Science.gov

Sample records for pollution level phase

  1. Pollution level, phase distribution and health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor air at public places of Hangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hao; Zhu, Lizhong; Chen, Shuguang

    2008-04-01

    PAHs pollution survey in air of public places was conducted in Hangzhou, China. The most serious PAHs pollution was observed in indoor air of shopping centers and the slightest was in train stations. The molecular weight of chrysene (MW 228) appeared to be the dividing line for the PAHs with a larger or smaller distribution in the vapor or particulate phase. Concentrations of 15 PAHs on PM2.5 accounted for 71.3% of total particulate PAHs, and followed by PM2.5-10 fraction (17.6%) and >PM10 fraction (11.1%). In shopping centers and supermarkets, emission of 2-4 rings PAHs occurred from indoor sources, whereas 5-6 rings PAHs predominantly originated from transport of outdoor air. In temples, PAHs in indoor air mainly originated from incense burning. Health risks associated with the inhalation of PAHs were assessed, and naphthalene made the greatest contribution (62.4%) to the total health risks.

  2. Impacts of climate change on ground level gas-phase pollutants and aerosols in the Iberian Peninsula for the late XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Montávez, Juan Pedro; Gómez-Navarro, Juan José; Jerez, Sonia; Lorente-Plazas, Raquel

    2012-08-01

    Climate change alone influences future air pollution levels through modifications of gas-phase chemistry, transport, removal, and natural emissions. Hence, the goal of this study is to determine at what extent concentrations of air pollutants respond to changes over the Iberian Peninsula under a climate change scenario. The methodology includes the use of the regional modeling system MM5 (regional climate model version)-CHIMERE for two nested domains covering Europe and the Iberian Peninsula. Two time slices driven by ECHO-G global circulation model covering from 1991 to 2010 and 2071 to 2100 under the SRES A2 scenario have been compared. Climate change influences the concentrations of both gas-phase pollutants and aerosols through changes in temperature, precipitation, mixing height, transport, humidity, and oxidant levels. The trends of variation of ozone (changes up to 5 ppb, +10% increase during summertime) and aerosols over southwestern Europe are influenced by the higher mean temperature modeled for the future climate (up to +5.4 K), since it favors the formation of secondary gas-phase products. It also enhances sulphates (+2 μg m-3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) (+2.5 μg m-3 under SRES A2 scenario) and contributes to the decomposition of ammonium nitrate, remaining in the gas phase. Further, the 17% percent decrease of precipitation modeled for 2071-2100 has a strong effect in the frequency of the washout and therefore in the levels of natural aerosols: the concentrations of aerosols decrease with increasing precipitation as wet deposition provides the main aerosol sink.

  3. Critical pollution levels in Umguza River, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Ncube, R.; Ela, W.

    2016-06-01

    In most countries worldwide regulatory bodies set effluent discharge limits into rivers and other natural water bodies. These limits specify the maximum permissible concentration of defined pollutants that may be discharged into the water body. This limit is conceptually based on the self-purification (assimilative) capacity of the receiving water. However, this self-purification constant is itself a function of the water's pollutant loading. Umguza River situated south west of Zimbabwe, is fed by tributaries that drain an urban catchment and as such is prone to pollution due to human activities in the catchment. This study investigated the levels of pollution in Umguza River that would affect its self-purification capacity. This was achieved by characterising the spatial distribution of a selected range of water quality parameters as well as determining the self-purification capacity of a stretch of the river. Critical pollutant concentrations were determined for some of the parameters that showed high values along the stretch. The selected parameters of interest were dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, phosphates, nitrates, COD, turbidity, ammonia, pH, alkalinity and temperature. The study was carried out from January 2014 to April 2014. The self-purification capacity was determined using a formula that compares the mass flux of a pollutant upstream and downstream of the selected stretch of the river. Statistical analysis was used to establish relationships between the pollutants and the self-purification capacity of the river. The study found that the levels of ammonia and phosphates were very high compared to the regulated limits (2 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l; and 8 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l respectively). It was also found that the self-purification capacity varied significantly across pollutants. It was therefore concluded that a critical pollutant concentration exists above which the river completely loses its natural ability to assimilate and decrease its pollutant load over

  4. Are urban noise pollution levels decreasing?

    PubMed

    Arana, M

    2010-04-01

    The majority of acoustic impact studies developed over the last 50 years have used a similar acoustic parameter (L(eq), L(dn)) but the noise mapping methodology has been very uneven. The selection of the measurement points, the measurement periods, or the evaluation indices have not followed a unique criterion. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the sound pollution levels between different cities from those studies, at least in a rigorous sense. Even more, different studies carried out in the same city by different researchers during different years and using different methodologies are not conclusive whether the acoustic pollution increases or decreases. The present paper shows results, with statistical significance, about the evolution of the acoustic pollution obtained for two Spanish cities, Pamplona and Madrid. In both cases, it can be concluded that noise pollution decreases over time (P<0.01).

  5. Quantifying Pollutant Emissions from Office Equipment Phase IReport

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Hodgson, A.T.; McKone, T.E.; Perino, C.

    2006-12-01

    Although office equipment has been a focal point for governmental efforts to promote energy efficiency through programs such as Energy Star, little is known about the relationship between office equipment use and indoor air quality. This report provides results of the first phase (Phase I) of a study in which the primary objective is to measure emissions of organic pollutants and particulate matter from a selected set of office equipment typically used in residential and office environments. The specific aims of the overall research effort are: (1) use screening-level measurements to identify and quantify the concentrations of air pollutants of interest emitted by major categories of distributed office equipment in a controlled environment; (2) quantify the emissions of air pollutants from generally representative, individual machines within each of the major categories in a controlled chamber environment using well defined protocols; (3) characterize the effects of ageing and use on emissions for individual machines spanning several categories; (4) evaluate the importance of operational factors that can be manipulated to reduce pollutant emissions from office machines; and (5) explore the potential relationship between energy consumption and pollutant emissions for machines performing equivalent tasks. The study includes desktop computers (CPU units), computer monitors, and three categories of desktop printing devices. The printer categories are: (1) printers and multipurpose devices using color inkjet technology; (2) low- to medium output printers and multipurpose devices employing monochrome or color laser technology; and (3) high-output monochrome and color laser printers. The literature review and screening level experiments in Phase 1 were designed to identify substances of toxicological significance for more detailed study. In addition, these screening level measurements indicate the potential relative importance of different categories of office equipment

  6. Monitoring of Air Pollution by Satellites (MAPS), phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Malkmus, W.; Griggs, M.; Bartle, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Results are reported upon which the design of a satellite remote gas filter correlation (RGFC) instrument can be based. Although a final decision about the feasibility of measuring some of the pollutants with the required accuracy is still outstanding and subject to further theoretical and experimental verifications, viable concepts are presented which permit the initiation of the design phase. The pollutants which are of concern in the troposphere and stratosphere were selected. The infrared bands of these pollutants were identified, together with the bands of interfering gases, and the line parameters of the pollutants as well as interfering gases were generated through a computer program. Radiative transfer calculations (line-by-line) were made to establish the radiation levels at the top of the atmosphere and the signal levels at the detector of the RGFC instrument. Based upon these results the channels for the RGFC were selected. Finally, the problem areas, which need further investigations, were delineated and the supporting data requirements were established.

  7. Particle pollution: current levels and recent improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schmidt

    2006-04-15

    US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air quality data for 2002-2004 indicate that a number of areas in the United States that meet the current fine particle (PM2.5) standards would exceed the proposed 24-hr level (35 {mu}g/m{sub 3} if that standard was in place today. However, PM2.5 concentrations have been steadily declining, and new national and regional control programs designed to reduce the concentrations even further are being implemented. Coarse particle concentrations also appear to have declined in recent years. Based on 2002-2004 estimates of PM10-2.5 concentrations, it appears that most areas of the country currently would meet the proposed PM10-2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAWS). This article presents a summary report on air quality status and trends for fine - PM2.5 and 'thoracic coarse' PM10-2.5 particle pollution. It focuses on comparisons with the current NAAQS and revisions to those standards proposed by PEA in December 2005. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of Model TFE731-2 engine tests were conducted with the Concept 2 variable geometry airblast fuel injector combustion system installed. The engine was tested to: (1) establish the emission levels over the selected points which comprise the Environmental Protection Agency Landing-Takeoff Cycle; (2) determine engine performance with the combustion system; and (3) evaulate the engine acceleration/deceleration characteristics. The hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke goals were met. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were above the goal for the same configuration that met the other pollutant goals. The engine and combustor performance, as well as acceleration/deceleration characteristics, were acceptable. The Concept 3 staged combustor system was refined from earlier phase development and subjected to further rig refinement testing. The concept met all of the emissions goals.

  9. Bioindication capacity of metal pollution of native and transplanted Pleurozium schreberi under various levels of pollution.

    PubMed

    Kosior, G; Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kolon, K; Kempers, A J

    2010-09-01

    During a period of 90d assays were carried out with the moss Pleurozium schreberi transplanted from an uncontaminated control site to 27 sites selected in one of the most polluted regions of Upper Silesia (Poland). The native mosses of this species were collected from the polluted sites. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined in P. schreberi and in the soil of all of the sites. The sites were divided into more and less polluted ones. The obtained results indicate that the native P. schreberi from the more polluted sites accumulated significantly more Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn than the transplanted moss from the same sites. The transplanted P. schreberi from the less polluted sites accumulated significantly more Cr, Pb, Zn, significantly less Cu and comparable amounts of Cd, as compared to the native moss. The selection of native versus transplant P. schreberi as a bioindicator depends on the level of pollution.

  10. [Influence of meteorologic conditions on pollution level of Aralsk territory].

    PubMed

    Muhametzhanova, Z T; Sakiev, K Z; Shadetova, A Zh; Grebeneva, O V; Hanturina, G R; Seitkasymova, G Zh; Ibrayeva, A D

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with data on meteorologic conditions influence on pollution of Aralsk territory. Aralsk climate over recent years appeared to be characterized by positive temperature anomalies (within 1-2 degrees C). Air pollution in Aralsk territory depends on increased air temperature (over 35 degrees C), on lay of land (general slope towards Aral sea) and wind scheme, with repeated south-west (11%), west (8%) and south (6%) winds result in high levels of air pollution with low-disperse particles of dust.

  11. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pollution level and source of Hg in Jiaozhou Bay 1987

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongfang; Yang, Danfeng; Zhu, Sixi; Wang, Ming; Chai, Jianxun

    2017-04-01

    Hg pollution in marine bays has been one of the most critical environmental issues, and it is necessary to understand the distribution, pollution level and sources of Hg. Based on the investigation data on Hg in Jiaozhou Bay in May, July and November 1987, this paper analyzed the content, pollution level, and sources of Hg. Results showed that Hg contents in surface waters in Jiaozhou Bay in May, July and November 1987 were 0.150-0.264 μg L-1, 0.088-1.104 μg L-1 and 0.007-0.088 μg L-1, respectively. The two major Hg sources in Jiaozhou Bay were river flow and marine current, whose source strengths were 0.264-1.104 μg L-1 and 0.088-0.376 μg L-1, respectively. The source strength of river flow could be worse than Grade IV while the source strength of marine current was Grade III and IV, indicated that the pollution level of Hg in land river had reached a relative high level in 1987. These findings provided basis for the research and pollution control countermeasures.

  13. Monitoring of air pollution levels related to Charilaos Trikoupis Bridge.

    PubMed

    Sarigiannis, D A; Handakas, E J; Kermenidou, M; Zarkadas, I; Gotti, A; Charisiadis, P; Makris, K; Manousakas, M; Eleftheriadis, K; Karakitsios, S P

    2017-12-31

    Charilaos Trikoupis bridge is the longest cable bridge in Europe that connects Western Greece with the rest of the country. In this study, six air pollution monitoring campaigns (including major regulated air pollutants) were carried out from 2013 to 2015 at both sides of the bridge, located in the urban areas of Rio and Antirrio respectively. Pollution data were statistically analyzed and air quality was characterized using US and European air quality indices. From the overall campaign, it was found that air pollution levels were below the respective regulatory thresholds, but once at the site of Antirrio (26.4 and 52.2μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and ΡΜ10, respectively) during the 2nd winter period. Daily average PM10 and PM2.5 levels from two monitoring sites were well correlated to gaseous pollutant (CO, NO, NO2, NOx and SO2) levels, meteorological parameters and factor scores from Positive Matrix Factorization during the 3-year period. Moreover, the elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5 was used for source apportionment. That analysis revealed that major emission sources were sulfates, mineral dust, biomass burning, sea salt, traffic and shipping emissions for PM10 and PM2.5, for both Rio and Antirrio. Seasonal variation indicates that sulfates, mineral dust and traffic emissions increased during the warm season of the year, while biomass burning become the dominant during the cold season. Overall, the contribution of the Charilaos Trikoupis bridge to the vicinity air pollution is very low. This is the result of the relatively low daily traffic volume (~10,000 vehicles per day), the respective traffic fleet composition (~81% of the traffic fleet are private vehicles) and the speed limit (80km/h) which does not favor traffic emissions. In addition, the strong and frequent winds further contribute to the rapid dispersion of the emitted pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

  15. The temporal structure of pollution levels in developed cities.

    PubMed

    Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Ortiz-Caraballo, Carmen; Prieto Gajardo, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Currently, the need for mobility can cause significant pollution levels in cities, with important effects on health and quality of life. Any approach to the study of urban pollution and its effects requires an analysis of spatial distribution and temporal variability. It is a crucial dilemma to obtain proven methodologies that allow an increase in the quality of the prediction and the saving of resources in the spatial and temporal sampling. This work proposes a new analytical methodology in the study of temporal structure. As a result, a model for estimating annual levels of urban traffic noise was proposed. The average errors are less than one decibel in all acoustics indicators. A new working methodology of urban noise has begun. Additionally, a general application can be found for the study of the impacts of pollution associated with traffic, with implications for urban design and possibly in economic and sociological aspects.

  16. Spectral estimation of global levels of atmospheric pollutants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Macho, Javier

    2011-10-01

    Underlying levels of atmospheric pollutants, assumed to be governed by smoothing mechanisms due to atmospheric dispersion, can be estimated from global emissions source databases on greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting compounds. However, spatial data may be contaminated with noise or even missing or zero-valued at many locations. Therefore, a problem that arises is how to extract the underlying smooth levels. This paper sets out a structural spatial model that assumes data evolve across a global grid constrained by second-order smoothing restrictions. The frequency-domain approach is particularly suitable for global datasets, reduces the computational burden associated with two-dimensional models and avoids cumbersome zero-inflated skewed distributions. Confidence intervals of the underlying levels are also obtained. An application to the estimation of global levels of atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic emissions illustrates the technique which may also be useful in the analysis of other environmental datasets of similar characteristics.

  17. Mixing layer height and air pollution levels in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Wagner, Patrick; Emeis, Stefan; Jahn, Carsten; Muenkel, Christoph; Suppan, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Ceilometers are applied by KIT/IMK-IFU to detect layering of the lower atmosphere continuously. This is necessary because not only wind speed and direction but also atmospheric layering and especially the mixing layer height (MLH) influence exchange processes of ground level emissions. It will be discussed how the ceilometer monitoring information is used to interpret the air pollution near the ground. The information about atmospheric layering is continuously monitored by uninterrupted remote sensing measurements with the Vaisala ceilometer CL51 which is an eye-safe commercial mini-lidar system. Special software for this ceilometer provides routine retrievals of lower atmosphere layering from vertical profiles of laser backscatter data. An intensive measurement period during the winter 2011/2012 is studied. The meteorological influences upon air pollutant concentrations are investgated and the correlations of air pollutant concentrations with ceilometer MLH are determined. Benzene was detected by department of Applied Climatology and Landscape Ecology, University of Duisburg-Essen (UDE) with a gas chromatograph during the measurement period. The meteorological data are collected by UDE and the monitoring station Essen of the German national meteorological service DWD. The concentrations of the air pollutants NO, NO2 and PM10 are provided by the national air pollution network LANUV.

  18. Asthma and low level air pollution in Helsinki

    SciTech Connect

    Poenkae A5 )

    1991-09-01

    The effects of relatively low levels of air pollution and weather conditions on the number of patients who had asthma attacks and who were admitted to a hospital were studied in Helsinki during a 3-y period. The number of admissions increased during cold weather (n = 4,209), especially among persons who were of working age but not among children. Even after standardization for temperature, all admissions, including emergency ward admissions, were significantly correlated with ambient air concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), and total suspended particulates (TSP). Regression analysis revealed that NO and O3 were most strongly associated with asthma problems. Effects of air pollutants and cold were maximal if they occurred on the same day, except for O3, which had a more pronounced effect after a 1-d lag. The associations between pollutants, low temperature, and admissions were most significant among adults of working age, followed by the elderly. Among children, only O3 and NO were significantly correlated with admissions. Levels of pollutants were fairly low, the long-term mean being 19.2 micrograms/m3 for SO2, 38.6 micrograms/m3 for NO2, 22.0 micrograms/m3 or O3, and 1.3 mg/m3 for CO. In contrast, the mean concentration of TSP was high (76.3 micrograms/m3), and the mean temperature was low (+ 4.7 degrees C). These results suggest that concentrations of pollutants lower than those given as guidelines in many countries may increase the incidence of asthma attacks.

  19. Heavy metal pollution in sediments and mussels: assessment by using pollution indices and metallothionein levels.

    PubMed

    Okay, Oya S; Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Yılmaz, Atilla; Yakan, Sevil D; Karacık, Burak; Tutak, Bilge; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, the concentration of eight metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined in the sediments and transplanted and native mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The study was conducted in Turkish marinas, shipyards, and shipbreaking yards. The effect of metal pollution was evaluated by determining the levels of metallothionein (MT) in the mussels. The extent of contamination for each single metal was assessed by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo) and enrichment factor (EF). Whereas, to evaluate the overall metal pollution and effect, the pollution load index (PLI), modified contamination degree (mC d), potential toxicity response index (RI), mean effects range median (ERM) quotient (m-ERM-Q), and mean PEL quotient (m-PEL-Q) were calculated. The influence of different background values on the calculations was discussed. The results indicated a significant metal pollution caused by Cu, Pb, and Zn especially in shipyard and shipbreaking sites. Higher concentrations of MT were observed in the ship/breaking yard samples after the transplantation.

  20. Network for Light Pollution education at secondary level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Beatriz; Ros, Rosa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Light pollution (LP) is one form of environmental pollution less known than most others. It affects the visibility of the night sky, but also alters the balance of the ecosystem and affects human health, since it breaches the biological clocks that are coordinated with periods of light and darkness. To be alert on this subject, learn to recognize the problem, warn others of the consequences, and find solutions, are objectives of the present work.The LP as subject of study can be also a good point to teach and learn about the uses of light in general, including the problem to rich the starry night from the schoolyard.The Network for Astronomy School Education (NASE), proposes a set of simple, non expensive and funny activities, especially designed no only to understand the three types of light pollution: glow, intrusion and glare, but also to explain the problems associated to the over- consumption, to show why the public light produces strong and bad effects on the astronomical observation, including the radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and affects the human health. NASE workshop on this subject is devoted to the Natural Sciences teachers and professors and for this reason the activity cross over all the secondary school level spaces.More details in: http://www.naseprogram.org

  1. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Phase 1 final report, October 1995--July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.T.; Jankura, B.J.; Kudlac, G.A.

    1998-06-01

    The Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) system is a new concept whereby a Teflon{reg_sign} covered condensing heat exchanger is adapted to remove certain flue gas constitutents, both particulate and gaseous, while recovering low level heat. Phase 1 includes two experimental tasks. One task dealt principally with the pollutant removal capabilities of the IFGT at a scale of about 1.2MW{sub t}. The other task studied the durability of the Teflon{reg_sign} covering to withstand the rigors of abrasive wear by fly ash emitted as a result of coal combustion. The pollutant removal characteristics of the IFGT system were measured over a wide range of operating conditions. The coals tested included high, medium and low-sulfur coals. The flue gas pollutants studied included ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, particulate, sulfur dioxide, gas phase and particle phase mercury and gas phase and particle phase trace elements. The particulate removal efficiency and size distribution was investigated. These test results demonstrated that the IFGT system is an effective device for both acid gas absorption and fine particulate collection. The durability of the Teflon{reg_sign} covered heat exchanger tubes was studied on a pilot-scale single-stage condensing heat exchanger (CHX{reg_sign}). Data from the test indicate that virtually no decrease in Teflon{reg_sign} thickness was observed for the coating on the first two rows of heat exchanger tubes, even at high inlet particulate loadings. Evidence of wear was present only at the microscopic level, and even then was very minor in severity.

  2. [Field investigations of the air pollution level of populated territories].

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, M V

    2014-01-01

    The assessment and management of air quality of settlements is one of the priorities in the field of environmental protection. In the management of air quality the backbone factor is the methodology of the organization, performance and interpretation of data of field investigations. The present article is devoted to the analysis of the existing methodological approaches and practical aspects of their application in the organization and performance of field investigations with the aim to confirm the adequacy of the boundaries of the sanitary protection zone in the old industrial regions, hygienic evaluation of the data of field investigations of the air pollution level.

  3. Surface gas pollutants in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet: current levels and pollution implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.

    2014-05-01

    Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air pollution in Lhasa, various gas pollutants including NOx, CO, SO2 and O3 were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas pollutants exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High concentrations of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO and SO2 concentrations in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas pollutants and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biofuels. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas pollutant O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high level of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 concentrations displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 concentrations, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 concentrations in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 concentrations would be expected in the

  4. Surface gas pollutants in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet - current levels and pollution implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.

    2014-10-01

    Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air pollution in Lhasa, various gas pollutants including NOx, CO, SO2, and O3, were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas pollutants exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High mixing ratios of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO, and SO2 mixing ratios in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas pollutants and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biomass. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas pollutant O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high level of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 mixing ratios displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 mixing ratios, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 mixing ratios in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 mixing ratios would be expected in the

  5. The Operational Forecasting of Undesirable Pollution Levels Based on a Combined Pollution Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdie, H. G.; Gillies, D. K. A.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the application of an air pollution index, in conjunction with synoptic meteorological forecasting, to an operational program for forecasting pollution potential in the Sarnia (Ontario) petrochemical complex. (JR)

  6. Advanced catalytic combustors for low pollutant emissions, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of employing the known attractive and distinguishing features of catalytic combustion technology to reduce nitric oxide emissions from gas turbine engines during subsonic, stratospheric cruise operation was investigated. Six conceptual combustor designs employing catalytic combustion were defined and evaluated for their potential to meet specific emissions and performance goals. Based on these evaluations, two parallel-staged, fixed-geometry designs were identified as the most promising concepts. Additional design studies were conducted to produce detailed preliminary designs of these two combustors. Results indicate that cruise nitric oxide emissions can be reduced by an order of magnitude relative to current technology levels by the use of catalytic combustion. Also, these combustors have the potential for operating over the EPA landing-takeoff cycle and at cruise with a low pressure drop, high combustion efficiency and with a very low overall level of emission pollutants. The use of catalytic combustion, however, requires advanced technology generation in order to obtain the time-temperature catalytic reactor performance and durability required for practical aircraft engine combustors.

  7. Mechanisms for indirect effects from aerosol pollution on mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Vaughan

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol pollution can have various effects on mixed-phase clouds. They can alter coalescence and raindrop-freezing for droplet activation by CCN aerosols. They can alter aggregation of ice crystals and snow formation. This can alter the lifetime of mixed-phase clouds, as well as the reflectivity for solar radiation. Simulations of observed cases of mixed-phase clouds have been performed to examine the mechanisms for effects from aerosol pollution on them. Such mechanisms are discussed in the presentation.

  8. Fish discards management: pollution levels and best available removal techniques.

    PubMed

    Antelo, Luis T; Lopes, Carla; Franco-Uría, Amaya; Alonso, Antonio A

    2012-07-01

    Fish discards and by-catch issues are highly topical subjects that are permanently under a social focus. Two main approaches are being considered to address this discard problem: reducing the by-catch and increasing by-catch utilization. Interest in increased by-catch valorization may arise from a greater demand for fish products, such as the development of new markets for previously discarded species, the use of low-value specimens for aquaculture or the creation of value-added fish products for the food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. However, contaminants present in fish discards may be transferred to their valorized products, leading to possible long-term bioaccumulation and subsequent adverse health effects. In this valorization framework, the aim is to promote responsible and sustainable management of marine resources. The pollutant levels in catches from European fisheries and the best available decontamination techniques for marine valorized discards/by-products are compiled and analyzed in this work.

  9. Pollution Levels in Fog at the Chilean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sträter, E.; Klemm, O.; Westbeld, A.

    2010-07-01

    During July and August 2008 fog water was collected for chemical analysis in Patache, at the coast of northern Chile, 60 km south of Iquique (20°49’S, 70°09’W). Advective fog events occur regularly at the cliff in the coastal range at about 800 m above MSL. People collect these types of fog water at some places along the coast with Large Fog Collectors (LFC) for domestic use and for watering field crops. So far, no chemical analysis of fog water was performed in Patache. Pure fogwater samples (38 samples from 8 fog events) were taken by using a passive Scientific Cylindrical Fog Collector. Major ions and trace metals were quantified. The analyses indicate very high ionic concentrations (mean 3500 µeq/l) and very low pH values (mean 3.3). The mean H+-concentration represents 16 % of the total ionic equivalent concentration. Sulfate is the anion exhibiting the highest concentrations. A mean value of 880 µeq/l was found, which accounts for 24 % of the total mean concentration. In contrast to sulfate, nitrate shows only a low percentage of 8.1 %. Further major ions are sodium (20%) and chloride (19 %), which are typical seasalt ions in coastal fog. High correlations between the measured ions suggest a causal link between concentration in the fog samples and the liquid water content (LWC) of the cloud. The higher the liquid water content the lower are the ionic concentrations. Enrichment factors with sodium as reference ion were calculated to identify potential emission sources contributing to the observed pollutant levels. We found that K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Cl- mainly result from seaspray. Sulfate, however, is enriched by a factor of 13. The measured trace elements are highly enriched by factors up to hundreds of thousands (Zn: 50, Ni: 1800, As: 2400, Cd: 3900, Fe: 100000, Cu: 96000, Pb: 250000). A cluster analysis supports the conclusion that sulfate and the trace elements originate from anthropogenic activities. The sulfate cannot primarily originate from

  10. Monitoring strategy to assessment the air pollution level in Salamanca (México)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Adame, J. M.; Cortina-Januchs, M. G.; Andina, D.; Vega-Corona, A.

    2009-04-01

    Air pollution affects not only the quality of life and the health of the urban population but also forests and agriculture. Agricultural crops can be injured when exposed to high concentrations of various air pollutants. Air pollutants can generally be classed as either local or widespread. Local pollutants are those emitted from a specific stationary source and result in a well-defined zone of vegetation injury or contamination. Most common among the local pollutants are sulphur dioxide, fluorides, ammonia and particulate matter. The paper presents an air monitoring strategy based on data fusion and Artificial Neural Networks. The main objective is to classify automatically the air pollution level as a proposal to assessment the air pollution level affecting the agriculture in Salamanca (Mexico). Salamanca is catalogued as one of the most polluted cities in Mexico. Pollutant concentrations and meteorological variables have been consider in data fusion process in order to build a Representative Pollution Vector (RPV). Meteorological variables (Wind Direction and Wind Speed) are taken as a decision factor in the air pollutant concentration level. RPV is used to train an Artificial Neural Network in order to classify new pollutant events. In the experiments, real time series gathered from the Automatic Environmental Monitoring Network (AEMN) in Salamanca have been used.

  11. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  12. Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowbotham, N.

    1973-01-01

    Presents the material given in one class period in a course on Environmental Studies at Chesterfield School, England. The topics covered include air pollution, water pollution, fertilizers, and insecticides. (JR)

  13. [Eutrophication and pollution level of microcystin in Dianshan Lake].

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei; Wu, He-Yan; Zhao, Nai-Qing; Qi, Ping-Ping; Zhu, Hui-Gang

    2005-09-01

    A survey was conducted in Dianshan Lake to study the eutrophication indexes including total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), pH, temperature, diaphaneity and chlorophyll-a level and dominant algae in seasons. The impacts of temperature, light, nitrogen and phosphorus on growth of and microcystin LR production by Microcystis aeraginosa strain under laboratory conditions were studied. Relationship between algal cell density and concentration of microcystin LR were studied. Results suggest that water in Dianshan Lake was eutrophicated. The suitable seasons for algae growth are the end of spring and summer. The annual average of TP and TN were 1.93 mg/L and 0.18 mg/L respectively. And 93.5 and 92.2 percent of TP and TN were higher than the criteria for the third class water body. Significant impact from agriculture was indicated since the peak of algae laged one month after the maxium use of fertilizer. The dominant algae in Dianshan Lake were cyanobacteria, bacillariophyta, cryptophyta and euglenophyta. Microcystis, anabaena and synedra, which excrete toxins and indicate water pollution, and are dominant algae species in summer. M. aeraginosa strain had a biggest growth rate at temperature of 25 degrees C and light intensity of 3 0001x, while microcystin LR production contents reached maximum at 20 degrees C and 5000lx respectively. The optimum TP and TN concentrations for growth of and toxin production by M. aeraginosa were found to be 650 micromol/L and 6.5 micromol/L respectively. TP is suspected to be the limiting factor for the growth of algae both in field and laboratory conditions. Positive correlations between total microcystin LR concentrations and algae cell density or M. aeraginosa cell densities are found. The algae cell density can be used to predict the level of algal toxins in water.

  14. Impact of intercontinental pollution transport on North American ozone air pollution: an HTAP phase 2 multi-model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Pierce, R. Bradley; Jo, Duseong S.; Park, Rokjin J.; Flemming, Johannes; Emmons, Louisa K.; Bowman, Kevin W.; Henze, Daven K.; Davila, Yanko; Sudo, Kengo; Eiof Jonson, Jan; Tronstad Lund, Marianne; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Dentener, Frank J.; Keating, Terry J.; Oetjen, Hilke; Payne, Vivienne H.

    2017-05-01

    The recent update on the US National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of the ground-level ozone (O3) can benefit from a better understanding of its source contributions in different US regions during recent years. In the Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution experiment phase 1 (HTAP1), various global models were used to determine the O3 source-receptor (SR) relationships among three continents in the Northern Hemisphere in 2001. In support of the HTAP phase 2 (HTAP2) experiment that studies more recent years and involves higher-resolution global models and regional models' participation, we conduct a number of regional-scale Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) air quality base and sensitivity simulations over North America during May-June 2010. STEM's top and lateral chemical boundary conditions were downscaled from three global chemical transport models' (i.e., GEOS-Chem, RAQMS, and ECMWF C-IFS) base and sensitivity simulations in which the East Asian (EAS) anthropogenic emissions were reduced by 20 %. The mean differences between STEM surface O3 sensitivities to the emission changes and its corresponding boundary condition model's are smaller than those among its boundary condition models, in terms of the regional/period-mean (< 10 %) and the spatial distributions. An additional STEM simulation was performed in which the boundary conditions were downscaled from a RAQMS (Realtime Air Quality Modeling System) simulation without EAS anthropogenic emissions. The scalability of O3 sensitivities to the size of the emission perturbation is spatially varying, and the full (i.e., based on a 100 % emission reduction) source contribution obtained from linearly scaling the North American mean O3 sensitivities to a 20 % reduction in the EAS anthropogenic emissions may be underestimated by at least 10 %. The three boundary condition models' mean O3 sensitivities to the 20 % EAS emission perturbations are ˜ 8 % (May-June 2010)/˜ 11 % (2010 annual) lower than

  15. Ambient levels of air pollution induce clinical worsening of blepharitis.

    PubMed

    Malerbi, Fernando Korn; Martins, Lourdes Conceição; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Even though air pollutants exposure is associated with changes in the ocular surface and tear film, its relationship to the clinical course of blepharitis, a common eyelid disease, had not yet been investigated. Our objective was to investigate the correlation between air pollution and acute manifestations of blepharitis. We recorded all cases of changes in the eyelids and ocular surface, and rated clinical findings on a scale from zero (normal) to two (severe alterations). Daily values of carbon monoxide, particulate matter smaller than 10 μm in diameter and nitrogen dioxide concentrations and meteorological variables (temperature and relative humidity) in the vicinity of the medical service were obtained. Specific linear regression models for each outcome were constructed including pollutants as independent variables (single pollutant models). Temperature and humidity were included as confounding variables. increases of 28.8 μg/m(3) in the concentration of particulate matter and 1.1 ppm in the concentration of CO were associated with increases in cases of blepharitis on the day of exposure (5 cases, 95% CI: 1-10 and 6 cases, 95% CI: 1-12, respectively). Exposure to usual air pollutants concentrations present in large cities affects, in a consistent manner, the eyes of residents contributing to the increasing incidence of diseases of the eyelid margin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pediatric asthma and ambient pollutant levels in industrializing nations.

    PubMed

    Jassal, Mandeep S

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood and its prevalence has been increasing within industrializing nations. The contribution of ambient pollutants to asthma symptomatology has been explored in some countries through epidemiological investigations, molecular analysis and monitoring functional outcomes. The health effects of rising environmental pollution have been of increasing concern in industrializing nations with rising urbanization patterns. This review article provides an overview of the link between pediatric asthma and exposure to rising sources of urban air pollution. It primarily focuses on the asthma-specific effects of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone and particulate matter. Worldwide trends of asthma prevalence are also provided which detail the prominent rise in asthma symptoms in many urban areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia. The molecular and functional correlation of ambient pollutants with asthma-specific airway inflammation in the pediatric population are also highlighted. The final aspect of the review considers the correlation of motor vehicle, industrial and cooking energy sources, ascribed as the major emitters among the pollutants in urban settings, with asthma epidemiology in children.

  17. Evaluation of noise pollution level based upon community exposure and response data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmiston, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results and procedures are reported from an evaluation of noise pollution level as a predictor of annoyance, based on aircraft noise exposure and community response data. The measures of noise exposure presented include composite noise rating, noise exposure forecast, noise and number index. A proposed measure as a universal noise exposure measure for noise pollution level (L sub NP) is discussed.

  18. Seasonal characteristics of gas-phase air pollutants: implications for public health in northeastern New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts-Semple, D. A.; Gao, Y.

    2011-12-01

    To characterize the impact of urban air pollution and local weather conditions on human health, the ambient air concentrations of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and ground-level ozone (O3) were measured at the Meadowlands in Lyndhurst, NJ (41N, 74W) from June 1, 2007 to May 31, 2008. Meteorological data, mainly temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and barometric pressure, were supplemented with data from Weather Underground. Public health data were obtained from the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services (NJDHSS). The relationship between gas-phase pollutants and hospital admissions were examined through path analytic models by using multiple regressions and bivariate correlations. The meteorological conditions and air pollutants that may be associated with human respiratory health effects are analyzed. Preliminary results demonstrate that the ambient levels of NOx and O3 are influenced by certain meteorological conditions in the Meadowlands, and that there is a strong relationship between hospital admission and personal exposure to NO2 over the short-term. There is no direct relationship between O3 and hospital admission (r=-0.092), whereas hospital admission and NOx correlate (r=0.317) but more significantly with NO2 (r=.359) at a significance level of 0.01. Hospital admission rates are indirectly affected by humidity (r=-0.077). The seasonal dependence of pollutants is caused mainly by low wind speed and differences in chemical processing, making them interdependent. The monthly average O3 ranged from 11.1ppb to 36.2ppb with the highest values in summer; NOx ranged from 17.0ppb to 29.0ppb with no marked seasonal variations and were lower on weekends than on week days. There were dissimilar diurnal patterns and an inverse relationship between the hourly average of NOx and O3 concentrations, suggesting that O3 formation was not limited by the availability of NOx but is likely influenced by a VOC-sensitive chemical regime. This study provides a basis for

  19. Risks Caused by Low Levels of Pollution 1

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Richard

    1978-01-01

    The concept has arisen that pollutants in almost any concentration cause a small risk of death. This arises from a consideration of cancer and contrasts with earlier work where a threshold is assumed. The theoretical and experimental evidence for this concept is reviewed, and some important consequences are drawn for societal decision making. PMID:676350

  20. Modeling highway runoff pollutant levels using a data driven model.

    PubMed

    Opher, T; Ostfeld, A; Friedler, E

    2009-01-01

    Pollutants accumulated on road pavement during dry periods are washed off the surface with runoff water during rainfall events, presenting a potentially hazardous non-point source of pollution. Estimation of pollutant loads in these runoff waters is required for developing mitigation and management strategies, yet the numerous factors involved and their complex interconnected influences make straightforward assessment almost impossible. Data driven models (DDMs) have lately been used in water and environmental research and have shown very good prediction ability. The proposed methodology of a coupled MT-GA model provides an effective, accurate and easily calibrated predictive model for EMC of highway runoff pollutants. The models were trained and verified using a comprehensive data set of runoff events monitored in various highways in California, USA. EMCs of Cr, Pb, Zn, TOC and TSS were modeled, using different combinations of explanatory variables. The models' prediction ability in terms of correlation between predicted and actual values of both training and verification data was mostly higher than previously reported values. Pb(Total) was modeled with an outcome of R2 of 0.95 on training data and 0.43 on verification data. The developed model for TOC achieved R2 values of 0.91 and 0.49 on training and verification data respectively.

  1. Measurement comparison of gas phase pollutants during field campaign in Pearl River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, M.; Zeng, L.; Hu, M.; Zhang, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Pearl River delta, an economically developed region in Guangdong province China, has been suffering from serious ground-level ozone pollution. To understand the formation mechanisms of the photochemical smog in this area, a field measurement campaign involving 12 separate institutes, was performed from Oct. 1 to Nov. 4, 2004. Measurements of gas phase pollutants, performed by the different research groups using several different methods, were inter-compared. Ambient SO2, O3 and NO were measured by Peking University and Hong Kong Polytechnic University using the same methods: chemiluminescence for NOx, pulsed fluorescence for SO2, and UV photometric method for O3. VOC speciation was accomplished using canister sampling followed by GC-MS measurement by Peking University and on-line GC-FID technology by National Central University in Taiwan. Ambient concentrations of HONO, the photolysis of which is the most important source of OH radical in Pearl River delta, was measured by two wet chemical methods: one from Energy Research Foundation of the Netherlands and one developed in Peking University. Based on these inter-comparisons, the co-variation of O3, NO and VOCs at an urban site and one rural site in Pearl River delta and estimates of the relative contributions to OH production from photolysis of O3, HONO and HCHO will be presented.

  2. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    PubMed

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  3. Pollution Reduction Technology Program, Turboprop Engines, Phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. D.; Herman, A. S.; Tomlinson, J. G.; Vaught, J. M.; Verdouw, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    Exhaust pollutant emissions were measured from a 501-D22A turboprop engine combustor and three low emission combustor types -- reverse flow, prechamber, and staged fuel, operating over a fuel-air ratio range of .0096 to .020. The EPAP LTO cycle data were obtained for a total of nineteen configurations. Hydrocarbon emissions were reduced from 15.0 to .3 lb/1000 Hp-Hr/cycle, CO from 31.5 to 4.6 lb/1000 Hp-Hr/cycle with an increase in NOx of 17 percent, which is still 25% below the program goal. The smoke number was reduced from 59 to 17. Emissions given here are for the reverse flow Mod. IV combustor which is the best candidate for further development into eventual use with the 501-D22A turboprop engine. Even lower emissions were obtained with the advanced technology combustors.

  4. Phase composition gradient in leached polluted cement monoliths

    SciTech Connect

    Leoni, Matteo Scardi, Paolo; Pelosato, Renato; Sora, Isabella Natali; Dotelli, Giovanni; Stampino, Paola Gallo; Presti, Arianna Lo

    2007-11-15

    The long-term behaviour of cement monoliths containing an organic waste, was investigated by means of a 14-month dynamic-leach-testing in deionised water. The degree of hydration and the phase composition were measured by Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTA), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDXS). X-ray data, analysed by the Rietveld method, provided a detailed quantitative information on the in-depth crystalline phase distribution in the specimens. Crossed with TGA and spectroscopic data and supported by the results of kinetic/hydration calculations, the diffraction results provide a detailed description of the in-depth phase composition gradient in the leached monoliths. In particular, 14-month old specimens show a clear leaching zone with predominance of CSH and calcite near the surface and low abundance of the other usual cement constituents. The material is not completely effective in retaining the contaminant.

  5. A fuzzy logic approach to assess groundwater pollution levels below agricultural fields.

    PubMed

    Muhammetoglu, Ayse; Yardimci, Ahmet

    2006-07-01

    A fuzzy logic approach has been developed to assess the groundwater pollution levels below agricultural fields. The data collected for Kumluca Plain of Turkey have been utilized to develop the approach. The plain is known with its intensive agricultural activities, which imply excessive application of fertilizers. The characteristics of the soils and underlying groundwater for this plain were monitored during the years 1999 and 2000. Additionally, an extensive field survey related to the types and yields of crops, fertilizer application and irrigation water was carried out. Both the soil and groundwater have exhibited high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus and salinity with considerable spatial and temporal variations. The pollution level of groundwater at several established stations within the plain were assessed using Fuzzy Logic. Water Pollution Index (WPI) values are calculated by Fuzzy Logic utilizing the most significant groundwater pollutants in the area namely nitrite, nitrate and orthophosphate together with the groundwater vulnerability to pollution. The results of the calculated WPI and the monitoring study have yielded good agreement. WPI indicated high to moderate water pollution levels at Kumluca plain depending on factors such as agricultural age, depth to groundwater, soil characteristics and vulnerability of groundwater to pollution. Fuzzy Logic approach has shown to be a practical, simple and useful tool to assess groundwater pollution levels.

  6. How Important Is Research on Pollution Levels in Antarctica? Historical Approach, Difficulties and Current Trends.

    PubMed

    Szopińska, Małgorzata; Namieśnik, Jacek; Polkowska, Żaneta

    Despite the fact that Antarctica is a continent notably free from large negative impact of human activities, literature data can be the basis for concluding that this is not an area free from anthropogenic pollutants. Pollutants, which are identified in various elements of the environment of Antarctica, are mostly connected with long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and deposition in this area. The study presents: a historical overview of research pertaining to the presence of pollutants in entire Antarctica; a description of the development of research on pollutants in various environmental samples conducted in this area since 1960; a detailed description of contemporary analytical research (2000-2014); information on concentration levels of a broad range of pollutants present in various elements of the environment. The data collected can provide grounds for concluding that pollutants present in this area can contribute to gradual degradation of Antarctic ecosystem.

  7. China's air pollution reduction efforts may result in an increase in surface ozone levels in highly polluted areas.

    PubMed

    Anger, Annela; Dessens, Olivier; Xi, Fengming; Barker, Terry; Wu, Rui

    2016-03-01

    China, as a fast growing fossil-fuel-based economy, experiences increasing levels of air pollution. To tackle air pollution, China has taken the first steps by setting emission-reduction targets for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) in the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans. This paper uses two models-the Energy-Environment-Economy Model at the Global level (E3MG) and the global Chemistry Transport Model pTOMCAT-to test the effects of these policies. If the policy targets are met, then the maximum values of 32 % and 45 % reductions below 'business as usual' in the monthly mean NO x and SO2 concentrations, respectively, will be achieved in 2015. However, a decrease in NO x concentrations in some highly polluted areas of East, North-East and South-East China can lead to up to a 10% increase in the monthly mean concentrations in surface ozone in 2015. Our study demonstrates an urgent need for the more detailed analysis of the impacts and designs of air pollution reduction guidelines for China.

  8. Liquid- and Ice-Phase Kinetics of Singlet Molecular Oxygen with Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, J. P.; Anastasio, C.

    2012-12-01

    Singlet molecular oxygen (1O2*), a reactive state of dissolved oxygen, is formed from a sensitizer chromophore that absorbs light and transfers energy to ground-state O2. The chemistry of 1O2* has been studied predominantly in surface waters and aqueous atmospheric drops, where 1O2* can be an important sink for electron-rich pollutants. In our recent work we have shown that 1O2* concentrations can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude on ice compared to in identical, but unfrozen, aqueous solutions. The goal of this work is to assess the potential importance of 1O2* to the decay of organic pollutants on ice in order to better understand pollutant cycling in the cryosphere. Using 549 nm radiation we illuminated liquid and bulk ice samples containing a 1O2* sensitizer (Rose Bengal), salt (NaCl), and an organic pollutant at a controlled temperature. Organic species were chosen to represent several chemical classes, including furans (furfuryl alcohol), phenols (bisphenol A), and amino acids (tryptophan). During illumination the decay of the pollutant was measured to determine the rate constant for loss by reaction with 1O2*. In all cases we observe enhanced loss of pollutants on ice relative to liquid samples. We will discuss how the magnitude of the ice-phase enhancement depends on the different pollutant classes, their aqueous solubility, and freezing point depression.

  9. Australia’s first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Jayajit; Green, Donna

    2014-04-01

    This study presents the first national level quantitative environmental justice assessment of industrial air pollution in Australia. Specifically, our analysis links the spatial distribution of sites and emissions associated with industrial pollution sources derived from the National Pollution Inventory, to Indigenous status and social disadvantage characteristics of communities derived from Australian Bureau of Statistics indicators. Our results reveal a clear national pattern of environmental injustice based on the locations of industrial pollution sources, as well as volume, and toxicity of air pollution released at these locations. Communities with the highest number of polluting sites, emission volume, and toxicity-weighted air emissions indicate significantly greater proportions of Indigenous population and higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The quantities and toxicities of industrial air pollution are particularly higher in communities with the lowest levels of educational attainment and occupational status. These findings emphasize the need for more detailed analysis in specific regions and communities where socially disadvantaged groups are disproportionately impacted by industrial air pollution. Our empirical findings also underscore the growing necessity to incorporate environmental justice considerations in environmental planning and policy-making in Australia.

  10. Ozone Levels in the North and South of Jordan: Effects of Transboundary Air Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsawair, Jihad Khalaf

    The first phase of this work sought to assess the causes of air quality deterioration in the south of the region over the Red Sea near the resort areas of Eilat and Aqaba. Accordingly, a coordinated Jordanian-Israeli study was performed during the month of November 2007 along the boarder of the two countries. The Jordanian measurements were made at a fixed monitoring location in the city of Aqaba, while the Israeli measurements were made using a mobile laboratory at kibbutz Eilot some 3 km north of the coastal city of Eilat. The results indicated that pollution episodes are highly dependent on wind direction, where southerly winds carry local transportation (i.e., ship, trucks) and possibly some industrial emissions towards the north end of the Red Sea, while northerly winds are associated with the transport of regional O 3. The results revealed that under the prevailing (˜90% of the time) northerly wind flows, the quality of the air is relatively good for all primary pollutants but O3 was elevated, indicative of the downwind regional transport of this secondary species from the Mediterranean coast. However, during days with southerly air flow the air quality was significantly deteriorated with elevated levels of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The second phase of this work, which also involved Jordanian and Israeli scientists, was undertaken in the northern part of the region for a two-week period in May/June 2009. This part of the research was aimed at examining previous modeling results that indicated that elevated O3 levels should occur in Northern Jordan from emissions in Northern Israel that are transported a distance of more than 100 km. Ozone and other pollutants were monitored at five sites in Israel (Haifa, Neve Shanan, Kiryat Tivon, Afula, and Maoz Haim) and two in Jordan (Taiba and Irbid). The sites were located along the prevailing wind direction that presumably moves air-masses eastward from the Mediterranean coast, over the Israel

  11. Low-level air pollution and upper respiratory infections in children.

    PubMed Central

    Jaakkola, J J; Paunio, M; Virtanen, M; Heinonen, O P

    1991-01-01

    Effects of low-level air pollution were studied in one polluted city and two reference cities in northern Finland by comparing the frequency of upper respiratory infections over a 12-month period in 1982 as reported by parents of children ages 14 through 18 months (n = 679) and 6 years (n = 759). A similar comparison was carried out between children living in the more polluted and less polluted areas of the polluted city. The annual mean and the greatest half-hour concentrations of sulfur dioxide (23 and 807 micrograms/m3), particulates (31 and 291 micrograms/m3), nitrogen oxides (15 and 160 micrograms/m3), and hydrogen sulfide (2 and 177 micrograms/m3) in the polluted city were mainly due to industrial sources. In the reference cities, air pollution was produced mainly by traffic and heating. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for one or more upper respiratory infections of residents in the polluted city vs those in the reference cities were 2.0 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-3.2) in the younger age group and 1.6 (95% CI = 1.1-2.1) in the older age group. Within the polluted city, OR calculated for living in more vs less polluted areas were 2.0 (95% CI = 1.0-4.0) in the younger and 1.6 (95% CI = 1.0-2.7) in the older children. The present results suggests that, for children, air pollution can be hazardous in concentrations lower than those recorded in earlier studies from Britain and central Europe. The synergistic effect of sulfur dioxide, particulates, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen sulfide, and other pollutants may be a contributing factor. PMID:1854003

  12. Viscum album versus host (Sorbus aucuparia) as bioindicators of urban areas with various levels of pollution.

    PubMed

    Kolon, Krzysztof; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Klink, Agnieszka; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-01-01

    In this investigation we focus on the concentration of elements in Viscum album and its host (Sorbus aucuparia) as bioindicators of urban pollution. These broadly widespread species, very common in polluted areas may provide important information to monitor environmental quality throughout the year, especially for V. album. Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were measured in the leaves and soil of the tree S. aucuparia as well as in V. album, a semi-parasite living on this tree species. The tree and the semi-parasite were studied in the urban environment of Oława (SW Poland). This area was selected because of the influence of a zinc smelter on the level of metal pollution of soil and plants and to compare the ability of S. aucuparia and V. album to accumulate metals. V. album appeared to be a better bioaccumulator of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn and a weaker accumulator of Co than S. aucuparia in less polluted sites of Oława. S. aucuparia was a better bioaccumulator of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn and a weaker accumulator of Co than V. album in more polluted sites. Cluster analysis of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations in plants distinguished sites with lower and higher pollution levels which suggests a possibility of using these species for bioindication. However, the ratio of metals in V. album to S. aucuparia was different depending on the pollution level.

  13. Noise pollution levels in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Bree; Joshi, Prashant; Heard, Christopher

    2016-12-01

    Patients and staff may experience adverse effects from exposure to noise. This study assessed noise levels in the pediatric intensive care unit and evaluated family and staff opinion of noise. Noise levels were recorded using a NoisePro DLX. The microphone was 1 m from the patient's head. The noise level was averaged each minute and levels above 70 and 80 dBA were recorded. The maximum, minimum, and average decibel levels were calculated and peak noise level great than 100 dBA was also recorded. A parent questionnaire concerning their evaluation of noisiness of the bedside was completed. The bedside nurse also completed a questionnaire. The average maximum dB for all patients was 82.2. The average minimum dB was 50.9. The average daily bedside noise level was 62.9 dBA. The average % time where the noise level was higher than 70 dBA was 2.2%. The average percent of time that the noise level was higher than 80 dBA was 0.1%. Patients experienced an average of 115 min/d where peak noise was greater than 100 dBA. The parents and staff identified the monitors as the major contribution to noise. Patients experienced levels of noise greater than 80 dBA. Patients experience peak noise levels in excess of 100 dB during their pediatric intensive care unit stay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation: Cost comparison with other air pollution control technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Turchi, C S; Wolfrum, E J; Miller, R A

    1994-11-01

    Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) appears to be particularly well suited for waste streams with low pollutant concentrations (1000 ppm or less) and low to moderate flow rates (< 20,000 cubic feet per minute, cfm). The PCO technology is modular in nature and thus is well suited to treat dispersed or low flow rate streams. This same attribute minimizes the advantages of scale for PCO and makes the technology comparatively less attractive for high volume waste streams. Key advantages for PCO lie in its low operating cost and ability to completely destroy pollutants at ambient temperature and pressure.

  15. Organic pollutant levels in an agricultural watershed: the importance of analyzing multiple matrices for assessing stream water pollution.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Mariana; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Grondona, Sebastían I; Silva Barni, Maria Florencia; Martinez, Daniel E; Peña, Aránzazu

    2013-04-01

    This study is aimed at analyzing the occurrence and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Quequén Grande river basin, as representative of a catchment under diffuse pollution sources. Pollutant levels in soils, river bottom sediments (RBS), streamwater (Sw), suspended particle materials (SPMs), macrophytes and muscle of silverside were determined by GC-ECD. Soil K(d) values for the current-used insecticides, endosulfans and cypermethrin, were established. Total levels (ng g(-1) dry weight) in soil ranged between 0.07–0.9 for OCPs, 0.03–0.37 for PCBs and 0.01–0.05 for PBDEs. Endosulfan insecticide (α- + b- + sulfate metabolite) represented up to 72.5% of OCPs. The low soil retention for α-endosulfan (K(d): 77) and endosulfan sulfate (K(d): 100) allows their transport to Sw, SPM and RBS. Levels of endosulfan in Sw in some cases exceeded the value postulated by international guidelines for aquatic biota protection (3 ng L(-1)). PCB and PBDE pollution was related to harbour, dumping sites and pile tire burning. Tri and hexa PCB congeners predominated in all matrices and exceeded the quality guideline value of 0.04 ng L(-1) in Sw. Considering levels in silverside muscle, none of the oral reference doses were exceeded, however, PCBs accounted for 18.6% of the total daily allowed ingest for a 70 kg individual. Although the levels of PCBs and OCPs in soil and RBS were low and did not go beyond quality guidelines, these compounds could still represent a risk to aquatic biota and humanbeings, and thus actions towards preventing this situation should be undertaken.

  16. Levels of pollutants in indoor air and respiratory health in preschool children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Leonarte, Virginia; Tenías, José M; Ballester, Ferran

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this paper is thus to identify, evaluate, and summarize in a systematic fashion all the epidemiological studies that have analyzed the association between exposure to specific indoor air pollutants and respiratory disease among children under the age of five. A search was carried out in the main biomedical bibliographic sources in December 2006 and updated in February 2008. The study period covered 12 years (1996-2007). All the selected papers were carefully read. We focused on studies that analyzed at least one indicator of respiratory health and which included one or more indoor air pollutants in relation to the respiratory health of children under the age of 5. Studies that analyzed passive smoking as the sole source of indoor air pollution were not included. Fourteen studies were considered to be relevant. The most analyzed pollutant was nitrogen dioxide, followed by volatile organic compounds, airborne particulates and other pollutants; phthalates and CO(2). The literature reviewed within our criteria seems to indicate that several indoor pollutants, even at the moderate levels found in the developed countries, could be harmful to the respiratory health of very young children. Future research should focus on conducting more studies, preferably making use of cohorts, with adequate techniques for measuring indoor pollution levels.

  17. Statistical interpretation of pollution data from satellites. [for levels distribution over metropolitan area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. L.; Green, R. N.; Young, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The NIMBUS-G environmental monitoring satellite has an instrument (a gas correlation spectrometer) onboard for measuring the mass of a given pollutant within a gas volume. The present paper treats the problem: How can this type measurement be used to estimate the distribution of pollutant levels in a metropolitan area. Estimation methods are used to develop this distribution. The pollution concentration caused by a point source is modeled as a Gaussian plume. The uncertainty in the measurements is used to determine the accuracy of estimating the source strength, the wind velocity, diffusion coefficients and source location.

  18. Unequally spaced four levels phase encoding in holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ke; Huang, Yong; Lin, Xiao; Cheng, Yabin; Li, Xiaotong; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-12-01

    Holographic data storage system is a candidate for the information recording due to its large storage capacity and high transfer rate. We propose an unequally spaced four levels phase encoding in the holographic data storage system here. Compared with two levels or three levels phase encoding, four levels phase encoding effectively improves the code rate. While more phase levels can further improve code rate, it also puts higher demand for the camera to differentiate the resulting smaller grayscale difference. Unequally spaced quaternary level phases eliminates the ambiguity of pixels with same phase difference relative to reference light compared to equally spaced quaternary levels. Corresponding encoding pattern design with phase pairs as the data element and decoding method were developed. Our encoding improves the code rate up to 0.875, which is 1.75 times of the conventional amplitude method with an error rate of 0.13 % according to our simulation results.

  19. Remote detection of air pollution stress to vegetation - Laboratory-level studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westman, Walter E.; Price, Curtis V.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the role of leaf chemistry, anatomy, moisture content, and canopy density on spectral reflectance in healthy and pollution stressed western conifer needles and broad-leafed species of California coastal sage scrub is presented. Acid mist at a level of pH 2.0 is found to more severely effect chlorophyll loss and leaf death than ozone at a level of 0.2 ppm for a four-week period. Both pollutants cause water loss, affecting Bands 4 and 5 in nonlinear ways. The infrared bands initially rise as free water is lost, and subsequently, scattering and reflectance decline. The net effect is shown to be a reduction in TM 4/3 and a rise in TM 5/4 with pollution stress. Under more severe pollution stresses, the decline of leaf area indices due to accelerated leaf drop accentuates the expected TM 4/3 and TM 5/4 changes.

  20. Heavy metals pollution levels and children health risk assessment of Yerevan kindergartens soils.

    PubMed

    Tepanosyan, Gevorg; Maghakyan, Nairuhi; Sahakyan, Lilit; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2017-08-01

    Children, the most vulnerable urban population group, are exceptionally sensitive to polluted environments, particularly urban soils, which can lead to adverse health effects upon exposure. In this study, the total concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, and Zn were determined in 111 topsoil samples collected from kindergartens in Yerevan. The objectives of this study were to evaluate heavy metal pollution levels of kindergarten's soils in Yerevan, compare with national legal and international requirements on heavy metal contents in kindergarten soil, and assess related child health risk. Multivariate geostatistical analyses suggested that the concentrations of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mo, Pb, and Zn observed in the kindergarten's topsoil may have originated from anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, and V mostly come from natural sources. According to the Summary pollution index (Zc), 102 kindergartens belong to the low pollution level, 7 to the moderate and only 2 to the high level of pollution. Summary concentration index (SCI) showed that 109 kindergartens were in the allowable level, while 2 featured in the low level of pollution. The health risk assessment showed that in all kindergartens except for seven, non-carcinogenic risk for children was detected (HI>1), while carcinogenic risk from arsenic belongs to the very low (allowable) level. Cr and multi-element carcinogenic risk (RI) exceeded the safety level (1.0E- 06) in all kindergartens and showed that the potential of developing cancer, albeit small, does exist. Therefore, city's kindergartens require necessary remedial actions to eliminate or reduce soil pollution and heavy metal-induced health risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: levels and phase distributions in preschool microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M; Slezakova, K; Delerue-Matos, C; Pereira, M C; Morais, S

    2015-10-01

    This work aims to characterize levels and phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor air of preschool environment and to assess the impact of outdoor PAH emissions to indoor environment. Gaseous and particulate (PM1 and PM(2.5)) PAHs (16 USEPA priority pollutants, plus dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, and benzo[j]fluoranthene) were concurrently sampled indoors and outdoors in one urban preschool located in north of Portugal for 35 days. The total concentration of 18 PAHs (ΣPAHs) in indoor air ranged from 19.5 to 82.0 ng/m(3) ; gaseous compounds (range of 14.1-66.1 ng/m(3)) accounted for 85% ΣPAHs. Particulate PAHs (range 0.7-15.9 ng/m(3)) were predominantly associated with PM1 (76% particulate ΣPAHs) with 5-ring PAHs being the most abundant. Mean indoor/outdoor ratios (I/O) of individual PAHs indicated that outdoor emissions significantly contributed to PAH indoors; emissions from motor vehicles and fuel burning were the major sources. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Gas-phase advanced oxidation for effective, efficient in situ control of pollution.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew S; Nilsson, Elna J K; Svensson, Erik A; Langer, Sarka

    2014-01-01

    In this article, gas-phase advanced oxidation, a new method for pollution control building on the photo-oxidation and particle formation chemistry occurring in the atmosphere, is introduced and characterized. The process uses ozone and UV-C light to produce in situ radicals to oxidize pollution, generating particles that are removed by a filter; ozone is removed using a MnO2 honeycomb catalyst. This combination of in situ processes removes a wide range of pollutants with a comparatively low specific energy input. Two proof-of-concept devices were built to test and optimize the process. The laboratory prototype was built of standard ventilation duct and could treat up to 850 m(3)/h. A portable continuous-flow prototype built in an aluminum flight case was able to treat 46 m(3)/h. Removal efficiencies of >95% were observed for propane, cyclohexane, benzene, isoprene, aerosol particle mass, and ozone for concentrations in the range of 0.4-6 ppm and exposure times up to 0.5 min. The laboratory prototype generated a OH(•) concentration derived from propane reaction of (2.5 ± 0.3) × 10(10) cm(-3) at a specific energy input of 3 kJ/m(3), and the portable device generated (4.6 ± 0.4) × 10(9) cm(-3) at 10 kJ/m(3). Based on these results, in situ gas-phase advanced oxidation is a viable control strategy for most volatile organic compounds, specifically those with a OH(•) reaction rate higher than ca. 5 × 10(-13) cm(3)/s. Gas-phase advanced oxidation is able to remove compounds that react with OH and to control ozone and total particulate mass. Secondary pollution including formaldehyde and ultrafine particles might be generated, depending on the composition of the primary pollution.

  3. A comparative study of noise pollution levels in some selected areas in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oyedepo, Olayinka S; Saadu, Abdullahi A

    2009-11-01

    The noise pollution is a major problem for the quality of life in urban areas. This study was conducted to compare the noise pollution levels at busy roads/road junctions, passengers loading parks, commercial, industrial and residential areas in Ilorin metropolis. A total number of 47-locations were selected within the metropolis. Statistical analysis shows significant difference (P < 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and low density residential areas, industrial areas and high density areas, industrial areas and passengers loading parks, industrial areas and commercial areas, busy roads/road junctions and low density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and low density areas. There is no significant difference (P > 0.05) in noise pollution levels between industrial areas and busy roads/road junctions, busy roads/road junctions and high density areas, busy roads/road junctions and passengers loading parks, busy roads/road junctions and commercial areas, passengers loading parks and high density areas, passengers loading parks and commercial areas and commercial areas and high density areas. The results show that Industrial areas have the highest noise pollution levels (110.2 dB(A)) followed by busy roads/Road junctions (91.5 dB(A)), Passengers loading parks (87.8 dB(A)) and Commercial areas (84.4 dB(A)). The noise pollution levels in Ilorin metropolis exceeded the recommended level by WHO at 34 of 47 measuring points. It can be concluded that the city is environmentally noise polluted and road traffic and industrial machineries are the major sources of it. Noting the noise emission standards, technical control measures, planning and promoting the citizens awareness about the high noise risk may help to relieve the noise problem in the metropolis.

  4. Bias and variance of planning level estimates of pollutant loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Stuart S.; Naiman, Daniel Q.

    1999-11-01

    Planning level techniques typically use the product of runoff volume and a characteristic concentration to estimate mean annual contaminant loads when monitoring data are inadequate or unavailable. In contrast to the extensive literature on sampling properties, bias, and precision of loads estimated from monitoring data, the unconstrained and often inconsistent alternatives for choosing "representative" runoff volumes and concentrations for use in planning level estimates limit the opportunities of generalizing analytical results on the properties of these estimators. The ease with which these simple load estimates can be calculated belies their inherent uncertainty, motivating this examination of their bias and variability. The mean and variance of planning level load estimators are derived both under mild parametric assumptions and using a distribution free approximation. Common use of the mean, median, or geometric mean of event concentrations is shown to result, in general, in biased estimates of the mean annual load. Sensitivity analysis of the mean and variance demonstrates the need to incorporate the relative variance as well as the correlation of cumulative discharge and characteristic concentration in planning level load estimates. While analogous to load estimation from monitoring data, the results presented here are distinct and unrelated to retransformation or sampling biases that have been well documented in the river load literature. Substantive implications for regional assessments, planning, and watershed management are illustrated with a simple example drawn from Chesapeake Bay.

  5. Emergent effects of heavy metal pollution at a population level: Littorina brevicula a study case.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Jung; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio; Suh, Jae-Hwa; Song, Jun-Im

    2003-01-01

    Changes in genetic variability and allele frequency can be responses from natural populations when encountering a novel contaminated environment. The genetic diversity and population structuring of natural populations of the gastropod Littorina brevicula from heavy-metal polluted and unpolluted environments along the southeast coast of Korea were examined using two mtDNA markers, cyt b and ND6. This study applied a nested clade analysis to test the existence of structuring association of haplotype distribution with environments (polluted and unpolluted). No genetic differences within cyt b mtDNA were detected between environments. On the other hand, differences in population haplotype diversity and structuring were found within ND6 mtDNA between polluted and unpolluted environments. The ND6-mtDNA haplotype (=genetic) diversity was significant lower in polluted environments. This decreased genetic diversity along with differences in the haplotype distribution within heavy-metal polluted environments compared to those unpolluted ones stand out as emergent effects from pollution at a population level. In this study, we propose the use of different approaches, such as the NCA, that takes into account the rare haplotypes, when assessing the effects of pollution on population genetic structuring.

  6. Remediation of explosive-polluted soil in slurry phase by aerobic biostimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Baoping; Shen, Mengyue; Aslam, Hina; Wu, Feng

    2013-06-01

    There is a great volume of polluted soil by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) manufacturing wastewater containing dozen of nitrocompounds in China. In this study, biostimulation was used for remediating the explosive-polluted soil in aerobic bioslurry by monitoring the removal of total organic carbon (TOC). The results showed that the pulp density had almost no effect on TOC removal; whereas the acetone addition evidently improved remediation efficiency of the polluted soil by intrinsic microorganism, and the TOC removal increased from 25% to 38.4% when dose of acetone increased from 0% to 4% (v/v). The maximum TOC removal of 49.1% was achieved through further adjusting pH at 9.0 and temperature at 30 °C. The second order reaction fits well removal dynamics of TOC under the optimum conditions. With the average conditions, liquid phase TOC decreased from 3404 to 3144 mg/L and solid phase TOC dropped from 1022 to 104 mg/L, leading to toxicity decline by 35%; the optimum condition witnessed 48.9% of TOC removal from 4500 to 2300 mg/L in liquid phase, causing toxicity drop by 62%.

  7. The Relationship between Pre-Service Teachers' Awareness Levels of Electromagnetic Pollution and Other Environmental Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koklukaya, Ayse Nesibe; Guven Yildirim, Ezgi; Selvi, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between the awareness level of preservice science teachers' conscious use of technological devices, which cause electromagnetic pollution, and their awareness level of related environmental problems. Research Methods: In this study, a mixed design method was used. A relational…

  8. Epiphytic lichen diversity on dead and dying conifers under different levels of atmospheric pollution.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Markus

    2005-05-01

    Based on literature data, epiphytic lichen abundance was comparably studied in montane woodlands on healthy versus dead or dying conifers of Europe and North America in areas with different levels of atmospheric pollution. Study sites comprised Picea abies forests in the Harz Mountains and in the northern Alps, Germany, Picea rubens-Abies balsamea forests on Whiteface Mountain, Adirondacks, New York, U.S.A. and Picea engelmannii-Abies lasiocarpa forests in the Salish Mountains, Montana, U.S.A. Detrended correspondence analysis showed that epiphytic lichen vegetation differed more between healthy and dead or dying trees at high- versus low-polluted sites. This is attributed to greater differences in chemical habitat conditions between trees of different vitality in highly polluted areas. Based on these results, a hypothetical model of relative importance of site factors for small-scale variation of epiphytic lichen abundance versus atmospheric pollutant load is discussed.

  9. Short-term effects of low-level winter pollution on respiratory health of asthmatic adults

    SciTech Connect

    Neukirch, F.; Segala, C.; Korobaeff, M.; Le Moullec, Y.; Aubier, M.

    1998-09-01

    The authors studied the short-term effects of Paris winter air pollution (i.e., sulfur dioxide, Black Smoke, suspended particulates with an aerodynamic diameter close to 10 {micro}m, and nitrogen dioxide) in 40 nonsmoking mild to moderate asthmatics. During a 6-mo period, subjects recorded asthma symptoms and three daily peak expiratory flow measurements. Statistical analysis revealed consistent and significant associations between the pollutants and asthma attacks and symptoms in the entire study group, especially in the subgroup of individuals who took inhaled {beta}2 agonists as needed. Pollutants correlated negatively with morning peak expiratory flow in the subgroup that took inhaled {beta}2 agonists as needed, and they correlated positively with daily variability in asthmatics who received regularly scheduled inhaled {beta}2 agonists. The effects lingered several days after exposure occurred. Low-level pollution has consistent measurable effects on nonsmoking adults who have well-treated mild or moderate asthma.

  10. Berry's phase for coherent states of Landau levels

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wen-Long; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2007-02-15

    The Berry phases for coherent states and squeezed coherent states of Landau levels are calculated. Coherent states of Landau levels are interpreted as a result of a magnetic flux moved adiabatically from infinity to a finite place on the plane. The Abelian Berry phase for coherent states of Landau levels is an analog of the Aharonov-Bohm effect. Moreover, the non-Abelian Berry phase is calculated for the adiabatic evolution of the magnetic field B.

  11. Halogenated pollutants in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs: converging patterns of pollutant profiles, and impacts and risks from high levels.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Viljoen, Ignatius M; Quinn, Laura P; Polder, Anuschka

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the presence, levels, relationships, and risks of HCHs, DDTs, chlordanes, mirex, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in terrestrial and aquatic bird eggs from an area in South Africa where DDT is used for malaria control. We found one of the highest ΣDDT levels reported this century; 13,000 ng/g wm (wet mass) in Grey Heron eggs which exceeds critical levels for reproductive success (3000 ng/g wm) calculated for Brown Pelicans, with a no-effect level estimated at 500 ng/g wm. Even higher ΣDDT levels at 16,000 ng/g wm were found in House Sparrow eggs (possibly the highest ever recorded for sparrows), with a maximum of 24,400 ng/g wm. Significant eggshell thinning in Cattle Egrets (33% between thickest and thinnest) was associated with increased levels of p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE. There were indications of unknown use of DDT and lindane. Relative to DDT, PCBs and BFRs levels were quite low. Ordinated data showed that different terrestrial pollutant profiles converged to a homogenised aquatic profile. Converging profiles, high levels of DDT in heron and sparrow eggs, and thinning eggs shells, indicate risk and impacts at release, in the aquatic environment, and in between. If characteristic life-strategies of birds in warm areas (e.g. longer-lived and fewer eggs per clutch) increases the risk compared with similar birds living in colder regions when both experience the same environmental pollutant levels, then malaria control using DDT probably has more significant impacts on biota than previously realised. Therefore, risk assessment and modelling without hard data may miss crucial impacts and risks, as the chemical use patterns and ecologies in Africa and elsewhere may differ from the conditions and assumptions of existing risk assessment and modelling parameters. Consideration of other findings associated with DDT from the same area (intersex in fish and urogental birth defects in baby boys), together with the findings of this study (high

  12. Bioaccumulation and metabolomics responses in oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis impacted by different levels of metal pollution.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-09-01

    Jiulong River Estuary, located in southern China, was heavily contaminated by metal pollution. In this study, the estuarine oysters Crassostrea hongkongensis were transplanted to two sites with similar hydrological conditions but different levels of metal pollution in Jiulong River Estuary over a six-month period. We characterized the time-series change of metal bioaccumulation and final metabolomics responses of oysters. Following transplantation, all metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the oyster digestive glands had elevated concentrations over time. By the end of six-month exposure, Cu, Zn and Cd were the main metals significantly differentiating the two sites. Using (1)H NMR metabolite approach, we further demonstrated the disturbance in osmotic regulation, energy metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism induced by metal contaminations. Six months later, the oysters transplanted in the two sites showed a similar metabolite variation pattern when compared with the initial oysters regardless of different metal levels in the tissues. Interestingly, by comparing the oysters from two sites, the more severely polluted oysters accumulated significantly higher amounts of osmolytes (betaine and homarine) and lower energy storage compounds (glycogen) than the less polluted oysters; these changes could be the potential biomarkers for different levels of metal pollution. Our study demonstrated the complexity of biological effects under field conditions, and NMR metabolomics provides an important approach to detect sensitive variation of oyster inner status.

  13. Bacterial communities reflect the spatial variation in pollutant levels in Brazilian mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, R; Chaer, G M; Carmo, F L; Araújo, F V; Paes, J E; Volpon, A; Santiago, G A; Rosado, A S

    2011-02-01

    The majority of oil from oceanic oil spills converges on coastal ecosystems such as mangrove forests. A major challenge to mangrove bioremediation is defining the mangrove's pollution levels and measuring its recuperation from pollution. Bioindicators can provide a welcome tool for defining such recovery. To determine if the microbial profiles reflected variation in the pollutants, samples from different locations within a single mangrove with a history of exposure to oil were chemically characterised, and the microbial populations were evaluated by a comprehensive range of conventional and molecular methods. Multivariate ordination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) microbial community fingerprints revealed a pronounced separation between the sediment and rhizosphere samples for all analysed bacterial communities (Bacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Pseudomonas). A Mantel test revealed significant relationships between the sediment chemical fertility and oil-derived pollutants, most of the bacterial community fingerprints from sediment samples, and the counts by different cultivation strategies. The level of total petroleum hydrocarbons was significantly associated with the Bacteria and Betaproteobacteria fingerprints, whereas anthracene and the total level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were associated with the Actinobacteria. These results show that microbial communities from the studied mangrove reflect the spatial variation of the chemicals in the sediment, demonstrating the specific influences of oil-derived pollutants.

  14. Alternative normalization method of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution level recorded by tree bark.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuli; Wang, Qiuquan; Yang, Limin; Li, Zhenji; Satake, Kenichi; Tsunoda, Kin-Ichi

    2006-10-01

    An alternative normalization method was developed for evaluating atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution level when using tree bark as a passive sampling medium. Perylene (PER), which mainly stems from natural biogenic processes, was proposed as a "natural internal compound" (NIC) of atmospheric PAHs accumulation processes from air into the bark, and a concentration ratio of target PAH to PER (RPAH/PER) was used to minimize the uncertainty in the evaluation of atmospheric PAHs pollution level. Systematic investigation of the effects of intrinsic bark characteristics and extrinsic seasonal meteorological conditions on the partition processes of atmospheric PAHs indicated that RPAH/PER is as an alternative index as compared to bark mass concentration (BMCPAH, ng/g dry bark), lipid mass concentration (LMCPAH, ng/g lipid of bark), and area mass concentration (AMCPAH, ng/m2 surface area of bark) for the evaluation of atmospheric PAHs pollution and that it allows more flexible sampling of tree barks. Clearly, the methodology should be expected to be useful for the objective evaluation of atmospheric pollution levels of other persistent organic pollutants when using tree bark and other passive sampling media if corresponding NICs are found in the future.

  15. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (PAHs, Me-PAHs, PCBs) in dissolved, particulate and sedimentary phases in freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Rabodonirina, Suzanah; Net, Sopheak; Ouddane, Baghdad; Merhaby, Dima; Dumoulin, David; Popescu, Tudor; Ravelonandro, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of three groups of hazardous organic contaminants (PCBs, PAHs, Me-PAHs) in fifteen watercourses and rivers located in highly urbanized and industrialized zones was studied. The distribution of 62 organic contaminants was determined in three matrices: in the dissolved phase, associated with suspended solid matter (SSM) and in sediment. Their distributions in the aquatic environment depend strongly on their physicochemical properties. Low molecular weight PAHs were predominant in the dissolved phase while those with high molecular weight accumulated preferentially in SSM and sediments. Among the 28 PCBs congeners, only PCB153 was detected. The results showed that the contamination of these areas originated mainly from combustion processes. The three the most polluted sites identified are surrounded by big cities. Ecotoxicological assessment based on the international Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) showed that the toxic effects of the sediment in these watercourses and rivers occurred due to high levels of hydrocarbons.

  16. Global marine pollutants inhibit P-glycoprotein: Environmental levels, inhibitory effects, and cocrystal structure

    PubMed Central

    Nicklisch, Sascha C. T.; Rees, Steven D.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Gökirmak, Tufan; Bonito, Lindsay T.; Vermeer, Lydia M.; Cregger, Cristina; Loewen, Greg; Sandin, Stuart; Chang, Geoffrey; Hamdoun, Amro

    2016-01-01

    The world’s oceans are a global reservoir of persistent organic pollutants to which humans and other animals are exposed. Although it is well known that these pollutants are potentially hazardous to human and environmental health, their impacts remain incompletely understood. We examined how persistent organic pollutants interact with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an evolutionarily conserved defense protein that is essential for protection against environmental toxicants. We identified specific congeners of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers that inhibit mouse and human P-gp, and determined their environmental levels in yellowfin tuna from the Gulf of Mexico. In addition, we solved the cocrystal structure of P-gp bound to one of these inhibitory pollutants, PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether)–100, providing the first view of pollutant binding to a drug transporter. The results demonstrate the potential for specific binding and inhibition of mammalian P-gp by ubiquitous congeners of persistent organic pollutants present in fish and other foods, and argue for further consideration of transporter inhibition in the assessment of the risk of exposure to these chemicals. PMID:27152359

  17. Meeting the challenge of identifying persistent pollutants at the state level.

    PubMed

    Hope, Bruce K; Stone, David; Fuji, Taku; Gensemer, Robert W; Jenkins, Jeffrey

    2010-10-01

    In 2007, the State of Oregon enacted legislation aimed at identifying persistent pollutants that could pose a threat to waters of the State and then reducing their discharge by means of a comprehensive pollution prevention program. This legislation defined a persistent pollutant as one that is toxic and persistent or bioaccumulative; a broad definition that required evaluation of an extensive number and variety of chemicals. The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, in consultation with a science workgroup, implemented a 12-step process for identifying and prioritizing persistent pollutants consistent with this definition. This process is characterized by (a) maximum overall transparency in its conduct, including extensive public involvement, (b) 3 levels of objective and predefined criteria for categorization of a chemical as a persistent pollutant, (c) full disclosure of values and sources for all physicochemical data used for comparison with these criteria, and (d) clear acknowledgement when a chemical was identified as a persistent pollutant for reasons other than these criteria alone. This process was used to identify those chemicals relevant as persistent pollutants and to then prioritize them in terms of their relative ability to adversely impact waters of the state, with special emphasis on impacts to aquatic receptors. An initial list of 2130 chemicals was compiled from existing lists. Criteria for toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulative potential were defined and then used with 2 different chemical property evaluation models (PBT Profiler and EPISuite) to produce a final list of 118 chemicals. The final list includes several legacy pollutants but also contains numerous current-use pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides, approximately half of which appear only once or not at all on lists compiled by others. Although it drew from the experience of others, assembling this list proved to be an exemplar of science in the service of

  18. Air pollution critical levels in central México protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air pollution. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical levels for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical level maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air pollution dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA pollution. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.

  19. Effects of subtle pollution at different levels of biological organisation on species-rich assemblages.

    PubMed

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Reis, Pedro A; Bertocci, Iacopo; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    We investigated effects of subtle nutrient enrichment and metal pollution on different levels of biological organization (i.e. whole assemblage, population and individual) of species-rich assemblages. We used rockpools as model system, applying a multi-factorial sampling design to test hypotheses on differences between disturbed and reference locations. Results indicated that disturbed and reference locations supported similar assemblages, as well as individual fitness-related life-traits were ineffective to discriminate between the two conditions. In contrast, assemblages responded to pollution through a reduction of the abundance of sensitive species and a proliferation of tolerant species, although these alterations were detectable only once the influence of dominant taxa was down-weighed by data transformation. Present findings suggest that, contrarily to individual level variables, assemblage structure after data transformation and patterns of distribution and abundance of differently sensitive taxa would be a powerful tool to detect effects of subtle pollution on species-rich assemblages.

  20. Study on particulate matter air pollution in Beijing with MODIS aerosol level 2 products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jietai; Li, Chengcai; Lau, Alexis K.

    2004-09-01

    In the run-up to the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Chinese government officials at both the central and municipal levels are keenly aware that they must transform Beijing into a world-class city. According to the Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (BJEPB) to improve its air quality some actions are adopting, including taking steps to increase the forested area surrounding the city preventing dust storms, reducing the automotive vehicles, moving polluting factories now inside the fourth ring road ringing the inner city to locations outside of the fourth ring road, and switching the fuel of public buses and taxis from diesel to natural gas, etc. Will they eliminate most serious environmental problems in Beijing? MODIS aerosol products are helping us to answer this kind of questions. A long-term validation has been finished by sun-photometer observations, and the results proved the relative error of MODIS level 2 products was slightly larger than the estimation of Chu et al. (2002) from the results in most AERONET sites. However, the comparison between the products and moisture-corrected air pollution index (API) data, which were daily released to public by EPB, showed a high correlation coefficient. An air pollution episode in 2003 was investigated by the usage of satellite products. Our conclusion for the air pollution control strategy in Beijing is that only reducing the pollution sources from inner city can't fully solve the pollution problems in Beijing and the regional transports from the nearby southern provinces are contributing a lot to the pollution situation in Beijing.

  1. Relationship Between Indoor Air Pollutant Levels and Residential Environment in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ho Seok; Park, Mi Ran; Lee, Sang Woon; Kim, Eun Hye; Cho, Joong Bum; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin; Jung, Kweon; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Lee, Sang Il

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between indoor air pollutant levels and residential environment in children with atopic dermatitis (AD) living in Seoul. Methods A total of 150 children with AD were included. Residential environment was assessed by questionnaires which were completed by their parents. To evaluate the level of exposure to the indoor air pollutants, concentrations of the indoor air pollutants including particulate matter with diameter less than 10 µm (PM10), formaldehyde, carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC), benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, xylene, styrene, bacterial aerosols, and airborne fungi were measured. Results A significant difference was exhibited in the levels of PM10 in case of visible fungus on the walls (P=0.047). There was relationship between the construction year of the house, moving to a newly constructed building within 1 year and formaldehyde level. With the use of artificial air freshener, the differences were found in the concentrations of TVOC (P=0.003), benzene (P=0.015), toluene (P=0.012) and ethyl-benzene (P=0.027). The concentration of xylene was significantly high when oil was used as heating fuel (P=0.015). Styrene exhibited differences depending on building type and its concentrations were significantly high in a residential and commercial complex building (P=0.005). The indoor concentration of bacterial aerosols was significantly low with the use of air cleaner (P=0.045). High NO2, benzene concentrations were present in case of almost no ventilation (P=0.028 and P=0.028, respectively). Conclusions Individual residential environments are closely related with the levels of the indoor air pollutants. To alleviate AD symptoms, simple questions about residential environments such as visible fungus on the walls and the use of artificial air freshener are helpful to assess the possibility of increased indoor air pollutant levels

  2. [State of common responsiveness of teenagers living in regions with different levels of ambient air pollution].

    PubMed

    Masnavieva, L B; Budarina, L A; Kudaeva, I V

    2012-01-01

    The integral indices based on element ratio of hemogram as well as alpha-1 antitripsin, interleukins 2 and 10 contents in the adolescents living in industrial town with a high pollution level are represented in this paper. The increase in the processes of the nonspecific phagocytic protection and exertion of adaptive mechanisms has been revealed.

  3. Some insights into the relationship between urban air pollution and noise levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ho, Duy Xuan; Brown, Richard J C; Oh, J-M; Park, Chan Goo; Ryu, In Cheol

    2012-05-01

    The relationship between noise and air pollution was investigated in eight different districts across Seoul, Korea, between September and November 2010. The noise levels in each district were measured at both roadside and non-roadside locations. It was found that the maximum levels of noise were generally at frequencies of around 1000 Hz. The equivalent noise levels (L(eq)), over all districts, averaged 61.4 ± 7.36 dB which is slightly lower than the noise guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 70 dB for industrial, commercial, traffic, and outdoor areas. Comparison of L(eq) levels in each district consistently indicates that noise levels are higher at roadside sites than non-roadside sites. In addition the relative dominance of noise during daytime as compared to nighttime was also apparent. Moreover, the results of an analysis relating sound levels with air pollutant levels indicate strongly that the correlation between these two parameters is the strongest at roadside sites (relative to non-roadside sites) and during nighttime (relative to daytime). The results of our data analysis point to a positive, but complex, correlation between noise levels and air pollution.

  4. Decline of Ambient Air Pollution Levels and Improved Respiratory Health in Swiss Children

    PubMed Central

    Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Grize, Leticia; Gassner, Markus; Takken-Sahli, Kathy; Sennhauser, Felix H.; Neu, Urs; Schindler, Christian; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    The causality of observed associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children is still subject to debate. If reduced air pollution exposure resulted in improved respiratory health of children, this would argue in favor of a causal relation. We investigated whether a rather moderate decline of air pollution levels in the 1990s in Switzerland was associated with a reduction in respiratory symptoms and diseases in school children. In nine Swiss communities, 9,591 children participated in cross-sectional health assessments between 1992 and 2001. Their parents completed identical questionnaires on health status and covariates. We assigned to each child an estimate of regional particles with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 μg/m3 (PM10) and determined change in PM10 since the first survey. Adjusted for socioeconomic, health-related, and indoor factors, declining PM10 was associated in logistic regression models with declining prevalence of chronic cough [odds ratio (OR) per 10-μg/m3 decline = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54–0.79], bronchitis (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55–0.80), common cold (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68–0.89), nocturnal dry cough (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60–0.83), and conjunctivitis symptoms (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70–0.95). Changes in prevalence of sneezing during pollen season, asthma, and hay fever were not associated with the PM10 reduction. Our findings show that the reduction of air pollution exposures contributes to improved respiratory health in children. No threshold of adverse effects of PM10 was apparent because we observed the beneficial effects for relatively small changes of rather moderate air pollution levels. Current air pollution levels in Switzerland still exceed limit values of the Swiss Clean Air Act; thus, children’s health can be improved further. PMID:16263523

  5. Decline of ambient air pollution levels and improved respiratory health in Swiss children.

    PubMed

    Bayer-Oglesby, Lucy; Grize, Leticia; Gassner, Markus; Takken-Sahli, Kathy; Sennhauser, Felix H; Neu, Urs; Schindler, Christian; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2005-11-01

    The causality of observed associations between air pollution and respiratory health in children is still subject to debate. If reduced air pollution exposure resulted in improved respiratory health of children, this would argue in favor of a causal relation. We investigated whether a rather moderate decline of air pollution levels in the 1990s in Switzerland was associated with a reduction in respiratory symptoms and diseases in school children. In nine Swiss communities, 9,591 children participated in cross-sectional health assessments between 1992 and 2001. Their parents completed identical questionnaires on health status and covariates. We assigned to each child an estimate of regional particles with an aerodynamic diameter < 10 microg/m3 (PM10) and determined change in PM10 since the first survey. Adjusted for socioeconomic, health-related, and indoor factors, declining PM10 was associated in logistic regression models with declining prevalence of chronic cough [odds ratio (OR) per 10-microg/m3 decline = 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.79], bronchitis (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55-0.80), common cold (OR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.68-0.89), nocturnal dry cough (OR = 0.70; 95% CI, 0.60-0.83), and conjunctivitis symptoms (OR = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.70-0.95). Changes in prevalence of sneezing during pollen season, asthma, and hay fever were not associated with the PM10 reduction. Our findings show that the reduction of air pollution exposures contributes to improved respiratory health in children. No threshold of adverse effects of PM10 was apparent because we observed the beneficial effects for relatively small changes of rather moderate air pollution levels. Current air pollution levels in Switzerland still exceed limit values of the Swiss Clean Air Act; thus, children's health can be improved further.

  6. Concentration and variety of carbapenemase producers in recreational coastal waters showing distinct levels of pollution.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Raphael P; Campana, Eloiza H; Corrêa, Laís L; Montezzi, Lara F; Barrueto, Lina R L; da Silva, Isadora R; Bonelli, Raquel R; Castro, Laura de S; Picão, Renata C

    2017-10-02

    Carbapenemase-producing bacteria cause difficult-to-treat infections related to increased mortality in healthcare settings. Their occurrence has been reported in raw sewage, sewage-impacted rivers, and polluted coastal waters, which may indicate their spread to the community. We assessed variety and concentration of carbapenemase producers in coastal waters with distinct pollution levels during one year. We describe a variety of bacterial species producing distinct carbapenemases, not only in unsuitable, but also in waters considered suitable for primary contact. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Superradiant phase transitions with three-level systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksic, Alexandre; Nataf, Pierre; Ciuti, Cristiano

    2013-02-01

    We determine the phase diagram of N identical three-level systems interacting with a single photonic mode in the thermodynamical limit (N→∞) by accounting for the so-called diamagnetic term and the inequalities imposed by the Thomas-Reich-Kuhn (TRK) oscillator strength sum rule. The key role of transitions between excited levels and the occurrence of first-order phase transitions is discussed. We show that, in contrast to two-level systems, in the three-level case the TRK inequalities do not always prevent a superradiant phase transition in the presence of a diamagnetic term.

  8. [Effect of the increasing levels of soil radioactive pollution on the biochemical composition of plants].

    PubMed

    Gromova, V S; Pchelenok, O A; Kozlova, N M

    2012-01-01

    The study was undertaken to study a relationship between the changes of some parameters of the biochemical and mineral composition of different plants, such as rape, pods, and lentil, and the levels of soil radiation pollution, by using the conventional methods. Radioactive pollution of dark-grey forest soils was found to cause a change in the biochemical composition of plant seeds even at the level of cesium 137 (137Cs) within the present temporary permissible levels (TPL) (600 Bq/kg): there were elevated concentrations of salts of potassium, phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen, catechols, sucrose, and some amino acids. With the radioactive cesium level exceeding the TPL, biochemical changes in the seeds depended on the species of the plants: in the rape seeds, the additional formation of sucrose and amino acids continued, but less intensively than with its lower radiation; the pod beans were significantly positively correlated with the increasing amounts of catechols.

  9. Gestational Diabetes and Preeclampsia in Association with Air Pollution at Levels below Current Air Quality Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Kristina; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Rylander, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies have estimated associations between air pollution and birth outcomes, but few have evaluated potential effects on pregnancy complications. Objective: We investigated whether low-level exposure to air pollution is associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia. Methods: High-quality registry information on 81,110 singleton pregnancy outcomes in southern Sweden during 1999–2005 was linked to individual-level exposure estimates with high spatial resolution. Modeled exposure to nitrogen oxides (NOx), expressed as mean concentrations per trimester, and proximity to roads of different traffic densities were used as proxy indicators of exposure to combustion-related air pollution. The data were analyzed by logistic regression, with and without adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The prevalence of gestational diabetes increased with each NOx quartile, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 1.69 (95% CI: 1.41, 2.03) for the highest (> 22.7 µg/m3) compared with the lowest quartile (2.5–8.9 µg/m3) of exposure during the second trimester. The adjusted OR for acquiring preeclampsia after exposure during the third trimester was 1.51 (1.32, 1.73) in the highest quartile of NOx compared with the lowest. Both outcomes were associated with high traffic density, but ORs were significant for gestational diabetes only. Conclusion: NOx exposure during pregnancy was associated with gestational diabetes and preeclampsia in an area with air pollution levels below current air quality guidelines. PMID:23563048

  10. On evaluating compliance with air pollution levels 'not to be exceeded more than once a year'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Under a sampling program operated in conformity with EPA guidelines, calculational procedures are described for estimating the corresponding ambient pollution level. The statistical independence of the data, the commutativity of expectation and exponential operations, and the statistical variability of the calculated results are quantitatively evaluated. It is shown that the recommended sampling frequencies of every third to every sixth day are inadequate in determining conformity when the standards are expressed as levels not to be exceeded more than once a year.

  11. Indoor air pollution levels in public buildings in Thailand and exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Klinmalee, Aungsiri; Srimongkol, Kasama; Kim Oanh, Nguyen Thi

    2009-09-01

    Levels of pollutants including PM2.5 and PM2.5 composition (black carbon and water soluble ions), SO(2), NO(2), CO, CO(2), and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene) were monitored for indoor and outdoor air at a university campus and a shopping center, both located in the Northern suburb of Bangkok. Sampling was done during December 2005-February 2006 on both weekdays and weekends. At the university, indoor monitoring was done in two different air conditioned classrooms which shows the I/O ratios for all pollutants to be below 0.5-0.8 during the weekends. However, on weekdays the ratios for CO(2) and most detected BTEX were above 1.0. The concept of classroom occupancy was defined using a function of the student number in a lecture hour and the number of lecture hours per day. Classroom 2, which had a higher occupancy than classroom 1, was characterized by higher concentrations of most pollutants. PM2.5 was an exception and was higher in classroom 1 (37 microg/m(3), weekdays) as compared to classroom 2 (26 microg/m(3), weekdays) which was likely linked to the dust resuspension from the carpeted floor in the former. Monitoring was also done in the shopping mall at three different sites. Indoor pollutants levels and the I/O ratios at the shopping mall were higher than at the university. Levels of all pollutants measured at the car park, except for toluene and CO(2), were the highest. I/O ratios of the pollutants at the mall were above 1.0, which indicates the relatively higher influence of the indoor sources. However, the black carbon content in PM2.5 outdoor is higher than indoor, which suggest the important contribution from outdoor combustion sources such as the traffic. Major sources of outdoor air pollution in the areas were briefly discussed. Exposure modeling was applied using the time activity and measured pollutant concentrations to assess the exposure of different groups of people in the study areas. High exposure to PM2.5, especially for the people

  12. The Use of Mobile, Electrochemical Sensor Nodes for the Measurement of Personal Exposure to Gas-Phase Air Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, G.; Popoola, O. A.; Mead, M. I.; McKeating, S. J.; Calleja, M.; Hayes, M.; Baron, R. P.; Saffell, J.; Jones, R.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we describe how low-cost, lightweight devices, which incorporate GPS and GPRS facilities and contain electrochemical sensors for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), have been used to collect data representative of personal exposure to these important urban air pollutants. E.U. legislation has set target levels for gases thought to have adverse impacts on human health, and consequently led to a need for a more informed air pollution control policy. With many sites in the U.K. and in the rest of the E.U. still failing to meet annual targets for NO2, a need to better understand pollutant sources and behaviour has arisen. Moreover, while traditional chemiluminescence techniques provide precise measurements, the instruments are sparsely populated around urban centres and are thus limited in their ability to account for true personal exposure. Through a series of laboratory and field studies, it has been shown that electrochemical sensor nodes, when configured suitably and after post-processing of data, can provide selective, reproducible measurements, and that the devices have appropriate detection limits (at the low parts-per-billion level), as well as fast enough response times, for urban air quality studies. Both mobile nodes and their static analogues have been deployed with different aims. Static nodes have been used in dense networks in both the urban environment and in the grounds of a major international airport, as described in the partner papers of Mead et al and Bright et al. Mobile units are easily deployed in scalable networks for short-term studies on personal exposure; these studies have been carried out in a wide range of locations including Lagos, Kuala-Lumpur, London and Valencia. Data collected by both mobile and static sensor nodes illustrate the insufficiency of the existing infrastructure in accounting for both the spatial and temporal variability in air pollutants due to road traffic emissions

  13. Phase-factor-dependent symmetries and quantum phases in a three-level cavity QED system.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jingtao; Yu, Lixian; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang

    2016-05-03

    Unlike conventional two-level particles, three-level particles may support some unitary-invariant phase factors when they interact coherently with a single-mode quantized light field. To gain a better understanding of light-matter interaction, it is thus necessary to explore the phase-factor-dependent physics in such a system. In this report, we consider the collective interaction between degenerate V-type three-level particles and a single-mode quantized light field, whose different components are labeled by different phase factors. We mainly establish an important relation between the phase factors and the symmetry or symmetry-broken physics. Specifically, we find that the phase factors affect dramatically the system symmetry. When these symmetries are breaking separately, rich quantum phases emerge. Finally, we propose a possible scheme to experimentally probe the predicted physics of our model. Our work provides a way to explore phase-factor-induced nontrivial physics by introducing additional particle levels.

  14. Impacts of the Manaus pollution plume on the microphysical properties of Amazonian warm-phase clouds in the wet season

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchini, Micael A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Wang, Jian; Fan, Jiwen; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Schmid, Beat; Albrecht, Rachel; Martin, Scot T.; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-06-09

    The remote atmosphere over the Amazon can be similar to oceanic regions in terms of aerosol conditions and cloud type formations. This is especially true during the wet season. The main aerosol-related disturbances over the Amazon have both natural sources, such as dust transport from Africa, and anthropogenic sources, such as biomass burning or urban pollution. The present work considers the impacts of the latter on the microphysical properties of warm-phase clouds by analyzing observations of the interactions between the Manaus pollution plume and its surroundings, as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The analyzed period corresponds to the wet season (specifically from February to March 2014 and corresponding to the first Intensive Operating Period (IOP1) of GoAmazon2014/5). The droplet size distributions reported are in the range 1 µm ≤ D ≤ 50 µm in order to capture the processes leading up to the precipitation formation. The wet season largely presents a clean background atmosphere characterized by frequent rain showers. As such, the contrast between background clouds and those affected by the Manaus pollution can be observed and detailed. The focus is on the characteristics of the initial microphysical properties in cumulus clouds predominantly at their early stages. The pollution-affected clouds are found to have smaller effective diameters and higher droplet number concentrations. The differences range from 10 to 40 % for the effective diameter and are as high as 1000% for droplet concentration for the same vertical levels. The growth rates of droplets with altitude are slower for pollution-affected clouds (2.90 compared to 5.59 µm km–1), as explained by the absence of bigger droplets at the onset of cloud development. Clouds under background conditions have higher concentrations of larger droplets (> 20 µm) near the cloud base, which would contribute significantly to the growth rates through the collision

  15. Impacts of the Manaus pollution plume on the microphysical properties of Amazonian warm-phase clouds in the wet season

    DOE PAGES

    Cecchini, Micael A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; ...

    2016-06-09

    The remote atmosphere over the Amazon can be similar to oceanic regions in terms of aerosol conditions and cloud type formations. This is especially true during the wet season. The main aerosol-related disturbances over the Amazon have both natural sources, such as dust transport from Africa, and anthropogenic sources, such as biomass burning or urban pollution. The present work considers the impacts of the latter on the microphysical properties of warm-phase clouds by analyzing observations of the interactions between the Manaus pollution plume and its surroundings, as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The analyzed period corresponds to the wet seasonmore » (specifically from February to March 2014 and corresponding to the first Intensive Operating Period (IOP1) of GoAmazon2014/5). The droplet size distributions reported are in the range 1 µm ≤ D ≤ 50 µm in order to capture the processes leading up to the precipitation formation. The wet season largely presents a clean background atmosphere characterized by frequent rain showers. As such, the contrast between background clouds and those affected by the Manaus pollution can be observed and detailed. The focus is on the characteristics of the initial microphysical properties in cumulus clouds predominantly at their early stages. The pollution-affected clouds are found to have smaller effective diameters and higher droplet number concentrations. The differences range from 10 to 40 % for the effective diameter and are as high as 1000% for droplet concentration for the same vertical levels. The growth rates of droplets with altitude are slower for pollution-affected clouds (2.90 compared to 5.59 µm km–1), as explained by the absence of bigger droplets at the onset of cloud development. Clouds under background conditions have higher concentrations of larger droplets (> 20 µm) near the cloud base, which would contribute significantly to the growth rates through the collision–coalescence process. The

  16. Impacts of the Manaus pollution plume on the microphysical properties of Amazonian warm-phase clouds in the wet season

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchini, Micael A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Wang, Jian; Fan, Jiwen; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Schmid, Beat; Albrecht, Rachel; Martin, Scot T.; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The remote atmosphere over the Amazon can be similar to oceanic regions in terms of aerosol conditions and cloud type formations. This is especially true during the wet season. The main aerosol-related disturbances over the Amazon have both natural sources, such as dust transport from Africa, and anthropogenic sources, such as biomass burning or urban pollution. The present work considers the impacts of the latter on the microphysical properties of warm-phase clouds by analysing observations of the interactions between the Manaus pollution plume and its surroundings, as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The analysed period corresponds to the wet season (specifically from February to March 2014 and corresponding to the first Intensive Operating Period (IOP1) of GoAmazon2014/5). The droplet size distributions reported are in the range 1 µm ≤ D≤50 µm in order to capture the processes leading up to the precipitation formation. The wet season largely presents a clean background atmosphere characterized by frequent rain showers. As such, the contrast between background clouds and those affected by the Manaus pollution can be observed and detailed. The focus is on the characteristics of the initial microphysical properties in cumulus clouds predominantly at their early stages. The pollution-affected clouds are found to have smaller effective diameters and higher droplet number concentrations. The differences range from 10 to 40% for the effective diameter and are as high as 1000% for droplet concentration for the same vertical levels. The growth rates of droplets with altitude are slower for pollution-affected clouds (2.90 compared to 5.59 µm km₋1), as explained by the absence of bigger droplets at the onset of cloud development. Clouds under background conditions have higher concentrations of larger droplets (>20 µm) near the cloud base, which would contribute significantly to the growth rates through the collision

  17. Impacts of the Manaus pollution plume on the microphysical properties of Amazonian warm-phase clouds in the wet season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, Micael A.; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Wang, Jian; Fan, Jiwen; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Schmid, Beat; Albrecht, Rachel; Martin, Scot T.; Artaxo, Paulo

    2016-06-01

    The remote atmosphere over the Amazon can be similar to oceanic regions in terms of aerosol conditions and cloud type formations. This is especially true during the wet season. The main aerosol-related disturbances over the Amazon have both natural sources, such as dust transport from Africa, and anthropogenic sources, such as biomass burning or urban pollution. The present work considers the impacts of the latter on the microphysical properties of warm-phase clouds by analysing observations of the interactions between the Manaus pollution plume and its surroundings, as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. The analysed period corresponds to the wet season (specifically from February to March 2014 and corresponding to the first Intensive Operating Period (IOP1) of GoAmazon2014/5). The droplet size distributions reported are in the range 1 µm ≤ D ≤ 50 µm in order to capture the processes leading up to the precipitation formation. The wet season largely presents a clean background atmosphere characterized by frequent rain showers. As such, the contrast between background clouds and those affected by the Manaus pollution can be observed and detailed. The focus is on the characteristics of the initial microphysical properties in cumulus clouds predominantly at their early stages. The pollution-affected clouds are found to have smaller effective diameters and higher droplet number concentrations. The differences range from 10 to 40 % for the effective diameter and are as high as 1000 % for droplet concentration for the same vertical levels. The growth rates of droplets with altitude are slower for pollution-affected clouds (2.90 compared to 5.59 µm km-1), as explained by the absence of bigger droplets at the onset of cloud development. Clouds under background conditions have higher concentrations of larger droplets (> 20 µm) near the cloud base, which would contribute significantly to the growth rates through the collision-coalescence process. The overall shape

  18. Low level air pollution and exacerbation of existing copd: a case crossover analysis.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Rebecca; Kriebel, David; Sama, Susan

    2016-10-18

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) contribute greatly to increased morbidity, mortality and diminished quality of life. Recent studies report moderately strong positive associations between exposures to several air pollutants and COPD-related emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions (HA). Studies that use clinically defined exacerbations rather than counting ED visits and HA may be more sensitive to environmental triggers like air pollution, but very few such studies exist. Participants in a COPD disease management group living in an area of low air pollution and who were followed closely for the earliest signs of an exacerbation provided an opportunity to study associations between air pollution and COPD exacerbation. Associations between short term exposures to air pollutants, including sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and particulate matter < 2.5 microns (PM2.5), and COPD exacerbation were assessed among 168 patients residing in central Massachusetts, a region with air pollution levels well below USEPA National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Case-crossover analyses and multivariate conditional logistic regression were used to estimate associations between 7-day average concentrations of each air pollutant, as measured at central site monitors, and COPD exacerbation experienced in the patients' homes during the period 2012-2013, while controlling for temperature and self-reported influenza. We found that short-term exposures to SO2 were associated with an increase in COPD exacerbation risk (odds ratio (OR) = 2.45, 95 % CI: 1.75-3.45 per 1 ppb increase) after adjustment for PM2.5. Short-term exposures to NO2 concentrations showed a weaker association, (OR = 1.17, 95 % CI: 1.05-1.30 per 1 ppb increase) after adjustment for PM2.5. An unexpectedly modest negative association was seen for short-term exposures to PM2.5. Despite living in an area with air pollution concentrations below

  19. Analysis of noise pollution level in a University campus in South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thattai, D.; Sudarsan, J. S.; Sathyanathan, R.; Ramasamy, Visalatchi

    2017-07-01

    Noise comprises those sounds occurring around us that are not part of the environment under consideration. Noise is also a type of pollution and impacts on our health and wellness. The prevalence of noise is increasing in magnitude and severity because of growing population and urbanization. Noise pollution leads to many chronic and socially significant impacts. This study analyzes the level of noise at different points in SRM University. As the University encompasses a hospital also, it is more important to identify the sources of high noise levels and control them. As per Indian standards the desirable noise pollution for educational institutions and hospitals in daytime is 50 dbA. Noise levels were measured with a sound level meter at 19 points within the campus at three different timings (8-10 am, 12-2 pm, and 3-5 pm) over two cycles of measurements. The preliminary results show higher noise levels during morning and evening. Noise during Cycle 2 (latter half of semester) was 20% more compared to that of Cycle 1 (beginning of semester).

  20. Synthetic/biosynthetic phase transfer polymers for pollution minimization, remediation, and waste management. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.; Cannon, G.C.; Lochhead, R.Y.

    1994-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this interdisciplinary proposal is the development of phase transfer polymers capable of efficient removal of water-borne pollutants from inadvertent spills or waste discharge in naval environments. Targets include petroleum based fuels and lubricants and gray water contaminants such as surfactants and oils. The polymers will be specifically tailored by synthetic or biosynthetic techniques to possess pH-responsive, hydrophobic domains which would allow capture, sequestration, and subsequent separation of foulants from water. The polymers can be recovered in the separation stage by simple pH change and can be recycled; the biopolymers proposed have the additional attribute of being biodegradable. By contrast, traditional small molecule surfactants are ineffective at high dilution for phase transfer, are virtually unrecoverable, and resist biodegradation.

  1. Metal contents in Centaurium erythraea and its biometry at various levels of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Brudzińska-Kosior, Anna; Kosior, Grzegorz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2012-06-01

    In this investigation we focus on the influence of pollution on concentration of elements in the medicinal Centaurium erythraea. This herb is collected from wild populations and also provides important information as monitor of environmental quality. Concentrations of Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Ni, P, Pb, V and Zn in Centaurium erythraea and in the soil in which this plant grew were measured together with biometrical features of the species from sites affected by various levels of pollution. C. erythraea from sites polluted by lignite mining and industrial combustion had the highest concentrations of Cd, Co and Zn (principal component and classification analysis, PCCA). C. erythraea from sites influenced by ferrous-chromium and thermal power plants had the highest concentrations of Cr and Fe as well as Cu, Mn and Ni and the highest length of shoots and number of leaves, shoots, nodes, flowers and flowers on the main shoot. These luxurious growth forms were probably related to the highest concentrations of N, P and Fe in the soil and concentrations of N and K accumulated by C. erythraea on these sites as revealed by the established models. Controlling the collection of C. erythraea for medicinal purposes is recommended as this species is able to accumulate increased levels of metals from polluted sites. The medical quality of C. erythraea may be negatively related to the degree and type of pollution of the environment and should not be based on the luxurious growth of individuals which may contain hazardous levels of metals.

  2. Source reconciliation of atmospheric gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants during a severe photochemical smog episode.

    PubMed

    Schauer, James J; Fraser, Matthew P; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-09-01

    A comprehensive organic compound-based receptor model is developed that can simultaneously apportion the source contributions to atmospheric gas-phase organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, fine particle organic compounds, and fine particle mass. The model is applied to ambient data collected at four sites in the south coast region of California during a severe summertime photochemical smog episode, where the model determines the direct primary contributions to atmospheric pollutants from 11 distinct air pollution source types. The 11 sources included in the model are gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, whole gasoline vapors, gasoline headspace vapors, organic solvent vapors, whole diesel fuel, paved road dust, tire wear debris, meat cooking exhaust, natural gas leakage, and vegetative detritus. Gasoline engine exhaust plus whole gasoline vapors are the predominant sources of volatile organic gases, while gasoline and diesel engine exhaust plus diesel fuel vapors dominate the emissions of semivolatile organic compounds from these sources during the episode studied at all four air monitoring sites. The atmospheric fine particle organic compound mass was composed of noticeable contributions from gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, meat cooking, and paved road dust with smaller but quantifiable contributions from vegetative detritus and tire wear debris. In addition, secondary organic aerosol, which is formed from the low-vapor pressure products of gas-phase chemical reactions, is found to be a major source of fine particle organic compound mass under the severe photochemical smog conditions studied here. The concentrations of secondary organic aerosol calculated in the present study are compared with previous fine particle source apportionment results for less intense photochemical smog conditions. It is shown that estimated secondary organic aerosol concentrations correlate fairly well with the

  3. Decrease in the abundance and viability of oceanic phytoplankton due to trace levels of complex mixtures of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Echeveste, Pedro; Dachs, Jordi; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Agustí, Susana

    2010-09-01

    Long range atmospheric transport and deposition is a significant introduction pathway of organic pollutants to remote oceanic regions, leading to their subsequent accumulation in marine organisms. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) bioconcentrate in planktonic food webs and these exert a biogeochemical control on the regional and global cycling of POPs. Therefore, an important issue is to determine whether the anthropogenic chemical perturbation of the biosphere introduced by the myriad of organic pollutants present in seawater influences phytoplankton abundance and productivity. The results reported here from five sets of experiments performed in the NE Atlantic Ocean show that there is a toxic effect induced by trace levels of complex mixtures of organic pollutants on phytoplankton oceanic communities. The levels of single pollutant, such as phenanthrene and pyrene, at which lethality of phytoplankton is observed are high in comparison to field levels. Complex mixtures of organic pollutants, however, have an important toxic effect on phytoplankton abundances, viability and concentrations of Chlorophyll a at pollutant concentrations 20-40 folds those found in the open ocean. The toxicity of these complex mixtures of organic pollutants exceeds by 10(3) times the toxicity expected for a single pollutant. Therefore, our results point out the need for a systematic investigation of the influence of complex mixtures of organic hydrophobic pollutants to oceanic phytoplankton communities, a perturbation not accounted for on previous assessments of anthropogenic pressures in the marine environment.

  4. 36. Perimeter acquisition radar building, phase shifter service platform; level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Perimeter acquisition radar building, phase shifter service platform; level three - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  5. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in air in China and over the Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Ghim, Young-Sung; Grados, Amélie; Gao, Huiwang; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Lohmann, Rainer

    The occurrence of persistent toxic substances (PTS) in China and possibly their regional transport in the Yellow and East China Seas region was studied. Organochlorines in atmospheric gas-phase and particulate matter were collected by high-volume sampling (filters and polyurethane foams) during 2 weeks in June 2003 (dry season) simultaneously at a Yellow Sea coastal site in an urban area, Qingdao, China, and a rural island site, Gosan, Jeju Island, Korea. Using GC methods, the samples were analysed for 9 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated under the global POP convention, namely aldrin, chlordane ( cis- and trans-isomers CC and TC), DDT and metabolites ( o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDD, and p, p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mirex and PCB (congeners number 28, 52, 101, 153 and 180), and for hexachlorocyclohexane ( α-, β- and γ-isomers), a PTS and now considered for regulation under the convention, too. At the coastal site additionally o, p'-DDE and -DDD, β-endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlorepoxide and δ-HCH, and at the island site additionally p, p'-DDT and 12 additional PCB congeners were analysed. 9 samples were collected at the coastal and 15 (for PCBs 5) at the island site. Long-range advection pathways were determined based on analysed back-trajectory calculations. The mean concentrations of DDT and its metabolites, HCB, HCH, and PCB at the coast were in the 100-1000 pg m -3 range. Higher concentrations prevailed during nighttime. The levels were in general lower at the island site, but not for DDT. Local sources are likely. PCBs were even 2 orders of magnitude lower, suggesting that PCBs are not subject to regional transport but elevated concentrations in air are limited to the source areas. Organochlorine pesticide levels on the other hand were seemingly determined by regional transport over Mainland China rather than by emissions in the coastal area. The currently used pesticides mirex and chlordane were found at elevated

  6. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents results from the first year of a 2-year study, investigating associations of five air pollutants (CO, NO2, NOX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) with the presence of natural gas appliances in California homes. From November 2011 to March 2012, pollutant concentration and occupant activity data were collected in 155 homes for 6-day periods. The sample population included both single-family (68%) and multi-family (32%) dwellings, with 87% having at least one gas appliance and 77% having an unvented gas cooking appliance. The geometric mean (GM) NO2 levels measured in the kitchen, bedroom and outside of homes were similar at values of 15, 12 and 11 ppb, respectively. In contrast, the GM NOx levels measured in the kitchen and bedroom of homes were much higher than levels measured outdoors, at levels of 42 and 41 ppb, compared to 19 ppb, respectively. Roughly 10% of sampled homes had 6-day average NO2 levels that exceeded the outdoor annual average limit set by the California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) (30 ppb). The GMs of the highest 1-h and 8-h CO level measured in homes were 2.5 and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Four homes had a 1-h or 8-h concentration that exceeded the outdoor limits set by the CAAQS. The GM formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations measured in homes were 15 and 7 ppb, respectively. Roughly 95% of homes had average formaldehyde levels indoors that exceeded the Chronic Reference Exposure Level set by the California EPA (7 ppb). Concentrations of NO2 and NOx, and to a lesser extent CO were associated with use of gas appliances, particularly unvented gas cooking appliances. Based on first principles, it is expected that effective venting of cooking pollutant emissions at the source will lead to a reduction of pollutant concentrations. However, no statistical association was detected between kitchen exhaust fan use and pollutant concentrations in homes in this study where gas cooking occurred frequently. The lack of

  7. An air quality balance index estimating the total amount of air pollutants at ground level.

    PubMed

    Trivero, Paolo; Biamino, Walter; Borasi, Maria; Cavagnero, Marco; Musa, Maya; Rinaudo, Caterina; Sesia, Veronica

    2012-07-01

    A new index named Air Quality Balance Index (AQBI), which is able to characterise the amount of pollution level in a selected area, is proposed. This index is a function of the ratios between pollutant concentration values and their standards; it aims at identifying all situations in which there is a possible environmental risk even when several pollutants are below their limit values but air quality is reduced. AQBI is evaluated by using a high-resolution three-dimensional dispersion model: the air concentration for each substance is computed starting from detailed emissions sources: point, line and area emissions hourly modulated. This model is driven with accurate meteorological data from ground stations and remote sensing systems providing vertical profiles of temperature and wind; these data are integrated with wind and temperature profiles at higher altitudes obtained by a Local Area Model. The outputs of the dispersion model are compared with pollutant concentrations provided by measuring stations, in order to recalibrate emission data. A three-dimensional high resolution grid of AQBI data is evaluated for an industrial area close to Alessandria (Northern Italy), assessing air quality and environmental conditions. Performance of AQBI is compared with the Air Quality Index (AQI) developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. AQBI, computed taking into account all pollutants, is able to point out situations not evidenced by AQI, based on a preset limited number of substances; therefore, AQBI is a good tool for evaluating the air quality either in urban and in industrial areas. The AQBI values at ground level, in selected points, are in agreement with in situ observations.

  8. [Effect of pollutants of press-pack industry on antioxidants level of worker].

    PubMed

    Huang, Pei-li; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Shu-hua; Wang, Yi-min

    2005-11-01

    To study the differences in antioxidants level (SOD, GSH-PX, LPO, VC, VE) between the male workers who worked to volatile benzene compounds in printing factory and the male workers who were not for evaluating the effect of pollution of volatile benzene compounds in printing industry. SOD, GSH-PX, VC were measured as ultraviolet visible spetrophotometry (UV). LPO, V(E) were measured as molecular fluorescence spectroscopy. Data of 43 male workers exposed to benzene toluene and xylene and control group of 50 were analyzed by SPSS 11.0. The exposed workers were significantly different with controls in SOD, GSH-PX/LPO, VC (P < 0.05) but not in VE (P > 0.05). The Antioxidants level of male printing workers could be affected by exposure to pollution of volatile benzene compounds in printing industry.

  9. Variability of Surface pollutants and aerosol concentration over Abu Dhabi, UAE - sources, transport and current levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phanikumar, Devulapalli V.; Basha, Ghouse; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-04-01

    In the view of recent economic, industrial, and rapid development, Abu Dhabi (24.4oN; 54.4oE; 27m msl) has become one of the most populated regions in the world despite of extreme heat, frequent dust storms, and with distinctive topography. The major sources of air pollution are from the dust and sand storms, greenhouse gas emissions, and to some extent from industrial pollution. In order to realize the accurate and comprehensive understanding of air quality and plausible sources over this region, we have made a detailed analysis of three years simultaneous measurements during 2011-13 of pollutants such as O3, SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 concentrations. Diurnal variation of meteorological parameters such as temperature and wind speed/relative humidity clearly shows daytime maximum/minimum in summer followed by pre-monsoon, post-monsoon and winter. The prevailing winds over this region are mostly from northwesterly direction (Shamal wind). Diurnal wind pattern showed a clear contrast with the majority of the wind pattern during nighttime and early morning is from the westerly/northwesterly and daytime is from southwesterly/southeasterly directions. The diurnal pattern of O3 shows minimum during 08 LT and increases thereafter reaching maximum at 17 LT and decreases during nighttime. However, the diurnal pattern of SO2 and NO2 show a peak at ~ 08 LT and dip at ~ 14 LT during all the seasons with some variability in each season. On the other hand, the diurnal pattern of CO shows a peculiar picture of elevated levels during daytime peaking at ~ 10 LT (prominent in summer and post-monsoon) followed by a sharp decrease and minimum is ~14 LT. PM10 concentration has an early morning peak at ~ 02 LT and then decreases to a minimum value at ~11 LT and again increases in the afternoon hours (maximum at ~17 LT) depicting a forenoon-afternoon asymmetry. Monthly variation of PM10 shows maximum in pre-monsoon season and minimum in winter. Our observations show the diurnal pattern of

  10. Respiratory Health Symptoms among Students Exposed to Different Levels of Air Pollution in a Turkish City

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Hülya; Gaga, Eftade O.; Döğeroğlu, Tuncay; Özden, Özlem; Ayvaz, Özkan; Özel, Sevda; Güngör, Günay

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of respiratory health symptoms among high school students attending schools at industrial, urban and rural areas in a Turkish city. Three schools located in different zones of the city having different pollution characteristics were chosen based on the pollutant distribution maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) software. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 667 high school students in the schools. Outdoor and indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3) concentrations were also measured by passive samplers in the same schools to investigate possible routes of exposure. Chronic pulmonary disease (OR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.11–1.99; p = 0.008), tightness in the chest (OR = 1.57; 95%CI: 1.22–2.02; p = 0.001), morning cough (OR = 1.81 95%CI: 1.19–2.75; p = 0.006) were higher among students in the industrial zone where nitrogen dioxide and ozone levels were also highest. There were no indoor sources of nitrogen dioxide and ozone exists in the schools except for the dining hall. As a conclusion, this study has noticed that air pollution and respiratory health problems among high school students are high in industrial zones and the use of passive samplers combined with GIS is an effective tool that may be used by public health researchers to identify pollutant zones and persons at risk. PMID:21695031

  11. Quantitative phase measurement for wafer-level optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Weijuan; Wen, Yongfu; Wang, Zhaomin; Yang, Fang; Huang, Lei; Zuo, Chao

    2015-07-01

    Wafer-level-optics now is widely used in smart phone camera, mobile video conferencing or in medical equipment that require tiny cameras. Extracting quantitative phase information has received increased interest in order to quantify the quality of manufactured wafer-level-optics, detect defective devices before packaging, and provide feedback for manufacturing process control, all at the wafer-level for high-throughput microfabrication. We demonstrate two phase imaging methods, digital holographic microscopy (DHM) and Transport-of-Intensity Equation (TIE) to measure the phase of the wafer-level lenses. DHM is a laser-based interferometric method based on interference of two wavefronts. It can perform a phase measurement in a single shot. While a minimum of two measurements of the spatial intensity of the optical wave in closely spaced planes perpendicular to the direction of propagation are needed to do the direct phase retrieval by solving a second-order differential equation, i.e., with a non-iterative deterministic algorithm from intensity measurements using the Transport-of-Intensity Equation (TIE). But TIE is a non-interferometric method, thus can be applied to partial-coherence light. We demonstrated the capability and disability for the two phase measurement methods for wafer-level optics inspection.

  12. Antialgal effects of five individual allelochemicals and their mixtures in low level pollution conditions.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shengpeng; Zhou, Shoubiao; Ye, Liangtao; Ding, Ying; Jiang, Xiaofeng

    2016-08-01

    An effective, environmentally friendly, and eco-sustainable approach for removing harmful microalgae is exploiting the allelopathic potential of aquatic macrophytes. In this study, we simulated field pollution conditions in the laboratory to investigate algal inhibition by allelochemicals, thereby providing insights into field practices. We tested five allelochemicals, i.e., coumarin, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, stearic acid, and ρ-aminobenzenesulfonic acid, and a typical green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, under two conditions. In the unpolluted treatment, individual allelochemicals had strong algal inhibition effects, where coumarin and ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid had greater potential for algal inhibition than protocatechuic acid, stearic acid, and ρ-aminobenzenesulfonic acid based on the 50 % inhibitory concentration. However, when two or three allelochemicals were mixed in specific proportions, the algal inhibition rate exceeded 80 %, thereby indicating allelopathic synergistic interactions. Mixtures of four or five allelochemicals had weak effects on algal inhibition, which indicated antagonistic interactions. Furthermore, the presence of low lead pollution significantly reduced the antialgal potential of individual allelochemicals, whereas the allelopathic synergistic interactions with mixtures between two or three allelochemicals were changed into antagonistic effects by low pollution. In particular, the allelopathic antagonistic interactions between four or five allelochemicals were increased by pollution. The allelopathic performance of these five allelochemicals may depend on various factors, such as the chemical species, mixture parameters, and algal strain. Thus, we found that low level pollution reduced the allelopathic inhibition of microalgae by allelochemicals. Therefore, the control of algae by the direct addition of allelochemicals should consider various environmental factors.

  13. Finding candidate locations for aerosol pollution monitoring at street level using a data-driven methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi, V.; Aschwanden, G.; Velasco, E.

    2015-09-01

    Finding the number and best locations of fixed air quality monitoring stations at street level is challenging because of the complexity of the urban environment and the large number of factors affecting the pollutants concentration. Data sets of such urban parameters as land use, building morphology and street geometry in high-resolution grid cells in combination with direct measurements of airborne pollutants at high frequency (1-10 s) along a reasonable number of streets can be used to interpolate concentration of pollutants in a whole gridded domain and determine the optimum number of monitoring sites and best locations for a network of fixed monitors at ground level. In this context, a data-driven modeling methodology is developed based on the application of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to approximate the nonlinear relations between urban parameters (80 in this work) and aerosol pollution data, such as mass and number concentrations measured along streets of a commercial/residential neighborhood of Singapore. Cross-validations between measured and predicted aerosol concentrations based on the urban parameters at each individual grid cell showed satisfying results. This proof of concept study showed that the selected urban parameters proved to be an appropriate indirect measure of aerosol concentrations within the studied area. The potential locations for fixed air quality monitors are identified through clustering of areas (i.e., group of cells) with similar urban patterns. The typological center of each cluster corresponds to the most representative cell for all other cells in the cluster. In the studied neighborhood four different clusters were identified and for each cluster potential sites for air quality monitoring at ground level are identified.

  14. Finding candidate locations for aerosol pollution monitoring at street level using a data-driven methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moosavi, V.; Aschwanden, G.; Velasco, E.

    2015-03-01

    Finding the number and significant locations of fixed air quality monitoring stations at ground level is challenging because of the complexity of the urban environment and the large number of factors affecting the pollutants concentration. Datasets of urban parameters such as land use, building morphology and street geometry in high resolution grid cells in combination with direct measurements of airborne pollutants in high frequency (1-10 s) along a reasonable number of streets can be used to interpolate concentration of pollutants in a whole gridded domain and determine the optimum number of monitoring sites and best locations for a network of fixed monitors at ground level. In this context, a data-driven modeling methodology is developed based on the application of Self Organizing Map (SOM) to approximate the nonlinear relations between urban parameters (80 in this work) and aerosol pollution data, such as mass and number concentrations measured along streets of a commercial/residential neighborhood of Singapore. Cross-validations between measured and predicted aerosol concentrations based on the urban parameters at each individual grid cell showed satisfying results. The urban parameters used in this case proved to be an appropriate indirect measure of aerosol concentrations within the studied area. The potential locations for fixed air quality monitors are identified through clustering of areas (i.e. group of cells) with similar urban patterns. The typological center of each cluster corresponds to the most representative cell for all other cells in the cluster. In the studied neighborhood four different clusters were identified and for each cluster potential sites for air quality monitoring at ground level are identified.

  15. Estimating Causal Effects of Local Air Pollution on Daily Deaths: Effect of Low Levels

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Joel; Bind, Marie-Abele; Koutrakis, Petros

    2016-01-01

    further control efforts. Citation: Schwartz J, Bind MA, Koutrakis P. 2017. Estimating causal effects of local air pollution on daily deaths: effect of low levels. Environ Health Perspect 125:23–29; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP232 PMID:27203595

  16. 37. Perimeter acquisition radar building, phase shifter service platform, level ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Perimeter acquisition radar building, phase shifter service platform, level three; This shows the coaxial switches and transmitter output assembly (located only on this level) - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Perimeter Acquisition Radar Building, Limited Access Area, between Limited Access Patrol Road & Service Road A, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  17. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the facility characterization project phase

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    A facility characterization (FC) is conducted to determine the nature and extent contamination at a potential hazardous facility waste site. The information gathered during an FC includes (1) data on the volume and chemical nature of the waste, (2) information on the extent of contamination and the migration potential of the contaminants, (3) preliminary information on evaluation of alternative concepts that can or cannot be considered, and (4)supportive technical and cost data. For the purposes of identification, the following operational phases will be used for definition for this phase of the decommissioning and decontamination process (1) facility characterization before clean up, (2) characterization during clean up, (3) characterization of waste materials, and (4) site characterization after clean up. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these characterization activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist users with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FC phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction.

  18. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the feasibility study project phase

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Feasibility studies (FS) determine what remedial alternatives are presented to regulators for site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best remedial option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user in incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FS phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments.

  19. Using background air pollutants levels correlation analysis to identify periods of long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konkova, Elizaveta S.; Burtseva, Larisa V.; Gromov, Sergey A.; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing trends of airborne lead and cadmium at background station within the central region of European Russia have been identified previously (e.g., Gromov & Konkova, 2016). In order to reveal the possible drivers of these trends, a deeper investigation of correlation among these heavy metals (HM) and other co-measured pollutants is done in this study. Based on the data for the 2001-2012 period, calculations have been carried out for the period from 2006 onwards, when the growth of HM concentrations is observed. Pairwise correlations of individual species abundances were derived for the entire time series and subsets for each calendar year, including warm (April to September) and cold seasons (October to March). The calculated values for the seasons and the whole years vary substantially, suggesting that that variable ratios of atmospheric HM emission sources could affect the final air concentrations at measurement site in these periods. To distinguish the events of predominant influence of natural and anthropogenic sources, we assume that correlation between lead and cadmium levels must be greater in the case of natural sources being in effect. High values of the correlation coefficient are expected in cases when HM air abundances are induced by the long-range transport from the regions of anthropogenic sources (co-emission of these metals results from a number of same sources, and both of them are also present on same matrix aerosols). The results demonstrate a substantial correlation between Pb and Cd, with higher values for individual seasons (70% of 0.5 and higher) than for whole years. Higher mass concentrations of airborne dust (TSP) in remote areas are to large extent promoted by large particles blown away from the surface at local surroundings. Captured better by filters, such events could be a particular indicator of local (mostly natural) sources. Low or insignificant correlation with HM indicates prevalence of long-range transport of them and could

  20. Exploring EKC, trends of growth patterns and air pollutants concentration level in Malaysia: A Nemerow Index Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; >Tahira Yasmin,

    2013-06-01

    The present study examines an Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis by analyzing annual data of air pollutants concentartion and per capita GDP as economic indicator over the (1996-2010) period in Malaysia. Nemerow Index Approach (I) used to generate a measures of air pollution. The results show that ambient air quality indicators supports the EKC hypothesis which stated that pollution levels increase as a country develops, but begin to decrease as rising incomes pass beyond a turning poin. Also, the I result is justifying that most pollutants are showing value less than 1.

  1. Effect of public transport strikes on air pollution levels in Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Basagaña, Xavier; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Agis, David; Pérez, Noemí; Reche, Cristina; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier

    2017-08-23

    Public transport strikes can lead to an increase of the number of private vehicle trips, which in turn can increase air pollution levels. We aimed to estimate the change in air pollution concentrations during public transport strikes in the city of Barcelona (Spain). Data on strikes of the metro, train or bus systems were collected from government records (2005-2016). We collected daily concentrations of NOx; particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10μm (PM10), 2.5μm (PM2.5), and 1μm (PM1); particle number concentration (N); black carbon (BC) and CO from research and official monitoring stations. We fitted linear regression models for each pollutant with the strike indicator as an independent variable, and models were adjusted for day of the week, month, year, and holiday periods. During the study period, there were 208days affected by a strike of the metro (28), train (106) or bus (91) systems. Half of the strikes were partial, most of them were single-day strikes, there was little overlap between strikes of the different transport systems, and all strikes had to comply with mandatory minimal services. When pooling all types of strikes, NOx and BC showed higher levels during strike days in comparison with non-strike days (increase between 4.1% and 7.7%, with higher increases for NO). The increases in these concentrations were more evident during full day and multiday metro strikes. In conclusion, alterations in public transport have consequences on air quality. This highlights the importance of public transport in reducing air pollution concentrations in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Mobile Monitoring to Assess Spatial Variability in Urban Air Pollution Levels: Opportunities and Challenges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, T.

    2010-12-01

    Measuring air pollution concentrations from a moving platform is not a new idea. Historically, however, most information on the spatial variability of air pollutants have been derived from fixed site networks operating simultaneously over space. While this approach has obvious advantages from a regulatory perspective, with the increasing need to understand ever finer scales of spatial variability in urban pollution levels, the use of mobile monitoring to supplement fixed site networks has received increasing attention. Here we present examples of the use of this approach: 1) to assess existing fixed-site fine particle networks in Seattle, WA, including the establishment of new fixed-site monitoring locations; 2) to assess the effectiveness of a regulatory intervention, a wood stove burning ban, on the reduction of fine particle levels in the greater Puget Sound region; and 3) to assess spatial variability of both wood smoke and mobile source impacts in both Vancouver, B.C. and Tacoma, WA. Deducing spatial information from the inherently spatio-temporal measurements taken from a mobile platform is an area that deserves further attention. We discuss the use of “fuzzy” points to address the fine-scale spatio-temporal variability in the concentration of mobile source pollutants, specifically to deduce the broader distribution and sources of fine particle soot in the summer in Vancouver, B.C. We also discuss the use of principal component analysis to assess the spatial variability in multivariate, source-related features deduced from simultaneous measurements of light scattering, light absorption and particle-bound PAHs in Tacoma, WA. With increasing miniaturization and decreasing power requirements of air monitoring instruments, the number of simultaneous measurements that can easily be made from a mobile platform is rapidly increasing. Hopefully the methods used to design mobile monitoring experiments for differing purposes, and the methods used to interpret those

  3. Levels and predictors of persistent organic pollutants in an adult population from four Spanish regions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Arrebola, J P; Artacho-Cordón, F; Amaya, E; Aragones, N; Llorca, J; Perez-Gomez, B; Ardanaz, E; Kogevinas, M; Castano-Vinyals, G; Pollan, M; Olea, N

    2015-12-15

    This research aimed to assess serum concentrations of a group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in a sample of adults recruited in four different regions from Spain and to assess socio-demographic, dietary, and lifestyle predictors of the exposure. The study population comprised 312 healthy adults selected from among controls recruited in the MCC-Spain multicase-control study. Study variables were collected using standardized questionnaires, and pollutants were analyzed by means of gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Multivariable analyses were performed to identify predictors of log-transformed pollutant concentrations, using combined backward and forward stepwise multiple linear regression models. Detection rates ranged from 89.1% (hexachlorobenzene, HCB) to 93.6% (Polychlorinated biphenyl-153 [PCB-153]); p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) showed the highest median concentrations (1.04ng/ml), while HCB showed the lowest (0.24ng/ml). In the multivariable models, age was positively associated with HCB, p,p'-DDE, and PCB-180. BMI was associated positively with p,p'-DDE but negatively with PCB-138. Total accumulated time residing in an urban area was positively associated with PCB-153 concentrations. The women showed higher HCB and lower p,p'-DDE concentrations versus the men. Notably, POP exposure in our study population was inversely associated with the breastfeeding received by participants and with the number of pregnancies of their mothers but was not related to the participants' history of breastfeeding their children or parity. Smoking was negatively associated with HCB and PCB-153 concentrations. Consumption of fatty foods, including blue fish, was in general positively associated with POP levels. Although POP environmental levels are declining worldwide, there is a need for the continuous monitoring of human exposure in the general population. The results of the present study confirm previous findings and point to novel

  4. A Causal Inference Analysis of the Effect of Wildland Fire Smoke on Ambient Air Pollution Levels and Health Burden

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildfire smoke is a major contributor to ambient air pollution levels. In this talk, we develop a spatio-temporal model to estimate the contribution of fire smoke to overall air pollution in different regions of the country. We combine numerical model output with observational da...

  5. On the use of non-Gaussian models for prediction of extreme pollution levels in environmental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, D. B.; Medvedev, A. N.; Sergeev, A. P.; Taubayev, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work is to study the distribution of contamination at the territory on the data of snow samples analysis, in order to find an approach to forecasting of the extreme pollution levels. The hypothesis of normal distribution of the values of pollution index (the intensity of dust fallout on the territory, mg /m2/day) is not confirmed on the results of statistical analysis of the data for six different experimental sites (from 81 to 256 values of the index for each site). For the set of 243 values of the pollution index at the territory of a city, there is made an attempt of forecast of its possible extreme values not detected on the results of the snow sampling. For this, the linear dependence "pollution index - the number of points with the given pollution index" built in double logarithmic coordinates, is extrapolated into the area of high values of the pollution index.

  6. Using community level strategies to reduce asthma attacks triggered by outdoor air pollution: a case crossover analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    pollutant exposure is important to effectively attribute risk for triggering of an asthma attack, especially as concentrations increase. Improved asthma action plans for Houston individuals should warn of these pollutants, their trends, correlation and cumulative effects. Our Houston based study identifies nitrogen dioxide levels and the three-day exposure to ozone to be of concern whereas current single pollutant based national standards do not. PMID:25012280

  7. Diffuse and point pollution impacts on the pathogen indicator organism level in the Geum River, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geonha; Choi, Euiso; Lee, Dongryul

    2005-11-01

    The pathogens originating from diffuse pollution have raised much concern recently. In many countries, pathogen levels are monitored in surface water by measuring the pathogen indicator organism level, which indicates the concentration of pathogen associated microorganisms to determine contamination. Among indicator organisms, total coliform, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli were selected for study, and their concentration as well as their flow rate were monitored at monitoring stations from October, 2001 to April, 2003. Monitoring stations include six sampling stations in the Geum River, two small watersheds used for forestry and agricultural land, one large wastewater treatment plant, one separate sewer overflow site, and one separate sewer overflow site in the Geum River basin. The coliform concentration of the combined sewer overflow was the highest, followed by the runoff from agricultural land use, the separate sewer overflow, and the runoff from forestry land use. The Pearson correlation coefficient for flow rate against total coliform concentration was 0.71 and was significant at 0.01 level, while the Pearson coefficient for other water quality constituents showed weak correlation (-0.36 to +0.37) against flow rate. Coliform concentration showed higher correlation against suspended solid concentration or flow rate during storm flow condition than during low flow condition. Two different relationship lines could explain the relationships between the flow rate and coliform loadings. Load duration curve technique was presented to assess the relative contributions of diffuse and point source pollution to the pathogen level at monitoring sites in the Geum River.

  8. Levels of metals in hair of young children as an indicator of environmental pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Wibowo, A.A.; Herber, R.F.; Das, H.A.; Roeleveld, N.; Zielhuis, R.L.

    1986-08-01

    In 1982 the levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), vanadium (V), copper (Cu), and selenium (Se) were determined in hair of 231 four- to five-year-old children. The objective was to explore the feasibility of using metal-in-hair levels in groups of children as an indicator of environmental pollution. The study was carried out in four areas, which were assumed to differ in ambient pollution by metals. A questionnaire on personal data, socioeconomic status, intake of beverages, and life-style was completed by the parents. The metal-in-hair levels covered a large range. The variables pertaining to location together with sex, presence of a garden, and drinking of coffee and/or tea explained 32% of the variance of Pb, 24% of the variance of Cd, and 21% of the variance of V. The total variance explained by all measured questionnaire items was at best 38%. The location was the most important factor. Cu and Se levels did not differ between the locations.

  9. Global Gray Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels Related to Anthropogenic Nitrogen Loads to Fresh Water.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2015-11-03

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater, calculate the resultant gray water footprints (GWFs), and relate the GWFs per river basin to runoff to calculate the N-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment. The accumulated global GWF related to anthropogenic N loads in the period 2002-2010 was 13×10(12) m3/y. China contributed about 45% to the global total. Three quarters of the GWF related to N loads came from diffuse sources (agriculture), 23% from domestic point sources and 2% from industrial point sources. Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the N-related GWF (18%), followed by vegetables (15%) and oil crops (11%). The river basins with WPL>1 (where the N load exceeds the basin's assimilation capacity), cover about 17% of the global land area, contribute about 9% of the global river discharge, and provide residence to 48% of the global population.

  10. Exposure to air pollution in critical prenatal time windows and IgE levels in newborns.

    PubMed

    Herr, Caroline E W; Ghosh, Rakesh; Dostal, Miroslav; Skokanova, Venuse; Ashwood, Paul; Lipsett, Michael; Joad, Jesse P; Pinkerton, Kent E; Yap, Poh-Sin; Frost, Joshua D; Sram, Radim; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the mechanisms by which exposure to ambient air pollutants influences respiratory health may include altered prenatal immune development. To analyze associations between elevated cord serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and maternal air pollution exposure during each month of gestation. Total cord serum IgE was determined by the CAP system and mothers' total IgE levels by nephelometry for 459 births in the Czech Republic from May 1994 to mid-January 1997. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and particulate matter <2.5 microns in diameter (PM(2.5) ) were measured in ambient air, and arithmetic means were calculated for each gestational month. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) for elevated cord serum IgE (≥0.9 IU/ml) adjusting for district of residence, year of birth, and in further models, for maternal IgE (a surrogate for atopy) and gestational season. Heterogeneity by maternal atopy status was evaluated for associations of air pollution and of cigarette smoke. In adjusted models, PAH and PM(2.5) exposures in the second month of gestation were each associated with a lower prevalence of elevated cord serum IgE. For an average increase of 100 ng/m(3) of PAHs, the PR was 0.69 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 0.95); for 25 μg/m(3) increase in PM(2.5) , the PR was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.55, 1.07). Conversely, exposures later in gestation were associated with a higher prevalence of elevated cord IgE: in the fifth month, the PR for PAH exposure was 1.64 (95% CI: 1.29, 2.08), while for PM(2.5) in the sixth month, it was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.13). In analyses stratified by maternal atopy, air pollutants were associated with altered cord serum IgE only among neonates with non-atopic mothers. Similarly, an association of cigarette smoke with elevated cord serum IgE was found only in non-atopic mothers. PAHs and PM(2.5) , constituents of both ambient air pollution and

  11. Continuous-wave terahertz by photomixing: applications to gas phase pollutant detection and quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindle, Francis; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël

    2008-03-01

    Recent advances in the development of monochromatic continuous-wave terahertz sources suitable for high resolution gas phase spectroscopy and pollution monitoring are reviewed. Details of a source using an ultra fast opto-electronic photomixing element are presented. The construction of a terahertz spectrometer using this source has allowed spectroscopic characterisation and application studies to be completed. Analysis of H 2S and OCS under laboratory conditions are used to demonstrate the spectrometer performance, and the determination of the transition line strengths and pressure self broadening coefficients for pure rotational transitions of OCS. The spectral purity 5 MHz, tunability 0.3 to 3 THz, and long wavelength ≈200 μm of this source have been exploited to identify and quantify numerous chemical species in cigarette smoke. The key advantages of this frequency domain are its high species selectivity and the possibility to make reliable measurements of gas phase samples heavily contaminated by aerosols and particles. To cite this article: F. Hindle et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  12. Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.

    PubMed

    Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

    2012-05-01

    Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels.

  13. Multiple pollutant removal using the condensing heat exchanger: Phase 1 final report, November 1995--May 1997. Addendum 1: Task 2 topical report -- Pollutant removal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, R.T.; Jankura, B.J.

    1998-06-01

    Integrated Flue Gas Treatment (IFGT) uses two Condensing Heat Exchangers (CHXs{reg_sign}) in series to recover waste heat from the flue gas and remove a variety of pollutants from the flue gas. The Teflon{reg_sign}-covered internals of the condensing heat exchanger permit heat recovery at temperatures below the acid dew-point of the flue gas. The pollutant removal characteristics of the IFGT system were measured over a wide range of operating conditions in a pilot Integrated Flue Gas Treatment System rated at 1.2 MW{sub t} (4 million Btu/hr) using a wide range of coals. The coals tested included a high-sulfur coal, a medium-sulfur coal and a low-sulfur coal. The flue gas pollutants investigated included ammonia, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride, particulate, sulfur dioxide, gas phase and particle phase mercury and gas phase and particle phase trace elements. The particulate removal efficiency and size distribution was also investigated. Soda ash, lime and magnesium-lime scrubbing reagents were investigated. The test results show that the IFGT system can remove greater than 95% removal of acid gases with a liquid-to-gas ratio less than 1.34 l/m{sup 3} (10 gal/1,000 ft{sup 3}), and that lime reagents show promise as a substitute for soda ash. Particulate and ammonia gas removal was also very high. Ionic mercury removal averaged 80%, while elemental mercury removal was very low. Trace metals were found to be concentrated in the fine particulate with removal efficiencies in the range of 50% to 80%. The data measured in this task provides the basis for predictions of the performance of an IFGT system for both utility and industrial applications.

  14. Characteristics and sources of lead pollution after phasing out leaded gasoline in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yele; Zhuang, Guoshun; Zhang, Wenjie; Wang, Ying; Zhuang, Yahui

    A 5-year long-term programme of Pb-monitoring from 2000 to 2004 was carried out at three representative urban sites (a traffic, an industrial, and a residential site), and a suburban site to evaluate the pollution level of Pb in Beijing. For comparison, aerosol samples were also collected in four other cities, Shanghai, Qingdao, Duolun, and Yulin in China. Pb pollution in Beijing has been very serious when compared with other sites over the world, as the concentration of Pb in Beijing remained as high as ˜100-300 ng m -3 in fine particles (PM 2.5). Significant spatial variation of Pb in summer with the highest concentration at the industrial site was observed, while relatively even spatial variation was found in winter in urban area, although much heavier in the urban area than at suburban site. Strong seasonal variation of ˜2-3 times higher Pb concentration in winter than that in summer was found. Pb exhibited a unimodal size distribution with most of it in fine fraction. Pb in fine particles was enriched by a factor of 200-1600 relative to its abundance in crust. Besides industry emission, motor vehicle emission, and coal burning, long-range transported dust from outside Beijing and the re-suspended soil containing the deposition of those from previously emitted leaded gasoline could be the important sources of Pb in Beijing.

  15. Phase-factor-dependent symmetries and quantum phases in a three-level cavity QED system

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jingtao; Yu, Lixian; Chen, Gang; Jia, Suotang

    2016-01-01

    Unlike conventional two-level particles, three-level particles may support some unitary-invariant phase factors when they interact coherently with a single-mode quantized light field. To gain a better understanding of light-matter interaction, it is thus necessary to explore the phase-factor-dependent physics in such a system. In this report, we consider the collective interaction between degenerate V-type three-level particles and a single-mode quantized light field, whose different components are labeled by different phase factors. We mainly establish an important relation between the phase factors and the symmetry or symmetry-broken physics. Specifically, we find that the phase factors affect dramatically the system symmetry. When these symmetries are breaking separately, rich quantum phases emerge. Finally, we propose a possible scheme to experimentally probe the predicted physics of our model. Our work provides a way to explore phase-factor-induced nontrivial physics by introducing additional particle levels. PMID:27139573

  16. Temperature, comfort and pollution levels during heat waves and the role of sea breeze.

    PubMed

    Papanastasiou, Dimitris K; Melas, Dimitris; Bartzanas, Thomas; Kittas, Constantinos

    2010-05-01

    During the summer of 2007 several Greek regions suffered periods of extreme heat, with midday temperatures of over 40 degrees C on several consecutive days. High temperatures were also recorded on the east coast of central Greece, where a complex sea breeze circulation system frequently develops. The more intense events occurred at the end of June and July. The highest temperatures were observed on 26 June and 25 July, while the sea breeze developed only on 25 July. Meteorological data collected at two sites-a coastal urban location and an inland suburban site that is not reached by the sea breeze flow-as well as pollution data collected at the urban site, were analysed in order to investigate the relationship between sea breeze development and the prevailing environmental conditions during these two heat wave events. The analysis revealed that sea breeze development affects temperature and pollution levels at the shoreline significantly, causing a decrease of approximately 4 degrees C from the maximum temperature value and an increase of approximately 30% in peak PM10 levels. Additionally, several stress indices were calculated in order to assess heat comfort conditions at the two sites. It was found that nocturnal comfort levels are determined mainly by the urban heat island effect, the intensity of which reaches up to 8 degrees C, while the applied indices do not demonstrate any significant daytime thermal stress relief due to sea breeze development.

  17. Effects of Wood Pollution on Pore-Water Sulfide Levels and Eelgrass Germination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekelem, C.

    2016-02-01

    Historically, sawmills released wood waste onto coastal shorelines throughout the Pacific Northwest of the USA, enriching marine sediments with organic material. The increase in organic carbon boosts the bacterial reduction of sulfate and results in the production of a toxic metabolite, hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is a phytotoxin and can decrease the growth and survival of eelgrass. This is a critical issue since eelgrass, Zostera marina, forms habitat for many species, stabilizes sediment, and plays a role in nutrient cycling and sediment chemistry. The objective of our study was to determine the effects of wood debris on sediment pore-water hydrogen sulfide concentrations and eelgrass germination. To test the impact of wood inputs on sulfide production and seed germination, we conducted a laboratory mesocosm experiment, adding sawdust to marine sediments and measuring the sulfide levels weekly. We subsequently planted seeds in the mesocosms and measured germination rates. Higher concentrations of sawdust led to higher levels of pore-water hydrogen sulfide and drastically slower eelgrass germination rates. Treatments with greater than 10% wood enrichment developed free sulfide concentrations of 0.815 (± 0.427) mM after 118 days, suggesting sediments with greater than 10% wood pollution may have threateningly high pore-water hydrogen sulfide levels. These results can be used to set thresholds for remediation efforts and guide seed distribution in wood polluted areas.

  18. DO ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS REFLECT SEVERITY OF INFLAMMATION IN RAT MODELS OF POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG INJURY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: DO ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS REFLECT THE SEVERITY OF INFLAMMATION IN RAT MODELS OF POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG INJURY?

    M. C. Schladweiler, BS 1, P. S. Gilmour, PhD 2, D. L. Andrews, BS 1, D. L. Costa, ScD 1, A. D. Ledbetter, BS 1, K. E. Pinkerton, PhD 3 and U. P. Kodavanti, ...

  19. DO ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS REFLECT SEVERITY OF INFLAMMATION IN RAT MODELS OF POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG INJURY?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: DO ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS REFLECT THE SEVERITY OF INFLAMMATION IN RAT MODELS OF POLLUTANT-INDUCED LUNG INJURY?

    M. C. Schladweiler, BS 1, P. S. Gilmour, PhD 2, D. L. Andrews, BS 1, D. L. Costa, ScD 1, A. D. Ledbetter, BS 1, K. E. Pinkerton, PhD 3 and U. P. Kodavanti, ...

  20. The relationship between particulate pollution levels in Australian cities, meteorology, and landscape fire activity detected from MODIS hotspots.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Williamson, Grant J; Henderson, Sarah B; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M J S

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as "hotspots"), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data.

  1. The Relationship between Particulate Pollution Levels in Australian Cities, Meteorology, and Landscape Fire Activity Detected from MODIS Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Price, Owen F.; Williamson, Grant J.; Henderson, Sarah B.; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as “hotspots”), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data. PMID:23071788

  2. Smoking increases air pollution levels in city streets: observational and fine particulate data.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vimal; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2012-09-01

    To address the paucity of research around smokefree streets, we: (i) refined existing data collection methods; (ii) expanded on the meagre previous research in this area; and (iii) compared results by differing size of urban centre. We refined established methods; a solo observer simultaneously observed smoking and measured fine particulate levels (PM(2.5)) on a route of shopping streets in central Lower Hutt City, New Zealand. Over 33.6 h of measurement, mean fine particulate levels were 1.7 times higher when smoking was observed than when it was not (7.9 vs 4.8 μg/m(3); p=0.0001). Smoking appeared to be a substantive contributor to fine particulate air pollution in city streets, when compared to levels adjacent to road traffic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mercury pollution in fish from South China Sea: levels, species-specific accumulation, and possible sources.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinling; Xu, Xiangrong; Yu, Shen; Cheng, Hefa; Hong, Yiguo; Feng, Xinbin

    2014-05-01

    Both total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels in fish collected from South China Sea (SCS) were studied to understand Hg pollution in Chinese tropical marine ecosystems. The average THg concentrations in fish species ranged from 39.6 μg/kg for rabbitfish (Siganus fuscessens) to 417 μg/kg for thornfish (Terapon jarbua), while those of MeHg varied from 13 μg/kg (rabbitfish) to 176 μg/kg (thornfish). The median values of MeHg/THg ratios in different fish species ranged from 36 to 85%. Significant inter-species differences of THg and MeHg in fish were observed due to feeding habits and fish sizes. Overall, carnivorous fish had higher levels of THg, MeHg and MeHg/THg ratios than omnivorous and herbivorous fish. High Hg levels in fish of the SCS were probably related to Hg input from atmospheric deposition and anthropogenic activities.

  4. Low levels of air pollution induce changes of lung function in a panel of schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Moshammer, H; Hutter, H-P; Hauck, H; Neuberger, M

    2006-06-01

    In search of sensitive screening parameters for assessing acute effects of ambient air pollutants in young schoolchildren, the impact of 8-h average air pollution before lung function testing was investigated by oscillatory measurements of resistance and spirometry with flow-volume loops. At a central elementary school in Linz, the capital of Upper Austria, 163 children aged 7-10 yrs underwent repeated examinations at the same time of day during 1 school year, yielding a total of 11-12 lung function tests per child. Associations to mass concentrations of particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) measured continuously at a nearby monitoring station were tested, applying the Generalised Estimating Equations model. Reductions per 10 microg.m(-3) (both for particles and for NO(2)) were in the magnitude of 1% for most lung function parameters. The most sensitive indicator for acute effects of combustion-related pollutants was a change in maximal expiratory flow in small airways. NO(2) at concentrations below current standards reduced (in the multipollutant model) the forced expiratory volume in one second by 1.01%, maximal instantaneous forced flow when 50% of the forced vital capacity remains to be exhaled (MEF(50%)) by 1.99% and MEF(25%) by 1.96%. Peripheral resistance increased by 1.03% per 10 microg.m(-3) of particulate matter with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 mum (PM(2.5)). Resistance is less influenced by the child's cooperation and should be utilised more often in environmental epidemiology when screening for early signs of small airway dysfunction from urban air pollution, but cannot replace the measurement of MEF(50%) and MEF(25%). In the basic model, the reduction of these parameters per 10 microg.m(-3) was highest for NO(2), followed by PM(1), PM(2.5) and PM(10), while exposure to coarse dust (PM(10)-PM(2.5)) did not change end-expiratory flow significantly. All acute effects of urban air pollution found on the lung function of healthy

  5. Rapid analysis of persistent organic pollutants by solid phase microextraction in serum samples.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramírez, R; Ortiz-Pérez, M D; Batres-Esquivel, L; Castillo, C G; Ilizaliturri-Hernández, C A; Díaz-Barriga, F

    2014-06-01

    A simple and rapid headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS SPME) based method is presented for the determination of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in human serum by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass detector (MS) with electron impact ionization (EI). As an outcome of the assessment of several polymer phases; the one with the best result was the PDMS fiber (100 μm). A multivariate analysis of variance by permutations (PERMANOVA) was performed to establish the optimal extraction conditions as a function of temperature and time variables. The results were 1 mL serum+200 µL H2SO4 9M+1 mL of deionized water at 600 rpm with a temperature of 80°C for 50 min to expose the fiber. The limits of detection (LOD) for POPs pesticides fell within the 0.22-5.41 ng/mL interval, and within 0.07-1.79 ng/mL for PCBs; a linear method was used with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.99. Recovery percentages at low concentrations (15 ng/mL) were 67.8-120.2%, and at high concentrations (75 ng/mL) 80.2-119.2%. Evaluated precision as percentage Relative Standard Deviation (RSD%) of repeatability and reproducibility was within a range of 0.5-9% and 0.3-21%, respectively. This analytical method prevents some of the main problems for quantifying POPs in human serum, such as the elimination of the solvents, sample handling, integration of extraction steps, pre-concentration and introduction of samples; consequently, the time and cost of analyzing the sample can be significantly reduced. The method developed was applied to determine exposure to POPs in samples of children living in different polluted sites in Mexico. In children living in indigenous communities results show exposure to DDE (median 29.2 ng/mL range 17.4-52.2 ng/mL) and HCB (median 2.53 ng/mL range 2.50-2.64 ng/mL); whereas in the industrial scenario, exposure to HCB (median 2.81 ng/mL range 2.61-3.4 ng/mL) and PCBs (median Σ-PCBs 22.2 ng/ml range 8.2-74.6 ng/mL) and finally in petrochemical scenario was

  6. Ground-level O3 pollution and its impacts on food crops in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Hu, Enzhu; Wang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Xuejun

    2015-04-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) pollution has become one of the top environmental issues in China, especially in those economically vibrant and densely populated regions. In this paper, we reviewed studies on the O3 concentration observation and O3 effects on food crops throughout China. Data from 118 O3 monitoring sites reported in the literature show that the variability of O3 concentration is a function of geographic location. The impacts of O3 on food crops (wheat and rice) were studied at five sites, equipped with Open Top Chamber or O3-FACE (free-air O3 concentration enrichment) system. Based on exposure concentration and stomatal O3 flux-response relationships obtained from the O3-FACE experimental results in China, we found that throughout China current and future O3 levels induce wheat yield loss by 6.4-14.9% and 14.8-23.0% respectively. Some policies to reduce ozone pollution and impacts are suggested.

  7. Low-level air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases in Helsinki.

    PubMed Central

    Pönkä, A; Virtanen, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether low concentrations of ambient air pollutants are associated with hospital admissions for ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases. METHODS: Associations between daily concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulates and daily hospital admissions due to ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases were studied in Helsinki, Finland, 1987 through 1989. The regression analyses controlled for weather, day of the week, season, long-term trends, and influenza epidemics. RESULTS: Admissions via emergency rooms due to ischemic cardiac diseases (n = 7005) were significantly associated with the prevailing levels of nitric oxide and ozone, and those due to cerebrovascular diseases (n = 3737) were associated with nitrogen dioxide; these levels were only moderate. Long-term transient myocardial ischemic attacks were related to particulates, and short-term ischemic attacks were related to nitrogen dioxide. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms of ischemic cardiac and cerebrovascular diseases may be provoked by pollutants in concentrations lower than those given as guidelines in many countries and lower than previously shown. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8806380

  8. Evaluating near highway air pollutant levels and estimating emission factors: Case study of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Nayeb Yazdi, Mohammad; Delavarrafiee, Maryam; Arhami, Mohammad

    2015-12-15

    A field sampling campaign was implemented to evaluate the variation in air pollutants levels near a highway in Tehran, Iran (Hemmat highway). The field measurements were used to estimate road link-based emission factors for average vehicle fleet. These factors were compared with results of an in tunnel measurement campaign (in Resalat tunnel). Roadside and in-tunnel measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and size-fractionated particulate matter (PM) were conducted during the field campaign. The concentration gradient diagrams showed exponential decay, which represented a substantial decay, more than 50-80%, in air pollutants level in a distance between 100 and 150meters (m) of the highway. The changes in particle size distribution by distancing from highway were also captured and evaluated. The results showed particle size distribution shifted to larger size particles by distancing from highway. The empirical emission factors were obtained by using the roadside and in tunnel measurements with a hypothetical box model, floating machine model, CALINE4, CT-EMFAC or COPERT. Average CO emission factors were estimated to be in a range of 4 to 12g/km, and those of PM10 were 0.1 to 0.2g/km, depending on traffic conditions. Variations of these emission factors under real working condition with speeds were determined.

  9. Environmental restoration program pollution prevention checklist guide for the evaluation of alternatives project phase

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams.

  10. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the surveillance and maintenance project phase

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    DOE Order 5820.2 mandates that a surveillance and maintenance program be established in all shut-down facilities to ensure adequate containment of contamination, provide physical safety and security, and reduce potential public and environmental hazards. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Surveillance and Maintenance (S&M) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document their PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments.

  11. Prevalence of asthma and mean levels of air pollution: results from the French PAARC survey. Pollution Atomosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques.

    PubMed

    Baldi, I; Tessier, J F; Kauffmann, F; Jacqmin-Gadda, H; Nejjari, C; Salamon, R

    1999-07-01

    Among the possible explanations for the recent increase in the prevalence of asthma in several countries, air pollution is one of the foremost public health concerns. Data from the "Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques" (PAARC) survey collected in 24 areas of seven French towns during 1974-1976 were reanalysed to assess the relationship between the prevalence of asthma and the following air pollutants: sulphur dioxide (specific (SO2) and acidimetric methods), total suspended particles (TSP), black smoke (BS), nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide. Correlation coefficients between annual mean levels of pollution and prevalence of asthma in the different areas were first calculated. Random-effects models were then estimated. Of the 20,310 adults aged 25-59 yrs, 1,291 (6.4%) were found to be asthmatics as well as 195 (6.1%) of the 3,193 children aged 5-9 yrs. A geographical correlation between asthma and annual mean level of SO2 (ranging 17-85 microg x m(-3)) was found (r=0.45, p=0.01) in adults. No relationship was found in children. After controlling for age, educational level, smoking, and geographical clustering with a multivariate random-effects model, the relationship remained significant in adults for SO2 (odds ratio for a 50 microg x m(-3) increase=1.24, confidence interval 1.08-1.44, p=0.0035). It also remained significant when taking into account only the people reporting their last asthma attack occurring after settling in the study area. These results are consistent with the known short-term effects of SO2 in asthma and demonstrate the necessity for further studies on delayed effects of air pollution in respiratory diseases.

  12. Air pollution and survival within the Washington University-EPRI Veterans Cohort: risks based on modelled estimates of ambient levels of hazardous and criteria air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick W. Lipfert; Ronald E. Wyzga; Jack D. Baty; J. Philip Miller

    2009-04-15

    For this paper, we considered relationships between mortality, vehicular traffic density, and ambient levels of 12 hazardous air pollutants, elemental carbon (EC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup -2}). These pollutant species were selected as markers for specific types of emission sources, including vehicular traffic, coal combustion, smelters, and metal-working industries. Pollutant exposures were estimated using emissions inventories and atmospheric dispersion models. We analyzed associations between county ambient levels of these pollutants and survival patterns among approximately 70,000 U.S. male veterans by mortality period (1976-2001 and subsets), type of exposure model, and traffic density level. We found significant associations between all-cause mortality and traffic-related air quality indicators and with traffic density per se, with stronger associations for benzene, formaldehyde, diesel particulate, NOx, and EC. The maximum effect on mortality for all cohort subjects during the 26-yr follow-up period is approximately 10%, but most of the pollution-related deaths in this cohort occurred in the higher-traffic counties, where excess risks approach 20%. However, mortality associations with diesel particulates are similar in high- and low-traffic counties. Sensitivity analyses show risks decreasing slightly over time and minor differences between linear and logarithmic exposure models. We conclude that tailpipe emissions of both gases and particles are among the most significant and robust predictors of mortality in this cohort and that most of those associations have weakened over time. There may be concerns associated with large stationary sources burning coal, residual fuel oil and municipal solid wastes. Nickel and arsenic have been identified in coal fly ash and residual oil. 81 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-05-01

    The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase [γ-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and γ-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with γ-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction <0.05). The effects of air pollutants were greater in non-exercisers and heavy drinkers. Short-term exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and O3 is associated with increased liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol.

  14. Physical Activity- and Alcohol-dependent Association Between Air Pollution Exposure and Elevated Liver Enzyme Levels: An Elderly Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Hyemi; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Kweon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The deleterious effects of air pollution on various health outcomes have been demonstrated. However, few studies have examined the effects of air pollution on liver enzyme levels. Methods: Blood samples were drawn up to three times between 2008 and 2010 from 545 elderly individuals who regularly visited a community welfare center in Seoul, Korea. Data regarding ambient air pollutants (particulate matter ≤2.5 μm [PM2.5], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], ozone [O3], carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide) from monitoring stations were used to estimate air pollution exposure. The effects of the air pollutants on the concentrations of three liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase [γ-GTP)]) were evaluated using generalized additive and linear mixed models. Results: Interquartile range increases in the concentrations of the pollutants showed significant associations of PM2.5 with AST (3.0% increase, p=0.0052), ALT (3.2% increase, p=0.0313), and γ-GTP (5.0% increase, p=0.0051) levels; NO2 with AST (3.5% increase, p=0.0060) and ALT (3.8% increase, p=0.0179) levels; and O3 with γ-GTP (5.3% increase, p=0.0324) levels. Significant modification of these effects by exercise and alcohol consumption was found (p for interaction <0.05). The effects of air pollutants were greater in non-exercisers and heavy drinkers. Conclusions: Short-term exposure to air pollutants such as PM2.5, NO2, and O3 is associated with increased liver enzyme levels in the elderly. These adverse effects can be reduced by exercising regularly and abstinence from alcohol. PMID:26081652

  15. Distribution characteristics of pollutant transport in a turbulent two-phase flow.

    PubMed

    Khaldi, Nawel; Marzouk, Salwa; Mhiri, Hatem; Bournot, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    The distribution characteristics of pollutants released at varied rates and different vertical inlet positions of an open channel are investigated via a three-dimensional numerical model. Pollutants are injected from time-dependent sources in a turbulent free-surface flow. Numerical computations were carried out using Fluent 6.3, which is based on the finite volume approach. The air/water interface was modeled with the volume of fluid method (VOF). By focusing on investigating the influences of the flow on pollutants, it is found that with an increase of the injection rate, the pollutant concentration increases along the channel and the longitudinal dispersion is higher. On the other hand, it is noted that the point of injection modifies significantly the dispersion pattern of pollutant. These findings may be of great help in cost-effective scientific countermeasures to be taken into account for accident or planned pollutants discharged into a river.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Two-phase flow with Phase Change Using the Level-set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongying; Lou, Jing; Pan, Lunsheng; Yap, Yitfatt

    2016-11-01

    Multiphase flow with phase change is widely encountered in many engineering applications. A distinct feature involves in these applications is the phase transition from one phase to another due to the non-uniform temperature distribution. Such kind of process generally releases or absorbs large amount of energy with mass transfer happened simultaneously. It demands great cautions occasionally such as the high pressure due to evaporation. This article presents a numerical model for simulation of two-fluid flow with phase change problem. In these two fluids, one of them changes its state due to phase change. Such a problem then involves two substances with three phases as well as two different interfaces, i.e. the interface between two substances and the interface of one substance between its two phases. Two level-set functions are used to capture the two interfaces in the current problem. The current model is validated against one-dimensional and two-dimensional liquid evaporation. With the code validated, it is applied to different phase change problems including (1) a falling evaporating droplet and the rising of one bubble and (2) two-fluid stratified flow with solidification of one fluid. Comparisons on the bubble and droplet topologies, flow and temperature fields are made for the first case between the falling evaporating droplet and the falling droplet without evaporation. For the second demonstration case, the effect of the superheated temperature on the solidification process is investigated.

  17. Oxidative DNA damage levels and catalase activity in the clam Ruditapes decussatus as pollution biomarkers of Tunisian marine environment.

    PubMed

    Jebali, Jamel; Banni, Mohamed; de Almeida, Eduardo Alves; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2007-01-01

    Levels of the oxidative DNA damage 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and catalase (CAT) activity were measured in the digestive gland and gills of clams Ruditapes decussatus, related to the presence of pollutants along Tunisian marine environment. Increased levels of CAT were observed in tissues of clams from all the sites studied, compared to control values, and elevated 8-oxodG levels were observed at specific sites. Results obtained in this work indicate that the measurement of 8-oxodG levels and CAT activity in tissues of R. decussatus is promising in pollution monitoring studies of the Tunisian marine environment.

  18. Lysosomal and tissue-level biomarkers in mussels cross-transplanted among four estuaries with different pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Lekube, Xabier; Izagirre, Urtzi; Soto, Manu; Marigómez, Ionan

    2014-02-15

    A 3-4 wk cross-transplantation experiment was carried out in order to investigate the sensitivity, rapidity, durability and reversibility of lysosomal and tissue-level biomarkers in the digestive gland of mussels. Four localities in the Basque coast with different levels of chemical pollution and environmental stress were selected. Lysosomal membrane stability (LP) and lysosomal structural changes (VvL; S/VL; NvL) and changes in cell-type composition in digestive gland epithelium (VvBAS) were investigated to determine short (2d) and mid-term (3-4 wk) responses after cross-transplantation. Mussels from Txatxarramendi presented VvBAS<0.1 μm(3)/μm(3) (unstressed) whilst VvBAS>0.12 μm(3)/μm(3) was recorded in mussels from Plentzia (moderate stress) and VvBAS>0.2 μm(3)/μm(3) in Arriluze and Muskiz (high stress). Accordingly, LP<10 min (high stress) was recorded in mussels from Muskiz and Arriluze and LP~15 min (low-to-moderate stress) in those from Plentzia and Txatxarramendi. According to the VvL, S/VL and NvL data, a certain lysosomal enlargement was envisaged in mussels from Arriluze in comparison with those from Txatxarramendi and Plentzia. Mussels from Muskiz exhibited a peculiar endo-lysosomal system made of abundant tiny lysosomes (low VvL and high S/VL and NvL values). Lysosomal and tissue-level biomarkers were responsive after 2d cross-transplantation between the reference and the polluted localities, which indicated that these biomarkers were quickly induced and, to a large extent, reversible. Moreover, the tissue-level biomarker values were maintained during the entire period (3-4 wk) of cross-transplantation, which evidenced the durability of the responsiveness. In contrast, comparisons in the mid-term were unfeasible for lysosomal biomarkers as these exhibited a seasonal winter attenuation resulting from low food availability and low temperatures. In conclusion, lysosomal enlargement and membrane stability and changes in cell-type composition were

  19. Assessing water pollution level and gray water footprint of anthropogenic nitrogen in agricultural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guorui; Chen, Han; Yu, Chaoqing

    2017-04-01

    Water pollution has become a global problem which is one of the most critical issues of today's water treatment. At a spatial resolution of 10km, we use the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model to simulate the biogeochemical processes for major cropping systems from 1955 to 2014, estimate the anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh, and calculate the resultant grey water footprints and N-related water pollution level in China. The accumulated annual Nitrogen loads to fresh from agricultural system is 0.38Tg in 1955 and 4.42Tg in 2014, while the grey water footprints vary from 1.53 billion m3 to 17.67 billion m3, respectively. N loads in north of China contributes much more on the N leaching because of the high fertilizer but in south of China, it is mainly focused on the N runoff because of the heavy rain. There are more than 25% of grids with WPL>1 (exceed the water capacity of assimilation), which is mainly located on the North China Plain.

  20. Lung function and symptoms among indigenous Mayan women exposed to high levels of indoor air pollution.

    PubMed

    Díaz, E; Bruce, N; Pope, D; Lie, R T; Díaz, A; Arana, B; Smith, K R; Smith-Sivertsen, T

    2007-12-01

    Indoor air pollution from burning of biomass fuel in open fires is a known risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in developing countries. To estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function among women in rural Guatemala and to describe the methods and practical issues associated with the assessment of respiratory health. Information about respiratory symptoms, lung function and individual measurement of exposure was collected cross-sectionally among 350 Mayan-Indian women aged 15-50 years who used traditional open fires. These women, exposed to indoor air pollution since birth, had a relatively high prevalence of cough (22.6%), phlegm (15.1%), wheeze (25.1%) and tightness in the chest (31.4%). Respiratory symptoms were positively associated with exposure levels. Lung function was higher than the most feasible reference population (average above predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV(1)] +4.5% and forced vital capacity [FVC] +4.2%). Only one woman had a FEV(1)/FVC ratio lower than 70%. According to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines, almost one third of these young non-smoking women were at risk (stage 0) of developing COPD. The methodological issues encountered during the study highlight the importance of standardising approaches to local adaptation of established questionnaires to study respiratory health in rural areas of developing countries.

  1. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Steam Plant -- Level 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A Level 3 pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the K-1501 Steam Plant at the K-25 Site. The primary objective was to identify and evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the Steam Plant. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated to first reduce the quantity of waste generated and second to recycle the waste. This report provides a process description of the facility; identification, evaluation, and recommendations of P2 options; an implementation schedule with funding sources; and conclusions. Largely for economic reasons, only 3 of the 14 P2 options are being recommended for implementation. All are source reduction options. When implemented, these three options are estimated to reduce the annual generation of waste by 658,412 kg and will result in a cost savings of approximately $29,232/year for the K-25 Site. The recommended options are to: install a flue gas return System in Boiler 7; reduce steam loss from traps; and increase lapse time between rinses. The four boilers currently in operation at the Steam Plant use natural gas or fuel oil as fuel sources.

  2. Harvesting hydrogen gas from air pollutants with an un-biased gas phase photo-electrochemical cell.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Sammy W; Van Hal, Myrthe; Bosserez, Tom; Rongé, Jan; Hauchecorne, Birger; Martens, Johan A; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2017-02-08

    The concept of an all-gas-phase photo-electrochemical cell (PEC) producing hydrogen gas from volatile organic contaminated gas and light is presented. Without applying any external bias, organic contaminants are degraded and hydrogen gas is produced in separate electrode compartments. The system works most efficiently with organic pollutants in inert carrier gas. In the presence of oxygen gas, the cell performs less efficiently but still significant photocurrents are generated, showing the cell can be run on organic contaminated air. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate new application opportunities of PEC technology and to encourage further advancement toward photo-electrochemical remediation of air pollution with the attractive feature of simultaneous energy recovery and pollution abatement.

  3. Differential Hepatic Metal and Metallothionein Levels in Three Feral Fish Species along a Metal Pollution Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Bervoets, Lieven; Knapen, Dries; De Jonge, Maarten; Van Campenhout, Karen; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of cadmium, copper and zinc and the induction of metallothioneins (MT) in liver of three freshwater fish species was studied. Gudgeon (Gobio gobio), roach (Rutilus rutilus) and perch (Perca fluviatilis) were captured at 6 sampling sites along a cadmium and zinc gradient and one reference site in a tributary of the Scheldt River in Flanders (Belgium). At each site up to 10 individuals per species were collected and analyzed on their general condition factor (K), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI). From each individual fish the liver was dissected and analyzed on Cd, Cu and Zn and MT-content. Although not all species were present at each site, hepatic Cd and Zn levels generally followed the pollution gradient and highest levels were measured in perch, followed by roach and gudgeon. Nevertheless also an effect of site was observed on this order. MT-levels appeared to be the highest in gudgeon although differences with the other species were not very pronounced and depended on the site. Significant relationships were found between hepatic zinc accumulation and MT levels. For each species the ratio MTtheoretical/ MTmeasured was calculated, which gives an indication of the relative capacity to induce MTs and thus immobilize the metals. Perch had the lowest capacity in inducing MTs (highest ratio). Relationships between hepatic metal levels and fish condition indices were absent or very weak. PMID:23556004

  4. Levels and Seasonal Variability of Persistent Organic Pollutants in Rural and Urban Atmosphere of Southern Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adu-Kumi, Sam; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in air are reported from the first full year of the RECETOX-Africa Air Monitoring (MONET_AFRICA) Project. Passive air samplers composed of polyurethane foam disks (PUF-disk samplers) were deployed for sampling background air concentrations from January-December 2008 at two urban sites in Ghana, namely, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute, Kwabenya); and Ghana Meteorological Agency (East Legon). Another set of PUF-disk samplers were deployed at a rural/agricultural location (Lake Bosumtwi) from July-November 2008. For the purposes of this study, 28 days was the sampling period for polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); and 3 months for OCPs (Drins) and dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) respectively. MONET_AFRICA constituted part of the activities under the Global Monitoring Plan (GMP) for the effectiveness evaluation (Article 16) of the Stockholm Convention on POPs and the air sampling survey was conducted at 26 sites across the African continent with the aim to establish baseline information on contamination of ambient air with persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as a reference for future monitoring programmes in the region. For the pesticides, endosulfans constituted the highest contaminants measured followed by HCHs and DDTs in that order. The large temporal variability in the pesticide concentrations suggested seasonal application of endosulfans and γ-HCH. Levels of endosulfans were initially found to be below detection limit during the first sampling period (January - March 2008) but recorded the highest concentration than any other pesticide from all 16 sites in the African region during the second sampling period (April - June 2008). Concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were generally low throughout the sampling periods. p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT ratio in ambient air showed that the metabolite DDE was the

  5. Exposure to ambient air pollution--does it affect semen quality and the level of reproductive hormones?

    PubMed

    Radwan, Michał; Jurewicz, Joanna; Polańska, Kinga; Sobala, Wojciech; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with a variety of reproductive disorders. However, a limited amount of research has been conducted to examine the association between air pollution and male reproductive outcomes, specifically semen quality. The present study was designed to address the hypothesis that exposure to fluctuating levels of specific air pollutants adversely affects sperm parameters and the level of reproductive hormones. The study population consisted of 327 men who were attending an infertility clinic in Łodź, Poland for diagnostic purposes and who had normal semen concentration of 15-300 mln/ml. All participants were interviewed and provided a semen sample. Air quality data were obtained from AirBase database. The statistically significant association was observed between abnormalities in sperm morphology and exposure to all examined air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOX, CO). Exposure to air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, CO, NOx) was also negatively associated with the level of testosterone. Additional exposure to PM2.5, PM10 increase the percentage of cells with immature chromatin (HDS). The present study provides suggestive evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and sperm quality. Further research is needed to explore this association in more detail. Individual precise exposure assessment would be needed for more detailed risk characterization.

  6. Determination of phenol pollutants in water at trace levels: Extraction by a reversible graphitized carbon black cartridge

    SciTech Connect

    Di Corcia, A.; Marchese, S.; Samperi, R.

    1994-03-01

    A method for determining the 11 phenols designated as priority pollutants by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as the parts-per-trillion level in water sampled from the environment is described. Drinking (2 L), ground (1.5 L), and river (0.5 L) water samples are preconstructed by passing them through a 1 g graphitized carbon black (GCB) reversible cartridge at a flow rate of approximately 70 mL/min. After the GCB cartridge is washed with 1.5 mL methanol to eliminate water, the cartridge is reversed and then back-flushed with an acidic CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}-CH{sub 3}OH mixture for eluting phenols. After partial solvent removal, the sample is subjected to reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection by either a conventional or a diode-array detector. Recoveries of phenols added to 2 L of drinking water at levels between 0.05 and 4 {mu}g/L were higher than 90%. Compared with an octadecyl bonded silica (C{sub 18}) cartridge, the GCB cartridge had a far better extraction efficiency for the more highly water-soluble phenols. The extent to which the presence of fulvic acids in water affected the recovery of the phenols considered was investigated. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Vitamin C intervention may lower the levels of persistent organic pollutants in blood of healthy women - A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weihong; Huen, Karen; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto; Crispo Smith, Sabrina; Block, Gladys; Holland, Nina

    2016-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals including persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has a long term impact on human health. The goal of this pilot study was to test whether antioxidant intervention by vitamin C supplementation may be a remedial approach to decrease body burden of POPs in humans. Using solid phase extraction coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and a gas chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry, we measured 18 PCBs, 7 OCPs, and 5 PBDEs in the blood of 15 healthy California women (8 were obese/overweight and 7 had normal weight) before and after 2 months of vitamin C supplementation (1000 mg/day). We observed higher PBDE levels than PCBs and OCPs, but only PCB and OCP levels were strongly and positively correlated with participant's BMI and age. We also found statistically significant decreases in 6 PCBs (PCB-74, PCB-118, PCB-138, PCB-153, PCB-180, and PCB-187), and 2 OCPs (4,4'-DDE, and 4,4'-DDT), but not PBDEs after vitamin C supplementation. Pending confirmation of this pilot finding in a larger study of both sexes, vitamin C intervention may have important public health implications in protecting health by reducing body burdens of POPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulation of the organic pollution level in anaerobic digesters by using off-line COD measurements.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Acosta, H O; García-Sandoval, J P; González-Álvarez, V; Alcaraz-González, V; Jáuregui-Jáuregui, J A

    2011-09-01

    A sampled delayed scheme is proposed to regulate the organic pollution level in anaerobic digestion processes by using off-line COD measurements. The proposed scheme is obtained by combining an error feedback control with a steady state estimator to track constant references and attenuate process load disturbances. The controller performance is tested experimentally for the treatment of tequila vinasses over a period of 68days under different set-point values and several uncertain scenarios which include badly known kinetic parameters and load disturbances. Experimental results show that the COD concentration can be effectively regulated under the influence of set-point changes and high load disturbances by using only a daily off-line COD measurement, which makes the industrial application of the proposed control scheme feasible.

  9. Assessment of PM10 pollution level and required source emission reduction in Belgrade area.

    PubMed

    Todorović, Marija N; Perišić, Mirjana D; Kuzmanoski, Maja M; Stojić, Andreja M; Sostarić, Andrej I; Mijić, Zoran R; Rajšić, Slavica F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess PM10 pollution level and estimate required source emission reduction in Belgrade area, the second largest urban center in the Balkans. Daily mass concentrations and trace metal content (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb) of PM10 were evaluated for three air quality monitoring sites of different types: urban-traffic (Slavija), suburban (Lazarevac) and rural (Grabovac) under the industrial influence, during the period of 2012-13. Noncompliance with current Air Quality Standards (AQS) was noticeable: annual means were higher than AQS at Slavija and Lazarevac, and daily frequency threshold was exceeded at all three locations. Annual means of As at Lazarevac were about four times higher than the target concentration, which could be attributed to the proximity of coal-fired power plants, and dust resuspension from coal basin and nearby ash landfills. Additionally, levels of Ni and Cr were significantly higher than in other European cities. Carcinogenic health risk of inhabitants' exposure to trace metals was assessed as well. Cumulative cancer risk exceeded the upper limit of acceptable US EPA range at two sites, with Cr and As as the major contributors. To estimate source emission reduction, required to meet AQS, lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 probability distribution, functions (PDF) were used to fit daily PM10 concentrations. Based on the rollback equation and best fitting PDF, estimated reduction was within the range of 28-98%. Finally, the required reduction obtained using two-parameter exponential distribution suggested that risks associated to accidental releases of pollutants should be of greater concern.

  10. Aerosol Effect on the Phase of Low-Level Clouds in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filioglou, M.; Mielonen, T.; Giannakaki, E.; Arola, A. T.; Komppula, M.; Romakkaniemi, S.

    2016-12-01

    Cloud phase (liquid or ice) affects the cloud's persistence and optical properties, and thus the atmospheric radiation balance. In the warming Arctic, the transition from ice to liquid clouds has a potential to enhance the warming rate, however, changes in aerosol properties can affect the cloud phase even more substantially. Here, a characterization of low level clouds and their dependence on dust aerosols, which are assumed to be the most important ice nuclei (IN) over the Arctic area, is presented based on measurements from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO). The level 2 aerosol and cloud layer products with 5 km horizontal resolution from the CALIOP lidar (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) were employed for the period June 2006 to December 2015. The three available cloud phases (ice, water, unknown) were linked with the coinciding aerosol type characterization (dust, polluted dust, smoke and background aerosols). Based on the ice cloud fraction calculations done in this study, clouds freeze in warmer temperatures in the presence of dust particles than with other aerosol types. A difference in the cloud freezing temperature as high as 7o C was observed. Thus, dust aerosols have a high potential to affect the properties of Arctic clouds. Furthermore, possible increments in efficient IN due to long-range transported aerosols or new local aerosol sources due to anthropogenic activities may lead to optically thinner clouds modifying the radiation balance over Arctic.

  11. Pollutants and diet influence carotenoid levels and integument coloration in nestlings of an endangered raptor.

    PubMed

    García-Heras, Marie-Sophie; Arroyo, Beatriz; Simmons, Robert E; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael; García, Jesús T; Mougeot, Francois

    2017-12-15

    Carotenoid-based traits or ornaments, such as yellow-red integuments (feathers, beaks, legs or eye-rings) displayed by birds, play key roles in social communication by reliably advertising an individual's quality or health. In some species, these traits are displayed not only by adults but also by nestlings, and function in parent-offspring communication or sibling competition by advertising an individual's physical or physiological condition. Pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) could have disruptive effects on the coloration of these traits, thereby interfering with communication processes. Such effects have been reported in adult birds, but are still largely unknown for nestlings. Here we investigated associations between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) blood-levels, circulating carotenoid levels and the yellow-orange coloration of the cere and tarsi of wild Black Harrier Circus maurus nestlings, a scarce raptor endemic to southern Africa. As carotenoid pigments must be acquired through the diet, we also tested for an effect of dietary composition. The orangeness-purity of cere and tarsi coloration positively correlated with circulating carotenoid levels, and increased with both nestling age and the proportion of birds consumed in the diet. Circulating carotenoid levels and the orangeness-purity of colored integuments were unrelated to blood PCB levels, although the brightness of integuments (i.e. lack of pigmentation) increased with PCB levels. Nestlings with more DDT had lower levels of circulating carotenoids and reduced carotenoid-based coloration (i.e. higher hue and lower saturation, reflecting a yellow rather than orange and less intense color, respectively). Together, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that OC contaminants, in particular DDT, may disrupt carotenoid-based signaling in exposed nestlings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of persistent organic pollutants levels in blood samples from Quintana Roo, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Antonio, Trejo-Acevedo; Edith, Rivero-Pérez Norma; Rogelio, Flores-Ramírez; Fernando, Díaz-Barriga; Catalina, Ochoa Angeles; Nelinho, Pérez-Maldonado Iván

    2013-06-01

    The Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) sought to determine baseline exposures to POPs in the general population; however, in developing countries, exposure to these chemicals in hot spots may be an issue of public health considering its magnitude. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the levels of POPs in the blood of children living in three communities in the Southeastern Region of Mexico. During 2007, we studied a total of 96 healthy children (aged 6-12 years). Quantitative analyses were performed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. High levels of p,p'-DDT and its principal metabolite, p,p'-DDE, were found in the blood of children living in the three communities studied, the levels ranged from 463.5 to 9046.3 ng/g lipid and from 490.8 to 57,712.4 ng/g lipid for DDT and DDE, respectively. In addition, high levels of lindane (γ-HCH) were found, with mean levels ranging between 575.4 and 6580.6 ng/g lipid. Moreover, children living in the study region were also exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the levels of these compounds in the blood of children were very similar between the communities with mean levels of around 3000 ng/g lipid (total PCBs). In conclusion, we demonstrated that children living in the studied communities were exposed to complex chemical mixtures (DDT, DDE, lindane and PCBs) rather than to individual compounds. Therefore, in future studies it is important to understand the potential interactions between the components of these mixtures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of synoptic and local atmospheric patterns on PM10 air pollution levels: a model application to Naples (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortelli, Alberto; Scafetta, Nicola; Mazzarella, Adriano

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the relationship between synoptic/local meteorological patterns and PM10 air pollution levels in the metropolitan area of Naples, Italy. We found that severe air pollution crises occurred when the 850 and 500 hpa geopotential heights and their relative temperatures present maximum values above the city. The most relevant synoptic parameter was the 850 hPa geopotential height, which is located about 1500 m of altitude. We compared local meteorological conditions (specifically wind stress, rain amount and thermal inversion) against the urban air pollution levels from 2009 to 2013. We found several empirical criteria for forecasting high daily PM10 air pollution levels in Naples. Pollution crises occurred when (a) the wind stress was between 1 and 2 m/s, (b) the thermal inversion between two strategic locations was at least 3°C/200 m and (c) it did not significantly rain for at least 7 days. Beside these meteorological conditions, severe pollution crises occurred also during festivals when fireworks and bonfires are lighted, and during anomalous breeze conditions and severe fire accidents. Finally, we propose a basic model to predict PM10 concentration levels from local meteorological conditions that can be easily forecast a few days in advance. The synthetic PM10 record predicted by the model was found to correlate with the PM10 observations with a correlation coefficient close to 0.80 with a confidence level greater than 99%. The proposed model is expected to provide reliable information to city officials to carry out practical strategies to mitigate air pollution effects. Although the proposed model equation is calibrated on the topographical and meteorological conditions of Naples, it should be easily adaptable to alternative locations.

  14. Hourly composition of gas and particle phase pollutants at a central urban background site in Milan, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigi, A.; Bianchi, F.; De Gennaro, G.; Di Gilio, A.; Fermo, P.; Ghermandi, G.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Urbani, M.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Piazzalunga, A.

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive range of gas and particle phase pollutants were sampled at 1-hour time resolution in urban background Milan during summer 2012. Measurements include several soluble inorganic aerosols (Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Na+, NH4+) and gases (HCl, HNO2,HNO3, NH3, NO, NO2,O3, SO2), organic, elemental and black carbon and meteorological parameters. Analysis methods used include mean diurnal pattern on weekdays and Sundays, pollution roses, bivariate polar plots and statistical models using backtrajectories. Results show how nitrous acid (HONO) was mainly formed heterogeneously at nighttime, with a dependence of its formation rate on NO2 consistent with observations during the last HONO campaign in Milan in summer 1998, although since 1998 a drop in HONO levels occurred following to the decrease of its precursors. Nitrate showed two main formation mechanisms: one occurring through N2O5 at nighttime and leading to nitrate formation onto existing particles; another occurring both daytime and nighttime following the homogeneous reaction of ammonia gas with nitric acid gas. Air masses reaching Milan influenced nitrate formation depending on their content in ammonia and the timing of arrival. Notwithstanding the low level of SO2 in Milan, its peaks were associated to point source emissions in the Po valley or shipping and power plant emissions SW of Milan, beyond the Apennines. A distinctive pattern for HCl was observed, featured by an afternoon peak and a morning minimum, and best correlated to atmospheric temperature, although it was not possible to identify any specific source. The ratio of primary-dominated organic carbon and elemental carbon on hourly PM2.5 resulted 1.7. Black carbon was highly correlated to elemental carbon and the average mass absorption coefficient resulted MAC = 13.8 ± 0.2 m2 g-1. It is noteworthy how air quality for a large metropolitan area, in a confined valley and under enduring atmospheric stability, is nonetheless

  15. Posttranslational modification of Birch and Ragweed allergen proteins by common gas phase pollutants, NO2 and O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Pope, F.; Bloss, W.

    2015-12-01

    The global incidence of hay fever has been rising for decades, however, the underlying reasons behind this rise remain unclear. It is hypothesized that exposure of pollen to common gas phase pollutants, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), increases the allergenicity of the pollen and thus increases hay fever incidence. Since atmospheric pollutants tend to have greater concentrations within urban areas (in particular NO2) the hypothesis suggests that greater allergenicity should occur in urban areas. Indeed, several studies do suggest higher hay fever incidence within urban areas compared to rural areas. Previous published work suggests a link between increased allergies with changes in the chemical composition of the pollen protein via posttranslational modification of the protein. This study investigates the posttranslational modification of two highly allergenic pollen species (Birch and Ragweed) that are common in Europe. Within the laboratory, we expose pollen grains to atmospherically relevant exposures of gas phase NO2, O3 and other common gas phase oxidants under a range of environmentally relevant conditions. The effects of the environmentally relevant exposures on the biochemistry of the pollen grains were probed using a proteomic approach (liquid chromatography coupled ultra-high resolution spectrometer). Our findings indicate the interaction between gas phase pollutants and pollen cause protein specific modifications; in particular, nitration occurs upon tyrosine residues and nitrosylation on cysteine residues. Possibly, these modifications may affect the immune response of the pollen protein, which may suggest a possible reason for increased allergies in reaction to such biologically altered protein. The laboratory-derived results will be supported with a time series analysis of asthma incidence rates for the London area, which take into account the pollen count, and pollutant concentrations. The implications of the results will be discussed

  16. [Indoor air pollution by volatile organic compounds in large buildings: pollution levels and remaining issues after revision of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kiyoshi; Kamijima, Michihiro; Shibata, Eiji; Ohno, Hiroyuki; Nakajima, Tamie

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to clarify indoor air pollution levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), especially 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2E1H) in large buildings after revising of the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings in 2002. We measured indoor air VOC concentrations in 57 (97%) out of a total of 61 large buildings completed within one year in half of the area of Nagoya, Japan, from 2003 through 2007. Airborne concentrations of 13 carbonyl compounds were determined with diffusion samplers and high-performance liquid chromatography, and of the other 32 VOCs with diffusion samplers and gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer. Formaldehyde was detected in all samples of indoor air but the concentrations were lower than the indoor air quality standard value set in Japan (100 microg/m3). Geometric mean concentrations of the other major VOCs, namely toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, p-dichlorobenzene and acetaldehyde were also low. 2E1H was found to be one of the predominating VOCs in indoor air of large buildings. A few rooms in a small number of buildings surveyed showed high concentrations of 2E1H, while low concentrations were observed in most rooms of those buildings as well as in other buildings. It was estimated that about 310 buildings had high indoor air pollution levels of 2E1H, with increase during the 5 years from 2003 in Japan. Indoor air pollution levels of VOCs in new large buildings are generally good, although a few rooms in a small number of buildings showed high concentrations in 2E1H, a possible causative chemical in sick building symptoms. Therefore, 2E1H needs particular attention as an important indoor air pollutant.

  17. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern

  18. Indoor air quality in Portuguese schools: levels and sources of pollutants.

    PubMed

    Madureira, J; Paciência, I; Pereira, C; Teixeira, J P; Fernandes, E de O

    2016-08-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) parameters in 73 primary classrooms in Porto were examined for the purpose of assessing levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), aldehydes, particulate matter, ventilation rates and bioaerosols within and between schools, and potential sources. Levels of VOCs, aldehydes, PM2.5 , PM10 , bacteria and fungi, carbon dioxide (CO2 ), carbon monoxide, temperature and relative humidity were measured indoors and outdoors and a walkthrough survey was performed concurrently. Ventilation rates were derived from CO2 and occupancy data. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding 1000 ppm were often encountered, indicating poor ventilation. Most VOCs had low concentrations (median of individual species <5 μg/m(3) ) and were below the respective WHO guidelines. Concentrations of particulate matter and culturable bacteria were frequently higher than guidelines/reference values. The variability of VOCs, aldehydes, bioaerosol concentrations, and CO2 levels between schools exceeded the variability within schools. These findings indicate that IAQ problems may persist in classrooms where pollutant sources exist and classrooms are poorly ventilated; source control strategies (related to building location, occupant behavior, maintenance/cleaning activities) are deemed to be the most reliable for the prevention of adverse health consequences in children in schools.

  19. [Investigation of air pollution in a shopping center and employees' personal exposure level].

    PubMed

    Manabe, Ryuji; Kunugita, Naoki; Katoh, Takahiko; Kuroda, Yoshiki; Akiyama, Yukio; Yamano, Yuko; Uchiyama, Iwao; Arashidani, Keiichi

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the concentrations of chemicals found inside a shopping center (SC), we investigated the condition of air pollution in a SC and the personal exposure level of SC employees. The survey was performed in June 2006 in Kyushu. The chemicals studied were volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and aldehydes. The chemicals were collected by a personal passive sampler. Thirty-one VOCs and aldehydes were detected inside the SC. The results showed that the concentrations of all the chemicals detected in indoor air were less than those specified in the indoor air quality guideline of Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, Japan. The chemical concentrations in the SC decreased in the order of food corner > electric, clothing corner > outdoor and were clearly higher than those outdoors. Therefore, it is thought that the source of chemicals is indoors. The high indoor concentration of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol may be due to diffusion from the walls and floors. In addition, it is suggested that the personal exposure condition of the employees reflected the indoor concentration of each sales floor. The exposure level to formaldehyde was higher at nonworking time than at working time, suggesting that a larger exposure source exists in the place of residence than in the work place. We found that indoor air quality in SC is maintained at good levels. This might be because of the Japanese strict regulations that require administrations of large-scale buildings to provide adequate ventilation and perform regular measurement of indoor air quality.

  20. Air pollution and urinary n-acetyl-B-glucosaminidase levels in residents living near a cement plant.

    PubMed

    Jung, Min Soo; Kim, Jae Yoon; Lee, Hyun Seung; Lee, Chul Gab; Song, Han Soo

    2016-01-01

    To identify adverse renal effects due to air pollution derived from a cement plant in Korea. Urinary n-acetyl-B-glucosaminidase (U-NAG) levels in residents living near a cement plant were compared to those in a group who lived farther away from the plant. From June to August 2013 and from August to November 2014, laboratory tests for U-NAG and heavy metal were conducted on 547 study participants. Based on the level of air pollution exposure, subjects were divided into the "less exposed group," (LEG) which consisted of 66 persons who lived more than 5 km away from the cement plant, the "more exposed group from the rural area" (MEG-R), which consisted of 272 persons, and the "more exposed group from downtown area" (MEG-D), which consisted of 209 persons who lived within a 1 km radius of the cement plant. U-NAG levels >5.67 U/L were defined as "higher U-NAG" levels. We compared the prevalence of higher U-NAG levels and estimated the adjusted odds ratio (OR) by air pollution exposure using a chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Further, we estimated the interaction between air pollution exposure and heavy metal exposure in renal toxicity. The OR of higher U-NAG levels by MEG-D and MEG-R compared to LEG was 2.13 (95 % CI 0.86-4.96) and 4.79 (95 CI 1.65-10.01), respectively. Urinary cadmium (U-Cd), urinary mercury (U-Hg), age, occupation, hypertension, and diabetes had a significant association with higher U-NAG levels. However, blood lead (B-Pb), sex, and smoking were not associated with higher U-NAG. Especially, concurrent exposure to heavy metals (U-Hg or/and U-Cd) and air pollution had an additive adverse effect. In the group with both 4(th) quartile heavy metal exposure (U-Cd or/and U-Hg) and air pollution exposure, the OR in MEG-R and MEG-D was 6.49 (95 % 1.42-29.65) and 8.12 (95 % CI 1.74-37.92), respectively, after adjustment for age, occupation, hypertension, diabetes. U-NAG levels seem to be affected by air pollution exposure as well

  1. [Mercury levels in humans under conditions of environmental pollution by mercury-containing industrial waste].

    PubMed

    Larionova, T K

    2000-01-01

    Hygienic monitoring of lead, cadmium, and mercury as environmental pollutants should include the analysis of adverse human and environmental effects. The hygienic investigations of environmental pollution with gold-mining waste involved measurements of Hg in the water, soil, foodstuffs and human biological materials. Hg was found in the biological substrata of both industrial workers and the general population since they eat the products of animals and plants from the polluted area.

  2. Changes in persistent organic pollutant levels from adolescence to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Mia V; Deane, Glenn D; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Schell, Lawrence M

    2015-07-01

    Elimination rates and their corresponding half-lives are conceptually important and intuitively accessible pharmacokinetic measures of toxicant elimination, but regression-based estimates are biased proportional to the degree of continuing (background) exposure. We propose an alternative estimator, the censored normal regression model, which uses all observations, but treats individuals whose initial level failed to exceed their follow-up level as censored observations to weight the regression estimates from those that declined between blood draws. In this manner, we derive the intrinsic elimination rate, the elimination rate free from ongoing exposure, as a parameter in a regression with an unobserved, latent dependent variable. We utilize sequential measurements of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels from adolescence to adulthood, a period of intense change in size and body composition, to quantify individual-level change within a community exposed to significant quantities of contaminants over an extended period of time. Although much research has been conducted on effects of POPs, far less attention has been given to vectors of intake and changes in toxicant levels during the life course. We apply exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to types and timing of consumption, along with physical behavioral characteristics, to identify a structure of seven underlying factors. Although several variables show factorial complexity, the latent constructs included an age/maturation and period-related factor, a nutritional composite, consumption prior to pregnancy, fish and fowl consumed during pregnancy, factors distinguishing body mass and weight from height, and bottom-feeding fish consumption. Unadjusted and adjusted half-lives using the censored normal regression estimator, as well as estimated half-lives from conventional log concentration regressions, are reported for PCB groupings, specific congeners, p,p'-DDE, and HCB.

  3. Impacts of natural emission sources on particle pollution levels in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Giannaros, Theodore M.; Kakosimos, Konstantinos E.; Stein, Olaf; Melas, Dimitrios

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this work is the study of the impact of windblown dust, sea-salt aerosol and biogenic emissions on particle pollution levels in Europe. The Natural Emissions MOdel (NEMO) and the modelling system consisted of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the Comprehensive Air Quality model with extensions (CAMx) were applied in a 30 km horizontal resolution grid, which covered Europe and the adjacent areas for the year 2009. Air quality simulations were performed for different emission scenarios in order to study the contribution of each natural emission source individually and together to air quality levels in Europe. The simulations reveal that the exclusion of windblown dust emissions decreases the mean seasonal PM10 levels by more than 3.3 μg/m3 (∼20%) in the Eastern Mediterranean during winter while an impact of 3 μg/m3 was also found during summer. The results suggest that sea-salt aerosol has a significant effect on PM levels and composition. Eliminating sea-salt emissions reduces PM10 seasonal concentrations by around 10 μg/m3 in Mediterranean Sea during summer while a decrease of up to 6 μg/m3 is found in Atlantic Ocean during autumn. Sea-salt particles also interact with the anthropogenic component and therefore their absence in the atmosphere decreases significantly the nitrates in aerosols where shipping activities are present. The exclusion of biogenic emissions in the model runs leads to a significant reduction of secondary organic aerosols of more than 90% while an increase in PM2.5 levels in central Europe and Eastern Mediterranean is found due to their interaction with anthropogenic component.

  4. Changes in persistent organic pollutant levels from adolescence to young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Deane, Glenn D.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Schell, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Elimination rates and their corresponding half-lives are conceptually important and intuitively accessible pharmacokinetic measures of toxicant elimination, but regression-based estimates are biased proportional to the degree of continuing (background) exposure. We propose an alternative estimator, the censored normal regression model, which uses all observations, but treats individuals whose initial level failed to exceed their follow-up level as censored observations to weight the regression estimates from those that declined between blood draws. In this manner, we derive the intrinsic elimination rate, the elimination rate free from ongoing exposure, as a parameter in a regression with an unobserved, latent dependent variable. We utilize sequential measurements of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) levels from adolescence to adulthood, a period of intense change in size and body composition, to quantify individual-level change within a community exposed to significant quantities of contaminants over an extended period of time. Although much research has been conducted on effects of POPs, far less attention has been given to vectors of intake and changes in toxicant levels during the life course. We apply exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to types and timing of consumption, along with physical behavioral characteristics, to identify a structure of seven underlying factors. Although several variables show factorial complexity, the latent constructs included an age/maturation and period-related factor, a nutritional composite, consumption prior to pregnancy, fish and fowl consumed during pregnancy, factors distinguishing body mass and weight from height, and bottom-feeding fish consumption. Unadjusted and adjusted half-lives using the censored normal regression estimator, as well as estimated half-lives from conventional log concentration regressions, are reported for PCB groupings, specific congeners, p,p′-DDE, and HCB. PMID:25863595

  5. Amorphous Solid Water (ASW): Macroscale Environmentally-Neutral Application for Remediation of Hazardous Pollutants using Condensed-Phase Cryogenic Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Strulle, Ronald; Rheinhart, Maximilian

    2012-03-01

    We report macroscale environmentally-neutral use of cryogenic fluids to induce phase transitions from crystalline water-ices to amorphous solid water (ASW). New IP and uses in remediation of oil-spills and hazardous immiscibles from aquatic environments. We display high-resolution images of the transitions from hexagonal to cubic crystalline water-ice, then to hydrophobic ASW. Accretion and encapsulation of viscous pollutants within crystalline water-ice, and sequestration of condensed volatiles (PAH, methane) and low viscosity fluids within the interstitial cavities of ASW are shown and differentiated for: crude oils, diesel (heating) and blended oils, petroleum byproducts, vegetable and mineral oils, lipids, and light immiscible fluids. The effects of PdV work and thermal energy transfers during phase changes are shown, along with the sequestration efficiencies for hexagonal and cubic ice lattices vs. non-crystalline ASW, for a range of pollutant substances. The viability of ASW as a medium for study of quantum criticality phases is also proposed. The process is environmentally-neutral in that only substantially condensed-phase air liquefaction products, e.g. nitrogen in >90% liquid phase are employed as an active agent. The applications are also presented in terms of the scale-up of experiments performed at the nanoscale.

  6. Headspace solid-phase microextraction for the determination of volatile and semi-volatile pollutants in water and air.

    PubMed

    Llompart, M; Li, K; Fingas, M

    1998-10-16

    In this work we report the use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) to extract and concentrate water-soluble volatile as well as semi-volatile pollutants. Both methods of exposing the SPME fibre were utilised: immersion in the aqueous solution (SPME) and in the headspace over the solution (HSSPME). The proposed HSSPME procedure was compared to conventional static headspace (HS) analysis for artificially spiked water as well as real water samples, which had been, equilibrated with various oil and petroleum products. Both techniques gave similar results but HSSPME was much more sensitive and exhibited better precision. Detection limits were found to be in the sub-ng/ml level, with precision better than 5% R.S.D. in most cases. To evaluate the suitability of SPME for relatively high contamination level analysis, the proposed HSSPME method was applied to the screening of run-off water samples that had heavy oil suspended in them from a tire fire incident. HSSPME results were compared with liquid--liquid extraction. Library searches were conducted on the resulting GC-MS total ion chromatograms to determine the types of compounds found in such samples. Both techniques found similar composition in the water samples with the exception of alkylnaphthalenes that were detected only by HSSPME. A brief study was carried out to assess using SPME for air monitoring. By sampling and concentrating the volatile organic compounds in the coating of the SPME fibre without any other equipment, this new technique is useful as an alternative to active air monitoring by means of sampling pumps and sorbent tubes.

  7. Cadmium and other metal levels in autopsy samples from a cadmium-polluted area and non-polluted control areas in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Chiyo; Koizumi, Naoko; Nishio, Hisahide; Koizumi, Naoru; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated to examine accumulation of cadmium (Cd) and other metals in kidney and liver in autopsy samples and to compare the levels between those in an area with heavy Cd exposure and those in no-polluted areas in Japan. Data on Cd and other metals in kidney (cortex and medulla) and liver in 95 cases (87 women and eight men; the exposed) in a Cd-polluted area and 43 cases (21 women and 22 men; the controls) in non-polluted areas were cited from 15 previous publications to be summarized together with six unpublished cases. Cd levels in kidney cortex and medulla were significantly lower in the exposed (31.5 and 23.8 μg/g wet tissue as GM, respectively) than in the controls (82.7 and 36.4 μg/g, respectively), whereas Cd levels in liver was higher in the exposed (60.2 μg/g) than in the controls (8.1 μg/g). Exposed women had lower Cd in the cortex (29.9 μg/g) and medulla (22.7 μg/g) than exposed men (55.4 and 38.1 μg/g, respectively) as well as in cortex of control women (92.9 μg/g). Comparison with worldwide data other than Japan for non-exposed populations [19.1, 9.3, and 1.3 μg/g in cortex, medulla, and liver, respectively, as the inverse variance-weighted averages (IVWA) of GM values for each of 22 reports] suggests that the levels for the non-exposed Japanese (123.3, 33.5, and 3.9 μg/g as IVWA) tended to be higher than the levels in other countries, possibly reflecting high dietary Cd intake in the past.

  8. Elemental contamination in urban parks of Rawalpindi/Islamabad--a source identification and pollution level assessment study.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Sajid; Wasim, Mohammad; Tufail, Muhammad; Arif, Mohammad; Chaudhry, Muhammad M

    2012-09-01

    The soil quality of urban parks is of vital importance as the children playing in the parks get themselves easily contaminated. A study was conducted to assess the level of elemental pollution caused by constant urbanization and industrialization, in various parks of Islamabad and Rawalpindi. The soil samples, collected from 14 urban parks of Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas, were analysed for their elemental concentrations. In each sample, 32 elements were quantified using semi-absolute k (0)-instrumental neutron activation analysis and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The quality of analysis was assured by analysing the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reference material IAEA-S7 (soil). The pollution level was assessed by enrichment factor, pollution load index and our suggested indicator called "average toxic element concentration". The elemental concentrations measured in the parks of two cities were compared by t test. Four sources of different elements in the soils were identified by employing principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The results of multivariate techniques grouped all parks into four classes. The use of enrichment factor indicated the presence of Ni at slightly higher level in all parks while the pollution load index revealed that the parks of Rawalpindi were relatively more polluted as compared to that of Islamabad. The hot spot areas of elemental concentration were closely related to high traffic conditions.

  9. On evaluating compliance with air pollution levels not to be exceeded more than once per year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    The adequacy is considered of currently practiced monitoring and data reduction techniques for assessing compliance with 24-hour Air Quality Standards (AQS) not to be exceeded more than once per year. The present situation for suspended particulates is discussed. The following conclusions are reached: (1) For typical less than daily sampling (i.e., 60 to 120 24-hour samples per year) the deviation from independence of the data set should not be substantial. (2) The interchange of exponentiation and expectation operations in the EPA data reduction model, underestimates the second highest level by about 4 to 8 percent for typical sigma values. (3) Estimates of the second highest pollution level have associated with them a large statistical variability arising from the finite size of the sample. The 0.95 confidence interval ranges from + or - 40 percent for 120 samples per year to + or - 84 percent for 30 samples per year. (4) The design value suggested by EPA for abatement and/or control planning purposes typically gives a margin of safety of 60 to 120 percent.

  10. Modelled air pollution levels versus EC air quality legislation - results from high resolution simulation.

    PubMed

    Chervenkov, Hristo

    2013-12-01

    An appropriate method for evaluating the air quality of a certain area is to contrast the actual air pollution levels to the critical ones, prescribed in the legislative standards. The application of numerical simulation models for assessing the real air quality status is allowed by the legislation of the European Community (EC). This approach is preferable, especially when the area of interest is relatively big and/or the network of measurement stations is sparse, and the available observational data are scarce, respectively. Such method is very efficient for similar assessment studies due to continuous spatio-temporal coverage of the obtained results. In the study the values of the concentration of the harmful substances sulphur dioxide, (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter - coarse (PM10) and fine (PM2.5) fraction, ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO) and ammonia (NH3) in the surface layer obtained from modelling simulations with resolution 10 km on hourly bases are taken to calculate the necessary statistical quantities which are used for comparison with the corresponding critical levels, prescribed in the EC directives. For part of them (PM2.5, CO and NH3) this is done for first time with such resolution. The computational grid covers Bulgaria entirely and some surrounding territories and the calculations are made for every year in the period 1991-2000. The averaged over the whole time slice results can be treated as representative for the air quality situation of the last decade of the former century.

  11. The Relationship between the Blood Level of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Min; Ko, Hae Jin; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2016-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic materials that cannot be broken down naturally and that easily accumulate in the body. Although several studies have attempted to reveal the effects of POPs on the endocrine and nervous system and on cancer, few studies focus on the relationship between low-dose POPs and public health. We attempted to find a relationship between the level of POPs and common gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and constipation. Methods We recruited 121 subjects who visited Kyungpook National University Hospital for a health screening. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for 40 kinds of POPs including 17 types of polychlorinated biphenyls and 23 types of organochlorine pesticides. Furthermore, the Korean version of the Rome III criteria was used to identify gastrointestinal symptoms. Results Our results showed that abdominal discomfort had an inverse relationship with several polychlorinated biphenyls. Moreover, an inverted U-shaped relationship was observed between abdominal discomfort and several other organochlorine pesticides including p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, and the effects of these pesticides on abdominal discomfort were similar to that of organochlorine pesticides on obesity and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Our results suggest that mild and unspecified gastrointestinal symptoms with no clear cause could be related to POPs levels. PMID:27688859

  12. [Levels of mineral elements composition and heavy metal pollution in human breast milk in Shenzhen City].

    PubMed

    Deng, Bo; Zhang, Huimin; Yan, Chunrong; Zhang, Lishi

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the levels of some mineral elements composition and heavy metal in human breast milk in Shenzhen, and estimate the status of infant with breast feeding. ICP-MS and ICP-AES instruments were used to detect the levels of four macroelements of Ca, K, Na, Mg and four microelements of Zn, Fe, Se, Cu, totally eight minerals as well as three heavy metal of Pb, As and Cd in human breast milk. 60 breast milk samples were collected from the women aged 20-35, lived in Shenzhen over 5 years, postdelivery 3 weeks to 2 months from Jul. to Nov. 2007. Average concentration for four kinds of macroelement of Ca, K, Na, Mg was 280.22, 498.61, 188.65 and 28.31 mg/L respectively, that for four kinds of microelements of Zn, Fe, Se, Cu was 2.29 mg/L, 358.88 microg/L, 8.28 microg/L and 339.16 microg/L respectively in 60 human breast milk samples. Average concentration of Pb was 2.13 microg/L in 60 human breest milk samples, and heavy metal As and Cd were non-detected. The nutrition status of four kinds of macroelement of Ca, K, Na, Mg and three kinds of microelements of Zn, Fe, Cu in 60 human breast milk samples were reasonable, but the lack of microelement Se and the pollution of the heavy metal should been taken into account.

  13. Levels and Distribution of Pollutants in the Waters of an Aquatic Ecosystem in Northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Rivero, Jesús Manuel; Reyes-Fierro, Ana Victoria; Peralta-Pérez, Ma Del Rosario; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Salmerón, Ivan; Rubio-Arias, Héctor; Rocha-Gutiérrez, Beatriz A

    2017-04-25

    The availability of good quality water resources is essential to ensure healthy crops and livestock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of pollution in Bustillos Lagoon in northern Mexico. Physical-chemical parameters like sodium, chloride, sulfate, electrical conductivity, nitrates, and the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed to determine the water quality available in the lagoon. Although DDT has been banned in several countries, it is still used for agricultural purposes in Mexico and its presence in this area had not been analyzed previously. Bustillos Lagoon was divided into three zones for the evaluation: (1) industrial; (2) communal lands; and (3) agricultural. The highest concentrations of sodium (2360 mg/L) and SAR (41 meq/L) reported in the industrial zone are values exceeding the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) irrigation water quality guidelines. DDT and its metabolites were detected in all of the 21 sites analyzed, in the agricultural zone ∑DDTs = 2804 ng/mL, this level is much higher than those reported for other water bodies in Mexico and around the world where DDT has been used heavily. The water in the communal zone is the least contaminated, but can only be recommended for irrigation of plants with high stress tolerance and not for crops.

  14. Levels and Distribution of Pollutants in the Waters of an Aquatic Ecosystem in Northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa-Rivero, Jesús Manuel; Reyes-Fierro, Ana Victoria; Peralta-Pérez, Ma. Del Rosario; Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, Francisco Javier; Ballinas-Casarrubias, Lourdes; Salmerón, Ivan; Rubio-Arias, Héctor; Rocha-Gutiérrez, Beatriz A.

    2017-01-01

    The availability of good quality water resources is essential to ensure healthy crops and livestock. The objective of this study was to evaluate the level of pollution in Bustillos Lagoon in northern Mexico. Physical-chemical parameters like sodium, chloride, sulfate, electrical conductivity, nitrates, and the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) were analyzed to determine the water quality available in the lagoon. Although DDT has been banned in several countries, it is still used for agricultural purposes in Mexico and its presence in this area had not been analyzed previously. Bustillos Lagoon was divided into three zones for the evaluation: (1) industrial; (2) communal lands; and (3) agricultural. The highest concentrations of sodium (2360 mg/L) and SAR (41 meq/L) reported in the industrial zone are values exceeding the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) irrigation water quality guidelines. DDT and its metabolites were detected in all of the 21 sites analyzed, in the agricultural zone ∑DDTs = 2804 ng/mL, this level is much higher than those reported for other water bodies in Mexico and around the world where DDT has been used heavily. The water in the communal zone is the least contaminated, but can only be recommended for irrigation of plants with high stress tolerance and not for crops. PMID:28441345

  15. The Relationship between the Blood Level of Persistent Organic Pollutants and Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyo-Min; Ko, Hae Jin; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Lee, Yu-Mi

    2017-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic materials that cannot be broken down naturally and that easily accumulate in the body. Although several studies have attempted to uncover the effects of POPs on the endocrine and nervous systems and on cancer, few focus on the relationship between low-dose POPs and public health. Here, we attempt to determine the relationship between the level of POPs and common gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and constipation. Methods We recruited 121 subjects who visited Kyungpook National University Medical Center for health screening. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for 40 kinds of POPs including 17 types of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 23 types of organochlorine pesticides (OCP). Furthermore, the Korean version of the Rome III criteria was used to identify gastrointestinal symptoms. Results Based on our results, abdominal discomfort showed an inverse relationship with several PCBs and an inverted U-shaped relationship with several other OCPs including pp-DDD and pp-DDT. The effects of pp-DDD and pp-DDT on abdominal discomfort were similar to those of OCPs on obesity and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion Our results suggest that mild and unspecified gastrointestinal symptoms with no clear causes could be related to POP levels. PMID:28775815

  16. Prevalence of respiratory conditions among schoolchildren exposed to different levels of air pollutants in the Haifa Bay area, Israel.

    PubMed Central

    Goren, A I; Hellman, S; Brenner, S; Egoz, N; Rishpon, S

    1990-01-01

    During spring 1984, 2334 second and 2000 fifth-grade schoolchildren living in three Haifa Bay areas on the eastern Mediterranean coast with different levels of air pollution were studied. The parents of these children filled out American Thoracic Society and National Heart and Lung Institute health questionnaires, and the children performed the following pulmonary function tests (PFT); FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FEV, PEF, FEF50, and FEF75. A trend of higher prevalence of most reported respiratory symptoms was found for schoolchildren growing up in the medium and high pollution areas as compared with the low pollution area. Part of the reported respiratory diseases were significantly more common among children from the high pollution area. Models fitted for the respiratory conditions that differed significantly among the three areas of residence also included background variables that could be responsible for these differences. Relative risk values, which were calculated from the logistic models, were in the range of 1.38 for sputum with cold and 1.81 for sputum without cold for children from the high pollution area as compared with 1.00 for children from the low pollution area. All the measured values of PFT were within the normal range. There was no consistent trend of reduced pulmonary function that characterized any residential area. PMID:2088751

  17. Effects of exercise in polluted air on the aerobic power, serum lactate level and cell blood count of active individuals.

    PubMed

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Poursafa, Parinaz; Rezanejad, Saber; Mousavinasab, Firouzeh

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of exercise on the aerobic power, serum lactate level, and cell blood count among active individuals in the environments with similar climatic characteristics differing in their level of air pollution. This trial comprised 20 volunteer students of Physical education in The University of Isfahan, Iran. Two places with the same climate (altitude, temperature, and humidity), but low and high level of air pollutants air were selected in Isfahan, Iran. Participants underwent a field Cooper test with a 12-minute run for fitness assessment. Then the aerobic power, serum lactate, and cell blood counts were measured and compared between the two areas. The study participants had a mean (SD) age of 21.70 (2.10) years and body mass index (BMI) of 24.44 (2.32) Kg/m2. We found a significant decrease in mean Vo2 max, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, as well as significant increase in mean lactate level, white blood cell count and mean corpuscular volume in the higher-polluted than in the lower-polluted area. No significant difference was documented for other parameters as platelet counts or maximum heart rate. Exercise in high-polluted air resulted in a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion. Therefore, the acute exposure to polluted air may cause a significant reduction in the performance of active individuals. The clinical importance of these findings should be assessed in longitudinal studies.

  18. An objective definition of air mass types affecting Athens, Greece; the corresponding atmospheric pressure patterns and air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Sindosi, O A; Katsoulis, B D; Bartzokas, A

    2003-08-01

    This work aims at defining characteristic air mass types that dominate in the region of Athens, Greece during the cold (November-March) and the warm (May-September) period of the year and also at evaluating the corresponding concentration levels of the main air pollutants. For each air mass type, the mean atmospheric pressure distribution (composite maps) over Europe and the Mediterranean is estimated in order to reveal the association of atmospheric circulation with air pollution levels in Athens. The data basis for this work consists of daily values of thirteen meteorological and six pollutant parameters covering the period 1993-97. The definition of the characteristic air mass types is attempted objectively by using the methods of Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis. The results show that during the cold period of the year there are six prevailing air mass types (at least 3% of the total number of days) and six infrequent ones. The examination of the corresponding air pollution concentration levels shows that the primary air pollutants appear with increased concentrations when light or southerly winds prevail. This is usually the case when a high pressure system is located over the central Mediterranean or a low pressure system lays over south Italy, respectively. Low levels of the primary pollutants are recorded under northeasterly winds, mainly caused by a high pressure system over Ukraine. During the warm period of the year, the southwestern Asia thermal low and the subtropical anticyclone of the Atlantic Ocean affect Greece. Though these synoptic systems cause almost stagnant conditions, four main air mass types are dominant and ten others, associated with extreme weather, are infrequent. Despite the large amounts of total solar radiation characterizing this period, ozone concentrations remain at low levels in central Athens because of its destruction by nitric oxide.

  19. Resiliency of the Chesapeake Bay to Pollution Levels Following Storms and Based on Land-Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M.; Pavelsky, T.

    2015-12-01

    As pollution levels, transformations in land use, and ecological loss continue to increase in the Chesapeake Bay, questions arise as to whether this estuary, the largest in North America, will experience a change in the duration and levels of storm-related sediment and nutrient spikes. We use a combination of satellite data and previously-collected field measurements to study this question. We compare same-day and same-pixel NASA MODIS satellite data to in situ observations of sediment and nutrient concentrations over 20 years, and found that for at least 6 tributaries, the r2 value for a linear regression between the satellite reflectance and fieldwork measures of nitrogen, phosphorus, or suspended sediment concentrations exceeded 0.7, while for at least 12 tributaries, the r2 value exceeded 0.5. We took advantage of this relationship to estimate sediment and nutrient concentrations in the Chesapeake following major storm events, even in the absence of continuous in situ data. We studied sediment/nutrient levels daily following the storm, for every date on which a cloud-free MODIS image was available, for a month. The storms included 2003's Hurricane Isabel, 2011's Hurricane Irene, and 2012's Superstorm Sandy. The tributaries we focused on were the York and Piankatank Rivers of southern Virginia (heavily forested), the Potomac River (heavily urban), and the Nanticoke River of the Eastern Shore (heavily farmed). Results show that in the Potomac River, which over the last 15 years has experience a signifiant increase in urbanization, sediments and nutrients persist for longer periods and at higher levels compared to less urbanized rivers.

  20. Independent Maternal and Fetal Genetic Effects on Midgestational Circulating Levels of Environmental Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Traglia, Michela; Croen, Lisa A.; Lyall, Kristen; Windham, Gayle C.; Kharrazi, Marty; DeLorenze, Gerald N.; Torres, Anthony R.; Weiss, Lauren A.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal exposure to environmental pollutants could affect fetal brain development and increase autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in conjunction with differential genetic susceptibility. Organohalogen congeners measured in maternal midpregnancy blood samples have recently shown significant, but negative associations with offspring ASD outcome. We report the first large-scale maternal and fetal genetic study of the midpregnancy serum levels of a set of 21 organohalogens in a subset of 790 genotyped women and 764 children collected in California by the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) Project. Levels of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) and PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether) congeners showed high maternal and fetal estimated SNP-based heritability (h2g) accounting for 39–99% of the total variance. Genome-wide association analyses identified significant maternal loci for p,p′-DDE (P = 7.8 × 10−11) in the CYP2B6 gene and for BDE-28 (P = 3.2 × 10−8) near the SH3GL2 gene, both involved in xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. Fetal genetic loci contributed to the levels of BDE-100 (P = 4.6 × 10−8) and PCB187 (P = 2.8 × 10−8), near the potential metabolic genes LOXHD1 and PTPRD, previously implicated in neurodevelopment. Negative associations were observed for BDE-100, BDE153, and the sum of PBDEs with ASD, partly explained by genome-wide additive genetic effects that predicted PBDE levels. Our results support genetic control of midgestational biomarkers for environmental exposures by nonoverlapping maternal and fetal genetic determinants, suggesting that future studies of environmental risk factors should take genetic variation into consideration. The independent influence of fetal genetics supports previous hypotheses that fetal genotypes expressed in placenta can influence maternal physiology and the transplacental transfer of organohalogens. PMID:28235828

  1. Dissolved oxygen in the rehabilitation phase of an estuary: influence of sewage pollution abatement and hydro-climatic factors.

    PubMed

    Villate, Fernando; Iriarte, Arantza; Uriarte, Ibon; Intxausti, Lander; de la Sota, Alejandro

    2013-05-15

    Seasonal and inter-annual variations of dissolved oxygen (DO) along the estuary of Bilbao were investigated from 1998 to 2008, during its rehabilitation phase from pollution, to determine whether anthropogenic or natural forcings or both govern DO dynamics and hypoxia. Both seasonal and inter-annual variations of DO were best explained by hydro-climatic factors, sewage pollution and phytoplankton dynamics in the inner, intermediate and outer estuary respectively. The most remarkable intra-decadal improvement in DO occurred in the halocline layer of the intermediate estuary, where the factor that best explained these changes was sewage pollution abatement. However, in the estuarine hotspot for hypoxia, i.e. inner estuary bottom waters, no parallel response to sewage pollution abatement was observed and hydro-climatic factors were the main drivers of inter-annual DO variations. Differences in the degree of stratification and flushing accounted for this differential response of DO to anthropogenic and climate-related forcings at both axial and vertical scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION AND LUNG FUNCTIONS AMONG ASTHMATIC CHILDREN EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Air pollutant exposure has been related to adverse respiratory effects, in particular, in asthmatics. This effect could be the consequence of the oxidative stress caused by air pollutants on the lung. Antioxidant vitamins are free- radical scavengers, and could ha...

  3. ANTIOXIDANT SUPPLEMENTATION AND LUNG FUNCTIONS AMONG ASTHMATIC CHILDREN EXPOSED TO HIGH LEVELS OF AIR POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Air pollutant exposure has been related to adverse respiratory effects, in particular, in asthmatics. This effect could be the consequence of the oxidative stress caused by air pollutants on the lung. Antioxidant vitamins are free- radical scavengers, and could ha...

  4. Socioeconomic Drivers of PM2.5 in the Accumulation Phase of Air Pollution Episodes in the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    PubMed

    Lou, Cai-Rong; Liu, Hong-Yu; Li, Yu-Feng; Li, Yu-Ling

    2016-09-22

    Recent studies in PM2.5 sources show that anthropogenic emissions are the main contributors to haze pollution. Due to their essential roles in establishing policies for improving air quality, socioeconomic drivers of PM2.5 levels have attracted increasing attention. Unlike previous studies focusing on the annual PM2.5 concentration (Cyear), this paper focuses on the accumulation phase of PM2.5 during the pollution episode (PMAE) in the Yangtze River Delta in China. This paper mainly explores the spatial variations of PMAE and its links to the socioeconomic factors using a geographical detector and simple linear regression. The results indicated that PM2.5 was more likely to accumulate in more developed cities, such as Nanjing and Shanghai. Compared with Cyear, PMAE was more sensitive to socioeconomic impacts. Among the twelve indicators chosen for this study, population density was an especially critical factor that could affect the accumulation of PM2.5 dramatically and accounted for the regional difference. A 1% increase in population density could cause a 0.167% rise in the maximal increment and a 0.214% rise in the daily increase rate of PM2.5. Additionally, industry, energy consumption, and vehicles were also significantly associated with PM2.5 accumulation. These conclusions could serve to remediate the severe PM2.5 pollution in China.

  5. Socioeconomic Drivers of PM2.5 in the Accumulation Phase of Air Pollution Episodes in the Yangtze River Delta of China

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Cai-Rong; Liu, Hong-Yu; Li, Yu-Feng; Li, Yu-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in PM2.5 sources show that anthropogenic emissions are the main contributors to haze pollution. Due to their essential roles in establishing policies for improving air quality, socioeconomic drivers of PM2.5 levels have attracted increasing attention. Unlike previous studies focusing on the annual PM2.5 concentration (Cyear), this paper focuses on the accumulation phase of PM2.5 during the pollution episode (PMAE) in the Yangtze River Delta in China. This paper mainly explores the spatial variations of PMAE and its links to the socioeconomic factors using a geographical detector and simple linear regression. The results indicated that PM2.5 was more likely to accumulate in more developed cities, such as Nanjing and Shanghai. Compared with Cyear, PMAE was more sensitive to socioeconomic impacts. Among the twelve indicators chosen for this study, population density was an especially critical factor that could affect the accumulation of PM2.5 dramatically and accounted for the regional difference. A 1% increase in population density could cause a 0.167% rise in the maximal increment and a 0.214% rise in the daily increase rate of PM2.5. Additionally, industry, energy consumption, and vehicles were also significantly associated with PM2.5 accumulation. These conclusions could serve to remediate the severe PM2.5 pollution in China. PMID:27669272

  6. Assessment of pollution level using Mytilus galloprovincialis as a bioindicator species: The case of the Gulf of Trieste.

    PubMed

    Kristan, Urška; Kanduč, Tjaša; Osterc, Andrej; Šlejkovec, Zdenka; Ramšak, Andreja; Stibilj, Vekoslava

    2014-12-15

    A multidisciplinary approach was used to estimate the pollution level of the marine environment in the North Eastern Adriatic by measurement of the isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen (δ(13)C, δ(15)N), metal/metalloids analyses (Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb, including As speciation) in the Mytilus galloprovincialis, as well by using metallothioneins (MT) concentrations, micronuclei (MN) in gill cells and biological parameters (condition index and gonadosomatic index). Concentrations of MT were in the range from 44 to 175 μg g(-1) wet matter tissue and were higher at the end of the winter season. The frequency of MN did not indicate an elevated level. Sewage sludge pollution was not confirmed. Elevated As concentrations in mussel are related to salinity and low nutrients concentrations and not to pollution. Elevated concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb were found in the Bay of Koper in comparison with the Bays of Strunjan and Piran.

  7. Size distribution of particle-phase molecular markers during a severe winter pollution episode.

    PubMed

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Jakober, Chris A

    2008-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter was collected using filter samplers and cascade impactors in six size fractions below 1.8 microm during a severe winter air pollution event at three sites in the Central Valley of California. The smallest size fraction analyzed was 0.056 < Dp <0.1 microm particle diameter, which accounts for the majority of the mass in the ultrafine (PM0.1) size range. Separate samples were collected during the daytime (10 a.m. to 6 p.m. PST) and nighttime (8 p.m. to 8 a.m. PST) to characterize diurnal patterns. Each sample was extracted with organic solvents and analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry for molecular markers that can be used for size-resolved source apportionment calculations. Colocated impactor and filter measurements were highly correlated (R8 > 0.8) for retene, benzo[ghi]flouranthene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, perylene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, MW302 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), 17beta(H)-21alpha(H)-30-norhopane, 17alpha(H)-21beta(H)-hopane, alphabetabeta-20R-C29-ethylcholestane, levoglucosan, and cholesterol. Of these compounds, levoglucosan was present in the highest concentration (60-2080 ng m(-3)) followed by cholesterol (6-35 ng m(-3)), PAHs (2-38 ng m(-3)), and hopanes and steranes (0-2 ng m(-3)). Nighttime concentrations were higher than daytime concentrations in all cases. Organic compound size distributions were generally similar to the total carbon size distributions during the nighttime but showed greater variability during the daytime. This may reflect the dominance of fresh emission in the stagnant surface layer during the evening hours and the presence of aged organic aerosol at the surface during the daytime when the atmosphere is better mixed. All of the measured organic compound particle size distributions had a single mode that peaked somewhere between 0.18 and 0.56 microm, but the width of each distribution

  8. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Baloye, David O.; Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033

  9. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G

    2015-09-29

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies.

  10. Polluted rainwater runoff from waste recovery and recycling companies: Determination of emission levels associated with the best available techniques.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, D; Verachtert, E; Vander Aa, S; Polders, C; Van den Abeele, L

    2016-08-01

    Rainwater falling on outdoor storage areas of waste recovery and recycling companies becomes polluted via contact with the stored materials. It contains various pollutants, including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, and is characterized by a highly fluctuating composition and flow rate. This polluted rainwater runoff is legally considered as industrial wastewater, and the polluting substances contained in the rainwater runoff at the point of discharge, are considered as emissions into water. The permitting authorities can set emission limit values (discharge limits) at the point of discharge. Best available techniques are an important reference point for setting emission limit values. In this paper, the emission levels associated with the best available techniques for dealing with polluted rainwater runoff from waste recovery and recycling companies were determined. The determination is based on an analysis of emission data measured at different companies in Flanders. The data show that a significant fraction of the pollution in rainwater runoff is associated with particles. A comparison with literature data provides strong indications that not only leaching, but also atmospheric deposition play an important role in the contamination of rainwater at waste recovery and recycling companies. The prevention of pollution and removal of suspended solids from rainwater runoff to levels below 60mg/l are considered as best available techniques. The associated emission levels were determined by considering only emission data from plants applying wastewater treatment, and excluding all samples with suspended solid levels >60mg/l. The resulting BAT-AEL can be used as a reference point for setting emission limit values for polluted rainwater runoff from waste recovery and recycling companies. Since the BAT-AEL (e.g. 150μg/l for Cu) are significantly lower than current emission levels (e.g. 300μg/l as the 90% percentile and 4910

  11. Assessment of Health-Cost Externalities of Air Pollution at the National Level using the EVA Model System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Silver, Jeremy David; Heile Christensen, Jesper; Skou Andersen, Mikael; Geels, Camilla; Gross, Allan; Buus Hansen, Ayoe; Mantzius Hansen, Kaj; Brandt Hedegaard, Gitte; Ambelas Skjøth, Carsten

    2010-05-01

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources/sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level. The EVA system integrates a regional-scale atmospheric chemistry transport model (DEHM), address-level population data, exposure-response functions and monetary values applicable for Danish/European conditions. Traditionally, systems that assess economic costs of health impacts from air pollution assume linear approximations in the source-receptor relationships. However, atmospheric chemistry is non-linear and therefore the uncertainty involved in the linear assumption can be large. The EVA system has been developed to take into account the non-linear processes by using a comprehensive, state-of-the-art chemical transport model when calculating how specific changes to emissions affect air pollution levels and the subsequent impacts on human health and cost. Furthermore, we present a new "tagging" method, developed to examine how specific emission sources influence air pollution levels without assuming linearity of the non-linear behaviour of atmospheric chemistry. This method is more precise than the traditional approach based on taking the difference between two concentration fields. Using the EVA system, we have estimated the total external costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the ten major SNAP codes. Finally, we assess the impacts and external costs of emissions from international ship traffic around Denmark, since there is a high volume of ship traffic in the region.

  12. Household-level disparities in cancer risks from vehicular air pollution in Miami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Timothy W.; Grineski, Sara E.; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-09-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research has relied on ecological analyses of socio-demographic data from areal units to determine if particular populations are disproportionately burdened by toxic risks. This article advances quantitative EJ research by (a) examining whether statistical associations found for geographic units translate to relationships at the household level; (b) testing alternative explanations for distributional injustices never before investigated; and (c) applying a novel statistical technique appropriate for geographically-clustered data. Our study makes these advances by using generalized estimating equations to examine distributive environmental inequities in the Miami (Florida) metropolitan area, based on primary household-level survey data and census block-level cancer risk estimates of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) exposure from on-road mobile emission sources. In addition to modeling determinants of on-road HAP cancer risk among all survey participants, two subgroup models are estimated to examine whether determinants of risk differ based on disadvantaged minority (Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black) versus non-Hispanic white racial/ethnic status. Results reveal multiple determinants of risk exposure disparities. In the model including all survey participants, renter-occupancy, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, the desire to live close to work/urban services or public transportation, and higher risk perception are associated with greater on-road HAP cancer risk; the desire to live in an amenity-rich environment is associated with less risk. Divergent subgroup model results shed light on the previously unexamined role of racial/ethnic status in shaping determinants of risk exposures. While lower socioeconomic status and higher risk perception predict significantly greater on-road HAP cancer risk among disadvantaged minorities, the desire to live near work/urban services or public transport predict significantly greater risk among

  13. Levels of persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of Maya women in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Polanco Rodríguez, Ángel G; Inmaculada Riba López, M; Angel DelValls Casillas, T; León, Jesús Alfredo Araujo; Anjan Kumar Prusty, B; Álvarez Cervera, Fernando J

    2017-02-01

    In this study, 24 breast milk samples, obtained from rural Maya women, from municipalities of Yucatan, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues by gas chromatography. Recent studies have shown that Maya communities have a poor perception about the proper usage and handling of OCP. The karstic soil in this area has a high vulnerability to groundwater pollution by the use of OCP in agriculture and livestock activities. The impact of the ecosystem on human health is much more critical due to the prevailing poverty and a very low educational level of these communities. About 30% of the Maya population consumes water directly from contaminated wells and sinkholes, resulting in a chronic exposure to OCP. The samples served to identify and quantify high levels of OCP residues (18.43 mg/kg of heptachlor epoxide and 1.92 mg/kg of endrin in the metropolitan zone; 2.10 mg/kg of dieldrin, 0.117 mg/kg of endosulfan II, 0.103 mg/kg of heptachlor, 0.178 mg/kg of endrin, and 0.127 mg/kg of endrin aldehyde in the main agricultural zone and on the west coast). The detected levels of OCP residues are a major concern and represent a potential risk to women and children in the region. This could be associated with the high rates of cervical uterine and breast cancer mortality in Yucatan. Thus, regulations on the usage of OCP and their enforcement are necessary, and it is important to establish a yearly monitoring program for OCP residues in breast milk and groundwater, as well as to implement health promotion programs for women in particular and the general population in general.

  14. Low levels of chemical anthropogenic pollution may threaten amphibians by impairing predator recognition.

    PubMed

    Polo-Cavia, Nuria; Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that direct mortality and physiological effects caused by pollutants are major contributing factors to global amphibian decline. However, even sublethal concentrations of pollutants could be harmful if they combined with other factors to cause high mortality in amphibians. Here we show that sublethal concentrations of pollutants can disrupt the ability of amphibian larvae to recognize predators, hence increasing their risk of predation. This effect is indeed much more important since very low amounts of pollutants are ubiquitous, and environmental efforts are mostly directed towards preventing lethal spills. We analyzed the effects of two common contaminants (humic acid and ammonium nitrate) on the ability of tadpoles of the western spadefoot toad (Pelobates cultripes) to recognize chemical cues from a common predator, nymphs of the dragonfly Anax imperator. We compared the swimming activity of tadpoles in the presence and absence of water-borne chemical cues from dragonflies at different concentrations of humic acid and ammonium nitrate. Tadpoles reduced swimming activity in response to predator cues in the absence of pollutants, whereas they remained unresponsive to these cues when either humic acid or ammonium nitrate was added to the water, even at low concentrations. Moreover, changes in tadpole activity associated with the pollutants themselves were non-significant, indicating no toxic effect. Alteration of the natural chemical environment of aquatic systems by pollutants may be an important contributing cause for declines in amphibian populations, even at sublethal concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Topological phases in the zeroth Landau level of bilayer graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papic, Zlatko

    2015-03-01

    Over the past years, a remarkable variety of novel correlated states was discovered in graphene and its bilayer in a magnetic field. These states exhibit previously unseen richness due to an interplay of electron spin, valley and orbital degrees of freedom. They are furthermore distinguished by their high degree of tunability, e.g. via the in-plane magnetic or the perpendicular electric field, which allows one to probe their properties in a more flexible and direct way than in GaAs semiconductor systems. In this talk I will present a theoretical overview of the phase diagram of the partially-filled zeroth Landau level of bilayer graphene. Using realistic large-scale numerical calculations that incorporate strong mixing between orbitally degenerate sublevels, as well as the screening of the Coulomb interaction, we identify several robust quantum Hall states with odd denominators such as ν = - 4 / 3 , - 5 / 3 , - 8 / 5 . Although these states bear some relation to their more familiar analogs in GaAs, their collective excitations are expected to be different, as we illustrate on an example of the ν = - 1 state that acquires a neutral gap in bilayer graphene. Furthermore, we find evidence for the existence of an incompressible, even-denominator ν = - 1 / 2 state, and argue that this state is in the universality class of the non-Abelian Moore-Read state or its particle-hole conjugate, while other candidates such as the 331 state are unlikely to describe it. Finally, it will be shown that symmetry breaking, induced by an electric field applied perpendicular to the basal plane, is a useful experimental knob to tune the quantum phase transitions between integer or fractional states in bilayer graphene at a fixed filling factor. These results illustrate the potential of bilayer graphene as a model platform to study the emergent topologically ordered phases and transitions between them via symmetry breaking.

  16. Effects of tetrabromobisphenol A as an emerging pollutant on wheat (Triticum aestivum) at biochemical levels.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaning; Zhou, Qixing; Li, Fengxiang; Liu, Xiaoling; Luo, Yi

    2008-12-01

    Biochemical responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to the stress of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) as an emerging pollutant were examined. The results indicated that reduction of the chlorophyll (CHL) content in wheat leaves could be observed. However, the changes in the CHL content with the increasing TBBPA concentration from 50 to 5000 mg kg(-1) were insignificant (p>0.05). Increased malondialdehyde levels were detected in wheat leaves after both 7-d and 12-d exposures. The changes in the activity of superoxide dismutases (SOD), peroxidases (POD) and catalases (CAT) in wheat leaves irregularly fluctuated with time as the TBBPA concentration increased. However, significant (p<0.05) decrease in the activity of POD and CAT treated with 500 and 5000 mg kg(-1) TBBPA could be observed. Our data also showed that the plant has the capacity to tolerate the oxidative stress, but the capacity would be lost with prolonged exposure and increasing TBBPA concentration. There were no dose-response effects in the changes between the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD and CAT) and the concentration of TBBPA. The decrease in the activity of POD and CAT could be considered as good biomarkers of serious stress by TBBPA in soil environment.

  17. Atmospheric mercury pollution at an urban site in central Taiwan: mercury emission sources at ground level.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Liu, Chia-Kuan; Huang, Ci-Song; Fang, Guor-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Total gaseous mercury (Hg) (TGM), gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM), and particulate-bound Hg (PBM) concentrations and dry depositions were measured at an urban site in central Taiwan. The concentrations were 6.14±3.91 ng m(-3), 332±153, and 71.1±46.1 pg m(-3), respectively. These results demonstrate high Hg pollution at the ground level in Taiwan. A back trajectory plot shows the sources of the high TGM concentration were in the low atmosphere (<500 m) and approximately 50% of the air masses coming from upper troposphere (>500 m) were associated with low TGM concentrations. This finding implies that Hg is trapped in the low atmosphere and comes from local Hg emission sources. The conditional probability function (CPF) reveals that the plumes of high TGM concentrations come from the south and northwest of the site. The plume from the south comes from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However, no significant Hg point source is located to the northwest of the site; therefore, the plumes from the northwest are hypothesized to be related to the combustion of agricultural waste. Dry deposition fluxes of Hg measured at this site considerably exceeded those measured in North America. Overall, this area is regarded as a highly Hg contaminated area because of local Hg emission sources.

  18. Indoor pollutant levels from the use of unvented natural gas fireplaces in Boulder, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Dutton, S J; Hannigan, M P; Miller, S L

    2001-12-01

    High CO and NO2 concentrations have been documented in homes with unvented combustion appliances, such as natural gas fireplaces. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are emitted from incomplete natural gas combustion. The acute health risks of CO and NO2 exposure have been well established for the general population and for certain high-risk groups, including infants, the elderly, and people with heart disease or asthma. Health effects from PAH exposure are less well known, but may include increased risk of cancer. We monitored CO emissions during the operation of unvented natural gas fireplaces in two residences in Boulder, CO, at various times between 1997 and 2000. During 1999, we expanded our tests to include measurements of NO2 and PAH. Results show significant pollutant accumulation indoors when the fireplaces were used for extended periods of time. In one case, CO concentrations greater than 100 ppm accumulated in under 2 hr of operation; a person at rest exposed for 10 hr to this environment would get a mild case of CO poisoning with an estimated 10% carboxyhemoglobin level. Appreciable NO2 concentrations were also detected, with a 4-hr time average reaching 0.36 ppm. Similar time-average total PAH concentrations reached 35 ng/m3. The results of this study provide preliminary insights to potential indoor air quality problems in homes operating unvented natural gas fireplaces in Boulder.

  19. Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure.

    PubMed

    Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M; Durant, John L; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig

    2015-06-01

    The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200-400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning.

  20. Real-time low-level pollution monitoring for IAQ applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kishkovich, O.P.; Joffe, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    Quantitative air analysis provides valuable information for indoor air quality (IAQ) investigations in airports, hospitals, museums, etc. Currently, grab sampling is the most frequently used monitoring technique. However, for certain applications real-time monitoring (RTM) is more suitable. RTM addresses a number of problems unattainable with traditional collecting devices. RTM is especially beneficial when fast response and quick analysis turnaround are required. RTM proves indispensable in monitoring short concentration spikes, accurate measuring of low pollution levels, and applications requiring in situ statistical validation. We present our results of applying RTM to IAQ problems. We have detected ozone, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, formaldehyde, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with sensitivity in the low parts-per-billion range and response time of a few seconds. Using RTM, we have determined penetration routes of combustion engine exhaust fumes into building air handling systems, have carried out on-site evaluation of the remaining chemical filter capacity, and have performed fast and comprehensive IAQ surveys in a 2,000,000 ft{sup 2} museum storage facility. We present examples when RTM enables better understanding of indoor air chemistry. We also discuss future applications of RTM and give recommendations for IAQ practitioners. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Developing Community-Level Policy and Practice to Reduce Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P.; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M.; Durant, John L.; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig

    2016-01-01

    The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200–400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning. PMID:27413416

  2. Mitigation of short-lived climate pollutants slows sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Aixue; Xu, Yangyang; Tebaldi, Claudia; Washington, Warren M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2013-08-01

    Under present growth rates of greenhouse gas and black carbon aerosol emissions, global mean temperatures can warm by as much as 2°C from pre-industrial temperatures by about 2050. Mitigation of the four short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), methane, tropospheric ozone, hydrofluorocarbons and black carbon, has been shown to reduce the warming trend by about 50% (refs , ) by 2050. Here we focus on the potential impact of this SLCP mitigation on global sea-level rise (SLR). The temperature projections under various SLCP scenarios simulated by an energy-balance climate model are integrated with a semi-empirical SLR model, derived from past trends in temperatures and SLR, to simulate future trends in SLR. A coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model is also used to estimate SLR trends due to just the ocean thermal expansion. Our results show that SLCP mitigation can have significant effects on SLR. It can decrease the SLR rate by 24-50% and reduce the cumulative SLR by 22-42% by 2100. If the SLCP mitigation is delayed by 25 years, the warming from pre-industrial temperature exceeds 2°C by 2050 and the impact of mitigation actions on SLR is reduced by about a third.

  3. Effect of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Hong, J S; Lee, G I; Jin, X H; Kim, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Providing of insufficient nutrients limits the potential growth of pig, while feeding of excessive nutrients increases the economic loss and causes environment pollution. For these reasons, phase feeding had been introduced in swine farm for improving animal production. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary energy levels and phase feeding by protein levels on growth performance, blood profiles and carcass characteristics in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 128 growing pigs ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc), averaging 26.62 ± 3.07 kg body weight, were assigned in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement with 4 pigs per pen. The first factor was two dietary energy level (3,265 kcal of ME/kg or 3,365 kcal of ME/kg), and the second factor was four different levels of dietary protein by phase feeding (1growing(G)-2finishing(F) phases, 2G-2F phases, 2G-3F phases and 2G-3F phases with low CP requirement). In feeding trial, there was no significant difference in growth performance. The BUN concentration was decreased as dietary protein level decreased in 6 week and blood creatinine was increased in 13 week when pigs were fed diets with different dietary energy level. The digestibility of crude fat was improved as dietary energy levels increased and excretion of urinary nitrogen was reduced when low protein diet was provided. Chemical compositions of longissimus muscle were not affected by dietary treatments. In backfat thickness (P2) at 13 week, pigs fed high energy diet had thicker backfat thickness (P = 0.06) and pigs fed low protein diet showed the trend of backfat thinness reduction (P = 0.09). In addition, water holding capacity was decreased (P = 0.01) and cooking loss was increased (P = 0.07) as dietary protein level reduced. When pigs were fed high energy diet with low subdivision of phase feeding, days to 120 kg market weight was reached earlier compared to other treatments. Feeding the low energy diet

  4. Gradient Augmented Level Set Method for Two Phase Flow Simulations with Phase Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anumolu, C. R. Lakshman; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2016-11-01

    A sharp interface capturing approach is presented for two-phase flow simulations with phase change. The Gradient Augmented Levelset method is coupled with the two-phase momentum and energy equations to advect the liquid-gas interface and predict heat transfer with phase change. The Ghost Fluid Method (GFM) is adopted for velocity to discretize the advection and diffusion terms in the interfacial region. Furthermore, the GFM is employed to treat the discontinuity in the stress tensor, velocity, and temperature gradient yielding an accurate treatment in handling jump conditions. Thermal convection and diffusion terms are approximated by explicitly identifying the interface location, resulting in a sharp treatment for the energy solution. This sharp treatment is extended to estimate the interfacial mass transfer rate. At the computational cell, a d-cubic Hermite interpolating polynomial is employed to describe the interface location, which is locally fourth-order accurate. This extent of subgrid level description provides an accurate methodology for treating various interfacial processes with a high degree of sharpness. The ability to predict the interface and temperature evolutions accurately is illustrated by comparing numerical results with existing 1D to 3D analytical solutions.

  5. Lacrimal Cytokines Assessment in Subjects Exposed to Different Levels of Ambient Air Pollution in a Large Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Monique; Bonatti, Rodolfo; Marquezini, Mônica V.; Garcia, Maria L. B.; Santos, Ubiratan P.; Braga, Alfésio L. F.; Alves, Milton R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Air pollution is one of the most environmental health concerns in the world and has serious impact on human health, particularly in the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract and eyes. However, ocular hazardous effects to air pollutants are scarcely found in the literature. Design Panel study to evaluate the effect of different levels of ambient air pollution on lacrimal film cytokine levels of outdoor workers from a large metropolitan area. Methods Thirty healthy male workers, among them nineteen professionals who work on streets (taxi drivers and traffic controllers, high pollutants exposure, Group 1) and eleven workers of a Forest Institute (Group 2, lower pollutants exposure compared to group 1) were evaluated twice, 15 days apart. Exposure to ambient PM2.5 (particulate matter equal or smaller than 2.5 μm) was 24 hour individually collected and the collection of tears was performed to measure interleukins (IL) 2, 4, 5 and 10 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels. Data from both groups were compared using Student’s t test or Mann- Whitney test for cytokines. Individual PM2.5 levels were categorized in tertiles (lower, middle and upper) and compared using one-way ANOVA. Relationship between PM2.5 and cytokine levels was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Results PM2.5 levels in the three categories differed significantly (lower: ≤22 μg/m3; middle: 23–37.5 μg/m3; upper: >37.5 μg/m3; p<0.001). The subjects from the two groups were distributed unevenly in the lower category (Group 1 = 8%; Group 2 = 92%), the middle category (Group 1 = 89%; Group 2 = 11%) and the upper category (Group 1 = 100%). A significant relationship was found between IL-5 and IL-10 and PM2.5 levels of the group 1, with an average decrease of 1.65 pg/mL of IL-5 level and of 0.78 pg/mL of IL-10 level in tear samples for each increment of 50 μg/m3 of PM2.5 (p = 0.01 and p = 0.003, respectively). Conclusion High levels of PM2.5 exposure is associated

  6. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase 5/6 report

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, S.; Graham, J.; Taylor, P.; Dellinger, B.

    1998-05-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on alternative automotive fuels, the subcontractor has been conducting studies on the origin and fate of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels. Laboratory experiments were conducted simulating cold start of four alterative fuels (compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol-gasoline mix, and ethanol-gasoline mix) using a commercial three-way catalyst under fuel-lean conditions. This report summarizes the results of these experiments. It appears that temperature of the catalyst is a more important parameter for fuel conversion and pollutant formation than oxygen concentration or fuel composition.

  7. Levels of persistent organic pollutant and their predictors among young adults

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Jacobs, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p’-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) continues to be of concern due to their ubiquitous distribution and high persistence. Current toxicant body burden is still a primary concern within the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation since other studies conducted within the community have shown relationships between these POPs and endocrine disruption. In this article we describe the levels of these toxicants in young adults of the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation between the ages of 17 and 21 years of age (mean age 18.1 years), and investigate potential influences of their current body-burden. Seventeen congeners in fourteen chromatographic peaks were detected in 50% or more of the individuals sampled (geometric mean [GM] of the sum of these congeners = 0.43 ppb). Congeners 118, 138[+163+164] and 153 had the highest rate of detection (≥ 98%) within the Akwesasne youth. Of the other organochlorines, HCB (GM= 0.04 ppb) and p,p’-DDE (GM=0.38 ppb) were found in 100% and 99% of the sample respectively. Significantly higher levels of PCBs were found among individuals who were breastfed as infants, were first born, or had consumed local fish within the past year. When compared to levels of p,p’-DDE, HCB, and 13 specific congeners reported by the CDC for youth between the ages of 12 and 19 years, the geometric means of several congeners (CBs 99, 105, 110, and 118) among the Akwesasne were higher than the reported CDC 90th percentile. In contrast, levels of CB 28 in Akwesasne youth were ∼50% or less than those of the CDC cohort. p,p’-DDE and HCB levels were generally higher in the CDC cohort (GM of 0.516 and 0.065 ppb, respectively for Mohawks vs. 2.51 and 0.123, respectively, for CDC). Concentrations of non-persistent PCBs among this sample of Akwesasne young adults were higher than those reported by the CDC suggesting continued exposure, but lower than those

  8. Nitrogen dynamics in peat bogs: Comparison of sites with contrasting pollution levels (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Martin; Bohdalkova, Leona; Stepanova, Marketa; Vile, Melanie A.; Wieder, Kelman R.

    2013-04-01

    layers dated at 1950, whereas pollution level increased up to 1980, and dropped thereafter. At the end of an 18-month reciprocal peat transplant experiment between VJ and CB, we found that N isotope ratios N converged to the host site. The magnitude of the isotope change was 3 per mil, the affected depth was 10 cm. Our results are consistent with the concept of Lamers et al. (2000) in that both ^15N and the found shift in N peaks downcore confirmed removal of N from surface moss under high N depositions. On the other hand, the excess of stored N relative to the cumulative N input remains unexplained, and merits further study.

  9. Increase in upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosol levels and its potential connection with Asian pollution

    PubMed Central

    Vernier, J-P; Fairlie, T D; Natarajan, M; Wienhold, F G; Bian, J; Martinsson, B G; Crumeyrolle, S; Thomason, L W; Bedka, K M

    2015-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown that the Asian Summer Monsoon strongly influences the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) aerosol morphology through its role in the formation of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL). Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II solar occultation and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) lidar observations show that summertime UTLS Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) between 13 and 18 km over Asia has increased by three times since the late 1990s. Here we present the first in situ balloon measurements of aerosol backscatter in the UTLS from Western China, which confirm high aerosol levels observed by CALIPSO since 2006. Aircraft in situ measurements suggest that aerosols at lower altitudes of the ATAL are largely composed of carbonaceous and sulfate materials (carbon/sulfur elemental ratio ranging from 2 to 10). Back trajectory analysis from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization observations indicates that deep convection over the Indian subcontinent supplies the ATAL through the transport of pollution into the UTLS. Time series of deep convection occurrence, carbon monoxide, aerosol, temperature, and relative humidity suggest that secondary aerosol formation and growth in a cold, moist convective environment could play an important role in the formation of ATAL. Finally, radiative calculations show that the ATAL layer has exerted a short-term regional forcing at the top of the atmosphere of −0.1 W/m2 in the past 18 years. Key Points Increase of summertime upper tropospheric aerosol levels over Asia since the 1990s Upper tropospheric enhancement also observed by in situ backscatter measurements Significant regional radiative forcing of −0.1 W/m2 PMID:26691186

  10. Urban bat communities are affected by wetland size, quality, and pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Straka, Tanja Maria; Lentini, Pia Eloise; Lumsden, Linda Faye; Wintle, Brendan Anthony; van der Ree, Rodney

    2016-07-01

    Wetlands support unique biota and provide important ecosystem services. These services are highly threatened due to the rate of loss and relative rarity of wetlands in most landscapes, an issue that is exacerbated in highly modified urban environments. Despite this, critical ecological knowledge is currently lacking for many wetland-dependent taxa, such as insectivorous bats, which can persist in urban areas if their habitats are managed appropriately. Here, we use a novel paired landscape approach to investigate the role of wetlands in urban bat conservation and examine local and landscape factors driving bat species richness and activity. We acoustically monitored bat activity at 58 urban wetlands and 35 nonwetland sites (ecologically similar sites without free-standing water) in the greater Melbourne area, southeastern Australia. We analyzed bat species richness and activity patterns using generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the presence of water in urban Melbourne was an important driver of bat species richness and activity at a landscape scale. Increasing distance to bushland and increasing levels of heavy metal pollution within the waterbody also negatively influenced bat richness and individual species activity. Areas with high levels of artificial night light had reduced bat species richness, and reduced activity for all species except those adapted to urban areas, such as the White-striped free-tailed bat (Austronomus australis). Increased surrounding tree cover and wetland size had a positive effect on bat species richness. Our findings indicate that wetlands form critical habitats for insectivorous bats in urban environments. Large, unlit, and unpolluted wetlands flanked by high tree cover in close proximity to bushland contribute most to the richness of the bat community. Our findings clarify the role of wetlands for insectivorous bats in urban areas and will also allow for the preservation, construction, and management of wetlands

  11. A Study of Innovation: ERD Takes Pollution Prevention to a New Level

    SciTech Connect

    Southmayd, A.

    1999-01-20

    ERD approaches its mission with a vision of continuously exceeding customer needs and expectations and continuously improving. It's this vision of continuous improvement that drives the ERD pollution prevention program towards innovation.

  12. The Use of Concept Map as a Consolidation Phase Based STAD to Enhance Students’ Comprehension about Environmental Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugroho, O. F.; Chandra, D. T.; Sanjaya, Y.; Pendidikan Indonesia, Universitas

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve students’ concept comprehension using concept map as a consolidation phase based STAD. This study was conducted by randomized control group pretest-posttest. Data was collected by using an instrument test to evaluate the effect of concept map as a consolidation phase based STAD on students’understanding about environmental pollution. Data was analyzed using normalized gain (n-gain) and independent t-test. The n-gain analysis shows the increased of students’s understanding about environmental pollution at experimental group arehigher than at the control group. The result of this study showed that students’ comprehension at the experimental class (0,53) higher compared to the control group (0,23). Whilst the t-test analysis shows that there is a significant effect of mapping concept as a consolidation phase based STAD towards students’ concept comprehension. It can be concluded that the implementation of mapping concept based STAD may improve the students’s understanding on science concept.

  13. Effects of Freshwater Pollution on the Genetics of Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) at the Molecular and Population Level

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Emilia G.; Šrut, Maja; Štambuk, Anamaria; Klobučar, Göran I. V.; Seitz, Alfred; Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2014-01-01

    Revealing long-term effects of contaminants on the genetic structure of organisms inhabiting polluted environments should encompass analyses at the population, molecular, and cellular level. Following this concept, we studied the genetic constitution of zebra mussel populations from a polluted (Dp) and reference sites (Cl) at the river Drava, Croatia, and applied microsatellite and DNA damage analyses (Comet assay, micronucleus test (MNT)). Additionally, mussels from both populations were exposed to polluted wastewater in the laboratory for three days, and DNA damage was analyzed to evaluate acclimatization and genetic adaptation of the investigated populations to the polluted environment. The two populations differed in their genetic constitution. Microsatellite analysis suggested that Dp had undergone a genetic bottleneck. Comet assay did not indicate any difference in DNA damage between the two populations, but MNT revealed that Dp had an increased percentage of micronuclei in hemocytes in comparison to Cl. The laboratory experiment revealed that Dp had a lower percentage of tail DNA and a higher percentage of micronuclei than Cl. These differences between populations were possibly caused by an overall decreased fitness of Dp due to genetic drift and by an enhanced DNA repair mechanism due to acclimatization to pollution in the source habitat. PMID:24883328

  14. A previously unexposed forest soil microbial community degrades high levels of the pollutant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M A; Vásquez, M; González, B

    2004-12-01

    2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) is a hazardous pollutant that is efficiently degraded by some aerobic soil bacterial isolates under laboratory conditions. The degradation of this pollutant in soils and its effect on the soil microbial community are poorly understood. We report here the ability of a previously unexposed forest soil microbiota to degrade high levels of 2,4,6-TCP and describe the changes in the soil microbial community found by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. After 30 days of incubation, about 50% degradation of this pollutant was observed in soils amended with 50 to 5,000 ppm of 2,4,6-TCP. The T-RFLP analysis showed that the soil bacterial community was essentially unchanged after exposure to up to 500 ppm of 2,4,6-TCP. However, a significant decrease in richness was found with 2,000 and 5,000 ppm of 2,4,6-TCP, even though the removal of this pollutant remained high. The introduction of Ralstonia eutropha JMP134 or R. eutropha MS1, two efficient 2,4,6-TCP degraders, to this soil did not improve degradation of this pollutant, supporting the significant bioremediation potential of this previously unexposed, endogenous forest soil microbial community.

  15. [Influence of industrial pollution with mercury on levels of its accumulation in populated area objects and foods].

    PubMed

    Amreeva, K E; Teryokhin, S P; Krashanovskaya, T R

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with results of study covering influence of industrial pollution with mercury on its accumulation level in populated area objects and foods. Mercury content was measured in ambient air, snow, water, bed silt and regional foods of vegetable and animal origin--that is a potential health hazard for Central Kazakhstan population. The data obtained prove that high levels of mercury were detected in all the studied objects.

  16. Geopolymers prepared from DC plasma treated air pollution control (APC) residues glass: properties and characterisation of the binder phase.

    PubMed

    Kourti, Ioanna; Devaraj, Amutha Rani; Bustos, Ana Guerrero; Deegan, David; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2011-11-30

    Air pollution control (APC) residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium aluminosilicate glass (APC glass). This has been used to form geopolymer-glass composites that exhibit high strength and density, low porosity, low water absorption, low leaching and high acid resistance. The composites have a microstructure consisting of un-reacted residual APC glass particles imbedded in a complex geopolymer and C-S-H gel binder phase, and behave as particle reinforced composites. The work demonstrates that materials prepared from DC plasma treated APC residues have potential to be used to form high quality pre-cast products.

  17. The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.

    PubMed

    Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of Σ7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), Σ3HCH (α-HCH + β-HCH + γ-HCH) and Σ3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 μg kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 μg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ΣDDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the γ isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group.

  18. Benzo[a]pyrene in urban environments of eastern Moscow: pollution levels and critical loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nikolay S.; Kosheleva, Natalia E.; Nikiforova, Elena M.; Vlasov, Dmitry V.

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are toxic compounds emitted from various anthropogenic sources. Understanding the BaP concentrations, dynamics and decomposition in soil is required to assess the critical loads of BaP in urban environments. This study is the first attempt to evaluate all major input and output components of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) balance and to calculate the permissible load on the urban environment in different land-use zones in the Eastern district of Moscow. BaP contamination of the snow cover in the Eastern district of Moscow was related to daily BaP fallout from the atmosphere. In 2010, the mean content of the pollutant in the snow dust was 1942 ng g-1, whereas the average intensity of its fallout was 7.13 ng m-2 per day. Across the territory, BaP winter fallout intensities varied from 0.3 to 1100 ng m-2 per day. The average BaP content in the surface (0-10 cm) soil horizons was 409 ng g-1, which is 83 times higher than the local background value and 20 times higher than the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) accepted in Russia. The variations in soil and snow BaP concentrations among different land-use zones were examined. A significant contribution of BaP from the atmosphere to urban soils was identified. Based on the measurements of BaP atmospheric fallout and BaP reserves in the soils, the critical loads of BaP for the land-use zones in the Eastern district were calculated for different values of degradation intensity and different exposure times. It was established that at an annual degradation intensity of 1-10 %, ecologically safe BaP levels in the soils of all land-use zones, excluding the agricultural zone, will only be reached after many decades or centuries.

  19. [Pollution levels of perfluorochemicals in chicken eggs and duck eggs from the markets in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan-Jie; Zhou, Zhen; Shi, Ya-Li; Meng, Zhao-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Pollution levels of perfluorochemicals in eggs purchased from the markets in Beijing had been investigated. The egg samples of chicken and duck were collected from the 59 stalls of 14 main eggs wholesale markets in Beijing, respectively. Systematic analyses were made for seventeen kinds of perfluorochemicals (11 perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), 3 perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), 2-perfluorooctylethanoic acid (FOEA) and 2H-perfluoro-2-decenoic acid (FOUEA) by a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that there was a certain perfluorochemical contamination in all egg samples. Nine kinds of perfluorochemicals were detected in chicken eggs, perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) and perfluorooctanoate acid (PFOA) are dominant, and their average concentrations were 0.105, 0.073 and 0.069 ng x g(-1), respectively. Ten kinds of perfluorochemicals were detected in the duck eggs, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and PFOA are dominant, and their average concentrations were 0.378 and 0.296 ng x g(-1), respectively. Perfluoropentanoic acid ( PFPeA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid (PFTA), perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and 2-perfluorooctylethanoic acid (FOEA) were not detected in all samples. The total concentration of PFCs in the duck eggs was 3.4 times of that in the chicken eggs. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.954) was not only observed between of PFNA and PFHpA in chicken eggs, but also found between perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnDA) and perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTrDA) in duck eggs (r = 0.915). The results of health-based risk assessment showed that there was little immediate risk of exposure to PFOS and PFOA via the consumption of chicken eggs and duck eggs purchased from the markets in Beijing.

  20. Levels of toxic arsenic species in native terrestrial plants from soils polluted by former mining activities.

    PubMed

    García-Salgado, Sara; Quijano, M Ángeles

    2014-03-01

    Ten native terrestrial plants from soils polluted by former mining activities (Mónica mine, NW Madrid, Spain), with high total arsenic concentration levels (up to 3500 μg g(-1)), have been studied to determine the fraction of arsenic present as toxic forms (inorganic and methylated species), which present a higher mobility and therefore the potential risk associated with their reintegration into the environment is high. Roots and aboveground parts were analyzed separately to assess possible transformations from translocation processes. Extractions were carried out with deionized water by microwave-assisted extraction at a temperature of 90 °C and three extraction steps of 7.5 min each. Total extracted arsenic concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, showing extraction percentages from 9 to 39% (calculated as the ratio between total extracted arsenic (Asext) and total arsenic (AsT) concentrations in plants). Speciation studies, performed by high performance liquid chromatography-photo-oxidation-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry, showed the main presence of arsenate (As(v)) (up to 350 μg g(-1)), followed by arsenite (As(iii)), in both plant parts. Monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were also found only in some plants. On the other hand, the use of 0.5 mol L(-1) acetic acid as an extractant led to higher extraction percentages (33-87%), but lower column recoveries, probably due to the extraction of arsenic compounds different to the toxic free ions studied, which may come from biotransformation mechanisms carried out by plants to reduce arsenic toxicity. However, As(v) concentrations increased up to 800 μg g(-1) in acid medium, indicating the probable release of As(v) from organoarsenic compounds and therefore a higher potential risk for the environment.

  1. The Impacts of a 2-Degree Rise in Global Temperatures upon Gas-Phase Air Pollutants in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Laura; Josse, Béatrice; Marecal, Virginie; Lacressonnière, Gwendoline; Vautard, Robert; Gauss, Michael; Engardt, Magnuz; Nyiri, Agnes; Siour, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The 15th session of the Conference of Parties (COP 15) in 2009 ratified the Copenhagen Accord, which "recognises the scientific view that" global temperature rise should be held below 2 degrees C above pre-industrial levels in order to limit the impacts of climate change. Due to the fact that a 2-degree limit has been frequently referred to by policy makers in the context of the Copenhagen Accord and many other high-level policy statements, it is important that the impacts of this 2-degree increase in temperature are adequately analysed. To this end, the European Union sponsored the project IMPACT2C, which uses a multi-disciplinary international team to assess a wide variety of impacts of a 2-degree rise in global temperatures. For example, this future increase in temperature is expected to have a significant influence upon meteorological conditions such as temperature, precipitation, and wind direction and intensity; which will in turn affect the production, deposition, and distribution of air pollutants. For the first part of the air quality analysis within the IMPACT2C project, the impact of meteorological forcings on gas phase air pollutants over Europe was studied using four offline atmospheric chemistry transport models. Two sets of meteorological forcings were used for each model: reanalysis of past observation data and global climate model output. Anthropogenic emissions of ozone precursors for the year 2005 were used for all simulations in order to isolate the impact of meteorology and assess the robustness of the results across the different models. The differences between the simulations that use reanalysis of past observation data and the simulations that use global climate model output show how global climate models modify climate hindcasts by boundary conditions inputs: information that is necessary in order to interpret simulations of future climate. The baseline results were assessed by comparison with AirBase (Version 7) measurement data, and were

  2. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 2. Rept. for 1988-89

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, D.L.; Slaughter, E.A.; Corning, B.C.

    1990-07-01

    Each year, about 16 million areas of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920s in response to typhoid fever outbreaks associated with shellfish consumption. Current microbiological indicator standards in shellfish and shellfish-growing waters are extrpolated from standards set in the 1920s. Results from studies in the last decade have indicated that these microbiological indicator standards and thus classification of shellfish-growing waters may no longer be valid. The National Collaborative Shellfish Pollution Indicator Study is proposed as a four-year study to evaluate the current relationships between indicators of human enteric pathogens and the incidence of shellfish-borne diseases. Tasks forces were established to address specific issues, including site selection, shoreline surveys, and laboratory methodologies.

  3. Dysregulation of Cytokine Response in Canadian First Nations Communities: Is There an Association with Persistent Organic Pollutant Levels?

    PubMed Central

    Imbeault, Pascal; Findlay, C. Scott; Robidoux, Michael A.; Haman, François; Blais, Jules M.; Tremblay, Angelo; Springthorpe, Susan; Pal, Shinjini; Seabert, Tim; Krümmel, Eva M.; Maal-Bared, Rasha; Tetro, Jason A.; Pandey, Sunita; Sattar, Syed A.; Filion, Lionel G.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro and animal studies report that some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) trigger the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Whether POP exposure is associated with a dysregulation of cytokine response remains to be investigated in humans. We studied the strength of association between plasma POP levels and circulating cytokines as immune activation markers. Plasma levels of fourteen POPs and thirteen cytokines were measured in 39 Caucasians from a comparator sample in Québec City (Canada) and 72 First Nations individuals from two northern communities of Ontario (Canada). Caucasians showed significantly higher levels of organochlorine insecticides (β-HCH, p,p′-DDE and HCB) compared to First Nations. Conversely, First Nations showed higher levels of Mirex, Aroclor 1260, PCB 153, PCB 170, PCB 180 and PCB 187 compared to Caucasians. While there was no difference in cytokine levels of IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-22 between groups, First Nations had significantly greater average levels of IFNγ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-5, IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17A, TNFα and TNFβ levels compared to Caucasians. Among candidate predictor variables (age, body mass index, insulin resistance and POP levels), high levels of PCBs were the only predictor accounting for a small but significant effect of observed variance (∼7%) in cytokine levels. Overall, a weak but significant association is detected between persistent organochlorine pollutant exposure and elevated cytokine levels. This finding augments the already existing information that environmental pollution is related to inflammation, a common feature of several metabolic disorders that are known to be especially prevalent in Canada's remote First Nations communities. PMID:22768323

  4. Assessment of neighbourhood-level socioeconomic status as a modifier of air pollution-asthma associations among children in Atlanta.

    PubMed

    O'Lenick, Cassandra R; Winquist, Andrea; Mulholland, James A; Friberg, Mariel D; Chang, Howard H; Kramer, Michael R; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2017-02-01

    A broad literature base provides evidence of association between air pollution and paediatric asthma. Socioeconomic status (SES) may modify these associations; however, previous studies have found inconsistent evidence regarding the role of SES. Effect modification of air pollution-paediatric asthma morbidity by multiple indicators of neighbourhood SES was examined in Atlanta, Georgia. Emergency department (ED) visit data were obtained for 5-18 years old with a diagnosis of asthma in 20-county Atlanta during 2002-2008. Daily ZIP Code Tabulation Area (ZCTA)-level concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, fine particulate matter and elemental carbon were estimated using ambient monitoring data and emissions-based chemical transport model simulations. Pollutant-asthma associations were estimated using a case-crossover approach, controlling for temporal trends and meteorology. Effect modification by ZCTA-level (neighbourhood) SES was examined via stratification. We observed stronger air pollution-paediatric asthma associations in 'deprivation areas' (eg, ≥20% of the ZCTA population living in poverty) compared with 'non-deprivation areas'. When stratifying analyses by quartiles of neighbourhood SES, ORs indicated stronger associations in the highest and lowest SES quartiles and weaker associations among the middle quartiles. Our results suggest that neighbourhood-level SES is a factor contributing vulnerability to air pollution-related paediatric asthma morbidity in Atlanta. Children living in low SES environments appear to be especially vulnerable given positive ORs and high underlying asthma ED rates. Inconsistent findings of effect modification among previous studies may be partially explained by choice of SES stratification criteria, and the use of multiplicative models combined with differing baseline risk across SES populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Particle Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA Air Quality Index (AQI) tells you when air pollution is likely to reach levels that could be ... high, take steps to limit the amount of air you breathe in while you're outside. ... pollution levels are usually lower. Choose easier outdoor activities ( ...

  6. Microplastic pollution in the Greenland Sea: Background levels and selective contamination of planktivorous diving seabirds.

    PubMed

    Amélineau, F; Bonnet, D; Heitz, O; Mortreux, V; Harding, A M A; Karnovsky, N; Walkusz, W; Fort, J; Grémillet, D

    2016-12-01

    Microplastics have been reported everywhere around the globe. With very limited human activities, the Arctic is distant from major sources of microplastics. However, microplastic ingestions have been found in several Arctic marine predators, confirming their presence in this region. Nonetheless, existing information for this area remains scarce, thus there is an urgent need to quantify the contamination of Arctic marine waters. In this context, we studied microplastic abundance and composition within the zooplankton community off East Greenland. For the same area, we concurrently evaluated microplastic contamination of little auks (Alle alle), an Arctic seabird feeding on zooplankton while diving between 0 and 50 m. The study took place off East Greenland in July 2005 and 2014, under strongly contrasted sea-ice conditions. Among all samples, 97.2% of the debris found were filaments. Despite the remoteness of our study area, microplastic abundances were comparable to those of other oceans, with 0.99 ± 0.62 m(-3) in the presence of sea-ice (2005), and 2.38 ± 1.11 m(-3) in the nearby absence of sea-ice (2014). Microplastic rise between 2005 and 2014 might be linked to an increase in plastic production worldwide or to lower sea-ice extents in 2014, as sea-ice can represent a sink for microplastic particles, which are subsequently released to the water column upon melting. Crucially, all birds had eaten plastic filaments, and they collected high levels of microplastics compared to background levels with 9.99 and 8.99 pieces per chick meal in 2005 and 2014, respectively. Importantly, we also demonstrated that little auks took more often light colored microplastics, rather than darker ones, strongly suggesting an active contamination with birds mistaking microplastics for their natural prey. Overall, our study stresses the great vulnerability of Arctic marine species to microplastic pollution in a warming Arctic, where sea-ice melting is expected to release vast

  7. Levels of organohalogenated persistent pollutants in human milk from Kahramanmaraş region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Erdoğrul, Ozlem; Covaci, Adrian; Kurtul, Naciye; Schepens, Paul

    2004-07-01

    The levels of 1,1,1-trichloro-bis-2,2'-(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (p,p'-DDT) and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordanes (trans- and cis-chlordane, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor), 11 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were measured in 37 individual human milk samples from Kahramanmaraş region, Turkey. Organochlorine pesticides were the major contaminants in the milk samples. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were detected in all samples, while beta-HCH had a detection frequency of 97%. The sum of the DDTs in human milk samples varied between 0.52 and 315.8 ng/g wet weight (ww) with a mean ratio between p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT equal to 31.1. p,p'-DDD could be measured only in six samples. beta-HCH was the most prevalent HCH isomer with a mean value of 2.08 ng/g ww. The mean concentration of gamma-HCH was 0.38 ng/g ww, while alpha-HCH was not detected in any sample. HCB is found in 95% of the milk samples with a mean concentration of 0.30 ng/g ww. The mean value for the sum of chlordanes was 0.39 ng/g ww, with oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor being the principal contributors. PCBs could be measured only in 8 out of 37 samples and their concentration ranged between <0.15 and 1.92 ng/g ww for the sum of PCBs. PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 153, 180 and 138. PBDEs were detected only in 3 out of 37 samples, with the highest value being 0.014 ng/g ww (0.40 ng/g lipid weight) and BDE 47 was the dominant congener. Although the number of samples is relatively low and they are not representative for the whole Turkish population, the results of the present study are important to provide additional data on the concentrations of persistent organochlorinated pollutants in Turkey and show as first the PBDE levels in Turkish population.

  8. Changes in the frequency and return level of high ozone pollution events over the eastern United States following emission controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, H. E.; Fiore, A. M.; Polvani, L. M.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Fang, Y.

    2013-03-01

    In order to quantify the impact of recent efforts to abate surface ozone (O3) pollution, we analyze changes in the frequency and return level of summertime (JJA) high surface O3 events over the eastern United States (US) from 1988-1998 to 1999-2009. We apply methods from extreme value theory (EVT) to maximum daily 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3) observed by the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) and define O3 extremes as days on which MDA8 O3 exceeds a threshold of 75 ppb (MDA8 O3>75). Over the eastern US, we find that the number of summer days with MDA8 O3>75 declined on average by about a factor of two from 1988-1998 to 1999-2009. The applied generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) fits the high tail of MDA8 O3 much better than a Gaussian distribution and enables the derivation of probabilistic return levels (describing the probability of exceeding a value x within a time window T) for high O3 pollution events. This new approach confirms the significant decline in both frequency and magnitude of high O3 pollution events over the eastern US during recent years reported in prior studies. Our analysis of 1-yr and 5-yr return levels at each station demonstrates the strong impact of changes in air quality regulations and subsequent control measures (e.g., the ‘NOx SIP Call’), as the 5-yr return levels of the period 1999-2009 correspond roughly to the 1-yr return levels of the earlier time period (1988-1998). Regionally, the return levels dropped between 1988-1998 and 1999-2009 by about 8 ppb in the Mid-Atlantic (MA) and Great Lakes (GL) regions, while the strongest decline, about 13 ppb, is observed in the Northeast (NE) region. Nearly all stations (21 out of 23) have 1-yr return levels well below 100 ppb and 5-yr return levels well below 110 ppb in 1999-2009. Decreases in eastern US O3 pollution are largest after full implementation of the nitrogen oxide (NOx) reductions under the ‘NOx SIP Call’. We conclude that the application of EVT methods

  9. Characterization of Particle and Gas Phase Pollutant Emissions from Heavy- and Light-Duty Vehicles in a California Roadway Tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Strawa, A.; Hallar, G.; Harley, R.; Kendall, G.; Hesson, J.; Stevenson, E.; Miguel, A.

    2004-12-01

    In summer 2004, particle and gas phase pollutant emissions from heavy-duty diesel and light-duty gasoline vehicles were characterized in the Caldecott tunnel, located east of San Francisco Bay. This measurement campaign was the latest of many in the tunnel. In addition to assessing temporal trends in pollutant emission rates, the study is of interest due to recent changes to gasoline composition in California - methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has been phased out and replaced in part with ethanol. The current study determined mass emission rates (in g of pollutant emitted per kg of fuel burned) of PM2.5, particulate black and organic carbon (BC and OC), and carbon monoxide (CO). The hygroscopicity and optical properties of PM2.5 emissions were also measured: optical absorption was measured using filter-based photometer methods and optical extinction and scattering were simultaneously measured in-situ with a new cavity ring-down instrument. Initial results of the study indicate substantial decreases in mass emission rates of PM2.5, BC, OC, and CO from both heavy-duty diesel and light duty-gasoline vehicles since 1997, when emission rates were previously measured at the tunnel. The decreases were greater for heavy-duty vehicles than for light-duty vehicles, but emission rates of the particulate species are, nonetheless, 10-20 times greater from heavy-duty vehicles. Hygroscopic growth was not evident when particulate matter was humidified from 40 to 80 percent relative humidity, indicating the hydrophobic nature of freshly emitted gasoline and diesel particles, which contained comparable amounts of OC and BC. Other results will be presented, including those pertaining to the measurement of aerosol optical absorption.

  10. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in adolescents from Southeast Bulgarian cities with different levels of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Dobreva, Zlatka Georgieva; Kostadinova, Gergana Stoianova; Popov, Borislav Nikolov; Petkov, Georgi Stefanov; Stanilova, Spaska Angelova

    2015-12-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrated that the exposure of different air pollutants including particulate matter (PM) has been related to adverse effect on immune system. Current study was designed to investigate cytokines in blood plasma of adolescent persons continuously exposed to different degrees of ambient air pollutions. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-12p40, and IL-10 were chosen as cytokines of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory immune response. The peripheral venous blood was taken from adolescents living in the cities of Stara Zagora region, Southeast Bulgaria, that is, in Stara Zagora, Kazanlak, and Chirpan. The quantity of cytokines in plasma samples was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results demonstrated that youths living in Stara Zagora showed significantly smaller quantity of TNF-α, compared with adolescents from Kazanlak and Chirpan. Moreover, adolescents living in Stara Zagora showed significantly higher quantity of IL-10 than students from Kazanlak and Chirpan. Analysis of the data of air quality gives reason to assert that PM10 and PM2.5 have been the main atmospheric pollutants around the monitoring points. The complex air quality assessment based on these criteria determined that the highest air pollution was in the city of Stara Zagora, followed by Chirpan and the relatively unpolluted town was Kazanlak. We concluded that air pollutants, mostly PM2.5, can modulate cytokine production and can change the balance between proinflammatory TNF-α and anti-inflammatory IL-10 production. Increased levels of IL-10 combined with decreased level of TNF-α in adolescents living in Stara Zagora can serve as a biomarker for suppression of T helper 1 (Th1) cell-mediated immunity and exacerbation of Th2 humoral immune response and could be a prerequisite for the development of allergic and autoimmune diseases.

  11. Reduction of Air Pollution Levels Downwind of a Road with an Upwind Noise Barrier

    EPA Science Inventory

    We propose a dispersion model to characterize the impact of an upwind solid noise barrier next to a highway on air pollution concentrations downwind of the road. The model is based on data from wind tunnel experiments conducted by Heist et al. (2009). The model assumes that the...

  12. Understanding the Relationships between Air Pollution Levels and Human Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    As mandated by the CAA, EPA established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants and conducts periodic review of the NAAQS to assess if they need to be revised. The CAA then provides for implementation of the NAAQS based on a combination of local con...

  13. Understanding the Relationships between Air Pollution Levels and Human Health Outcomes

    EPA Science Inventory

    As mandated by the CAA, EPA established National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants and conducts periodic review of the NAAQS to assess if they need to be revised. The CAA then provides for implementation of the NAAQS based on a combination of local con...

  14. Current and future levels of mercury atmospheric pollution on a global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Travnikov, Oleg; De Simone, Francesco; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pirrone, Nicola; Munthe, John; Kindbom, Karin

    2016-10-01

    An assessment of current and future emissions, air concentrations, and atmospheric deposition of mercury worldwide is presented on the basis of results obtained during the performance of the EU GMOS (Global Mercury Observation System) project. Emission estimates for mercury were prepared with the main goal of applying them in models to assess current (2013) and future (2035) air concentrations and atmospheric deposition of this contaminant. The combustion of fossil fuels (mainly coal) for energy and heat production in power plants and in industrial and residential boilers, as well as artisanal and small-scale gold mining, is one of the major anthropogenic sources of Hg emissions to the atmosphere at present. These sources account for about 37 and 25 % of the total anthropogenic Hg emissions globally, estimated to be about 2000 t. Emissions in Asian countries, particularly in China and India, dominate the total emissions of Hg. The current estimates of mercury emissions from natural processes (primary mercury emissions and re-emissions), including mercury depletion events, were estimated to be 5207 t year-1, which represents nearly 70 % of the global mercury emission budget. Oceans are the most important sources (36 %), followed by biomass burning (9 %). A comparison of the 2035 anthropogenic emissions estimated for three different scenarios with current anthropogenic emissions indicates a reduction of these emissions in 2035 up to 85 % for the best-case scenario. Two global chemical transport models (GLEMOS and ECHMERIT) have been used for the evaluation of future mercury pollution levels considering future emission scenarios. Projections of future changes in mercury deposition on a global scale simulated by these models for three anthropogenic emissions scenarios of 2035 indicate a decrease in up to 50 % deposition in the Northern Hemisphere and up to 35 % in Southern Hemisphere for the best-case scenario. The EU GMOS project has proved to be a very important

  15. Micronuclei levels in mothers and their newborns from regions with different types of air pollution.

    PubMed

    Rossnerova, Andrea; Spatova, Milada; Pastorkova, Anna; Tabashidze, Nana; Veleminsky, Milos; Balascak, Ivan; Solansky, Ivo; Sram, Radim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze genetic damage in human lymphocytes measured using automated image analysis of micronuclei (MN) in a group of 178 mothers and their newborns from two locations in the Czech Republic. The concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) and benzene were measured by stationary monitoring in the winter season of 2008/2009 in the capital city of Prague and in Ceske Budejovice, a regional city in a rural area. The 3-month mean concentration of B[a]P before delivery was lower in Prague in comparison with Ceske Budejovice: 1.9 ± 0.5ng/m³ vs. 3.2 ± 0.2ng/m³ (p<0.001). The opposite trend was found for PM2.5 and benzene: 27.0 ± 2.5μg/m³ and 2.5 ± 0.5μg/m³ vs. 24.5 ± 0.7μg/m³ and 2.1 ± 0.8μg/m³ (p<0.001) for Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, respectively. The average age of the mothers was 31 years (range, 18-49 years). The frequencies of MN per 1000 binucleated cells were 8.35 ± 3.06 vs. 6.47 ± 2.35 (p<0.001) for mothers from Prague and Ceske Budejovice, respectively, and 2.17 ± 1.32 vs. 3.82 ± 2.43 (p<0.001) for newborns from Prague and Ceske Budejovice, respectively. Other factors, including vitamin intake, exposure to tobacco smoke, body mass index (BMI) before pregnancy, the education level of the mothers and the impact of the mothers' and fathers' ages were analyzed in our study. The results suggest that the different sensitivity of the study groups to various mixtures of carcinogenic pollutants could be affected by significant differences in lifestyle factors. Possible higher genetic damage was analyzed in newborns of smoking mothers, and the birth weight of this group was 7.4% lower (p<0.05) in comparison with the newborns of nonsmoking mothers. No impact of the age of the mothers or fathers on MN frequency in the newborns was observed.

  16. Multiscreening determination of organic pollutants in molluscs using matrix solid phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Ziarrusta, H; Olivares, M; Delgado, A; Posada-Ureta, O; Zuloaga, O; Etxebarria, N

    2015-04-24

    This work describes the optimisation, validation and application of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry, both single quadrupole (GC-MS) and tandem (GC-MS/MS), for the quantification in molluscs of up to 40 different analytes belonging to several families of priority and emerging organic contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) and musk fragrances. The MSPD procedure was fully optimised with a special focus on the clean-up strategy. The best recoveries were obtained using glass syringes, 0.30 g of freeze-dried sample, 0.30 g of Florisil as solid support, 4.00 g of activated silica and 25 mL of dichloromethane as elution solvent. Using GC-MS/MS the method afforded good linearities (r(2), between 0.980 and 0.9996), adequate repeatability and reproducibility (RSD<17% and 33%, respectively) and low instrumental limits of detection (between 0.010 and 2.74 ng mL(-1)). The accuracy of the method was evaluated using different approaches, i.e. assessment of spiked fish hatchery samples, laboratory reference material and standard reference material (SRM 2977). Satisfactory apparent recoveries were obtained for all the target analytes after correction with the corresponding labelled surrogate, except for PAHs in the case of SRM 2977, which required the use of the standard addition method. Finally, MSPD was applied to mollusc species collected in Colombia and Nicaragua, where PAHs, PCBs, musks and pesticides were detected at low ng g(-1) levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time.

    PubMed

    Przybysz, A; Sæbø, A; Hanslin, H M; Gawroński, S W

    2014-05-15

    Particulate matter is harmful to human health. To reduce its concentration in air, plants could be used as biological filters, accumulating particulate matter on their foliage. In a study carried out at three sites with differing pollution levels and exposure to precipitation, the capacity of evergreen species (Taxus baccata L., Hedera helix L. and Pinus sylvestris L.) to accumulate particulate matter and trace elements from ambient air in urban areas was investigated. The effects of rainfall and the passage of time on particulate matter deposition on foliage were also determined. The results showed that foliage accumulated an increasing quantity of particulate matter in successive months, but the actual amount of particulate matter and trace elements accumulated differed considerably between sites and plant species. The greatest accumulation of air pollutants occurred on the foliage of plants protected from the rain at a site exposed to traffic related pollution and the smallest accumulation at a rural site. Among the species analysed, the deposited mass of particulate matter and trace elements was the greatest on P. sylvestris. In all species, precipitation removed a considerable proportion of particles accumulated on foliage. Most of the removed particulate matter was large size fraction, but little belong to the smallest size fraction. These results showed that both, the dynamics of deposition and leaf washing by rain during the season need to be considered when evaluating the total effect of vegetation in pollutant remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  19. Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors among Preschool Children in a Lead Polluted Area in Taizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhenyan; Cao, Jia; Yan, Jin; Wang, Ju; Cai, Shizhong; Yan, Chonghuai

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the blood lead levels and identify related risk factors among preschool children in a lead polluted area (Taizhou, China) and provide theoretical support for prevention of lead pollution. Methods. A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used to determine the survey sample. Blood lead levels were determined by the tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Results. A total of 2,018 subjects (average age of 59 months; 1,087 boys and 931 girls) were included. The arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and median blood lead levels of the preschool children were 56.4 μg/L, 48.9 μg/L, and 46 μg/L. A total of 8.8% children had blood lead levels >100 μg/L and 43.9% had blood lead levels >50 μg/L. Mother's education level, father's occupation, decorative tableware, exposure to makeup, and the residential floor were all risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (odds ratios of 1.42, 1.21, 1.11, 1.19, and 1.27, resp.), while hand washing before eating food was a protective factor (odds ratio of 0.88). Conclusions. The blood lead levels of preschool children in Taizhou were higher than in other areas in China and in developed countries. Therefore, policies ensuring lead-based industries are not placed in close proximity to residential areas are required.

  20. Blood Lead Levels and Risk Factors among Preschool Children in a Lead Polluted Area in Taizhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhenyan; Cao, Jia; Yan, Jin; Wang, Ju; Cai, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine the blood lead levels and identify related risk factors among preschool children in a lead polluted area (Taizhou, China) and provide theoretical support for prevention of lead pollution. Methods. A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used to determine the survey sample. Blood lead levels were determined by the tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer. Results. A total of 2,018 subjects (average age of 59 months; 1,087 boys and 931 girls) were included. The arithmetic mean, geometric mean, and median blood lead levels of the preschool children were 56.4 μg/L, 48.9 μg/L, and 46 μg/L. A total of 8.8% children had blood lead levels >100 μg/L and 43.9% had blood lead levels >50 μg/L. Mother's education level, father's occupation, decorative tableware, exposure to makeup, and the residential floor were all risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (odds ratios of 1.42, 1.21, 1.11, 1.19, and 1.27, resp.), while hand washing before eating food was a protective factor (odds ratio of 0.88). Conclusions. The blood lead levels of preschool children in Taizhou were higher than in other areas in China and in developed countries. Therefore, policies ensuring lead-based industries are not placed in close proximity to residential areas are required. PMID:28466011

  1. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis.

  2. Polybromobenzene pollutants in the atmosphere of North China: levels, distribution, and sources.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhu, Tong

    2013-11-19

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are important persistent organic pollutants. Analysis of BFRs in atmospheric samples in a previous study led us to suspect the presence of unidentified organic bromides, other than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the atmosphere. In this study, we identified and quantified polybromobenzenes, a group of organic bromides, in air samples collected through passive sampling in gridded observations in North China. We investigated their concentrations and spatial distribution, and estimated the proportion due to different sources. We detected seven species of polybromobenzenes, including hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), pentabromobenzene (PeBB), tetrabromobenzenes (TeBBs), and tribromotoluene (TrBT), in all or most of the field samples, indicating widespread occurrence of this class of pollutants. The median concentrations of each pollutant ranged from 20.0 to 144 pg/sample (or from 0.07 to 1.16 pg/m(3)), with relatively high concentrations found near e-waste recycling sites, BFR manufacturing sites, and areas of high population density. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis revealed that ∼70% of HBB, PBT, PBEB, and PeBB was from commercial products, while ∼80% of 1,2,3,5-TeBB, 1,2,4,5-TeBB, and 2,4,5-TrBT was linked with BFR manufacturing. This study provides essential information on widespread polybromobenzene pollutants in the atmosphere, particularly TeBBs and TrBT, for which this is the first report of their presence as atmospheric pollutants.

  3. Revealing the relationship between microbial community structure in natural biofilms and the pollution level in urban rivers: a case study in the Qinhuai River basin, Yangtze River Delta.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Li, Yi; Wang, Peifang; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Chao

    River pollution is one of the most challenging environmental issues, but the effect of river pollution levels on the biofilm communities has not been well-studied. Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of environmental parameters and the biofilm communities were investigated in the Qinhuai River basin, Nanjing, China. Water samples were grouped into three clusters reflecting their varying pollution levels of relatively slight pollution, moderated pollution, and high pollution by hierarchical cluster analysis. In different clusters, the biofilm communities mainly differed in the proportion of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. As the dominant classes of Proteobacteria, Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria seemed to show an upward trend followed by a small fluctuation in the abundance with the escalation of water pollution level. Results of redundancy analysis demonstrated that temperature, total nitrogen to total phosphorus ratios (TN/TP) and concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and TN were mainly responsible for the variation in bacterial community structure. The occurrences of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were closely associated with higher temperature, higher concentrations of NH3-N and TN and a lower TN/TP ratio. This study may provide a theoretical basis for the water pollution control and ecological restoration in urban rivers under different pollution levels.

  4. Hsp70 level in progeny of aging grasshoppers from variously polluted habitats and additionally exposed to zinc during diapause.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Maria; Tarnawska, Monika; Babczyńska, Agnieszka; Augustyniak, Michał

    2009-08-01

    The hsp70 level in the bodies of 1st instars of grasshoppers Chorthippus brunneus from unpolluted (Pilica) and polluted (Olkusz, Szopienice) sites and additionally exposed to various doses of zinc during diapause and embryonic development prior to hatching were measured by Western blotting. The main aim of our work was to assess the relationship between the age of female grasshoppers originating from variously polluted habitat and the hsp70 level in their progeny. Possible reasons for population variation in hsp70 levels were discussed. The hsp70 level in the offspring's body depended on the place of origin. The strongest expression of hsp70 was found in the bodies of larvae hatching from the eggs laid by young females from Pilica (reference site). In contrast, a low initial level of hsp70 in larvae from polluted sites, especially in young females' progeny, was observed. The application of zinc during diapause influenced the hsp70 level in grasshopper larvae; however, the direction of the changes depended on the insects' place of origin. In larvae from the reference site, and also (but to a lesser degree) from Olkusz, the increase in the hsp70 level after zinc treatment was most pronounced. Whereas in grasshoppers from Szopienice, zinc (in 100microg g(-1) dry weight of sand) did not change the hsp70 level, or (in 500microg g(-1) dry weight of sand) caused a reduction in hsp70. The differences may result from maternal effects; however, possible adaptation also cannot be excluded. To confirm this statement further studies are needed.

  5. Ground-level airborne particulate matter near important Portuguese Cultural Heritage sites in high polluted (Lisbon) and low polluted (Evora) urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiavon, N.; Wagner, F.; Candeias, A.; Kandler, K.; Tobias, L.; Mirao, J.

    2012-04-01

    As part of a wider project on aerosol composition in the Southwestern part of the Iberian peninsula, an intensive field monitoring/sampling/analytical campaign has been conducted in August and December 2011 to assess indoor and outdoor atmospheric aerosol optical and microphysical parameters (Nephelometry), number/mass/size distribution (TEOM, MAAP, OPS) and single particle minero-chemical composition on filter collected samples (VP-SEM+EDS, XRD) at several sheltered and unsheltered locations close to important Cultural Heritage monuments in Evora and Lisbon, Portugal. Sites investigated included the Igreja do S. Francisco in Evora, the Cristo Rei sanctuary, Jeronimos Monastery, and Lisbon Castle in Lisbon. At Cristo Rei measurements at sea level, around 100m and around 180m were carried out in order to determine the vertical profile of the particle size distribution. Measurements were taken at different times of day reflecting changes in atmospheric mixing and air pollution levels. Measurements were also performed near an air quality monitoring station at Avenida de Libertade (the busiest traffic artery in Lisbon city center) during traffic peak hour. One of the aims of the campaign was to determine differences in airborne particulate matter compositions and concentrations between an urban coastal high pollution (Lisbon) and a low pollution (Evora) environments and how these could affect the nature of decay patterns and processes in the building materials of the monuments under investigation. Preliminary results indicate significant differences in particle properties between the 2 cities as well as between indoor and outdoor locations. One interesting result was the detection of considerable amounts of particle of oceanic origin (such as sodium chloride) in the Evora site even at 130 km away from the coast. Despite its relatively unpolluted location, single particle analysis by SEM+EDS at the Evora site reveals the presence of significant numbers of particle of

  6. On-road measurement of gas and particle phase pollutant emission factors for individual heavy-duty diesel trucks.

    PubMed

    Dallmann, Timothy R; DeMartini, Steven J; Kirchstetter, Thomas W; Herndon, Scott C; Onasch, Timothy B; Wood, Ezra C; Harley, Robert A

    2012-08-07

    Pollutant concentrations in the exhaust plumes of individual diesel trucks were measured at high time resolution in a highway tunnel in Oakland, CA, during July 2010. Emission factors for individual trucks were calculated using a carbon balance method, in which pollutants measured in each exhaust plume were normalized to measured concentrations of carbon dioxide. Pollutants considered here include nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, ethene, and black carbon (BC), as well as optical properties of emitted particles. Fleet-average emission factors for oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) and BC respectively decreased 30 ± 6 and 37 ± 10% relative to levels measured at the same location in 2006, whereas a 34 ± 18% increase in the average NO(2) emission factor was observed. Emissions distributions for all species were skewed with a small fraction of trucks contributing disproportionately to total emissions. For example, the dirtiest 10% of trucks emitted half of total NO(2) and BC emissions. Emission rates for NO(2) were found to be anticorrelated with all other species considered here, likely due to the use of catalyzed diesel particle filters to help control exhaust emissions. Absorption and scattering cross-section emission factors were used to calculate the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA, at 532 nm) for individual truck exhaust plumes, which averaged 0.14 ± 0.03.

  7. Association of serum levels of typical organic pollutants with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhao, Yue; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhang, Chunmei; Li, Rong; Qiao, Jie

    2015-08-01

    Is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associated with increased serum levels of typical organic pollutants? PCOS in Han females from Northern China was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PCOS is arguably the most common endocrinopathy in females of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is thought to be multifactorial. This was a preliminary case-control study undertaken at the Division of Reproductive Center, Peking University Third Hospital. Fifty participants affected by PCOS and 30 normal controls were recruited between August and October 2012 from Northern China. All participants were Han women. PCOS participants were diagnosed according to the 2003 Rotterdam criteria. The control participants were non-pregnant females unable to conceive solely due to male azoospermia. Serum levels of a wide range of organic pollutants, including PCBs, organochlorine pesticides, PAHs and more than 20 phenolic pollutants, were analyzed using gas chromatographic mass spectrometry. Serum levels of PCBs, pesticides and PAHs were significantly higher in the PCOS group than the control group. Concentrations of PCBs, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) and PAHs in serum above median levels were associated with PCOS with odds ratios of 3.81 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45-10.0], 4.89 (95% CI, 1.81-13.2) and 2.39 (95% CI, 0.94-6.05), respectively. Partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) confirmed that serum levels of organic pollutants were associated with PCOS, especially for p,p'-DDE and PCBs. Some other possible covariates (e.g. dietary and income) were missed in this study, although education and occupation have been considered as an indicator of personal income. The PLS-DA model allowed a quasi-exposome analysis with over 60 kinds of typical organic pollutants; however, the possibility of other pollutants

  8. Effect of broccoli (Brassica oleracea) and its phytochemical sulforaphane in balanced diets on the detoxification enzymes levels of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to a carcinogenic and mutagenic pollutant.

    PubMed

    Villa-Cruz, V; Davila, J; Viana, M T; Vazquez-Duhalt, R

    2009-03-01

    Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) were fed with enriched diets containing broccoli and its phytochemical sulforaphane over 30 d. The levels of cytochrome P450, superoxide dismutase, catalase, lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activities were measured. Basal value of cytochrome P450 activity was significantly increased as consequence of the broccoli and sulforaphane enriched diets, while no statistically significant changes were found on catalase and lipid peroxidation activities. After benzo(a)pyrene exposure, the cytochrome P450 activity increased to higher levels in the fish feed with broccoli and sulforaphane when compared with the control fish. Activities of antioxidant enzymes also varied but without significant difference with the control fish. Supported by the lower concentrations of BaP metabolites in bile from fish fed with broccoli or with sulforaphane enriched diets (indicating a better xenobiotic elimination) the cytochrome P450 induction could be considered beneficial for the detoxification because this transformation is the first step for PAH elimination by the phase II system. The protection of aquaculture organism against pollution effects by designing special diets able to modulate the enzymes involved in the phase-I and phase-II detoxification mechanism are discussed.

  9. [Comunicable diseases, mental health and exposure to environmental pollutants in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase, Peru 2006].

    PubMed

    Astete, Jonh; Gastañaga, María del Carmen; Fiestas, Víctor; Oblitas, Tania; Sabastizagal, Iselle; Lucero, Martha; Abadíe, Jesús del Milagro; Muñoz, María Elena; Valverde, Ada; Suarez, Magna

    2010-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of communicable diseases, mental health and environmental pollutants exposure in population living near Las Bambas mining project before exploitation phase. Cross sectional study performed in 453 subjects (children and adults) living in three Apurimac region districts: Haquira, Chalhuahuacho and Progreso. Psychomotor development, intelligence quotient, anxiety and depression levels and the presence of communicable diseases (viral hepatitis B, C and delta, syphilis and HIV) were evaluated, as well as heavy metals (lead in blood, and cadmium, arsenic and mercury in urine samples) and serum cholinesterase levels. Mean age was 29 ± 17.25 years, 59.2% were female and a range of 6 to 15 years of living in the area was found. No cases of HIV, hepatitis C and delta were found, 1.4% were positive for syphilis and in relation to hepatitis B, we found 1,7% of subjects positive to total anti HBc and 0.5% positive for HBsAg. Heavy metal testing identified people with exceeding limits of mercury in 1.8% arsenic in 4.6%, lead in 24.3% and cadmium in 43.9%. Besides, 29.1% of the population had cholinesterase levels below normal range. Among children, 12.5% were at psychomotor development levels of risk; 2.1% and 3.1% suffered from mild and borderline intellectual disability (mental retardation), respectively. 34.3% of subjects older than 12 had anxiety and 17.5% depression. Evidence of heavy metal environmental pollution and presence of communicable diseases in this population were already found. Future careless mining activity could worsen the current health situation.

  10. Effect of dietary crude protein levels in a commercial range, on the nitrogen balance, ammonia emission and pollutant characteristics of slurry in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Martínez, S; López, C; Megías, M D; López, M; Madrid, J

    2011-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary levels of crude protein (CP), close to the range used commercially and to the European Commission recommended values, on the nitrogen (N) balance, ammonia (NH(3)) emission and pollutant characteristics of the slurry from growing and finishing pigs. Three feeding programmes with different CP levels were compared during the growing and the finishing periods of fattening. Diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and for the digestible lysine : metabolisable energy ratio to be similar in all the diets for each phase, but differed in CP concentration (160, 150 and 140 g CP/kg for the growing phase and 155, 145 and 135 g CP/kg for the finishing phase). Faeces and urine from barrows (eight replicates per diet) allocated in metabolism cages were collected separately for 5 days to calculate the N balance and for 2 days to measure NH(3) emission in a laboratory system for 240 h. Excreta were analysed for pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), total N, electrical conductivity (EC), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH(4)-N reduction of dietary CP content led to a linear decrease of urinary (P < 0.05) and total (P < 0.05) N excretion, and N excretion/feed intake (P < 0.001). The emission of NH3 was similar in all diets (P > 0.05) during the 240 h of study. However, in the growing phase, the NH(3)-N level in slurry was lower (P < 0.05) for the low-CP diet. In addition, the CP level had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on total VFA, EC, TS, VS, COD or BOD(5) contents of excreta. These parameters were higher (P < 0.05) in slurry from the finishing phase than from the growing phase. However, NH(4)-N in the slurry decreased (P < 0.05) by 20.3% and 28.4% when the CP level was decreased by 9.30 or 21.40 g/kg, respectively. It is concluded that lowering dietary CP levels even by small amounts and using CP levels close to these used in commercial diets

  11. A review of Central European methods for the biological estimation of water pollution levels*

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Hartmut

    1963-01-01

    With the increasing amount and variety of pollution of surface and other waters in the modern world, there is an increasing need for simple, rapid and reliable methods for assessing the degree of purity or contamination of water. Partly for historical reasons, chemical methods have been used more widely than biological ones, although the latter possess certain advantages not shared by the former. Much important work on the biological assessment of water pollution has been done in Central Europe, and the author of this paper reviews the more significant of the modern methods evolved there. Some are ecological, some physiological; and certain of them merit consideration as standardizable procedures, applicable over a wider range of waters than those for which they were developed. To this end it will be necessary to conduct carefully controlled field trials under varying climatic and other conditions. PMID:14058231

  12. A biomimetic absorbent for removal of trace level persistent organic pollutants from water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui; Dai, Ruihua; Ru, Jia; Wang, Zijian

    2007-05-01

    A novel biomimetic absorbent containing the lipid triolein was developed for removing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from water. The structural characteristics of the absorbent were obtained by SEM and a photoluminescence method. Under optimum preparation conditions, triolein was perfectly embedded in the cellulose acetate (CA) spheres, the absorbent was stable and no triolein leaked into the water. Dieldrin, endrin, aldrin and heptachlor epoxide were effectively removed by the CA--triolein absorbent in laboratory batch experiments. This suggests that CA-triolein absorbent may serve as a good absorbent for those selected POPs. Triolein in the absorbent significantly increased the absorption capacity, and lower residual concentrations of POPs were achieved when compared to the use of cellulose acetate absorbent. The absorption rate for lipophilic pollutants was very fast and exhibited some relationship with the octanol--water partition coefficient of the analyte. The absorption mechanism is discussed in detail.

  13. Influence of the choice of gas-phase mechanism on predictions of key gaseous pollutants during the AQMEII phase-2 intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knote, Christoph; Tuccella, Paolo; Curci, Gabriele; Emmons, Louisa; Orlando, John J.; Madronich, Sasha; Baró, Rocio; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Luecken, Deborah; Hogrefe, Christian; Forkel, Renate; Werhahn, Johannes; Hirtl, Marcus; Pérez, Juan L.; San José, Roberto; Giordano, Lea; Brunner, Dominik; Yahya, Khairunnisa; Zhang, Yang

    2015-08-01

    The formulations of tropospheric gas-phase chemistry ("mechanisms") used in the regional-scale chemistry-transport models participating in the Air Quality Modelling Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) Phase 2 are intercompared by the means of box model studies. Simulations were conducted under idealized meteorological conditions, and the results are representative of mean boundary layer concentrations. Three sets of meteorological conditions - winter, spring/autumn and summer - were used to capture the annual variability, similar to the 3-D model simulations in AQMEII Phase 2. We also employed the same emissions input data used in the 3-D model intercomparison, and sample from these datasets employing different strategies to evaluate mechanism performance under a realistic range of pollution conditions. Box model simulations using the different mechanisms are conducted with tight constraints on all relevant processes and boundary conditions (photolysis, temperature, entrainment, etc.) to ensure that differences in predicted concentrations of pollutants can be attributed to differences in the formulation of gas-phase chemistry. The results are then compared with each other (but not to measurements), leading to an understanding of mechanism-specific biases compared to the multi-model mean. Our results allow us to quantify the uncertainty in predictions of a given compound in the 3-D simulations introduced by the choice of gas-phase mechanisms, to determine mechanism-specific biases under certain pollution conditions, and to identify (or rule out) the gas-phase mechanism as the cause of an observed discrepancy in 3-D model predictions. We find that the predictions of the median diurnal cycle of O3 over a set of emission conditions representing a network of station observations is within 4 ppbv (5%) across the different mechanisms. This variability is found to be very similar on both continents. There are considerably larger differences in predicted

  14. High-levels of microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake.

    PubMed

    Free, Christopher M; Jensen, Olaf P; Mason, Sherri A; Eriksen, Marcus; Williamson, Nicholas J; Boldgiv, Bazartseren

    2014-08-15

    Despite the large and growing literature on microplastics in the ocean, little information exists on microplastics in freshwater systems. This study is the first to evaluate the abundance, distribution, and composition of pelagic microplastic pollution in a large, remote, mountain lake. We quantified pelagic microplastics and shoreline anthropogenic debris in Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia. With an average microplastic density of 20,264 particles km(-2), Lake Hovsgol is more heavily polluted with microplastics than the more developed Lakes Huron and Superior in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Fragments and films were the most abundant microplastic types; no plastic microbeads and few pellets were observed. Household plastics dominated the shoreline debris and were comprised largely of plastic bottles, fishing gear, and bags. Microplastic density decreased with distance from the southwestern shore, the most populated and accessible section of the park, and was distributed by the prevailing winds. These results demonstrate that without proper waste management, low-density populations can heavily pollute freshwater systems with consumer plastics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. National collaborative shellfish pollution-indicator study: Site selection. Phase 1. Rept. for 1987-88

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, D.L.; Broutman, M.A.; Caverly, K.E.

    1988-07-01

    Each year approximately 16 million acres of estuarine waters are classified for the harvest of molluscan shellfish as open or limited to harvest according to microbiological 'indicator' standards and pollution survey guidelines established by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program. The program was developed in the 1920's in response to typhoid fever outbreaks and may no longer protect the consumer from the most prevalent shellfish-borne diseases: hepatitis and gastroenteritis. Today, 1/3 of productive or potentially productive shellfish-growing waters are closed to harvest at some time during the year. In response to these problems, the industry has initiated a national cooperative effort to re-evaluate the standard and establish a classification system directly related to public health implications.

  16. Removal of multiple air pollutants by gas-phase reactions of hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, V.M.; Ho, L.; Maly, P.M.; Seeker, W.R.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen peroxide is a large-volume chemical with a wide range of applications in different industries. If properly stored, hydrogen peroxide solutions in water are stable, with no loss of the effective substance. Environmental applications have become a major area of use for hydrogen peroxide because it is not itself a source of pollution, and water and oxygen are the only reaction by- products. There is a variety of developed or developing environmental technologies which use H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as an active reagent: detoxification and deodorization of industrial and municipal effluents; low temperature removal of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, cyanides, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide, organic compounds; low temperature treatment for catalytic NO-to-NO{sub 2} conversion, etc. This study develops a concept of high-temperature hydrogen peroxide injection into combustion gases or other off-gases followed by reactions of hydrogen peroxide with nitric oxide, sulfur trioxide, carbon monoxide and organic compounds.

  17. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level.

    PubMed

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-08-28

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150-7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479-122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008-2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090-19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments.

  18. Enchytraeids and microbes in Zn polluted soil: no link between organism-level stress responses and ecosystem functioning.

    PubMed

    Salminen, J; Anh, B T; Van Gestel, C A

    2001-12-01

    We studied the presence of zinc tolerance in enchytraeid worm (Cognettia sphagnetorum, Oligochaeta) from a metal-polluted forest soil in The Netherlands. In a dose response experiment, we compared Zn sensitivity, measured as body growth and reproduction, of these enchytraeids with that of animals taken from three unpolluted sites. Because C. sphagnetorum is a keystone species, regulating microbial processes in coniferous forest soil, we performed a microcosm experiment to study the interaction of enchytraeids from several sites with soil microbes. The idea was to study whether there is a link between metal stress response of individuals (tolerance level, life history alteration) and changes observed at higher organization levels of the biological system (trophic interaction and decomposition processes). We did not find evidence for increased metal tolerance of C. sphagnetorum. Worms from the polluted site actually had reduced body growth, indicating negative fitness effects caused by long-lasting metal stress. The density and biomass of the worm population from the polluted site was low in Zn contaminated soil. Presence of enchytraeids enhanced and Zn contamination reduced the activity of microbes in the soil. Enchytraeids from different sites with different life histories and population development, however, had the same effect on microbes. Hence, observed stress responses of individuals and populations could not be linked to density-dependent trophic interactions and ecosystem functioning in the soil-decomposer food chain.

  19. Burden of Outdoor Air Pollution in Kerala, India—A First Health Risk Assessment at State Level

    PubMed Central

    Tobollik, Myriam; Razum, Oliver; Wintermeyer, Dirk; Plass, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Ambient air pollution causes a considerable disease burden, particularly in South Asia. The objective of the study is to test the feasibility of applying the environmental burden of disease method at state level in India and to quantify a first set of disease burden estimates due to ambient air pollution in Kerala. Particulate Matter (PM) was used as an indicator for ambient air pollution. The disease burden was quantified in Years of Life Lost (YLL) for the population (30 + years) living in urban areas of Kerala. Scenario analyses were performed to account for uncertainties in the input parameters. 6108 (confidence interval (95% CI): 4150–7791) of 81,636 total natural deaths can be attributed to PM, resulting in 96,359 (95% CI: 65,479–122,917) YLLs due to premature mortality (base case scenario, average for 2008–2011). Depending on the underlying assumptions the results vary between 69,582 and 377,195 YLLs. Around half of the total burden is related to cardiovascular deaths. Scenario analyses show that a decrease of 10% in PM concentrations would save 15,904 (95% CI: 11,090–19,806) life years. The results can be used to raise awareness about air quality standards at a local level and to support decision-making processes aiming at cleaner and healthier environments. PMID:26343701

  20. Ozone at high-pollution urban levels causes airway hyperresponsiveness to substance P but not to other agonists.

    PubMed

    Segura, P; Montaño, L M; Bazán-Perkins, B; Gustin, P; Vargas, M H

    1997-06-06

    Ozone (O(3)) causes airway hyperresponsiveness, but few studies have evaluated this effect at urban concentrations. In this work dose-response curves to intravenous acetylcholine, histamine or substance P were performed in guinea pigs with or without previous exposure to O(3) (0.15, 0.3, 0.6 or 1.2 ppm for 4 h, 16-18 h before the studies). We found airway hyperresponsiveness to histamine, but not to acetylcholine, only after 1.2 ppm O(3). By contrast, airway hyperresponsiveness to substance P was developed at O(3) levels encountered in highly-polluted cities (0.3 ppm). These results suggest that excitatory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses could be affected by air pollution, and that substance P is a useful pharmacological tool for evaluating the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by low O(3) concentrations.

  1. [Abundance variations of fishes from sites with different levels of pollution in the sublittoral sector of Havana City, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ivet Herández; Betancourt, Consuelo Aguilar; Sansón, Gaspar González

    2009-12-01

    The impact of human activity affects fish populations. We studied the abundance of three selected fish species (Stegastes partitus, Thalassoma bifasciatum and Halichoeres bivittatus) in four sites with different degrees of pollution in Havana City: 30th street and 16th street; Miramar; Red Boy of Havana Bay; and the ending ofAlmendares's River. The sites were divided into five zones depending on their bottom characteristics. The counts were made with the visual census technique with a 5m2 quadrat, from June-July 2003 to January 2004. Each time we made nine counts per zone. S. partitus and T. bifasciatum were more abundant in clean water areas, while Halichoeres bivittatus seems to resist the levels of pollution present in the area.

  2. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations.

  3. Structural Impacts on Thallus and Algal Cell Components of Two Lichen Species in Response to Low-Level Air Pollution in Pacific Northwest Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ra, Hyung-Shim Y.; Rubin, Laura; Crang, Richard F. E.

    2004-04-01

    Lichens have long been regarded as bioindicators of air pollution, and structural studies typically have indicated negative impacts in highly polluted areas. In this research, Parmelia sulcata and Platismatia glauca were collected from one clean and two polluted sites in the Pacific Northwest forests of the United States to investigate the anatomical and ultrastructural responses of relatively resistant lichens to moderate air pollution. Light microscopy of polluted materials revealed only slight increases in the algal cell proportions of the thallus, and a decrease in the fungal cells of the medulla. Using transmission electron microscopy, increased lipid droplets in the cytoplasm and an increase in the cell wall thickness of the photobionts were found in the polluted lichens. These results were compared with physiological data in which the net carbon uptake did not show any significant differences; however, the total chlorophyll content was heightened in the polluted samples. The increased total chlorophyll content and the absence of any changes in the algal cell proportions of the polluted samples suggest that the photobionts possessed a higher chlorophyll content per unit volume of the photobiont at polluted sites. The results also indicate that lichens have altered their storage allocation in different cellular compartments. This may be a result of symbiotic readjustment(s) between the photobiont and the mycobiont. In comparison with the physiological results from these two species, these changes do not represent damaging effects by low-level air pollution.

  4. Studying the effect of meteorological factors on the SO2 and PM10 pollution levels with refined versions of the SARIMA model

    SciTech Connect

    Voynikova, D. S. Gocheva-Ilieva, S. G. Ivanov, A. V.; Iliev, I. P.

    2015-10-28

    Numerous time series methods are used in environmental sciences allowing the detailed investigation of air pollution processes. The goal of this study is to present the empirical analysis of various aspects of stochastic modeling and in particular the ARIMA/SARIMA methods. The subject of investigation is air pollution in the town of Kardzhali, Bulgaria with 2 problematic pollutants – sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10). Various SARIMA Transfer Function models are built taking into account meteorological factors, data transformations and the use of different horizons selected to predict future levels of concentrations of the pollutants.

  5. Studying the effect of meteorological factors on the SO2 and PM10 pollution levels with refined versions of the SARIMA model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voynikova, D. S.; Gocheva-Ilieva, S. G.; Ivanov, A. V.; Iliev, I. P.

    2015-10-01

    Numerous time series methods are used in environmental sciences allowing the detailed investigation of air pollution processes. The goal of this study is to present the empirical analysis of various aspects of stochastic modeling and in particular the ARIMA/SARIMA methods. The subject of investigation is air pollution in the town of Kardzhali, Bulgaria with 2 problematic pollutants - sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate matter (PM10). Various SARIMA Transfer Function models are built taking into account meteorological factors, data transformations and the use of different horizons selected to predict future levels of concentrations of the pollutants.

  6. Effect of pre- and postnatal exposure to urban air pollution on myocardial lipid peroxidation levels in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Damaceno-Rodrigues, Nilsa Regina; Veras, Mariana Matera; Negri, Elnara Márcia; Zanchi, Ana Claudia Tedesco; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Dolhnikoff, Marisa; Caldini, Elia Garcia

    2009-11-01

    Exposure to air pollution can elicit cardiovascular health effects. Children and unborn fetuses appear to be particularly vulnerable. However, the mechanisms involved in cardiovascular damage are poorly understood. It has been suggested that the oxidative stress generated by air pollution exposure triggers tissue injury. To investigate whether prenatal exposure can enhance oxidative stress in myocardium of adult animals, mice were placed in a clean chamber (CC, filtered urban air) and in a polluted chamber (PC, São Paulo city) during the gestational period and/or for 3 mo after birth, according to 4 protocols: control group-prenatal and postnatal life in CC; prenatal group-prenatal in PC and postnatal life in CC; postnatal group-prenatal in CC and postnatal life in PC; and pre-post group-prenatal and postnatal life in PC. As an indicator of oxidative stress, levels of lipid peroxidation in hearts were measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) quantification and by quantification of the myocardial immunoreactivity for 15-F2t-isoprostane. Ultrastructural studies were performed to detect cellular alterations related to oxidative stress. Concentration of MDA was significantly increased in postnatal (2.45 +/- 0.84 nmol/mg) and pre-post groups (3.84 +/- 1.39 nmol/mg) compared to the control group (0.31 +/- 0.10 nmol/mg) (p < .01). MDA values in the pre-post group were significantly increased compared to the prenatal group (0.71 +/- 0.15 nmol/mg) (p = .017). Myocardial isoprostane area fraction in the pre-post group was increased compared to other groups (p < or = .01). Results show that ambient levels of air pollution elicit cardiac oxidative stress in adult mice, and that gestational exposure may enhance this effect.

  7. Assessment of complex water pollution with heavy metals and Pyrethroid pesticides on transcript levels of metallothionein and immune related genes.

    PubMed

    Ghazy, Haneen A; Abdel-Razek, Mohamed A S; El Nahas, Abeer F; Mahmoud, Shawky

    2017-09-01

    Alteration of immunological function of an aquatic organism can be used as an indicator for evaluating the direct effect of exposure to pollutants. The aim of this work is to assess the impact of complex water pollution with special reference to Pyrethroid pesticides and heavy metals on mRNA transcript levels of Metallothionine and some immune related genes of Nile tilapia (Oreochromas Niloticus). Residues of six heavy metals and six Pyrethroid were assessed in water as well as fish tissues at three different sites of Lake Burullus, located at Northern Egypt. Variations of water physicochemical properties associated with different levels of heavy metals at the three different sections were recorded. Tissue residues of Fe, Mn and Zn, Cu, Ni exceed water levels in contrast to elevated water level of Pb. All assessed Pyrethroids are detected in fish tissue samples with higher concentration (3-42 folds) than that found in water samples especially Cypermethrin. Significant down-regulation of expression levels of metallothionein (MT) at the three sections of the lake was observed. The expression of immune related genes (IgM) and inflammatory cytokines (TNF, IL.8 and IL.1) were affected. IgM and TNF were significantly down-regulated at eastern and western section of the lake; meanwhile the expression of IL8 is down regulated at the three sections of the lack. IL1 was significantly up-regulated at eastern and middle sections. We conclude that, variable gene expression of MT and immune-related genes at the three sections of the lack impose different response to complex water pollution in relation to variable aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sorption equilibria of vapor-phase organic pollutants on unsaturated soils and soil minerals. Final report, Mar 85-Mar 89

    SciTech Connect

    Lion, L.W.; Ong, S.K.; Linder, S.R.; Swager, J.L.; Schwager, S.J.

    1990-04-01

    Most groundwater pollutants are volatile organic compounds; however, there is relatively little understanding of the sorption reactions that control the transport and fate of organic vapors in the vadose zone. This investigation identified the physical/chemical properties of the soil matrix and organic vapors which control vapor-solid phase distribution. The dominant property which regulates vapor sorption in the unsaturated zone is the moisture content of the soil. Under very dry conditions, soil mineral/vapor interactions are regulated by specific surface area, indicating the dominance of a relatively non-specific physical adsorption process. However, at moisture contents exceeding an average surface coverage of four to eight layers of water, vapor uptake is controlled by partitioning reactions into soil moisture and soil organic matter.

  9. Absenteeism and respiratory disease among children and adults in Helsinki in relation to low-level air pollution and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Poenkae, A. )

    1990-06-01

    The weekly changes in ambient sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and temperature were compared with the figures for respiratory infection in children and adults and for absenteeism from day-care centers (DCC), schools, and workplaces during a 1-year period in Helsinki. The annual average level of sulfur dioxide was 21 micrograms/m3 and of nitrogen dioxide 47 micrograms/m3; the average temperature was +3.1 degrees C. The levels of these pollutants and the temperature were significantly correlated with the number of upper respiratory infections reported from health centers. Low temperature also correlated with increased frequency of acute tonsillitis, of lower respiratory tract infection among DCC children, and of absenteeism from day-care centers, schools and workplaces. Furthermore, a significant association was found between levels of sulfur dioxide and absenteeism. After statistical standardization for temperature, no other correlations were observed apart from that between high levels of sulfur dioxide and numbers of upper respiratory tract infections diagnosed at health centers (P = 0.04). When the concentrations of sulfur dioxide were above the mean, the frequency of the upper respiratory tract infections was 15% higher than that during the periods of low concentration. The relative importance of the effects of low-level air pollution and low temperature on health is difficult to assess.

  10. Comparison between two bivalve species as tools for the assessment of pollution levels in an estuarian environment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sandra M; Fernández-Tajes, Juan; Rábade, Tamara; Flórez-Barrós, Fernanda; Laffon, Blanca; Méndez, Josefina

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries are semi-enclosed marine areas with water short residence times. Estuary ecosystems show a higher susceptibility to contamination, as historically these sites are linked to urban and industrial development. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous contaminants present in high quantities in these marine environments. Chemical analyses of sediments provides information regarding PAH pollution levels but not a direct measure of the toxicological effects attributed to these contaminants. Samples of sediments and of two bivalve species, Cerastoderma edule and Mytilus galloprovincialis, were collected from two locations (Corcubión and A Concha) in an estuary from northwestern Spain. The PAH levels in sediment and bivalve species and possible sources were determined. A moderate level and a low level of pyrogenic PAH contamination were observed in Corcubión and in A Concha, respectively. Genotoxic damage was evaluated in gills and hemocytes from mussels and cockles by means of the comet assay. DNA damage measured as DNAt values showed a reliable relationship with pollution load levels of the two sampling sites. The higher sensitivity of C. edule compared to M. galloprovincialis enables one to recommend including another species coupled with mussels for biomonitoring estuarine environments.

  11. Anemia prevalence and hemoglobin levels are associated with long-term exposure to air pollution in an older population.

    PubMed

    Honda, Trenton; Pun, Vivian C; Manjourides, Justin; Suh, Helen

    2017-04-01

    Anemia, a highly prevalent disorder in elderly populations, is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes, including increased mortality, impaired functional status and cognitive disorders. Approximately two-thirds of anemia in American elderly is caused by chronic inflammation or is unexplained. A potential contributing factor may include air pollution exposures, which have been shown to increase systemic inflammation and affect erythropoiesis. Few studies, however, have investigated the associations of air pollution on hemoglobin levels and anemia. We used linear regression models and modified Poisson regression with robust error variance to examine the associations of particulate matter (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) on hemoglobin concentrations and prevalence of anemia, respectively, among 4121 older Americans enrolled in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. We estimated participant-specific exposures to PM2.5 using spatio-temporal models, and to NO2 using nearest measurements from Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System. Hemoglobin levels were measured for participants in each of two data collection waves from dried blood spots. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization hemoglobin-based criteria of <13 and <12g/dL for men and women, respectively. Models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, race, income, education, neighborhood socioeconomic status, region, urbanicity and medication use. Mediation by C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation, was also investigated. An inter-quartile range (IQR, 3.9μg/m(3)) increase in the one-year moving average PM2.5 was positively associated with anemia prevalence (prevalence ratio, or PR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.45) and decreases in average hemoglobin of 0.81g/dL (p<0.001). Similarly, an IQR (9.6ppb) increase in NO2 was associated with anemia prevalence (PR 1.43, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.63) and a decrease in average hemoglobin of 0.81g/dL (p<0.001). Strong dose

  12. Application of remote sensing for prediction and detection of thermal pollution, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.; Lee, S. S.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a predictive mathematical model for thermal pollution in connection with remote sensing measurements was continued. A rigid-lid model has been developed and its application to far-field study has been completed. The velocity and temperature fields have been computed for different atmospheric conditions and for different boundary currents produced by tidal effects. In connection with the theoretical work, six experimental studies of the two sites in question (Biscayne Bay site and Hutchinson Island site) have been carried out. The temperature fields obtained during the tests at the Biscayne Bay site have been compared with the predictions of the rigid-lid model and these results are encouraging. The rigid-lid model is also being applied to near-field study. Preliminary results for a simple case have been obtained and execution of more realistic cases has been initiated. The development of a free-surface model also been initiated. The governing equations have been formulated and the computer programs have been written.

  13. Biosorption of model pollutants in liquid phase on raw and modified rice husks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniazzo, L.; Fierro, V.; Braghiroli, F.; Amaral, G.; Celzard, A.

    2013-03-01

    We studied the application of rice husk (RH) as a biosorbent and we demonstrated that it can be employed for the treatment of dyeing wastewater streams. RH was obtained from Nile Delta (Egypt) and it was used as received, or after a chemical treatment using HNO3 or NaOH, or after conversion into activated carbon (RH-AC) using H3PO4 as activating agent. A commercial activated carbon GAC 830 provided by NORIT was also tested for comparison purposes. These materials were evaluated by adsorption of methylene blue (MB) with an initial concentration of 20 ppm in an aqueous solution at 30°C. The results showed that alkali-treated and RH-AC were the best sorbents. They got a nearly complete MB removal from water and they had better performance than GAC 830. Therefore, the use of RH for pollutant removal makes this method an environment-friendly option and an economically feasible alternative to treat industrial effluents.

  14. Direct damage to vegetation caused by acid rain and polluted cloud: definition of critical levels for forest trees.

    PubMed

    Cape, J N

    1993-01-01

    The concept of critical levels was developed in order to define short-term and long-term average concentrations of gaseous pollutants above which plants may be damaged. Although the usual way in which pollutants in precipitation (wet deposition) influence vegetation is by affecting soil processes, plant foliage exposed to fog and cloud, which often contain much greater concentrations of pollutant ions than rain, may be damaged directly. The idea of a critical level has been extended to define concentrations of pollutants in wet deposition above which direct damage to plants is likely. Concentrations of acidity and sulphate measured in mountain and coastal cloud are summarised. Vegetation at risk of injury is identified as montane forest growing close to the cloud base, where ion concentrations are highest. The direct effects of acidic precipitation on trees are reviewed, based on experimental exposure of plants to simulated acidic rain, fog or mist. Although most experiments have reported results in terms of pH (H(+) concentration), the accompanying anion is important, with sulphate being more damaging than nitrate. Both conifers and broadleaved tree seedlings showing subtle changes in the structural characteristics of leaf surfaces after exposure to mist or rain at or about pH 3.5, or sulphate concentration of 150 micromol litre(-1). Visible lesions on leaf surfaces occur at around pH 3 (500 micromol litre(-1) sulphate), broadleaved species tending to be more sensitive than conifers. Effects on photosynthesis and water relations, and interactions with other stresses (e.g. frost), have usually been observed only for treatments which have also caused visible injury to the leaf surface. Few experiments on the direct effects of polluted cloud have been conducted under field conditions with mature trees, which unlike seedlings in controlled conditions, may suffer a growth reduction in the absence of visible injury. Although leaching of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+)) is

  15. The effects of deterioration and technological levels on pollutant emission factors for gasoline light-duty trucks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingyu; Fan, Juwang; Yang, Weidong; Chen, Bixin; Zhang, Lijuan; Liu, Jiaoyu; Wang, Jingling; Zhou, Chunyao; Chen, Xuan

    2017-03-13

    Vehicle deterioration and technological change influence emission factors (EFs). In this study, the impacts of vehicle deterioration and emission standards on EFs of regulated pollutants (CO, HC, and NOx) for gasoline light-duty trucks (LDTs) were investigated according to the Inspection and Maintenance (I/M) data using a chassis dynamometer method. Pollutant EFs for LDTs markedly varied with accumulated mileages and emission standards, and the trends of EFs are associated with accumulated mileages. In addition, the study also found that in most cases the median EFs of CO, HC and NOx are higher than those of basic EFs in the IVE model; therefore, the present study provides correction factors for the IVE model relative to the corresponding emission standards and mileages. Implication Currently, vehicle emissions are great contributors to air pollution in cities, especially in developing countries. Emission factors play a key role in creating emission inventory and estimating emissions. Deterioration represented by vehicle age and accumulated mileage and changes of emission standards markedly influence emission factors. In addition, the results provide collection factors for implication in the IVE model in the region levels.

  16. Resonance Raman imaging as a tool to assess the atmospheric pollution level: carotenoids in Lecanoraceae lichens as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Ibarrondo, I; Prieto-Taboada, N; Martínez-Arkarazo, I; Madariaga, J M

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy differentiation of carotenoids has traditionally been based on the ν 1 position (C = C stretching vibrations in the polyene chain) in the 1500-1600 cm(-1) range, using a 785 nm excitation laser. However, when the number of conjugated double bonds is similar, as in the cases of zeaxanthin and β-carotene, this distinction is still ambiguous due to the closeness of the Raman bands. This work shows the Raman results, obtained in resonance conditions using a 514 mm laser, on Lecanora campestris and Lecanora atra species, which can be used to differentiate and consequently characterize carotenoids. The presence of the carotenoid found in Lecanoraceae lichens has been demonstrated to depend on the atmospheric pollution level of the environment they inhabit. Astaxanthin, a superb antioxidant, appears as the principal xanthophyll in highly polluted sites, usually together with the UV screening pigment scytonemin; zeaxanthin is the major carotenoid in medium polluted environments, while β-carotene is the major carotenoid in cleaner environments. Based on these observations, an indirect classification of the stress suffered in a given environment can be assessed by simply analysing the carotenoid content in the Lecanoraceae lichens by using resonance Raman imaging.

  17. Geometric phase of mixed states for three-level open systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yanyan; Ji, Y. H.; Wang, Z. S.; Xu Hualan; Hu Liyun; Chen, Z. Q.; Guo, L. P.

    2010-12-15

    Geometric phase of mixed state for three-level open system is defined by establishing in connecting density matrix with nonunit vector ray in a three-dimensional complex Hilbert space. Because the geometric phase depends only on the smooth curve on this space, it is formulated entirely in terms of geometric structures. Under the limiting of pure state, our approach is in agreement with the Berry phase, Pantcharatnam phase, and Aharonov and Anandan phase. We find that, furthermore, the Berry phase of mixed state correlated to population inversions of three-level open system.

  18. Geometric phase of mixed states for three-level open systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanyan; Ji, Y. H.; Xu, Hualan; Hu, Li-Yun; Wang, Z. S.; Chen, Z. Q.; Guo, L. P.

    2010-12-01

    Geometric phase of mixed state for three-level open system is defined by establishing in connecting density matrix with nonunit vector ray in a three-dimensional complex Hilbert space. Because the geometric phase depends only on the smooth curve on this space, it is formulated entirely in terms of geometric structures. Under the limiting of pure state, our approach is in agreement with the Berry phase, Pantcharatnam phase, and Aharonov and Anandan phase. We find that, furthermore, the Berry phase of mixed state correlated to population inversions of three-level open system.

  19. Cross-species toxicogenomic analyses and phenotypic anchoring in response to groundwater low-level pollution.

    PubMed

    Porreca, Immacolata; D'Angelo, Fulvio; Gentilcore, Daniela; Carchia, Emanuele; Amoresano, Angela; Affuso, Andrea; Ceccarelli, Michele; De Luca, Pasquale; Esposito, Libera; Guadagno, Francesco M; Mallardo, Massimo; Nardone, Antonio; Maccarone, Sergio; Pane, Francesca; Scarfò, Marzia; Sordino, Paolo; De Felice, Mario; Ambrosino, Concetta

    2014-12-05

    Comparison of toxicogenomic data facilitates the identification of deregulated gene patterns and maximizes health risk prediction in human. Here, we performed phenotypic anchoring on the effects of acute exposure to low-grade polluted groundwater using mouse and zebrafish. Also, we evaluated two windows of chronic exposure in mouse, starting in utero and at the end of lactation. Bioinformatic analysis of livers microarray data showed that the number of deregulated biofunctions and pathways is higher after acute exposure, compared to the chronic one. It also revealed specific profiles of altered gene expression in all treatments, pointing to stress response/mitochondrial pathways as major players of environmental toxicity. Of note, dysfunction of steroid hormones was also predicted by bioinformatic analysis and verified in both models by traditional approaches, serum estrogens measurement and vitellogenin mRNA determination in mice and zebrafish, respectively. In our report, phenotypic anchoring in two vertebrate model organisms highlights the toxicity of low-grade pollution, with varying susceptibility based on exposure window. The overlay of zebrafish and mice deregulated pathways, more than single genes, is useful in risk identification from chemicals implicated in the observed effects.

  20. Baseline levels and trophic transfer of persistent organic pollutants in sediments and biota from the Congo River Basin (DR Congo).

    PubMed

    Verhaert, Vera; Covaci, Adrian; Bouillon, Steven; Abrantes, Katya; Musibono, Dieudonné; Bervoets, Lieven; Verheyen, Erik; Blust, Ronny

    2013-09-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs: (PCBs, PBDEs, DDTs, HCHs, CHLs and HCB) in sediments and biota from the middle Congo River Basin (CRB) and to investigate their trophic transfer through the aquatic food web using nitrogen stable isotope ratios. To our knowledge, no data on levels of POPs in sediment and biota from the CRB are present in the literature, and studies on trophic transfer and biomagnification profiles of POPs using δ(15)N are scarce in tropical regions. POP levels in the sediment and biota were low, with exception of total PCB levels found in fish from the Itimbiri River (1.4 to 44ng/g ww). Compared to concentrations found in fish from pristine to relatively industrial developed areas, the ∑PCB levels in fish from the Itimbiri were high, indicating the presence of a local PCB contamination source in this catchment. Based on minimum risk level criteria formulated by ATSDR, the consumption of PCB contaminated fish from the Itimbiri river poses a potential risk for humans. The POP levels in biota were not significantly related to the POP levels in sediments, and the BSAF concept (Biota-Sediment Accumulation Factor) was found to be a poor predictor of the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of environmental pollutants in the present study. With increasing trophic levels, a significant increase in PCB 95, 101, 110, 138, 146, 149, 153, 174, 180 & 187 and p,p'-DDT in Itimbiri and BDE 47 & 99 in Itimbiri, Aruwimi & Lomami river basins was observed. Trophic magnification factors were higher than 1, indicating that biomagnification occurs through the tropical food web.

  1. Environmental Risk Score as a New Tool to Examine Multi-Pollutants in Epidemiologic Research: An Example from the NHANES Study Using Serum Lipid Levels

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Tao, Yebin; Meeker, John D.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2014-01-01

    Objective A growing body of evidence suggests that environmental pollutants, such as heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants and plasticizers play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. Most epidemiologic studies have examined environmental pollutants individually, but in real life, we are exposed to multi-pollutants and pollution mixtures, not single pollutants. Although multi-pollutant approaches have been recognized recently, challenges exist such as how to estimate the risk of adverse health responses from multi-pollutants. We propose an “Environmental Risk Score (ERS)” as a new simple tool to examine the risk of exposure to multi-pollutants in epidemiologic research. Methods and Results We examined 134 environmental pollutants in relation to serum lipids (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and triglycerides) using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2006. Using a two-stage approach, stage-1 for discovery (n = 10818) and stage-2 for validation (n = 4615), we identified 13 associated pollutants for total cholesterol, 9 for HDL, 5 for LDL and 27 for triglycerides with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, body mass index and serum nutrient levels. Using the regression coefficients (weights) from joint analyses of the combined data and exposure concentrations, ERS were computed as a weighted sum of the pollutant levels. We computed ERS for multiple lipid outcomes examined individually (single-phenotype approach) or together (multi-phenotype approach). Although the contributions of ERS to overall risk predictions for lipid outcomes were modest, we found relatively stronger associations between ERS and lipid outcomes than with individual pollutants. The magnitudes of the observed associations for ERS were comparable to or stronger than those for socio-demographic factors or BMI. Conclusions This study suggests ERS is

  2. Entry-Level Worker Study: Phase 1 Report. Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas; And Others

    A study examined innovative workplace practices in companies that employ significant numbers of entry-level workers. Findings were based on a series of personal interviews with human resource directors in 58 companies in the Northwest and the Pacific. Asked about the quality of current entry-level workers, employers reported that a disturbing…

  3. Organic micro-pollutant removal in liquid-phase using carbonized silk cotton hull.

    PubMed

    Sathishkumar, M; Binupriya, A R; Kavitha, D; Selvakumar, R; Sheema, K K; Choi, J G; Yun, S E

    2008-01-01

    Phenolic compounds constitute one of the major pollutants in the modern world. Although many physical and chemical treatment technologies for their removal exist, most of them are economically not feasible. The present study was aimed at using silk cotton hull, a potent agricultural waste as an adsobent for removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), which was used as a model phenolic compound. The process parameters were investigated and optimized conditions were determined. The equilibrium time was found to be 60 and 80 min for 10 and 20 mg/L and 100 min for 30 and 40 mg/L 2,4-DCP concentrations, respectively. Among the kinetic models applied, pseudo-second order model fitted well. The maximum adsorption capacity was 16.0 mg/g by Langmuir isotherm. Acidic pH was found favorable for the adsorption of 2,4-DCP. Studies on pH effect and desorption seemed to show that chemisorption played a major role in the adsorption process. In thermodynamic study, the change in entropy (DeltaS0) and heat of adsorption (DeltaH0) of silk cotton hull carbon (SCHC) was estimated as 14.01 J/(mol x K) and 3.04 kJ/mol, respectively. SCHC as adsorbent for removal of 2,4-DCP from aqueous solution, is effective, inexpensive, indigenous, reusable, has low treatment time and is easily available in large quantities as waste there by significantly lowers the cost of wastewater treatment.

  4. The origin of organic pollutants from the combustion of alternative fuels: Phase IV report

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.H.; Dellinger, B.; Sidhu, S.K.

    1997-06-01

    As part of the US-DOE`s on-going interest in the use of alternative automotive fuels, the University of Dayton Research Institute has been conducting research on pollutant emissions resulting from the combustion of candidate fuels. This research, under the direction and sponsorship of the NREL, has been concerned primarily with the combustion of compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), methanol, and ethanol. In the first 24 months of this program, studies of the oxygen rich, stoichiometric, and fuel-rich thermal degradation of these fuels in the temperature range of 300 to 1100{degrees}C at atmospheric pressure and for reaction times of 1.0 and 2.0 s were completed. Trace organic products were identified and quantified for each fuel as a function of temperature. The results of these studies agreed well with the results of tail-pipe emission studies in that the types and quantity of emissions measured in both the laboratory and engine tests were shown to be very similar under certain operating conditions. However, some chemicals were observed in the laboratory studies that were not observed in the engine studies and vice versa. This result is important in that it has implications concerning the origin of these emissions. Experiments concerning the NO perturbed oxidation of methanol, M85, ethanol, and E85 indicated the presence of complex oxidation chemistry. At mild temperatures, NO addition resulted in enhanced fuel conversion. At elevated temperatures, an inhibitory effect was observed through increased yields of both partial oxidation and pyrolysis-type reaction products. Comparison of flow reactor product distributions with engine test results generally indicated improved comparisons when NO was added to the fuel. Analysis of secondary components of alcohol fuels resulted in some unexpected observations. Several previously unidentified species were observed in these experiments which may impact atmospheric reactivity assessments of these fuels.

  5. Ozone Pollution

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Known as tropospheric or ground-level ozone, this gas is harmful to human heath and the environment. Since it forms from emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), these pollutants are regulated under air quality standards.

  6. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  7. Elevated levels of metals and organic pollutants in fish and clams in the Cape Fear River watershed.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Michael A; McIver, Matthew R; Fulton, Michael; Wirth, Ed

    2011-10-01

    A study was performed in 2003 to 2004 to assess metal and organic contaminant concentrations at three areas in the lower Cape Fear River system, North Carolina, United States. Sites examined were Livingston Creek along the mainstem of the Cape Fear River near Riegelwood, Six Runs Creek in the Black River Basin, and Rockfish Creek in the Northeast Cape Fear River basin. The results of the investigation showed that levels of metals and organic pollutants in the sediments were lower than limits considered harmful to aquatic life. However, results of fish (adult bowfin) tissue analyses showed that concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), and now-banned polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the pesticide dieldrin were higher than levels considered safe for human consumption by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the North Carolina Health Director's Office. Fish tissue concentrations of Hg, Se, and PCBs were also higher than concentrations determined by researchers to be detrimental either to the health of the fish themselves or their avian and mammalian predators. Due to the rural nature of two of the sites, increased concentrations of As, Cd, Se, and PCBs in fish tissue were unexpected. The likely reason the levels are increased in fish and some clams but not in sediments is that these pollutants are biomagnified in the food chain. These pollutants will also biomagnify in humans. In these rural areas there is subsistence fishing by low-income families; thus, increased fish tissue metals and toxicant concentrations may present a direct threat to human health.

  8. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, J.; Frohn, L. M.; Christensen, J. H.; Andersen, M. S.; Hertel, O.; Geels, C.; Buus Hansen, A.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.; Skjøth, C. A.

    2009-04-01

    An integrated model system EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution) has been developed to assess external costs related to air pollution from individual sources as specific power plants or different emission sectors, as e.g. power production, road traffic, farming etc. The EVA system is based on the impact pathway chain and consists of a regional scale non-linear Eulerian atmospheric transport-chemistry model including detailed emissions inventories (the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model, DEHM), address-level or gridded population data, state-of-the-art exposure-response functions and monetary valuation of the impacts from air pollution. The first general assessment of health-cost externalities at the national level using the EVA system is presented here. Health-cost externalities from different emission sectors in Denmark e.g. power production, road traffic, as well as all sectors simultaneously have been calculated. Furthermore, the heath-cost externalities based on emissions from international ship traffic in the Baltic Sea as well as the North Sea have been estimated. Examples of delta functions, human exposure levels and the total costs of impacts from different chemical species are given. The work is partly carried out within the Centre for Energy, Environment and Health (www.CEEH.dk), which is a Danish strategic research centre funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research. The mission of the centre is to develop a system to support planning of future energy systems in Denmark, where both direct and indirect costs related to environment, climate and health are considered.

  9. Multibiomarker approach at different organization levels in the estuarine Perinereis gualpensis (Polychaeta; Nereididae) under chronic and acute pollution conditions.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Jaramillo, Mauricio; Martins da Rocha, Alessandra; Gomes, Vanessa; Bianchini, Adalto; Monserrat, José Maria; Sáez, Katia; Barra, Ricardo

    2011-12-01

    This work aimed to study biochemical biomarkers and population responses in the polychaete Perinereis gualpensis (Nereididae) from two Chilean estuaries, Lenga (36°45'S; 73°10'W) and Tubul-Raqui (37°14'S,73°26'W). Lenga estuary is characterized by high mercury and PAH levels as consequence of several historic incidental spills while Tubul is mainly impacted by intensive fish activity. Raqui estuary, with low anthropogenic impact was considered the reference site. Worms were collected in winter and summer periods and tissues were differentiated between anterior (first 40 segments) and posterior region (the rest of the body). Levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, total antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels, Na+, K+-ATPase activity (NKA) and metalothioneins (MTs) content were determined in each region. L3 (combined length of prostomiun+peristomiun+first segment) length, size, frequency, histograms and density of individuals were studied in all sites and seasons. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed among sites for most of the biochemical responses (GSH, GCL, GST, ACAP and TBARS), showing variation between seasons and body regions. Population responses in the most polluted estuary (Lenga) showed differences in size, frequency, lengths and low densities compared with lower impacted sites, indicating the costs associated with tolerance in organisms chronically exposed to estuarine pollution.

  10. Persistent organic pollutant levels and the importance of source proximity in Baltic and Svalbard breeding common eiders.

    PubMed

    Fenstad, Anette A; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Gabrielsen, Kristin M; Öst, Markus; Jaatinen, Kim; Bustnes, Jan O; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Moe, Børge; Herzke, Dorte; Krøkje, Åse

    2016-06-01

    The distance to sources and the long-range transport potential of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are important in understanding the impact of anthropogenic pollution on natural seabird populations. The present study documented blood concentrations of POPs in the Baltic Sea (Tvärminne, Finland) population of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in 2009 and in 2011 and compared the concentrations with the presumably less exposed Arctic population in Svalbard (Kongsfjorden, Norway). The Baltic population had 26, 10, and 5 times greater concentrations of hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorinated biphenyls, and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene than the Svalbard population. Unexpectedly, concentrations of chlordanes were higher in Svalbard eiders, whereas concentrations of hexachlorobenzenes (HCBs) did not differ between the 2 populations. Although the similar HCB levels may partly be explained by the high transport potential of HCBs, unknown factors may have been more important than distance to sources and long-range transport potential for the chlordanes. One plausible explanation may be that the fasting-related redistribution of POPs from fat to blood was greater throughout the incubation in Arctic eiders, causing them to have higher blood levels of these POPs at the end of incubation. The blood concentrations of POPs in Baltic eiders were higher than documented in any other eider population and were comparable to levels in seabirds feeding at higher trophic positions in the food chain. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1526-1533. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Incidence and severity of acute respiratory illness in families exposed to different levels of air pollution, New York metropolitan area, 1971-1972

    SciTech Connect

    Love, G.J.; Lan, S.P.; Shy, C.M.; Struba, R.J.

    1981-03-01

    The incidence and severity of acute respiratory disease was studied in families in three New York communities with different ambient levels of SO/sub 2/ and particulate air pollution. Upper, lower, and total respiratory disease rates in fathers, mothers, and school children tended to be higher in the communities with higher pollution levels. Similar higher rates, however, were not observed among preschool children. Regression analyses were used to adjust rates for socioeconomic status, parental smoking, chronic bronchitis in parents, and possible indoor pollution resulting from the use of a gas stove for cooking. After these adjustments the community differences were still significant (P < .01), for school children. The indoor pollution related to gas stoves was a significant covariate among children. The effects of smoking were inconsistent. It was not possible to attribute the higher rates observed to any specific pollutant, since both SO/sub 2/ and particulate matter levels were higher in the high pollution communities, nor was it possible to attribute the excesses to current levels of exposure or to a residual effect of previous higher exposure concentrations. The fact that young children did not follow the patern suggests the latter. It was concluded, however, that current or previous exposures to the complexity of air pollutants in New York City was at least partially responsible for increased incidences of acute respiratory disease.

  12. Meteorological factors controlling low-level continental pollutant outflow across a coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peake, D. L.; Dacre, H. F.; Methven, J.; Coceal, O.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal outflow describes the horizontal advection of pollutants from the continental boundary layer (BL) across a coastline. The outflow can ventilate polluted continental BLs and thus regulate air quality in highly populated coastal regions. This paper investigates the factors controlling coastal outflow and quantifies their importance as a ventilation mechanism. Tracers in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are used to examine the magnitude and variability of coastal outflow over the eastern United States during summer 2004. Over the 4 week period examined, ventilation of tracer from the continental BL via coastal outflow occurs with the same magnitude as vertical ventilation via convection and advection. The relative importance of tracer decay rate, cross-coastal advection rate, and a parameter based on the relative continental and marine BL heights on coastal outflow is assessed by reducing the problem to a time-dependent box model. The ratio of the advection rate and decay rate is a dimensionless parameter which determines whether tracers are long-lived or short-lived. Long- and short-lived tracers exhibit different behaviours with respect to coastal outflow. Short-lived tracers exhibit large diurnal variability in coastal outflow but long-lived tracers do not. For short-lived tracers, increasing the advection rate increases the diurnally averaged magnitude of coastal outflow, but this has the opposite effect for very long-lived tracers. By using the box-model solutions to interpret the MetUM simulations, a land width is determined which represents the distance inland over which emissions contribute significantly to coastal outflow. A land width of between 100 and 400 km is found to be representative for a tracer with a lifetime of 24 h.

  13. Meteorological factors controlling low-level continental pollutant outflow across a coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peake, D. L.; Dacre, H. F.; Methven, J.; Coceal, O.

    2014-04-01

    Coastal outflow describes the horizontal advection of pollutants from the continental boundary layer across a coastline into a layer above the marine boundary layer. This process can ventilate polluted continental boundary layers and thus regulate air quality in highly populated coastal regions. This paper investigates the factors controlling coastal outflow and quantifies its importance as a ventilation mechanism. Tracers in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are used to examine the magnitude and variability of coastal outflow over the eastern United States for a 4 week period during summer 2004. Over the 4 week period, ventilation of tracer from the continental boundary layer via coastal outflow occurs with the same magnitude as vertical ventilation via convection and advection. The relative importance of tracer decay rate, cross-coastal advection rate, and a parameter based on the relative continental and marine boundary layer heights, on coastal outflow is assessed by reducing the problem to a time-dependent box-model. The ratio of the advection rate and decay rate is a dimensionless parameter which determines whether tracers are long-lived or short-lived. Long- and short-lived tracers exhibit different behaviours with respect to coastal outflow. For short-lived tracers, increasing the advection rate increases the diurnally averaged magnitude of coastal outflow, but has the opposite effect for very long-lived tracers. Short-lived tracers exhibit large diurnal variability in coastal outflow but long-lived tracers do not. By combining the MetUM and box-model simulations a landwidth is determined which represents the distance inland over which emissions contribute significantly to coastal outflow. A landwidth of between 100 and 400 km is found to be representative for a tracer with a lifetime of 24 h.

  14. Metals in Pleurozium schreberi and Polytrichum commune from areas with various levels of pollution.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Krzysztof; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Wojtuń, Bronisław; Mróz, Lucyna; Kempers, Alexander J

    2016-06-01

    Metals deposited into ecosystems are non-degradable and become one of the major toxic agents which accumulate in habitats. Thus, their concentration requires precise monitoring. To evaluate pollution around a chlor-alkali plant, a glass smelter, two power plants and a ceramic and porcelain factory, we selected terrestrial mosses with different life forms: the orthotropic and endohydric Polytrichum commune and plagiotropic and ectohydric Pleurozium schreberi. Metal concentrations were determined in both species growing together at sites situated at various distances approximately 0.75, 1.5, 3 and 6 km from polluters. MARS analysis evaluated different tendencies of both species for Cd, Co and Pb accumulation depending on the distance from the emitter. In P. schreberi, the concentration of these metals diminished relatively rapidly with an increasing distance from the emitter up to 3000 m and then stabilised. For P. commune, a steady decrease could be observed with increasing the distance up to 6000 m. PCCA ordination explained that both species from the vicinity of the chlor-alkali plant were correlated with the highest Co, Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb as well as Mn and Ni concentrations in their tissues. The mosses from sites closest to both power plants were correlated with the highest Cd and Zn concentrations. P. commune contained significantly higher Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations compared to P. schreberi. This may be caused by the lamellae found in the leaves of P. commune which increase the surface area of the possible aerial absorption of contaminants. Soil may also be an additional source of metals, and it affects the uptake in endohydric P. commune more than in ectohydric P. schreberi. However, the precise explanation of these relations needs further investigation.

  15. Level dependence in behavioral measurements of auditory-filter phase characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Lentz, Jennifer J

    2009-11-01

    Two masking experiments were conducted to behaviorally estimate auditory-filter phase curvatures at different stimulus levels. Maskers were harmonic complexes consisting of equal-amplitude tones and phase spectra with varied curvatures. In Experiment 1, sinusoidal signal thresholds were measured at 2 and 4 kHz at fixed masker levels ranging from 50 to 90 dB sound pressure level (SPL). In Experiment 2, the masker level that just masked a sinusoidal signal at 2 and 4 kHz was measured at fixed signal levels of 25, 38, and 50 dB SPL. For both experiments, the estimated phase curvature approached zero (became less negative) with increasing stimulus level. This shift could suggest that the off-frequency phase characteristic of the auditory filter has an increasingly greater role on the estimated auditory-filter phase curvature at higher stimulus levels. This explanation is supported through the use of psychophysical modeling.

  16. School-based exposure to hazardous air pollutants and grade point average: A multi-level study.

    PubMed

    Grineski, Sara E; Clark-Reyna, Stephanie E; Collins, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    The problem of environmental health hazards around schools is serious but it has been neglected by researchers and analysts. This is concerning because children are highly susceptible to the effects of chemical hazards. Some ecological studies have demonstrated that higher school-level pollution is associated with lower aggregate school-level standardized test scores likely, related to increased respiratory illnesses and/or impaired cognitive development. However, an important question remains unexamined: How do school-level exposures impact individual children's academic performance? To address this, we obtained socio-demographic and grades data from the parents of 1888 fourth and fifth grade children in the El Paso (Texas, USA) Independent School District in 2012. El Paso is located on the US-side of the Mexican border and has a majority Mexican-origin population. School-based hazardous air pollution (HAP) exposure was calculated using census block-level US Environmental Protection Agency National Air Toxics Assessment risk estimates for respiratory and diesel particulate matter (PM). School-level demographics were obtained from the school district. Multi-level models adjusting for individual-level covariates (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, English proficiency, and economic deprivation) and school-level covariates (e.g., percent of students economically disadvantaged and student-teacher ratio) showed that higher school-level HAPs were associated with lower individual-level grade point averages. An interquartile range increase in school-level HAP exposure was associated with an adjusted 0.11-0.40 point decrease in individual students' grade point averages (GPAs), depending on HAP type and emission source. Respiratory risk from HAPs had a larger effect on GPA than did diesel PM risk. Non-road mobile and total respiratory risk had the largest effects on children's GPA of all HAP variables studied and only mother's level of education had a larger effect than those

  17. Foliar response of an Ailanthus altissima clone in two sites with different levels of ozone-pollution.

    PubMed

    Gravano, Elisabetta; Giulietti, Valentina; Desotgiu, Rosanna; Bussotti, Filippo; Grossoni, Paolo; Gerosa, Giacomo; Tani, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    Potted plants of Ailanthus altissima, produced by root suckers coming from a single symptomatic mother tree, were placed in two sites in the vicinity of Florence (central Italy), with different levels of ozone pollution. These plants were kept in well watered conditions during the period May-September 1999. In the high pollution site (Settignano-SET) the level of ozone exposure (AOT40) reached at the end of the season a value of 31 ppm h, whereas in the "low pollution" site (Cascine-CAS) the exposure to ozone was 11 ppm h. A. altissima showed foliar symptoms in early July at SET and in the second half of July at CAS when exposure values reached 5 ppm h at both sites. However, at the end of August the conditions of the plantlets were rather similar in both sites. Microscopic and ultrastructural analysis were performed at the first onset of symptoms at SET (the CAS leaflets were asymptomatic). Observing the upper leaf surface where the brown stipples were visible, it was found that the cells of the palisade mesophyll displayed loss of chlorophyll and the organelles in the cytoplasm were damaged. Swelling of thylacoids was observed in the CAS leaflets, thus indicating the possible onset of a pre-visual damage. The injured cells were separated from the healthy ones by a layer of callose. We conclude that the sensitivity to ozone of A. altissima leaves is related to its leaf structure, with low leaf density and large intercellular spaces. Cell walls, as well as acting as mechanical barriers against the spread of ozone within the cell, also provide important detoxifying processes.

  18. Impact of Sublethal Levels of Environmental Pollutants Found in Sewage Sludge on a Novel Caenorhabditis elegans Model Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Amezaga, Maria R.; Petra, Eleni; Frost, Andrew; Duff, Elizabeth I.; Rhind, Stewart M.; Fowler, Paul A.; Glover, L. Anne

    2012-01-01

    A transgenic strain of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in which bioluminescence reports on relative, whole-organism ATP levels was used to test an environmentally-relevant mixture of pollutants extracted from processed sewage sludge. Changes in bioluminescence, following exposure to sewage sludge extract, were used to assess relative ATP levels and overall metabolic health. Reproductive function and longevity were also monitored. A short (up to 8 h) sublethal exposure of L4 larval stage worms to sewage sludge extract had a concentration-dependent, detrimental effect on energy status, with bioluminescence decreasing to 50–60% of the solvent control (1% DMSO). Following longer exposure (22–24 h), the energy status of the nematodes showed recovery as assessed by bioluminescence. Continuous exposure to sewage sludge extract from the L4 stage resulted in a shorter median lifespan relative to that of solvent or medium control animals, but only in the presence of 400–600 µM 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine (FUdR), which was incorporated to inhibit reproduction. This indicated that FUdR increased lifespan, and that the effect was counteracted by SSE. Exposure to sewage sludge extract from the L1 stage led to slower growth and a delayed onset of egg laying. When L1 exposed nematodes reached the reproductive stage, no effect on egg laying rate or egg number in the uterus was observed. DMSO itself (1%) had a significant inhibitory effect on growth and development of C. elegans exposed from the L1 stage and on reproduction when exposed from the L4 stage. Results demonstrate subtle adverse effects on C. elegans of a complex mixture of environmental pollutants that are present, individually, in very low concentrations and indicate that our biosensor of energy status is a novel, sensitive, rapid, quantitative, whole-organism test system which is suitable for high throughput risk assessment of complex pollutant mixtures. PMID:23056324

  19. Chemically Bonded Phases for the Analysis of Trace Amounts of Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Rykowska, I.; Wasiak, W.; Szymański, A.; Szyrwińska, K.; Lulek, J.

    2008-01-01

    This work describes some results of identification and determination of bisphenol A (BPA) in powdered milk by applying the gas chromatography. To determine BPA contents in the milk and to reduce the matrix interference associated with the constituents of the powdered milk, we performed the following activities. First, we ultra-centrifuged the dissolved milk solutions. Next, we preconcentrated the analyte in the supernatant using a C18 and new sorbent with chemically bonded ketoimine group solid phase extraction column. Finally, we used gas chromatography for the determination of BPA in the samples under study. A recovery of bisphenol A from spiked milk samples was also performed, with recovery result located at 91% ± 3%/94% ± 2%. PMID:19710916

  20. Phase transition in the two-level R(4) pairing force model

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Gong-ou; Li Fu-li

    1986-10-01

    The phase transition from the superfluid to normal state with an increase of the seniority number in the two-level pairing force model is studied with a boson-fermion composite representation. Criteria for identifying the phase transition with observable phase characteristics are discussed.

  1. Population-Level Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution during Active Travel: Planning for Low-Exposure, Health-Promoting Cities

    PubMed Central

    Hankey, Steve; Lindsey, Greg; Marshall, Julian D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Providing infrastructure and land uses to encourage active travel (i.e., bicycling and walking) are promising strategies for designing health-promoting cities. Population-level exposure to air pollution during active travel is understudied. Objectives: Our goals were a) to investigate population-level patterns in exposure during active travel, based on spatial estimates of bicycle traffic, pedestrian traffic, and particulate concentrations; and b) to assess how those exposure patterns are associated with the built environment. Methods: We employed facility–demand models (active travel) and land use regression models (particulate concentrations) to estimate block-level (n = 13,604) exposure during rush-hour (1600–1800 hours) in Minneapolis, Minnesota. We used the model-derived estimates to identify land use patterns and characteristics of the street network that are health promoting. We also assessed how exposure is correlated with indicators of health disparities (e.g., household income, proportion of nonwhite residents). Our work uses population-level rates of active travel (i.e., traffic flows) rather than the probability of walking or biking (i.e., “walkability” or “bikeability”) to assess exposure. Results: Active travel often occurs on high-traffic streets or near activity centers where particulate concentrations are highest (i.e., 20–42% of active travel occurs on blocks with high population-level exposure). Only 2–3% of blocks (3–8% of total active travel) are “sweet spots” (i.e., high active travel, low particulate concentrations); sweet spots are located a) near but slightly removed from the city-center or b) on off-street trails. We identified 1,721 blocks (~ 20% of local roads) where shifting active travel from high-traffic roads to adjacent low-traffic roads would reduce exposure by ~ 15%. Active travel is correlated with population density, land use mix, open space, and retail area; particulate concentrations were

  2. Air pollution linked to Remote Sensing tools - Science training using a Master's Level e-Learning Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, A.; Kanakidou, M.; Richter, A.; Wagner, T.; Borrell, P.; Law, R. J.; Burrows, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    As we know it today air pollution is a release into the atmosphere of any substances, chemicals or particles, which are harmful both to the human and animal health as well as the health of the wider environment. The use of satellite based instruments is a young and developing research field and excellent for studying air pollution events over large areas at high spatial-temporal resolutions, especially when ground measurements, which are limited in spatial-temporal coverage, are not available. Students on postgraduate level should be trained in using, and analysing remote sensing data from both ground and satellite based or in interpreting the high variety in remote sensing e.g satellite images or maps. As follows an e-learning online module has been devised and constructed to facilitate the teaching of Remote Sensing of Troposphere from Space to research students at a Master's level. The module, which is essentially an interactive on-line text book, is stand alone, although it could be encompassed within a standard course management system. The scientific content is presented as study pages under three headings: remote sensing from space, the basics of radiation transfer, and retrieval procedures for tropospheric satellite data.The student is encouraged to test his or her comprehension of the material through exercises on the scientific topics.

  3. Air pollution linked to Remote Sensing tools - Science training using a Master's Level e-Learning Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladstaetter-Weissenmayer, A.; Kanakidou, M.; Richter, A.; Wagner, T.; Borrell, P.; Law, R. J.; Burrows, J. P.

    2009-09-01

    As we know it today air pollution is a release into the atmosphere of any substances, chemicals or particles, which are harmful both to the human and animal health as well as the health of the wider environment. The use of satellite based instruments is a young and developing research field and excellent for studying air pollution events over large areas at high spatial-temporal resolutions, especially when ground measurements, which are limited in spatial-temporal coverage, are not available. Students on postgraduate level should be trained in using, and analysing remote sensing data from both ground and satellite based or in interpreting the high variety in remote sensing e.g satellite images or maps. As follows an e-learning online module has been devised and constructed to facilitate the teaching of Remote Sensing of Troposphere from Space to research students at a Master's level. The module, which is essentially an interactive on-line text book, is stand alone, although it could be encompassed within a standard course management system. The scientific content is presented as study pages under three headings: remote sensing from space, the basics of radiation transfer, and retrieval procedures for tropospheric satellite data.The student is encouraged to test his or her comprehension of the material through exercises on the scientific topics.

  4. Organochlorine pesticide levels in Clarias gariepinus from polluted freshwater impoundments in South Africa and associated human health risks.

    PubMed

    Barnhoorn, I E J; van Dyk, J C; Genthe, B; Harding, W R; Wagenaar, G M; Bornman, M S

    2015-02-01

    There are increasing concerns regarding the safe human consumption of fish from polluted, freshwater impoundments. The aim of this study was to analyse the muscle tissue of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus for selected organo-chlorine pesticides (OCPs) and to perform a human health risk assessment using a standard protocol described by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Fish were collected from the polluted Roodeplaat-(RDPD), Rietvlei-(RVD) and Hartbeespoort (HBPD) Dam impoundments located in the north-eastern regions of South Africa. GC-MS analyses showed levels of various OCPs in fish muscle samples from all three impoundments. For fish collected from the RDPD, p,p'-DDE, endosulfan, lindane and β- and δ-HCH were the most prevalent OCPs detected, while p,p'-DDE and endosulfan were the most predominant in fish from the RVD. Lindane and β- and δ-HCH were the main OCPs detected in fish from the HBPD. Dieldrin was the only OCP detected at concentrations for which a cancer risk and a hazard index above the acceptable risk levels were estimated. This was the case for fish from both the RDPD and RVD impoundments. No toxic risk was estimated should fish from the HBPD be consumed.

  5. Are pine needles bioindicators of air pollution? Comparison of organochlorine compound levels in pine needles and ambient air.

    PubMed

    Romanic, Snjezana Herceg; Krauthacker, Blanka

    2007-06-01

    Levels of six PCB congeners and seven organochlorine pesticides were investigated and compared in ambient air and in pine needle samples. The applied methods are suitable for the analysis of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental samples and for their detection in recent intakes. DDE, HCB, lindane, PCB-28, PCB-52, PCB-101, PCB-138 and PCB-153 were found in all pine needle and air samples. The highest median values were found for PCB-28, PCB-101 and gamma-HCH, and the lowest for PCB-180 and DDD. The median value of alpha-HCH/ gamma-HCH ratios was 0.2 in both matrices. DDE/DDT ratios were close to or below 1 in some pine needle and ambient air samples. The results showed a correspondence between air and pine needle pollution; the same compounds were present in the highest or in the lowest levels in both types of matrices. These results suggest that pine needles are passive biomonitors of air pollution.

  6. The effects of air mass transport, seasonality, and meteorology on pollutant levels at the Iskrba regional background station (1996-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberžnik, Matevž; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Our main goal was to estimate the effects of long-range air transport on pollutant concentrations measured at the Iskrba regional background station (Slovenia). We cluster back-trajectories into categories and simultaneously model the effects of meteorology, seasonality, trends, and air mass trajectory clusters using a Bayesian statistical approach. This simplifies the interpretation of results and allows us to better identify the effects of individual variables, which is important, because pollutant concentrations, meteorology, and trajectories are seasonal and correlated. Similar to related work from other European sites, we find that slow and faster moving trajectories from eastern Europe and the northern part of the Balkan peninsula are associated with higher pollutant levels, while fast-moving trajectories from the Atlantic are associated with lower pollutant concentration. Overall, pollutant concentrations have decreased in the studied period.

  7. Solving widespread low-concentration VOC air pollution problems: Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation answers the needs of many small businesses

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C; Turchi, C; Gratson, D

    1995-04-01

    Many small businesses are facing new regulations under the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. Regulators, as well as the businesses themselves, face new challenges to control small point-source air pollution emissions. An individual business-such as a dry cleaner, auto repair shop, bakery, coffee roaster, photo print shop, or chemical company-may be an insignificant source of air pollution, but collectively, the industry becomes a noticeable source. Often the businesses are not equipped to respond to new regulatory requirements because of limited resources, experience, and expertise. Also, existing control strategies may be inappropriate for these businesses, having been developed for major industries with high volumes, high pollutant concentrations, and substantial corporate resources. Gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is an option for eliminating low-concentration, low-flow-rate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from small business point sources. The advantages PCO has over other treatment techniques are presented in this paper. This paper also describes how PCO can be applied to specific air pollution problems. We present our methodology for identifying pollution problems for which PCO is applicable and for reaching the technology`s potential end users. PCO is compared to other gas-phase VOC control technologies.

  8. Knitting aromatic polymers for efficient solid-phase microextraction of trace organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuqin; Hu, Qingkun; Zheng, Juan; Xie, Lijun; Wei, Songbo; Jiang, Ruifen; Zhu, Fang; Liu, Yuan; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-06-10

    A series of knitting aromatic polymers (KAPs) were successfully synthesized using a simple one-step Friedel-Crafts alkylation of aromatic monomers and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Then, as-synthesized KAPs with large surface areas, unique pore structures and high thermal stability were prepared as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coatings that exhibited good extraction abilities for a series of benzene compounds (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and m-xylene, which are referred to as BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Under the optimized conditions, the methodologies established for the determination of BTEX and PAHs using the KAPs-triPB and KAPs-B coatings, respectively, possessed wide linear ranges, low limits of detection (LODs, 0.10-1.13ngL(-1) for BTEX and 0.05-0.49ngL(-1) for PAHs) and good reproducibility. Finally, the proposed methods were successfully applied to the determination of BTEX and PAHs in environmental water samples, and satisfactory recoveries (93.6-124.2% for BTEX and 77.2-113.3% for PAHs) were achieved. This study provides a benchmark for exploiting novel microporous organic polymers (MOPs) for SPME applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Salmon-Eating Grizzly Bears Exposed to Elevated Levels of Marine Derived Persistent Organic Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, J. R.; Ross, P. S.; Whiticar, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The coastal grizzly bears of British Columbia (BC, Canada) rely heavily on salmon returning from the Pacific Ocean, whereas interior bears do not have access to or readily utilize this marine-derived food source. Since salmon have been shown to accumulate persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the North Pacific Ocean, we hypothesized that salmon consumption by grizzly bears would be reflected by an increase in the POP burden. To test this hypothesis we collected hair and fat tissue from grizzlies at various locations around BC to compare salmon-eating (coastal) grizzlies to non-salmon-eating (interior) grizzlies. We characterized the feeding habits for each bear sampled by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope signature of their hair. The positive relationship between 13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios suggests that the majority of the meat portion of the diet of coastal grizzlies is coming from salmon, rather than from terrestrial or freshwater sources. By contrast, stable isotope ratios revealed that interior bears have an almost exclusive vegetarian diet with no marine influence. As hypothesized, the coastal grizzly bears have significantly greater OC pesticide and lower-brominated PBDE congener body burden than the interior grizzlies. We also found a positive relationship between C and N isotope ratios and these same POP contaminants in bear tissue. Overall, these results demonstrate that Pacific salmon represents a significant vector delivering both OC pesticides and PBDEs to BC coastal grizzly bears.

  10. Reduction of air pollution levels downwind of a road with an upwind noise barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enayati Ahangar, Faraz; Heist, David; Perry, Steven; Venkatram, Akula

    2017-04-01

    We propose a dispersion model to estimate the impact of a solid noise barrier upwind of a highway on air pollution concentrations downwind of the road. The model, based on data from wind tunnel experiments conducted by Heist et al. (2009), assumes that the upwind barrier has two main effects: 1) it creates a recirculation zone behind the barrier that sweeps the emissions from the highway back towards the wall, and 2) it enhances vertical dispersion and initial mixing. By combining the upwind barrier model with the mixed wake model for a downwind barrier described in Schulte et al. (2014), we are able to model dispersion of emissions from a highway with noise barriers on both sides. The model provides a good description of measurements made in the wind tunnel. The presence of an upwind barrier causes reductions in concentrations relative to those measured downwind of a road with no barriers. The reduction can be as large as that caused by a downwind barrier if the recirculation zone covers the width of the highway. Barriers on both sides of the highway result in larger reductions downwind of the barriers than those caused by a single barrier either upwind or downwind. As expected, barrier effects are small beyond 10 barrier heights downwind of the highway. We also propose a tentative model to estimate on-road concentrations within the recirculation zone induced by the upwind barrier.

  11. Mortality analysis by neighbourhood in a city with high levels of industrial air pollution.

    PubMed

    Vigotti, Maria Angela; Mataloni, Francesca; Bruni, Antonella; Minniti, Caterina; Gianicolo, Emilio A L

    2014-08-01

    Taranto, a city in south-eastern Italy, suffers serious environmental pollution from industrial sources. A previous cohort analysis found mortality excesses among neighbourhoods closest to industrial areas. Aim of this study was to investigate whether mortality also increased in other neighbourhoods compared to Apulia region. Standardized mortality ratios were computed. Number of deaths and of person-years at risk by neighbourhood came from the previous cohort study for 1998-2008 period. Reference population was Apulia region excluding Taranto province. A meta-analysis was conducted across less close neighbourhoods computing summary SMR estimates and evaluating heterogeneity. For the entire city higher mortality values are confirmed for all causes, all malignant neoplasms and several specific sites, neurological, cardiac, respiratory and digestive diseases. High mortality values are not confined to neighbourhoods closest to industrial areas for lung cancer, cardiac, respiratory and digestive diseases, in both sexes, and among women for all malignant neoplasms and pancreatic cancer. Increased mortality risks can also be observed in Taranto neighbourhoods not directly adjacent to industrial areas. Spatial trend, impact of socio-economic factors and duration of residence should be further explored.

  12. Indoor air quality in energy-efficient dwellings: levels and sources of pollutants.

    PubMed

    Derbez, Mickaël; Wyart, Guillaume; Le Ponner, Eline; Ramalho, Olivier; Ribéron, Jacques; Mandin, Corinne

    2017-09-28

    Worldwide, public policies are promoting energy-efficient buildings and accelerating the thermal renovation of existing buildings. The effects of these changes on the indoor air quality (IAQ) in these buildings remain insufficiently understood. In this context, a field study was conducted in 72 energy-efficient dwellings to describe the pollutants known to be associated with health concerns. Measured parameters included the concentrations of 19 volatile organic compounds and aldehydes, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter (PM2.5 ), radon, temperature and relative humidity. The air stuffiness index and night-time air exchange rate were calculated from the monitored carbon dioxide (CO2 ) concentrations. Indoor and outdoor measurements were performed at each dwelling during one week in each of the two following seasons: heating and non-heating. Moreover, questionnaires were completed by the occupants to characterize the building, equipment, household and occupants' habits. Perspective on our results was provided by previous measurements made in low-energy European dwellings. Statistical comparisons with the French housing stock and a pilot study showed higher concentrations of terpenes, i.e., alpha-pinene and limonene, and hexaldehyde in our study than in previous studies. Alpha-pinene and hexaldehyde are emitted by wood or wood-based products used for the construction, insulation, decoration and furnishings of the dwellings, whereas limonene is more associated with discontinuous sources related to human activities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. High levels of endocrine pollutants in US streams during low flow due to insufficient wastewater dilution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Jacelyn; Westerhoff, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Wastewater discharges from publicly owned treatment works are a significant source of endocrine disruptors and other contaminants to the aquatic environment in the US. Although remaining pollutants in wastewater pose environmental risks, treated wastewater is also a primary source of stream flow, which in turn is critical in maintaining many aquatic and riparian wildlife habitats. Here we calculate the dilution factor--the ratio of flow in the stream receiving discharge to the flow of wastewater discharge--for over 14,000 receiving streams in the continental US using streamflow observations and a spatially explicit watershed-scale hydraulic model. We found that wastewater discharges make up more than 50% of in-stream flow for over 900 streams. However, in 1,049 streams that experienced exceptional low-flow conditions, the dilution factors in 635 of those streams fell so low during those conditions that the safety threshold for concentrations of one endocrine disrupting compound was exceeded, and in roughly a third of those streams, the threshold was exceeded for two compounds. We suggest that streams are vulnerable to public wastewater discharge of contaminants under low-flow conditions, at a time when wastewater discharges are likely to be most important for maintaining stream flow for smaller sized river systems.

  14. [METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION ON THE FORMATION OF THE LEVELS OF OVERALL MORBIDITY RATE OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA].

    PubMed

    Veremchuk, L V; Cherpack, N A; Gvozdenko, T A; Volkova, M V

    2015-01-01

    In large cities with strong air pollution the formation of the levels of morbidity rate of bronchial asthma has a complex causation that requires the search for informative methods for identification of causes and consequences of this dependence. Method for the assessment of the dependence of overall levels of morbidity rate of bronchial asthma on the degree of air pollution allows you to select a "useful information" of the direct impact of air pollution on a background of random processes and latent relationship between human and environment. The use of the method of the information entropy analysis allowed us to estimate the total and the individual contribution of the separate components of air pollution on the formation of levels of total morbidity rate of bronchial asthma in the population of the city of Vladivostok. Levels of total incidence of this pathology were established to differ in various age groups. The adult population is more adapted to air pollution, but retains a high sensitivity to the impact of nitrogen dioxide. Levels of overall l morbidity rate of bronchial asthma in children and adolescents depend on the total air pollution with some dominance of the influence of suspended matter and carbon monoxide.

  15. Switching Correlation and Noise Level in Pr(3+):YSO Crystal via Dressing Nonlinear Phase.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Irfan; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Da; Li, Changbiao; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2016-09-21

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate that the intensity noise correlation and the noise level of intensity-difference and intensity-sum in Stokes and anti-Stokes channel can be well controlled by the relative nonlinear phase in spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing process. By modulating the relative nonlinear phase, including self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation, switching the correlation into anti-correlation and the relative intensity noise level between the intensity-difference and intensity-sum are realized. We also show that the variation tendencies of the relative intensity noise level and the corresponding intensity fluctuations correlation are in accordance with each other.

  16. Switching Correlation and Noise Level in Pr3+:YSO Crystal via Dressing Nonlinear Phase

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Irfan; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Da; Li, Changbiao; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate that the intensity noise correlation and the noise level of intensity-difference and intensity-sum in Stokes and anti-Stokes channel can be well controlled by the relative nonlinear phase in spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing process. By modulating the relative nonlinear phase, including self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation, switching the correlation into anti-correlation and the relative intensity noise level between the intensity-difference and intensity-sum are realized. We also show that the variation tendencies of the relative intensity noise level and the corresponding intensity fluctuations correlation are in accordance with each other. PMID:27650423

  17. [Correlation of arsenic accumulative intake and its health effects to the residents in arsenic polluted area. Estimation of arsenic accumulative intake level of residents living in arsenic polluted area].

    PubMed

    Shang, Qi; Ren, Xiuqin; Li, Jinrong

    2002-08-01

    In order to evaluate arsenic accumulative intake level of residents living in an area with arsenic pollution in the air, the level of arsenic accumulative intake is measured by calculating residents' accumulative rice consumption and the measurement of the level via inhalation. The results show that ignoring the non-polluted time periods, the highest arsenic accumulative intake level (AAIL) appears in residents aged 50 and above who have the highest level of air inhalation and rice consumption in comparison with young residents after 32 years exposure, and their AAIL detected via inhalation are 591.4 mg for female and 612.9 for male respectively. There is 3488.74 mg arsenic obtained by their daily diet. Total AAIL are 4080.14 mg for female and 4101.66 mg for male respectively, being about 80% of estimation level reflected by daily exposure level multiplied by total exposure time (day).

  18. Global Anthropogenic Phosphorus Loads to Fresh Water, Grey Water Footprint and Water Pollution Levels: A High-Resolution Global Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekonnen, M. M.; Hoekstra, A. Y. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We estimated anthropogenic phosphorus (P) loads to freshwater, globally at a spatial resolution level of 5 by 5 arc minute. The global anthropogenic P load to freshwater systems from both diffuse and point sources in the period 2002-2010 was 1.5 million tonnes per year. China contributed about 30% to this global anthropogenic P load. India was the second largest contributor (8%), followed by the USA (7%), Spain and Brazil each contributing 6% to the total. The domestic sector contributed the largest share (54%) to this total followed by agriculture (38%) and industry (8%). Among the crops, production of cereals had the largest contribution to the P loads (32%), followed by fruits, vegetables, and oil crops, each contributing about 15% to the total. We also calculated the resultant grey water footprints, and relate the grey water footprints per river basin to runoff to calculate the P-related water pollution level (WPL) per catchment.

  19. 14 CFR 91.865 - Phased compliance for operators with base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Phased compliance for operators with base... Noise Limits § 91.865 Phased compliance for operators with base level. Except as provided in paragraph... maximum of: (1) After December 31, 1994, 75 percent of the base level held by the operator; (2)...

  20. 14 CFR 91.865 - Phased compliance for operators with base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Phased compliance for operators with base... Noise Limits § 91.865 Phased compliance for operators with base level. Except as provided in paragraph... maximum of: (1) After December 31, 1994, 75 percent of the base level held by the operator; (2)...

  1. 14 CFR 91.865 - Phased compliance for operators with base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Phased compliance for operators with base... Noise Limits § 91.865 Phased compliance for operators with base level. Except as provided in paragraph... maximum of: (1) After December 31, 1994, 75 percent of the base level held by the operator; (2)...

  2. 14 CFR 91.865 - Phased compliance for operators with base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Phased compliance for operators with base... Noise Limits § 91.865 Phased compliance for operators with base level. Except as provided in paragraph... maximum of: (1) After December 31, 1994, 75 percent of the base level held by the operator; (2) After...

  3. 14 CFR 91.865 - Phased compliance for operators with base level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Phased compliance for operators with base... Noise Limits § 91.865 Phased compliance for operators with base level. Except as provided in paragraph... maximum of: (1) After December 31, 1994, 75 percent of the base level held by the operator; (2) After...

  4. Impacts of ethanol fuel level on emissions of regulated and unregulated pollutants from a fleet of gasoline light-duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Karavalakis, Georgios; Durbin, Thomas; Shrivastava, ManishKumar B.; Zheng, Zhongqing; Villella, Phillip M.; Jung, Hee-Jung

    2012-03-30

    The study investigated the impact of ethanol blends on criteria emissions (THC, NMHC, CO, NOx), greenhouse gas (CO2), and a suite of unregulated pollutants in a fleet of gasoline-powered light-duty vehicles. The vehicles ranged in model year from 1984 to 2007 and included one Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV). Emission and fuel consumption measurements were performed in duplicate or triplicate over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle using a chassis dynamometer for four fuels in each of seven vehicles. The test fuels included a CARB phase 2 certification fuel with 11% MTBE content, a CARB phase 3 certification fuel with a 5.7% ethanol content, and E10, E20, E50, and E85 fuels. In most cases, THC and NMHC emissions were lower with the ethanol blends, while the use of E85 resulted in increases of THC and NMHC for the FFV. CO emissions were lower with ethanol blends for all vehicles and significantly decreased for earlier model vehicles. Results for NOx emissions were mixed, with some older vehicles showing increases with increasing ethanol level, while other vehicles showed either no impact or a slight, but not statistically significant, decrease. CO2 emissions did not show any significant trends. Fuel economy showed decreasing trends with increasing ethanol content in later model vehicles. There was also a consistent trend of increasing acetaldehyde emissions with increasing ethanol level, but other carbonyls did not show strong trends. The use of E85 resulted in significantly higher formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions than the specification fuels or other ethanol blends. BTEX and 1,3-butadiene emissions were lower with ethanol blends compared to the CARB 2 fuel, and were almost undetectable from the E85 fuel. The largest contribution to total carbonyls and other toxics was during the cold-start phase of FTP.

  5. Platinum levels in natural and urban soils from Rome and Latium (Italy): significance for pollution by automobile catalytic converter.

    PubMed

    Cinti, D; Angelone, M; Masi, U; Cremisini, C

    2002-07-03

    Platinum concentrations in topsoil samples collected in 1992 (48) and in 2001 (16) from the urban area of Rome have been determined by ICP-MS. Concentrations in 47 soil samples collected in 1992 from natural sites of Latium (an area around Rome) have been determined for a first assessment of natural background levels. The Pt concentrations in Rome urban soils collected in 1992 range from 0.8 to 6.3 ng/g (mean = 3.8 +/- 1.0) overlapping the concentration range of natural soils from Latium (mean = 3.1 +/- 2.1 ng/g). No significant correlation has generally been found between Pt contents in the 'natural' soils and related bedrock or major pedogenetic parameters. These results suggest that there is no evidence of Pt pollution in Rome urban soils at that time, because the massive use of the automobile catalytic converter has only just started. Higher (up to six times more) Pt concentrations, than those measured in the 1992 samples, have been measured, in some cases, in Rome urban soils collected in 2001, suggesting a possible start of Pt accumulation because of the large-scale use in the last decade of automobile catalytic converters. At the same time, a clear decrease of lead levels in Rome urban soils with respect to the levels measured in 1992 has been observed, paralleling the decreasing number of lead gasoline-fuelled cars. Here we present one of the first systematic studies for defining background levels of Pt in Italian natural soils, thus allowing for monitoring, in the future, should any possible Pt pollution caused by the use of automobile catalytic converter, especially in urban soils, occur.

  6. Trace element levels in mollusks from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean, Red and North Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herut, Barak; Kress, Nurit; Shefer, Edna; Hornung, Hava

    1999-12-01

    The trace element contamination levels in mollusks were evaluated for different marine coastal sites in the Mediterranean (Israeli coast), Red (Israeli coast) and North (German coast) Seas. Three bivalve species (Mactra corallina, Donax sp, and Mytilus edulis) and two gastropod species (Patella sp.and Cellana rota) were sampled at polluted and relatively clean sites, and their soft tissue analyzed for Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe concentrations. Representative samples were screened for organic contaminants [(DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)] which exhibited very low concentrations at all sites. In the Red Sea, the gastropod C. rota showed low levels of Hg (below detection limit) and similar Cd concentrations at all the examined sites, while other trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe) were slightly enriched at the northern beach stations. Along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, Hg and Zn were enriched in two bivalves (M. corallina and Donax sp.) from Haifa Bay, both species undergoing a long-term decrease in Hg based on previous studies. Significant Cd and Zn enrichment was detected in Patella sp. from the Kishon River estuary at the southern part of Haifa Bay. In general, Patella sp. and Donax sp. specimens from Haifa Bay exhibited higher levels of Cd compared to other sites along the Israeli Mediterranean coast, attributed to the enrichment of Cd in suspended particulate matter. Along the German coast (North Sea) M. edulis exhibited higher concentrations of Hg and Cd at the Elbe and Eider estuaries, but with levels below those found in polluted sites elsewhere.

  7. Estimation of the critical effect level for pollution prevention based on oyster embryonic development toxicity test: the search for reliability.

    PubMed

    da Cruz, A C S; Couto, B C; Nascimento, I A; Pereira, S A; Leite, M B N L; Bertoletti, E; Zagatto, P

    2007-05-01

    In spite of the consideration that toxicity testing is a reduced approach to measure the effects of pollutants on ecosystems, the early-life-stage (ELS) tests have evident ecological relevance because they reflect the possible reproductive impairment of the natural populations. The procedure and validation of Crassostrea rhizophorae embryonic development test have shown that it meets the same precision as other U.S. EPA tests, where EC(50) is generally used as a toxicological endpoint. However, the recognition that EC(50) is not the best endpoint to assess contaminant effects led U.S. EPA to recently suggest EC(25) as an alternative to estimate xenobiotic effects for pollution prevention. To provide reliability to the toxicological test results on C. rhizophorae embryos, the present work aimed to establish the critical effect level for this test organism, based on its reaction to reference toxicants, by using the statistical method proposed by Norberg-King (Inhibition Concentration, version 2.0). Oyster embryos were exposed to graded series of reference toxicants (ZnSO(4) x 7H(2)O; AgNO(3); KCl; CdCl(2)H(2)O; phenol, 4-chlorophenol and dodecyl sodium sulphate). Based on the obtained results, the critical value for C. rhizophorae embryonic development test was estimated as EC(15). The present research enhances the emerging consensus that ELS tests data would be adequate for estimating the chronic safe concentrations of pollutants in the receiving waters. Based on recommended criteria and on the results of the present research, zinc sulphate and 4-chlorophenol have been pointed out, among the inorganic and organic compounds tested, as the best reference toxicants for C. rhizophorae ELS-test.

  8. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    A series of combustor pressure rig screening tests was conducted on three combustor concepts applied to the TFE731-2 turbofan engine combustion system for the purpose of evaluating their relative emissions reduction potential consistent with prescribed performance, durability, and envelope contraints. The three concepts and their modifications represented increasing potential for reducing emission levels with the penalty of increased hardware complexity and operational risk. Concept 1 entailed advanced modifications to the present production TFE731-2 combustion system. Concept 2 was based on the incorporation of an axial air-assisted airblast fuel injection system. Concept 3 was a staged premix/prevaporizing combustion system. Significant emissions reductions were achieved in all three concepts, consistent with acceptable combustion system performance. Concepts 2 and 3 were identified as having the greatest achievable emissions reduction potential, and were selected to undergo refinement to prepare for ultimate incorporation within an engine.

  9. ERBS fuel addendum: Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1982-01-01

    A Model TFE731-2 engine with a low emission, variable geometry combustion system was tested to compare the effects of operating the engine on Commercial Jet-A aviation turbine fuel and experimental referee broad specification (ERBS) fuels. Low power emission levels were essentially identical while the high power NOx emission indexes were approximately 15% lower with the EBRS fuel. The exhaust smoke number was approximately 50% higher with ERBS at the takeoff thrust setting; however, both values were still below the EPA limit of 40 for the Model TFE731 engine. Primary zone liner wall temperature ran an average of 25 K higher with ERBS fuel than with Jet-A. The possible adoption of broadened proprties fuels for gas turbine applications is suggested.

  10. Hibernation-associated changes in persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels and patterns in British Columbia grizzly bears (ursus arctos horribilis).

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jennie R; MacDuffee, Misty; Yunker, Mark B; Ross, Peter S

    2007-03-15

    We hypothesized that depleted fat reserves in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) following annual hibernation would reveal increases in persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations compared to those present in the fall. We obtained fat and hair from British Columbia grizzly bears in early spring 2004 to compare with those collected in fall 2003, with the two tissue types providing contaminant and dietary information, respectively. By correcting for the individual feeding habits of grizzlies using a stable isotope-based approach, we found that polychlorinated biphenyls (sigmaPCBs) increased by 2.21x, polybrominated diphenylethers (sigmaPBDEs) increased by 1.58x, and chlordanes (sigmaCHL) by 1.49x in fat following hibernation. Interestingly, individual POPs elicited a wide range of hibernation-associated concentration effects (e.g., CB-153, 2.25x vs CB-169, 0.00x), resulting in POP pattern convergence in a PCA model of two distinct fall feeding groups (salmon-eating vs non-salmon-eating) into a single spring (post-hibernation) group. Our results suggest that diet dictates contaminant patterns during a feeding phase, while metabolism drives patterns during a fasting phase. This work suggests a duality of POP-associated health risks to hibernating grizzly bears: (1) increased concentrations of some POPs during hibernation; and (2) a potentially prolonged accumulation of water-soluble, highly reactive POP metabolites, since grizzly bears do not excrete during hibernation.

  11. Circulating D-dimer and thrombomodulin levels in acute febrile phase of measles.

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, K; Kato, Y

    2002-10-01

    Circulating D-dimer and thrombomodulin (TM) levels are now routinely measured in clinical laboratories. Plasma levels of D-dimer are used as a marker of fibrin formation and degradation, and serum TM is used to assess the state of endothelial cell injuries. While the levels of circulating D-dimer and TM have been investigated in many diseases, to our knowledge they have not been studied in patients with measles. We measured circulating levels of D-dimer in patients with measles to discuss whether fibrin formation and degradation occur and TM whether endothelial injury occur. The plasma levels of D-dimer and serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatinine were measured of 14 adolescent and adult Japanese patients with measles, and the serum or plasma levels of TM of 10 of these 14 patients were measured in the acute febrile phase and convalescent afebrile phase with commercially available kits. Plasma D-dimer levels were significantly higher in the acute febrile phase than in the convalescent afebrile phase in patients with measles, and no significant difference was shown in serum and plasma TM levels between the two phases. Plasma D-dimer levels were not correlated with serum or plasma TM levels in either phase. No significant differences were identified in the serum ALT and creatinine levels between the acute febrile and convalescent afebrile phases, and the levels of plasma D-dimer were not significantly correlated with the serum ALT levels. Our results indicate that while clot formation and fibrinolysis may tend to occur in patients with the acute febrile phase of measles, there may be little risk that such patients will suffer endothelial injury.

  12. Graphene aerogel based monolith for effective solid-phase extraction of trace environmental pollutants from water samples.

    PubMed

    Han, Qiang; Liang, Qionglin; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Yang, Liu; Ding, Mingyu

    2016-05-20

    Graphene aerogel (GA), a typical kind of three-dimensional (3D) macroscopic assembly, not only provides inherently excellent properties of graphene sheets (GS), but also exhibits interesting characteristics of the 3D macroporous architecture including large and tunable pore volumes, high specific surface areas and fast mass transport kinetics. Thus, it is rational to expect GA to be an efficient adsorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE). In this paper, a novel GA monolith based solid-phase extraction method was investigated in the application of environment analysis. The GA monolith based SPE cartridge was fabricated directly in the empty cartridge through template-free "sol-cryo" method. Due to the efficient mass transfer, more adsorption sites as well as effective retention for the analytes, the adsorption property of GA for bisphenol A revealed better performance than that of GS. What's more, GA also outperformed in loading and eluting for target analysis. On the basis of the above advantages, the obtained cartridge was applied for the separation of environmental pollutants from water samples. Taking endocrine disrupting chemicals and polychlorinated biphenyls as the polar and weak polar model analytes, optimizing several parameters influencing the recoveries, limits of detection in the range of 0.01-0.11ngmL(-1) and 0.19-1.53ngL(-1) for the two series of compounds were provided by the established methods. The satisfied sensitivity was accessed and recoveries ranging from 76.3 to 112.5% were obtained for all the analytes when the proposed methods were applied in real water samples analysis. The results revealed the potential of GA as an effective sorbent in sample preparation processes.

  13. Disruption of biomolecule function by nanoparticles: how do gold nanoparticles affect Phase I biotransformation of persistent organic pollutants?

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhe; Ma, Guibin; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Wong, Charles S

    2013-09-01

    The potential influence of nanoparticles on cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isozyme mediated Phase I biotransformation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in vitro was investigated using citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) as the probe nanoparticle and compound, respectively. AuNPs affected the biotransformation activity of rat CYP2B1 and changed the atropisomeric composition of PCB 95, depending on the incubation time and the AuNP concentration. Electrostatic repulsion between citrate-coated AuNPs and rat CYP2B1 may influence the active conformation of the isozyme and consequently affect its activity and stereoselectivity. In addition, the effects of AuNPs on rat CYP2B1 activity also appeared to be through interference with the CYP catalytic cycle's electron transfer chain. Incubations with AuNPs had a decline in buffer conductance and an absorbance band red shift of AuNPs, from electrostatic interactions of K(+) with negatively-charged AuNP aggregates. These ionic strength changes affected the formation rate of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, which provides electrons for the oxidative reaction cycle, and the biotransformation activity and stereoselectivity of CYP. This study suggests that charged nanoparticles may be able to alter the functions of biomolecules directly, by electrostatic interaction, or indirectly, by changes to the surrounding ionic strength. These factors should be taken into account for further understanding and prediction of the environmental behavior and fate of POPs and nanoparticles.

  14. BAERLIN2014 - the influence of land surface types on and the horizontal heterogeneity of air pollutant levels in Berlin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, Boris; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Andrich, Dorota; Quedenau, Jörn; Gerwig, Holger; Lüdecke, Anja; Kura, Jürgen; Pietsch, Axel; Ehlers, Christian; Klemp, Dieter; Kofahl, Claudia; Nothard, Rainer; Kerschbaumer, Andreas; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Grote, Rüdiger; Pohl, Tobias; Weber, Konradin; Lode, Birgit; Schönberger, Philipp; Churkina, Galina; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-06-01

    Urban air quality and human health are among the key aspects of future urban planning. In order to address pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter, efforts need to be made to quantify and reduce their concentrations. One important aspect in understanding urban air quality is the influence of urban vegetation which may act as both emitter and sink for trace gases and aerosol particles. In this context, the "Berlin Air quality and Ecosystem Research: Local and long-range Impact of anthropogenic and Natural hydrocarbons 2014" (BAERLIN2014) campaign was conducted between 2 June and 29 August in the metropolitan area of Berlin and Brandenburg, Germany. The predominant goals of the campaign were (1) the characterization of urban gaseous and particulate pollution and its attribution to anthropogenic and natural sources in the region of interest, especially considering the connection between biogenic volatile organic compounds and particulates and ozone; (2) the quantification of the impact of urban vegetation on organic trace gas levels and the presence of oxidants such as ozone; and (3) to explain the local heterogeneity of pollutants by defining the distribution of sources and sinks relevant for the interpretation of model simulations. In order to do so, the campaign included stationary measurements at urban background station and mobile observations carried out from bicycle, van and airborne platforms. This paper provides an overview of the mobile measurements (Mobile BAERLIN2014) and general conclusions drawn from the analysis. Bicycle measurements showed micro-scale variations of temperature and particulate matter, displaying a substantial reduction of mean temperatures and particulate levels in the proximity of vegetated areas compared to typical urban residential area (background) measurements. Van measurements extended the area covered by bicycle observations and included continuous measurements of O3, NOx, CO, CO2 and point-wise measurement of volatile

  15. Effects of Weather, Time, and Pollution Level on the Amount of Particulate Matter Deposited on Leaves of Ligustrum lucidum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the amounts of PM accumulated on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum, a common evergreen tree species in North China. The effects of rainfall and wind on the amounts of PM deposited on foliage were also determined. The amounts of PM (g·m−2) retained by leaves of L. lucidum differed significantly among the sites (from 0.96 to 5.56) and over time (from 2.51 to 4.48). The largest amounts of PM on foliage of L. lucidum were observed on plants growing at the most polluted site. During the year, the highest and lowest accumulation of PM occurred in November and August, respectively. A considerable proportion of the accumulated PM on leaves was removed by rainfall events (28–48% of PM) and strong winds (27–36% of PM), and more precipitation or higher maximum wind speed could remove more PM from leaves. Rainfall removed mainly large and coarse particles, while fine particles adhered more strongly to the foliage. These results suggested that the effects of local weather conditions (e.g., rainfall, strong wind), different seasons, and pollution levels should be considered in evaluating total PM accumulation on leaves. PMID:25685849

  16. Persistent organic pollutant levels in eggs of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) point to a decrease in hatching success.

    PubMed

    De Andrés, Eva; Gómara, Belén; González-Paredes, Daniel; Ruiz-Martín, José; Marco, Adolfo

    2016-03-01

    Sea turtles are susceptible to environmental pollution, since many harmful effects have been reported for different chemicals over the last two decades. In this context, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of particular concern due to their endocrine-disrupting nature. The aims of this study were to provide additional baseline data on PCB and PBDE concentrations in eggs of Dermochelys coriacea; and to investigate whether any of the congeners could compromise reproductive success in this species. A total of 18 nests from different females were studied during the nesting season of 2008 at Reserva Pacuare Beach, in the Caribbean side of Costa Rica. Reproductive parameters (viability, fertility and hatching rates) were calculated for all nests and hatchling morphometrics were successfully measured in 8 of them. Two to three fresh eggs per nest were taken for contaminant study. Different congeners of POPs were purified and identified using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to an ion trap detector (GC-ITD MS/MS), as described below. Mean ± SD concentrations were calculated for POP congeners within each nest and clustering was also evaluated. Correlations were performed searching for potential relationships with reproductive parameters. POP levels were similar to those reported in French-Guiana populations and slightly lower than those associated to Florida populations. Sum of PBDEs showed a negative correlation to the hatching success, suggesting potential harmful effects of these contaminants on the reproduction of leatherbacks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of weather, time, and pollution level on the amount of particulate matter deposited on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huixia; Shi, Hui; Wang, Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigated the spatial and temporal variations in the amounts of PM accumulated on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum, a common evergreen tree species in North China. The effects of rainfall and wind on the amounts of PM deposited on foliage were also determined. The amounts of PM (g · m(-2)) retained by leaves of L. lucidum differed significantly among the sites (from 0.96 to 5.56) and over time (from 2.51 to 4.48). The largest amounts of PM on foliage of L. lucidum were observed on plants growing at the most polluted site. During the year, the highest and lowest accumulation of PM occurred in November and August, respectively. A considerable proportion of the accumulated PM on leaves was removed by rainfall events (28-48% of PM) and strong winds (27-36% of PM), and more precipitation or higher maximum wind speed could remove more PM from leaves. Rainfall removed mainly large and coarse particles, while fine particles adhered more strongly to the foliage. These results suggested that the effects of local weather conditions (e.g., rainfall, strong wind), different seasons, and pollution levels should be considered in evaluating total PM accumulation on leaves.

  18. The significance of vehicle emissions standards for levels of exhaust pollution from light vehicles in an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhys-Tyler, G. A.; Legassick, W.; Bell, M. C.

    2011-06-01

    This paper addresses the research question "Are more stringent exhaust emissions standards, as applied to light vehicle type approval, resulting in reduced vehicle pollution in an urban area?" The exhaust emissions of a sample of over fifty thousand road vehicles operating in London were measured using roadside remote sensing absorption spectroscopy techniques (infrared and ultraviolet), combined with Automatic Number Plate Recognition for vehicle identification. Levels of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), nitric oxide (NO), and smoke (particulate) exhaust emissions are reported by vehicle class, fuel type, and Euro emissions standard. Emissions from petrol cars of each pollutant were all observed to display a statistically significant reduction with the introduction of each successive Euro emissions standard from Euro 1 onwards. However, Euro 2 diesel cars were observed to emit statistically higher rates of NO than either Euro 1 or Euro 3 standard diesel cars. The study also confirms the continuing 'dieselisation' of the UK passenger car fleet. Mean NO emissions from Euro 4 diesel cars were found to be 6 times higher than Euro 4 petrol cars, highlighting the need to develop a sound understanding of the current and future 'in-use' emissions characteristics of diesel vehicles, and their influence on local air quality. Smoke emissions from TXII London taxis (black cabs) were found to be statistically higher than either earlier TX1 or later TX4 model variants, with possible implications for local air quality policy interventions such as maximum age limits for taxis.

  19. Assessing soil heavy metal pollution in the water-level-fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Zhang, Quanfa

    2011-07-15

    The water-level-fluctuation zone (WLFZ) between the elevations of 145-175 m in China's Three Gorges Reservoir has experienced a novel hydrological regime with half a year (May-September) exposed in summer and another half (October-April) submerged in winter. In September 2008 (before submergence) and June 2009 (after submergence), soil samples were collected in 12 sites in the WLFZ and heavy metals (Hg, As, Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn) were determined. Enrichment factor (EF), factor analysis (FA), and factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) were employed for heavy metal pollution assessment, source identification, and source apportionment, respectively. Results demonstrate spatial variability in heavy metals before and after submergence and elements of As, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn are higher in the upper and low reaches. FA and FA-MLR reveal that As and Cd are the primary pollutants before submergence, and over 45% of As originates from domestic sewage and 59% of Cd from industrial wastes. After submergence, the major contaminants are Hg, Cd, and Pb, and traffic exhaust contributes approximately 81% to Hg and industrial effluent accounts about 36% and 73% for Cd and Pb, respectively. Our results suggest that increased shipping and industrial wastes have deposited large amounts of heavy metals which have been accumulated in the WLFZ during submergence period.

  20. Alternating phase-shifted mask for logic gate levels, design, and mask manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebmann, Lars W.; Graur, Ioana C.; Leipold, William C.; Oberschmidt, James M.; O'Grady, David S.; Regaill, Denis

    1999-07-01

    While the benefits of alternating phase shifted masks in improving lithographic process windows at increased resolution are well known throughout the lithography community, broad implementation of this potentially powerful technique has been slow due to the inherent complexity of the layout design and mask manufacturing process. This paper will review a project undertaken at IBM's Semiconductor Research and Development Center and Mask Manufacturing and Development facility to understand the technical and logistical issues associated with the application of alternating phase shifted mask technology to the gate level of a full microprocessor chip. The work presented here depicts an important milestone toward integration of alternating phase shifted masks into the manufacturing process by demonstrating an automated design solution and yielding a functional alternating phase shifted mask. The design conversion of the microprocessor gate level to a conjugate twin shifter alternating phase shift layout was accomplished with IBM's internal design system that automatically scaled the design, added required phase regions, and resolved phase conflicts. The subsequent fabrication of a nearly defect free phase shifted mask, as verified by SEM based die to die inspection, highlights the maturity of the alternating phase shifted mask manufacturing process in IBM's internal mask facility. Well defined and recognized challenges in mask inspection and repair remain and the layout of alternating phase shifted masks present a design and data preparation overhead, but the data presented here demonstrate the feasibility of designing and building manufacturing quality alternating phase shifted masks for the gate level of a microprocessor.

  1. Blood lead levels in children living in three communities, at different risks of lead pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Abbritti, G.; Cicioni, C.; Gambelunghe, M.; Fiordi, T.; Accattoli, M.P.; Morucci, P.; Bellucci, E.; Bauleo, F.A. )

    1988-12-01

    We carried out a survey on blood lead levels in children living in three different communities in Umbria, Italy: Corciano, a small community (12,500 inhabitants), free of lead-using factories and with light traffic; Perugia, a medium-sized city (146,500 inhabitants); Deruta, a small community (7500 inhabitants) whose economy is based mainly on the production of artistic pottery, mostly in small home-operated factories. The study sample was made up of 539 children (275 boys and 264 girls); 156 of them attended nursery school (aged 3-6) and 383 primary school (aged 6-11). The mean blood lead level was significantly higher in Deruta than in Corciano (9.7 vs 8.3 micrograms/dl); Deruta children whose parents were occupationally exposed to lead had significantly higher blood lead levels than children of lead-unexposed parents (10.7 vs 9.0 micrograms/dl). The mean blood lead level was higher in Perugia than in Corciano children. On the average boys had higher blood lead levels than girls in all of the groups. We conclude that blood lead levels were low in the groups of children studied. Nevertheless children of ceramic workers and children living in a medium-sized city had greater lead absorption than children living in the control area.

  2. Dietary and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Serum Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Levels in Pregnant Women in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Bita; Hossein-Rashidi, Batool; Naddafi, Kazem; Rastkari, Noushin; Djazayeri, Abolghasem; Malekafzali, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the levels of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominateddiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in serum of primiparous women at the third trimester of pregnancy and identify the main determinants of POPs levels such as socio-demographic, lifestyle, and diet in Tehran. Materials and methods: One- hundred eighty five serum samples from two simultaneous case-control studies were collected from September 2013 until August 2015.Ten most abundant PCB congeners (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) congeners 28, 52, 74, 99, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180 and 187) as well as eight PBDE congeners (IUPAC congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209)were analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to explain the relationship between total PCBs and total BPDEs and most detected congeners and some determinants, separately. Results: The mean (SD) age of the participating women was 27.82 ± 5.24 years. The geometric mean (SD) of total PCBs was 2.42 ± 2.26 and total PBDEs was 1.28 ± 1.41 ng/g lipid. Only the PCB 138, PCB 153 and PBDE 153 were detected in 100% of samples. We observed a significant relationship between the time of being indoors and total PBDEs (P = 0.03). Passive smoking was significantly associated with PCB 153 (P = 0.049). The results of the linear regression analysis showed the negative and weak association (P-value < 0.05) between diet (egg and fat and oil consumption) and POPs in this population. Conclusion: It seems the most common route of exposure to PBDEs in our population is indoor pollutants. Meanwhile inhalation of smoke from environment is a route of exposure to PCB 153. Further study is needed to evaluate the effects of socio-demographics and especially dietary intake on POPs level. PMID:28101114

  3. A Level Set Method for vaporizing two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanguy, Sébastien; Ménard, Thibaut; Berlemont, Alain

    2007-02-01

    Development and applications of numerical methods devoted to reactive interface simulations are presented. Emphasis is put on vaporization, where numerical difficulties arise in imposing accurate jump conditions for heat and mass transfers. We use both the Level Set Method and the Ghost Fluid Method to capture the interface motion accurately and to handle suitable jump conditions. A local vaporization mass flow rate per unit of surface area is defined and Stefan flow is involved in the process. Specific care has been devoted to the extension of discontinuous variables across the interface to populate ghost cells, in order to avoid parasitic currents and numerical diffusion across the interface. A projection method is set up to impose both the velocity field continuity and a divergence-free condition for the extended velocity field across the interface. The d2 law is verified in the numerical simulations of the vaporization of an isolated static drop. Results are then presented for a water droplet moving in air. Vapor mass fraction and temperature fields inside and outside the droplet are presented.

  4. Changes in hepatic phase I and phase II biotransformation enzyme expression and glutathione levels following atrazine exposure in female rats.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Arthur D; Breckenridge, Charles B; Yi, Kun D; Sawhney Coder, Pragati; Wanders, Desiree; Judd, Robert L; Foradori, Chad D

    2017-10-05

    1. To determine the effects of repeated atrazine (ATR) treatment on hepatic phase I and II enzymes, adult female rats were treated with vehicle or 100 mg/kg of ATR for 1, 2, 3 or 4 days. Glutathione-s-transferases (GST) mRNA expression, protein levels (mu, pi, alpha, omega), and activity (cytosolic and microsomal), along with bioavailable glutathione (GSH) were assayed. 2. GST expression, concentrations and activity were increased, along with GSH levels, in animals treated with ATR for 3 and 4 days. 3. A subsequent study was performed with animals treated with vehicle, 6.5, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day for 4, 8 or 14 days. Expression of hepatic phase I CYP 450 enzymes was evaluated in conjugation with GST expression, protein and activity. Nineteen of the 45 CYP enzymes assayed displayed increased mRNA levels after eight days of treatment in animals treated with 50 or 100 mg/kg/day. After 14 days of treatment, all CYP expression levels returned to control levels except for CYP2B2, CYP2B3, CYP2C7, CYP2C23, CYP2E1, CYP3A9, CYP4A3 and CYP27A1, which remained elevated. 4. Results indicate that there may be a habituation or adaptation of liver phase I and phase II expression following repeated ATR treatment.

  5. A comparison of individual exposure, perception, and acceptable levels of PM2.5 with air pollution policy objectives in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Rao, Chao; van der Kuijp, Tsering Jan; Bi, Jun; Liu, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric pollution has emerged as a major public health issue in China. Public perception and acceptable risk levels of air pollution can prompt individual behavioral changes and play a major role in the public's response to health risks. Therefore, to explore these responses and evaluate what constitutes publicly acceptable concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), questionnaire surveys were conducted in three representative cities of China: Beijing, Nanjing, and Guangzhou. Great differences in public risk perception were revealed. Public perception of the health effects of air pollution (Effect) and familiarity with it (Familiarity) were significantly higher in the winter than in the summer, and also during severe haze days compared with typical days. The public perception of trust in the government (Trust) was consistent across all conditions. Exposure to severe haze pollution and experiencing harms from it were key factors influencing public willingness to respond to haze. These results reflected individual exposure levels correlating closely with risk perception and acceptance of PM2.5. However, a crucial gap exists between public acceptable risk levels (PARL) of air pollution and the policy objectives of the State Council's Action Plan. Thus, policymakers can utilize this study to develop more targeted measures to combat air pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of antibodies in marine fish from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight: relative levels against 36 bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Robohm, R A; Brown, C; Murchelano, R A

    1979-01-01

    Fish from polluted waters are subject to increased prevalence of disease. Because they respond to bacterial pathogens by producing serum antibodies, it was possible to construct a seasonal serological record in three fish species from clean and polluted waters of the New York Bight. Antibody levels were determined by testing sera for agglutinating activity against 36 strains of bacteria. Evaluation of 5,100 antibody titrations showed the following. During warm months, summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) from the polluted area had significantly higher antibody levels and antibody to a greater diversity of bacteria than fish from the unpolluted area. Weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) from the same polluted area shared with summer flounder raised titers to many bacteria. The greatest proportion of raised titers was against Vibrio species, although prominent titers were also seen against Aeromonas salmonicida and Haemophilus piscium, bacteria usually associated with diseases in freshwater but not marine fish. Differences between polluted and clean waters were not as evident in winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) during cold months. This could be due, in part, to reduced antibody production at colder temperatures. The data illustrate the usefulness of the serum antibody record in identifying environmental exposure to bacteria in marine fish and indicate that the polluted New York Bight apex has increased levels and diversity of bacteria during warm months. PMID:518084

  7. Multi-phase distribution and comprehensive ecological risk assessment of heavy metal pollutants in a river affected by acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jianbo; Ru, Xuan; Xie, Binbin; Zhang, Wanhui; Wu, Haizhen; Wu, Chaofei; Wei, Chaohai

    2017-07-01

    To date, there is a lack of a comprehensive research on heavy metals detection and ecological risk assessment in river water, sediments, pore water (PW) and suspended solids (SS). Here, the concentrations of heavy metals, including Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and As, and their distribution between the four phases was studied. Samples for analysis were taken from twelve sites of the Hengshi River, Guangdong Province, China, during the rainy and dry seasons. A new comprehensive ecological risk index (CERI) based on considering metal contents, pollution indices, toxicity coefficients and water categories is offered for prediction of potential risk on aquatic organisms. The results of comprehensive analysis showed that the highest concentrations of Cu, Zn and Mn of 6.42, 87.17 and 98.74mg/L, respectively, in PW were comparable with those in water, while concentrations of Cd, Pb and As of 609.5, 2757 and 96.38μg/L, respectively, were 2-5 times higher. The sum of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions of target metals in sediments followed the order of Cd > Mn > Zn > Pb > Cu > As. The distribution of heavy metals in phases followed the order of sediment > SS > water > PW, having the sum content in water and PW lower than 2% of total. The elevated ecological risk for a single metal and the phase were 34,585 for Cd and 1160 for water, respectively, implied Cd as a priority pollutant in the considered area. According to the CERI, the maximum risk value of 769.3 was smaller than 1160 in water, but higher than those in other phases. Out of considering the water categories and contribution coefficients, the CERI was proved to be more reliable for assessing the pollution of rivers with heavy metals. These results imply that the CERI has a potential of adequate assessment of multi-phase composite metals pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Background levels of persistent organic pollutants in humans from Taiwan: perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jen-Yi; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Ho, Hsin-Hui; Chiang, Chow-Feng; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) have recently received attention due to their widespread contamination of the environment. PFOS and PFOA are stable in the environment and resistant to metabolism, hydrolysis, photolysis and biodegradation. PFOS and PFOA have been found in human blood and tissue samples from both occupationally exposed workers and the general worldwide population. This study aimed to determine the background levels of PFOS and PFOA in the Taiwanese population, investigate related factors, and compare exposure in Taiwan to that in other countries. The concentration of PFOS in the 59 serum samples collected from the general population in Taiwan ranged from 3.45 to 25.65ngmL(-1) (median: 8.52), and the concentration of PFOA ranged from 1.55 to 7.69ngmL(-1) (median: 3.22). There was a significant positive correlation (r=0.51; p<0.0001) between PFOS and PFOA concentrations. Males had higher concentrations of PFOA and PFOS than females. PFOS levels in serum increased with age. This study is the first investigation to reveal the PFOS and PFOA levels of serum samples in the general population of Taiwan. The levels of PFOS and PFOA in Taiwanese serum samples were comparable with those from other countries (PFOS: 5.0-35ngmL(-1), PFOA: 1.5-10ngmL(-1)). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pollutant effects on genotoxic parameters and tumor-associated protein levels in adults: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    De Coster, Sam; Koppen, Gudrun; Bracke, Marc; Schroijen, Carmen; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Bilau, Maaike; Baeyens, Willy; Schoeters, Greet; van Larebeke, Nik

    2008-06-03

    This study intended to investigate whether residence in areas polluted by heavy industry, waste incineration, a high density of traffic and housing or intensive use of pesticides, could contribute to the high incidence of cancer observed in Flanders. Subjects were 1583 residents aged 50-65 from 9 areas with different types of pollution. Cadmium, lead, p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, PCBs and dioxin-like activity (Calux test) were measured in blood, and cadmium, t,t'-muconic acid and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. Effect biomarkers were prostate specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen and p53 protein serum levels, number of micronuclei per 1000 binucleated peripheral blood cells, DNA damage (comet assay) in peripheral blood cells and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine in urine. Confounding factors were taken into account. Overall significant differences between areas were found for carcinoembryonic antigen, micronuclei, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine and DNA damage. Compared to a rural area with mainly fruit production, effect biomarkers were often significantly elevated around waste incinerators, in the cities of Antwerp and Ghent, in industrial areas and also in other rural areas. Within an industrial area DNA strand break levels were almost three times higher close to industrial installations than 5 kilometres upwind of the main industrial installations (p < 0.0001). Positive exposure-effect relationships were found for carcinoembryonic antigen (urinary cadmium, t,t'-muconic acid, 1-hydroxypyrene and blood lead), micronuclei (PCB118), DNA damage (PCB118) and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (t,t'-muconic acid, 1-hydroxypyrene). Also, we found significant associations between values of PSA above the p90 and higher values of urinary cadmium, between values of p53 above the p90 and higher serum levels of p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene and marker PCBs (PCB 138, 153 and 180) and between serum levels of p,p'-DDE above the p90 and higher serum values of carcinoembryonic antigen. Significant

  10. Pollutant effects on genotoxic parameters and tumor-associated protein levels in adults: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    De Coster, Sam; Koppen, Gudrun; Bracke, Marc; Schroijen, Carmen; Den Hond, Elly; Nelen, Vera; Van de Mieroop, Els; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Bilau, Maaike; Baeyens, Willy; Schoeters, Greet; van Larebeke, Nik

    2008-01-01

    Background This study intended to investigate whether residence in areas polluted by heavy industry, waste incineration, a high density of traffic and housing or intensive use of pesticides, could contribute to the high incidence of cancer observed in Flanders. Methods Subjects were 1583 residents aged 50–65 from 9 areas with different types of pollution. Cadmium, lead, p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene, PCBs and dioxin-like activity (Calux test) were measured in blood, and cadmium, t,t'-muconic acid and 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. Effect biomarkers were prostate specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen and p53 protein serum levels, number of micronuclei per 1000 binucleated peripheral blood cells, DNA damage (comet assay) in peripheral blood cells and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine in urine. Confounding factors were taken into account. Results Overall significant differences between areas were found for carcinoembryonic antigen, micronuclei, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine and DNA damage. Compared to a rural area with mainly fruit production, effect biomarkers were often significantly elevated around waste incinerators, in the cities of Antwerp and Ghent, in industrial areas and also in other rural areas. Within an industrial area DNA strand break levels were almost three times higher close to industrial installations than 5 kilometres upwind of the main industrial installations (p < 0.0001). Positive exposure-effect relationships were found for carcinoembryonic antigen (urinary cadmium, t,t'-muconic acid, 1-hydroxypyrene and blood lead), micronuclei (PCB118), DNA damage (PCB118) and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (t,t'-muconic acid, 1-hydroxypyrene). Also, we found significant associations between values of PSA above the p90 and higher values of urinary cadmium, between values of p53 above the p90 and higher serum levels of p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene and marker PCBs (PCB 138, 153 and 180) and between serum levels of p,p'-DDE above the p90 and higher serum values of carcinoembryonic

  11. The influence of electrodialytic remediation on dioxin (PCDD/PCDF) levels in fly ash and air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Jensen, Pernille E

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8-10 h. This work presents for the first time the effect of electrodialytic treatment on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and how these levels impact on the valorization options for fly ash and APC residue. PCDD/PCDF levels in the original residues ranged between 4.85 and 197 ng g(-1), being higher for the electrostatic precipitator fly ash. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) varied ten fold, ranging 0.18-2.0 ng g(-1) I-TEQ, with penta and hexa-homologs being most significant for toxicity. After the electrodialytic treatment PCDD/PCDF levels increased in the residues (between 1.4 and 2.0 times). This does not mean PCDD/PCDF were synthesized, but else that soluble materials dissolve, leaving behind the non-water soluble compounds, such as PCDD/PCDF. According to the Basel Convention, PCDD/PCDF levels in these materials is low (<15 μg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)) and the fly ash and APC residue could eventually be valorized, for instance as construction material, provided end-of-waste criteria are set and that a risk assessment of individual options is carried out, including the end-of-life stage when the materials become waste again.

  12. Tissue metal levels in Muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) collected near the Sudbury (Ontario) ore-smelters; prospects for biomonitoring marsh pollution.

    PubMed

    Parker, G H

    2004-05-01

    An examination of tissue metal levels in Sudbury-area muskrat (Ondatra zibethica) revealed that animals collected in the vicinity of the local ore-smelters contained elevated burdens of Cd and Ni in their liver and kidneys. Respective tissue concentrations averaged 2-fold and 3- to 6-fold higher than background values and are believed to reflect accumulations resulting from food chain contamination in regional marshes, including that reportedly characterizing Typha latifolia stands-their primary food source-and adherent sediments which may be consumed inadvertently while feeding. No evidence of site-influence or enhanced tissue metal levels was seen for Cu, Pb or Zn. While Cd : Ni accumulations were positively correlated in both the liver (r=0.78) and the kidneys (r=0.65), between-tissue comparisons indicated that hepatic : renal burdens were significantly correlated (r=0.75) only in the case of Ni. With the exception of 30-35% lower hepatic Zn levels in females relative to males within the Sudbury population, tissue metal levels did not vary according to sex or age class at either site. Our findings substantiate the potential of muskrat to serve as useful bioindicators/monitors of metal pollution in semi-aquatic environments.

  13. Linking steroid hormone levels to sexual maturity index and energy reserves in Nereis diversicolor from clean and polluted estuaries.

    PubMed

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare seasonal variations of reproduction physiology of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor --a key species in estuarine ecosystems--originating from a clean (Authie) and multi-polluted (Seine) estuaries. A particular attention was carried out in female worms, on relationships between sexual maturity stages, energy reserves (glycogen and lipids) and steroid hormone levels (progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone). Sexual maturity index (SMI), energy reserves and steroid hormones are clearly influenced by season in worms from both sites. Depleted steroid hormone levels were depicted in specimens exhibiting high sexual maturity stage and energy reserves. Intersite analysis has revealed all over the sampling period:--a sexual precocity in worms from Seine,--glycogen concentrations generally higher in worms from Authie,--no clear tendency for lipids,--no differences in steroid hormone levels. Sexual precocity and lower glycogen levels in Seine could be explained by a specific strategy above all devoted to reproduction in these worms. Chemical stress could be a possible explanation of these observations.

  14. In-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled by in valve mode to capillary LC-DAD: Improving detectability to multiresidue organic pollutants analysis in several whole waters.

    PubMed

    Campíns-Falcó, P; Verdú-Andrés, J; Sevillano-Cabeza, A; Herráez-Hernández, R; Molins-Legua, C; Moliner-Martinez, Y

    2010-04-16

    A simple and fast capillary chromatographic method has been developed to identify and quantify organic pollutants at sub-ppb levels in real water samples. The major groups of pesticides (organic halogens, organic phosphorous, and organic nitrogen compounds), some hydrocarbons (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), phthalates and some phenols such as phenol and bisphenol A (endocrine disruptors) were included in this study. The procedure was based on coupling, in-tube solid-phase microextraction (IT-SPME) by using a conventional GC capillary column (95% methyl-5% phenyl substituted backbone, 80cmx0.32mm i.d., 3microm film thickness) in the injection valve to capillary liquid chromatography with diode array detection. A comparative study between the IT-SPME manifold and a column-switching device using a C(18) column (35mmx0.5mm i.d., 5microm particle size) has been performed. The IT-SPME procedure was optimal, it allows reaching limits of detection (LODs) between 0.008 and 0.2microg/L. No matrix effect was found and recoveries between 70 and 116% were obtained. The precision of the method was good, and the achieved intra- and inter-day variation coefficients were between 2 and 30%. This procedure has been applied to the screening analysis of 28 compounds in whole waters from several points of the Mediterranean coast (Valencia Community, Spain).

  15. Hospital admissions as a function of temperature, other weather phenomena and pollution levels in an urban setting in China.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emily Y Y; Goggins, William B; Yue, Janice S K; Lee, Poyi

    2013-08-01

    To explore the relationship between weather phenomena and pollution levels and daily hospital admissions (as an approximation to morbidity patterns) in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR), China, in 1998-2009. Generalized additive models and lag models were constructed with data from official sources on hospital admissions and on mean daily temperature, mean daily wind speed, mean relative humidity, daily total global solar radiation, total daily rainfall and daily pollution levels. During the hot season, admissions increased by 4.5% for every increase of 1 °C above 29 °C; during the cold season, admissions increased by 1.4% for every decrease of 1 °C within the 8.2-26.9 °C range. In subgroup analyses, admissions for respiratory and infectious diseases increased during extreme heat and cold, but cardiovascular disease admissions increased only during cold temperatures. For every increase of 1 °C above 29 °C, admissions for unintentional injuries increased by 1.9%. During the cold season, for every decrease of 1 °C within the 8.2-26.9 °C range, admissions for cardiovascular diseases and intentional injuries rose by 2.1% and 2.4%, respectively. Admission patterns were not sensitive to sex. Admissions for respiratory diseases rose during hot and cold temperatures among children but only during cold temperatures among the elderly. In people aged 75 years or older, admissions for infectious diseases rose during both temperature extremes. In Hong Kong SAR, hospitalizations rise during extreme temperatures. Public health interventions should be developed to protect children, the elderly and other vulnerable groups from excessive heat and cold.

  16. Blue sharks (Prionace glauca) as bioindicators of pollution and health in the Atlantic Ocean: Contamination levels and biochemical stress responses.

    PubMed

    Alves, Luís M F; Nunes, Margarida; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Mendes, Susana; Correia, João P S; Lemos, Marco F L; Novais, Sara C

    2016-09-01

    Marine ecosystems are constantly being threatened by contaminants produced by human activities. There is an urge to better understand their impacts on marine organisms and develop reliable tools for biomonitoring studies, while also assessing their potential impacts on human health. Given their position on top of food webs, sharks are particularly susceptible to bioaccumulation, making them potential sentinel species of marine contamination. The main objective of this study was to find suitable biomarkers for future marine pollution biomonitoring studies by correlating biochemical responses with tissue contaminant body burden in blue sharks (Prionace glauca), a species heavily caught and consumed by humans, while also addressing their general health. The chemical contaminants analysed comprised different persistent organic pollutants (POPs) families from polychlorinated compounds to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and different trace and heavy metals. Concentrations of some contaminants in sharks' tissues were found to be above the legally allowed limits for human consumption. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed and some strong associations were found between biochemical responses and contaminants' accumulation levels. DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels, as well as the inhibition of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, were the main effects and consequences of contamination. The impact of contamination on these vital macromolecules underlines the suboptimal conditions of the sampled P. glauca, which can ultimately lead to the degradation of core ecological aspects, such as swimming, feeding, and reproduction. It can be concluded that P. glauca demonstrates great potential to be used as environmental sentinel and suitable biomarker candidates were identified in this work. Moreover, this study also highlights the risks that the consumption of blue shark derived products can pose to human

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans pollution in China: sources, environmental levels and potential human health impacts.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Gene J; Leung, Anna O W; Jiao, Li Ping; Wong, Ming H

    2008-10-01

    This review represents an assessment of the pollution status of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in China (the mainland, Hong Kong and Taiwan). During the past decades, seven PCDD/Fs pollution hotspots have been found: (a). Ya-er Lake, Hubei Province, with 'total PCDD/Fs' level reaching 177,427 pg g(-1) (dry weight) in lake sediments; (b). Chinese Schistosomiasis affected areas of Jiangxi Province with 33,660 pg g(-1) in soil; (c). e-waste recycling area of Yangtze River Delta, with 2726 pg g(-1) in paddy soil; (d). e-waste recycling area of Guiyu (eastern part of Guangdong Province), with 967,500 pg g(-1) in mixture of burnt residue and soil (the highest level among all hotspots); (e). Pearl River Delta with 2630 pg g(-1) in coastal sediment. (f). Kwun Tong, Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong with 10,999 pg g(-1) in coastal sediment; and (g). southern Taiwan with 606,000 pg g(-1) in soil near the vicinity of a pentachlorophenol manufacturing factory. The main sources of PCDD/Fs in China were formed from impurities during the production of polychlorophenol, hexachlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyls, organic chlorinated pesticide and triclosan. In addition, sources of PCDD/Fs included municipal waste incineration, mineral fuel usage, open burning of electronic waste and crop residues, industrial waste discharge and vehicle exhaust emission. Due to potential human health risks from long-term exposure to PCDD/Fs at these hotspots, body loadings of these contaminants should be monitored.

  18. Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on short lived climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study

  19. GAS-PHASE MASS TRANSFER MODEL FOR PREDICTING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) EMISSION RATES FROM INDOOR POLLUTANT SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of the impact of sources on indoor pollutant concentrations and occupant exposure to indoor pollutants requires knowledge of the emission rates from the sources. Emission rates are often determined by chamber testing and the data from the chamber test are fitted to an em...

  20. GAS-PHASE MASS TRANSFER MODEL FOR PREDICTING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND (VOC) EMISSION RATES FROM INDOOR POLLUTANT SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analysis of the impact of sources on indoor pollutant concentrations and occupant exposure to indoor pollutants requires knowledge of the emission rates from the sources. Emission rates are often determined by chamber testing and the data from the chamber test are fitted to an em...

  1. Effects of experimental calcium availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on eggshell characteristics and yolk carotenoid and vitamin levels in two passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Espín, Silvia; Ruiz, Sandra; Sánchez-Virosta, Pablo; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Eeva, Tapio

    2016-05-01

    The maternal investment into egg quality depends on the condition of the female, the quality of the mate, and the quality of the environment. In that sense, availability of nutrients and exposure to pollutants are essential parameters to consider. The main aim of this study is to assess the effects of calcium (Ca) availability and anthropogenic metal pollution on early-stage reproduction in two passerine species, great tits (Parus major) and pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), inhabiting a Ca-poor and metal-polluted area in SW Finland. Both species were able to obtain sufficient Ca for eggshell formation, and metal pollution was below the level of having negative effects in the egg size and eggshell characteristics. However, metal polluted environment negatively affected yolk lutein and vitamin D3 levels in both species, probably because of a lower access to carotenoid-rich diet and higher metal interference with vitamin D3 metabolism. The higher levels of vitamin D3 in yolks in the unpolluted zone could also be due to upregulated D3 levels as a response to the lower natural Ca availability. Yolk carotenoids and vitamin D3 were positively associated with nestling growth and size, supporting their importance for the appropriate chick development. The interspecific differences in yolk nutrient concentrations possibly reflect the different growth rate of these species. Pied flycatchers are likely adapted to low Ca availability through an efficient vitamin D3 metabolism, but their Ca intake could be close to a deficient level.

  2. Highway and vehicle pollutant levels along Texas border towns. Project summary report September 1996--August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Perkinson, D.G.

    1997-11-01

    The passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) has resulted in several Texas urban areas being declared nonattainment areas. Several other areas need to take actions to maintain current air quality levels to avoid being declared nonattainment. Many of these areas are considering transportation-related strategies to reduce emissions. This project quantifies on-road mobile source emissions within the four most populous border counties (Cameron, El Paso, Hidalgo, and Webb) and evaluated the contribution of Mexican vehicles to the overall emission levels. Information is also provided on the impacts of delay and idling at the international bridges. This information will assist in developing strategies to reduce or limit the growth of on-road mobile source missions through transportation projects and programs.

  3. Assessment of pollution levels in fish and water of main basin, Lake Mariut.

    PubMed

    Amr, Hanaa M; El-Tawila, Mahmoud M; Ramadan, Mohamed H M

    2005-01-01

    Lake Mariut has suffered over the years from the untreated sewage, agricultural and industrial wastes dumped into it. Lake Mariut fish quality and quantity were adversely affected eventually being unfit for human consumption due to its poor water quality. The present study was carried out to evaluate the levels of metals in the fish caught from Lake Mariut main basin and its fitness for human consumption, and the water quality after the enforcement of the Egyptian Law for Environmental Protection (Law 4/1994). Fish and water samples were collected form Lake Mariut main basin through out the period from May to December 2000. The results showed that mercury was totally undetected in fish and water samples. The levels of Fe obtained were very low compared to previous studies. Fe and Cr contents in fish flesh were higher compared to their levels in water samples. Also Cu has shown a decrease in both fish and water samples. Zn and Cd contents in water samples have decreased compared with former studies. However, they have not changed in fish flesh. Pb content in both fish flesh and water samples has shown a great decrease compared to previous studies. The Cd and Pb mean values in fish flesh of the present study (0.81 and 0.14 mg/kg) exceeded the Egyptian Standards No. 2360/1993 value (should not exceed 0.1 mg/kg for each). The results also showed that the water quality has changed compared with previous studies. BOD has increased in north of Main Basin, east of Main Basin, South of Main Basin, and southwest of Main Basin; and deCreased in WTP effluent; and Qalaa Drain. There has been an increase in TSS, TVSS, and NO3 levels compared to pervious studies. There has been a decrease in TS, TDS, COD,hardness, and chloride levels. This decrease, especially in COD, may be attributed to the enforcement of the Egyptian Law 4/1994. The pH and alkalinity were in agreement with the values shown by previous studies except for east of Main Basin which showed higher values. The study

  4. Population-Level Exposure to Particulate Air Pollution during Active Travel: Planning for Low-Exposure, Health-Promoting Cities.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Steve; Lindsey, Greg; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-04-01

    Providing infrastructure and land uses to encourage active travel (i.e., bicycling and walking) are promising strategies for designing health-promoting cities. Population-level exposure to air pollution during active travel is understudied. Our goals were a) to investigate population-level patterns in exposure during active travel, based on spatial estimates of bicycle traffic, pedestrian traffic, and particulate concentrations; and b) to assess how those exposure patterns are associated with the built environment. We employed facility-demand models (active travel) and land use regression models (particulate concentrations) to estimate block-level (n = 13,604) exposure during rush-hour (1600-1800 hours) in Minneapolis, Minnesota. We used the model-derived estimates to identify land use patterns and characteristics of the street network that are health promoting. We also assessed how exposure is correlated with indicators of health disparities (e.g., household income, proportion of nonwhite residents). Our work uses population-level rates of active travel (i.e., traffic flows) rather than the probability of walking or biking (i.e., "walkability" or "bikeability") to assess exposure. Active travel often occurs on high-traffic streets or near activity centers where particulate concentrations are highest (i.e., 20-42% of active travel occurs on blocks with high population-level exposure). Only 2-3% of blocks (3-8% of total active travel) are "sweet spots" (i.e., high active travel, low particulate concentrations); sweet spots are located a) near but slightly removed from the city-center or b) on off-street trails. We identified 1,721 blocks (~ 20% of local roads) where shifting active travel from high-traffic roads to adjacent low-traffic roads would reduce exposure by ~ 15%. Active travel is correlated with population density, land use mix, open space, and retail area; particulate concentrations were mostly unchanged with land use. Public health officials and urban

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in gas and particulate phases of indoor environments influenced by tobacco smoke: Levels, phase distributions, and health risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Dionísia; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição; Morais, Simone; Pereira, Maria do Carmo

    2011-04-01

    As polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have a negative impact on human health due to their mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties, the objective of this work was to study the influence of tobacco smoke on levels and phase distribution of PAHs and to evaluate the associated health risks. The air samples were collected at two homes; 18 PAHs (the 16 PAHs considered by U.S. EPA as priority pollutants, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene and benzo[j]fluoranthene) were determined in gas phase and associated with thoracic (PM 10) and respirable (PM 2.5) particles. At home influenced by tobacco smoke the total concentrations of 18 PAHs in air ranged from 28.3 to 106 ng m -3 (mean of 66.7 ± 25.4 ng m -3), ∑ PAHs being 95% higher than at the non-smoking one where the values ranged from 17.9 to 62.0 ng m -3 (mean of 34.5 ± 16.5 ng m -3). On average 74% and 78% of ∑ PAHs were present in gas phase at the smoking and non-smoking homes, respectively, demonstrating that adequate assessment of PAHs in air requires evaluation of PAHs in both gas and particulate phases. When influenced by tobacco smoke the health risks values were 3.5-3.6 times higher due to the exposure of PM 10. The values of lifetime lung cancer risks were 4.1 × 10 -3 and 1.7 × 10 -3 for the smoking and non-smoking homes, considerably exceeding the health-based guideline level at both homes also due to the contribution of outdoor traffic emissions. The results showed that evaluation of benzo[a]pyrene alone would probably underestimate the carcinogenic potential of the studied PAH mixtures; in total ten carcinogenic PAHs represented 36% and 32% of the gaseous ∑ PAHs and in particulate phase they accounted for 75% and 71% of ∑ PAHs at the smoking and non-smoking homes, respectively.

  6. On evaluating compliance with air pollution levels 'not to be exceeded more than once per year'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neustadter, H. E.; Sidik, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    The point of view taken is that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality Standards (AQS) represent conditions which must be made to exist in the ambient environment. The statistical techniques developed should serve as tools for measuring the closeness to achieving the desired quality of air. It is shown that the sampling frequency recommended by EPA is inadequate to meet these objectives when the standard is expressed as a level not to be exceeded more than once per year and sampling frequency is once every three days or less frequent.

  7. Experimental exposure to cadmium affects metallothionein-like protein levels but not survival and growth in wolf spiders from polluted and reference populations.

    PubMed

    Eraly, Debbie; Hendrickx, Frederik; Bervoets, Lieven; Lens, Luc

    2010-06-01

    Both local adaptation and acclimation in tolerance mechanisms may allow populations to persist under metal pollution. However, both mechanisms are presumed to incur (energetic) costs and to trade-off with other life-history traits. To test this hypothesis, we exposed Pardosa saltans (Lycosidae) spiderlings originating from metal-polluted and unpolluted sites to a controlled cadmium (Cd) treatment, and compared contents of metal-binding metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs), internal metal concentrations, and individual survival and growth rates with a reference treatment. While increased MTLP concentrations in offspring originating from both polluted and unpolluted populations upon exposure indicates a plastic tolerance mechanism, survival and growth rates remain largely unaffected, independent of the population of origin. However, MTLP and Cd concentrations were not significantly correlated. We suggest that MTLP production may be an important mechanism enabling P. saltans populations to persist in ecosystems polluted with heavy metals above a certain level.

  8. ADJUSTMENT ERRORS IN ASCENDING AND DESCENDING PHASES OF TARGET LEVEL IN CONTROLLED FORCE EXERTION.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Hiroshi; Demura, Shinichi

    2015-10-01

    Hand grip force adjustment errors to ascending and descending phases of a sinusoidal target force in a controlled force exertion (CFE) test were measured and the laterality of responses evaluated. 75 men (M age = 19.6 yr., SD = 1.6) performed the CFE test after one practice trial by matching handgrip force to target level (5-25% of maximal grip force). The CFE errors in ascending and descending phases of the target force were calculated as the absolute differences between actual force and target force in each phase. There were significantly smaller CFE errors in the ascending phase for both dominant and non-dominant hands, but CFE error for the dominant hand was significantly smaller in both phases. Therefore, error in force exertion in the ascending and descending phases of the target force differed, and laterality influenced error in both phases.

  9. Public budgets for energy RD&D and the effects on energy intensity and pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Balsalobre, Daniel; Álvarez, Agustín; Cantos, José María

    2015-04-01

    This study, based on the N-shaped cubic model of the environmental Kuznets curve, analyzes the evolution of per capita greenhouse gas emissions (GHGpc) using not just economic growth but also public budgets dedicated to energy-oriented research development and demonstration (RD&D) and energy intensity. The empirical evidence, obtained from an econometric model of fixed effects for 28 OECD countries during 1994-2010, suggests that energy innovations help reduce GHGpc levels and mitigate the negative impact of energy intensity on environmental quality. When countries develop active energy RD&D policies, they can reduce both the rates of energy intensity and the level of GHGpc emissions. This paper incorporates a moderating variable to the econometric model that emphasizes the effect that GDP has on energy intensity. It also adds a variable that reflects the difference between countries that have made a greater economic effort in energy RD&D, which in turn corrects the GHG emissions resulting from the energy intensity of each country.

  10. Investigation of Ground-Level Ozone and High-Pollution Episodes in a Megacity of Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Heng; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Wenxin; Liu, Rui; Zhou, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) was used for the long-term observation of ground-level ozone (O3) from March 2010 to March 2013 over Shanghai, China. The 1-hour average concentration of O3 was 27.2 ± 17.0 ppbv. O3 level increased during spring, reached the peak in late spring and early summer, and then decreased in autumn and finally dropped to the bottom in winter. The highest monthly average O3 concentration in June (41.1 ppbv) was nearly three times as high as the lowest level recorded in December (15.2 ppbv). In terms of pollution episodes, 56 hourly samples (on 14 separate days) in 2010 exceeded the 1-hour ozone limit of 200 μg/m3 specified by the Grade II of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, revised GB 3095-2012). Utilizing the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, the primary contribution to high ozone days (HODs) was identified as the regional transportation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and high concentrations of O3 from the chemical industrial zone in the Jinshan district of Shanghai. HODs showed higher concentrations of HONO and NO2 than non-episode conditions, implying that HONO at high concentration during HODs was capable of increasing the O3 concentration. The photolysis rate of HONO was estimated, suggesting that the larger number of OH radicals resulting from high concentrations of HONO have a considerable impact on ozone concentrations.

  11. Investigation of Ground-Level Ozone and High-Pollution Episodes in a Megacity of Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Heng; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Wenxin; Liu, Rui; Zhou, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) was used for the long-term observation of ground-level ozone (O3) from March 2010 to March 2013 over Shanghai, China. The 1-hour average concentration of O3 was 27.2 ± 17.0 ppbv. O3 level increased during spring, reached the peak in late spring and early summer, and then decreased in autumn and finally dropped to the bottom in winter. The highest monthly average O3 concentration in June (41.1 ppbv) was nearly three times as high as the lowest level recorded in December (15.2 ppbv). In terms of pollution episodes, 56 hourly samples (on 14 separate days) in 2010 exceeded the 1-hour ozone limit of 200 μg/m3 specified by the Grade II of the Chinese Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS, revised GB 3095-2012). Utilizing the Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, the primary contribution to high ozone days (HODs) was identified as the regional transportation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and high concentrations of O3 from the chemical industrial zone in the Jinshan district of Shanghai. HODs showed higher concentrations of HONO and NO2 than non-episode conditions, implying that HONO at high concentration during HODs was capable of increasing the O3 concentration. The photolysis rate of HONO was estimated, suggesting that the larger number of OH radicals resulting from high concentrations of HONO have a considerable impact on ozone concentrations. PMID:26121146

  12. Seabird feathers as monitors of the levels and persistence of heavy metal pollution after the Prestige oil spill.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Rocío; Jover, Lluís; Diez, Carmen; Sanpera, Carola

    2011-10-01

    We measured heavy metal concentrations in yellow-legged gulls (n = 196) and European shags (n = 189) in order to assess the temporal pattern of contaminant exposure following the Prestige oil spill in November 2002. We analysed Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni and V levels in chick feathers sampled at four colonies during seven post-spill years (2003-2009), and compared results with pre-spill levels obtained from feathers of juvenile shag corpses (grown in spring/summer 2002). Following the Prestige wreck, Cu (4.3-10 μg g(-1)) and Pb concentrations (1.0-1.4 μg g(-1)) were, respectively, between two and five times higher than pre-spill levels (1.5-3.6 and 0.1-0.4 μg g(-1)), but returned to previous background concentrations after three years. Our study highlights the suitability of chick feathers of seabirds for assessing the impact of oil spills on heavy metal contamination, and provides the best evidence to date on the persistence of oil pollution after the Prestige incident.

  13. Unexplained gonad alterations in whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from Lake Thun, Switzerland: levels of persistent organic pollutants in different morphs.

    PubMed

    Bogdal, Christian; Naef, Michael; Schmid, Peter; Kohler, Martin; Zennegg, Markus; Bernet, Daniel; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    Since 2000, a surprisingly high number of macroscopical gonad alterations has been reported in whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from Lake Thun, Switzerland. This unique phenomenon is still unexplained and has received much public attention. As one possible trigger for these effects, the presence of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic compounds acting as endocrine disruptors in the lake has been discussed. In this study, concentrations of selected persistent organic pollutants were examined in two morphs of whitefish from Lake Thun and their link to the observed abnormalities was investigated. Analyzed compound classes included polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated naphthalenes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecanes. The target substances were identified in all samples and concentrations of the analyzed compounds were highly correlated among each other. These correlations show that the analyzed substances have the same distribution pattern throughout the lake and that uptake, accumulation and elimination processes are similar. Significant differences in contaminant levels within the samples existed between the two analyzed morphs of whitefish, most likely due to different age, food patterns and growth rate. No difference in contaminant levels was observed between fish with abnormal gonads and fish with normal gonads, suggesting no causal link between the investigated lipophilic organohalogen compounds present in fish and the observed gonad abnormalities in whitefish from Lake Thun. A comparison to existing data shows that concentrations in Lake Thun whitefish are at the lower bound of contaminant levels in whitefish from Swiss lakes or from European waters.

  14. Arsenic levels in immigrant children from countries at risk of consuming arsenic polluted water compared to children from Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Piñol, S; Sala, A; Guzman, C; Marcos, S; Joya, X; Puig, C; Velasco, M; Velez, D; Vall, O; Garcia-Algar, O

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element that pollutes groundwater, being a major environmental problem worldwide, especially in the Bengal Basin. About 40% of patients in our outpatient clinics come from those countries, and there is no published data about their arsenic exposure. This study compares arsenic exposure between immigrant and native children. A total of 114 children (57 natives, 57 immigrants), aged 2 months to 16 years, were recruited and sociodemographic and environmental exposure data were recorded. Total arsenic in urine, hair, and nails and arsenic-speciated compounds in urine were determined. We did not find significant differences in total and inorganic arsenic levels in urine and hair, but in organic arsenic monomethylarsenic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA) in urine and in total arsenic in nails. However, these values were not in the toxic range. There were significant differences between longer than 5 years exposure and less than 5 years exposure (consumption of water from tube wells), with respect to inorganic and organic MMA arsenic in urine and total arsenic in nails. There was partial correlation between the duration of exposure and inorganic arsenic levels in urine. Immigrant children have higher arsenic levels than native children, but they are not toxic. At present, there is no need for specific arsenic screening or follow-up in immigrant children recently arrived in Spain from exposure high-risk countries.

  15. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-06-02

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  16. Conceptual design report for immobilized high-level waste interim storage facility (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Burgard, K.C.

    1998-04-09

    The Hanford Site Canister Storage Building (CSB Bldg. 212H) will be utilized to interim store Phase 1 HLW products. Project W-464, Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage, will procure an onsite transportation system and retrofit the CSB to accommodate the Phase 1 HLW products. The Conceptual Design Report establishes the Project W-464 technical and cost basis.

  17. Levels, sources and chemical fate of persistent organic pollutants in the atmosphere and snow along the western Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Khairy, Mohammed A; Luek, Jenna L; Dickhut, Rebecca; Lohmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    The Antarctic continent is among the most pristine regions; yet various organic contaminants have been measured there routinely. Air and snow samples were collected during the austral spring (October-November, 2010) along the western Antarctic Peninsula and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to assess the relative importance of long-range transport versus local primary or secondary emissions. Highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and DDTs were observed in the glacier's snow sample, highlighting the importance of melting glaciers as a possible secondary source of legacy pollutants to the Antarctic. In the atmosphere, contaminants were mainly found in the vapor phase (>65%). Hexachlorobenzene (33.6 pg/m(3)), PCBs (11.6 pg/m(3)), heptachlor (5.64 pg/m(3)), PBDEs (4.22 pg/m(3)) and cis-chlordane (2.43 pg/m(3)) were the most abundant contaminants. In contrast to other compounds, PBDEs seem to have originated from local sources, possibly the research station itself. Gas-particle partitioning for analytes were better predicted using the adsorption partitioning model than an octanol-based absorption approach. Diffusive flux calculations indicated that net deposition is the dominant pathway for PBDEs and chlordanes, whereas re-volatilization from snow (during melting or metamorphosis) was observed for PCBs and some OCPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of indoor air pollution with rhinitis symptoms, atopy and nitric oxide levels in exhaled air.

    PubMed

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) outdoors can induce airway inflammation and exacerbation of asthma in adults. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of exposure to indoor PM. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of exposure to indoor sources of PM with rhinitis symptoms, atopy and nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) as a measure of airway inflammation. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 3,471 persons aged 18-69 years. Exposure to indoor sources of PM and prevalence of rhinitis symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Atopy was defined as at least 1 positive test (≥0.35 kU/l) for serum-specific IgE against grass, birch, cat or Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Regression analyses were used to adjust for confounders. Self-reported exposure to the use of woodstoves, candles or gas kitchen cookers was not significantly associated with either increased prevalence of rhinitis symptoms or atopy or increased levels of FeNO. The prevalence of atopy and allergic rhinitis and the levels of FeNO were significantly decreased among current and previous smokers. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for 0.5-5 h, but not above 5 h, was significantly associated with a slightly increased prevalence of rhinitis symptoms. Self-reported exposure to the use of woodstoves, candles or gas cookers was not significantly associated with an increased risk of rhinitis symptoms or atopy, nor increased FeNO. Self-reported exposure to ETS was associated with a slightly higher prevalence of self-reported rhinitis symptoms without any clear dose-response relationship. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Polymorphisms in Phase I and Phase II genes and breast cancer risk and relations to persistent organic pollutant exposure: a case–control study in Inuit women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that chemicals belonging to the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as perfluorinated compounds (PFAS) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are risk factors in Breast Cancer (BC) development in Greenlandic Inuit women. The present case–control study aimed to investigate the main effect of polymorphisms in genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and estrogen biosynthesis, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, COMT and CYP17, CYP19 and the BRCA1 founder mutation in relation to BC risk and to explore possible interactions between the gene polymorphisms and serum POP levels on BC risk in Greenlandic Inuit women. Methods The study population consisted of 31 BC cases and 115 matched controls, with information on serum levels of POPs. Genotyping was conducted for CYP1A1 (Ile462Val; rs1048943), CYP1B1 (Leu432Val; rs1056836), COMT (Val158Met; rs4680), CYP17A1 (A1> A2; rs743572); CYP19A1 (C> T; rs10046) and CYP19A1 ((TTTA)n repeats) polymorphisms and BRCA1 founder mutation using TaqMan allelic discrimination method and polymerase chain reaction based restriction fragment length polymorphism. The χ2 –test was used to compare categorical variables between cases and controls and the odds ratios were estimated by unconditional logistic regression models. Results We found an independent association of CYP1A1 (Val) and CYP17 (A1) with BC risk. Furthermore, an increased BC risk was observed for women with high serum levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and carriers of at least: one CYP1A1 variant Val allele; one variant COMT Met allele; or the common CYP17 A1 allele. No combined effects were seen between PFAS exposure and CYP1B1 and CYP19 polymorphisms. The risk of BC was not found significantly associated with exposure to PCBs and OCPs, regardless of genotype for all investigated SNPs. The frequency of the Greenlandic founder mutation in BRCA1 was as expected higher in cases than in controls. Conclusions The

  20. Levels of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (PCB, PBDE) and Pesticides in Honey Bee Pollen Sampled in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Roszko, Marek Łukasz; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Chemical plant protection is a commonly discussed factor potentially responsible for decline in pollinators and other beneficial insect populations. Various groups of chemicals including persistent organic pollutants could impact a bee colony’s welfare and are reported to be present in bee tissue and apiary products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of selected persistent organic pollutant and pesticide residues in bee pollen originating from different geographical regions of Poland. Pesticide residues were identified in 60% of tested bee pollen samples. The compounds identified were mainly active ingredients of fungicide preparations. Insecticide active ingredients were up to 30% of the identified residues. The triazole fungicide tebuconazole and the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid were the most frequently found pesticides in pollen. The highest pesticide concentration was determined for prothioconazole (356 μg kg-1). Mean concentrations of chlorinated biphenyls–EC6 and EC12 were 194 pg g-1 and 74 pg g-1, respectively. CB # 28 has the greatest share in the EC6 profile (mean 61 pg g−1, 31% contribution). Relatively high contributions were also observed for CBs # 101 (35 pg g−1, 18%), # 138 (36 pg g−1, 19%) and # 153 (33 pg g−1, 17%). CB # 114 and 118 have the highest share in the dioxin-like biphenyls fraction with mean concentrations of 17.6 and 37.6 pg g−1 (respectively 23 and 50%). Mean calculated concentrations of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (Σ39 BDE) were 20 ± 27.7 pg g−1. High variability was observed between maximal and minimal determined concentration values. Individual BDEs were found at different frequencies and varying concentration levels. BDEs # 47, 75 and 99 dominated the profile with average concentrations of 3 pg g−1, 3.1 pg g−1, and 2.9 pg g−1, respectively. PMID:27907097

  1. Evaluation of different adsorbents for large-volume pre-concentration for analyzing atmospheric persistent organic pollutants at trace levels.

    PubMed

    Avino, Pasquale; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Notardonato, Ivan; Russo, Mario Vincenzo

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the performance of some adsorbents, Carbopack B, Tenax-GC, and XAD-2, in a SPE and GC analytical method for sampling and determining some persistent organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, o-, m-, and p-xylenes, naphthalene, anthracene, fluorene, fluoranthene, benzo(i,k)fluorene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, and PCB congeners (nos. 1, 15, 44, 77, and 209). Adsorbents evaluated in this study are Carbopack B, Tenax-GC, and XAD-2. Before applying the analytical method to air samples, it was widely investigated in laboratory: the sampler is constituted by a glass pyrex vial home-filled with 300 mg (sampling section) and 50 mg of adsorbent material (backup section). The re-extraction is performed by CS(2) (1-2 mL) and analysis is performed by GC-FID and GC-ECD. The evaluation of breakthrough volumes and desorption efficiencies shows the XAD-2 performance in the enrichment of different organic species present in atmosphere at trace levels (ppt) to be more advantageous than the other two materials in terms of analytical and technical parameters. One of the advantages is the high volume of sampled air with high concentration factor and limited loss of analytes (breakthrough volumes are higher than 5,000 L g(-1) for high-boiling compounds and higher than 400 L g(-1) for low-boiling solutes). Another advantage is the possibility of easy and speed re-extraction of analytes using small volumes of solvent (a few milliliters). The recoveries are about 100% with a RSD ≤ 2.3 for low-boiling compounds, and between 77% and 109% with a RSD ≤ 5.7% for high-boiling species. The XAD-2 adsorbent was applied to real air samples collected in different polluted areas (urban, industrial, rural, and remote locations) demonstrating the wide application of such methodology in various environmental situation.

  2. Persistent organic pollutants in sediments from Sai Gon-Dong Nai River basin, Vietnam: levels and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tu Binh; Iwata, Hisato; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Shin; Viet, Pham Hung; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-05-01

    Surficial sediment samples were collected from Hochiminh City canals, the Sai Gon-Dong Nai River, and its estuary, one of the most predominant industrial areas in Hochiminh City, southern Vietnam, for determination of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Contamination pattern was as follows: PCBs > or = DDTs > HCB > CHLs > HCHs. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs ranged from 0.50-150 ng/g and 0.15-72 ng/g dry wt, respectively. On the other hand, concentrations of CHLs, HCHs, and HCB were mostly <2 ng/g dry wt. Levels of the all organochlorines (OCs) in Hochiminh City canals were significantly higher than those in the other areas, indicating the urban areas as major pollution sources to the aquatic environment. The contamination pattern was PCBs > DDTs in the city canals but PCBs < DDTs in the downstream and the estuary, suggesting particularly high contamination by PCBs in the city. Examination of DDTs composition and their ratios demonstrated continuous input of this pesticide to the city canals. However, the combination of our data and those from available literature implies a decreasing trend of PCBs and DDTs in the environment. DDTs concentrations have been reduced 50% after approximately 5 years. Composition of CHLs in the sediment from Hochiminh City canals was comparable to those of common technical mixtures, suggesting continuous input of CHLs to the environment. CHLs might be in use for purposes like termite control, wood preservation, and protection of underground cables. Hazard assessment implies high toxic potential of DDTs for sediments from Hochiminh City canals and suggests the need for better management of municipal discharges.

  3. Levels of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants (PCB, PBDE) and Pesticides in Honey Bee Pollen Sampled in Poland.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek Łukasz; Kamińska, Marta; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Chemical plant protection is a commonly discussed factor potentially responsible for decline in pollinators and other beneficial insect populations. Various groups of chemicals including persistent organic pollutants could impact a bee colony's welfare and are reported to be present in bee tissue and apiary products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of selected persistent organic pollutant and pesticide residues in bee pollen originating from different geographical regions of Poland. Pesticide residues were identified in 60% of tested bee pollen samples. The compounds identified were mainly active ingredients of fungicide preparations. Insecticide active ingredients were up to 30% of the identified residues. The triazole fungicide tebuconazole and the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid were the most frequently found pesticides in pollen. The highest pesticide concentration was determined for prothioconazole (356 μg kg-1). Mean concentrations of chlorinated biphenyls-EC6 and EC12 were 194 pg g-1 and 74 pg g-1, respectively. CB # 28 has the greatest share in the EC6 profile (mean 61 pg g-1, 31% contribution). Relatively high contributions were also observed for CBs # 101 (35 pg g-1, 18%), # 138 (36 pg g-1, 19%) and # 153 (33 pg g-1, 17%). CB # 114 and 118 have the highest share in the dioxin-like biphenyls fraction with mean concentrations of 17.6 and 37.6 pg g-1 (respectively 23 and 50%). Mean calculated concentrations of 39 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners (Σ39 BDE) were 20 ± 27.7 pg g-1. High variability was observed between maximal and minimal determined concentration values. Individual BDEs were found at different frequencies and varying concentration levels. BDEs # 47, 75 and 99 dominated the profile with average concentrations of 3 pg g-1, 3.1 pg g-1, and 2.9 pg g-1, respectively.

  4. Columnar and ground-level aerosol optical properties: sensitivity to the transboundary pollution, daily and weekly patterns, and relationships.

    PubMed

    Perrone, M R; Romano, S; Orza, J A G

    2015-11-01

    Columnar and ground-level aerosol optical properties co-located in space and time and retrieved from sun/sky photometer and nephelometer measurements, respectively, have been analyzed to investigate the impact of local and transboundary pollution, to analyze their relationships, and hence to contribute to the aerosol load characterization over the Central Mediterranean. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 440 nm, the Ångström exponent (Å) calculated from the AOD at 440 and 675 nm, and the asymmetry parameter (g col ) at 440 nm represent the investigated columnar aerosol parameters. The scattering coefficient (σ p) at 450 nm, the scattering Ångström exponent (å) calculated from σ p at 450 and 635 nm, and the asymmetry parameter (g) at 450 nm are the corresponding ground-level parameters. It is shown that the columnar and ground-level aerosol properties were significantly and similarly affected by the main airflows identified with backtrajectory cluster analysis. The yearly averaged daily evolution of σ p, å, and g was fairly correlated to the one of the AOD, Å, and g col , respectively. These results indicate that the aerosol particles were on average characterized by similar yearly averaged optical properties up to the ground level. In particular, the yearly means of columnar and ground-level Ångström exponents, 1.3 ± 0.4 and 1.1 ± 0.4, respectively, which are close to one, reveal a coarse-mode aerosol contribution in addition to the fine-mode particle contribution up to the ground level. Hourly means, day-by-day, and seasonal daily patterns of ground-level parameters were, however, very weakly correlated with the corresponding columnar parameters. The large impact of the local meteorology on the daily evolution of the ground-level aerosol properties, which makes the impact of long-range transported particles less apparent, was mainly responsible for these last results. It has also been found that columnar Ångström exponents much smaller

  5. Regional differences in levels of chlorinated and brominated pollutants in mother's milk from primiparous women in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Anders; Lignell, Sanna; Darnerud, Per Ola; Aune, Marie; Halldin Ankarberg, Emma; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Barregård, Lars; Bensryd, Inger

    2011-01-01

    Early life exposure to halogenated persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the DDT metabolite p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (p,p'-DDE), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), may affect human health. We determined if there are regional differences in mother's milk levels of these compounds in Sweden. In year 2000-2004, milk was sampled from 204 randomly recruited primiparas from four regions of Sweden. Levels of the compounds were measured by gas chromatography with dual electron-capture detectors. Women were recruited at delivery in three hospitals located in urban areas in southern and central Sweden (Lund, Gothenburg and Uppsala), and in one hospital located in a more rural area in northern Sweden (Lycksele). Information about dietary habits and medical/life-style factors were collected by questionnaires. Among PCB congeners, CB 153, CB 138 and CB 180 showed the highest median concentrations (18-48 ng/g mother's milk lipid), whereas more than 50% of the women had CB 52, CB 101, CB 114, and CB 157 levels below the LOQ (0.3-1.5 ng/g lipid). Median p,p'-DDE levels were in the range of 46-78 ng/g lipid. BDE 47 showed the highest median concentrations (1-2 ng/g lipid) among the brominated compounds, whereas more than 50% of the women had levels of BDE 28, BDE 66, BDE 138, BDE 154, and HBCD below the LOQ (0.05-0.10 ng/g lipid). Regional differences in median organohalogen compound concentrations were small, less than 2-fold. Lycksele women generally had the lowest levels of Σmono-and Σdi-ortho PCBs, mainly due to a lower average age. In contrast, these women had higher tetra- to penta-brominated PBDE levels, but no diet or life-style factor could explain this finding. Wide ranges of PBDEs and HBCD levels (up to 200-fold) were found, especially in the Lycksele area. The highest levels of PBDE were in the range of average levels found in mother's milk from North America, suggesting that food may

  6. Estimation of water table level and nitrate pollution based on geostatistical and multiple mass transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matiatos, Ioannis; Varouhakis, Emmanouil A.; Papadopoulou, Maria P.

    2015-04-01

    As the sustainable use of groundwater resources is a great challenge for many countries in the world, groundwater modeling has become a very useful and well established tool for studying groundwater management problems. Based on various methods used to numerically solve algebraic equations representing groundwater flow and contaminant mass transport, numerical models are mainly divided into Finite Difference-based and Finite Element-based models. The present study aims at evaluating the performance of a finite difference-based (MODFLOW-MT3DMS), a finite element-based (FEFLOW) and a hybrid finite element and finite difference (Princeton Transport Code-PTC) groundwater numerical models simulating groundwater flow and nitrate mass transport in the alluvial aquifer of Trizina region in NE Peloponnese, Greece. The calibration of groundwater flow in all models was performed using groundwater hydraulic head data from seven stress periods and the validation was based on a series of hydraulic head data for two stress periods in sufficient numbers of observation locations. The same periods were used for the calibration of nitrate mass transport. The calibration and validation of the three models revealed that the simulated values of hydraulic heads and nitrate mass concentrations coincide well with the observed ones. The models' performance was assessed by performing a statistical analysis of these different types of numerical algorithms. A number of metrics, such as Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Bias, Nash Sutcliffe Model Efficiency (NSE) and Reliability Index (RI) were used allowing the direct comparison of models' performance. Spatiotemporal Kriging (STRK) was also applied using separable and non-separable spatiotemporal variograms to predict water table level and nitrate concentration at each sampling station for two selected hydrological stress periods. The predictions were validated using the respective measured values. Maps of water table

  7. Ground-level air pollution changes during a boreal wildland mega-fire.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Hsu, Yu-Mei; Percy, Kevin; Legge, Allan; Fenn, Mark E; Schilling, Susan; Frączek, Witold; Alexander, Diane

    2016-12-01

    The 2011 Richardson wildland mega-fire in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northern Alberta, Canada had large effects on air quality. At a receptor site in the center of the AOSR ambient PM2.5, O3, NO, NO2, SO2, NH3, HONO, HNO3, NH4(+) and NO3(-) were measured during the April-August 2011 period. Concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NO2, SO2 and O3 were also monitored across the AOSR with passive samplers, providing monthly summer and bi-monthly winter average values in 2010, 2011 and 2012. During the fire, hourly PM2.5 concentrations >450μgm(-3) were measured at the AMS 1 receptor site. The 24-h National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 35μgm(-3) and the Canada Wide Standard (CWS) of 30μgm(-3) were exceeded on 13days in May and 7days in June. During the fire emission periods, sharp increases in NH3, HONO, HNO3, NH4(+), NO3(-) and total inorganic reactive N concentrations occurred, all closely correlated with the PM2.5 changes. There were large differences in the relative contribution of various N compounds to total inorganic N between the no-fire emission and fire emission periods. While in the absence of fires NO and NO2 dominated, their relative contribution during the fires was ~2 fold smaller, mainly due to increased NH3, NH4(+) and NO3(-). Concentrations of HONO and HNO3 also greatly increased during the fires, but their contribution to the total inorganic N pool was relatively small. Elevated NH3 and HNO3 concentrations affected large areas of northern Alberta during the Richardson Fire. While NH3 and HNO3 concentrations were not at levels considered toxic to plants, these gases contributed significantly to atmospheric N deposition. Generally, no significant changes in O3 and SO2 concentrations were detected and their ambient concentrations were below levels harmful to human health or sensitive vegetation.

  8. Modeling the polluted coastal urban environment: Volume 1, The PBL (planetary boundary level) model: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bornstein, R.; Pechinger, U.; Miller, R.; Klotz, S.; Street, R.

    1987-02-01

    The two-dimensional vorticity-mode URBMET planetary boundary-layer model has been extended to three dimensions by use of a second vorticity component and a second stream function. The model is capable of simulating the time-varying distributions of velocity, temperature, and (sub-saturation) moisture in a Boussinesq, hydrostatic, and incompressible flow field. The model consists of a numerical soil layer, and in the atmosphere, both an analytical constant-flux layer and numerical transition layer. Sea breeze flow conditions in the New York City (NYC) area have been simulated utilizing first-order turbulence closure, with surface temperature and moisture predicted from energy and moisture balances. Results reproduced many of the observed features of sea breeze fronts in the NYC area. Predicted meteorological variables were used as input to a three-dimensional Eulerian-grid sulfur-dioxide dispersion model of point and area sources within the NYC area, as described in Volume II of this report. The model was also used to simulate sea breeze flow at an idealized coastline using the Level 2.5 turbulence parameterization of Mellor and Yamada. This formulation involves solution of an additional prognostic differential equations for turbulent kinetic energy. Results indicate that turbulence from the mid-morning unstable land area was advected offshore into the stable marine region for significant distances.

  9. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles for trace level detection of a hazardous pollutant (nitrobenzene) causing Methemoglobinaemia.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, R; Karuppiah, Chelladurai; Chen, Shen-Ming; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Padmavathy, S; Prakash, P

    2014-08-30

    The present study involves a green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) using Acacia nilotica twig bark extract at room temperature and trace level detection of one of the hazardous materials, viz. nitrobenzene (NB) that causes Methemoglobinaemia. The synthesis protocol demonstrates that the bioreduction of chloroauric acid leads to the formation of Au-NPs within 10min, suggesting a higher reaction rate than any other chemical methods involved. The obtained Au-NPs have been characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The electrochemical detection of NB has been investigated at the green synthesized Au-NPs modified glassy carbon electrode by using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits excellent reduction ability toward NB compared to unmodified electrode. The developed NB sensor at Au-NPs modified electrode displays a wide linear response from 0.1 to 600μM with high sensitivity of 1.01μAμM(-1)cm(-2) and low limit of detection of 0.016μM. The modified electrode shows exceptional selectivity in the presence of ions, phenolic and biologically coactive compounds. In addition, the Au-NPs modified electrode exhibits an outstanding recovery results toward NB in various real water samples.

  10. Monitoring Water Pollution Levels in Wadi Hanifa, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and its Public Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy

    2017-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the levels of metals in the fish caught from Wadi Hanifa's main basin over four seasons, determine the potential fitness of the fish for human consumption, and evaluate the overall water quality after enforcement of local standards. The physical and chemical parameters from a total of 192 water samples were tested using standard methods. Additionally, a total of 48 fish samples were analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. Mean values for basic water quality parameters of COD, PO4(-3), NH3(-)-N, and NO3(-)-N exceeded Saudi standards in all seasons. Mean metal concentrations in water were consistently at their highest concentrations in samples collected during the summer, and the lowest in samples collected during the winter. Mean metal concentrations in fish muscle tissue exceeded Saudi standards for As and Cd, and United Nations FAO standards for Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn. Statistical analysis showed highly significant positive correlations between metal concentrations in water and metal concentrations in fish muscle for As-Fe, Pb-Cr, Pb-Ni, Cr-Cu, and Cu-Fe. This study highlights the urgent need for monitoring and controlling wastewater discharge in Wadi Hanifa to ensure public safety.

  11. Two-bit multi-level phase change random access memory with a triple phase change material stack structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyanathan, Ashvini; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2012-11-01

    This work demonstrates a novel two-bit multi-level device structure comprising three phase change material (PCM) layers, separated by SiN thermal barrier layers. This triple PCM stack consisted of (from bottom to top), Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST), an ultrathin SiN barrier, nitrogen-doped GST, another ultrathin SiN barrier, and Ag0.5In0.5Sb3Te6. The PCM layers can selectively amorphize to form 4 different resistance levels ("00," "01," "10," and "11") using respective voltage pulses. Electrical characterization was extensively performed on these devices. Thermal analysis was also done to understand the physics behind the phase changing characteristics of the two-bit memory devices. The melting and crystallization temperatures of the PCMs play important roles in the power consumption of the multi-level devices. The electrical resistivities and thermal conductivities of the PCMs and the SiN thermal barrier are also crucial factors contributing to the phase changing behaviour of the PCMs in the two-bit multi-level PCRAM device.

  12. Extracting fingerprint of wireless devices based on phase noise and multiple level wavelet decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weichen; Sun, Zhuo; Kong, Song

    2016-10-01

    Wireless devices can be identified by the fingerprint extracted from the signal transmitted, which is useful in wireless communication security and other fields. This paper presents a method that extracts fingerprint based on phase noise of signal and multiple level wavelet decomposition. The phase of signal will be extracted first and then decomposed by multiple level wavelet decomposition. The statistic value of each wavelet coefficient vector is utilized for constructing fingerprint. Besides, the relationship between wavelet decomposition level and recognition accuracy is simulated. And advertised decomposition level is revealed as well. Compared with previous methods, our method is simpler and the accuracy of recognition remains high when Signal Noise Ratio (SNR) is low.

  13. Persistent organic pollutants are related to the change in circulating lipid levels during a 5 year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Penell, Johanna; Lind, Lars; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, P Monica

    2014-10-01

    When reporting circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), usually lipid-normalized values are given. However, animal experiments and some human data indicate that exposure to POPs may change lipid values. The aim of the present study is to investigate if POP levels can predict future changes in levels of circulating lipids. In the population-based Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, lipids were measured at age 70 and at age 75 in 598 subjects without lipid-lowering medication. Twenty-three different POPs, including 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), five organochlorine pesticides, one dioxin (OCDD) and one flame retardant brominated compound (BDE47) were analyzed by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) at age 70. Strong relationships were seen among the baseline levels of the non-dioxin-like PCBs 194, 206 and 209 and the degree of increase in total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol during the 5 year follow-up. These relationships were generally stronger when lipid-normalized levels were used compared to wet-weight based levels. On the contrary, for two of the pesticides, hexachlorobenzene and trans-nonachlordane, levels were inversely related to the change in LDL-cholesterol, with strongest associations found using wet-weight based levels. PCBs 194, 206 and 209 were inversely related to the change in HDL-cholesterol, in particular for wet-weight based levels. However, these relationships were only significant for wet-weight PCB 194 following adjustment for multiple testing. None of the POPs was related to the change in serum triglycerides. When investigating the association between the change in total serum cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol across different categories of change in BMI, we noted robust results especially in the group with stable BMI, suggesting that the observed relationships were not due to fluctuations in BMI over time. In conclusion

  14. Tank waste remediation system phase I high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.L.; Stegen, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This report evaluates the effects of feed composition on the Phase I high-level waste immobilization process and interim storage facility requirements for the high-level waste glass.Several different Phase I staging (retrieval, blending, and pretreatment) scenarios were used to generate example feed compositions for glass formulations, testing, and glass sensitivity analysis. Glass models and data form laboratory glass studies were used to estimate achievable waste loading and corresponding glass volumes for various Phase I feeds. Key issues related to feed process ability, feed composition, uncertainty, and immobilization process technology are identified for future consideration in other tank waste disposal program activities.

  15. Circulating levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are associated with left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Sjöberg Lind, Ylva; Lind, P Monica; Salihovic, Samira; van Bavel, Bert; Lind, Lars

    2013-05-01

    Major risk factors for congestive heart failure (CHF) are myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, smoking, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and obesity. However, since these risk factors only explain part of the risk of CHF, we investigated whether persistent organic pollutants (POPs) might also play a role. In the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, left ventricular ejection fraction, (EF), E/A-ratio and isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), were determined by echocardiography and serum samples of 21 POPs were analyzed in serum measured by high-resolution chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) in 998 subjects all aged 70 years. In this cross-sectional analysis, high levels of several of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB congeners 99, 118, 105, 138, 153, and 180) and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) were significantly related to a decreased EF. Some POPs were also related to a decreased E/A-ratio (PCBs 206 and 209). All the results were adjusted for gender, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, LVH and BMI, and subjects with myocardial infarction or atrial fibrillation were excluded from the analysis. Circulating levels of POPs were related to impairments in both left ventricular systolic and diastolic function independently of major congestive heart failure risk factors, suggesting a possible role of POPs in heart failure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Creatine kinase levels in patients with bipolar disorder: depressive, manic, and euthymic phases.

    PubMed

    Feier, Gustavo; Valvassori, Samira S; Rezin, Gislaine T; Búrigo, Márcio; Streck, Emilio L; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

    2011-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is a severe, recurrent, and often chronic psychiatric illness associated with significant functional impairment, morbidity, and mortality. Creatine kinase is an important enzyme, particularly for cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements, such as neurons, and is a potential marker of brain injury. The aim of the present study was to compare serum creatine kinase levels between bipolar disorder patients, in the various phases (depressive, manic, and euthymic), and healthy volunteers. Forty-eight bipolar patients were recruited: 18 in the euthymic phase; 17 in the manic phase; and 13 in the depressive phase. The control group comprised 41 healthy volunteers. The phases of bipolar disorder were defined as follows: euthymic-not meeting the DSM-IV criteria for a mood episode and scoring < 8 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS); manic-scoring < 7 on the HDRS and > 7 on the YMRS; depressive-scoring > 7 on the HDRS and < 7 on the YMRS. Patients in mixed phases were excluded. Blood samples were collected from all participants. Creatine kinase levels were higher in the manic patients than in the controls. However, we observed no significant difference between euthymic and depressive patients in terms of the creatine kinase level. Our results suggest that the clinical differences among the depressive, manic, and euthymic phases of bipolar disorder are paralleled by contrasting levels of creatine kinase. However, further studies are needed in order to understand the state-dependent differences observed in serum creatine kinase activity.

  17. Air pollution and blood lipid markers levels: Estimating short and long-term effects on elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Sanhua; Liu, Ranran; Wei, Youxiu; Feng, Lin; Lv, Xuemin; Tang, Fei

    2016-08-01

    With the development of society and the economy, many Chinese cities are shrouded in pollution haze for much of the year. Scientific studies have identified various adverse effects of air pollutants on human beings. However, the relationships between air pollution and blood lipid levels are still unclear. The objective of this study is to explore the short and long-term effects of air pollution on eight blood lipid markers among elderly hypertension inpatients complicated with or without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Blood lipid markers which met the pre-established inclusion criteria were exported from the medical record system. Air pollution data were acquired from the official environmental protection website. Associations between the air quality index and the blood lipid indexes were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and further Bonferroni correction. In an exposure time of 7 days or longer, blood lipid markers were somewhat affected by poor air quality. However, the results could not predict whether atherosclerosis would be promoted or inhibited by poorer air condition. Changes of blood lipid markers of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D were not completely the same, but no blood lipid markers had an opposite trend between the two populations. The air quality index was associated with changes to blood lipid markers to some extent in a population of hypertension inpatients with or without T2D. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential mechanism by which air pollutants induce blood lipids changes.

  18. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the water level fluctuation zone of China's Three Gorges Reservoir using geochemical and soil microbial approaches.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chen; Li, Siyue; Zhang, Yulong; Tong, Xunzhang; Zhang, Quanfa

    2013-01-01

    The water level fluctuation zone (WLFZ) in the Three Gorges Reservoir is located in the intersection of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and assessing heavy metal pollution in the drown zone is critical for ecological remediation and water conservation. In this study, soils were collected in June and September 2009 in natural recovery area and revegetation area of the WLFZ, and geochemical approaches including geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) and factor analysis and soil microbial community structure were applied to assess the spatial variability and evaluate the influence of revegetation on metals in the WLFZ. Geochemical approaches demonstrated the moderate pollutant of Cd, the slight pollutant of Hg, and four types of pollutant sources including industrial and domestic wastewater, natural rock weathering, traffic exhaust, and crustal materials in the WLFZ. Our results also demonstrated significantly lower concentrations for elements of As, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Mn in the revegetation area. Moreover, soil microbial community structure failed to monitor the heavy metal pollution in such a relatively clean area. Our results suggest that revegetation plays an important role in controlling heavy metal pollution in the WLFZ of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

  19. Geometric phase and quantum correlations for a bipartite two-level system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardo, Fernando C.; Villar, Paula I.

    2015-07-01

    We calculate the geometric phase of a bipartite two-level system coupled to an external environment. We compute the correction to the unitary geometric phase through a kinematic approach. To this end, we analyse the reduced density matrix of the bipartite system after tracing over the environmental degrees of freedom, for arbitrary initial states of the composite system. In all cases considered, the correction to the unitary phase has a similar structure as a function of the degree of the entanglement of the initial state. In the case of a maximally entangled state (MES), the survival phase is only the topological phase, and there is no correction induced by the environments. Further, we compute the quantum discord and concurrence of the bipartite state and analyse possible relations among these quantities and the geometric phase acquired during the non-unitary system's evolution.

  20. Racial differences in levels of serum lipids and effects of exposure to persistent organic pollutants on lipid levels in residents of Anniston, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Olson, James R; Pavuk, Marian; Carpenter, David O

    2014-12-01

    Serum lipid levels are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. In addition to diet, exercise, genetics, age and race, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) influence concentrations of serum lipids. We investigated associations between fasting concentrations of 35 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and nine organochlorine pesticides in relation to total serum lipids, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglycerides in 525 Caucasian and African American residents of Anniston, Alabama, who were not on any lipid-lowering medication. In Model 1, data were adjusted for age, age quadratic, gender, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking and exercise, while in Model 2, additional adjustment was done for other POPs. As compared to Caucasians, African Americans had lower levels of total lipids and triglycerides with higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol, but higher concentrations of PCBs and pesticides. Total pesticides were more strongly associated with elevations in serum lipids than were total PCBs, and the associations were stronger in African Americans. Total DDTs were not associated with serum lipids after adjustment for other POPs in either racial group, while the strongest positive associations were seen for hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in both racial groups. Racial differences in lipid profiles, concentrations of POPs and associations between POP concentrations and serum lipids are relevant to racial differences in rates of cardiovascular disease.

  1. Increased blood levels of persistent organic pollutants (POP) in obese individuals after weight loss-A review.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Aina; Lyche, Jan L; Polder, Anuschka; Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt

    2017-01-01

    Lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POP) are stored in adipose tissue. Following rapid weight loss such as when induced by bariatric surgery, an increased release of potential harmful lipophilic compounds into the blood circulation may occur. Weight reduction is recommended for overweight and obese individuals in order to decrease risk of weight-related health problems. However, in cases of significant weight reduction POP become mobilized chemicals and consequently may adversely affect health, including endocrine disruption. The objective of the present investigation was to estimate quantitatively the level of mobilization of POP following weight loss over time. According to literature search criteria, 17 studies were identified with 2061 participants. Data from 5 of the studies with 270 participants were used to assess the change in blood levels of POP in percent per kilogram weight loss. Weight loss in the included studies varied from 4.4 to 64.8 kg. In all studies, the majority of POP concentrations in blood were found to rise following weight reduction. Blood concentrations following weight reduction were elevated by 2-4% per kilogram weight loss for most POP examined. The increased POP levels were still elevated 12 mo after intervention. Most research in this field, including animal studies, is carried out on a single compound or group of selected compounds, not taking the "cocktail effect" into consideration. This does not reflect the true range of POP to which humans are actually exposed. Few chronic investigations have been published and, in particular, few studies were available that compared the increase in POP concentrations with clinical consequences as individuals lost weight. These limitations call for caution in interpreting results. The benefits of losing weight still far outweigh the potential adverse health risks. However, further studies are recommended to determine the clinical significance of increased blood levels of POPs following

  2. Measurements of inter-cochlear level and phase differences of bone-conducted sound

    PubMed Central

    Mcleod, Robert W. J.; Culling, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Bone-anchored hearing aids are a widely used method of treating conductive hearing loss, but the benefit of bilateral implantation is limited due to interaural cross-talk. The present study measured the phase and level of pure tones reaching each cochlea from a single, mastoid placed bone transducer on normal hearing participants. In principle, the technique could be used to implement a cross-talk cancellation system in those with bilateral bone conductors. The phase and level of probe tones over two insert earphones was adjusted until they canceled sound from a bone transducer (i.e., resulting in perceived silence). Testing was performed in 50-Hz steps between 0.25 and 8 kHz. Probe phase and level results were used to calculate inter-cochlear level and phase differences. The inter-cochlear phase differences of the bone-conducted sound were similar for all three participants showing a relatively linear increase between 4 and 8 kHz. The attenuation characteristics were highly variable over the frequency range as well as between participants. This variability was thought to be related to differences in skull dynamics across the ears. Repeated measurements of cancellation phase and level of the same frequency produced good consistency across sessions from the same participant. PMID:28599562

  3. Disentangling the responses of boreal stream assemblages to low stressor levels of diffuse pollution and altered channel morphology.

    PubMed

    Turunen, Jarno; Muotka, Timo; Vuori, Kari-Matti; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Rääpysjärvi, Jaana; Sutela, Tapio; Aroviita, Jukka

    2016-02-15

    Non-point diffuse pollution from land use and alteration of hydromorphology are among the most detrimental stressors to stream ecosystems. We explored the independent and interactive effects of morphological channel alteration (channelization for water transport of timber) and diffuse pollution on species richness and community structure of four organism groups in boreal streams: diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates, and fish. Furthermore, the effect of these stressors on stream condition was evaluated by Ecological Quality Ratios (EQR) from the national Water Framework Directive (WFD) assessment system. We grouped 91 study sites into four groups that were impacted by either diffuse pollution or hydromorphological alteration, by both stressors, or by neither one. Macroinvertebrate richness was reduced by diffuse pollution, whereas other biological groups were unaltered. Hydromorphological modification had no effect on taxon richness of any of the assemblages. Community structure of all groups was significantly affected by diffuse pollution but not by hydromorphology. Similarly, EQRs indicated negative response by diatoms, macroinvertebrates and fish to diffuse pollution, but not to hydromorphological alteration. Agricultural diffuse pollution thus affected species identities and abundances rather than taxonomic richness. Our results suggest that channelization of boreal streams for timber transport has not altered hydromorphological conditions sufficiently to have a strong impact on stream biota, whereas even moderate nutrient enrichment may be ecologically harmful. Controlling diffuse pollution and associated land use stressors should be prioritized over restoration of in-stream habitat structure to improve the ecological condition of boreal streams.

  4. Accumulation of background levels of persistent organochlorine and organobromine pollutants through the soil-earthworm-hedgehog food chain.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Frouke; Covaci, Adrian; D'Havé, Helga; Van den Brink, Nico W; Blust, Ronny; De Coen, Wim; Bervoets, Lieven

    2010-10-01

    The bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and DDT and metabolites, was investigated in the soil-earthworm-hedgehog food chain. Concentrations of selected POPs were measured in soil and earthworms collected in grassland and open woodland and in hair and blood of hedgehogs foraging in two parks containing these habitats. Despite background concentrations in soil (ranging from 1.3 to 9.3 ng/g for DDTs, 2.3 to 6.5 ng/g for PCBs and 0.08 to 0.20 ng/g for PBDEs), biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) indicated that earthworms accumulated POPs (0.48-1.70 for DDTs, 1.09-2.76 for PCBs and 1.99-5.67 for PBDEs) and that animals feeding on earthworms are potentially exposed to higher concentrations of pollutants. BSAFs decreased with increasing soil concentrations for the three groups of compounds, suggesting that steady-state equilibrium was not reached in soil or earthworms. Positive, but low, log-linear relationships were found for DDT (r(2)=0.23, p<0.05 for Brasschaat and r(2)=0.63, p<0.01 for Hoboken) and PCB (r(2)=0.13, p<0.05 for both parks) concentrations between soil and earthworms. In order to relate earthworm to hedgehog POP concentrations, the foraging behavior of each individual was taken into account. The use of hair as a potential biomonitoring tissue in exposure and risk assessment of POPs was evaluated by examining the relationship between PCB and p,p'-DDE levels in hedgehogs' hair and blood. Contaminant profiles were used to gain insight into biotransformation of the studied compounds in each step of the investigated food chain and in the blood of hedgehogs, as well as the consequences thereof for their incorporation in hair. The absence of a discernable relationship between POP concentrations in earthworms and hair is possible due to variation in individual foraging behavior and POP uptake. Our results suggest that POPs in tissues should be measured from an

  5. Outdoor air pollution, subtypes and severity of ischemic stroke – a small-area level ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence linking outdoor air pollution and incidence of ischemic stroke subtypes and severity is limited. We examined associations between outdoor PM10 and NO2 concentrations modeled at a fine spatial resolution and etiological and clinical ischemic stroke subtypes and severity of ischemic stroke. Methods We used a small-area level ecological study design and a stroke register set up to capture all incident cases of first ever stroke (1995–2007) occurring in a defined geographical area in South London (948 census output areas; population of 267839). Modeled PM10 and NO2 concentrations were available at a very fine spatial scale (20 meter by 20 meter grid point resolution) and were aggregated to output area level using postcode population weighted averages. Ischemic stroke was classified using the Oxford clinical classification, the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) etiological classification, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score and a pragmatic clinical severity classification based on Glasgow coma score, ability to swallow, urinary continence and death <2 days of stroke onset. Results Mean (SD) concentrations were 25.1 (1.2) ug/m3 (range 23.3-36.4) for PM10 and 41.4 (3.0) ug/m3 (range 35.4-68.0) for NO2. There were 2492 incident cases of ischemic stroke. We found no evidence of association between these pollutants and the incidence of ischemic stroke subtypes classified using the Oxford and TOAST classifications. We found no significant association with stroke severity using NIHSS severity categories. However, we found that outdoor concentrations of both PM10 and NO2 appeared to be associated with increased incidence of mild but not severe ischemic stroke, classified using the pragmatic clinical severity classification. For mild ischemic stroke, the rate ratio in the highest PM10 category by tertile was 1.20 (1.05-1.38) relative to the lowest category. The rate ratio in the highest NO2 category was 1.22 (1

  6. Low-level exposure to air pollution and risk of adverse birth outcomes in Hillsborough County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Mainolfi, Maria B; Salihu, Hamisu M; Wilson, Roneé E; Mbah, Alfred K

    2013-05-01

    In this retrospective cohort (1998 to 2007), 145,445 singleton live births in Hillsborough, Florida, were analyzed to elucidate the relationship between fetal morbidity and prenatal exposure to six criteria air pollutants. This study was based on three linked databases: Florida Hospital Discharge, vital statistics records, and air pollution meteorological data from the Environmental Protection Agency. The primary outcomes of interest were low birth weight, preterm births, and small for gestational age. This study used structural equation modeling and trimester groupings to evaluate the relationship between air pollution and birth outcomes of pregnant residents. The latent variables of structural equation modeling yielded a significant B value of 0.35, indicating that exposure to the criteria pollutants in pregnancy may have a significant relationship to fetal morbidity. Exposure to criteria air pollutants in pregnancy is associated with fetal morbidity outcomes.

  7. The impact of heavy metal pollution gradients in sediments on benthic macrofauna at population and community levels.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jongseong; Khim, Jong Seong; Kang, Seong-Gil; Kang, Daeseok; Lee, Chang-Hee; Koh, Chul-Hwan

    2011-10-01

    The effect of sediment pollution on benthos was investigated in the vicinity of a large sewage treatment outflow at Incheon North Harbor, Korea. Animal size, vertical distribution and standard community parameters were analyzed along a 3 km transect line (n = 7). Univariate parameters showed a general trend of increasing species diversity with increasing distance from the pollution source. Multi-dimensional scaling analysis led to the clear separation of 3 locational groups, supporting gradient-dependent faunal composition. The innermost location was dominated by small sub-surface dwellers while the outer locations by large mid to deep burrowers. Looking for the size-frequency distribution, most abundance species (Heteromastus filiformis) showed the presence of larger size animals with increasing proximity to the pollution source. Meanwhile, species-specific vertical distributions, regardless of the pollution gradient, indicated that such shifts were due to species replacement resulting from a higher tolerance to pollutants over some species.

  8. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  9. Pollution Microbiology, A Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finstein, Melvin S.

    This manual is designed for use in the laboratory phase of courses dealing with microbial aspects of pollution. It attempts to cover the subject area broadly in four major categories: (1) microorganisms in clean and polluted waters, (2) carbonaceous pollutants, (3) nitrogen, phosphorus, iron, and sulfur as pollutants, and (4) sanitary…

  10. Fundamental Noise-Limited Optical Phase Locking at Femtowatt Light Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, John; Tu, Meirong; Birnbaum, Kevin; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan

    2008-01-01

    We describe an optical phase lock loop (PLL) designed to recover an optical carrier at powers below one picowatt in a Deep Space optical transponder. Previous low power optical phase lock has been reported with powers down to about 1 pW. We report the demonstration and characterization of the optical phase locking at femtowatt levels. We achieved a phase slip rate below one cycle-slip/second at powers down to 60 femtowatts. This phase slip rate corresponds to a frequency stability of 1 10(exp -14) at 1 s, a value better than any frequency standard available today for measuring times equal to a typical two-way delay between Earth and Mars. The PLL shows very robust stability at these power levels. We developed simulation software to optimize parameters of the second order PLL loop in the presence of laser flicker frequency noise and white phase (photon) noise, and verified the software with a white phase noise model by Viterbi. We also demonstrated precise Doppler tracking at femtowatt levels.

  11. Fundamental Noise-Limited Optical Phase Locking at Femtowatt Light Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, John; Tu, Meirong; Birnbaum, Kevin; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan

    2008-01-01

    We describe an optical phase lock loop (PLL) designed to recover an optical carrier at powers below one picowatt in a Deep Space optical transponder. Previous low power optical phase lock has been reported with powers down to about 1 pW. We report the demonstration and characterization of the optical phase locking at femtowatt levels. We achieved a phase slip rate below one cycle-slip/second at powers down to 60 femtowatts. This phase slip rate corresponds to a frequency stability of 1 10(exp -14) at 1 s, a value better than any frequency standard available today for measuring times equal to a typical two-way delay between Earth and Mars. The PLL shows very robust stability at these power levels. We developed simulation software to optimize parameters of the second order PLL loop in the presence of laser flicker frequency noise and white phase (photon) noise, and verified the software with a white phase noise model by Viterbi. We also demonstrated precise Doppler tracking at femtowatt levels.

  12. Comprehensive solid-phase extraction method for persistent organic pollutants. Validation and application to the analysis of persistent chlorinated pesticides.

    PubMed

    Sandau, Courtney D; Sjödin, Andreas; Davis, Mark D; Barr, John R; Maggio, Vincent L; Waterman, Alyson L; Preston, Kerry E; Preau, James L; Barr, Dana B; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G

    2003-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is involved in many epidemiological studies regarding the measurement of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in specimens obtained from humans. In addition to these commonly determined analytes, there is a need to include additional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in our analyses, which further stresses the analyses because sample volumes remain small. Thus, a single method of analysis for all POPs in human serum is needed. CDC has recently developed a semiautomated and comprehensive solid-phase extraction method for POPs. The method is comprehensive since it was optimized for the extraction of many different POP compound classes. We then developed a purification and fractionation scheme that allows (a) separation of different compound classes by particular functionalities and (b) purification of those fractions to remove coextracted interferences. This paper describes the first step in the semiautomated comprehensive extraction and multiple fractionation method developed by CDC for monitoring POPs. In this paper, we validate the analysis of the persistent chlorinated pesticides, a compound class difficult to examine because of their structural diversity, in human plasma. The method was validated against an existing CDC method by using a spiked quality-control serum pool. The concentrations determined for all analytes using both methods were within 2%-14% relative standard deviations. A multilevel (i.e., 3-4 point) matrix spike showed good linearity for the analytes tested (r2 = 0.978-0.999). The method was then applied to 40-year-old archived plasma samples for the quantitative analysis of selected chlorinated pesticides. Mean recoveries of the 13C-labeled internal quantification standards ranged from 64% to 123% for the 11 monitored pesticides. The overall method proved to be robust by handling old coagulated plasma samples. It allowed faster throughput of samples than our previous methods

  13. A dynamic model to study the exchange of gas-phase persistent organic pollutants between air and a seasonal snowpack.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kaj M; Halsall, Crispin J; Christensen, Jesper H

    2006-04-15

    An arctic snow model was developed to predict the exchange of vapor-phase persistent organic pollutants between the atmosphere and the snowpack over a winter season. Using modeled meteorological data simulating conditions in the Canadian High Arctic, a single-layer snowpack was created on the basis of the precipitation rate, with the snow depth, snow specific surface area, density, and total surface area (TSA) evolving throughout the annual time series. TSA, an important parameter affecting the vapor-sorbed quantity of chemicals in snow, was within a factor of 5 of measured values. Net fluxes for fluorene, phenanthrene, PCB-28 and -52, and alpha- and gamma-HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) were predicted on the basis of their wet deposition (snowfall) and vapor exchange between the snow and atmosphere. Chemical fluxes were found to be highly dynamic, whereby deposition was rapidly offset by evaporative loss due to snow settling (i.e., changes in TSA). Differences in chemical behavior over the course of the season (i.e., fluxes, snow concentrations) were largely dependent on the snow/air partition coefficients (K(sa)). Chemicals with relatively higher K(sa) values such as alpha- and gamma-HCH were efficiently retained within the snowpack until later in the season compared to fluorene, phenathrene, and PCB-28 and -52. Average snow and air concentrations predicted by the model were within a factor of 5-10 of values measured from arctic field studies, but tended to be overpredicted for those chemicals with higher K(sa) values (i.e., HCHs). Sensitivity analysis revealed that snow concentrations were more strongly influenced by K(sa) than either inclusion of wind ventilation of the snowpack or other changes in physical parameters. Importantly, the model highlighted the relevance of the arctic snowpack in influencing atmospheric concentrations. For the HCHs, evaporative fluxes from snow were more pronounced in April and May, toward the end of the winter, providing evidence that

  14. A novel approach to produce road-level inventories of on-road greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions inventories are an important tool often built by governments tomanage and assess greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. High resolutioninventories, both in space and time, are necessary to capture localcharacteristics of on-road transportation emissions in particular. Emissionsvary widely due to the local nature of the fleet, fuel, and roads and thisheterogeneity must inform effective emissions modeling on the urban level. Inaddition, widespread availability of low-cost computing now makes highresolution climate and air quality modeling feasible, but efforts to improveinventories have not kept pace. There currently is a lack of inventories atcomparable resolutions. This motivated similar work such as the VULCAN projectwhich used county-level data to estimate on-road emissions. We are motivatedto improve upon this by using site-level traffic count data where available.Here we show a new high resolution model of CO2 emissions for the Portland,OR metropolitan region. The backbone is an archive of traffic counterrecordings taken by the Portland Bureau of Transportation intermittently at9,352 sites over 21 years and continuing today (1986-2006 data are summarizedhere) and by The Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing at 309freeway sites. We constructed a regression model to fill in traffic networkgaps using GIS data such as road class and population density. After stepwisetesting of each of eighteen road classes (from minor streets to freeway), wewere able to select ten variables that are significant (P < 0.001) predictorsof traffic; particularly freeway, unimproved road, and minor streets. Themodel was tested by holding back one-third of the data. The R2 for the linearmodel (based on road class and land use) is 0.84. The EPA MOVES model was thenused to estimate transportation CO2 emissions using local fleet, traffic, andmeteorology data.

  15. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, C. N.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Di Carlo, P.; Di Marco, C. F.; Dorsey, J. R.; Evans, M.; Fowler, D.; Gallagher, M. W.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jones, C. E.; Langford, B.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Lim, S. F.; McQuaid, J.; Misztal, P.; Moller, S. J.; Monks, P. S.; Nemitz, E.; Oram, D. E.; Owen, S. M.; Phillips, G. J.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Pyle, J. A.; Reeves, C. E.; Ryder, J.; Siong, J.; Skiba, U.; Stewart, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an “environmentally friendly” fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided. PMID:19841269

  16. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, Nick; Lee, James

    2010-05-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an ‘‘environmentally friendly'' fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O3), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O3 concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O3 concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (109) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  17. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, C N; MacKenzie, A R; Di Carlo, P; Di Marco, C F; Dorsey, J R; Evans, M; Fowler, D; Gallagher, M W; Hopkins, J R; Jones, C E; Langford, B; Lee, J D; Lewis, A C; Lim, S F; McQuaid, J; Misztal, P; Moller, S J; Monks, P S; Nemitz, E; Oram, D E; Owen, S M; Phillips, G J; Pugh, T A M; Pyle, J A; Reeves, C E; Ryder, J; Siong, J; Skiba, U; Stewart, D J

    2009-11-03

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is predicated on the assumption that palm oil is an "environmentally friendly" fuel feedstock. Here we show, using measurements and models, that oil palm plantations in Malaysia directly emit more oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds than rainforest. These compounds lead to the production of ground-level ozone (O(3)), an air pollutant that damages human health, plants, and materials, reduces crop productivity, and has effects on the Earth's climate. Our measurements show that, at present, O(3) concentrations do not differ significantly over rainforest and adjacent oil palm plantation landscapes. However, our model calculations predict that if concentrations of oxides of nitrogen in Borneo are allowed to reach those currently seen over rural North America and Europe, ground-level O(3) concentrations will reach 100 parts per billion (10(9)) volume (ppbv) and exceed levels known to be harmful to human health. Our study provides an early warning of the urgent need to develop policies that manage nitrogen emissions if the detrimental effects of palm oil production on air quality and climate are to be avoided.

  18. Interactive Effects of Dopamine Baseline Levels and Cycle Phase on Executive Functions: The Role of Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Lopez, Esmeralda; Pletzer, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    Estradiol and progesterone levels vary along the menstrual cycle and have multiple neuroactive effects, including on the dopaminergic system. Dopamine relates to executive functions in an "inverted U-shaped" manner and its levels are increased by estradiol. Accordingly, dopamine dependent changes in executive functions along the menstrual cycle have been previously studied in the pre-ovulatory phase, when estradiol levels peak. Specifically it has been demonstrated that working memory is enhanced during the pre-ovulatory phase in women with low dopamine baseline levels, but impaired in women with high dopamine baseline levels. However, the role of progesterone, which peaks in the luteal cycle phase, has not been taken into account previously. Therefore, the main goals of the present study were to extend these findings (i) to the luteal cycle phase and (ii) to other executive functions. Furthermore, the usefulness of the eye blink rate (EBR) as an indicator of dopamine baseline levels in menstrual cycle research was explored. 36 naturally cycling women were tested during three cycle phases (menses-low sex hormones; pre-ovulatory-high estradiol; luteal-high progesterone and estradiol). During each session, women performed a verbal N-back task, as measure of working memory, and a single trial version of the Stroop task, as measure of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Hormone levels were assessed from saliva samples and spontaneous eye blink rate was recorded during menses. In the N-back task, women were faster during the luteal phase the higher their progesterone levels, irrespective of their dopamine baseline levels. In the Stroop task, we found a dopamine-cycle interaction, which was also driven by the luteal phase and progesterone levels. For women with higher EBR performance decreased during the luteal phase, whereas for women with lower EBR performance improved during the luteal phase. These findings suggest an important role of progesterone in

  19. Phase-modulated photon antibunching in a two-level system coupled to two cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changqing; Liu, Yu-Long; Wu, Rebing; Liu, Yu-xi

    2017-07-01

    Nonclassical light fields can be generated from two coupled cavities that are interacted with a two-level system. This scheme is drawing extensive attention because the mode coupling can reduce the requirement of coupling constants between the light fields and the two-level system. However, the effect of phase differences between different coupling constants on photon antibunching is always neglected. Considering a two-level system interacting with two coupled cavities, we analyze the statistical properties of the cavity field and show that the photon antibunching can be affected by the phase differences of coupling constants between the two-level system and the cavity modes, or between the cavity modes and the driving fields, and thus we can engineer the phases to optimally modulate single-photon sources or nonclassical light fields.

  20. EEG oscillations entrain their phase to high-level features of speech sound.

    PubMed

    Zoefel, Benedikt; VanRullen, Rufin

    2016-01-01

    Phase entrainment of neural oscillations, the brain's adjustment to rhythmic stimulation, is a central component in recent theories of speech comprehension: the alignment between brain oscillations and speech sound improves speech intelligibility. However, phase entrainment to everyday speech sound could also be explained by oscillations passively following the low-level periodicities (e.g., in sound amplitude and spectral content) of auditory stimulation-and not by an adjustment to the speech rhythm per se. Recently, using novel speech/noise mixture stimuli, we have shown that behavioral performance can entrain to speech sound even when high-level features (including phonetic information) are not accompanied by fluctuations in sound amplitude and spectral content. In the present study, we report that neural phase entrainment might underlie our behavioral findings. We observed phase-locking between electroencephalogram (EEG) and speech sound in response not only to original (unprocessed) speech but also to our constructed "high-level" speech/noise mixture stimuli. Phase entrainment to original speech and speech/noise sound did not differ in the degree of entrainment, but rather in the actual phase difference between EEG signal and sound. Phase entrainment was not abolished when speech/noise stimuli were presented in reverse (which disrupts semantic processing), indicating that acoustic (rather than linguistic) high-level features play a major role in the observed neural entrainment. Our results provide further evidence for phase entrainment as a potential mechanism underlying speech processing and segmentation, and for the involvement of high-level processes in the adjustment to the rhythm of speech.

  1. Untargeted metabolomic analysis of human serum samples associated with exposure levels of Persistent organic pollutants indicate important perturbations in Sphingolipids and Glycerophospholipids levels.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Chevallier, Olivier P; Woodside, Jayne V; Brennan, Sarah F; Cantwell, Marie M; Cuskelly, Geraldine; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-02-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are distributed globally and are associated with adverse health effects in humans. A study combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTof-MS) and chemometrics for the analysis of adult human serum samples was undertaken. Levels of serum POPs found were in the low range of what has been reported in similar populations across Europe (median 33.84 p, p'-DDE, 3.02 HCB, 83.55 β-HCH, 246.62 PCBs ng/g lipids). Results indicated that compounds concentrations were significantly different between the two groups of POPs exposure (high vs low) and classes (DDE, β-HCH, HCB, PCBs). Using orthogonal partial last-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), multivariate models were created for both modes of acquisition and POPs classes, explaining the maximum amount of variation between sample groups (positive mode R2 = 98-90%; Q2 = 94-75%; root mean squared error of validation (RMSEV) = 12-20%: negative mode R2 = 98-91%; Q2 = 94-81%; root mean squared error of validation (RMSEV) = 10-19%. In the serum samples analyzed, a total 3076 and 3121 ions of interest were detected in positive and negative mode respectively. Of these, 40 were found to be significantly different (p < 0.05) between exposure levels. Sphingolipids and Glycerophospholipids lipids families were identified and found significantly (p < 0.05) different between high and low POPs exposure levels. This study has shown that the elucidation of metabolomic fingerprints may have the potential to be classified as biomarkers of POPs exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of transport in elevated CO levels over Delhi during onset phase of monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Reka; Beig, Gufran; Peshin, Sunil K.

    2016-09-01

    While local anthropogenic emission sources contribute significantly to pollutant levels in a megacity Delhi, meteorology can significantly modulate carbon monoxide (CO) levels. We hereby demonstrate that the concentration of CO during the unusual onset of monsoon 2013 was dramatically elevated and crossed the permissible limit (1.7 ppmv) for about a month long-period as against normal onset of monsoon where CO concentration generally drops down significantly. We compare level of CO in 2013 with normal monsoon year 2012. We provide a hypothesis to interpret this long lasting high concentration CO episode and validate using interactive high resolution WRF-Chem model. The model indicates that the high CO episode was caused by an unusually active Bay of Bengal branch of monsoon which bounces off from the east and transports CO rich air from the eastern part of the Indo Gangetic Plains to Delhi.

  3. Demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics related to persistent organic pollutants and mercury levels in pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Chihiro; Sasaki, Seiko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Baba, Toshiaki; Kajiwara, Jumboku; Todaka, Takashi; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki; Hachiya, Noriyuki; Yasutake, Akira; Murata, Katsuyuki; Kishi, Reiko

    2015-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are known environmental chemicals that have been found to be ubiquitous in not only the environment but also in humans, including women of reproductive age. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between personal lifestyle characteristics and environmental chemical levels during the perinatal period in the general Japanese population. This study targeted 322 pregnant women enrolled in the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health. Each participant completed a self-administered questionnaire and a food-frequency questionnaire to obtain relevant information on parental demographic, behavioral, dietary, and socioeconomic characteristics. In total, 58 non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, 17 dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofuran, and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls congeners, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and mercury were measured in maternal samples taken during the perinatal period. Linear regression models were constructed against potential related factors for each chemical concentration. Most concentrations of environmental chemicals were correlated with the presence of other environmental chemicals, especially in the case of non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibezofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls which had similar exposure sources and persistence in the body. Maternal smoking and alcohol habits, fish and beef intake and household income were significantly associated with concentrations of environmental chemicals. These results suggest that different lifestyle patterns relate to varying exposure to environmental chemicals.

  4. Screening-level risk assessment applied to dredging of polluted sediments from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Ana Elisa F; Nascimento, Juliana R; Sabadini-Santos, Elisamara; Bidone, Edison D

    2017-03-16

    Guanabara Bay is characterized by predominant eutrophication and anoxic sediments with a mixture of pollutants. The risk prognosis associated with the dumping of its dredged sediments into the open ocean was addressed by our algorithm. Our algorithm could prioritize areas, characterize major processes related to dredging, measure the potential risk of sediments, and predict the effects of sediment mixing. The estimated risk of dredged sediment was >10-fold than that of ocean sediments. Among metals, mercury represented 50-90% of the total risk. The transfer of dredged material into the ocean or internal dumping in the bay requires a 1:10 dilution to mitigate the risk and bring the risk levels close to that in the EPA criteria, below which there is less likelihood of adverse effects to the biota, and a 1:100 dilution to maintain the original characteristics of the ocean disposal control area. Our algorithm indicator can be used in the design of both aquatic and continental disposal of dredged materials and their management.

  5. Concentration Levels and Ecological Risks of Persistent Organic Pollutants in the Surface Sediments of Tianjin Coastal Area, China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Chaoqi; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Junjun

    2013-01-01

    Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranging from 274.06 μg/kg to 2656.65 μg/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24 OCPs, 35 PCBs, and 14 PBDEs were 3103.36 μg/kg, 87.31 μg/kg, and 13.88 μg/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area. PMID:23401668

  6. Prevalence rates of respiratory symptoms in Italian general population samples exposed to different levels of air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Viegi, G. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson ); Paoletti, P.; Carrozzi, L.; Vellutini, M.; Diviggiano, E.; Pistelli, G.; Giutini, G. ); Di Pede, C. Occupational Medicine Service, Toscana ); Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1991-08-01

    The authors surveyed two general population samples aged 8 to 64 living in the unpolluted, rural area of the Po Delta (northern Italy) and in the urban area of Pisa (central Italy). Each subject filled out a standardized interviewer-administered questionnaire. The Pisa sample was divided into three groups according to their residence in the urban-suburban areas and to outdoor air pollution exposure (automobile exhaust only or industrial fumes as well). Significantly higher prevalence rates of all the respiratory symptoms and diseases were found in Pisa compared with the Po Delta. Current smoking was more frequent in the rural area, but the urban smokers had a higher lifetime cigarette consumption. Childhood respiratory trouble and recurrent respiratory illnesses were evenly distributed. Exposure to parental smoking in childhood and lower educational level were more frequent in Po Delta, whereas familial history of respiratory/allergic disorders and work and indoor exposures were more often reported in the city. Multiple logistic regression models estimating independently the role of the various risk factors showed significant odds ratios associated with residence in Pisa for all the symptoms but chronic phlegm. The conclusion, these preliminary analyses indicate an urban factor related to the rates of respiratory symptoms and diseases in Italy in the 1980s.

  7. Concentration levels and ecological risks of persistent organic pollutants in the surface sediments of Tianjin coastal area, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Chaoqi; Zhang, Shu; Hou, Zhen; Yang, Junjun

    2013-01-01

    Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs ranging from 274.06 μg/kg to 2656.65 μg/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24 OCPs, 35 PCBs, and 14 PBDEs were 3103.36 μg/kg, 87.31 μg/kg, and 13.88 μg/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area.

  8. Stomatal response and leaf injury of Pisum sativum L. with SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ exposures. I. Influence of pollutant level and leaf maturity

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Tibbitts, T.W.

    1981-03-01

    Plants of Pisum sativum L. Alsweet were grown under a controlled environment and exposed to SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ to determine whether changes in stomatal aperture during exposure were related to subsequent leaf injury. Stomata consistently closed with injurious levels of SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/. Measurements with diffusion porometers demonstrated approx. = 75 and 25% lower conductance with SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively, compared to the conductance of control plants. Stomata also showed a closing response with noninjurious levels of SO/sub 2/ but an opening response with noninjurious levels of O/sub 3/. Stomata closed to the same degree with combinations of SO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/ as with SO/sub 2/ alone. Stomata of expanding leaves closed more during pollutant exposures than stomata of expanded leaves. The abaxial and adaxial stomata both exhibited closure with SO/sub 2/ and combinations of SO/sub 2/ plus O/sub 3/, but abaxial stomata tended to close and adaxial stomata tended to open with exposure to O/sub 3/ alone. The changes in stomatal aperture were not closely correlated with the amount of leaf injury produced by different pollutant levels. Stomata closed, not only with exposure to pollutant levels that caused severe necrosis, but also with levels that caused only a trace of injury. There was no evidence of a reduced amount of closure or even stomatal opening with combinations of SO/sub 2/ and O/sub 3/ compared to plants exposed to the pollutants alone to explain the large amount of injury to plants exposed to pollutant combinations.

  9. Development of a Distance-to-Roadway Proximity Metric to Compare Near-Road Pollutant Levels to a Central Site Monitor

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary objective of the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) was to compare air pollutant concentrations measured at various neighborhoods, or exposure monitoring areas (EMAs), throughout a major metropolitan area to levels measured at a central site or commun...