources one-at-a-time. There is a trend toward managing air quality in a progressively "multipollutant" manner, with the idealized goal of controlling as many air contaminants as possible in an integrated manner to achieve the greatest total reduction of adverse health and environmental impacts. This commentary considers the current ability of the environmental air pollution exposure and health research communities to provide evidence to inform the development of multipollutant air quality management strategies and assess their effectiveness. The commentary is not a literature review, but a summary of key issues and information gaps, strategies for filling the gaps, and realistic expectations for progress that could be made during the next decade. The greatest need is for researchers and sponsors to address air quality health impacts from a truly multipollutant perspective, and the most limiting current information gap is knowledge of personal exposures of different subpopulations, considering activities and microenvironments. Emphasis is needed on clarifying the roles of a broader range of pollutants and their combinations in a more forward-looking manner; that is not driven by current regulatory structures. Although advances in research tools and outcome data will enhance progress, the greater need is to direct existing capabilities toward strategies aimed at placing into proper context the contributions of multiple pollutants and their combinations to the health burdens, and the relative contributions of pollutants and other factors influencing the same outcomes. The authors conclude that the research community has very limited ability to advise multipollutant air quality management and assess its effectiveness at this time, but that considerable progress can be made in a decade, even at

  10. Evaluation of health effects of air pollution in the Chestnut Ridge area

    SciTech Connect

    Gruhl, J.; Schweppe, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    This project involves several tasks designed to take advantage of a very extensive air pollution monitoring system that is operating in the Chestnut Ridge region of Western Pennsylvania and the very well developed analytic dispersion models that have been previously fine-tuned to this particular area. The major task in this project is to establish, through several distinct epidemiologic approaches, health data to be used to test hypotheses about relations of air pollution exposures to morbidity and mortality rates in this region. This project affords a cost-effective opportunity for state-of-the-art techniques to be used in both costly areas of air pollution and health effects data collection. The closely spaced network of monitors, plus the dispersion modeling capabilities, allow for the investigation of health impacts of various pollutant gradients in neighboring geographic areas, thus minimizing the confounding effects of social, ethnic, and economic factors. The pollutants that are monitored in this network include total gaseous sulfur, sulfates, total suspended particulates, NOx, NO, ozone/oxidants, and coefficient of haze. In addition to enabling the simulation of exposure profiles between monitors, the air quality modeling, along with extensive source and background inventories, will allow for upgrading the quality of the monitored data as well as simulating the exposure levels for about 25 additional air pollutants. Another important goal of this project is to collect and test the many available models for associating health effects with air pollution, to determine their predictive validity and their usefulness in the choice and siting of future energy facilities.

  11. Environmental Noise Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Monica S.; Swinburn, Tracy K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. Objectives: We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. Discussion: We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Conclusion: Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda. Citation: Hammer MS, Swinburn TK, Neitzel RL. 2014. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response. Environ Health Perspect 122:115–119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307272 PMID:24311120

  12. Respiratory Health and Indoor Air Pollution at High Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Rosati, Jacky Ann; Yoneda, Ken Y.; Yasmeen, Shagufta; Wood, Steve; Eldridge, Marlowe W.

    2009-01-01

    In this research, the authors sought to provide experimental data on indoor air quality, and the resulting respiratory impact, for a high-elevation (4550 m), rural community in Ladakh, India. This community is of interest because the primarily nomadic residents burn biomass inside the home for heating and cooking. The concentrations of particulate matter (PM), endotoxin, and carbon monoxide were determined for 6 homes. Lung function data and induced sputum samples were collected for 9 female test-home subjects. In addition, lung function data were collected for 84 additional Ladakhi highlanders at this location. Sputum from 3 visiting scientists (sojourners) was collected and analyzed as well. The average PM concentration ranged from 2 mg/m3 to 7 mg/m3, with 85% of the sampled PM sized as respirable. The average endotoxin concentration ranged from 2.4 ng/m3 to 19 ng/m3, and average carbon monoxide levels ranged from 50 ppm to 120 ppm. Lung function values for the highlander population and the test-home subjects were equal to or greater than predicted, despite the highlanders’ significant exposure to indoor pollutants. An induced sputum analysis revealed a significantly greater total inflammatory cell count (M ± SD, 105 cell/mg) in the Ladakhi natives than in the sojourners (107.5 ± 75.2 vs 7.1 ± 8.1, p .01). Although the high levels of indoor pollutants did not correlate with significant decrements in lung function, the induced sputum analysis revealed marked airway inflammation dominated by macrophages and neutrophils. It appears that augmented lung mechanics of this high-altitude population are adaptive to reduce the work of breathing; thus, decrements in lung function go undetected because the true predicted values are greater than expected. PMID:16983862

  13. New Jersey: A Case Study of the Reduction in Urban and Suburban Air Pollution from the 1950s to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has been a topic of intense concern and study for hundreds of years. During the second half of the 20th century, the United States implemented regulations and controls to reduce the levels of criteria air pollutants and achieve the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for the protection of human health, while concurrently reducing the levels of toxic air pollutants. Objective: In this commentary we trace the changes in air pollution in New Jersey as a case study, demonstrating the impact of local, state, and federal strategies to control emissions of pollutants and pollutant precursors from the 1950s until today. Discussion: The original NAAQS (1970–1995) have been achieved, and significant progress has been made to achieve revised standards for ozone and particulate matter (PM) < 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) in New Jersey, which in the past was considered a highly polluted industrial state. Conclusions: Assuming no reversals on current regulations because of some major event or energy infrastructure disruption, outdoor air pollution reductions will continue to address health risks among specific segments of the general population affected by ozone/PM and pollution caused by neighborhood, local, and regional point and mobile sources. PMID:21622086

  14. Risks assessment of water pollution by pesticides at local scale (PESTEAUX project): study of polluting pressure.

    PubMed

    Noel, Stéphanie; Billo Bah, Boubacar

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of water resources (surface waters and ground waters) by pesticide uses is one of the key point of the European policy with the implementation of the Water Frame Work Directive (2000/60/EC) and the thematic Strategy on the Sustainable use of pesticides. According to this legislation, the Member States must initiate measures to limit environmental and toxicological effects caused by pesticide uses. The Agricultural Research Centre of Wallonia (CRA-W) emphasized the need of a tool for spatial risk analysis and develOPs it within the framework of PESTEAUX project. The originality of the approach proposed by the CRA-W is to generate maps to identify the risk of pollution at locale scale (agricultural parcel). The risk will be assessed according to the study of different factors, grouped under 3 data's layers: polluting pressure, vulnerability of the physical environment (soil) and meteorological data. This approach is directly based on the risk's definition which takes into account the polluting pressure, linked to the human activities, and the vulnerability of the soil, defined by factors of physical environment which characterize the water flow in the parcel. Moreover, meteorological data influence the intensity and likelihood flow of water, and indirectly pesticide by leaching or runoff. The PESTEAUX's approach to study the pollution is based on the model "source-vector-target". The source is the polluting pressure, in other words, the pesticides which could reach the targets. The main vector is the water which vehicles the pesticide on and trough the soil until the target which are the surface waters or ground waters. In this paper we introduce the factors contributing to the polluting pressure. These factors are linking to the human activities and more precisely, to the pesticide uses. The factors considered have an influence on pesticide's transport by water (in its solid state or in dissolved state by leaching, run-off, or erosion) but also on a set of

  15. Experimental studies on some genetic effects of marine pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglia, B.; Bisol, P. M.; Rodinò, E.

    1980-03-01

    Following the results of a series of investigations carried out to estimate the degree of marine pollution by utilizing certain marine filter feeders, such as the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, research has been planned to detect possible genetic effects of pollutants, with special attention to those acting at the population level. The possible selective role of pollutants has been studied both in natural ( Mytilus) and in experimental ( Tisbe holothuriae) populations by utilizing some electrophoretically-detected gene-enzyme systems as genetic markers. For some of the seven polymorphic loci studied in Mytilus (AP, LAP, 6-PGD, IDHs, IDHm, PGI, PGM) significant changes in gene frequencies have been detected which can be related to the degree of pollution in the sampling areas. In the more polluted areas these changes were accompanied by a decrease in the frequency of heterozygotes. Similar changes in gene frequencies also occurred in laboratory populations of the copepod Tisbe, reared under various experimental conditions. In particular, certain alleles of two loci, PGI-1 and AP-1, exhibited an increase in frequency, especially in populations cultured at various levels of oil pollution. This trend appeared more significant for the locus PGI. The fact that equilibria are reached and that the less favoured alleles are nevertheless maintained in the populations, even at extremely low frequencies, suggests the balanced nature of these enzyme polymorphisms. The significance of the above findings is briefly discussed.

  16. Effects of agricultural, industrial, and municipal pollutants on wetlands and wildlife and wildlife health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Converse, Kathryn A.

    1995-01-01

    Wetlands accumulate pollutants from adjacent areas through intentional discharge of sewage or industrial wastes, runoff of agricultural fertilizers and pesticides, and discharge from municipal storm drains.  Coastal wetlands receive more pollutants indirectly as the endpoint for upland drainage systems and directly through petroleum spills and insect abatement.  Wetlands that serve as evaporation basins during seasonally high water, especially in more arid climates, concentrate natural compounds and as well as pollutants.  The ability of wetlands to be effective filtration systems for wastewater nutrients through microbial transformations, uptake by plants, and deposition of particulate matter, and the shortage of water in arid climates has resulted in revision of wetland regulations.  Wetlands can now be developed for wastewater treatment and natural wetlands can be restored or converted to wastewater treatment systems.  The effect of these accumulation pollutants on wetland ecology and wildlife health needs to be recognized.

  17. Implications of Nitrogen-Climate Interactions for Ambient Air Pollution and Human Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuber, R.; Peel, J. L.; Garcia, V.; Neas, L.; Russell, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are important components of ambient and indoor air pollution and are emitted from a range of combustion sources, including on-road mobile sources, electric power generators, and non-road mobile sources. While anthropogenic sources dominate, NOX is also formed by lightning and wildland fires and is emitted by soil. Reduced nitrogen (e.g., ammonia, NH3) is also emitted by various sources, including fertilizer application and animal waste decomposition. NOX, ozone and PM2.5 pollution related to atmospheric emissions of nitrogen and other pollutants can cause premature death and a variety of serious health effects. Climate change is expected to impact how nitrogen-related pollutants affect human health. For example, changes in temperature and precipitation patterns are projected to both lengthen the ozone season and intensify high ozone episodes in some areas. Other climate-related changes may increase the atmospheric release of nitrogen compounds through impacts on wildfire regimes, soil emissions, and biogenic emissions from terrestrial ecosystems. This session will examine the potential human health implications of climate change and nitrogen cycle interactions related to ambient air pollution.

  18. Valuation of social and health effects of transport-related air pollution in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Monzón, Andrés; Guerrero, María-José

    2004-12-01

    Social impacts of pollutants from mobile sources are a key element in urban design and traffic planning. One of the most relevant impacts is health effects associated with high pollution periods. Madrid is a city that suffers chronic congestion levels and some periods of very stable atmospheric conditions; as a result, pollution levels exceed air quality standards for certain pollutants. This paper focuses on the social evaluation of transport-related emissions. A new methodology to evaluate those impacts in monetary terms has been designed and applied to Madrid. The method takes into account costs associated with losses in working time, mortality and human suffering; calculated using an impact pathway approach linked to CORINAIR emissions. This also allows the calculation of social costs associated with greenhouse gas impacts. As costs have been calculated individually by effect and mode of transport, they can be used to design pricing policies based on real social costs. This paper concludes that the health and social costs of transport-related air pollution in Madrid is 357 Meuro. In these circumstances, the recent public health tax applied in Madrid is clearly correct and sensible with a fair pricing policy on car use.

  19. Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and assessment of human health risk from vegetable consumption in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Atikul; Romić, Davor; Akber, Md Ali; Romić, Marija

    2017-01-18

    Trace metals accumulation in soil irrigated with polluted water and human health risk from vegetable consumption was assessed based on the data available in the literature on metals pollution of water, soil, sediment and vegetables from the cites of Bangladesh. The quantitative data on metal concentrations, their contamination levels and their pollution sources have not been systematically gathered and studied so far. The data on metal concentrations, sources, contamination levels, sample collection and analytical tools used were collected, compared and discussed. The USEPA-recommended method for health risk assessment was used to estimate human risk from vegetable consumption. Concentrations of metals in water were highly variable, and the mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu and As in water were found to be higher than the FAO irrigation water quality standard. In most cases, mean concentrations of metals in soil were higher than the Bangladesh background value. Based on geoaccumulation index (I geo) values, soils of Dhaka city are considered as highly contaminated. The I geo shows Cd, As, Cu, Ni, Pb and Cr contamination of agricultural soils and sediments of the cities all over the Bangladesh. Polluted water irrigation and agrochemicals are identified as dominant sources of metals in agricultural soils. Vegetable contamination by metals poses both non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the public. Based on the results of the pollution and health risk assessments, Cd, As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni are identified as the priority control metals and the Dhaka city is recommended as the priority control city. This study provides quantitative evidence demonstrating the critical need for strengthened wastewater discharge regulations in order to protect residents from heavy metal discharges into the environment.

  20. Study of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma mortality associated with industrial pollution in Spain, using Poisson models

    PubMed Central

    Ramis, Rebeca; Vidal, Enrique; García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER) is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location. This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Methods Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994–2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations. The relative risks (RRs) associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model). Results Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km) could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09–1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01–1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06–1.27). Spatial models yielded higher estimates. Conclusion The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality. The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of industrial pollution

  1. Assessment of human health impact from exposure to multiple air pollutants in China based on satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tao; Wang, Wen; Ciren, Pubu; Zhu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of human health impact caused by air pollution is crucial for evaluating environmental hazards. In this paper, concentrations of six air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, O3, and CO) were first derived from satellite observations, and then the overall human health risks in China caused by multiple air pollutants were assessed using an aggregated health risks index. Unlike traditional approach for human health risks assessment, which relied on the in-situ air pollution measurements, the spatial distribution of aggregated human health risks in China were obtained using satellite observations in this research. It was indicated that the remote sensing data have advantages over in-situ data in accessing human health impact caused by air pollution.

  2. Health Risk of Exposure to Atmospheric Pollutant Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    In relation to multi-component mixture nature of atmospheric PM, this presentation will discuss methods for estimating the respiratory internal dose by experiment and mathematical modeling, limitations of each method and interpretations of the results in the context of health ris...

  3. Public health concern behind the exposure to persistent organic pollutants and the risk of metabolic diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are hazardous chemicals omnipresent in our food chain, which have been internationally regulated to ensure public health. Initially described for their potency to affect reproduction and promote cancer, recent studies have highlighted an unexpected implication of POPs in the development of metabolic diseases like type 2 diabetes and obesity. Based on this novel knowledge, this article aims at stimulating discussion and evaluating the effectiveness of current POP legislation to protect humans against the risk of metabolic diseases. Furthermore, the regulation of POPs in animal food products in the European Union (EU) is addressed, with a special focus on marine food since it may represent a major source of POP exposure to humans. Discussion There is mounting scientific evidence showing that current POP risk assessment and regulation cannot effectively protect humans against metabolic disorders. Better regulatory control of POPs in dietary products should be of high public health priority. Summary The general population is exposed to sufficient POPs, both in term of concentration and diversity, to induce metabolic disorders. This situation should attract the greatest attention from the public health and governmental authorities. PMID:22520265

  4. Exploring the joint effect of atmospheric pollution and socioeconomic status on selected health outcomes: an overview of the PAISARC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, D.; Laurent, O.; Filleul, L.; Havard, S.; Deguen, S.; Segala, C.; Pedrono, G.; Rivière, E.; Schillinger, C.; Rouïl, L.; Arveiler, D.; Eilstein, D.

    2007-10-01

    Health socioeconomic gradients are well documented in developed countries, but incompletely explained. A portion of these health inequalities may be explained by environmental exposures. The objective of PAISARC is to explore the relations between socioeconomic status, air pollution exposure and two selected health outcomes—asthma exacerbations and myocardial infarction—at the level of a small area. The study design is ecological, using data available from the national census, with the residential block (French IRIS, 2000 people on average, National Institute of Statistics—INSEE) as the statistical unit. The setting is the Greater Strasbourg metropolitan area (450 000 inhabitants) in eastern France. We first constructed a socioeconomic status index, using 1999 national census data and principal component analysis at the resolution of these census blocks. Air pollution data were then modeled at the same resolution on an hourly basis for the entire study period (2000 2005). Health data were obtained from various sources (local emergency networks, the local population-based coronary heart disease registry, health insurance funds) according to the health outcome. We present here the initial results and discuss the methodological approaches best suited for the forthcoming steps of our project.

  5. [Effects of air pollution on human health and their importance in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Maite; Jáuregui-Renaud, Kathrine; Hermosillo, Antonio G; Márquez, Manlio F; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    The impact of air pollution on human health is a complicated problem. In this review, we describe the main health effects of exposure to ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead and particulate matter. Geographical characteristics of the metropolitan area of Mexico City that favor pollutant persistence with adverse effects on the population are described; the use of the Indice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire (IMECA), current norms, and present programs to diminish this problem are discussed. Evidence shows that through these actions, air quality has improved. However, some pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, still exceed the standard. To further improve air quality in the city, existing programs should continue and multidisciplinary research, both basic and applied, is required.

  6. Experimental studies of the dilution of vehicle exhaust pollutants by environment-protecting pervious pavement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jui-Wen; Tsai, Jen-Hui; Lin, Wei-Shian; Yen, M-T; Chen, Ting-Hao

    2012-01-01

    This study determines whether environment-protecting pervious pavement can dilute pollutants immediately after emissions from vehicle. The turbulence-driven dry-deposition process is too slow to be considered in this aspect. The pavement used is the JW pavement (according to its inventors name), a high-load-bearing water-permeable pavement with patents in over 100 countries, which has already been used for more than 8 years in Taiwan and is well suited to replacing conventional road pavement, making the potential implementation of the study results feasible. The design of this study included two sets of experiments. Variation of the air pollutant concentrations within a fenced area over the JW pavement with one vehicle discharging emissions into was monitored and compared with results over a non-JW pavement. The ambient wind speed was low during the first experiment, and the results obtained were highly credible. It was found that the JW pavement diluted vehicle pollutant emissions near the ground surface by 40%-87% within 5 min of emission; whereas the data at 2 m height suggested that about 58%-97% of pollutants were trapped underneath the pavement 20 min after emission. Those quantitative estimations may be off by +/- 10%, if errors in emissions and measurements were considered. SO2 and CO2 underwent the most significant reduction. Very likely, pollutants were forced to move underneath due to the special design of the pavement. During the second experiment, ambient wind speeds were high and the results obtained had less credibility, but they did not disprove the pollutant dilution capacity of the JW pavement. In order to track the fate of pollutants, parts of the pavement were removed to reveal a micro version of wetland underneath, which could possibly hold the responsibility of absorbing and decomposing pollutants to forms harmless to the environment and human health.

  7. Environmental Pollution: An Under-recognized Threat to Children’s Health, Especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Suk, William A.; Ahanchian, Hamid; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Carpenter, David O.; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Ha, Eun-Hee; Huo, Xia; King, Malcolm; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; da Silva, Emerson R.; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D.; Stein, Renato T.; van den Berg, Martin; Zar, Heather; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Exposures to environmental pollutants during windows of developmental vulnerability in early life can cause disease and death in infancy and childhood as well as chronic, non-communicable diseases that may manifest at any point across the life span. Patterns of pollution and pollution-related disease change as countries move through economic development. Environmental pollution is now recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). According to the World Health Organization, pollution is responsible for 8.9 million deaths around the world each year; of these, 94% (8.4 million) are in LMICs. Toxic chemical pollution is growing into a major threat to children’s health in LMICs. The disease and disability caused by environmental pollution have great economic costs, and these costs can undercut trajectories of national development. To combat pollution, improved programs of public health and environmental protection are needed in countries at every level of development. Pollution control strategies and technologies that have been developed in high-income countries must now be transferred to LMICs to assist these emerging economies to avoid the mistakes of the past. A new international clearinghouse is needed to define and track the health effects of pollution, quantify the economic costs of these effects, and direct much needed attention to environmental pollution as a risk factor for disease. PMID:26930243

  8. Environmental Pollution: An Under-recognized Threat to Children's Health, Especially in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Suk, William A; Ahanchian, Hamid; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Carpenter, David O; Diaz-Barriga, Fernando; Ha, Eun-Hee; Huo, Xia; King, Malcolm; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; da Silva, Emerson R; Sly, Leith; Sly, Peter D; Stein, Renato T; van den Berg, Martin; Zar, Heather; Landrigan, Philip J

    2016-03-01

    Exposures to environmental pollutants during windows of developmental vulnerability in early life can cause disease and death in infancy and childhood as well as chronic, non-communicable diseases that may manifest at any point across the life span. Patterns of pollution and pollution-related disease change as countries move through economic development. Environmental pollution is now recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). According to the World Health Organization, pollution is responsible for 8.9 million deaths around the world each year; of these, 94% (8.4 million) are in LMICs. Toxic chemical pollution is growing into a major threat to children's health in LMICs. The disease and disability caused by environmental pollution have great economic costs, and these costs can undercut trajectories of national development. To combat pollution, improved programs of public health and environmental protection are needed in countries at every level of development. Pollution control strategies and technologies that have been developed in high-income countries must now be transferred to LMICs to assist these emerging economies to avoid the mistakes of the past. A new international clearinghouse is needed to define and track the health effects of pollution, quantify the economic costs of these effects, and direct much needed attention to environmental pollution as a risk factor for disease.

  9. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Dhondt, Stijn; Beckx, Carolien; Degraeuwe, Bart; Lefebvre, Wouter; Kochan, Bruno; Bellemans, Tom; Int Panis, Luc; Macharis, Cathy; Putman, Koen

    2012-09-15

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns-including time in commute-for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO{sub 2} using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. Black

  10. The impact on human health of car-related air pollution in the UK, 1995-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. W.; Axon, C. J.; Darton, R. C.

    2013-10-01

    We have analysed the impact on human health of emissions produced by the UK car fleet in the years 1995 and 2005. Calculations were based on reported measurements of pollutant concentration, literature values of exposure response coefficients and data for mortality and morbidity. A share was attributed to the car fleet based on emissions data. Although the total distance driven in the UK increased by 16% over this period to 460 billion km, there was a significant fall in engine emissions as increasingly stringent regulations (EURO standards) were introduced. As a result there was a decrease of some 25% in the number of deaths attributable to car-related air pollution - down to 5589 in 2005. The estimated number of years of life lost at 65 000 (England and Wales) in 2005, was about half that caused by road accidents involving cars in the same year. We report further calculations which show the effect of car-related pollution on hospital admissions. Our method is straightforward, providing acceptable estimates for health impacts on the predominantly urban population of the UK. There remains a need for more work, particularly cohort studies of morbidity, to establish the long-term effects of air pollution.

  11. Introduction: Addressing Air Pollution and Health Science Questions to Inform Science and Policy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This special issue of Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health (AQAH) is the sixth and final in a series of special journal issues (Solomon 2010, 2011a, b; Solomon et al. 2011; Solomon 2012) associated with the 2010 Air Pollution and Heath Conference: Bridging the Gap between Sources ...

  12. PLANNING OF HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH ON HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS AND APPLICATION TO RISK ASSESSMENT PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 designated a set of compounds as hazardous air pollutants or "air toxics" which may be released into the air from a variety of sources including stationary, mobile and indoor air sources. Determination of the risks to human health from exposur...

  13. EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON RESPIRATORY HEALTH OF ADULTS IN THREE CHINESE CITIES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors examined potential associations between air-pollution exposures and respiratory symptoms and illnesses of 4,108 adults who resided in 4 districts of 3 large, distinct Chinese cities. Data on respiratory health outcomes and relevant risk factors for parents and childre...

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health in China: the Price of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.; Woo, J.; Streets, D. G.

    2003-12-01

    Population growth, rapid urbanization and economic development are contributing to increased energy consumption in China. One of the unintended consequences is poor air quality due to a lack of environmental controls. The coal dependent energy structure in China only worsens the situation. Quantification of the environmental costs resulting from air pollution is needed in order to provide a mechanism for making strategic energy policy that accounts for the life-cycle cost of energy use. However, few such studies have been conducted for China that examine the entire energy system. Here we examine the extent to which public health has been compromised due to elevated air pollution and how China could incorporate environmental costs into future energy and environmental policies. Taking the Shandong region in eastern China as a case study, we develop a high-resolution regional inventory for anthropogenic emissions of NOx, CO, PM2.5, PM10, VOCs, NH3 and SO2. SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System) is used to process spatial and temporal distributions and chemical speciation of the regional emissions, MM5 (the Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Meso-scale Model, Version 3) is used to generate meteorology and Models3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System) is used to simulate ambient concentrations of particulates and other gaseous species in this region. We then estimate the mortality and morbidity in this region resulting from exposure to these air pollutants. We also estimate the monetary values associated with the resulting mortality and morbidity and quantify the contributions from various economic sectors (i.e. power generation, transportation, industry, residential and others). Finally, we examine the potential health benefits that adoption of best available or advanced energy (coal-based, in particular) and environmental technologies in different sectors could bring about. The results of these analyses are intended to provide

  15. Health and respirable particulate (PM10) air pollution: a causal or statistical association?

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, J F; Lewis, R J

    1996-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported weak but statistically significant acute health effects of particulate air pollution. The associations are observed at levels below the current U.S. standard of 150 micrograms/m3 (24 hr). Health effects include acute increased mortality from cardiopulmonary conditions and acute morbidity such as hospital admissions for related diseases. We reviewed recent epidemiology studies to evaluate whether criteria for causality are met, and we conclude that they are not. The weak associations are as likely to be due to confounding by weather, copollutants, or exposure misclassification as by ambient particulate matter (PM). The results from the same metropolitan areas are inconsistent, and PM explains such a small amount of the variability in mortality/morbidity that the association has little practical significance. Finally, experimental chamber studies of susceptible individuals exposed to PM concentrations well above 150 micrograms/m3 provide no evidence to support the morbidity/mortality findings. None of the criteria for establishing causality of the PM/mortality hypothesis are clearly met at ambient concentrations common in many U.S. cities. Images p838-a Figure 1. PMID:8875158

  16. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health.

  17. Air Pollution and Health: Bridging the Gap from Sources to Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for six principal air pollutants (“criteria” pollutants): carbon monoxide (CO), lead (Pb), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter (PM) in two size ranges [...

  18. Health assessment of environmental pollutants; Proliferative and degenerative diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.O. )

    1987-01-01

    The health assessments of environmental air contaminants are at present frequently based upon probability of cancer, if this has been identified as a potential result of prolonged exposure to the particular inhalation hazard. However, for many airborne hazards chronic inhalation exposure may result in morbidity or mortality risks due to chronic degenerative diseases such as emphysema, fibrosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that may be nearly as great or greater than those of more widely recognized neoplastic or proliferative disease. The relative hazards of environmentally released radioactive and chemical air contaminants, i.e., radon daughters and diesel engine exhaust, are discussed as examples.

  19. Study Pinpoints Sources of Polluting Vehicle Emissions (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Unburned lubricant produces 60%-90% of organic carbon emissions. While diesel fuel is often viewed as the most polluting of conventional petroleum-based fuels, emissions from gasoline engines can more significantly degrade air quality. Gasoline exhaust is at least as toxic on a per-unit-mass basis as diesel exhaust, and contributes up to 10 times more particulate matter (PM) to the emission inventory. Because emissions from both fuels can gravely impact health and the environment, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) launched a study to understand how these pollutants relate to fuels, lubricants, and engine operating conditions. NREL's Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (CLOSE) project tested a variety of vehicles over different drive cycles at moderate (72 F) and cold (20 F) temperatures. Testing included: (1) Normal and high-emitting light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles; (2) Gasoline, diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles; (3) New and aged lubricants representative of those currently on the market; and (4) Gasoline containing no ethanol, E10, Texas-mandated low-emission diesel fuel, biodiesel, and CNG. The study confirmed that normally functioning emission control systems for gasoline light-duty vehicles are very effective at controlling organic carbon (OC) emissions. Diesel vehicles without aftertreatment emission control systems exhibited OC emissions approximately one order of magnitude higher than gasoline vehicles. High-emitter gasoline vehicles produced OC emissions similar to diesel vehicles without exhaust aftertreatment emission control. Exhaust catalysts combusted or converted more than 75% of lubricating oil components in the exhaust gases. Unburned crankcase lubricant made up 60%-90% of OC emissions. This OC represented 20%-50% of emitted PM in all but two of the vehicles. Three-way catalysts proved effective at reducing most of the OC. With high PM emitters or vehicles with deteriorated

  20. Air pollution and disability days in Toronto: results from the national population health survey.

    PubMed

    Stieb, David M; Smith-Doiron, Marc; Brook, Jeffrey R; Burnett, Richard T; Dann, Tom; Mamedov, Alexandre; Chen, Yue

    2002-07-01

    The influence of air pollution on disability days in Toronto during the period 1994-1999 was examined using data from Canada's National Population Health Survey. A model of disability days (the sum of days spent in bed and days when the respondent cut down on usual activities) during the 2 weeks prior to the interview was constructed by sequentially examining the influence of time period, personal characteristics, weather, and air pollution. After adjusting for these other factors, only the effects of carbon monoxide and particulate matter of median diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5) were statistically significant (respectively, 30.8% (95% CI 1.2-69.0) and 21.9% (95% CI 3.8-43.0) increase in disability days for a change in concentration equal to the interquartile range of the 2-week average pollutant concentration). PM2.5 was more strongly associated with disability days in the warm season. Results of multipollutant models were difficult to interpret in that effect sizes appeared to be influenced by covariation among pollutants. With the exception of warm season results for PM2.5, findings were not sensitive to alternative analytical approaches. While these results are suggestive of significant effects of the urban air pollution mix at relatively low ambient concentrations, the precise contribution of individual pollutants could not be determined.

  1. [Environmental pollution, climate variability and climate change: a review of health impacts on the Peruvian population].

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Zevallos, Alisson; Gonzales-Castañeda, Cynthia; Nuñez, Denisse; Gastañaga, Carmen; Cabezas, César; Naeher, Luke; Levy, Karen; Steenland, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    This article is a review of the pollution of water, air and the effect of climate change on the health of the Peruvian population. A major air pollutant is particulate matter less than 2.5 μ (PM 2.5). In Lima, 2,300 premature deaths annually are attributable to this pollutant. Another problem is household air pollution by using stoves burning biomass fuels, where excessive indoor exposure to PM 2.5 inside the household is responsible for approximately 3,000 annual premature deaths among adults, with another unknown number of deaths among children due to respiratory infections. Water pollution is caused by sewage discharges into rivers, minerals (arsenic) from various sources, and failure of water treatment plants. In Peru, climate change may impact the frequency and severity of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which has been associated with an increase in cases of diseases such as cholera, malaria and dengue. Climate change increases the temperature and can extend the areas affected by vector-borne diseases, have impact on the availability of water and contamination of the air. In conclusion, Peru is going through a transition of environmental risk factors, where traditional and modern risks coexist and infectious and chronic problems remain, some of which are associated with problems of pollution of water and air.

  2. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario; Dimitrova, Donka Dimitrova

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution.

  3. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Liang, Leichao; Feng, Yi; Li, Rena; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization. PMID:26610539

  4. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Liang, Leichao; Feng, Yi; Li, Rena; Liu, Yu

    2015-11-20

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization.

  5. SOURCE APPORTIONMENT STUDIES OF PM-2.5 IN TWO CZECH CITIES: POSSIBLE USES IN HEALTH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerosol and gas phase air pollutant measurements were made in two cities during an ongoing air pollution-health outcome study in the Czech Republic. Teplice, located in northwestern Bohemia, was selected because the local population was exposed to high air pollution levels. Prac...

  6. Synergistic health effects between chemical pollutants and electromagnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Ledoigt, Gérard; Sta, Chaima; Goujon, Eric; Souguir, Dalila; El Ferjani, Ezzeddine

    2015-01-01

    Humans and ecosystems are exposed to highly variable and unknown cocktail of chemicals and radiations. Although individual chemicals are typically present at low concentrations, they can interact with each other resulting in additive or potentially synergistic mixture effects. This was also observed with products obtained by radiation actions such as sunlight or electromagnetic fields that can change the effects of chemicals, such as pesticides, and metal trace elements on health. Concomitant presence of various pesticides and their transformation products adds further complexity to chemical risk assessment since chronic inflammation is a key step for cancer promotion. Degradation of a parent molecule can produce several by-products which can trigger various toxic effects with different impacts on health and environment. For instance, the cocktail of sunlight irradiated sulcotrione pesticide has a greater cytotoxicity and genotoxicity than parent molecule, sulcotrione, and questions about the impact of photochemical process on environment. Adjuvants were shown to modify the biological features of pesticides. Addition of other elements, metals or biological products, can differently enhance cell toxicity of pesticides or electromagnetic radiations suggesting a synergy in living organisms. Electromagnetic fields spreading, pesticide by-products and mixtures monitoring become greater for environmental contamination evaluations.

  7. Temporal aspects of air pollutant measures in epidemiologic analysis: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    White, Laura F; Yu, Jeffrey; Jerrett, Michael; Coogan, Patricia

    2016-01-21

    Numerous observational studies have assessed the association between ambient air pollution and chronic disease incidence, but there is no uniform approach to create an exposure metric that captures the variability in air pollution through time and determines the most relevant exposure window. The purpose of the present study was to assess ways of modeling exposure to air pollution in relation to incident hypertension. We simulated data on incident hypertension to assess the performance of six air pollution exposure metrics, using characteristics from the Black Women's Health Study. Each metric made different assumptions about how to incorporate time trends in pollutant data, and the most relevant window of exposure. We use observed values for particulate matter ≤ 2.5 microns (PM2.5) for this cohort to create the six exposure metrics and fit Cox proportional hazards models to the simulated data using the six metrics. The optimal exposure metric depends on the underlying association between PM2.5 and disease, which is unknown. Metrics that incorporate exposure information from multiple years tend to be more robust and suffer from less bias. This study provides insight into factors that influence the metric used to quantifying exposure to PM2.5 and suggests the need for careful sensitivity analyses.

  8. Temporal aspects of air pollutant measures in epidemiologic analysis: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Laura F.; Yu, Jeffrey; Jerrett, Michael; Coogan, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Numerous observational studies have assessed the association between ambient air pollution and chronic disease incidence, but there is no uniform approach to create an exposure metric that captures the variability in air pollution through time and determines the most relevant exposure window. The purpose of the present study was to assess ways of modeling exposure to air pollution in relation to incident hypertension. We simulated data on incident hypertension to assess the performance of six air pollution exposure metrics, using characteristics from the Black Women’s Health Study. Each metric made different assumptions about how to incorporate time trends in pollutant data, and the most relevant window of exposure. We use observed values for particulate matter ≤2.5 microns (PM2.5) for this cohort to create the six exposure metrics and fit Cox proportional hazards models to the simulated data using the six metrics. The optimal exposure metric depends on the underlying association between PM2.5 and disease, which is unknown. Metrics that incorporate exposure information from multiple years tend to be more robust and suffer from less bias. This study provides insight into factors that influence the metric used to quantifying exposure to PM2.5 and suggests the need for careful sensitivity analyses.

  9. Air pollution, inflammation and preterm birth in Mexico City: study design and methods.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Marie S; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Castillo-Castrejon, Marisol; Mordhukovich, Irina B; Brown, Daniel G; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2013-03-15

    Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and is associated with long-term adverse health consequences for surviving infants. Preterm birth rates are rising worldwide, and no effective means for prevention currently exists. Air pollution exposure may be a significant cause of prematurity, but many published studies lack the individual, clinical data needed to elucidate possible biological mechanisms mediating these epidemiological associations. This paper presents the design of a prospective study now underway to evaluate those mechanisms in a cohort of pregnant women residing in Mexico City. We address how air quality may act together with other factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Data collection includes: biomarkers relevant to inflammation in cervico-vaginal exudate and peripheral blood, along with full clinical information, pro-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms and air pollution data to evaluate spatial and temporal variability in air pollution exposure. Samples are collected on a monthly basis and participants are followed for the duration of pregnancy. The data will be used to evaluate whether ambient air pollution is associated with preterm birth, controlling for other risk factors. We will evaluate which time windows during pregnancy are most influential in the air pollution and preterm birth association. In addition, the epidemiological study will be complemented with a parallel toxicology invitro study, in which monocytic cells will be exposed to air particle samples to evaluate the expression of biomarkers of inflammation.

  10. Studies in Environment--Volume III: Pollution and the Municipality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Pamela C.; And Others

    Recent studies have focused attention on the fact that residents of inner-city neighborhoods are subject to greater amounts of pollutants than are other neighborhoods of large cities. In this study, the premise is set forth and investigated at the metropolitan scale, seeking to discover differences of impact between the center city and its…

  11. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Asthma Onset in Children: A Prospective Cohort Study with Individual Exposure Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Jerrett, Michael; Shankardass, Ketan; Berhane, Kiros; Gauderman, W. James; Künzli, Nino; Avol, Edward; Gilliland, Frank; Lurmann, Fred; Molitor, Jassy N.; Molitor, John T.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Peters, John; McConnell, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Background The question of whether air pollution contributes to asthma onset remains unresolved. Objectives In this study, we assessed the association between asthma onset in children and traffic-related air pollution. Methods We selected a sample of 217 children from participants in the Southern California Children’s Health Study, a prospective cohort designed to investigate associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children 10–18 years of age. Individual covariates and new asthma incidence (30 cases) were reported annually through questionnaires during 8 years of follow-up. Children had nitrogen dioxide monitors placed outside their home for 2 weeks in the summer and 2 weeks in the fall–winter season as a marker of traffic-related air pollution. We used multilevel Cox models to test the associations between asthma and air pollution. Results In models controlling for confounders, incident asthma was positively associated with traffic pollution, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.29 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.07–1.56] across the average within-community interquartile range of 6.2 ppb in annual residential NO2. Using the total interquartile range for all measurements of 28.9 ppb increased the HR to 3.25 (95% CI, 1.35–7.85). Conclusions In this cohort, markers of traffic-related air pollution were associated with the onset of asthma. The risks observed suggest that air pollution exposure contributes to new-onset asthma. PMID:18941591

  12. Effects of environmental pollutants on gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Wu, Sisheng; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2017-03-01

    Environmental pollutants have become an increasingly common health hazard in the last several decades. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the profound relationship between gut microbiota and our health. Gut microbiota are very sensitive to drugs, diet, and even environmental pollutants. In this review, we discuss the possible effects of environmental pollutants including antibiotics, heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, pesticides, nanomaterials, and food additives on gut microbiota and their subsequent effects on health. We emphasize that gut microbiota are also essential for the toxicity evaluation of environmental pollution. In the future, more studies should focus on the relationship between environmental pollution, gut microbiota, and human health.

  13. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric VOCs in the downtown area of Guangzhou, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Li, Hong; Wang, Xue-Zhong; Zhang, Xin-Min; Wen, Chong

    2013-12-01

    The measurements of 31 kinds of VOCs in the ambient air of a site were carried out in the downtown of Guangzhou by online method from November 5, 2009 to November 9, 2009. The ambient level and composition characteristics, temporal variation characteristics, sources identification, and chemical reactivity of VOCs were studied, and the health risk of VOCs in the ambient air in the study area was assessed by using the international recognized health risk assessment method. Results showed that the mean and the range of the mass concentrations of 31 VOCs were 114.51 microg x m(-3) and 29.42-546.06 microg x m(-3), respectively. The mass concentrations of 31 VOCs, and those of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics all showed a changing trend of higher in the morning and in the evening, and lower at noontime. Vehicular exhaust, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas evaporates were the main sources of VOCs with the volatilization of paints and solvents being important emission sources. Toluene, trans-2-butene, m/p-xylene, i-butane, and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were the key reactive species among the 31 VOCs. Vehicular exhaust and gasoline evaporation were the main sources of VOCs leading to the formation of ozone. Health risk assessment showed that n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m/p-xylene and o-xylene had no appreciable risk of adverse non-cancer health effect on the exposed population, but 1, 3-butadiene and benzene had potential cancer risk. By comparing the corresponding data about health risk assessment of benzene compounds in some cities in China, it is concluded that benzene can impose relatively high cancer risk to the exposed populations in the ambient air of some cities in China. Therefore, strict countermeasures should be taken to further control the pollution of benzene in the ambient air of cities, and it is imperative to start the related studies and develop the atmospheric environmental health criteria and national ambient air quality

  14. A retrospective approach to assess human health risks associated with growing air pollution in urbanized area of Thar Desert, western Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution has been a matter of great concern globally because of the associated health risks to individuals. The situation is getting worse in developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and more importantly the rapidly growing population posing a threat to human life in the form of pulmonary, cardiovascular, carcinogenic or asthmatic diseases by accumulating toxic pollutants, harmful gases, metals, hydrocarbons etc. Objective The present study was undertaken to assess the magnitude of ambient air pollutants and their human health risks like respiratory ailments, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer using a Retrospective Approach of Bart Ostra. Methodology The parameters PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 were monitored at all selected study sites monitored through a high volume sampler (APM 451 Envirotech, Envirotech Instruments Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India). Retrospective Approach was used for assessment of risk factors and disease burden of respiratory and cardiopulmonary health problems. Results Environmental burden of disease showed that the problem of health related to air pollution is a main concern particularly in the growing cities of India. High to critical level of air pollution including PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 was observed in all seasons at traffic intersections and commercial sites. The respiratory infections (25% incidence in population exposed to indoor smoke problems) and a prevalence of asthma/COPD (4.4%) in households exposed to high vehicular pollution along with signs of coronary artery/heart disease and/or hypertension and cancers (37.9-52.2%), were reported requiring preventive measures. Conclusion The study reflects a great concern for the mankind with the need of having streamline ways to limit air pollution and emphasize upon efficiently determining the risk of illness upon exposure to air pollution. PMID:24406114

  15. Air pollution and childhood respiratory health: Exposure to sulfate and ozone in 10 Canadian Rural Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, B.R.; Raizenne, M.E.; Burnett, R.T.; Jones, L.; Kearney, J.; Franklin, C.A. )

    1994-08-01

    This study was designed to examine differences in the respiratory health status of preadolescent school children, aged 7-11 years, who resided in 10 rural Canadian communities in areas of moderate and low exposure to regional sulfate and ozone pollution. Five of the communities were located in central Saskatchewan, a low-exposure region, and five were located in southwestern Ontario, an area with moderately elevated exposures resulting from long-range atmospheric transport of polluted air masses. In this cross-sectional study, the child's respiratory symptoms and illness history were evaluated using a parent-completed questionnaire, administered in September 1985. Respiratory function was assessed once for each child in the schools between October 1985 and March 1986, by the measurement of pulmonary function for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1.0]), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), mean forced expiratory flow rate during the middle half of the FVC curve (FEF[sub 25-75]), and maximal expiratory flow at 50% of the expired vital capacity (V[sub 50]max). After controlling for the effects of age, sex, parental smoking, parental education and gas cooking, no significant regional differences were observed in rates of chronic cough or phlegm, persistent wheeze, current asthma, bronchitis in the past year, or any chest illness that kept the child at home for 3 or more consecutive days during the previous year. Children living in southwestern Ontario had statistically significant (P < 0.01) mean decrements of 1.7% in FVC and 1.3% in FEV[sub 1.0] compared with Saskatchewan children, after adjusting for age, sex, weight, standing height, parental smoking, and gas cooking. There were no statistically significant regional differences in the pulmonary flow parameters (P > 0.05). 54 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  16. Mapping real-time air pollution health risk for environmental management: Combining mobile and stationary air pollution monitoring with neural network models.

    PubMed

    Adams, Matthew D; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution poses health concerns at the global scale. The challenge of managing air pollution is significant because of the many air pollutants, insufficient funds for monitoring and abatement programs, and political and social challenges in defining policy to limit emissions. Some governments provide citizens with air pollution health risk information to allow them to limit their exposure. However, many regions still have insufficient air pollution monitoring networks to provide real-time mapping. Where available, these risk mapping systems either provide absolute concentration data or the concentrations are used to derive an Air Quality Index, which provides the air pollution risk for a mix of air pollutants with a single value. When risk information is presented as a single value for an entire region it does not inform on the spatial variation within the region. Without an understanding of the local variation residents can only make a partially informed decision when choosing daily activities. The single value is typically provided because of a limited number of active monitoring units in the area. In our work, we overcome this issue by leveraging mobile air pollution monitoring techniques, meteorological information and land use information to map real-time air pollution health risks. We propose an approach that can provide improved health risk information to the public by applying neural network models within a framework that is inspired by land use regression. Mobile air pollution monitoring campaigns were conducted across Hamilton from 2005 to 2013. These mobile air pollution data were modelled with a number of predictor variables that included information on the surrounding land use characteristics, the meteorological conditions, air pollution concentrations from fixed location monitors, and traffic information during the time of collection. Fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide were both modelled. During the model fitting process we reserved

  17. Effluent guidelines, leather tanning, and pollution prevention: A retrospective study

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This study was undertaken to learn: in what ways and for what reasons a specific industry in the past already was implementing pollution in order to comply with existing effuent guidelines and to what degree the effluent guidelines development document for that industry had already previously projected that outcome.

  18. A statistical study of the macroepidemiology of air pollution and total mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Lipfert, F.W.; Malone, R.G.; Daum, M.L.; Mendell, N.R.; Yang, Chin-Chun

    1988-04-01

    A statistical analysis of spatial patterns of 1980 US urban total mortality (all causes) was performed, evaluating demographic, socioeconomic and air pollution factors as predictors. Specific mortality predictors included cigarette smoking, drinking water hardness, heating fuel use, and 1978-1982 annual concentrations of the following air pollutants: ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfate aerosol, particulate concentrations of lead, iron, cadmium, manganese, vanadium, as well as total and fine particle mass concentrations from the inhalable particulate network (dichotomous samplers). In addition, estimates of sulfur dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfate aerosol were made for each city using the ASTRAP long-range transport diffusion model, and entered into the analysis as independent variables. Because the number of cities with valid air quality and water hardness data varied considerably by pollutant, it was necessary to consider several different data sets, ranging from 48 to 952 cities. The relatively strong associations (ca. 5--10%) shown for 1980 pollution with 1980 total mortality are generally not confirmed by independent studies, for example, in Europe. In addition, the US studies did not find those pollutants with known adverse health effects at the concentrations in question (such as ozone or CO) to be associated with mortality. The question of causality vs. circumstantial association must therefore be regarded as still unresolved. 59 refs., 20 figs., 40 tabs.

  19. 2006 critical review - health effects of fine particulate air pollution: lines that connect

    SciTech Connect

    C. Arden Pope III; Douglas W. Dockery

    2006-06-15

    Efforts to understand and mitigate the health effects of particulate matter (PM) air pollution have a rich and interesting history. This review focuses on six substantial lines of research that have been pursued since 1997 that have helped elucidate our understanding about the effects of PM on human health. There has been substantial progress in the evaluation of PM health effects at different time-scales of exposure and in the exploration of the shape of the concentration-response function. There has also been emerging evidence of PM-related cardiovascular health effects and growing knowledge regarding interconnected general pathophysiological pathways that link PM exposure with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Despite important gaps in scientific knowledge and continued reasons for some skepticism, a comprehensive evaluation of the research findings provides persuasive evidence that exposure to fine particulate air pollution has adverse effects on cardiopulmonary health. Although much of this research has been motivated by environmental public health policy, these results have important scientific, medical, and public health implications that are broader than debates over legally mandated air quality standards. 502 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. A Review of the Epidemiological Methods Used to Investigate the Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    PubMed Central

    Pascal, Laurence; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Cochet, Amandine; Sarter, Hélène; Stempfelet, Morgane; Wagner, Vérène

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from <2 km to >20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined. PMID:23818910

  1. A review of the epidemiological methods used to investigate the health impacts of air pollution around major industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Pascal, Mathilde; Pascal, Laurence; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Cochet, Amandine; Sarter, Hélène; Stempfelet, Morgane; Wagner, Vérène

    2013-01-01

    We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies), morbidity (25 studies), mortality (7 studies), and birth outcome (7 studies). Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from <2 km to >20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  2. Pollution Abatement and Prevention Analysis (PAPA) Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    and prevention opportunities and activities that are in research , development, demonstration, and commercialization. (5) Selected case studies jointly...organizes Army policy into four categories: compliance, restoration , prevention, and conservation. These categories are referred to as the four "pillars" of...this pillar are generally categorized as "must fund" projects. (2) The restoration pillar focuses on cleaning up contaminated sites at Army

  3. Short-term effects of low-level winter pollution on respiratory health of asthmatic adults

    SciTech Connect

    Neukirch, F.; Segala, C.; Korobaeff, M.; Le Moullec, Y.; Aubier, M.

    1998-09-01

    The authors studied the short-term effects of Paris winter air pollution (i.e., sulfur dioxide, Black Smoke, suspended particulates with an aerodynamic diameter close to 10 {micro}m, and nitrogen dioxide) in 40 nonsmoking mild to moderate asthmatics. During a 6-mo period, subjects recorded asthma symptoms and three daily peak expiratory flow measurements. Statistical analysis revealed consistent and significant associations between the pollutants and asthma attacks and symptoms in the entire study group, especially in the subgroup of individuals who took inhaled {beta}2 agonists as needed. Pollutants correlated negatively with morning peak expiratory flow in the subgroup that took inhaled {beta}2 agonists as needed, and they correlated positively with daily variability in asthmatics who received regularly scheduled inhaled {beta}2 agonists. The effects lingered several days after exposure occurred. Low-level pollution has consistent measurable effects on nonsmoking adults who have well-treated mild or moderate asthma.

  4. Multiple Threats to Child Health from Fossil Fuel Combustion: Impacts of Air Pollution and Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Approaches to estimating and addressing the risk to children from fossil fuel combustion have been fragmented, tending to focus either on the toxic air emissions or on climate change. Yet developing children, and especially poor children, now bear a disproportionate burden of disease from both environmental pollution and climate change due to fossil fuel combustion. Objective: This commentary summarizes the robust scientific evidence regarding the multiple current and projected health impacts of fossil fuel combustion on the young to make the case for a holistic, child-centered energy and climate policy that addresses the full array of physical and psychosocial stressors resulting from fossil fuel pollution. Discussion: The data summarized here show that by sharply reducing our dependence on fossil fuels we would achieve highly significant health and economic benefits for our children and their future. These benefits would occur immediately and also play out over the life course and potentially across generations. Conclusion: Going beyond the powerful scientific and economic arguments for urgent action to reduce the burning of fossil fuels is the strong moral imperative to protect our most vulnerable populations. Citation: Perera FP. 2017. Multiple threats to child health from fossil fuel combustion: impacts of air pollution and climate change. Environ Health Perspect 125:141–148; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP299 PMID:27323709

  5. Wet Load Study of Gross Pollutant Traps; Kemensah River, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, N. M.; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Said, N. F. Md; Noor, M. S. F. Md; Jajarmizadeh, M.; Zainal Abidin, M. R.; Mohd. Dom, N.

    2016-03-01

    Efforts have been made by the government agency to install the Gross Pollutant Trap (GPT) to protect of entering the gross pollutants from direct discharge into the river. Few studies have been performed in related to GPT and there is a need to do research on the performance of GPTs in Malaysia. The performance of GPTs is strongly dependent on installed location. Moreover, contribution of landuse has also potential to evaluate the GPTs performance. The main objective of this paper is to analyse the wet load that has been trapped inside GPTs. In this study, Installation of GPTs are performed based continuous deflective separation (CDS) and downstream defender (DD). Kemensah River is chosen as a case study and GPTs are installed at drainage systems due to analysis the impact of GPTs on reduction of solid waste from discharge to the Kemensah River. The result shows that the GPTs can reduce the gross pollutants before entering the river system in optimum way. Consequently, the area of catchment, dense residential area and rainy season have important role on increasing the gross pollutant.

  6. Indoor air pollution and respiratory health of children in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Nandasena, Sumal; Wickremasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2013-05-08

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) is a key contributor to the global burden of disease mainly in developing countries. The use of solid fuel for cooking and heating is the main source of IAP in developing countries, accounting for an estimated 3.5 million deaths and 4.5% of Disability-Adjusted Life Years in 2010. Other sources of IAP include indoor smoking, infiltration of pollutants from outdoor sources and substances emitted from an array of human utilities and biological materials. Children are among the most vulnerable groups for adverse effects of IAP. The respiratory system is a primary target of air pollutants resulting in a wide range of acute and chronic effects. The spectrum of respiratory adverse effects ranges from mild subclinical changes and mild symptoms to life threatening conditions and even death. However, IAP is a modifiable risk factor having potential mitigating interventions. Possible interventions range from simple behavior change to structural changes and from shifting of unclean cooking fuel to clean cooking fuel. Shifting from use of solid fuel to clean fuel invariably reduces household air pollution in developing countries, but such a change is challenging. This review aims to summarize the available information on IAP exposure during childhood and its effects on respiratory health in developing countries. It specifically discusses the common sources of IAP, susceptibility of children to air pollution, mechanisms of action, common respiratory conditions, preventive and mitigating strategies.

  7. Indoor air pollution and respiratory health of children in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Nandasena, Sumal; Wickremasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2013-01-01

    Indoor air pollution (IAP) is a key contributor to the global burden of disease mainly in developing countries. The use of solid fuel for cooking and heating is the main source of IAP in developing countries, accounting for an estimated 3.5 million deaths and 4.5% of Disability-Adjusted Life Years in 2010. Other sources of IAP include indoor smoking, infiltration of pollutants from outdoor sources and substances emitted from an array of human utilities and biological materials. Children are among the most vulnerable groups for adverse effects of IAP. The respiratory system is a primary target of air pollutants resulting in a wide range of acute and chronic effects. The spectrum of respiratory adverse effects ranges from mild subclinical changes and mild symptoms to life threatening conditions and even death. However, IAP is a modifiable risk factor having potential mitigating interventions. Possible interventions range from simple behavior change to structural changes and from shifting of unclean cooking fuel to clean cooking fuel. Shifting from use of solid fuel to clean fuel invariably reduces household air pollution in developing countries, but such a change is challenging. This review aims to summarize the available information on IAP exposure during childhood and its effects on respiratory health in developing countries. It specifically discusses the common sources of IAP, susceptibility of children to air pollution, mechanisms of action, common respiratory conditions, preventive and mitigating strategies. PMID:25254169

  8. Monitoring air pollution: use of early warning systems for public health.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank J; Fuller, Gary W; Walton, Heather A; Fussell, Julia C

    2012-01-01

    Research confirming the detrimental impact poor ambient air quality and episodes of abnormally high pollutants has on public health, plus differential susceptibility, calls for improved understanding of this complex topic among all walks of society. The public and particularly, vulnerable groups, should be aware of their quality of air, enabling action to be taken in the event of increased pollution. Policy makers must have a sound awareness of current air quality and future trends, to identify issues, guide policies and monitor their effectiveness. These attitudes are dependent upon air pollution monitoring, forecasting and reporting, serving all interested parties. Apart from the underlying national regulatory obligation a country has in reporting air quality information, data output serves several purposes. This review focuses on provision of real-time data and advanced warnings of potentially health-damaging events, in the form of national air quality indices and proactive alert services. Some of the challenges associated with designing these systems include technical issues associated with the complexity of air pollution and its science. These include inability to provide precise exposure concentrations or guidance on long-term/cumulative exposures or effects from pollutant combinations. Other issues relate to the degree to which people are aware and positively respond to these services. Looking to the future, mobile devices such as cellular phones, equipped with sensing applications have potential to provide dynamic, temporally and spatially precise exposure measures for the mass population. The ultimate aim should be to empower people to modify behaviour-for example, when to increase medication, the route/mode of transport taken to school or work or the appropriate time to pursue outdoor activities-in a way that protects their health as well as the quality of the air they breathe.

  9. A review on human health perspective of air pollution with respect to allergies and asthma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jahan, Shamin Ara; Kabir, Ehsanul

    2013-09-01

    The increase in cases of asthma and allergies has become an important health issue throughout the globe. Although these ailments were not common diseases a few short decades ago, they are now affecting a large part of the population in many regions. Exposure to environmental (both outdoor and indoor) pollutants may partially account for the prevalence of such diseases. In this review, we provide a multidisciplinary review based on the most up-to-date survey of literature regarding various types of airborne pollutants and their associations with asthma-allergies. The major pollutants in this respect include both chemical (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, and volatile organic compounds) and biophysical parameters (dust mites, pet allergens, and mold). The analysis was extended further to describe the development of these afflictions in the human body and the subsequent impact on health. This publication is organized to offer an overview on the current state of research regarding the significance of air pollution and its linkage with allergy and asthma.

  10. Behavioural change, indoor air pollution and child respiratory health in developing countries: a review.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Brendon R

    2014-04-25

    Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983-2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%-98% in laboratory settings and 31%-94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1) based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2) have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies) to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice.

  11. Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. [Annotated bibligraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    Atmospheric scavenging research conducted by the Illinois State Water Survey under contract with the Department of Energy has been a significant factor in the historical development of the field of precipitation scavenging. Emphasis of the work during the 1980's became focused on the problem of acid rain problem with the Survey being chosen as the Central Analytical Laboratory for sample analysis of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). The DOE research was responsible for laying the groundwork from the standpoint of sampling and chemical analysis that has now become routine features of NADP/NTN. A significant aspect of the research has been the participation by the Water Survey in the MAP3S precipitation sampling network which is totally supported by DOE, is the longest continuous precipitation sampling network in existence, and maintains an event sampling protocol. The following review consists of a short description of each of the papers appearing in the Study of Atmospheric Scavenging progress reports starting with the Eighteenth Progress Report in 1980 to the Twenty- Third Progress Report in 1989. In addition a listing of the significant publications and interviews associated with the program are given in the bibliography.

  12. Air pollution and health implications of regional electricity transfer at generational centre and design of compensation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Relhan, Nemika

    India's electricity generation is primarily from coal. As a result of interconnection of grid and establishment of pithead power plants, there has been increased electricity transfer from one region to the other. This results in imbalance of pollution loads between the communities located in generation vis-a-vis consumption region. There may be some states, which are major power generation centres and hence are facing excessive environmental degradation. On the other hand, electricity importing regions are reaping the benefits without paying proper charges for it because present tariff structure does not include the full externalities in it. The present study investigates the distributional implications in terms of air pollution loads between the electricity generation and consumption regions at the state level. It identifies the major electricity importing and exporting states in India. Next, as a case study, it estimates the health damage as a result of air pollution from thermal power plants (TPPs) located in a critically polluted region that is one of the major generator and exporter of electricity. The methodology used to estimate the health damage is based on impact pathway approach. In this method, air pollution modelling has been performed in order to estimate the gridded Particulate Matter (PM) concentration at various receptor locations in the study domain. The air quality modeling exercise helps to quantify the air pollution concentration in each grid and also apportion the contribution of power plants to the total concentration. The health impacts as a result of PM have been estimated in terms of number of mortality and morbidity cases using Concentration Response Function (CRF's) available in the literature. Mortality has been converted into Years of Life Lost (YOLL) using life expectancy table and age wise death distribution. Morbidity has been estimated in terms of number of cases with respect to various health end points. To convert this health

  13. Indoor air pollution from biomass fuels and respiratory health of the exposed population in Nepalese households.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Iswori Lal; Shrestha, Srijan Lal

    2005-01-01

    A cross-sectional assessment of indoor air quality in Nepal and its health effects revealed that solid biomass fuels (animal dung, crop residue, and wood) were the main sources of indoor air pollution affecting health. The average smoke level (PM10) in kitchens using biomass fuels was about three times higher than that in those using cleaner fuels (kerosene, LPG, and biogas). Respondents in 98 randomly selected households included 168 who cooked daily meals, of whom 94% were disadvantaged women. Biomass smoke caused significantly more respiratory disorders than did cleaner fuels. Categorized data analysis demonstrated significant associations between biomass smoke pollution and respiratory symptoms such as cough; phlegm; breathlessness; wheezing; and chronic respiratory diseases such as COPD and asthma. The prevalences of respiratory illnesses and symptoms were considerably higher in those living in mud and brick houses compared with concrete houses. Prevalences were also higher in those living on hills and in rural areas compared with flatland and urban areas.

  14. A study on the risk perception of light pollution and the process of social amplification of risk in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Choi, Jae Wook; Lee, Eunil; Cho, Yong Min; Ahn, Hyung Rae

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the risk perception level of each light pollution type was analyzed, and the effects of the variables (e.g., psychometric paradigm factor, trust in the government, etc.) on the process of the increase in the risk perception were analyzed. For the sample population (1096 persons) in Korea, the risk perception levels of each light pollution type and other environmental and health risk factors were compared, and the relative magnitude was examined. In addition, to test which variables affect the group with high-risk perception of each light pollution type, a logistic regression analysis was performed. For the group with highest risk perception of light pollution, the odds ratios (OR) of all psychometric paradigms (excluding controllability) increased compared to those of the group with low-risk perception. Additionally, the level showing the acquisition of information from the media and the recollection level of media criticism on each light pollution type showed a statistically significant increase. Especially, the risk perception of light trespass increased as trust in the government decreased. The significance of this study includes the finding that the public's risk perception of light pollution was significantly affected by the psychometric paradigm factors. Moreover, this study analyzed the differences of the variables that affect the increase in the risk perception of each light pollution type and provided a theoretical framework that can practically reflect the strategy for the risk communication of light pollution.

  15. Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility.

    PubMed

    Falchi, Fabio; Cinzano, Pierantonio; Elvidge, Christopher D; Keith, David M; Haim, Abraham

    2011-10-01

    Light pollution is one of the most rapidly increasing types of environmental degradation. Its levels have been growing exponentially over the natural nocturnal lighting levels provided by starlight and moonlight. To limit this pollution several effective practices have been defined: the use of shielding on lighting fixture to prevent direct upward light, particularly at low angles above the horizon; no over lighting, i.e. avoid using higher lighting levels than strictly needed for the task, constraining illumination to the area where it is needed and the time it will be used. Nevertheless, even after the best control of the light distribution is reached and when the proper quantity of light is used, some upward light emission remains, due to reflections from the lit surfaces and atmospheric scatter. The environmental impact of this "residual light pollution", cannot be neglected and should be limited too. Here we propose a new way to limit the effects of this residual light pollution on wildlife, human health and stellar visibility. We performed analysis of the spectra of common types of lamps for external use, including the new LEDs. We evaluated their emissions relative to the spectral response functions of human eye photoreceptors, in the photopic, scotopic and the 'meltopic' melatonin suppressing bands. We found that the amount of pollution is strongly dependent on the spectral characteristics of the lamps, with the more environmentally friendly lamps being low pressure sodium, followed by high pressure sodium. Most polluting are the lamps with a strong blue emission, like Metal Halide and white LEDs. Migration from the now widely used sodium lamps to white lamps (MH and LEDs) would produce an increase of pollution in the scotopic and melatonin suppression bands of more than five times the present levels, supposing the same photopic installed flux. This increase will exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health, environment

  16. The study of indoor air pollution by means of magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelenska, M.; Górka-Kostrubiec, B.; Król, E.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to establish what kind of outside pollution penetrate into indoor spaces. Here we report preliminary results of magnetic monitoring study of indoor air pollution by particulate matter (PM) measured inside flats and houses placed in different locations in Warsaw area. Indoor air pollution level was evaluated by measuring magnetic properties of dust taken from vacuum cleaners used in private flats. The dust samples were taken from about 180 locations in Warsaw distributed in such polluted places as city centre or communication lines with heavy traffic and in unpolluted suburb places. The locations were also distributed according to height above ground level. There were taken in flats situated from first to 16th floors. The basic magnetic parameters such us, χ mass magnetic susceptibility, hysteresis loop parameters: coercive force (Hc), coercivity of remanence (Hcr), saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs or SIRM) and χfd frequency dependence of susceptibility, have been used to identify indoor pollution level and to characterize domain state and granulometry of magnetic minerals. Identification of magnetic minerals have been made by measuring decay curve of SIRM during heating to temperature of 700 °C. For chosen samples concentration of 20 elements were measured. The most frequent values of susceptibility of dust are between 50 and 150 10-8 m3/kg with the maximum around 100 10-8 m3/kg. Thermomagnetic analysis for dust differs from that for soil samples taken in the vicinity. SIRM(T) curves for dust show remanence loss at 320 °C and at 520- 540 °C. This is diagnostic for pyrrhotite and magnetite as dominant magnetic minerals. Some samples demonstrate loss of remanence at 160 °C and at temperature characteristic for magnetite. Soil samples do not show pyrrhotite presence or loss of remanence at 160 °C. Display of hysteresis parameters on Day-Dunlop plot indicates predominance of SD/MD grains with

  17. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose