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Sample records for poly phthalazinone ether

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(phthalazinone Ether Nitrile) Copolymers with Hydrophobic Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, L. M.; Liao, G. X.; Liu, C.; Yang, S. S.; Jian, X. G.

    Poly(phthalazinone ether nitrile) (PPEN) block copolymers containing polysiloxane were prepared so as to create a strongly hydrophobic polymer surface. The copolymers were synthesized from eugenol end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and fluoro-terminated PPEN oligomers by the aromatic nucleophilic substitution polycondensation in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide/o-dichlorobenzene and K2CO3 as solvents and catalyst, respectively. The resultant copolymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, and gel permeation chromatography. XPS analysis results indicated that the copolymer film had a very rich PDMS segment surface. Atomic force microscopy further showed that there existed a continuous PDMS phase on the copolymer surface and PPEN as the dispersive particles was dispersed at diameters between 0.1 and 0.3 nm. The enrichment of PDMS in the copolymer surface could be responsible for an increase of surface water repellency (113.4°).

  2. Coupling hydrogen separation with butanone hydrogenation in an electrochemical hydrogen pump with sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shiqi; Wang, Tao; Wu, Xuemei; Xiao, Wu; Yu, Miao; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Fengxiang; He, Gaohong

    2016-09-01

    This work reports the novel work of coupling H2/CO2 separation with biomass-derived butanone hydrogenation in non-fluorinated sulfonated poly (phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (SPPESK) electrochemical hydrogen pump (EHP) reactor. Due to higher resistance to swelling, SPPESK-based EHP reactor exhibits more excellent reaction rate in elevated temperature (60 °C) and higher butanone concentration (2 M) as 270, 260 nmol cm-2 s-1, respectively, higher than 240, 200 nmol cm-2 s-1of Nafion-based EHP reactors. Also, the SPPESK-based EHP reactor remains 90% of initial hydrogenation rate after 4 batches, better than that of Nafion-based EHP reactors, which is only 62%. The energy efficiency of EHP separator reaches 40% under H2/CO2 mixture feed mode, and electricity of about 0.3 kWh is consumed per Nm3 H2 product, being superior to energy consumption compared with alternative processes like PSA and electrolysis of water. In addition, SPPESK-based EHP exhibits better hydrogenation stability due to lower CO2 permeation than Nafion. With increasing CO2 content in H2 feed, hydrogenation rate almost keeps constant at around 210 nmol cm-2 s-1 in SPPESK-based EHP reactor while decreases fast to 50 nmol cm-2 s-1 in Nafion/PTFE-based EHP reactor. These results show integration of gas separation with hydrogenation reactor is feasible in SPPESK-based EHP reactor.

  3. Optimization and characterization of poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (PPEK) heat-resistant porous fiberous mat by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, R.; Bin, Y. Z.; Yang, W. X.; Wang, D.; Wang, J. Y.; Jian, X. G.

    2016-08-01

    Poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (PPEK) is noted for its outstanding heat-resistance property and mechanical strength. A one-step electrospinning method was conducted to produce PPEK micro-nano porous fibrous mat. We gave emphasis study on the spinnability, optimized conditions, fibers' morphology, surface science and fracture mechanism. The uniform electrospun fibrous mat resulted from PPEK/chloroform binary system indicated that PPEK would be a prospective material to be applied in electrospinning. Addition of a small amount of non-solvent (ethanol) turned out to be advantageous to the reduction of fiber diameter and the alleviation of choking during spinning process. Organic salt (benzyltrimethylammonium chloride) was employed to increase the conductivity of solution for the formation of thin fiber. After trials, PPEK/chloroform/ethanol system with salt and PPEK/NMP system were taken as two optimized systems. These two systems showed different pore fraction in N2 adsorption test, and displayed different mechanical behaviors in uniaxial tension test. The fibrous mat from PPEK/chloroform/ethanol system showed a feature of ductile fracture with relatively low fracture strength but long fracture deformation, while the fibrous mat from PPEK/NMP system showed a feature of brittle fracture with small deformation but quite large fracture strength of ca. 6 MPa. Finally thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the resultant PPEK fibrous mat did not decompose until the temperature reached 478 °C, which qualified the resultant fibrous mat as a promising material used under high-temperature condition.

  4. Preparation and characterization of thermally stable copoly(phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Shouhai; Wang, Yutian; Lu, Yan; Jian, Xigao

    2015-04-01

    Novel thermally stable copoly(phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) (PPBES) hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were successfully fabricated by the dry/wet phase inversion technique. The effects of polymer dope formulation (i.e., the PPBES concentration, different types and contents of additives) and fiber spinning conditions (i.e., air gap distance, coagulation bath temperature) on the morphologies and separation performance of PPBES hollow fiber UF membranes were investigated, respectively. It was found that the water flux of hollow fiber membrane decreased with the increase of PPBES concentration or EGME content in casting solution, while the rejection of PEG increased. However, the PPBES hollow fiber UF prepared with LiCl as inorganic small molecule additive exhibited different phenomena. In addition, the decrease of air gap distance or the increase of coagulation bath temperature could improve the water flux of UF membrane while reduce the rejection of PEG. Moreover, the thermal stability of the PPBES hollow fiber UF membranes was investigated. The water flux of PPBES membrane increased dramatically from 155 to 428 L m-2 h-1 without significant decrease of rejection when the temperature of feed solution increased from 20 °C to 95 °C.

  5. Effect of additives on the performance and morphology of sulfonated copoly (phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) composite nanofiltration membranes☆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Shanshan; Zhang, Shouhai; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Guozhen; Jian, Xigao

    2014-03-01

    Sulfonated copoly (phthalazinone biphenyl ether sulfone) (SPPBES) composite nanofiltration membranes were fabricated by adding low molecular weight additives into SPPBES coating solutions during a dip coating process. Three selected additives: glycol, glycerol and hydroquinone were used in this work. The effect of additives on the membrane performance was studied and discussed in terms of rejection and permeation flux. Among all the composite membranes, the membrane prepared with glycol as an additive achieved the highest Na2SO4 rejection, and the membrane fabricated with glycerol as an additive exhibited the highest flux. The salts rejection of SPPBES composite membranes increased in the following order MgCl2 < NaCl ≤ MgSO4 < Na2SO4. The morphologies of the SPPBES composite membranes were characterized by SEM, it was found that the membrane prepared with hydroquinone showed a rough membrane surface. Composite membrane fabricated with glycol or glycerol as the additive showed very good chemical stability.

  6. Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups and poly(arylene ether) copolymers containing pendent ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups are readily prepared from bisphenols containing ethynyl and substituted ethynyl groups. The resulting polymers are cured up to 350.degree. C. to provide crosslinked poly(arylene ether)s with good solvent resistance, high strength and modulus.

  7. Promoting and Tuning Porosity of Flexible Ether-Linked Phthalazinone-Based Covalent Triazine Frameworks Utilizing Substitution Effect for Effective CO2 Capture.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kuanyu; Liu, Cheng; Zong, Lishuai; Yu, Guipeng; Cheng, Shengli; Wang, Jinyan; Weng, Zhihuan; Jian, Xigao

    2017-04-10

    Five porous ether-linked phthalazinone-based covalent triazine frameworks (PHCTFs) were successfully constructed via ionothermal polymerizations from flexible dicyano monomers containing asymmetric, twisted, and N-heterocyclic phthalazinone structure. All the building blocks could be easily prepared by simple and low-cost aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions, showing the large-scale application potential of thermal stable phthalazinone structure in constructing porous materials. Generally, the flexible building blocks are avoided to prevent the networks from collapsing in constructing high surface area porous materials. Our experimental results revealed that the introduction of the substituents can effectively decrease the probability of the network interpenetration from the longer struts and the intermolecular/intramolecular intercalation from the increased degree of conformation freedom in the flexible ether-linkage, the BET surface areas of PHCTFs increasing from 676 to 1270 m(2) g(-1). Meanwhile, the effects of introducing different sizes (methyl or phenyl group) and amounts (one or two) of substituents on the porosities of the target polymer networks were also investigated in detail. The high CO2 adsorption capacity of 10.3 wt % (273 K, 1 bar) can be ascribed to the strong affinity of the electron-rich N,O-containing networks with CO2. Excitingly, PHCTF-5 demonstrates the high CO2/N2 selectivity up to 138 (273 K, 1 bar), according to the ideal adsorbed solution theory (IAST) for the higher proportion of Vmicro accompanied the electron-rich heteroatoms characteristic. Such high CO2 adsorption capacity and good separation properties are superior to those of many other microporous organic polymers. These properties along with easily up-scalable synthesis make porous PHCTFs promising candidates applied in gas sorption and separation field.

  8. Sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, methods for producing the same, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hofmann, Michael A.

    2006-11-14

    The present invention is directed to sulfonimide-containing polymers, specifically sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, and processes for making the sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether)s and sulfonimide-containing poly(arylene ether sulfone)s, for use conductive membranes and fuel cells.

  9. Poly(arylene ether)s That Resist Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing phosphine oxide (PAEPO's) made via aromatic nucleophilic displacement reactions of activated aromatic dihalides (or, in some cases, activated aromatic dinitro compounds) with new bisphenol monomers containing phosphine oxide. Exhibited favorable combination of physical and mechanical properties and resistance to monatomic oxygen in oxygen plasma environment. Useful as adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, moldings, and composite matrices.

  10. A new alternative to expandable pedicle screws: Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell.

    PubMed

    Demir, Teyfik

    2015-05-01

    Screw pullout is a very common problem in the fixation of sacrum with pedicle screws. The principal cause of this problem is that the cyclic micro motions in the fixation of sacrum are higher than the other regions of the vertebrae that limit the osteo-integration between bone and screw. In addition to that, the bone quality is very poor at sacrum region. This study investigated a possible solution to the pullout problem without the expandable screws' handicaps. Newly designed poly-ether-ether-ketone expandable shell and classical pedicle screws were biomechanically compared. Torsion test, pullout tests, fatigue tests, flexion/extension moment test, axial gripping capacity tests and torsional gripping capacity tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM F543, F1798 and F1717. Standard polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were used as embedding medium for pullout tests. Classical pedicle screw pullout load on polyurethane foam was 564.8 N compared to the failure load for calf vertebrae's 1264 N. Under the same test conditions, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell system's pullout loads from polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were 1196.3 and 1890 N, respectively. The pullout values for expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell were 33% and 53% higher than classical pedicle screw on polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae, respectively. The expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited endurance on its 90% of yield load. Contrary to poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, classical pedicle screw exhibited endurance on 70% of its yield load. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited much higher pullout performance than classical pedicle screw. Fatigue performance of expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is also higher than classical pedicle screw due to damping the micro motion capacity of the poly-ether-ether-ketone. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is a safe alternative to all other expandable pedicle screw systems on mechanical perspective.

  11. Phenylethynyl-Terminated Poly(Arylene Ethers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Bryant, Robert G.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    Phenylethynyl-terminated poly(arylene ethers) synthesized in wide range of molecular weights by adjusting monomer ratios and adding appropriate amounts of 4-phenylethynyl-4'-fluorobenzophenone to monomers to end-cap oligomers during polymerization. Have low molecular weights and low melt viscosities, and are easily processed as adhesives, composites, and moldings. Thermally cured to provide materials that are crosslinked and insoluble in common organic solvents. Exhibit increased resistance to solvents, greater tensile moduli, and better high-temperature properties. Useful as adhesives, composite matrices, and moldings, especially in applications in which combination of toughness and resistance to solvents needed.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of poly(silyl ether)s and modified poly(siloxane)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabry, Joseph Mark

    Activated dihydridocarbonyltris(triphenylphosphine)ruthenium ( Ru) catalyzes the dehydrogenative silylation condensation copolymerization of ortho-quinones with alpha,o-dihydrido-oligodimethylsiloxanes to give high molecular weight copoly(arylene-1,2-dioxy/oligodimethylsiloxanylene)s in good chemical yield. The hydrosilylation polymerization of aliphatic o-dimethylsilyloxy ketones is also catalyzed by activated Ru to yield unsymmetrical poly(silyl ether)s. Likewise, Ru catalyzes the copolymerization of alpha,o-diketones with alpha,o-dihydrido-oligodimethylsiloxanes to yield symmetrical poly(silyl ether)s. A mechanism of the copolymerizations is proposed, in which beta-hydride elimination is favored over reductive elimination in the reaction of the ortho-quinones. Chiral centers affect the NMR spectra of the poly(silyl ether)s produced by hydrosilylation. The photoluminescence properties of the polymers were studied along with those of model compounds. The decrease in Tgs with increase in siloxane chain length as well as fluorescence spectra is discussed. RuH2(CO)(PPh3)3 (Ru), activated with a stoichiometric amount of styrene, catalyzes the anti-Markovnikov addition of an ortho C-H bond of benzophenone across the C-C double bonds of alpha,o-bis(trimethylsilyloxy)copoly(dimethylsiloxane/vinylmethylsiloxane), alpha,o-bis(vinyldimethsilyloxy)poly(dimethylsiloxane)s, and 1,3-divinyltetramethyldisiloxane to yield alpha,o-bis(trimethylsilyloxy)copoly[dimethylsiloxane/2-(2 '-benzophenonyl)ethylmethylsiloxane]s, alpha,o-bis[2-(2 '-benzophenonyl)ethyldimethylsilyloxy]poly(dimethylsiloxane)s, and 1,3-bis[2-(2'-benzophenonyl)ethyl]tetramethyldisiloxane, respectively. While the Mw/Mn and Tgs of the modified polysiloxanes are similar to those of the precursor polymers, an increase in molecular weight is observed upon heating. 1,3-bis[2-(2 '-Benzophenonyl)ethyl]tetramethyldisiloxane, a model compound, was utilized to test a mechanism for the increase in molecular weight. A

  13. Synthesis and characterizations of electrospun sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) SPEEK nanofiber membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasbullah, N.; Sekak, K. A.; Ibrahim, I.

    2016-07-01

    A novel electrospun polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) based on Sulfonated Poly (ether ether ketone) were prepared and characterized. The poly (ether ether ketone) PEEK was sulfonated using concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature for 60 hours reaction time. The degree sulfonation (DS) of the SPEEK are 58% was determined by H1 NMR using area under the peak of the hydrogen shielding at aromatic ring of the SPEEK. Then, the functional group of the SPEEK was determined using Fourier transfer infrared (FTIR) showed O-H vibration at 3433 cm-1 of the sulfonated group (SO2-OH). The effect of the solvent and polymer concentration toward the electrospinning process was investigated which, the DMAc has electrospun ability compared to the DMSO. While, at 20 wt.% of the polymer concentration able to form a fine and uniform nanofiber, this was confirmed by FESEM that shown electrospun fiber mat SPEEK surface at nano scale diameter.

  14. Chemistry and adhesive properties of poly(arylene ether)s containing heterocyclic units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Novel poly(arylene ether)s containing heterocyclic units were prepared, characterized, and evaluated as adhesives and composite matrices. The polymers were prepared by reacting a heterocyclic bisphenol with an activated aromatic dihalide in a polar aprotic solvent, using potassium carbonate. The polymerizations were generally carried out in N,N-dimethylacetamide at 155 C. In some cases, where the polymers were semicrystalline, higher temperatures and thus higher boiling solvents were necessary to keep the polymers in solution. Heterocyclic rings incorporated into the poly(arylene ether) backbone include phenylquinoxaline, phenylimidazole, benzimidazole, benzoxazole, 1,3,4-oxadiazole, and 1,2,4-triazole. The polymers were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, solution viscosity, X-ray diffraction, thin film, and adhesive and (in some cases) composite properties. The glass transition temperatures, crystalline melt temperature, solubility, and mechanical properties varied depending upon the heterocyclic ring. The chemistry and properties of these materials are discussed.

  15. Amorphous phase separation in crystallizable polymer blends based on poly (aryl ether ketones) and poly (ether imide)

    SciTech Connect

    Kalika, D.S.; Bristow, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    The morphology of a series of miscible crystallizable blends based on poly (aryl ether ketones) [PAEK] and poly (ether imide) [PEI] has been investigated as a function of blend composition and crystallization condition by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. For blends of poly (ether ether ketone) [PEEK] and PEI, dielectric scans of the crystallized samples reveal two glass-rubber relaxations corresponding to the coexistence of a mixed interlamellar amorphous phase, and a pure PEI phase located in interfibrillar/interspherulitic regions. The exclusion of a significant fraction of PEI outside of the crystal lamellae reflects a fundamental change in the nature of interaction between the interlamellar PEEK segments and the PEI chains owing to the constraints imposed on the PEEK segments by the crystal surfaces. The degree of PEI exclusion is dependent upon kinetic factors, i.e. the rate of PEEK crystallization relative to the rate of PEI diffusion away from the advancing crystal front. As a result, lower crystallization temperatures lead to an increase in the amount of PEI trapped in the interlamellar regions. In this work, the morphological characteristics of the PEEK/PEI blends are compared with those of blends comprised of poly (ether ketone ketone) [PEKK] and PEI. The introduction of the {open_quotes}kinked{close_quote} isophthalate moiety in the PEKK backbone has been shown to disrupt the persistence of order at the crystal-amorphous interface, and thereby leads to a reduction in the degree of constraint imposed by the crystal lamellae on the amorphous (interlamellar) PEKK segments. The impact of this reduction in crystalline constraint on the nature of the PEKK/PEI intersegmental interactions and the corresponding PEI segregation is discussed.

  16. Electroless nickel-phosphorus coating on poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotubes composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Tong; Di, Lizhi; Yang, De'an

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve electromagnetic shielding property of poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotubes composite, a nickel-phosphorus coating was covered on the composite by electroless plating. The morphologies of the substrates and the coatings were characterized by SEM. XPS was performed to analyze the surface composition and chemical states before and after chemical etching. The results showed that lots of microscopic holes appeared and evenly distributed on the surface, and the concentration of hydrophilic groups on the surface increased after the composite was etched. Thermal shock test showed that the adhesive strength between the coating and the composite was good.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of poly(D,L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock poly(ether-ester-urethane)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haw, Tan Ching; Ahmad, Azizan; Anuar, Farah Hannan

    2015-09-01

    In this study, poly(D,L-lactide)-poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock poly(ether-ester-urethane)s was synthesized in the framework of environmental friendly products to meet the need for highly flexible polymers. Triblock copolymer with poly(ethylene glycol) as center block and poly(D,L-lactide) as side block were first synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of D,L-lactide, followed by chain extension reaction of triblocks using hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI). NMR and infra-red spectroscopies were used to determine the molecular composition whereas XRD analysis revealed crystallinity behavior of synthesized multiblock copolymers.

  18. High temperature fuel cell membranes based on poly(arylene ether)s containing benzimidazole groups

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dae Sik; Kim, Yu Seung; Lee, Kwan - Soo; Boncella, James M; Kuiper, David; Guiver, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    Development of new high-performance polymer membranes that retain their proton conductivity under low humidity conditions is one of the most critical requirements to commercialize PEMFC systems. Current sulfonated proton exchange membranes acquire proton conductivity by water that solvates ion and carries proton. Consequently, a loss of water under low RH conditions immediately results in a loss of proton conductivity. One approach to maintain proton conductivity under low RH conditions is to replace water with a less volatile proton solvent. Kreuer has pointed out the possibility to develop fully polymeric proton-conducting membranes based on nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as imidazole, benzimidazole, and pyrazole. We have attempted to blend those less volatile proton solvent with sulfonated copolymers such as polystyrene sulfonic acid, Nafion, poly(arylene ether sulfone, BPSH-xx). [Ref. DOE review meeting 2007 and 2008] However, we observed that imidazole was slowly sublimated out as temperature and humidity increases which could cause poisoning of electro-catalyst, corrosion and losing conductivity. In this presentation, we report the synthesis of novel poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing benzimidazole groups These benzimidazole containing polymer was blended with sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone). In the blend system, benzimidazole group attached to the polysulfone acts as a medium through the basic nitrogen for transfer of protons between the sulfonic acid groups. Proton conductivity of the blend membranes was investigated as a function of water content at 80 C and compared the performance with water based proton conduction system.

  19. Thermotropic behavior of poly(oxyethylene) cholesterol ethers.

    PubMed

    López-Quintela, M Arturo; Akahane, Akira; Rodríguez, Carlos; Kunieda, Hironobu

    2002-03-01

    The thermotropic behavior of poly(oxyethylene) cholesterol ether surfactants was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. Contrary to what is usually observed in conventional poly(oxyethylene)-type surfactant systems, poly(oxyethylene) cholesterol ether surfactants show a change of the fusion mechanism as the chain length is varied. For long chain lengths (n > or = 15) the usual solid-liquid transition is found, but for short chain lengths (n < or = 10) the transition goes through a birefringent lamellar phase. The appearance of this liquid crystal (LC) phase seems to be related with the predominance of the cholesterol part in the short chain polyoxyethylene surfactants. On the contrary, for long polyexyethylene chains the polymer gains in importance and only a solid crystalline structure is observed at low temperatures. An antiparallel packing structure with totally overlapped chains is found for both, the solid and the LC phase. The chains seem to be in a zigzag configuration, and only for the longest surfactant here studied (n = 30) a change of the chain configuration to a much shorter meander configuration is observed.

  20. Chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1990-01-01

    As part of a program to develop high-temperature high-performance structural resins for aerospace applications, the chemistry and properties of new poly(arylene ether imidazoles) were investigated. The polymers were prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of aromatic bis(imidazolephenols) with activated aromatic difluoro compounds. The amorphous thermoplastic polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures from 230 to 301 C, inherent viscosities from 0.46 to 1.46 dL/g, and number-average molecular weights as high as 59,300 g/mole. The polymers exhibit good toughness, adhesive, composite, and film properties. The chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of these materials are discussed.

  1. Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang; Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe; Sapelkin, Andrei; King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard; Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri

    2014-06-21

    Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

  2. Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) membranes for vanadium redox flow battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Zhensheng; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng; Bi, Cheng; Dai, Hua

    Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with various degree of sulfonation is prepared and first used as ion exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The vanadium ion permeability of SPEEK40 membrane is one order of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115 membrane. The low cost SPEEK membranes exhibit a better performance than Nafion at the same operating condition. VRB single cells with SPEEK membranes show very high energy efficiency (>84%), comparable to that of the Nafion, but at much higher columbic efficiency (>97%). In the self-discharge test, the duration of the cell with the SPEEK membrane is two times longer than that with Nafion 115. The membrane keeps a stable performance after 80-cycles charge-discharge test.

  3. Wear of ceramic-on-carbon fiber-reinforced poly-ether ether ketone hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Brockett, Claire L; John, Gemma; Williams, Sophie; Jin, Zhongmin; Isaac, Graham H; Fisher, John

    2012-08-01

    Total hip replacement has been a successful surgical intervention for over 50 years, with the majority of bearings using a polyethylene cup. Long-term failure due to osteolysis and loosening has been widely documented and alternative bearings have been sought. A novel carbon fiber-reinforced poly-ether ether ketone (CFR-PEEK) cup was investigated through experimental friction and wear studies. Friction studies demonstrated the bearings operated in a boundary lubrication condition, with friction factors higher than those for other hip replacement bearings. The wear study was conducted with 36 mm diameter bearings tested against Biolox Delta heads for a period of 10 million cycles. The mean volumetric wear rate was 0.3 mm(3)/Mc, indicating the ceramic-on-CFR-PEEK bearing to be a very low wearing option for total hip replacement.

  4. A sulfonated poly (aryl ether ether ketone ketone) isomer: synthesis and DMFC performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Liu, Baijun; Hu, Wei; Jiang, Zhenhua; Robertson, Gilles; Guiver, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A sulfonated poly(aryl ether ether ketone ketone) (PEEKK) having a well-defined rigid homopolymer-like chemical structure was synthesized from a readily-prepared PEEKK post-sulfonation with concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature within several hours. The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) cast from the resulting polymer exhibited an excellent combination of thermal resistance, oxidative and dimensional stability, low methanol fuel permeability and high proton conductivity. Furthermore, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were successfully fabricated and good direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) performance was observed. At 2 M MeOH feed, the current density at 0.5 V reached 165 mA/cm, which outperformed our reported analogues and eveluated Nafion membranes.

  5. Poly(ether-ether-ketone) orthopedic bearing surface modified by self-initiated surface grafting of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine).

    PubMed

    Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Yamane, Shihori; Hashimoto, Masami; Takatori, Yoshio; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the production of free radicals on a poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) substrate under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The amount of the ketyl radicals produced from the benzophenone (BP) units in the PEEK molecular structure initially increased rapidly and then became almost constant. Our observations revealed that the BP units in PEEK acted as photoinitiators, and that it was possible to use them to control the graft polymerization of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC). This "self-initiated surface graft polymerization" method is very convenient in the absence of external photoinitiator. We also investigated the effects of the monomer concentration and UV irradiation time on the extent of the grafted PMPC layer. Furthermore, as an application to improving the durability of artificial hips, we demonstrated the nanometer-scale photoinduced grafting of PMPC onto PEEK and carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK (CFR-PEEK) orthopedic bearing surfaces and interfaces. A variety of test revealed significant improvements in the water wettability, frictional properties, and wear resistance of the surfaces and interfaces.

  6. Chain-extended poly(aryl ether ketones)

    SciTech Connect

    Robeson, L.M.; Winslow, P.A.; Matzner, M.; Harris, J.E.; Maresca, L.M.

    1992-06-09

    This patent describes a process for preparing a poly(aryl ether ketone) polymer. It comprises reacting (n) moles of HAr H with (n + 1) moles of YCOAr{sub 1}COY under Friedel-Crafts polymerization conditions; reacting the product obtained with 2XAR{sub 2}H under Friedel-Crafts polymerization conditions; reacting the product obtained with HOAr{sub 3}OH in the presence of a base and an aprotic solvent; wherein Ar and Ar{sub 1} are divalent aromatic groups, Ar{sub 2} is a divalent aromatic group wherein the substituents X and CO are in para or ortho position relative to each other, Ar{sub 3} is a residue of a dihydric phenol, X and Y are halogen, n is an integer of 1 to 50 and X is one or greater.

  7. New aromatic activated dihalides and bisphenol monomers for the preparation of novel poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, James F.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this research program was to synthesize a series of unique monomers of type I to be utilized at NASA-Langley in the preparation of new poly(arylene ether ketones), poly(arylene ether ketosulfones), and poly(arylene ether ketophosphine oxides). These A-A and A-B monomer systems, which possess activated aryl halide and/or phenolic end groups, are accessible via condensation reactions of appropriately substituted aryl acetonitrile carbanions with activated aryl dihalides followed by oxidative decyanation.

  8. Enhanced osteoblast responses to poly ether ether ketone surface modified by water plasma immersion ion implantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heying; Lu, Tao; Meng, Fanhao; Zhu, Hongqin; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-05-01

    Poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) offers a set of characteristics superior for human implants; however, its application is limited by the bio-inert surface property. In this work, PEEK surface was modified using single step plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) treatment with a gas mixture of water vapor as a plasma resource and argon as an ionization assistant. Field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the microstructure and composition of the modified PEEK surface. The water contact angle and zeta-potential of the surfaces were also measured. Osteoblast precursor cells MC3T3-E1 and rat bone mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the PEEK samples to evaluate their cytocompatibility. The obtained results show that the hydroxyl groups as well as a "ravined structure" are constructed on water PIII modified PEEK. Compared with pristine PEEK, the water PIII treated PEEK is more favorable for osteoblast adhesion, spreading and proliferation, besides, early osteogenic differentiation indicated by the alkaline phosphatase activity is also up-regulated. Our study illustrates enhanced osteoblast responses to the PEEK surface modified by water PIII, which gives positive information in terms of future biomedical applications.

  9. Vibrational spectroscopic study of pure and silica-doped sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangasamy, Vijay Shankar; Thayumanasundaram, Savitha; Seo, Jin Won; Locquet, Jean-Pierre

    2015-03-01

    We report the vibrational properties of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes, used as electrolytes in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. We discuss the changes in the vibrational modes of the functional groups present in the polymer arising due to the sulfonation process and the subsequent incorporation of silica particles functionalized with sulfonic acid group. From the infrared spectra, we confirm the incorporation of sulfonic acid group in the polymer chain as well as in the functionalized silica particles. We have also measured the variations in the peak area ratio of the characteristic out-of-plane vibrations of the aromatic rings in the PEEK polymer at 1280 cm-1 with respect to a reference peak at 1305 cm-1. These values were correlated to the crystallinity (XC) values experimentally determined by DSC technique, providing a non-destructive means to calculate the crystallinity of polymer membranes. The calculated XC values were in good agreement with the experimental values. The crystallinity was observed to decrease with increasing degree of sulfonation (DS), indicating the crystalline-to-amorphous phase modification of the polymer by sulfonation, which along with the enhanced ion-exchange capacity and water uptake, is responsible for the improved ionic conductivity at higher DS values.

  10. Electrical conductivity of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) based composite membranes containing sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celso, Fabricio; Mikhailenko, Serguei D.; Rodrigues, Marco A. S.; Mauler, Raquel S.; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2016-02-01

    Composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) intended for fuel cell applications were prepared by embedding of various amounts of dispersed tri-sulfonic acid ethyl POSS (S-Et-POSS) and tri-sulfonic acid butyl POSS (S-Bu-POSS) in thin films of sulfonated poly ether-ether ketone. The electrical properties of the PEMs were studied by Impedance spectroscopy and it was found that their conductivity σ changes with the filler content following a curve with a maximum. The water uptake of these PEMs showed the same dependence. The investigation of initial isolated S-POSS substances revealed the properties of typical electrolytes, which however in both cases possessed low conductivities of 1. 17 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Et-POSS) and 3.52 × 10-5 S cm-1 (S-Bu-POSS). At the same time, the insoluble in water S-POSS was found forming highly conductive interface layer when wetted with liquid water and hence producing a strong positive impact on the conductivity of the composite PEM. Electrical properties of the composites were analysed within the frameworks of effective medium theory and bounding models, allowing to evaluate analytically the range of possible conductivity values. It was found that these approaches produced quite good approximation of the experimental data and constituted a fair basis for interpretation of the observed relationship.

  11. Crystal morphology and phase identifications in poly(aryl ether ketones)s and their copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, R.M.; Cheng, S.Z.D.; Hsiao, B.S.

    1995-12-01

    A series of poly(aryl ether ketone ketone)s prepared from diphenyl ether (DPE) and terephthalic acid M or isophthalic acid (T) have been investigated. PEKK(T) has been reported to exhibit two polymorphism (form I and form II) based on wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and electron diffraction (ED) experiments.

  12. Liquid-crystal photoalignment by photosensitive fluorinated poly(arylene ether)

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiangdan; Zhong Zhenxin; Lee, Seung Hee; Ghang, Gilson; Lee, Myong-Hoon

    2005-03-28

    We report a liquid-crystal (LC) photoalignment material with a high photosensitivity based on the fluorinated poly(arylene ether) containing a chalcone unit in the main chain. The fluorinated poly(arylene ether) exhibited defect-free homogeneous alignment of LCs upon irradiation of linearly polarized UV light for 10 s. Spectroscopic analyses revealed that [2+2] cycloaddition between the chalcone moieties generated the surface anisotropy to induce an efficient alignment of LCs.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (Arylene Ether Benzimidazole) Oligomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Michael J.

    1995-01-01

    Several poly(arylene ether benzimidazole) oligomers were prepared by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution reaction of a bisphenol benzimidazole and various alkyl-substituted aromatic bisphenols with an activated aromatic dihalide in N, N-dimethylacetarnide. Moderate to high molecular weight terpolymers were obtained in all cases, as shown by their inherent viscosities, which ranged from 0.50 to 0.87 dL g(sup -1). Glass transition temperatures (T(sub g)s) of polymer powders ranged from 267-280 C. Air-dried unoriented thin film T(sub g)s were markedly lower than those of the powders, whereas T(sub g)s of films dried in a nitrogen atmosphere were identical to those of the corresponding powders. In addition, air-dried films were dark amber and brittle, whereas nitrogen-dried films were yellow and creasable. Nitrogen-dried films showed slightly higher thin-film tensile properties than the air-dried films, as well.

  14. Material with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and good mechanical and thermal properties produced using multi-wall carbon nanotubes wrapped with poly(ether sulphone) in a poly(ether ether ketone) matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuling; Wang, Hongsong; Wang, Guibin; Jiang, Zhenhua

    2012-07-01

    A material with high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and good mechanical and thermal properties was produced using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) wrapped with poly(ether sulphone) (PES) dispersed in a poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) matrix. The material was fabricated using melt-blending, and MWCNT/PEEK composites show different degrees of improvement in the measured dielectric, mechanical, and thermal properties as compared to pure PEEK. This is attributed to the high conductivity of MWCNTs, the effect of wrapping MWCNTs with PES, the good dispersion of the wrapped MWCNTs in PEEK, and the strong interfacial adhesion between the wrapped MWCNTs and the PEEK.

  15. Synthesis and fluorescence properties of divalent europium-poly(methacrylate containing crown ether structure) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, N.; Nakamura, H.; Mishima, T.; Shiokawa, J.; Adachi, G. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports on divalent europium complexes with poly(methacrylate containing crown ether structure)s, poly(crown ether)s, prepared and their fluorescence properties studied. The polymers used were poly(15-crown-5-methyl methacrylate) (PMA15C5), copoly(15- crown-5-methyl methacrylate-X) (copoly(MA15C5-X)); (X = MMA, EMA, BMA, 2-methoxyethyl methacrylate (MAGI) 3,6,9,12,15- pentaoxahexadecyl methacrylate (MAG5)), poly(18-crown-6- methyl methacrylate) (PMA18C6), and copoly(18-crown-6-methyl methacrylate-MMA) (copoly(MA18C6-MMA)), which were obtained by bulk polymerization. The fluorescence properties of Eu{sup 2+} polymers activated by complexing Eu{sup 2+} ions with crown ether groups were measured in powder form. The Eu{sup 2+}-poly (crown ether)s irradiated by UV light generally gave blue bright emission in the region of 420-465 nm. It was Eu{sup 2+}-copoly(Ma15C5-X); (X = MMA, EMA, and MAG1) that showed the largest emission intensity among the Eu{sup 2+} polymers, and its emission intensity was ca. 20% of that for CaWO{sub 4}:Pb (NBS1026) whose quantum efficiency is about 76%. The intensities of emission for the Eu{sup 2+} polymers containing 15-crown-5 were much larger than that for the ones containing 18-crown-6.

  16. Chemistry and properties of poly(arylene ether 1,3,4-oxadiazole)s and poly(arylene ether 1,2,4-triazole)s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Wolf, P.

    1992-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether)s containing l,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,4-triazole units were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of bisphenol oxadiazole and bisphenol triazole compounds with activated aromatic dihalides. The polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures (Tg) ranging from 182 to 242 C, and several polymers exhibited melting transitions (Tm) ranging from 265 to 390 C. Inherent viscosities ranged from 1.02 to 3.40 dl/g, indicating relatively high molecular weights. Thin films exhibited tensile strengths, moduli, and elongations at 23 C of 90-110 MPa, 2.7-3.6 GPa, and 4-7 percent, respectively. Titanium-to-titanium tensile shear specimens of a poly(arylene ether 1,3,4-oxadiazole) exhibited tensile shear strengths at 23 and 150 C of 22.1 and 17.9 MPa, respectively.

  17. Poly(ether ester) Ionomers as Water-Soluble Polymers for Material Extrusion Additive Manufacturing Processes.

    PubMed

    Pekkanen, Allison M; Zawaski, Callie; Stevenson, André T; Dickerman, Ross; Whittington, Abby R; Williams, Christopher B; Long, Timothy E

    2017-04-12

    Water-soluble polymers as sacrificial supports for additive manufacturing (AM) facilitate complex features in printed objects. Few water-soluble polymers beyond poly(vinyl alcohol) enable material extrusion AM. In this work, charged poly(ether ester)s with tailored rheological and mechanical properties serve as novel materials for extrusion-based AM at low temperatures. Melt transesterification of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG, 8k) and dimethyl 5-sulfoisophthalate afforded poly(ether ester)s of sufficient molecular weight to impart mechanical integrity. Quantitative ion exchange provided a library of poly(ether ester)s with varying counterions, including both monovalent and divalent cations. Dynamic mechanical and tensile analysis revealed an insignificant difference in mechanical properties for these polymers below the melting temperature, suggesting an insignificant change in final part properties. Rheological analysis, however, revealed the advantageous effect of divalent countercations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Zn(2+)) in the melt state and exhibited an increase in viscosity of two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, time-temperature superposition identified an elevation in modulus, melt viscosity, and flow activation energy, suggesting intramolecular interactions between polymer chains and a higher apparent molecular weight. In particular, extrusion of poly(PEG8k-co-CaSIP) revealed vast opportunities for extrusion AM of well-defined parts. The unique melt rheological properties highlighted these poly(ether ester) ionomers as ideal candidates for low-temperature material extrusion additive manufacturing of water-soluble parts.

  18. Low dielectric fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketone) film and coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassidy, Patrick E. (Inventor); Tullos, Gordon L. (Inventor); St.clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention relates to film and coating materials prepared from novel fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketones). A fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketone) is prepared by reacting a bisphenol with 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2,2-bis 4-(4-halobenzoyl) phenyl propane (wherein halo is fluoro or chloro), which is a novel monomer formed as the reaction product of halobenzene (wherein halo is fluoro or chloro) and 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexafluoro-2,2-bis (p-chloro formyl phenyl) propane. Especially beneficial results of this invention are that films and coating materials prepared from the novel fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketone) are essentially optically transparent/colorless and have a lower dielectric constant than otherwise comparable, commercially available poly(phenylene ether ketones). Moreover, unlike the otherwise comparable commercially available materials, the novel fluorinated poly(phenylene ether ketones) of the present invention can be solution cast or sprayed to produce the films and coatings. Furthermore, the long term thermal stability of the polymers of the present invention is superior to that of the commercially available materials.

  19. A gemini quaternary ammonium poly (ether ether ketone) anion-exchange membrane for alkaline fuel cell: design, synthesis, and properties.

    PubMed

    Si, Jiangju; Lu, Shanfu; Xu, Xin; Peng, Sikan; Xiu, Ruijie; Xiang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    To reconcile the tradeoff between conductivity and dimensional stability in AEMs, a novel Gemini quaternary ammonium poly (ether ether ketone) (GQ-PEEK) membrane was designed and successfully synthesized by a green three-step procedure that included polycondensation, bromination, and quaternization. Gemini quaternary ammonium cation groups attached to the anti-swelling PEEK backbone improved the ionic conductivity of the membranes while undergoing only moderate swelling. The grafting degree (GD) of the GQ-PEEK significantly affected the properties of the membranes, including their ion-exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, and ionic conductivity. Our GQ-PEEK membranes exhibited less swelling (≤ 40 % at 25-70 °C, GD 67 %) and greater ionic conductivity (44.8 mS cm(-1) at 75 °C, GD 67 %) compared with single quaternary ammonium poly (ether ether ketone). Enhanced fuel cell performance was achieved when the GQ-PEEK membranes were incorporated into H2 /O2 single cells.

  20. Simulated space environment effects on the optical properties of poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sykes, George F.; Hoogstraten, Craig A.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Hergenrother, Paul M.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the stability of poly(arylene ethers) formed in a reaction of 1,3 -bis(4-chlorobenzoyl)benzene and various bisphenols after experiencing long-term exposure to space conditions. Transparent poly(arylene ethers) films were subjected to separate electron and UV bombardments, as were polysulfone and Kapton films for comparisons. The order of exposure to the two types of radiation was reversed for two sample populations. The optical properties and glass transition temperatures of the samples were determined after irradiation. The poly(arylene ethers) films exhibited good resistance to the electron radiation but suffered severe degradation in the UV environment. The loss of optical transmissivity was proportional to the UV radiation dose.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of high temperature curable poly(arylene ether) structural adhesive and composite matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Mecham, S.J.; Jayaraman, S.; Bobbitt, M.M.

    1996-12-31

    Crosslinked poly(arylene ether) systems are projected to display many desirable properties suitable for aerospace structural adhesive and composite matrix applications. The synthesis and characterization of a series of processable high temperature curing poly(arylene ether) oligomers incorporating terminally reactive phenylethynyl endgroups will be discussed. Characterization of the oligomers includes NMR, intrinsic viscosity, parallel plate rheological behavior, TGA, and DSC. Curing of these oligomers was conducted at or above 380{degrees}C, providing a large processing window. Thermal stability is very good and the melt viscosity of the oligomers in the processing temperature range is exceptionally low.

  2. A facile synthesis of highly stable multiblock poly(arylene ether)s based alkaline membranes for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasti, Amaranadh; Shahi, Vinod K.

    2014-12-01

    Herein, we are disclosing simple route for the preparation of alkaline membranes (AMs) based on aminated multiblock poly(arylene ether)s (AMPEs) synthesized by nucleophilic substitution-poly condensation followed by quaternization and alkalization reactions. In this procedure, four quaternary ammonium groups are successfully introduced without use of carcinogenic reagents such as chloromethylmethyl ether (CMME). Hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase separation is responsible for their high hydroxide conductivity (∼150 mS cm-1 at 80 °C) due to development of interconnected ion transport pathway. AMs are exhibiting good alkaline stability due to the presence of two vicinal quaternary ammonium groups and avoid degradation such as Sommelet-Hauser rearrangement and Hofmann elimination. Vicinal quaternary ammonium groups also resist nucleophilic (OH-) attack and suppress the Stevens rearrangement as well as SN2 substitution reaction due to stearic hindrance. Optimized AM (AMPE-M20N15 (55% DCM)) exhibits about 0.95 V open circuit voltage (OCV) and 48.8 mW cm-2 power density at 65 °C in alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC) operation. These results suggest promising begin for the preparation of stable and conductive AMs for ADMFC applications and useful for developing hydroxide conductive materials.

  3. Poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone) as a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio Calculation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    temperature polymers that are available in commercial thin films (10 µm or less) include poly(phenylene sulfide ) (PPS), poly(ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK...conserving pseudopotentials with 1, 4, and 6 valence electrons for hydrogen (H), carbon (C), and oxygen (O), respectively. Brillouin zone...gradient approximation GPW Gaussian and plane-wave GTH Goedecker-Teter-Hutter H hydrogen HFX Hartree-Fock exact-exchange HSE Heyd-Scuseria

  4. Rheological and electrical percolation in melt-processed poly(ether ether ketone)/multi-wall carbon nanotube composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangarusampath, D. S.; Ruckdäschel, Holger; Altstädt, Volker; Sandler, Jan K. W.; Garray, Didier; Shaffer, Milo S. P.

    2009-11-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes were dispersed homogeneously throughout a poly(ether ether ketone) matrix by melt processing. The influence of nanotube content on both rheological and electrical properties was analysed. The dynamic storage modulus, G', shows a characteristic solid-like behavior above 1 wt% nanotubes. A sharp transition from an electrically insulating to a conductive composite was observed between 1 and 1.5 wt%. By applying a power-law relation, the rheological and electrical percolation thresholds were found to be 0.9 wt%, and 1.3 wt%, respectively. Considering this data, Guth's filler reinforcement theory provides a valuable estimation of the aspect ratio of the nanotubes after processing and indicates substantial length degradation during the dispersion process.

  5. Electro-osmotic drag effect on the methanol permeation for sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) and nafion 117 membranes.

    PubMed

    Chi, Nguyen Thi Que; Bae, Byungchan; Kim, Dukjoon

    2013-11-01

    Electro-osmotic drag effect on the methanol permeation was investigated for sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) membrane, and its result was compared with that of Nafion 117 membrane. The electro-osmotic drag coefficient was determined from the limiting current density measured at different temperature. The methanol permeability of sPEEK membrane increased with temperature but its temperature dependence was not as strong as that of Nafion 117 membrane. The methanol permeability or the total methanol flux of Nafion 117 membrane was at least twice higher than that of sPEEK70 membrane (sPEEK membrane with 70% sulfonation degree), as the methanol permeation was highly contributed by the electro-osmotic drag effect. This higher electro-osmotic drag of Nafion 117 membrane is attributed to the bigger ion cluster and waster channel in nanophase and thus more free water absorption than sPEEK membrane.

  6. Cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) by using diamino-organosilicon for proton exchange fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Marie J; Reinholdt, Marc X; Kaliaguine, Serge

    2011-03-31

    Fuel cells are at the battlefront to find alternate sources of energy to the highly polluting, economically and environmentally constraining fossil fuels. This work uses an organosilicon molecule presenting two amine functions, bis(3-aminopropyl)-tetramethyldisiloxane (APTMDS) with the aim of preparing cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) based membranes. The hybrid membranes obtained at varying APTMDS loadings are characterized for their acid, proton conductivity, water uptake, and swelling properties. APTMDS may be considered as an extreme case of silica nanoparticle and is therefore most advantageously distributed within the polymeric matrix. The two amine groups can interact, via electrostatic interactions, with the sulfonic acid groups of SPEEK, resulting in a double anchoring of the molecule. The addition of a small amount of APTMDS is enhancing the mechanical and hydrolytic properties of the membranes and allows some unfolding of the polymer chains, rendering some acid sites accessible to water molecules and thus available for proton transport.

  7. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    PubMed

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha

    2014-03-25

    The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion(®). The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion(®), resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  8. Electrochemical preparation of ether ketones from (poly)propylene glycol monoethers

    SciTech Connect

    Snoble, K.A.J.

    1984-02-14

    This invention is a method for preparing an ether ketone comprising electrolyzing a solution containing a (poly)propylene glycol monoether, hydroxyl ions and optionally water in an electrolytic cell having an anode at least partially coated with nickel peroxide, silver peroxide, cobalt peroxide or copper peroxide.

  9. Separation of Dimethyl Ether from Syn-Gas Components by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Orme; Frederick F. Stewart

    2011-05-01

    Permeability and selectivity in gas transport through poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (TPX) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using variable temperature mixed gas experiments is reported. Selected gases include H2, CO, CH4, CO2, and dimethyl ether (DME). The DME data is the first to be reported through these membranes. In this paper, the chosen polymers reflect both rubbery and crystalline materials. Rubbery polymers tend to be weakly size sieving, which, in this work, has resulted in larger permeabilities, lower separation factors, and lower activation energies of permeation (Ep). Conversely, the crystalline TPX membranes showed much greater sensitivity to penetrant size; although the gas condensability also played a role in transport.

  10. Preparation of well-defined poly(ether-ester) macromers: photogelation and biodegradability.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Yasuhide; Okuda, Kanna; Takamizawa, Keiichi; Nakayama, Atsuyoshi

    2011-04-01

    Two series of poly(ether-ester)-based bis-functional macromers terminated with acrylate groups and a well-defined number of ester bonds were synthesized. One series had a chain of 1, 3 or 5 ester bonds at both ends of the central poly(ethylene glycol) block (molecular weight, about 1000), while the other had an alternating structure of oligo(ethylene glycol) each of them linked to two ester bonds, in which 6 or 10 ester bonds were incorporated equally in the macromer molecules and the total molecular weight was adjusted by about 1000. Irradiation of all poly(ether-ester) macromers mixed with camphorquinone resulted in the formation of gels. Gel yield increased and hydrophilic properties of the gels produced decreased with irradiation time. The elastic modulus of the gels decreased with the number of ester bonds. Upon incubation in a PBS solution (pH 8.04), all gels were gradually degraded with time. At 3 weeks of incubation, the degradation ratio increased linearly with the number of ester bonds per unit of molecular weight of the macromers. The order of in vivo degradation rates determined from weight loss was similar to that of the in vitro study. Thus, these poly(ether-ester) macromers may be useful for biodegradable biomaterials or tissue engineering scaffolds.

  11. Reactive Poly(Amic Acid)/ Poly(Glycidyl Methacrylate-r-Poly(ethylene Glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate) Blends as Gas Permeation Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, Michael; Watkins, James

    2012-02-01

    Polymers containing polar moieties, such as ether groups show an affinity for acidic gases, such as CO2 due to dipole-quadrapole interactions. Polymer blends in which one of the components is poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) have been studied extensively in literature as a CO2/light gas permeation membrane, but due to the crystallization and poor mechanical properties have been difficult to incorporate PEG above 60wt%. In this study, a series of random copolymers containing both glycidyl methacrylate and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate in different ratios are blended with a poly(amic acid) prepolymer made from 4, 4'-oxydianiline and pyromellitic dianhydride to create gas permeation membranes. By using a reactive blend PEG loadings above 70% have been realized with sufficient mechanical properties, and since the side chain on the PEGMA is short these blends do not suffer from crystallization.

  12. 40 CFR 721.7700 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (3:1). 721.7700 Section 721.7700... Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3... substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with...

  13. Effect of surfactants and temperature on the hyperfiltration performance of poly(ether/urea) membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leban, M. I.; Wydeven, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The individual and combined effects of pasteurization temperature (347 K) and surfactants (anionic, cationic, and neutral) on a poly(ether/urea) thin-film hyperfiltration membrane were studied. Performance of this positively charged membrane was measured in terms of sodium chloride rejection and water flux. The observed effect was mostly on water flux and minimal on salt rejection. Pasteurization temperature caused an irreversible flux decline (flux decline slope of 0.09). The gradual flux reduction caused by neutral and cationic surfactants was reversible, whereas the flux reduction caused by anionic surfactant was irreversible and of similar magnitude to flux reduction caused by pasteurization temperature. The effects of anionic surfactant and pasteurization temperature were additive. Because of flux decline at elevated temperatures the poly(ether/urea) membrane is not very attractive for long-term spaceflight use.

  14. Characterization of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) composite membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaohua; Liu, Le; Yu, Lihong; Wang, Lei; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2014-12-01

    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (P(VDF-co-HFP)) composite membranes are prepared and investigated in detail for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. With the high hydrophobicity and stability of P(VDF-co-HFP), the properties of composite membranes such as mechanical property and vanadium ion permeability are effectively improved, showing good trends with the increasing of P(VDF-co-HFP) mass ratio. The VRFB single cell assembled with the composite membrane of 15 wt.% P(VDF-co-HFP) (SPEEK-15% membrane) exhibits higher coulombic efficiency (CE, 95.4%) and energy efficiency (EE, 83.8%) than that assembled with Nafion 117 membrane (CE 91.1% and EE 78.4%) at the current density of 80 mA cm-2. Furthermore, the SPEEK-15% membrane maintains a stable performance during 100 cycles at the current density of 80 mA cm-2. Therefore the SPEEK/P(VDF-co-HFP) composite membrane could be used as low-cost and high-performance membrane for VRFB application.

  15. Space radiation effects on poly(aryl-ether-ketone) thin films and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Sykes, George F., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the space durability of poly(aryl-ether-ketone) (PEEK) in the forms of films and graphite fiber reinforced composites. The influence of the film's crystallinity on electron radiation stability was evaluated using X-ray diffraction, DSC, FTIR, and mechanical property tests. The mechanical properties of the composites material were evaluated after electron radiation and after electron radiation followed by thermal cycling simulating 30 years in geosynchronous orbit.

  16. Poly(arylene ether ketone) carrying hyperquaternized pendants: Preparation, stability and conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kunzhi; Zhang, Zhenpeng; Zhang, Haibo; Pang, Jinhui; Jiang, Zhenhua

    2015-08-01

    A new strategy to synthesize comb-shaped poly(arylene ether ketone) ionomers with hyperquaternized pendants was detailed in this work. Poly(arylene ether ketone) with electron-rich phenyl rings on the side chain was copolymerized. These electron-rich phenyl rings which could be chloromethylated and serve as precursors to cationic sites, are introduced during monomer synthesis. After chloromethylation and quaternization on the side chain, these resulting anion exchange membranes exhibit high conductivities and good dimensional stability, which benefit from the side chain type structure. The highest chloride conductivity of 0.047 S cm-1 was observed in PAEK-QTPM-30 (IEC = 1.58 mmol g-1) and swelling ratio is 31.7% at 80 °C. The structural properties of the synthesized poly(arylene ether ketone)s were investigated by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The anion exchange membranes showed excellent thermal stability up to 200 °C under nitrogen and good chemical stability for high conductivity after treating in alkaline condition up to 30 days. These membranes were studied by IEC, water uptake, dimensional stability. The nano-phase separation from ionic aggregation was confirmed by SAXS. This work implies a viable strategy to improve the performance of anion exchange membranes.

  17. Thin film composite nanofiltration membranes fabricated from quaternized poly(ether ether ketone) with crosslinkable moiety using a benign solvent.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Zhang, Qifeng; Zhang, Suobo; Li, Shenghai

    2016-02-01

    Thin film composite nanofiltration membranes were fabricated through dip-coating and in situ cross-linking of quaternized poly(ether ether ketone) containing a certain amount of tertiary amine groups (QAPEEKs) on polyacrylonitrile (PAN) support. The effects of the variables in membrane formation such as the coating polymer concentration, the curing temperature, and the cross-linking agent types on resultant membrane were studied and the membrane properties such as the barrier layer chemical structure, the surface element composition and morphology were investigated. The obtained performance of uncross-linked and cross-linked QAPEEK-70 thin film composites in nanofiltration test was compared. The results indicated that the cross-linking improved the composite membranes' performance. For instance, the membrane cross-linked by bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BPADGE) named M-C-BPADGE exhibited a MgCl2 rejection of 97.8%, a water flux of 11.8Lm(-2)h(-1), a MWCO of 800Da and corresponding pore size of 0.69nm, while for its uncross-linked membrane named M-U, a MgCl2 rejection of 91.2%, a water flux of 13.5Lm(-2)h(-1), a MWCO with 960Da and a pore size of 0.77nm were found. Furthermore, the M-C-BPADGE membrane exhibited selectivities of 16.0 for separation of mixed Mg(2+) and Na(+) cations, much larger than selectivity of 5.2 obtained for M-U, suggesting that the cross-linked membranes are promising in cation separation.

  18. Hydrogen bond cross-linked sulfonated poly(imino ether ether ketone) (PIEEK) for fuel cell membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Guanjun; Shang, Zhenfang; Yang, Li

    2015-05-01

    A new diamine monomer, 3,3‧-dihydroxydiphenylamine, is prepared by the palladium catalyzed C-N coupling reaction and the following reduction reaction of 3-bromoanisole and m-anisidine. A series of novel hydrogen bond cross-linked sulfonated poly(imino ether ether ketone) (SPIEEK) are obtained by the copolymerization of sodium 5,5‧-carbonylbis(2-fluorobenzene sulfonate), 4,4‧-difluorobenzophenone with 3,3‧-dihydroxydiphenylamine. The structures of resulting polymers are characterized by means of FT-IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and elemental analysis; the results show an agreement with the proposed structure. The resulting SPIEEK membranes display much better resistance to swelling than these without imino groups due to the strong interchain interaction through imino and sulfonic acid groups. The SPIEEK-60 and SPIEEK-80 membrane show the proton conductivity of 0.118 and 0.154 S cm-1 at 80 °C which is higher than Nafion 117 (0.082 S cm-1 at 80 °C). Moreover, the SPIEEK membranes exhibit good mechanical properties and lower methanol permeability due to the hydrogen bondings between the polymer chains.

  19. Reinforcement of poly ether sulphones (PES) with exfoliated graphene oxide for aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-09-01

    Composite materials have been used for aerospace for some time now and have gained virtually 100% acceptance as the materials of choice. Speciality polymers like poly ether sulphones (PES), poly ether ether ketones(PEEK), poly ether imides (PEI) are highly preferred materials as plastic matrix due to their superior temperature performance, excellent wear & friction resistance, excellent dimensional accuracy, high tensile strength, high modulus, precise machinability and chemical resistance. In recent years nanoadditives like single and multiwall carbon nanotubes, graphenes and graphene oxides(GO) are finding huge market potential in aerospace and automobile industries. But manufacture related factors such as particle/ matrix interphases, surface activation, mixing process, particle agglomeration, particle size and shape may lead to different property effects. In this research GO/PES composites were prepared by high shear melt blending technique. GO monolayers were exfoliated from natural graphite flake and dispersed homogeneously in PES matrix for the GO content ranging between 0.5 to 2.0 volume percentage with a high shear twin screw batch mixer. These melt blended nanocomposites were injection moulded for mechanical property validation of tensile strength, flexural modulus and impact resistance. Addition of 0.5 volume percentage of GO enhanced the tensile strength and flexural modulus by 40% and 90% respectively. The results show that addition of GO to PES increase mechanical properties due to the formation of continuous network, good dispersion and strong interfacial interactions. The strong interfacial interactions were accounted for the increase in glass transition temperature. Also there was a significant improvement in the impact resistance of the PES/ GO nanocomposite. The injection moulded samples were tested for stealth performance by measuring the electromagnetic shielding property.

  20. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether. 721.7260 Section 721.7260 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and...

  1. Surface decorated poly(ester-ether-urethane)s nanoparticles: a versatile approach towards clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Piras, Anna Maria; Sandreschi, Stefania; Malliappan, Sivakumar Ponnurengam; Dash, Mamoni; Bartoli, Cristina; Dinucci, Dinuccio; Guarna, Francesco; Ammannati, Enrico; Masa, Marc; Múčková, Marta; Schmidtová, Ludmila; Chiellini, Emo; Chiellini, Federica

    2014-11-20

    Poly(ester-ether-urethane)s copolymers are a resourceful class of biopolymers for the preparation of nanocarriers for drug delivery applications. However, a simple clinical translation for this synthetic material with biological and quality features is still needed. In this view, poly(ε-caprolactone)-co-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers were synthesized as semi-bulk pilot (Kg) scale under mild conditions in absence of catalyst, bearing functional termini such as fluorescein tag and anticancer targeting moieties. The obtained materials were processed into surface decorated paclitaxel (PTX) loaded nanoparticles (NPs). The NPs were fully characterized in vitro and in vivo biodistribution in healthy mice evidenced no sign of toxicity and lower levels of PTX in lung and spleen, compared to clinically applied PTX dosage form.

  2. Preparation and solution behavior of a thermoresponsive diblock copolymer of poly(ethyl glycidyl ether) and poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Ogura, Michihiro; Tokuda, Hiroyuki; Imabayashi, Shin-ichiro; Watanabe, Masayoshi

    2007-08-28

    A thermoresponsive diblock copolymer, poly(ethyl glycidyl ether)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEGE-b-PEO), is synthesized by successive anionic ring-opening polymerization of ethyl glycidyl ether and ethylene oxide using 2-phenoxyethanol as a starting material, and its solution behavior is elucidated in water. In a dilute 1 wt % solution, the temperature-dependent alteration in the polymer hydrodynamic radius (RH) is measured in the temperature range between 5 and 45 degrees C by pulse-gradient spin-echo NMR and dynamic light scattering. The RH value increased with temperature in two steps, where the first step at 15 degrees C corresponds to the core-shell micelle formation and the second step at 40 degrees C corresponds to the aggregation of the core-shell micelles. The formation of the core-shell micelles is supported by the solubilization of a dye (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) in the hydrophobic core, which is recognized for a copolymer solution in the temperature range between 20 and 40 degrees C. In this temperature range, the core-shell micelles and the unimers coexist and the fraction of the former gradually increases with increasing temperature, suggesting equilibrium between the micelles and the unimers. In the concentrated regime (40 wt % solution), the solution forms a gel and the small-angle X-ray scattering measurements reveal the successive formation of hexagonal and lamellar liquid crystal phases with increasing temperature.

  3. Controlled release of protein from biodegradable multi-sensitive injectable poly(ether-urethane) hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomeng; Wang, Yangyun; Chen, Jiaming; Wang, Yinong; Ma, Jianbiao; Wu, Guolin

    2014-03-12

    The synthesis and characterization of multi-sensitive polymers for use as injectable hydrogels for controlled protein/drug delivery is reported. A series of biodegradable multi-sensitive poly(ether-urethane)s were prepared through a simple one-pot condensation of poly(ethylene glycol), 2,2'-dithiodiethanol, N-methyldiethanolamine, and hexamethylene diisocyanate. The sol-gel phase transition behaviors of the obtained copolymers were investigated. Experimental results showed that the aqueous medium comprising the multi-segment copolymers underwent a sol-to-gel phase transition with increasing temperature and pH. At a certain concentration, the copolymer solution could immediately change to a gel under physiological conditions (37 °C and pH 7.4), indicating their suitability as in situ injectable hydrogels in vivo. Insulin was used as a model protein drug for evaluation of the injectable hydrogels as a site-specific drug delivery system. The controlled release of insulin from the hydrogel devices was demonstrated by degradation of the copolymer, which is modulated via the 2,2'-dithiodiethanol content in the poly(ether-urethane)s. These hydrogels having multi-responsive properties may prove to be promising candidates for injectable and controllable protein drug delivery devices.

  4. Parallel Synthesis of Poly(amino ether)-Templated Plasmonic Nanoparticles for Transgene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles have been increasingly investigated for numerous applications in medicine, sensing, and catalysis. In particular, gold nanoparticles have been investigated for separations, sensing, drug/nucleic acid delivery, and bioimaging. In addition, silver nanoparticles demonstrate antibacterial activity, resulting in potential application in treatments against microbial infections, burns, diabetic skin ulcers, and medical devices. Here, we describe the facile, parallel synthesis of both gold and silver nanoparticles using a small set of poly(amino ethers), or PAEs, derived from linear polyamines, under ambient conditions and in absence of additional reagents. The kinetics of nanoparticle formation were dependent on PAE concentration and chemical composition. In addition, yields were significantly greater in case of PAEs when compared to 25 kDa poly(ethylene imine), which was used as a standard catonic polymer. Ultraviolet radiation enhanced the kinetics and the yield of both gold and silver nanoparticles, likely by means of a coreduction effect. PAE-templated gold nanoparticles demonstrated the ability to deliver plasmid DNA, resulting in transgene expression, in 22Rv1 human prostate cancer and MB49 murine bladder cancer cell lines. Taken together, our results indicate that chemically diverse poly(amino ethers) can be employed for rapidly templating the formation of metal nanoparticles under ambient conditions. The simplicity of synthesis and chemical diversity make PAE-templated nanoparticles useful tools for several applications in biotechnology, including nucleic acid delivery. PMID:25084138

  5. Preparation of Sulfonated Poly(aryl ether sulfone) Electrospun Mat/Phosphosilicate Composite Proton Exchange Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Limei; Dou, Liyan; Guan, Guoying

    2017-03-01

    Side-chain-type sulfonated poly(aryl ether sulfone) (SPES) was synthesized and then electrospun into mats. Phosphosilicate glass (PS) via in situ sol-gel synthesis was enclosed in the mats to form a new reinforced composite membrane. The SPES/PS composite membranes showed satisfactory dimensional change behavior with varying humidity. Especially, the composite membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity at harsh measurement conditions of low humidity at 80°C. The composite membrane with outstanding combined properties has potential applications for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  6. A Novel, Poly(Ethyl Ethylene Ether) Inhibitor to Trypsin from Marine Cyanobacteria, Lyngbya confervoides.

    PubMed

    Devi, Ambika; Prasanth, Shankar; Murugesh, Easwaran; Haridas, Karickal R; Sabu, Abdulhameed; Haridas, Madhathilkovilakathu

    2016-03-01

    A novel, poly(ethyl ethylene ether) inhibitor to trypsin was purified from marine cyanobacteria, Lyngbya confervoides from the coastal areas of Thalassery, North Kerala. The kinetics and the thermodynamic parameters of its interactions with the enzyme were also studied. It was demonstrated that the substrate binding, catalytic triad of the enzyme could be blocked by the inhibitor, as expressed by molecular simulation studies. The study also showed that the cyanobacterial group could prove to be a potential source of novel enzyme inhibitors for various applications.

  7. Preparation of Sulfonated Poly(aryl ether sulfone) Electrospun Mat/Phosphosilicate Composite Proton Exchange Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Limei; Dou, Liyan; Guan, Guoying

    2017-01-01

    Side-chain-type sulfonated poly(aryl ether sulfone) (SPES) was synthesized and then electrospun into mats. Phosphosilicate glass (PS) via in situ sol-gel synthesis was enclosed in the mats to form a new reinforced composite membrane. The SPES/PS composite membranes showed satisfactory dimensional change behavior with varying humidity. Especially, the composite membrane exhibits excellent proton conductivity at harsh measurement conditions of low humidity at 80°C. The composite membrane with outstanding combined properties has potential applications for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  8. Poly(aryl ethers) and related polysiloxane copolymer molecular coatings: Preparation and radiation degradation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The radiation degradation of poly(arylene ether sulfones) and related materials is studied. These basic studies are important both as a means to developing stronger, more stable matrix resins for composite materials, as well as to improve the data base in regard to chemical structure-physical property relationships. Thirty homo and copolymers were synthesized, at least partially characterized and, in several cases suitable film casting techniques were developed. Four samples were chosen for initial radiation degradation. Poly(dimethyl siloxane) soft bocks/segments can preferentially migrate to the surface of copolymer films. Since siloxanes are utilized as thermal control coatings, this form of 'molecular' coating is of interest. The chemistry for preparing such copolymers with any of the polymers described was demonstrated.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495)...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10398 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). 721.10398 Section 721.10398 Protection of...-ethanediyl),. alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (generic). (a) Chemical substance... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha., -monoalkyl ethers-.omega.-mono (hydrogen maleate)- (PMN P-10-495)...

  12. Fibers by bioresorbable poly(ester-ether-ester)s as potential suture threads: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Guerra, G D; Cerrai, P; Tricoli, M; Maltinti, S; Anguillesi, I; Barbani, N

    1999-01-01

    Fibers made by a bioresorbable poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-block-poly(oxyethylene)-block-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) copolymer, having a number average molecular mass of about 200,000 Da and an average molar composition of 66% oxycaproyl units and 34% oxyethylene units, were melt-spun, with the aim at using them as suture threads. Their properties were investigated by the stress-strain test and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained show that the properties of this material depend very strongly on the alignment of its macromolecules. In particular, the only partial alignment, obtainable by a relatively moderate drawing just after the extrusion, leads to values of elongation at break too high for use of the fibers as suture threads. The DSC analysis reveals interesting properties of the material, but also confirms their strong dependence on the extrusion procedure and on the mechanical treatment. In conclusion, the results of this preliminary study show that the spinning technique must be improved, and that further investigations are necessary to ascertain the possibility of using these poly(ester-ether-ester)s for the fabrication of suture threads.

  13. Modification of poly(ether urethane) with fluorinated phosphorylcholine polyurethane for improvement of the blood compatibility.

    PubMed

    Tan, Dongsheng; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Li, Jiehua; Tan, Hong; Fu, Qiang

    2012-02-01

    In order to improve the blood compatibility, poly(ether urethane) (PEU) and fluorinated phosphorylcholine polyurethane (P-HFPC) were used to prepare PU/P-HFPC blends by solution mixing. The hemocompatibility in vitro was evaluated with protein adsorption and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contact tests. It was found that the amount of adsorbed protein on surface was decreased by 87%, and almost no platelet adhesion and activation was observed on the surface of blends when P-HFPC content was above 5 wt %. After adding P-HFPC, the blends basically kept favorable mechanical properties of PEU though the content of P-HFPC rises to 20 wt %. To better understand the relationship between structure and properties, the phase structure and surface property of the blend films were further investigated via differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. The results indicated that the fluorinated phosphorylcholine units could be easily enriched on the surface of blend films due to the phase separation between the PEU and P-HFPC. Therefore, ordinary poly(ether urethane)s can obtain both satisfactory blood compatibility and good mechanical properties just by blending with small amount of P-HFPC.

  14. Transparent Films from CO2‐Based Polyunsaturated Poly(ether carbonate)s: A Novel Synthesis Strategy and Fast Curing

    PubMed Central

    Subhani, Muhammad Afzal; Köhler, Burkhard; Gürtler, Christoph; Leitner, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transparent films were prepared by cross‐linking polyunsaturated poly(ether carbonate)s obtained by the multicomponent polymerization of CO2, propylene oxide, maleic anhydride, and allyl glycidyl ether. Poly(ether carbonate)s with ABXBA multiblock structures were obtained by sequential addition of mixtures of propylene oxide/maleic anhydride and propylene oxide/allyl glycidyl ether during the polymerization. The simultaneous addition of both monomer mixtures provided poly(ether carbonate)s with AXA triblock structures. Both types of polyunsaturated poly(ether carbonate)s are characterized by diverse functional groups, that is, terminal hydroxy groups, maleate moieties along the polymer backbone, and pendant allyl groups that allow for versatile polymer chemistry. The combination of double bonds substituted with electron‐acceptor and electron‐donor groups enables particularly facile UV‐ or redox‐initiated free‐radical curing. The resulting materials are transparent and highly interesting for coating applications. PMID:27028458

  15. Preparing alkaline anion exchange membrane with enhanced hydroxide conductivity via blending imidazolium-functionalized and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Zhongyi; Tian, Huimin; Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Bei; Cao, Ying; He, Guangwei; Li, Zongyu; Wu, Hong

    2015-08-01

    The development of alkaline anion exchange membrane (AEM) with both high ion conductivity and stabilities is of great significance for fuel cell applications. In this study, a facile acid-base blending method is designed to improve AEM performances. Basic imidazolium-functionalized poly (ether ether ketone) with a high functionalization degree is employed as polymer matrix to pursue high ion-exchange capacity (IEC) as well as high hydroxide conductivity, meanwhile acidic sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) is employed as the cross-linking agent to enhance the stabilities of the blend membranes. Particularly, an in-situ Menshutkin/crosslinking method is exploited to prevent the flocculation in the preparation process of blend membranes. As a result, dense and defect-free blend membranes are obtained. The blend membranes exhibit high level of IEC up to 3.15 mmol g-1, and consequently possess elevated hydroxide conductivity up to 31.59 mS cm-1 at 30 °C. In addition, benefiting from the strong electrostatic interaction introduced by the acid-base blending, the stabilities and methanol resistance of blend membranes are enhanced.

  16. Separator Membrane from Crosslinked Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether-alt-Maleic Anhydride)

    PubMed Central

    Rohatgi, Charu Vashisth; Dutta, Naba K.; Choudhury, Namita Roy

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report separator membranes from crosslinking of two polymers, such as poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) with an ionic polymer poly(methyl vinyl ether-alt-maleic anhydride) (PMVE-MA). Such interpolymer-networked systems were extensively used for biomedical and desalination applications but they were not examined for their potential use as membranes or separators for batteries. Therefore, the chemical interactions between these two polymers and the influence of such crosslinking on physicochemical properties of the membrane are systematically investigated through rheology and by critical gel point study. The hydrogen bonding and the chemical interaction between PMVE-MA and PVA resulted in highly cross-linked membranes. Effect of the molecular weight of PVA on the membrane properties was also examined. The developed membranes were extensively characterized by studying their physicochemical properties (water uptake, swelling ratio, and conductivity), thermal and electrochemical properties using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The DSC study shows the presence of a single Tg in the membranes indicating compatibility of the two polymers in flexible and transparent films. The membranes show good stability and ion conductivity suitable for separator applications. PMID:28347019

  17. Degradation of imidazolium- and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone) anion exchange membranes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongyang; Hickner, Michael A

    2012-11-01

    Imidazolium and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s were synthesized successfully with the same degree of cationic functionalization and identical polymer backbones for a comparative study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for solid-state alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Both anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a new methyl-containing monomer that avoided the use of toxic chloromethylation reagents. The polymer chemical structures were confirmed by ¹H NMR and FTIR. The derived AEMs were fully characterized by water uptake, anion conductivity, stability under aqueous basic conditions, and thermal stability. Interestingly, both the cationic groups and the polymer backbone were found to be degraded in 1 M NaOH solution at 60 °C over 48 h as measured by changes of ion exchange capacity and intrinsic viscosity. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s had similar aqueous alkaline stability to quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials at 60 °C but much lower stability at 80 °C. This work demonstrates that quaternary ammonium and imidazolium cationic groups are not stable on poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones under relatively mild conditions. Additionally, the poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbone, which is one of the most common polymers used in ion exchange membrane applications, is not stable in the types of molecular configurations analyzed.

  18. Degradation of Imidazolium- and Quaternary Ammonium-Functionalized Poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone) Anion Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, DY; Hickner, MA

    2012-11-01

    Imidazolium and quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s were synthesized successfully with the same degree of cationic functionalization and identical polymer backbones for a comparative study of anion exchange membranes (AEMs) for solid-state alkaline membrane fuel cells (AMFCs). Both anion exchange membranes were synthesized using a new methyl-containing monomer that avoided the use of toxic chloromethylation reagents. The polymer chemical structures were confirmed by H-1 NMR and FTIR. The derived AEMs were fully characterized by water uptake, anion conductivity, stability under aqueous basic conditions, and thermal stability. Interestingly, both the cationic groups and the polymer backbone were found to be degraded in 1 M NaOH solution at 60 degrees C over 48 h as measured by changes of ion exchange capacity and intrinsic viscosity. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s had similar aqueous alkaline stability to quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials at 60 degrees C but much lower stability at 80 degrees C. This work demonstrates that quaternary ammonium and imidazolium cationic groups are not stable on poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones under relatively mild conditions. Additionally, the poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbone, which is one of the most common polymers used in ion exchange membrane applications, is not stable in the types of molecular configurations analyzed.

  19. Controlled molecular weight poly(arylene ether benzimidazole)s endcapped with benzimidazole and acetylene groups

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.G. Jr.; Connell, J.W.; Hergenrother, P.M.

    1993-12-31

    As a continuation of work on poly(arylene ether benzimidazole)s (PAEBIs), a series of controlled molecular weight polymers endcapped with benzimidazole, ethynyl, and phenylethynyl groups were prepared at stoichiometric imbalances of 7 and 10 mole percent and characterized. Earlier work with benzimidazole endcapped PAEBIs prepared at stoichiometric imbalances as high as 7 mole percent has shown very good retention of thin film properties up to 232{degrees}C. Ethynyl and phenylethynyl endcapped PAEBIs, air cured to 330{degrees}C, exhibited increases in Tgs of {approximately}20-30{degrees}C with respect to benzimidazole endcapped PAEBIs. Thin film properties for the ethynyl and phenylethynyl endcapped PAEBIs were similar to benzimidazole endcapped PAEBIs up to 232{degrees}C. Ethynyl and phenylethynyl endcapped PAEBI films tested at 250{degrees}C exhibited good retention of tensile properties.

  20. Interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes with poly(propyl ether imine) dendrimers

    SciTech Connect

    Jayamurugan, G.; Rajesh, Y. B. R. D.; Jayaraman, N.; Vasu, K. S.; Kumar, S.; Sood, A. K.; Vasumathi, V.; Maiti, P. K.

    2011-03-14

    We study the complexation of nontoxic, native poly(propyl ether imine) dendrimers with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The interaction was monitored by measuring the quenching of inherent fluorescence of the dendrimer. The dendrimer-nanotube binding also resulted in the increased electrical resistance of the hole doped SWNT, due to charge-transfer interaction between dendrimer and nanotube. This charge-transfer interaction was further corroborated by observing a shift in frequency of the tangential Raman modes of SWNT. We also report the effect of acidic and neutral pH conditions on the binding affinities. Experimental studies were supplemented by all atom molecular dynamics simulations to provide a microscopic picture of the dendrimer-nanotube complex. The complexation was achieved through charge transfer and hydrophobic interactions, aided by multitude of oxygen, nitrogen, and n-propyl moieties of the dendrimer.

  1. Chemistry and properties of poly(arylene ether benzoxazole)s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1992-01-01

    Several new poly(arylene ether benzoxazole)s (PAEBs) were prepared by the nucleophilic displacement reaction of activated aromatic difluorides with two novel bis(hydroxyphenyl benzoxazole), using potassium carbonate. The 6F-containing PAEBs exhibited better solubility and higher Tgs than did the 6,6'-bis-(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole)-derived polymers. Several of the 6,6'bis(2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole)-derived polymers exhibited crystallinity by DSC and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. Unorientated thin film properties of the 6F-containing PAEBs were comparable to those of other 6F-containing PAEBS that were previously reported. The chemistry and the physical and mechanical properties of the above polymers are discussed.

  2. Chitin nanowhisker-supported sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) proton exchange for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chan; Zhuang, Xupin; Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Bowen; Kang, Weimin; Cai, Zhanjun; Li, Mengqin

    2016-04-20

    To balance the relationship among proton conductivity and mechanic strength of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (SPES) membrane, chitin nanowhisker-supported nanocomposite membranes were prepared by incorporating whiskers into SPES. The as-prepared chitin whiskers were prepared by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) mediated oxidation of α-chitin from crab shells. The structure and properties of the composite membranes were examined as proton exchange membrane (PEM). Results showed that chitin nanowhiskers were dispersed incompactly in the SPES matrix. Thermal stability, mechanical properties, water uptake and proton conductivity of the nanocomposite films were improved from those of the pure SPES film with increasing whisker content, which ascribed to strong interactions between whiskers and between SPES molecules and chitin whiskers via hydrogen bonding. These indicated that composition of filler and matrix got good properties and whisker-supported membranes are promising materials for PEM.

  3. Interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes with poly(propyl ether imine) dendrimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayamurugan, G.; Vasu, K. S.; Rajesh, Y. B. R. D.; Kumar, S.; Vasumathi, V.; Maiti, P. K.; Sood, A. K.; Jayaraman, N.

    2011-03-01

    We study the complexation of nontoxic, native poly(propyl ether imine) dendrimers with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The interaction was monitored by measuring the quenching of inherent fluorescence of the dendrimer. The dendrimer-nanotube binding also resulted in the increased electrical resistance of the hole doped SWNT, due to charge-transfer interaction between dendrimer and nanotube. This charge-transfer interaction was further corroborated by observing a shift in frequency of the tangential Raman modes of SWNT. We also report the effect of acidic and neutral pH conditions on the binding affinities. Experimental studies were supplemented by all atom molecular dynamics simulations to provide a microscopic picture of the dendrimer-nanotube complex. The complexation was achieved through charge transfer and hydrophobic interactions, aided by multitude of oxygen, nitrogen, and n-propyl moieties of the dendrimer.

  4. Design of poly(ether block amide)/polyacrylonitrile composite membrane for carbon dioxide capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lianjun; Ji, Pengfei; Li, Yang; di, Mingming; Lv, Quan; Li, Shuguang

    2015-03-01

    In this study, poly(ether block amide) was used as coating material to develop a novel composite polymer membrane for CO2 capture. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) ultrafiltration membrane was applied as substrate. Between them, a gutter layer prepared from cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) blending with amino silicone was introduced to improve separation performance of the composite membrane. The separation properties of resultant triple layer composite membrane was characterized using pure CO2 and N2 gases. It was found that the crosslinking degree of the gutter layer had great influence on membrane performance, which could be significantly improved with the help of amino-PDMS gutter layer compared with that of the membrane having Pebax coating directly onto PAN substrate. Using 2 wt.% Pebax coating solution and properly cross-linked gutter layer, the designed Pebax/amino-PDMS/PAN composite membrane showed CO2 permeance of 147 GPU and CO2/N2 selectivity of 62.

  5. Biophysical Characterization of the Strong Stabilization of the RNA Triplex poly(U)•poly(A)*poly(U) by 9-O-(ω-amino) Alkyl Ether Berberine Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Maidul; Haq, Lucy; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha

    2012-01-01

    Background Binding of two 9-O-(ω-amino) alkyl ether berberine analogs BC1 and BC2 to the RNA triplex poly(U)•poly(A)*poly(U) was studied by various biophysical techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings Berberine analogs bind to the RNA triplex non-cooperatively. The affinity of binding was remarkably high by about 5 and 15 times, respectively, for BC1 and BC2 compared to berberine. The site size for the binding was around 4.3 for all. Based on ferrocyanide quenching, fluorescence polarization, quantum yield values and viscosity results a strong intercalative binding of BC1 and BC2 to the RNA triplex has been demonstrated. BC1 and BC2 stabilized the Hoogsteen base paired third strand by about 18.1 and 20.5°C compared to a 17.5°C stabilization by berberine. The binding was entropy driven compared to the enthalpy driven binding of berbeine, most likely due to additional contacts within the grooves of the triplex and disruption of the water structure by the alkyl side chain. Conclusions/Significance Remarkably higher binding affinity and stabilization effect of the RNA triplex by the amino alkyl berberine analogs was achieved compared to berberine. The length of the alkyl side chain influence in the triplex stabilization phenomena. PMID:22666416

  6. Synthesis and self-assembly of brush-type poly[poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate]-block-poly(pentafluorostyrene) amphiphilic diblock copolymers in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Tan, B H; Hussain, H; Liu, Y; He, C B; Davis, T P

    2010-02-16

    Well-defined fluorinated brush-like amphiphilic diblock copolymers of poly[poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate] (P(PEGMA)) and poly(pentafluorostyrene) (PPFS) have been successfully synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The self-assembly behavior of these polymers in aqueous solutions was studied using (1)H NMR, fluorescence spectrometry, static and dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. The micellar structure comprised of PPFS as the core and brush-like (hydrophobic main chain and hydrophilic branches) polymers as the coronas. The hydrodynamic radius (R(h)) of the micelles in aqueous solution was in the nanometer range, independent of the polymer concentration, consistent with a closed association model. Diblock copolymers with a longer P(PEGMA) block formed micelles with smaller R(h) and lower aggregation numbers consistent with an improved solubilization of the core. The micelles possessed a thick hydration layer as verified by the ratio of the radius of gyration, R(g) to the hydrodynamic radius, R(h). The aggregation number and ratio of R(g) to R(h) were observed to increase with temperature (20-50 degrees C), while the R(h) of the micelle decreased slightly over the same temperature range. An increase in temperature induced the brush-like PEG segments in the corona to dehydrate and shrink while forming micelles with larger aggregation numbers.

  7. Positively charged and bipolar layered poly(ether imide) nanofiltration membranes for water softening applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassara, S.; Abdelkafi, A.; Quémener, D.; Amar, R. Ben; Deratani, A.

    2015-07-01

    Poly(ether imide) (PEI) ultrafiltration membranes were chemically modified with branched poly(ethyleneimine) to obtain nanofiltration (NF) membrane Cat PEI with a positive charge in the pH range below 9. An oppositely charged polyelectrolyte layer was deposited on the resulting membrane surface by using sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSSNa) and sodium polyvinyl sulfonate (PVSNa) to prepare a bipolar layered membrane NF Cat PEI_PSS and Cat PEI_PVS having a negatively charged surface and positively charged pores. Cat PEI exhibited good performance to remove multivalent cations (more than 90% of Ca2+) from single salt solutions except in presence of sulfate ions. Adding an anionic polyelectrolyte layer onto the positively charged surface resulted in a significant enhancement of rejection performance even in presence of sulfate anions. Application of the prepared membranes in water softening of natural complex mixtures was successful for the different studied membranes and a large decrease of hardness was obtained. Moreover, Cat PEI_PSS showed a good selectivity for nitrate removal. Fouling experiments were carried out with bovine serum albumin, as model protein foulant. Cat PEI_PSS showed much better fouling resistance than Cat PEI with a quantitative flux recovery ratio.

  8. Shifting from hydrogen bond network to π-π stacking: a key mechanism for reversible thermochromic sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone).

    PubMed

    Jarumaneeroj, Chatchai; Tashiro, Kohji; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2014-08-01

    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) thin film performs reversible thermochromic property by developing the color to be yellowish at the temperature above 190 °C. The detailed analyses based on temperature-dependent techniques suggest the thermal treatment inducing the shifting of the hydrogen bond network between the sulfonated group and the hydrated water molecules to the π-π stacking among aromatic rings in SPEEK chains. Although it is general that the polymer chain packing is unfavorable at high temperature, the present work shows a good example that when the polymer chains can form specific molecular interaction, such as π-π stacking, even in harsh thermal treatment, a rearrangement will effectively occur, which leads to an external stimuli-responsive property.

  9. The Use of a Modified Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone (PEEK) as an Alternative Framework Material for Removable Dental Prostheses. A Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Zoidis, Panagiotis; Papathanasiou, Ioannis; Polyzois, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    This clinical report presents a modified poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) as an alternative material for the fabrication of distal extension removable dental prosthesis (RDP) frameworks. This material can be used for patients allergic to metals, or who dislike the metallic taste, the weight, and the unpleasant metal display of the denture framework and retentive clasps. This modified PEEK material, known as BioHPP, is a biocompatible, nonallergic, rigid material, with flexibility comparable to bone, high polishing and low absorption properties, low plaque affinity, and good wear resistance. It has been used for years in orthopedics and medical technology. BioHPP frameworks can be constructed either via CAD/CAM manufacturing or via the conventional lost wax technique. The clinical use of a BioHPP RDP framework is presented as an alternative for the treatment of a distal extension case.

  10. Pullout performance comparison of novel expandable pedicle screw with expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shells and cement-augmented pedicle screws.

    PubMed

    Aycan, Mehmet Fatih; Tolunay, Tolga; Demir, Teyfik; Yaman, Mesut Emre; Usta, Yusuf

    2017-02-01

    Aim of this study is to assess the pullout performance of various pedicle screws in different test materials. Polyurethane foams (Grade 10 and Grade 40) produced in laboratory and bovine vertebrae were instrumented with normal, cannulated (cemented), novel expandable and normal (cemented) pedicle screws. Test samples were prepared according to the ASTM F543 standard testing protocols and surgical guidelines. To examine the screw placement and cement distribution, anteriosuperior and oblique radiographs were taken from each sample after insertion process was completed. Pullout tests were performed in an Instron 3369 testing device. Load versus displacement graphs were recorded and the ultimate pullout force was defined as the maximum load (pullout strength) sustained before failure of screw. Student's t-test was performed on each group whether the differences between pullout strength of pedicle screws were significant or not. While normal pedicle screws have the lowest pullout strength in all test materials, normal pedicle screws cemented with polymethylmethacrylate exhibit significantly higher pullout performance than others. For all test materials, there is a significant improvement in pullout strength of normal screws by augmentation. While novel expandable pedicle screws with expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shells exhibited lower pullout performance than normal screws cemented with polymethylmethacrylate, their pullout performances in all groups were higher than the ones of normal and cannulated pedicle screws. For all test materials, although cannulated pedicle screws exhibit higher pullout strength than normal pedicle screws, there are no significant differences between the two groups. The novel expandable pedicle screws with expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shells may be used instead of normal and cannulated pedicle screws cemented with polymethylmethacrylate due to their good performances.

  11. Low cost hydrogen/novel membrane technology for hydrogen separation from synthesis gas, Phase 1. [Poly(etherimide) and poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    During the last quarter several high performance membranes for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. The heat-resistant resin poly(etherimide) has been selected as the polymer with the most outstanding properties for the separation of hydrogen from nitrogen and carbon monoxide. Flat sheet and hollow fiber poly(etherimide) membranes have been prepared and evaluated with pure gases and gas mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures. Multilayer composite poly(ether-ester-amide) membranes were also developed. These membranes are useful for the separation of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide hydrogen. They have very high selectivities and extremely high normalized carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide fluxes. Separation of carbon dioxide/hydrogen streams is a key problem in hydrogen production from coal. The development of the two membranes now gives us two approaches to separate these gas streams, depending on the stream's composition. If the stream contains small quantities of hydrogen, the hydrogen- permeable poly(etherimide) membrane would be used to produce a hydrogen-enriched permeate. If the stream contains small quantities of carbon dioxide or hydrogen sulfide, the poly(ether-ester-amide) membrane would be used to produce a carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide-free, hydrogen-enriched residue stream. 6 fig., 4 tabs.

  12. Functional Aromatic Poly(1,3,4-Oxadiazole-Ether)s with Benzimidazole Pendants: Synthesis, Thermal and Dielectric Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Shimoga D.; Pai, Vasantakumar K.; Kariduraganavar, Mahadevappa Y.; Jayanna, Madhu B.

    2014-01-01

    Poly(1,3,4-oxadiazole-ether) with reactive carboxylic acid pendants was synthesized from solution polymerization via nucleophilic displacement polycondensation among 2,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (BFPOx) and 4,4′-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) valeric acid (BHPA). Without altering the polymeric segments, benzimidazole modified poly(1,3,4-oxadiazole-ether)s were prepared by varying stoichiometric ratios of 1,2-phenylenediamine. The molecular structural characterization of these polymers was achieved by, FT-IR, NMR, TGA, elemental analysis, and analytical techniques. The weight-average molecular weight of virgin polymer with carboxylic acid functionality was determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and was found to be 22400 (Mw/Mn = 2.07). All the synthesized polyethers were compressed into pellets and electrical contacts were established to perform dielectric properties. PMID:27437448

  13. Fabrication and characterization of amine terminated poly(arylene ether sulfone) modified epoxy-carbon fiber composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cecere, James A.; Senger, James S.; Mcgrath, James E.; Steiner, Paul A.; Wong, Raymond S.

    1987-01-01

    Multifunctional epoxy resin networks were chemically modified with thermoplastic amine terminated poly(arylene ether sulfones) of controlled molecular weights. This system was then examined as both neat resin and as a matrix resin for carbon fiber composites. The neat resin displayed a significant increase in both fracture toughness and energy release rate values. This was attributed to the altered morphology, which could be varied from particles of polysulfone in an epoxy matrix to that of a quasi-continuous polysulfone phase.

  14. Toughening of BIS maleimide resins: Synthesis and characterization of maleimide terminated poly(arylene ether) oligomers and polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, J. E.; Lyle, G. D.; Jurek, M. J.; Mohanty, D.; Hedrick, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Amine functional poly(arylene ether) sulfones were previously reported. Herein, the chemistry was extended to amorphous poly(arylene ether) ketones because of their higher fracture toughness values, relative to the polysulfones. It was demonstrated that the amino functional oligomers undergo a self-crosslinking reaction at temperatures above about 220 C. This produces an insoluble, but ductile network that has excellent resistance. A ketamine structure hypothesis was proposed and verified using solid state magic angle NMR. In most cases, the water generated upon ketamine formation is too low to produce porosity and solid networks are obtained. The stability of the ketamine networks towards hydrolysis is excellent. The chemistry was further demonstrated to be able to crosslink preformed nonfunctional poly(arylene ether) ketones if a difunctional amine was utilized. This concept has the possibility of greatly improving the creep resistance of thermoplastics. Also, a new technique was developed for converting the amine functional oligomers cleanly into maleimide structures. This method involves reacting maleic anhydride with monomeric aminophenols in the presence of solvent mixtures.

  15. Interaction of thrombocytes with poly(ether imide): The influence of processing.

    PubMed

    Braune, S; Lange, M; Richau, K; Lützow, K; Weigel, T; Jung, F; Lendlein, A

    2010-01-01

    The processing of polymers for blood contacting devices can have a major influence on surface properties. In this study, we fabricated poly(ether imide) (PEI) membranes and films to investigate the effects of the processing on physicochemical surface properties by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, contact angle as well as zeta potential measurements. A static platelet adhesion test was performed to analyze the thrombogenicity of both devices. While contact angle measurements showed similar levels of hydrophobicity and zeta potential values were equivalent, mean surface roughness as well as surface energies in the dispersive part were found to be increased for the PEI membrane. The static platelet adhesion test showed a significantly decreased number of adherent platelets per surface area on the PEI film (178.98 ± 102.70/45000 μm2) compared to the PEI membrane (504 ± 314.27/45000μm2) and, consequently, revealed evidence for higher thrombogenicity of the PEI membrane. This study shows that processing can have a significant effect on platelet adhesion to biomaterials, even though, molar weight was identical. Thrombogenicity of polymer-based cardiovascular devices, therefore, have to be evaluated at the final product level, following the entire processing procedure.

  16. Correlating electronic structure and chemical durability of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Jimmy; Yamashita, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    Many different proton-conducting polymeric materials have been developed for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The development of perfluorosulfonic acid-based, polymer electrolyte membranes (PFSA-PEMs) was followed by aromatic hydrocarbon-based PEMs (HC-PEMs), which allow for tailored design and optimization of their molecular structures. Although many new PFSA-PEMs and HC-PEMs have shown promising proton conductivity and thermal stability, chemical degradation of these materials in an oxidizing environment remains a significant technical barrier in PEMFC development. Here, we used accelerated degradation tests and electronic structure analysis to examine the chemical stability of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPES) copolymers, a highly thermally stable HC-PEM. HOMO levels, the presence of main chain-protecting steric groups, and HOMO-LUMO location along the main chain have significant effects on the chain scission modes and degradation rate of SPES copolymers. Rational design of HC-PEMs to suppress midpoint scission can open many opportunities in the development of highly robust polymer electrolytes for fuel cell and other energy storage applications.

  17. Characterization methods for radiation crosslinked poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Querner, Claudia; Arndt, Karl-Friedrich

    2003-08-01

    The paper reviews recent results of radiation crosslinking of poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME). It will give an overview of possible characterization methods for both, soluble and crosslinked PVME. The irradiation of aqueous low concentrated PVME solutions with γ-rays of low doses results in structural changes of PVME molecules. We are able to monitor changes in the chemical structure by spectroscopic methods (IR, NMR) as well as the changes of molecular parameters (e.g. molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, branches) by classical methods for polymer characterization (size exclusion chromatography with diverse detector systems, SLS, viscosimetry). The characterization of the network parameters (crosslinking density νc, molecular weight of the network chains Mc) of PVME bulkgels crosslinked by irradiation at high dose values by classical methods (swelling and compression measurements) provides incorrect results because of the high porosity of the gels. PVME microgel particles can be prepared by irradiation of a phase separated diluted aqueous PVME solution above their lower critical solution temperature. These microgels with decreased dimensions were characterized by SLS, DLS and field emission scanning electron microscopy.

  18. Radiation crosslinking and scission parameters for poly(vinyl methyl ether) in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, I.; Kasprzak, E.; Al-Zier, A.; Rosiak, J. M.

    2003-08-01

    In oxygen-free aqueous solutions, poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) was subjected to gamma irradiation. In such conditions PVME radicals recombine by way of crosslinking. The major result of crosslinking is an increase in the average molecular weight of the polymer, which close to the gelation point tends to infinity. Further irradiation increases the amount of formed gel, while the soluble fraction - sol decreases. The basic parameters related to the radiation processing are gelation dose - Dg, as well as radiation yield of intermolecular crosslinking and scission, GX and GS, respectively. There are three general approaches for estimation of those parameters. The first method is based on the study of molecular weight changes before the gelation point. The second method combines the gel-sol as well as the swelling analysis results. The third one allows one to calculate the yield of crosslinking from the value of Dg. All of these methods of calculation were used in this work for determination of radiation parameters and results obtained are discussed.

  19. Adsorption capacity of poly(ether imide) microparticles to uremic toxins.

    PubMed

    Tetali, Sarada D; Jankowski, Vera; Luetzow, Karola; Kratz, Karl; Lendlein, Andreas; Jankowski, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Uremia is a phenomenon caused by retention of uremic toxins in the plasma due to functional impairment of kidneys in the elimination of urinary waste products. Uremia is presently treated by dialysis techniques like hemofiltration, dialysis or hemodiafiltration. However, these techniques in use are more favorable towards removing hydrophilic than hydrophobic uremic toxins. Hydrophobic uremic toxins, such as hydroxy hipuric acid (OH-HPA), phenylacetic acid (PAA), indoxyl sulfate (IDS) and p-cresylsulfate (pCRS), contribute substantially to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, objective of the present study is to test adsorption capacity of highly porous microparticles prepared from poly(ether imide) (PEI) as an alternative technique for the removal of uremic toxins. Two types of nanoporous, spherically shaped microparticles were prepared from PEI by a spraying/coagulation process.PEI particles were packed into a preparative HPLC column to which a mixture of the four types of uremic toxins was injected and eluted with ethanol. Eluted toxins were quantified by analytical HPLC. PEI particles were able to adsorb all four toxins, with the highest affinity for PAA and pCR. IDS and OH-HPA showed a partially non-reversible binding. In summary, PEI particles are interesting candidates to be explored for future application in CKD.

  20. Influence of nanoporous poly(ether imide) particle extracts on human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Reddi K; Basu, Sayantani; Lemke, Horst-Dieter; Jankowski, Joachim; Kratz, Karl; Lendlein, Andreas; Tetali, Sarada D

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated uremic toxins like indoxyl sulphate, hippuric acid and p-cresyl sulphates in renal failure patients stimulate proinflammatory effects, and consequently kidney and cardiovascular diseases. Low clearance rate of these uremic toxins from the blood of uremic patients by conventional techniques like hemodialysis is due to their strong covalent albumin binding (greater than 95%) and hydrophobic nature, which led to alternatives like usage of hydrophobic adsorber's in removing these toxins from the plasma of kidney patients. Polymers like polyethylene, polyurethane, polymethylmethacrylate, cellophane and polytetrafluoroethylene were already in use as substitutes for metal devices as dialysis membranes. Among new synthetic polymers, one such ideal adsorber material are highly porous microparticles of poly(ether imide) (PEI) with diameters in the range from 50-180μm and a porosity around 88±2% prepared by a spraying and coagulation process.It is essential to make sure that these synthetic polymers should not evoke any inflammatory or apoptotic response during dialysis. Therefore in our study we evaluated in vitro effect of PEI microparticle extracts in human aortic endothelial cells (HEACs) concerning toxicity, inflammation and apoptosis. No cell toxicity was observed when HAECs were treated with PEI extracts and inflammatory/apoptotic markers were not upregulated in presence of PEI extracts. Our results ensure biocompatibility of PEI particles and further hemocompatibility of particles will be tested.

  1. Pendant dual sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) proton exchange membranes for fuel cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Minh Dat Thinh; Yang, Sungwoo; Kim, Dukjoon

    2016-10-01

    Poly(arylene ether ketone) (PAEK) possessing carboxylic groups at the pendant position is synthesized, and the substitution degree of pendant carboxylic groups is controlled by adjusting the ratio of 4,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)valeric acid and 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane. Dual sulfonated 3,3-diphenylpropylamine (SDPA) is grafted onto PAEK as a proton-conducting moiety via the amidation reaction with carboxylic groups. The transparent and flexible membranes with different degrees of sulfonation are fabricated so that we can test and compare their structure and properties with a commercial Nafion® 115 membrane for PEMFC applications. All prepared PAEK-SDPA membranes exhibit good oxidative and hydrolytic stability from Fenton's and high temperature water immersion test. SAXS analysis illustrates an excellent phase separation between the hydrophobic backbone and hydrophilic pendant groups, resulting in big ionic clusters. The proton conductivity was measured at different relative humidity, and its behavior was analyzed by hydration number of the membrane. Among a series of membranes, some samples (including B20V80-SDPA) show not only higher proton conductivity, but also higher integrated cell performance than those of Nafion® 115 at 100% relative humidity, and thus we expect these to be good candidate membranes for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  2. Covalent enzyme immobilization by poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) for microelectrode biosensor preparation.

    PubMed

    Vasylieva, Natalia; Barnych, Bogdan; Meiller, Anne; Maucler, Caroline; Pollegioni, Loredano; Lin, Jian-Sheng; Barbier, Daniel; Marinesco, Stéphane

    2011-06-15

    Poly(ethylene glycol) diglycidyl ether (PEGDE) is widely used as an additive for cross-linking polymers bearing amine, hydroxyl, or carboxyl groups. However, the idea of using PEGDE alone for immobilizing proteins on biosensors has never been thoroughly explored. We report the successful fabrication of microelectrode biosensors based on glucose oxidase, d-amino acid oxidase, and glutamate oxidase immobilized using PEGDE. We found that biosensors made with PEGDE exhibited high sensitivity and a response time on the order of seconds, which is sufficient for observing biological processes in vivo. The enzymatic activity on these biosensors was highly stable over several months when they were stored at 4 °C, and over at least 3d at 37 °C. Glucose microelectrode biosensors implanted in the central nervous system of anesthetized rats reliably monitored changes in brain glucose levels induced by sequential administration of insulin and glucose. PEGDE provides a simple, low cost, non-toxic alternative for the preparation of in vivo microelectrode biosensors.

  3. Radiation crosslinking and scission of poly(vinyl methyl ether) in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janik, Ireneusz; Rosiak, Janusz M.

    2002-03-01

    For a wide range of poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PMVE) concentrations (1-16 g dm -3), in anoxic conditions, polymer-derived radicals recombine in two major pathways: (i) crosslinking and (ii) disproportionation. Both these processes proceed inter- and intramolecularly. The radiation-chemical yields and kinetics of crosslinking have been studied by pulse radiolysis with light scattering intensity detection (LSI). In the absence of oxygen, G-values of intermolecular crosslinking were determined on the basis of LSI changes versus applied dose and compared with the results obtained previously for γ-irradiated samples. It has been found that the first half-life time of intermolecular crosslinking decreases with increasing dose per pulse. Addition of small amounts of macroradical scavenger (cysteamine hydrochloride) decreases, drastically, the increase of LSI signal. On increasing the PVME concentration, intermolecular crosslinking becomes more efficient. In the presence of oxygen, for diluted PVME solution (0.1 g dm -3), decrease of LSI signal consisting of the kinetic of a first-order reaction was observed. The rate constant of LSI decrease was found to be 1.1×10 3 s -1 and it was attributed to the main-chain scission.

  4. The chromatography of poly(phenylene ether) on a porous graphitic carbon sorbent.

    PubMed

    Moyses, Stephan; Ginzburg, Anton

    2016-10-14

    A Porous Graphitic Carbon (PGC) column was evaluated for the analysis of poly(phenylene ether) (PPE). This column appears particularly well-suited for the separation of this polymer. Conditions for the elution of PPE either in adsorption mode with chloroform or size exclusion with 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) as eluent were established. Elution of homologous species is obtained in chloroform that follows Martin's rule. A separation based on a gradient consisting of a sequence of non-solvent (acetonitrile), solvent/adsorli (chloroform) provided the highest peak capacity. In TCB, it is possible to obtain rapid size-based separation: with a flow rate of 0.7ml/min, the run time is less than two minutes for a series of polystyrene standards. The PGC column performs remarkably well in this mode and may be a viable solution when a short analysis time is critical such as in a combinatorial laboratory or in a two-dimensional chromatograph. In addition to its value as a sorbent for polymer separation, this column also deserves the attention of the materials engineer. Indeed, the PGC sorbent can be used as a model to probe the interaction between polymers and graphitic fillers such as carbon nanotubes or graphite nanosheets.

  5. Nitrile functionalized halloysite nanotubes/poly(arylene ether nitrile) nanocomposites: Interface control, characterization, and improved properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xinyi; Zhan, Yingqing; Zeng, Guangyong; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    To develop high-performance halloysite nanotube (HNT)-based nanocomposites, the two key issues need to be considered: precise interface control and the dispersal of HNTs. This study presents an efficient way to functionalize halloysite nanotubes with 3-aminophenoxy-phthalonitrile, followed by compounding with poly(arylene ether nitrile) (PEN), to prepare functional nanocomposite films. The surface functionalization of HNTs was characterized and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Compared with neat PEN, the tensile strength and modulus of the resulting PEN nanocomposites with 3 wt% functionalized HNTs were found to increase by 25.7% and 20.7%, respectively. The good dispersion and high capacitance of the dielectric layer resulted in PEN/HNTs nancomposites with enhanced dielectric permittivity and relatively low dielectric loss. Moreover, the addition of functional HNTs greatly improved the thermal stability of PEN, which could be further enhanced through the chemical cross-linking reaction between the functional HNTs and the PEN matrix. This work provides a new path toward obtaining advanced polymer-based nanocomposites with functional properties.

  6. Adjustable degradation and drug release of a thermosensitive hydrogel based on a pendant cyclic ether modified poly(ε-caprolactone) and poly(ethylene glycol)co-polymer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Deng, Liandong; Liu, Shasha; Li, Xu; Zhao, Xiumei; Hu, Renjie; Zhang, Jianhua; Han, Haijie; Dong, Anjie

    2012-11-01

    The convenient and precise fabrication of drug-hydrogel formulations with satisfactory degradability and a well-controlled drug release profile are crucial factors for injectable hydrogel formulations in clinical applications. Here a new injectable thermosensitive hydrogel formed from poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) amphiphilicco-polymers with 1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone (TOSUO) moieties incorporated in the poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)block (PECT) was constructed to provide a route to tailor the degradation and drug release behavior. The effect of hydrophilic cyclic ether moieties on the degradation of and drug release by PECT hydrogels were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The results indicated that a freeze-dried powder of paclitaxel-loaded PECT nanoparticles rapidly dissolved in water at ambient temperature with slightly shaking and formed a stable injectable in situ drug-hydrogel formulation at body temperature, which is convenient for clinical operations because it avoids the need for pre-quenching or long-term incubation. The paclitaxel distribution was also more quantitative and homogeneous on entrapping paclitaxel in PECT nanoparticles. Further, the small number of pendant cyclic ether groups in PCL could decrease the cystallinity and hydrophobicity and, as a result, the in vitro and in vivo retention time of PECT hydrogels and the release of entrapped paclitaxel could be tuned from a few weeks to months by varying the amount of PTOSUO in the hydrophobic block. Significantly, paclitaxel-loaded PECT nanoparticles and free paclitaxel could be simultaneously released during the in vitro paclitaxel release from PECT hydrogels. A histopathological evaluation indicated that in vivo injected PECT hydrogels produced only a modest inflammatory response. Thus pendant cyclic ether modification of PCL could be an effective way to achieve the desired degradation and drug release profiles of amphiphilicco

  7. Hydrophilic modification of poly(ether sulfone) ultrafiltration membrane surface by self-assembly of TiO 2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming-Liang; Zhao, Jian-Qing; Tang, Wu; Pu, Chun-Sheng

    2005-08-01

    Membrane fouling is one of the major obstacles for reaching the ultimate goal, which realizes high flux over a prolonged period of ultrafiltration (UF) operation. In this paper, TiO 2 nanoparticles of a quantum size (40 nm or less) in anatase crystal structure were prepared from the controlled hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hydrophilic modification of poly(ether sulfone) UF membrane was performed by self-assembly of the hydroxyl group of TiO 2 nanoparticle surface and the sulfone group and ether bond in poly(ether sulfone) structure through coordination and hydrogen bond interaction, which was ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology and hydrophilicity were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle test, respectively. The composite UF membrane was also characterized in terms of separation behavior for polyethylene glycol-5000 solute. The experimental results show that the composite UF membrane has good separation performance and offers a strong potential for possible use as a new type of anti-fouling UF membrane.

  8. Conjugation of salmon calcitonin to a combed-shaped end functionalized poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) yields a bioactive stable conjugate.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Sinéad M; Wang, Xuexuan; Mantovani, Guiseppe; Sayers, Claire T; Haddleton, David M; Brayden, David J

    2009-04-02

    Salmon calcitonin (sCT) was conjugated via its N-terminal cysteine to a comb-shaped end-functionalized poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PolyPEG, 6.5 kDa), and to linear PEG (5 kDa). Conjugate molecular weight and purity was assessed by SEC-HPLC and MALDI-TOF MS. Bioactivity of conjugates was measured by cyclic AMP assay in T47D cells. Calcium and calcitonin levels were measured in rats following intravenous injections. Stability of conjugates was tested against serine proteases, intestinal and liver homogenates and serum. Cytotoxicity of conjugates was assessed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay and by haemolytic assay of rat red blood cells. Results showed that the two conjugates were of high purity with molecular weights similar to predictions. Both conjugates retained more than 85% bioactivity in vitro and had nanomolar EC(50) values similar to sCT. While both sCT-PolyPEG(6.5 K) and sCT-PEG(5 K) were resistant to metabolism by serine proteases, homogenates and serum, PolyPEG (6.5 K) was more so. Although both conjugates reduced serum calcium to levels similar to those achieved with sCT, PolyPEG(6.5 K) extended the T(1/2) and AUC of serum sCT over values achieved with sCT-PEG and sCT itself. None of PolyPEG, PEG or methacrylic acid displayed significant cytotoxicity. PolyPEG may therefore have potential to improve pharmacokinetic profiles of injected peptides.

  9. Poly[tri(ethylene glycol) ethyl ether methacrylate]-coated surfaces for controlled fibroblasts culturing.

    PubMed

    Dworak, Andrzej; Utrata-Wesołek, Alicja; Szweda, Dawid; Kowalczuk, Agnieszka; Trzebicka, Barbara; Anioł, Jacek; Sieroń, Aleksander L; Klama-Baryła, Agnieszka; Kawecki, Marek

    2013-03-01

    Well-defined thermosensitive poly[tri(ethylene glycol) monoethyl ether methacrylate] (P(TEGMA-EE)) brushes were synthesized on a solid substrate by the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of TEGMA-EE. The polymerization reaction was initiated by 2-bromo-2-methylpropionate groups immobilized on the surface of the wafers. The changes in the surface composition, morphology, philicity, and thickness that occurred at each step of wafer functionalization confirmed that all surface modification procedures were successful. Both the successful modification of the surface and bonding of the P(TEGMA-EE) layer were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The thickness of the obtained P(TEGMA-EE) layers increased with increasing polymerization time. The increase of environmental temperature above the cloud point temperature of P(TEGMA-EE) caused the changes of surface philicity. A simultaneous decrease in the polymer layer thickness confirmed the thermosensitive properties of these P(TEGMA-EE) layers. The thermosensitive polymer surfaces obtained were evaluated for the growth and harvesting of human fibroblasts (basic skin cells). At 37 °C, seeded cells adhered to and spread well onto the P(TEGMA-EE)-coated surfaces. A confluent cell sheet was formed within 24 h of cell culture. Lowering the temperature to an optimal value of 17.5 °C (below the cloud point temperature of the polymer, TCP, in cell culture medium) led to the separation of the fibroblast sheet from the polymer layer. These promising results indicate that the surfaces produced may successfully be used as substrate for engineering of skin tissue, especially for delivering cell sheets in the treatment of burns and slow-healing wounds.

  10. Preparation and characterization of poly (arylene ether isoxazole)s by fluoride ion-mediated aromatic nucleophilic displacement reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, C. G.; Bass, R. G.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a continuing effort to prepare novel thermally stable high-performance polymers, poly(arylene ether isoxazole)s have been prepared by fluoride ion-catalyzed aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions with bis(trimethylsiloxyphenyl) isoxazoles and activated bisarylhalides in diphenyl sulfone. Initial investigation involving the preparation of these materials with isoxazole bisphenols and activated bisarylhalides in the presence of potassium carbonate indicated that, under reaction conditions necessary to prepare high-molecular-weight materials, the isoxazole monomer was converted to an enamino ketone. This side reaction was avoided by using fluoride as a base. However, trimethylsilyl ether derivatives of the isoxazole bisphenols were required in these polymerizations for the preparation of high-molecular-weight materials. Moderate to high inherent viscosity eta(sub inh): 0.43-0.87 dl/g) materials with good thermal stability (air: 409-477 C, helium: 435-512 C) can be prepared by the silyl ether method. Glass transition temperatures ranged from 182 to 225 C for polymers with phenyl pendants and from 170 to 214 C for those without. Molecular weight control by 2% endcapping and the incorporation of a phenyl pendant at the 4 position of the isoxazole is necessary to yield polymers soluble in polar aprotic solvents at room temperature. There is evidence, however, indicating the existence of crosslinks between the polymer chains when the silyl ether approach is utilized.

  11. A new strategy for designing high-performance sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) polymer electrolyte membranes using inorganic proton conductor-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chunli; Zheng, Xuan; Liu, Hai; Wang, Guangjin; Cheng, Fan; Zheng, Genwen; Wen, Sheng; Law, Wing-Cheung; Tsui, Chi-Pong; Tang, Chak-Yin

    2016-09-01

    Remarkable progress has been made on the use of polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) for renewable-energy-related research. In particular, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as versatile nanomaterials to modify PEMs. However, the inert ionic conduction ability and possible short-circuiting risk are the two major obstacles to their further development. In this work, CNTs are firstly functionalized with an inorganic proton conductor, boron phosphate (BPO4), using a facile polydopamine-assisted sol-gel method to yield BPO4@CNTs. This new additive is then used to modify sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK). Polydopamine coating layer can act as an extraordinary glue to homogeneously adhere BPO4 nanoparticles on CNTs, thereby not only reducing the risk of short-circuiting, but also fabricating new proton-conducting pathways in the composite membranes. A comprehensive characterization reveals that the thermal stability, tensile properties, and dimensional stability of PEMs are significantly improved. Compared with pure SPEEK, the proton conductivity of SPEEK/BPO4@CNTs-2 is improved by 45% and 150% at 20 °C and at 80 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the H2/O2 cell performance of SPEEK/BPO4@CNTs-2 membrane exhibits a peak power density of 340.7 mW cm-2 at 70 °C, which is significantly better than that of pure SPEEK (254.2 mW cm-2), demonstrating the great potential of proton conductors-functionalized CNTs in PEMs.

  12. Tribological assessment of a flexible carbon-fibre-reinforced poly(ether-ether-ketone) acetabular cup articulating against an alumina femoral head.

    PubMed

    Scholes, S C; Inman, I A; Unsworth, A; Jones, E

    2008-04-01

    New material combinations have been introduced as the bearing surfaces of hip prostheses in an attempt to prolong their life by overcoming the problems of failure due to wear-particle-induced osteolysis. This will hopefully reduce the need for revision surgery. The study detailed here used a hip simulator to assess the volumetric wear rates of large-diameter carbon-fibre-reinforced pitch-based poly(ether-ether-ketone) (CFR-PEEK) acetabular cups articulating against alumina femoral heads. The joints were tested for 25 x 10(6) cycles. Friction tests were also performed on these joints to determine the lubrication regime under which they operate. The average volumetric wear rate of the CFR-PEEK acetabular component of 54 mm diameter was 1.16 mm(3)/10(6) cycles, compared with 38.6 mm(3)/10(6) cycles for an ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene acetabular component of 28 mm diameter worn against a ceramic head. This extremely low wear rate was sustained over 25 x 10(6) cycles (the equivalent of up to approximately 25 years in vivo). The frictional studies showed that the joints worked under the mixed-boundary lubrication regime. The low wear produced by these joints showed that this novel joint couple offers low wear rates and therefore may be an alternative material choice for the reduction of osteolysis.

  13. Properties investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/polyacrylonitrile acid-base blend membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Yu, Lihong; Liu, Le; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan

    2014-11-12

    Acid-base blend membrane prepared from sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was detailedly evaluated for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application. SPEEK/PAN blend membrane exhibited dense and homogeneous cross-section morphology as scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy images show. The acid-base interaction of ionic cross-linking and hydrogen bonding between SPEEK and PAN could effectively reduce water uptake, swelling ratio, and vanadium ion permeability, and improve the performance and stability of blend membrane. Because of the good balance of proton conductivity and vanadium ion permeability, blend membrane with 20 wt % PAN (S/PAN-20%) showed higher Coulombic efficiency (96.2% vs 91.1%) and energy efficiency (83.5% vs 78.4%) than Nafion 117 membrane at current density of 80 mA cm(-2) when they were used in VRFB single cell. Besides, S/PAN-20% membrane kept a stable performance during 150 cycles at current density of 80 mA cm(-2) in the cycle life test. Hence the SPEEK/PAN acid-base blend membrane could be used as promising candidate for VRFB application.

  14. Imidazolium-functionalized poly(ether ether ketone) as membrane and electrode ionomer for low-temperature alkaline membrane direct methanol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaoming; Gu, Shuang; He, Gaohong; Wu, Xuemei; Benziger, Jay

    2014-03-01

    A series of imidazolium-functionalized poly(ether ether ketone)s (PEEK-ImOHs) were successfully synthesized by a two-step chloromethylation-Menshutkin reaction followed by hydroxide exchange. PEEK-ImOH membranes with ion exchange capacity (IEC) ranging from 1.56 to 2.24 mmol g-1 were prepared by solution casting. PEEK-ImOHs show selective solubility in aqueous solutions of acetone and tetrahydrofuran, but are insoluble in lower alcohols. PEEK-ImOH membranes with IEC of 2.03 mmol g-1 have high hydroxide conductivity (52 mS cm-1 at 20 °C), acceptable water swelling ratio (51% at 60 °C), and great tensile strength (78 MPa), and surprising flexibility (elongation-to-break of 168%), and high thermal stability (Decomposition temperature: 193 °C). In addition, PEEK-ImOH membranes show low methanol permeability (1.3-6.9 × 10-7 cm2 s-1). PEEK-ImOH membrane was tested in methanol/O2 fuel cell as both the HEM and the ionomer impregnated into the catalyst layer; the open circuit voltage is 0.84 V and the peak power density is 31 mW cm-2.

  15. Pitch-based carbon-fibre-reinforced poly (ether-ether-ketone) OPTIMA assessed as a bearing material in a mobile bearing unicondylar knee joint.

    PubMed

    Scholes, S C; Unsworth, A

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of unicondylar knee prostheses has allowed the preservation of the non-diseased compartment of the knee while replacing the diseased or damaged compartment. In an attempt to reduce the likelihood of aseptic loosening, new material combinations have been investigated within the laboratory. Tribological tests (friction, lubrication, and wear) were performed on metal-on-carbon-fibre-reinforced (CFR) poly (ether-ether-ketone) (PEEK) (pitch-based) mobile unicondylar knee prostheses up to 5 x 10(6) cycles. Both a loaded soak control and an unloaded soak control (both medial and lateral components) were used to compensate for weight change due to lubricant absorption. For this material combination the loaded soak control gave slightly lower wear for both the medial and the lateral components than did the unloaded soak control. The medial components gave higher steady state wear than the lateral components (1.70 mm3 per 10(6) cycles compared with 1.02 mm3 per 10(6) cycles with the loaded soak control). The results show that the CFR PEEK unicondylar knee joints performed well in these wear tests. They gave lower volumetric wear rates than conventional metal-on-ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene prostheses have given in the past when tested under similar conditions. The friction tests showed that, at physiological viscosities, these joints operated in the boundary-mixed-lubrication regime. The low wear produced by these joints seems to be a function of the material combination and not of the lubrication regime.

  16. Dual cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid polymer electrolyte membranes based on quaternized poly(ether ether ketone) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Na; Wang, Baolong; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Yurong; Bu, Fanzhe; Cui, Ying; Li, Xuefeng; Na, Hui

    2015-02-01

    Quaternized poly(ether ether ketone)s (QPEEKs) are synthesized to absorb phosphoric acid (PA) and used as high temperature proton exchange membranes (HTPEMs). In order to improve their oxidative and mechanical stability without sacrificing proton conductivities, a series of dual cross-linked organic-inorganic hybrid membranes are prepared using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) as a cross-linker. The amine of APTES reacts with two benzyl bromide groups to build the primary cross-linking network. The Si-O-Si network generated by the hydrolysis of triethoxysilane in APTES is the secondary cross-linking network. The dual cross-linking hybrid networks improve the mechanical and oxidative stability of PA doped membranes. They can endure up to 15.3 h in 3 wt.% H2O2, 4 ppm Fe2+ Fenton solution at 80 °C. During the hydrolysis of triethoxysilane, the release of small molecules (H2O and C2H5OH) forms many pores in surfaces and interior of membranes. These pores and the resulted Si-OH groups corporately enhance the PA absorbing ability and proton conductivity. The highest proton conductivity is 61.7 mS cm-1 for PA-QPEEK-10%APTES at 200 °C under anhydrous condition. These membranes show great potential to be used in HTPEM fuel cell.

  17. Reduced platelets and bacteria adhesion on poly(ether ether ketone) by photoinduced and self-initiated graft polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine.

    PubMed

    Tateishi, Takaharu; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Kakinoki, Sachiro; Yamaoka, Tetsuji; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2014-05-01

    Aromatic poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) is a super engineering plastic, which has good mechanical properties and is resistant to physical and chemical stimuli. We have, therefore, attempted to use PEEK in cardiovascular devices. Synthetic cardiovascular devices require both high hemocompatibility and anti-inflammatory activity in addition to the mechanical properties. We modified the PEEK surface by photoinduced and self-initiated graft polymerization with 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC; PMPC-grafted PEEK) for obtaining good antithrombogenicity. Polymerization was carried out on the surface of PEEK under radiation of ultraviolet (UV) light during which we controlled monomer concentrations, temperatures, and UV intensities. The biological performance of the PMPC-grafted PEEK was examined and compared with that of unmodified PEEK. With increase in the thickness of the PMPC layer, the amount of fibrinogen adsorption decreased significantly in comparison to that in the case of unmodified PEEK. When placed in contact with human platelet-rich plasma, surface of the PMPC-grafted PEEK clearly showed inhibition of platelet adhesion and activation. Also, bacterial adhesion was reduced dramatically on the PMPC-grafted PEEK. Thus, the PMPC grafting on PEEK improved the antithrombogenicity.

  18. Morphological Changes During Secondary Crystallization and Melting in Poly(ether ether ketone) as Studied by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Ravi; Marand, Herve; Hsiao, Benjamin

    1996-03-01

    Poly(aryl ether ether ketone) [PEEK] is a semicrystalline polymer which exhibits the double endothermic melting behavior. Most authors are of the opinion that the origin of the low endotherm lies in the melting of thinner crystals, although some argue in favor of a melting-recrystallization model. It is now established that the low endotherm develops linearly with logarithm of crystallization time. However, all morphological studies conducted to date on the origin of the low endotherm have been limited to short times. As a result, the exact morphological changes associated with the low endotherm are not fully understood. We have monitored the morphological changes during long time melt crystallization and subsequent melting in PEEK. Morphological changes were monitored via real time small angle X-ray scattering [SAXS] using synchrotron radiations. Our novel analysis of the SAXS data indicates that the development of the low endotherm is accompanied by the formation of! secondary lamellar stacks compris ed of thinner lamellae (average thickness 70 A vs 120 A for primary lamallae). Further, our analysis suggests that during melting, the low endotherm is accompanied by the melting of these secondary lamellar stacks.

  19. Novel melt-processable poly(ether ether ketone)(PEEK)/inorganic fullerene-like WS(2) nanoparticles for critical applications.

    PubMed

    Naffakh, Mohammed; Díez-Pascual, Ana M; Marco, Carlos; Gómez, Marián A; Jiménez, Ignacio

    2010-09-09

    The combination of high-performance thermoplastic poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) with inorganic fullerene-like tungsten disulfide (IF-WS(2)) nanoparticles offers an attractive way to combine the merits of organic and inorganic materials into novel polymer nanocomposite materials. Here, we report the processing of novel PEEK/IF-WS(2) nanocomposites, which overcome the nanoparticle agglomerate formation and provide PEEK-particle interactions. The IF-WS(2) nanoparticles do not require exfoliation or modification, making it possible to obtain stronger, lighter materials without the complexity and processing cost associated with these treatments. The nanocomposites were fabricated by melt blending, after a predispersion step based on ball milling and mechanical treatments in organic solvent, which leads to the dispersion of individually IF-WS(2) nanoparticles in the PEEK matrix as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. In order to determine the performance of the PEEK/IF-WS(2) nanocomposites for potential critical applications, particularly for the aircraft industry, we have extensively investigated these materials with a wide range of structural, thermal, and mechanical techniques using time-resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic-mechanical analysis, and tensile and impact tests as well as thermal measurements. Modulus, tensile strengh, thermal stability, and thermal conductivity of PEEK exhibited remarkable improvement with the addition of IF-WS(2).

  20. Molecular modeling of the morphology and transport properties of two direct methanol fuel cell membranes: phenylated sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) versus Nafion

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ramaswami; Idupulapati, Nagesh B.; Dupuis, Michel

    2012-08-14

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine membrane morphology and the transport of water, methanol and hydronium in phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) and Nafion membranes at 360 K for a range of hydration levels. At comparable hydration levels, the pore diameter is smaller, the sulfonate groups are more closely packed, the hydronium ions are more strongly bound to sulfonate groups, and the diffusion of water and hydronium is slower in Ph-SPEEKK relative to the corresponding properties in Nafion. The aromatic carbon backbone of Ph-SPEEKK is less hydrophobic than the fluorocarbon backbone of Nafion. Water network percolation occurs at a hydration level ({lambda}) of {approx}8 H{sub 2}O/SO{sub 3}{sup -}. At {lambda} = 20, water, methanol and hydronium diffusion coefficients were 1.4 x 10{sup -5}, 0.6 x 10{sup -5} and 0.2 x 10{sup -5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. The pore network in Ph-SPEEKK evolves dynamically and develops wide pores for {lambda} > 20, which leads to a jump in methanol crossover and ion transport. This study demonstrates the potential of aromatic membranes as low-cost challengers to Nafion for direct methanol fuel cell applications and the need to develop innovative strategies to combat methanol crossover at high hydration levels.

  1. Development of a cheap and accessible carbon fibers-in-poly(ether ether ketone) tube with high stability for online in-tube solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Feng, Juanjuan; Sun, Min; Bu, Yanan; Luo, Chuannan

    2016-02-01

    Carbon fibers (CFs) are one kind of important industrial materials that can be obtained commercially at low price. Based on the high extraction efficiency of carbon sorbents, a cheap and accessible carbon fibers-in-poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) tube was developed for online in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method. Coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the CFs-in-tube SPME was applied to analyze eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental aqueous samples. Extraction conditions (sampling rate, extraction time, methanol content) and desorption time were investigated for optimization of conditions. Under the optimum conditions, the CFs-in-tube SPME-HPLC method provided high extraction efficiency with enrichment factors up to 1748. Good linearity (0.05-50 μg L(-1), 0.5-50 μg L(-1)) and low detection limits (0.01-0.1 μg L(-1)) were also obtained. The online analysis method was finally applied to determine several model PAHs analytes in real environmental aqueous samples. Some target analytes were detected and relative recoveries were in the range of 92.3-111%. Due to natural chemical stability of carbon fibers and PEEK tube, the CFs-in-tube device exhibited high resistance to organic solvent, acid and alkaline conditions.

  2. Preparation of main-chain-type and side-chain-type sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes for direct methanol fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jie-Cheng; Lin, Chien-Kung

    Novel main-chain-type and side-chain-type sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone)s (MS-SPEEKs) are synthesised by reacting the sulphonic acid groups of pristine SPEEKs with 2-aminoethanesulphonic acid to improve the nano-phase separated morphology of the material. 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy are employed to determine the structure and composition of main-chain-type and side-chain-type sulphonated polymers. Flexible and tough membranes with reasonable thermal properties are obtained. The MS-SPEEKs show good hydrolytic stability, and water uptake values ranging from 15% to 30% are observed. Compared to Nafion 117 ®, the methanol permeability of the MS-SPEEKs is dramatically reduced to 8.83 × 10 -8 cm 2 s -1 to 3.31 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1. The proton conductivity increases with increasing temperature, reaching 0.013-0.182 S cm -1. A maximum power density and open circuit voltage of 115 mW cm -2 and 0.830 V are obtained at 80 °C, respectively, which is significantly greater than the values generated with Nafion 117 ®. The introduction of pendent side-chain-type sulphonic acid groups increases the single-cell performance by more than approximately 20%; thus, the lower water diffusivity, methanol permeability, electro-osmotic drag coefficient and high cell performance indicated that MS-SPEEK is a promising candidate for DMFC applications.

  3. Modeling the Nanophase Structural Dynamics of Phenylated Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone Ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) Membranes as a Function of Hydration

    SciTech Connect

    Lins, Roberto D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Dupuis, Michel

    2011-03-03

    Solvated phenylated sulfonated poly ether ether ketone ketone (Ph-SPEEKK) membranes in the presence of hydronium ions were modeled by classical molecular dynamics simulations. The characterization of the nanophase structure and dynamics of such membranes was carried out as a function of the water content lambda, where lambda is the number of water molecules per sulfonate group, for lambda values of 3.5, 6, 11, 25, and 40. Analysis of pair correlation functions supports the experimental observation of membrane swelling upon hydration as well the increase in water and hydronium ion diffusion with increasing lambda. While the average number of hydrogen bonds between hydronium ions and sulfonate groups is dramatically affected by the hydration level, the average lifetime of the hydrogen bonds remains essentially constant. The membrane is found to be relatively rigid and its overall flexibility shows little dependence on water content. Compared to Nafion, water and ion diffusion coefficients are considerably smaller at lower hydration levels and room temperature. However, at higher lambda values of 25 and 40 these coefficients are comparable to those in Nafion at a lambda value of 16. This study also shows that water diffusion in Ph-SPEEKK membranes at low hydration levels can be significantly improved by raising the temperature with important implications for proton conductivity.

  4. Plasma graft of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) on RGP lens surface for reducing protein adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiheng, Yin; Li, Ren; Yingjun, Wang

    2017-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) was grafted on fluorosilicone acrylate rigid gas permissible contact lens surface by means of argon plasma induced polymerization to improve surface hydrophilicity and reduce protein adsorption. The surface properties were characterized by contact angle measurement, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy respectively. The surface protein adsorption was evaluated by lysozyme solution immersion and XPS analysis. The results indicated that a thin layer of PEGMA was successfully grafted. The surface hydrophilicity was bettered and surface free energy increased. The lysozyme adsorption on the lens surface was reduced greatly. The study was supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51273072).

  5. New Poly(amide-imide)/Nanocomposites Reinforced Silicate Nanoparticles Based on N-pyromellitimido-L-phenyl Alanine Containing Ether Moieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faghihi, Khalil; Shabanian, Meisam; Dadfar, Ehsan

    2012-02-01

    A series of Poly(amide-imide)/montmorillonite nanocomposites containing N-pyromellitimido-L-phenyl alanine moiety in the main chain were synthesized by a convenient solution intercalation technique. Poly(amide-imide) (PAI) 5 as a source of polymer matrix was synthesized by the direct polycondensation reaction of N-pyromellitimido-L-phenyl alanine 3 with 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether 4 in the presence of triphenyl phosphite (TPP), CaCl2, pyridine and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). The resulting nanocomposite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that organo-modified clay was dispersed homogeneously in PAI matrix. TGA indicated an enhancement of thermal stability of new nanocomposites compared with the pure polymer.

  6. Structure and mechanical properties of poly(benzyl ether) monodendron Langmuir films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, James Patrick

    2000-10-01

    The Langmuir technique combined with a traditional polymer science approach has been used to investigate the monolayer properties of poly(benzyl ether) monodendrons modified with linear oligo(ethylene glycol) chains at the air-water interface. Film balance measurements have been used to probe the relation between the amphiphilic balance of the monodendrons and the stability and structure of the monolayer. Analysis of the surface pressure-area (pi- A) isotherms indicates that the linear hydrophilic chain controls the adhesion to the interface, while the hydrophobic monodendron determines the molecular shape, monolayer compressibility, and film cohesion. A novel interpretation of the pi-A isotherm as a stress-strain curve allows for a more detailed analysis of the monolayer mechanical properties. The pseudo-2D monolayers behave in a manner analogous to many bulk polymers, showing a yield point and a region of plastic flow. Within the plastic flow region, the stress-strain behavior can be quantitatively captured using a constitutive law that assumes both a power law stress dependence and an Arrhenius temperature dependence for the strain rate. Constant strain rate and dilational creep experiments have been used to determine the stress exponent and the creep activation energy, respectively. Analysis of the isotherms suggests the existence of a monolayer glass transition within the temperature range studied. Compressibility experiments provide further evidence of a monolayer glass transition, the temperature for which lies more than 15°C below the bulk value. Dynamic mechanical analysis has been performed using an interfacial stress rheometer to study the viscoelasticity of the monolayer near the glass transition. A master curve of the frequency dependence of the shear modulus produced using time-temperature superposition also implies that the monolayer approaches a glass transition. As an extension of the work at the air-water interface, we have completed a

  7. Triblock copolymers encapsulated poly (aryl benzyl ether) dendrimer zinc(II) phthalocyanine nanoparticles for enhancement in vitro photodynamic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yide; Yu, Huizhen; Lv, Huafei; Zhang, Hong; Ma, Dongdong; Yang, Hongqin; Xie, Shusen; Peng, Yiru

    2016-12-01

    A novel series of nanoparticles formed via an electrostatic interaction between the periphery of negatively charged 1-2 generation aryl benzyl ether dendrimer zinc (II) phthalocyanines and positively charged poly(L-lysin) segment of triblock copolymer, poly(L-lysin)-block-poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(L-lysin), was developed for the use as an effective photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy. The dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy showed that two nanoparticles has a relevant size of 80-150nm. The photophysical properties and singlet oxygen quantum yields of free dendrimer phthalocyanines and nanoparticles exhibited generation dependence. The intracellular uptake of dendrimer phthalocyanines in Hela cells was significantly elevated as they were incorporated into the micelles, but was inversely correlated with the generation of dendrimer phthalocyanines. The photocytotoxicity of dendrimer phthalocyanines incorporated into polymeric micelles was also increased. The presence of nanoparticles induced efficient cell death. Using a mitochondrial-sepcific dye rhodamine 123 (Rh123), our fluorescence microscopic result indicated that nanoparticles localized to the mitochondria.

  8. Influence of chemical structure on hydration and gas transport mechanisms of sulfonated poly(aryl ether ketone) membranes.

    PubMed

    Simon, Sandra; Espuche, Eliane; Gouanvé, Fabrice; Chauveau, Edouard; Marestin, Catherine; Mercier, Régis

    2012-10-25

    This work reports the influence of the chemical structure of two sulfonated poly(aryl ether ketone)s (SPAEK) on the hydration and gas transport mechanism of thin membranes made thereupon. For this purpose, two sulfonated poly(aryl ether ketone)s having the same ionic exchange capacity (IEC) but bearing a different repartition of the sulfonic acid groups along the polymer backbone were prepared. These polymers were synthesized by direct copolymerization of two specific sulfonated precursors, bisphenol AF and 4,4'-difluorobenzophenone. The morphology of the membranes was studied by transmission electron microscopy, and the thermal properties of the ionomers were determined from differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analyses. A detailed analysis of the water sorption isotherms and kinetics was performed. The gas transport properties were also determined for He, H(2), and CO(2) in the full range of water activity. From the detailed analysis of the water sorption isotherm and of the relative contributions of the Fickian diffusion and relaxation phenomena, a water sorption mechanism was proposed in relation with the SPAEK architectures and polymers' chain mobility. This mechanism allowed explaining the different evolution of the gas transport properties observed as a function of the gas nature and hydration rate.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing mesonaphthobifluorene for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lim, Youngdon; Seo, Dongwan; Lee, Soonho; Hossain, Md Awlad; Lim, Jinseong; Lee, Sangyoung; Hong, Taehoon; Kim, Whangi

    2014-10-01

    The novel sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)s containing mesonaphthobifluorene (MNF) moiety were synthesized and characterized their properties. The prepared polymers have highly conjugated aromatic structure due to the MNF group which is an allotrope of carbon and one atom thick planar sheets of sp2-bonded carbon atoms. Poly(ether sulfone)s bearing tetraphenylethylene on polymer backbone were synthesized by polycondensation and followed intra-cyclization from tetraphenylethylene to form MNF by Friedel-craft reaction with Lewis acid (FeCl3). The sulfonation was performed selectively on MNF units with conc. sulfuric acid. The structural properties of the sulfonated polymers were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The membranes were studied by ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, and proton conductivity. The synthesized polymer electrolyte membranes showed better thermal and dimensional stabilities owing to the inducted highly conjugated aromatic structure in the polymer backbone. The water uptake of the synthesized membranes ranged from 23-52%, compared with 32.13% for Nafion 211 at 80 degrees C. The synthesized membranes exhibited proton conductivities (80 degrees C, RH 90%) of 74.6-100.4 mS/cm, compared with 102.7 mS/cm for Nafion 211.

  10. Study on the pretreatment of poly(ether ether ketone)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes composites through environmentally friendly chemical etching and electrical properties of the chemically metallized composites.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Tong; Di, Lizhi; Yang, De'an

    2013-12-11

    The high-volume resistivity and surface resistance of poly(ether ether ketone)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PEEK/MWCNT) composites restrict their use in an electronic field. To decrease the volume resistivity and surface resistance, we metalized the composites by electroless plating. The composites and metal coatings were characterized by SEM, XPS, AFM, EDX, and XRD spectroscopy. The swelling ratio of the composites, volume resistivity of two-side-coated composites, sheet resistance of plated composites, and adhesion between the coating and PEEK/MWCNT were tested. The results are as follows. A high roughness and a small swelling ratio were obtained by swelling in 18 mol/L H2SO4 for 3 min. Most of the MWCNT on the surface were still wrapped with PEEK after swelling. To expose the MWCNT, an environmentally friendly and effective etchant (MnO2-NaH2PO4-H2SO4) was used. After etching, not only were high roughness and partially exposed MWCNT obtained but also the percentage of hydrophilic groups on the surface was increased. A dense cauliflower-like Ni-P coating was produced, and the exposed MWCNT were embedded in the metal coating after electroless plating for 20 min. The coating exhibited an amorphous structure with a phosphorus content of 11.21 wt %. The volume resistivity of two-side-coated PEEK/MWCNT dropped sharply to 38 Ω·m after electroless plating for 5 min. The sheet resistance decreased with increasing the electroless-plating time, and it dropped to 0.88 Ω/square after electroless plating for 40 min. The adhesion of the coating reached the highest 5 B scale (ASTM D3359) and could even undergo the test 20 times.

  11. Preparation and characterization of polymer blend based on sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) and polyetherimide (SPEEK/PEI) as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Nordiana; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan; Lepit, Ajis; Rasmidi, Rosfayanti; Subban, Ri Hanum Yahaya; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan

    2015-08-01

    Blends of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyetherimide (PEI) were prepared in five different weight ratios using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent by the solution cast technique. The degree of sulfonation (DS) of the sulfonated PEEK was determined from deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d6) solution of the purified polymer using 1H NMR method. The properties studied in the present investigation includes conductivity, water uptake, thermal stability and structure analysis of pure SPEEK as well as SPEEK-PEI polymer blend membranes. The experimental results show that the conductivity of the membranes increased with increase in temperature from 30 to 80°C, except for that of pure SPEEK membrane which increased with temperature from 30 to 60°C while its conductivity decreased with increasing temperature from 60 to 80°C. The conductivity of 70wt.%SPEEK-30wt.%PEI blend membrane at 80% relative humidity (RH) is found to be 1.361 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 30°C and 3.383 × 10-3 Scm-1 at 80°C respectively. It was also found that water uptake and thermal stability of the membranes slightly improved upon blending with PEI. Structure analysis was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which revealed considerable interactions between sulfonic acid group of SPEEK and imide groups of PEI. Modification of SPEEK by blending with PEI shows good potential for improving the electrical and physical properties of proton exchange membranes.

  12. Preparation and characterization of polymer blend based on sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) and polyetherimide (SPEEK/PEI) as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Nordiana; Ali, Ab Malik Marwan; Lepit, Ajis; Rasmidi, Rosfayanti; Subban, Ri Hanum Yahaya; Yahya, Muhd Zu Azhan

    2015-08-28

    Blends of sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and polyetherimide (PEI) were prepared in five different weight ratios using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent by the solution cast technique. The degree of sulfonation (DS) of the sulfonated PEEK was determined from deuterated dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO-d{sub 6}) solution of the purified polymer using {sup 1}H NMR method. The properties studied in the present investigation includes conductivity, water uptake, thermal stability and structure analysis of pure SPEEK as well as SPEEK-PEI polymer blend membranes. The experimental results show that the conductivity of the membranes increased with increase in temperature from 30 to 80°C, except for that of pure SPEEK membrane which increased with temperature from 30 to 60°C while its conductivity decreased with increasing temperature from 60 to 80°C. The conductivity of 70wt.%SPEEK-30wt.%PEI blend membrane at 80% relative humidity (RH) is found to be 1.361 × 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1} at 30°C and 3.383 × 10{sup −3} Scm{sup −1} at 80°C respectively. It was also found that water uptake and thermal stability of the membranes slightly improved upon blending with PEI. Structure analysis was carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy which revealed considerable interactions between sulfonic acid group of SPEEK and imide groups of PEI. Modification of SPEEK by blending with PEI shows good potential for improving the electrical and physical properties of proton exchange membranes.

  13. Proton conductivity and fuel cell property of composite electrolyte consisting of Cs-substituted heteropoly acids and sulfonated poly(ether-ether ketone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, S. Y.; Yoshida, T.; Kawamura, G.; Muto, H.; Sakai, M.; Matsuda, A.

    Inorganic-organic composite electrolytes were fabricated from partially Cs +-substituted heteropoly acids (Cs-HPAs) and sulfonated poly(ether-ether ketone) (SPEEK) for application in fuel cells. Heteropoly acids, such as phosphotungstic acid (H 3PW 12O 40:WPA), and silicotungstic acid (H 4SiW 12O 40:WSiA), were mechanochemically treated with cesium hydrogen sulfate (CsHSO 4) to obtain the form of Cs-HPAs. SPEEK was prepared from PEEK by sulfonation using concentrated sulfuric acid. Water durability and surface structure of HPAs were modified by introducing Cs + into HPAs. Flexible and hot water stable composite electrolytes were obtained, and their electrochemical properties were markedly improved with the addition of Cs-HPAs into the SPEEK matrix. Maximum power densities of 245 and 247 mW cm -2 were obtained for 50WPA·50CsHSO 4 and 50WSiA·50CsHSO 4 in SPEEK (1/5 by weight) composite electrolytes, respectively, from single cell tests at 80 °C and 80 RH%. These results suggest that a three-dimensional proton-conductive path was formed among homogeneously distributed Cs-HPAs particles in the SPEEK matrix. The Cs-HPAs incorporated into the SPEEK matrix increased the number of protonate sites in the electrolyte. These observations imply that the mechanochemically synthesized Cs-HPAs, which consist of hydrogen bondings between Cs-HPAs and -HSO 4 -, dissociated from CsHSO 4, are promising materials as inorganic fillers in inorganic-organic composite.

  14. Block copolymers encapsulated poly (aryl benzyl ether) dendrimer silicon (IV) phthalocyanine for in vivo and in vitro photodynamic efficacy of choroidal neovascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiongwei; Chen, Kuizhi; Huang, Zheng; Peng, Yiru

    2015-03-01

    A novel series of poly (aryl benzyl ether) dendrimer silicon phthalocyanines loaded block copolymers ethoxypoly(ethylene glycol)-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (MPEG-PLGA)were formed. The time-dependent intracellular uptake of nanoparticles in HUVECs cells increased as they were incorporated into nanoparticles. With its highly effective selective accumulation on choroidal neovascularization(CNV). This treatment resulted in a efficacious choroidal neovascularization (CNV) occlusion with minimal unfavorable phototoxicity.

  15. Computational and experimental investigations of one-step conversion of poly(carbonate)s into value-added poly(aryl ether sulfone)s

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Alexander; Wojtecki, Rudy J.; Hedrick, James L.; García, Jeannette M.

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that ∼2.7 million tons poly(carbonate)s (PCs) are produced annually worldwide. In 2008, retailers pulled products from store shelves after reports of bisphenol A (BPA) leaching from baby bottles, reusable drink bottles, and other retail products. Since PCs are not typically recycled, a need for the repurposing of the PC waste has arisen. We report the one-step synthesis of poly(aryl ether sulfone)s (PSUs) from the depolymerization of PCs and in situ polycondensation with bis(aryl fluorides) in the presence of carbonate salts. PSUs are high-performance engineering thermoplastics that are commonly used for reverse osmosis and water purification membranes, medical equipment, as well as high temperature applications. PSUs generated through this cascade approach were isolated in high purity and yield with the expected thermal properties and represent a procedure for direct conversion of one class of polymer to another in a single step. Computational investigations performed with density functional theory predict that the carbonate salt plays two important catalytic roles in this reaction: it decomposes the PCs by nucleophilic attack, and in the subsequent polyether formation process, it promotes the reaction of phenolate dimers formed in situ with the aryl fluorides present. We envision repurposing poly(BPA carbonate) for the production of value-added polymers. PMID:27354514

  16. Computational and experimental investigations of one-step conversion of poly(carbonate)s into value-added poly(aryl ether sulfone)s.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gavin O; Yuen, Alexander; Wojtecki, Rudy J; Hedrick, James L; García, Jeannette M

    2016-07-12

    It is estimated that ∼2.7 million tons poly(carbonate)s (PCs) are produced annually worldwide. In 2008, retailers pulled products from store shelves after reports of bisphenol A (BPA) leaching from baby bottles, reusable drink bottles, and other retail products. Since PCs are not typically recycled, a need for the repurposing of the PC waste has arisen. We report the one-step synthesis of poly(aryl ether sulfone)s (PSUs) from the depolymerization of PCs and in situ polycondensation with bis(aryl fluorides) in the presence of carbonate salts. PSUs are high-performance engineering thermoplastics that are commonly used for reverse osmosis and water purification membranes, medical equipment, as well as high temperature applications. PSUs generated through this cascade approach were isolated in high purity and yield with the expected thermal properties and represent a procedure for direct conversion of one class of polymer to another in a single step. Computational investigations performed with density functional theory predict that the carbonate salt plays two important catalytic roles in this reaction: it decomposes the PCs by nucleophilic attack, and in the subsequent polyether formation process, it promotes the reaction of phenolate dimers formed in situ with the aryl fluorides present. We envision repurposing poly(BPA carbonate) for the production of value-added polymers.

  17. Tailor-made pore controlled poly (arylene ether ketone) membranes as a lithium-ion battery separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mong, Anh; Kim, Dukjoon

    2016-02-01

    Porous poly(arylene ether ketone) (PAEK) membranes are prepared by selective removal of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) molecules from self-assembled PAEK-PLA block copolymers. The pore size and porosity of the membranes are precisely controlled by adjusting PLA concentration. The synthesis of the PAEK-PLA copolymer is confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectroscopies and the morphology of the membrane is examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Several important properties such as liquid electrolyte uptake, contact angle, thermal and mechanical stability, and lithium ion conductivity are measured and compared with those of commercial poly(propylene) (PP) membranes to investigate their application feasibility as a separator. The porous PAEK membrane shows improved thermal and dimensional stability compared to the PP membrane. The EC/DEC/EMC (1:1:1, v/v/v) soaked PAEK membrane with a pore diameter of 50 nm shows the highest lithium ion conductivity, higher than that of PP membrane. More importantly, the porous PAEK membranes show superior liquid electrolyte holding capacity to the PP membrane.

  18. Anhydrous state proton and lithium ion conducting solid polymer electrolytes based on sulfonated bisphenol-A-poly(arylene ethers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha Thakurta, Soma

    Sulfonated polymer based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) have received considerable interest in recent years because of their wide variety of applications particularly in fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, and electrochromic devices. The present research was focused on three interrelated subtopics. First, two different bisphenol-A-poly(arylene ethers), polyetherimide (PEI) and polysulfone (PSU) were sulfonated by a post sulfonation method to various degrees of sulfonation, and their thermal and mechanical properties were examined. The effects of poly(arylene ether) chemical structure, reaction time, concentration, and types of sulfonating agents on sulfonation reaction were investigated. It was found that deactivation of bisphenol A unit caused by the electron withdrawing imide, retarded the sulfonation of PEI compared to PSU. Sulfonation conducted with a high concentration of sulfonating agent and/or prolonged reaction time exhibited evidence of degradation at the isopropylidene unit. The degradation occurred through the same mechanistic pathway with the two different sulfonating agents, chlorosulfonic acid (CSA) and trimethylsilyl chlorosulfonate (TMSCS). The degradation was faster with CSA than its silyl ester, TMSCS, and was evident even at low acid concentration. Second, novel anhydrous proton conducting solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) were prepared by the incorporation of 1H-1,2,4-triazole (Taz) as a proton solvent in sulfonated polyetherimide (SPEI) matrix. The size, shape, and state of dispersion (crystal morphology) of triazole crystals in SPEI were examined as a function of degree of sulfonation and triazole concentration. Increasing sulfonic acid content caused reduction of triazole crystallite size, hence the depression of melting temperature and their uniform distribution throughout the sulfonated polymer matrix. The increased rate of structure diffusion within the smaller size crystals due to the improved molecular mobility contributed

  19. 40 CFR 721.7700 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-Ï-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (3:1). 721.7700 Section 721.7700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL...

  20. Nanocomposites Derived from Carbon Nanofibers and a Hyperbranched Poly(Ether-Ketone): In Situ Polymerization, Chain-End Modification, and Properties (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    an A2B monomer, was easily polymerized via a Friedel - Crafts acylation in poly(phosphoric acid)/phosphorus pentoxide (PPA/P2O5; 1:4 w/w) medium to...Poly(ether- ketone):: In-situ Polymerization, Chain-end Modification & Properties Friedel - Crafts polymerization of 5- phenoxyisophthalic acid (AB2...easily polymerized via a Friedel - Crafts acylation in poly(phosphoric acid)/phosphorus pentoxide (PPA/P2O5; 1:4 w/w) medium to form a CO2H-terminated

  1. Enhanced proton conductivity of sulfonated poly(p-phenylene-co-aryl ether ketone) proton exchange membranes with controlled microblock structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qingyi; Xu, Tong; Qian, Huidong; Zheng, Jifu; Shi, Ce; Li, Yunqi; Zhang, Suobo

    2015-03-01

    A new series of sulfonated poly(p-phenylene-co-aryl ether ketone)s (s, m, l-SPP-co-PAEKs) microblock polymers containing different hydrophobic units with precisely defined lengths have been prepared via the nickel (0) catalyzed coupling copolymerization and characterized to act as proton exchange membranes. By controlling the length and chemical structure of the hydrophobic units in the copolymers, these novel microblock polymers can exhibit well-developed nanophase morphologies and large length-scale of the ionic channels, resulting in the improvement of the proton conductivity in both the wet and dry state. Moreover, the membrane l-SPP-co-PAEK 1.80 with the largest hydrophobic micro-block length shows high proton conductivity, excellent dimensional stability, low glass-transition temperature (Tg), good oxidative stability and superior cell performance.

  2. Summary of GPC/DV results for space exposed poly(arylene ether phosphine oxide)s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siochi, Emilie

    1995-01-01

    Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) was used to analyze poly(arylene ether phosphine oxide)s whose backbones were identical except for the ketone content and placement. These samples were exposed to low Earth orbit environment (predominantly atomic oxygen) on space shuttle flights. The materials and their unexposed controls were then characterized by GPC to investigate the effect of atomic oxygen on the molecular weight distributions. Analysis of the soluble portion of the samples revealed that there was significant loss of high molecular weight species. The presence of insoluble material also suggested that crosslinking was induced by the atomic oxygen exposure and that this very likely occurred at the high molecular weight portion of the molecular weight distribution.

  3. Characterization of a poly(ether urethane)-based controlled release membrane system for delivery of ketoprofen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macocinschi, Doina; Filip, Daniela; Vlad, Stelian; Oprea, Ana Maria; Gafitanu, Carmen Anatolia

    2012-10-01

    A poly(ether urethane) based on polytetrahydrofuran containing hydroxypropyl cellulose for biomedical applications was tested for its biocompatibility. Ketoprofen was incorporated (3% and 6%) in the polyurethane matrix as an anti-inflammatory drug. Kinetic and drug release mechanisms were studied. The pore size and pore size distribution of the polyurethane membranes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Surface tension characteristics as well as moisture sorption properties such as diffusion coefficients and equilibrium moisture contents of the membrane material were studied. It was found that kinetics and release mechanisms are in function of medium pH, composition of polymer-drug system, pore morphology and pore size distribution. Prolonged nature of release of ketoprofen is assured by low amount of drug in polyurethane membrane and physiological pH.

  4. Colloidal Properties of Aqueous Poly(vinyl acetate)-Borate Dispersions with Short-Chain Glycol Ethers.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Teresa T; Berrie, Barbara H; Weiss, Richard G

    2016-08-18

    We report the influence of adding five short-chain glycol ethers (SCGEs) on the structure, stability, and viscoelastic properties of aqueous dispersions of partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) and borax. The properties of these gel-like materials have been investigated as a function of the structure of the added SCGE both below and above the critical aggregation (or micellar) concentrations using (11) B and (13) C NMR, rheology, and small-angle neutron scattering. The results indicate that the SCGE aggregation behavior is not affected by incorporation into the gel-like network. However, changes in the viscoelasticity and structural properties of the dispersions were detected that can be correlated to the nature of the solvent system. Also, the ability of these materials to clean an unvarnished acrylic paint surface coated with synthetic soil has been evaluated using colorimetery, and the surface of the dispersion after cleaning was visualized with scanning electron microscopy.

  5. Aromatic poly(arylene ether urea) with high dipole moment for high thermal stability and high energy density capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhaoxi; Lin, Minren; Wu, Shan; Thakur, Yash; Zhou, Yue; Jeong, Dae-Yong; Shen, Qundong; Zhang, Q. M.

    2015-05-01

    Developing dielectric polymers with higher dielectric constant without sacrificing loss and thermal stability is of great importance for next generation of high energy density capacitors. We show here that by replacing the CH2 group in the aromatic polyurea (ArPU) with the polar ether group, thus raising the dipole moment of the molecular unit, poly(arylene ether urea) (PEEU) shows an increased dielectric constant of 4.7, compared with 4.2 of ArPU. Moreover, PEEU maintains the low dielectric loss and is thermally stable up to 250 °C. As a result, the polymer delivers 13 J/cm3 discharged energy density at room temperature and 9 J/cm3 at 120 °C. The high quality films perform well in terms of both breakdown strength (at 700 MV/m at room temperature) and leakage current from room temperature to elevated temperature. At 120 °C, the breakdown strength is 600 MV/m and the conductivity is 1.58 × 10-14 S/cm measured under 100 MV/m.

  6. Artificial extracellular matrix for biomedical applications: biocompatible and biodegradable poly (tetramethylene ether) glycol/poly (ε-caprolactone diol)-based polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Shahrousvand, Mohsen; Mir Mohamad Sadeghi, Gity; Salimi, Ali

    2016-12-01

    The cells as a tissue component need to viscoelastic, biocompatible, biodegradable, and wettable extracellular matrix for their biological activity. In this study, in order to prepare biomedical polyurethane elastomers with good mechanical behavior and biodegradability, a series of novel polyester-polyether- based polyurethanes (PUs) were synthesized using a two-step bulk reaction by melting pre-polymer method, taking 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) as chain extender, hexamethylene diisocyanate as the hard segment, and poly (tetramethylene ether) glycol (PTMEG) and poly (ε-caprolactone diol) (PCL-Diol) as the soft segment without a catalyst. The soft to the hard segment ratio was kept constant in all samples. Polyurethane characteristics such as thermal and mechanical properties, wettability and water adsorption, biodegradability, and cellular behavior were changed by changing the ratio of polyether diol to polyester diol composition in the soft segment. Our present work provides a new procedure for the preparation of engineered polyurethanes in surface properties and biodegradability, which could be a good candidate for bone, cartilage, and skin tissue engineering.

  7. Inorganic-organic polymer electrolytes based on poly(vinyl alcohol) and borane/poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydın, Hamide; Şenel, Mehmet; Erdemi, Hamit; Baykal, Abdülhadi; Tülü, Metin; Ata, Ali; Bozkurt, Ayhan

    In this study, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was modified with poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether (PEGME) using borane-tetrahydrofuran (BH 3/THF) complex. Molecular weights of both PVA and PEGME were varied prior to reaction. Boron containing comb-branched copolymers were produced and abbreviated as PVA1PEGMEX and PVA2PEGMEX. Then polymer electrolytes were successfully prepared by doping of the host matrix with CF 3SO 3Li at several stoichiomeric ratios with respect to EO to Li. The materials were characterized via nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and 11B NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The ionic conductivity of these novel polymer electrolytes were studied by dielectric-impedance spectroscopy. Li-ion conductivity of these polymer electrolytes depends on the length of the side units as well as the doping ratio. Such electrolytes possess satisfactory ambient temperature ionic conductivity (>10 -4 S cm -1). Cyclic voltammetry results illustrated that the electrochemical stability domain extends over 4 V.

  8. Anti-fouling behavior of hyperbranched polyglycerol-grafted poly(ether sulfone) hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Cai, Tao; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2014-08-19

    To sustain high performance of osmotic power generation by pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) processes, fouling on PRO membranes must be mitigated. This is especially true for the porous support of PRO membranes because its porous structure is very prone to fouling by feeding river water. For the first time, we have successfully designed antifouling PRO thin-film composite (TFC) membranes by synthesizing a dendritic hydrophilic polymer with well-controlled grafting sites, hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG), and then grafting it on poly(ether sulfone) (PES) hollow fiber membrane supports. Compared to the pristine PES membranes, polydopamine modified membranes, and conventional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-grafted membranes, the HPG grafted membranes show much superior fouling resistance against bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption, E. coli adhesion, and S. aureus attachment. In high-pressure PRO tests, the PES TFC membranes are badly fouled by model protein foulants, causing a water flux decline of 31%. In comparison, the PES TFC membrane grafted by HPG not only has an inherently higher water flux and a higher power density but also exhibits better flux recovery up to 94% after cleaning and hydraulic pressure impulsion. Clearly, by grafting the properly designed dendritic polymers to the membrane support, one may substantially sustain PRO hollow fiber membranes for power generation.

  9. Chemical grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate onto polymer surfaces by atmospheric pressure plasma processing.

    PubMed

    D'Sa, Raechelle A; Meenan, Brian J

    2010-02-02

    This article reports the use of atmospheric pressure plasma processing to induce chemical grafting of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) onto polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces with the aim of attaining an adlayer conformation which is resistant to protein adsorption. The plasma treatment was carried out using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with PEGMA of molecular weights (MW) 1000 and 2000, PEGMA(1000) and PEGMA(2000), being grafted in a two step procedure: (1) reactive groups are generated on the polymer surface followed by (2) radical addition reactions with the PEGMA. The surface chemistry, coherency, and topography of the resulting PEGMA grafted surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The most coherently grafted PEGMA layers were observed for the 2000 MW PEGMA macromolecule, DBD processed at an energy dose of 105.0 J/cm(2) as indicated by ToF-SIMS images. The effect of the chemisorbed PEGMA layer on protein adsorption was assessed by evaluating the surface response to bovine serum albumin (BSA) using XPS. BSA was used as a model protein to determine the grafted macromolecular conformation of the PEGMA layer. Whereas the PEGMA(1000) surfaces showed some protein adsorption, the PEGMA(2000) surfaces appeared to absorb no measurable amount of protein, confirming the optimum surface conformation for a nonfouling surface.

  10. In vitro evaluation of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) methyl ether copolymer coating effects on cells adhesion and proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusen, Laurentiu; Neacsu, Patricia; Cimpean, Anisoara; Valentin, Ion; Brajnicov, Simona; Dumitrescu, L. N.; Banita, Janina; Dinca, Valentina; Dinescu, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and controlling natural and synthetic biointerfaces is known to be the key to a wide variety of application within cell culture and tissue engineering field. As both material characteristics and methods are important in tailoring biointerfaces characteristics, in this work we explore the feasibility of using Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique for obtaining synthetic copolymeric biocoatings (i.e. poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) methyl ether) for evaluating in vitro Vero and MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts cell response. Characterization and evaluation of the coated substrates were carried out using different techniques. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data demonstrated that the main functional groups in the MAPLE-deposited films remained intact. Atomic Force Microscopy images showed the coatings to be continuous, with the surface roughness depending on the deposition parameters. Moreover, the behaviour of the coatings in medium mimicking the pH and temperature of the human body was studied and corelated to degradation. Spectro-ellipsometry (SE) and AFM measurements revealed the degradation trend during immersion time by the changes in coating thickness and roughness. In vitro biocompatibility was studied by indirect contact tests on Vero cells in accordance with ISO 10993-5/2009. The results obtained in terms of cell morphology (phase contrast microscopy) and cytotoxicity (LDH and MTT assays) proved biocompatibility. Furthermore, direct contact assays on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts demonstrated the capacity of all analyzed specimens to support cell adhesion, normal cellular morphology and growth.

  11. Self-assembly of brush-like poly[poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] synthesized via aqueous atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hazrat; Mya, Khine Yi; He, Chaobin

    2008-12-02

    Self-assembly of brush-like well-defined poly[poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] homopolymers, abbreviated as P(PEGMA-475) and P(PEGMA-1100) is investigated in aqueous solution by employing dynamic/static light scattering (DLS/SLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), whereas 475 and 1100 is molar mass of the respective PEGMA macromonomer. The mentioned brush-like homopolymers are synthesized by aqueous ATRP at room temperature. The critical association concentration (CAC) of the synthesized polymers in water depends on the length of the PEG side chains but not on the overall molar mass of the polymer. Thus, approximately the same CAC of approximately 0.35 mg/mL is estimated for various P(PEGMA-1100) samples, and approximately 0.7 mg/mL is estimated for P(PEGMA-475) series. All the investigated P(PEGMA-1100) samples form multimolecular micelles in aqueous solution, where the hydrodynamic size (Rh) and the aggregation number (Nagg) of micelles decreases as the molecular weight of P(PEGMA-1100) increases. This can be attributed to the increased steric hindrances between the PEG side chains in corona of micelles formed by higher molar mass P(PEGMA-1100). The tendency of micelle formation by samples of P(PEGMA-475) series is significantly lower than that of P(PEGMA-1100) series, as demonstrated by their significantly higher CAC and micelles of lower Nagg. The Rh of micelles does not depend strongly on polymer concentration, which suggests that these micelles are formed via the closed association model. Micelles formed by P(PEGMA-1100) series slightly shrink with increase in temperature from 25 to 60 degrees C, while those of P(PEGMA-475) series are found to be insensitive to the same temperature variation. Finally, TEM is carried out to visualize the formed micelles after transferring the aqueous solution to carbon film.

  12. The Distribution of mixtures of dodecyl ether of poly(23)ethylene glycol with sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide in the water/octane system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soboleva, O. A.; Pronchenko, K. S.; Chernysheva, M. G.; Badun, G. A.

    2012-03-01

    The scintillation phase and tensiometry methods were used to study the mutual influence of dodecyl ether of poly(23)ethylene glycol (Brij-35) with sodium dodecyl sulfate and Brij-35 with dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide on the distribution in the water/octane system and adsorption at the liquid/liquid interface. The composition of mixed adsorption layers was determined and interaction parameters between molecules were calculated according to the Rosen model.

  13. Magnetoresponsive Poly(ether sulfone)-Based Iron Oxide cum Hydrogel Mixed Matrix Composite Membranes for Switchable Molecular Sieving.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xi; Nguyen Quoc, Bao; Ulbricht, Mathias

    2016-10-11

    Stimuli-responsive membranes that can adjust mass transfer and interfacial properties "on demand" have drawn large interest over the last few decades. Here, we designed and prepared a novel magnetoresponsive separation membrane with remote switchable molecular sieving effect by simple one-step and scalable nonsolvent induced phase separation (NIPS) process. Specifically, poly(ether sulfone) (PES) as matrix for an anisotropic membrane, prefabricated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) nanogel (NG) particles as functional gates, and iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) as localized heaters were combined in a synergistic way. Before membrane casting, the properties of the building blocks, including swelling property and size distribution for NG, and magnetic property and heating efficiency for MNP, were investigated. Further, to identify optimal film casting conditions for membrane preparation by NIPS, in-depth rheological study of the effects of composition and temperature on blend dope solutions was performed. At last, a composite membrane with 10% MNP and 10% NG blended in a porous PES matrix was obtained, which showed a large, reversible, and stable magneto-responsivity. It had 9 times higher water permeability at the "on" state of alternating magnetic field (AMF) than at the "off"-state. Moreover, the molecular weight cutoff of such membrane could be reversibly shifted from ∼70 to 1750 kDa by switching off or on the external AMF, as demonstrated in dextran ultrafiltration tests. Overall, it has been proved that the molecular sieving performance of the novel mixed matrix composite membrane can be controlled by the swollen/shrunken state of PNIPAAm NG embedded in the nanoporous barrier layer of a PES-based anisotropic porous matrix, via the heat generation of nearby MNP. And the structure of such membrane can be tailored by the NIPS process conditions. Such membrane has potential as enabling material for remote-controlled drug release systems or devices for

  14. Oxidation-Responsive and "Clickable" Poly(ethylene glycol) via Copolymerization of 2-(Methylthio)ethyl Glycidyl Ether.

    PubMed

    Herzberger, Jana; Fischer, Karl; Leibig, Daniel; Bros, Matthias; Thiermann, Raphael; Frey, Holger

    2016-07-27

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a widely used biocompatible polymer. We describe a novel epoxide monomer with methyl-thioether moiety, 2-(methylthio)ethyl glycidyl ether (MTEGE), which enables the synthesis of well-defined thioether-functional poly(ethylene glycol). Random and block mPEG-b-PMTEGE copolymers (Mw/Mn = 1.05-1.17) were obtained via anionic ring opening polymerization (AROP) with molecular weights ranging from 5 600 to 12 000 g·mol(-1). The statistical copolymerization of MTEGE with ethylene oxide results in a random microstructure (rEO = 0.92 ± 0.02 and rMTEG E = 1.06 ± 0.02), which was confirmed by in situ (1)H NMR kinetic studies. The random copolymers are thermoresponsive in aqueous solution, with a wide range of tunable transition temperatures of 88 to 28 °C. In contrast, mPEG-b-PMTEGE block copolymers formed well-defined micelles (Rh ≈ 9-15 nm) in water, studied by detailed light scattering (DLS and SLS). Intriguingly, the thioether moieties of MTEGE can be selectively oxidized into sulfoxide units, leading to full disassembly of the micelles, as confirmed by detection of pure unimers (DLS and SLS). Oxidation-responsive release of encapsulated Nile Red demonstrates the potential of these micelles as redox-responsive nanocarriers. MTT assays showed only minor effects of the thioethers and their oxidized derivatives on the cellular metabolism of WEHI-164 and HEK-293T cell lines (1-1000 μg·mL(-1)). Further, sulfonium PEG polyelectrolytes can be obtained via alkylation or alkoxylation of MTEGE, providing access to a large variety of functional groups at the charged sulfur atom.

  15. Poly(ether imide)-silica hybrid coatings for tunable corrosion behavior and improved biocompatibility of magnesium implants.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Ho; Jang, Tae-Sik; Jung, Hyun-Do; Kim, Sae-Mi; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Koh, Young-Hag; Song, Juha

    2016-05-05

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys have gained considerable attention as a promising biomaterial for bioresorbable orthopedic implants, but the corrosion behavior of Mg-based implants is still the major issue for clinical use. In order to improve the corrosion stability and implant-tissue interfaces of these implants, methods for coating Mg have been actively investigated. In this study, poly(ether imide) (PEI)-silica hybrid material was coated on Mg, for the tunable degradation and enhanced biological behavior. Homogeneous PEI-silica hybrid materials with various silica contents were coated on Mg substrates without any cracks, where silica nanoparticles were well dispersed in the PEI matrix without significant particle agglomeration up the 30 vol% silica. The hybrid coatings maintained good adhesion strength of PEI to Mg. The corrosion rate of hybrid-coated Mg was increased along with the increment of the silica content, due to improved hydrophilicity of the hybrid coating layers. Moreover, the biocompatibility of the hybrid-coated Mg specimens was significantly improved, mainly due to the higher Mg ion concentrations associated with faster corrosion, compared to PEI-coated Mg. Therefore, PEI-silica hybrid systems have significant potential as a coating material of Mg for load-bearing orthopedic applications by providing tunable corrosion behavior and enhanced biological performance.

  16. Preparation and properties of sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone) membrane for vanadium redox flow battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongyang; Wang, Shuanjin; Xiao, Min; Meng, Yuezhong

    In order to develop novel membranes for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) with low self-discharge rate and low cost, sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone) (SPFEK) was synthesized directly via aromatic nucleophilic polycondensation of bisphenol fluorene with 60% sulfonated difluorobenzophenone and 40% difluorobenzophenone. The SPFEK membrane shows the lower permeability of vanadium ions. The open circuit voltage evaluation demonstrates that the SPFEK membrane is superior to Nafion 117 membrane in self-discharge test. Both energy efficiencies (EE) and power densities of the VRB single cell based on the SPFEK membrane are higher than those of the VRB with Nafion 117 membrane at the same current densities. The highest coulombic efficiency (CE) of VRB with SPFEK membrane is 80.3% while the highest CE of the VRB with Nafion 117 membrane is 77.0%. The SPFEK membrane shows the comparative stability to Nafion 117 membrane in VO 2 + electrolyte. The experimental results suggest that SPFEK membrane is a promising ion exchange membrane for VRB.

  17. Prolonged Hypocalcemic Effect by Pulmonary Delivery of Calcitonin Loaded Poly(Methyl Vinyl Ether Maleic Acid) Bioadhesive Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Varshosaz, J.; Minaiyan, M.; Forghanian, M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to design a pulmonary controlled release system of salmon calcitonin (sCT). Therefore, poly(methyl vinyl ether maleic acid) [P(MVEMA)] nanoparticles were prepared by ionic cross-linking method using Fe2+ and Zn2+ ions. Physicochemical properties of nanoparticles were studied in vitro. The stability of sCT in the optimized nanoparticles was studied by electrophoretic gel method. Plasma calcium levels until 48 h were determined in rats as pulmonary-free sCT solution or nanoparticles (25 μg·kg−1), iv solution of sCT (5 μg·kg−1), and pulmonary blank nanoparticles. The drug remained stable during fabrication and tests on nanoparticles. The optimized nanoparticles showed proper physicochemical properties. Normalized reduction of plasma calcium levels was at least 2.76 times higher in pulmonary sCT nanoparticles compared to free solution. The duration of hypocalcemic effect of pulmonary sCT nanoparticles was 24 h, while it was just 1 h for the iv solution. There was not any significant difference between normalized blood calcium levels reduction in pulmonary drug solution and iv injection. Pharmacological activity of nanoparticles after pulmonary delivery was 65% of the iv route. Pulmonary delivery of P(MVEMA) nanoparticles of sCT enhanced and prolonged the hypocalcemic effect of the drug significantly. PMID:24701588

  18. Highly branched sulfonated poly(fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s membrane for energy efficient vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bibo; Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Wang, Lei; Yu, Lihong; Xi, Jingyu

    2015-07-01

    A series of highly branched sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone sulfone)s (HSPAEK) are synthesized by direct polycondensation reactions. The HSPAEK with 8% degree of branching is further investigated as membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The HSPAEK membrane prepared by solution casting method exhibits smooth, dense and tough morphology. It possesses very low VO2+ permeability and high ion selectivity compared to those of Nafion 117 membrane. When applied to VRFB, this novel membrane shows higher coulombic efficiency (CE, 99%) and energy efficiency (EE, 84%) than Nafion 117 membrane (CE, 92% and EE, 78%) at current density of 80 mA cm-2. Besides, the HSPAEK membrane shows super stable CE and EE as well as excellent discharge capacity retention (83%) during 100 cycles life test. After being soaked in 1.5 mol L-1 VO2+ solution for 21 days, the weight loss of HSPAEK membrane and the amount of VO2+ reduced from VO2+ are only 0.26% and 0.7%, respectively, indicating the superior chemical stability of the membrane.

  19. Quaternized adamantane-containing poly(aryl ether ketone) anion exchange membranes for vanadium redox flow battery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bengui; Zhang, Shouhai; Weng, Zhihuan; Wang, Guosheng; Zhang, Enlei; Yu, Ping; Chen, Xiaomeng; Wang, Xinwei

    2016-09-01

    Quaternized adamantane-containing poly(aryl ether ketone) anion exchange membranes (QADMPEK) are prepared and investigated for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFB) application. The bulky, rigid and highly hydrophobic adamantane segment incorporated into the backbone of membrane material makes QADMPEK membranes have low water uptake and swelling ratio, and the as-prepared membranes display significantly lower permeability of vanadium ions than that of Nafion117 membrane. As a consequence, the VRFB cell with QADMPEK-3 membrane shows higher coulombic efficiency (99.4%) and energy efficiency (84.0%) than those for Nafion117 membrane (95.2% and 80.5%, respectively) at the current density of 80 mA cm-2. Furthermore, at a much higher current density of 140 mA cm-2, QADMPEK membrane still exhibits better coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency than Nafion117 membrane (coulombic efficiency 99.2% vs 96.5% and energy efficiency 76.0% vs 74.0%). Moreover, QADMPEK membranes show high stability in in-situ VRFB cycle test and ex-situ oxidation stability test. These results indicate that QADMPEK membranes are good candidates for VRFB applications.

  20. Effects of electron beam irradiation on the property behaviour of poly(ether-block-amide) blended with various stabilisers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Kieran A.; Kennedy, James E.; Barron, Valerie; McEvoy, Brian; Vrain, Olivier; Ryan, Damien; Cowman, Richard; Higginbotham, Clement L.

    2015-05-01

    Radiosterilisation can induce modifications and/or degradation to transpire in poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBA) following irradiation. The current investigation utilises combined synergistic mixtures of stabilisers to minimise these effects, by melt blending them with the PEBA material. Hindered amine stabilisers (HAS), primary antioxidants and secondary antioxidants were the stabilisers incorporate to reduce/eliminate the effects of 50 kGy electron beam irradiation dose on the material. Results were discussed by comparing the stabilising efficiency of mixtures on the PEBA material in contrast to the control sample. Dynamic frequency sweeps demonstrated the formation of crosslinks, where the degree of crosslinking was dependent on the combination of stabilisers mixed in the base material (PEBA). The storage modulus displayed that PEBA blended with Irganox 565 had very slight changes in contrast to all other samples following irradiation. However, since this sample is a phenol containing system, severe discolouration was observed in comparison to other samples due to the oxidation of the hindered phenol. Overall, this study provides compelling evidence that a combined synergistic mixture of Irganox 565 (multifunctional phenolic antioxidant) and Tinuvin 783 (hindered amide light stabiliser) with PEBA, resulted in the best radiation stability.

  1. Degradation of poly(ether sulfone)/polyvinylpyrrolidone membranes by sodium hypochlorite: insight from advanced electrokinetic characterizations.

    PubMed

    Hanafi, Yamina; Szymczyk, Anthony; Rabiller-Baudry, Murielle; Baddari, Kamel

    2014-11-18

    Poly(ether sulfone) (PES)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) membranes are widely used in various industrial fields such as drinking water production and in the dairy industry. However, the use of oxidants to sanitize the processing equipment is known to impair the integrity and lifespan of polymer membranes. In this work we showed how thorough electrokinetic measurements can provide essential information regarding the mechanism of degradation of PES/PVP membranes by sodium hypochlorite. Tangential streaming current measurements were performed with ultrafiltration and nanofiltration PES/PVP membranes for various aging times. The electrokinetic characterization of membranes was complemented by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. Results confirmed that sodium hypochlorite induces the degradation of both PES and PVP. This latter is easily oxidized by sodium hypochlorite, which leads to an increase in the negative charge density of the membrane due to the formation of carboxylic acid groups. The PVP was also found to be partly released from the membrane with aging time. Thanks to the advanced electrokinetic characterization implemented in this work it was possible for the first time to demonstrate that two different mechanisms are involved in the degradation of PES. Phenol groups were first formed as a result of the oxidation of PES aromatic rings by substitution of hydrogen by hydroxyl radicals. For more severe aging conditions, this membrane degradation mechanism was followed by the formation of sulfonic acid functions, thus indicating a second degradation process through scission of PES chains.

  2. Sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone) membrane with embedded silica rich layer and enhanced proton selectivity for vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongyang; Wang, Shuanjin; Xiao, Min; Han, Dongmei; Meng, Yuezhong

    A series of novel organic-inorganic hybrid membranes with special microstructure, based on sulfonated poly (fluorenyl ether ketone) ionomer (SFPEK, IEC = 1.92 mequiv. g -1) and SiO 2 or sulfonic acid group containing SiO 2 (SiO 2-SO 3H), has been successfully designed and prepared for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The SiO 2-SO 3H is synthesized by co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane and γ-propyl mercaptotrimethoxysilane via sol-gel process to control the same IEC with neat SPFEK. The hybrid membranes are prepared by simply adding the inorganic particles into the SPFEK solution in N, N‧-dimethylacetamide, followed by ultrasonic dispersion, casting and profiled temperature drying process. The morphology is examined by SEM-EDX which is applied to the top surface, bottom surface and cross-section of the hybrid membranes. The water uptake, oxidative stability, thermal property, mechanical property, proton conductivity, VO 2+ permeability and single cell performance are investigated in detail in order to understand the relationship between morphology and property of the membranes. All the hybrid membranes show dramatically improved proton selectivity at 20 °C and 40 °C when compared with Nafion117. The VRB assembled with the SPFEK/3%SiO 2 and SPFEK/9%SiO 2 membranes exhibit higher coulombic efficiency and average discharge voltage than the VRB assembled with the SPFEK membrane at all the tested current densities.

  3. Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) Brushes on High-κ Metal Oxide Dielectric Surfaces for Bioelectrical Environments.

    PubMed

    Joh, Daniel Y; McGuire, Felicia; Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Andrews, Joseph B; Achar, Rohan K; Zimmers, Zackary; Mozhdehi, Darush; Blair, Rebecca; Albarghouthi, Faris; Oles, William; Richter, Jacob; Fontes, Cassio M; Hucknall, Angus M; Yellen, Benjamin B; Franklin, Aaron D; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2017-02-15

    Advances in electronics and life sciences have generated interest in "lab-on-a-chip" systems utilizing complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry for low-power, portable, and cost-effective biosensing platforms. Here, we present a simple and reliable approach for coating "high-κ" metal oxide dielectric materials with "non-fouling" (protein- and cell-resistant) poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (POEGMA) polymer brushes as biointerfacial coatings to improve their relevance for biosensing applications utilizing advanced electronic components. By using a surface-initiated "grafting from" strategy, POEGMA films were reliably grown on each material, as confirmed by ellipsometric measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The electrical behavior of these POEGMA films was also studied to determine the potential impact on surrounding electronic devices, yielding information on relative permittivity and breakdown field for POEGMA in both dry and hydrated states. We show that the incorporation of POEGMA coatings significantly reduced levels of nonspecific protein adsorption compared to uncoated high-κ dielectric oxide surfaces as shown by protein resistance assays. These attributes, combined with the robust dielectric properties of POEGMA brushes on high-κ surfaces open the way to incorporate this protein and cell resistant polymer interface into CMOS devices for biomolecular detection in a complex liquid milieu.

  4. Drug release from interpenetrating polymer networks based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate and gelatin.

    PubMed

    Ding, Frank; Hsu, S-H; Wu, D-H; Chiang, W-Y

    2009-01-01

    In order to develop new materials for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMEA) and gelatin were synthesized. These two materials were cross-linked sequentially using N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide (NMBA) and glutaraldehyde (Glu). Two series of IPNs gels were synthesized by applying different amounts of PEGMEA and gelatin in the initial feed. Sequential IPNs were prepared by polymerizing and cross-linking PEGMEA in the presence of gelatin using redox initiators (e.g., ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl ethylenediamine (TEMED)), as well as NMBA as the cross-linking agent. Gelatin in firm gel was then cross-linked with 1% glutaraldehyde. The swelling kinetics, mechanical properties and drug-release behavior of these IPNs were analyzed. The surface properties were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the swelling ratio decreased with an increase in the content of both PEGMEA and gelatin in the IPNs. PEGMEA/gelatin-based full-IPNs had a significantly higher shear modulus (G) and cross-linking density (rho) when the content of PEGMEA was increased. The drug loading was very high due to the full-IPN structure. The drug-release velocity was mainly affected by the content of PEGMEA.

  5. Encapsulation of glucose oxidase within poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate microparticles for developing an amperometric glucose biosensor.

    PubMed

    Hervás Pérez, J P; López-Cabarcos, E; López-Ruiz, B

    2008-06-15

    Poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEM) microparticles were synthesized and glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized within the microparticles. An amperometric biosensor was fabricated using the microparticles with GOx as biological component. The enzyme immobilization method was optimized by investigating the influence of monomer concentration and cross-linker content used in the preparation of the microparticles in the response of the biosensor. The best analytical results were obtained with the microparticles prepared with 0.21 M PEGMEM and 0.74% cross-linking. Furthermore, we have investigated the influence on the biosensor behaviour of parameters such as working potential, pH, temperature and enzymatic load. In addition, analytical properties such as sensitivity, linear range, response time and detection limit were determined. The biosensor was used to determine glucose in human serum samples and to avoid common interferents present in human serum such as uric and ascorbic acids. A Nafion layer was deposited on the electrode surface with satisfactory results. The useful lifetime of the biosensor was at least 520 days.

  6. Exploration of CO2-Philicity of Poly(vinyl acetate-co-alkyl vinyl ether) through Molecular Modeling and Dissolution Behavior Measurement.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Shaojun; Yuan, Pei-Qing; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Tao

    2015-09-24

    Hydrocarbon CO2-philes are of great interest for use in expanding CO2 applications as a green solvent. In this work, multiscale molecular modeling and dissolution behavior measurement were both applied to explore CO2-philicity of the poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc)-based copolymer. Introduction of a favorable comonomer, i.e., vinyl ethyl ether (VEE), could significantly reduce the polymer-polymer interaction on the premise that the polymer-CO2 interaction was not weakened but enhanced. The ab initio calculated interaction of the model molecules with CO2 demonstrated that the ether group in VEE or VBE was the suitable CO2-philic segment. From the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of polymer/CO2 systems, the interaction energy and Flory-Huggins parameter (χ12) of poly(VAc-alt-VEE)/CO2 supported that poly(VAc-alt-VEE) possessed better CO2-philicity than PVAc. The dissolution behaviors of the synthesized poly(VAc-co-alkyl vinyl ether) copolymers in CO2 showed the best CO2-phile had the VEE content of about 34 mol %. The MD simulations also indicated that the interaction of random poly(VAc-co-VEE) containing about 30 mol % VEE with CO2 was the strongest and the χ12 was the smallest in these polymer/CO2 systems. Not only could the VEE monomer reduce the polymer-polymer interaction, but it could also enhance the polymer-CO2 interaction with an optimized composition. Introducing a suitable comonomer with a certain composition might be a promising strategy to form the synergistic effect of polymer-polymer interaction and polymer-CO2 interaction for screening the hydrocarbon CO2-philes.

  7. Molecular Engineering of Liquid Crystalline Polymers by Living Polymerization. 8. Influence of Molecular Weight on the Phase Behavior pf Poly(Omega-((4-cyano-4’Biphenyl)oxy)alkyl Vinyl Ether)s with Ethyl, Propyl and Butyl Alkyl Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-16

    diacetate l0 were synthesized as described previously. Methyl sulfide was refluxed over 9-borabicyclo[3,3, l ]nonane (crystalline, 98%, Aldrich) and then...LJ.I., poly(A-4) with different degrees of polynerization and narow molecular weight distribution was compared to that of L -1, U- and 6. and of 2.((4...vinyl ether I ( L ),, poy 3 [4-cyano-4’-biphenyl)oxy]propyl vinyl ether) &63) and poly (4-[4-cyano-4’- biphenyl)oxylbutyl vinyl ether) (6_-4). Their

  8. pH-Responsive Polyethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether-ε-Polylysine-G-Poly (Lactic Acid)-Based Nanoparticles as Protein Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huiqin; Li, Yijia; Yang, Rui; Gao, Xiujun; Ying, Guoguang

    2016-01-01

    The application of poly(lactic acid) for sustained protein delivery is restricted by the harsh pH inside carriers. In this study, we synthesized a pH-responsive comb-shaped block copolymer, polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether-ε-polylysine-g-poly (lactic acid) (PEP)to deliver protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)). The PEP nanoparticles could automatically adjust the internal pH to a milder level, as shown by the quantitative ratio metric results. The circular dichroism spectra showed that proteins from the PEP nanoparticles were more stable than those from poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles. PEP nanoparticles could achieve sustained BSA release in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Cytotoxicity results in HL-7702 cells suggested good cell compatibility of PEP carriers. Acute toxicity results showed that the PEP nanoparticles induced no toxic response in Kunming mice. Thus, PEP nanoparticles hold potential as efficient carriers for sustained protein release. PMID:27467072

  9. pH-Responsive Polyethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether-ε-Polylysine-G-Poly (Lactic Acid)-Based Nanoparticles as Protein Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiqin; Li, Yijia; Yang, Rui; Gao, Xiujun; Ying, Guoguang

    2016-01-01

    The application of poly(lactic acid) for sustained protein delivery is restricted by the harsh pH inside carriers. In this study, we synthesized a pH-responsive comb-shaped block copolymer, polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether-ε-polylysine-g-poly (lactic acid) (PEP)to deliver protein (bovine serum albumin (BSA)). The PEP nanoparticles could automatically adjust the internal pH to a milder level, as shown by the quantitative ratio metric results. The circular dichroism spectra showed that proteins from the PEP nanoparticles were more stable than those from poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles. PEP nanoparticles could achieve sustained BSA release in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Cytotoxicity results in HL-7702 cells suggested good cell compatibility of PEP carriers. Acute toxicity results showed that the PEP nanoparticles induced no toxic response in Kunming mice. Thus, PEP nanoparticles hold potential as efficient carriers for sustained protein release.

  10. Phase Behavior of Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) in Alcohol-Water System: Coexistence of LCST and UCST.

    PubMed

    Kuila, Atanu; Maity, Nabasmita; Chatterjee, Dhruba P; Nandi, Arun K

    2016-03-10

    A thermoresponsive polymer poly(diethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PMeO2MA) is grafted from poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) backbone by using a combined ATRC and ATRP technique with a high conversion (69%) of the monomer to produce the graft copolymer (PD). It is highly soluble polymer and its solution property is studied by varying polarity in pure solvents (water, methanol, isopropanol) and also in mixed solvents (water-methanol and water-isopropanol) by measuring the hydrodynamic size (Z-average) of the particles by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The variation of Z-average size with temperature of the PD solution (0.2%, w/v) indicates a lower critical solution temperature (LCST)-type phase transition (T(PL)) in aqueous medium, an upper critical solution temperature (UCST)-type phase transition (T(PU)) in isopropanol medium, and no such phase transition for methanol solution. In the mixed solvent (water + isopropanol) at 0-20% (v/v) isopropanol the TPL increases, whereas the T(PU) decreases at 92-100% with isopropanol content. For the mixture 20-90% isopropanol, PD particles having larger sizes (400-750 nm) exhibit neither any break in Z-average size-temperature plot nor any cloudiness, indicating their dispersed swelled state in the medium. In the methanol + water mixture with methanol content of 0-30%, T(PL) increases, and at 40-60% both UCST- and LCST-type phase separations occur simultaneously, but at 70-90% methanol the swelled state of the particles (size 250-375 nm) is noticed. For 50 vol % methanol by varying polymer concentration (0.07-0.2% w/v) we have drawn a quasibinary phase diagram that indicates an approximate inverted hourglass phase diagram where a swelled state exists between two single phase boundary produced from LCST- and UCST-type phase transitions. An attempt is made to understand the phase separation process by temperature-dependent (1)H NMR spectroscopy along with transmission electron microscopy.

  11. Photochemical modification of poly(ether sulfone) ultrafiltration membranes by UV-assisted graft polymerization for the prevention of biofouling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieracci, John Paul

    Membranes are widely used by the biotechnology industry in the separation and recovery of proteins from biological solutions. Fouling of membrane surfaces by irreversible protein adsorption during ultrafiltration causes loss of membrane permeability and can reduce membrane selectivity and lead to significant product loss through denaturation. In this work, low fouling poly(ether sulfone) (PES) ultrafiltration membranes were produced by ultraviolet (UV) assisted graft polymerization of hydrophilic vinyl monomers using a newly developed photochemical dip modification technique. This technique was developed to make the UV modification process more easily adaptable to continuous membrane manufacturing processes. A method was also developed to measure and track the degree of polymer grafting on the membrane surface using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR/ATR). Grafting the hydrophilic monomer N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NVP) onto the membrane surface increased surface wettability and produced membranes with the high wettability of regenerated cellulose membranes. The enhanced surface wettability significantly decreased irreversible adsorptive fouling during the filtration of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA). In order to maintain the rejection of BSA after modification, PES chain scission was tightly controlled by regulating the UV wavelength range and the light intensity used. The UV reactor system was operated with 300 nm UV lamps and a benzene filter used to remove high energy wavelengths below 275 nm that were determined to cause severe loss of BSA rejection due to pore enlargement from extensive chain scission. Dip modification caused membrane permeability to decrease due to the grafted chains blocking the membrane pores. The use of a chain transfer agent during modification followed by ethanol cleaning increased modified membrane permeability, but BSA rejection was severely decreased. The resultant membranes produced by

  12. Novel quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone)/Nano-ZrO₂ composite anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuhua; Yu, Yingfeng; Meng, Yuezhong

    2013-02-01

    A series of composite anion exchange membranes based on novel quaternized poly(arylene ether sulfone)/nanozirconia (QPAES/nano-ZrO₂) composites are prepared using a solution casting method. The QPAES/nano-ZrO₂ composite membranes are characterized by FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX). The ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling ratio, hydroxide ion conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal stability, and chemical stability of the composite membranes are measured to evaluate their applicability in fuel cells. The introduction of nano-ZrO₂ induces the crystallization of the matrix and enhances the IEC of the composite membranes. The modification with nano-ZrO₂ improves water uptake, dimension stability, hydroxide ion conductivity, mechanical properties, and thermal and chemical stabilities of the composite membranes. The QPAES/nano-ZrO₂ composite membranes show hydroxide ion conductivities over 25.7 mS cm⁻¹ at a temperature above 60 °C. Especially, the QPAES/nano-ZrO₂ composite membranes with the nano-ZrO₂ content above 7.5% display hydroxide ion conductivities over 41.4 mS cm⁻¹ at 80 °C. The E(a) values of the QPAES/nano-ZrO₂ composite membranes with the nano-ZrO₂ content above 5% are lower than 11.05 kJ mol⁻¹. The QPAES/7.5% nano-ZrO₂ composite membrane displays the lowest E(a) value and the best comprehensive properties and constitutes a good potential candidate for alkaline fuel cells.

  13. Design and formulation of nanoemulsions using 2-(poly(hexafluoropropylene oxide)) perfluoropropyl benzene in combination with linear perfluoro(polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether)

    PubMed Central

    Mountain, Gregory A.; Jelier, Benson J.; Bagia, Christina; Friesen, Chadron M.; Janjic, Jelena M.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first report where PFPAE aromatic conjugates and perfluoro(polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether) are combined and formulated as nanoemulsions with droplet size below 100 nm. A perfluoropolyalkylether (PFPAE) aromatic conjugate, 2-(poly(hexafluoropropylene oxide)) perfluoropropyl benzene, was used as fluorophilic-hydrophilic diblock (FLD) aimed at stabilizing perfluoro(polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether) nanoemulsions. Its effects on colloidal behaviors in triphasic (organic/fluorous/aqueous) nanoemulsions were studied. The addition of FLD construct to fluorous phase led to decrease in PFPAE nanoemulsion droplet size to as low as 85 nm. Prepared nanoemulsions showed high colloidal stability. Our results suggest that these materials represent viable novel approach to fluorous colloid systems design with potential for biomedical and synthetic applications. PMID:24976645

  14. Synthesis and characterization of poly(methoxyl ethylene glycol-caprolactone-co-methacrylic acid-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) pH-sensitive hydrogel for delivery of dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Xu, Xu; Wang, YuJun; Yan, Xi; Guo, Gang; Huang, MeiJuan; Luo, Feng; Zhao, Xia; Wei, YuQuan; Qian, ZhiYong

    2010-04-15

    In this work, a novel pH-sensitive hydrogels based on macromonomer of methoxyl poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(caprolactone)-acryloyl chloride (MPEG-PCL-AC, PCE-AC), poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (MPEGMA), and methacrylic acid (MAA) were successfully synthesized by heat-initiated free radical polymerization method. The obtained macromonomers and hydrogels were characterized by (1)H NMR and FT-IR, respectively. Morphology study, swelling behavior, in vitro drug release behavior, acute oral toxicity of hydrogels, and cytotoxicity of PCE-AC macromonomer were also investigated in this paper. Finally, the hydrogels demonstrated that the sharp change in different pH value, thus believing to be promising the suitability of the candidate for oral drug-delivery systems.

  15. 2,5-Thiophene-based liquid crystalline poly(amide)s, poly(arylene ether ketone)s, and poly(benzimidazole)s

    SciTech Connect

    Stompel, S.

    1993-01-01

    Poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA or Kevlar[sup TM]) adopts an extended-chain crystal habit in the solid state which derives from the chain parallelism in its liquid crystalline (LC) phase. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate how the deviation from core linearity which is achieved by replacing terephthalic acid, a linear monomer, with 2,5-thiophenedicarboxylic acid, a monomer with a [approximately]148[degrees] bend, affects liquid crystalline properties of aromatic polyamides. The mesogenic properties of the 2,5-thiophene are initially verified for newly synthesized low molar mass diamide model compounds where the characteristic texture of the smectic A phase is observed by polarized optical microscopy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies shows that the observed mesophase for the thiophene-based diamide is much narrower and exists at lower temperatures than that observed for the corresponding p-phenylene diamide. Extensions to macromolecules show that if each terephthalamide unit in PPTA is replaced with a 2,5-thiophenylamide unit, high molecular weight polymer can be synthesized and, moreover, such 2,5-thiophene-based aromatic polyamide (PPThA) is stable and exhibits liquid crystalline phases in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions. Preliminary mechanical properties of coarse fibers spun from the liquid crystalline solutions and isotropic solutions in sulfuric acid are compared. PPThA lyotropic solutions are studied using deuterium NMR spectroscopy. LC solutions may be aligned in a magnetic field to yield a [open quotes]single liquid crystal[close quotes]-a macroscopically oriented phase. In such uniaxial solutions, the transition to isotropic state at elevated temperatures may be indirectly monitored by deuterium NMR; quadrupolar interactions of the probe molecule (deuterated sulfuric acid) reflects changes in the macromolecular ordering. Direct monitoring of polymer order is accomplished using deuterium labeled PPThA.

  16. Environmental effects of poly(phenylene ether) blends after long-term exposure to potable hot water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclean, Steven

    In recent years, engineering thermoplastic resins have been contemplated for use in a variety pressurized fluid handling components such as potable water delivery pipes, fitting and valves. In this research, rigid blends of glassy poly(phenylene ether) (PPE) polymer are studied to assess their suitability in long-term, potable, hot water environments. Three distinct PPE-based model compounds were prepared for this research: (i) a 50/50 blend of PPE and high impact polystyrene (HIPS); (ii) a 50/50 blend of PPE and HIPS with the inclusion of an anti-oxidant package and; (iii) a blend consisting of capped PPE, crystal polystyrene and styrene-ethyelene-butylene-styrene (SEBS) rubber. A fourth engineering thermoplastic, namely bisphenol-A polysulfone (PSU), was incorporated into the study as a benchmark material due to its proven reliability in hot water applications. Aging experiments were carried out for 8,000 hours in an 80°C water bath and an 80°C convection oven to characterize physical property retention and degradation mechanisms in each material. During water bath immersion, excessive, non-Fickian water diffusion occurred in both PPE/HIPS blends which led to water clustering and disc shaped microcavities on the order of 50 to 100 mum in diameter. These voids in the bulk caused appreciable losses in tensile elongation and fatigue resistance. The capped PPE/PS/SEBS blend, however, managed water uptake more effectively and its chemistry deterred water clustering. With further improvements to the formulation, such as larger rubber domains or an alternative impact modifier, the capped PPE blend may be able to offer physical property retention equal to that of PSU. With the exception of slight craze formation at sharp specimen edges during hot water immersion, the PSU material proved to be an exceptional material candidate throughout the entire experimentation. Surprisingly long-term hot water exposure did not cause gross chemical degradation in any of the materials

  17. Role of sulfonation in the stability, reactivity, and selectivity of poly(ether imide) used to develop ion exchange membranes: DFT study with application to fuel cells.

    PubMed

    López-Chávez, Ernesto; Peña-Castañeda, Yésica A; de la Portilla-Maldonado, L César; Guzmán-Pantoja, Javier; Martínez-Magadán, José Manuel; Oviedo-Roa, Raúl; de Landa Castillo-Alvarado, Fray; Cruz-Torres, Armando

    2014-07-01

    The design of polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cells must satisfy two equally important fundamental principles: optimization of the reactivity and the selectivity in order to improve the ion transport properties of the membrane as well as its long-term stability in the hydrated state at high temperature (above 100 °C). A study utilizing density functional theory (DFT) to elucidate the effect of the degree of sulfonation on the chemical stability, reactivity, and selectivity of poly(ether imide) (PEI), which allows the ionic transport properties of the membrane to be predicted, is reported here. Sulfonated poly(ether imide) (SPEI) structures with (-SO3H) n (n = 1-6) groups were built and optimized in order to calculate the above properties as functions of the number of sulfonyl groups. A comparative study demonstrated that the SPEI with four sulfonyl groups in its backbone is the polymer with the properties best suited for use in fuel cells.

  18. Poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels at temperatures below the freezing point of water-molecular interactions and states of water.

    PubMed

    Pastorczak, Marcin; Dominguez-Espinosa, Gustavo; Okrasa, Lidia; Pyda, Marek; Kozanecki, Marcin; Kadlubowski, Slawomir; Rosiak, Janusz M; Ulanski, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    Water interacting with a polymer reveals a number of properties very different to bulk water. These interactions lead to the redistribution of hydrogen bonds in water. It results in modification of thermodynamic properties of water and the molecular dynamics of water. That kind of water is particularly well observable at temperatures below the freezing point of water, when the bulk water crystallizes. In this work, we determine the amount of water bound to the polymer and of the so-called pre-melting water in poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels with the use of Raman spectroscopy, dielectric spectroscopy, and calorimetry. This analysis allows us to compare various physical properties of the bulk and the pre-melting water. We also postulate the molecular mechanism responsible for the pre-melting of part of water in poly(vinyl methyl ether) hydrogels. We suggest that above -60 °C, the first segmental motions of the polymer chain are activated, which trigger the process of the pre-melting.

  19. Multi-stimuli-responsive organometallic gels based on ferrocene-linked poly(aryl ether) dendrons: reversible redox switching and Pb2+-ion sensing.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Neelakandan Vidhya; Mandal, Dipendu; Ghosh, Sundargopal; Prasad, Edamana

    2014-07-14

    We describe the design, synthesis, and "stimuli-responsive" study of ferrocene-linked Fréchet-type [poly(aryl ether)]-dendron-based organometallic gels, in which the ferrocene moiety is attached to the dendron framework through an acyl hydrazone linkage. The low-molecular-weight gelators (LMWGs) form robust gels in both polar and non-polar solvent/solvent mixtures. The organometallic gels undergo stimuli-responsive behavior through 1) thermal, 2) chemical, and 3) electrochemical methods. Among them, conditions 1 and 3 lead to seamlessly reversible with repeated cycles of identical efficiency. Results indicate that the flexible nature of the poly(aryl ether) dendron framework plays a key role in retaining the reversible electrochemical behavior of ferrocene moiety in the LMWGs. Further, the organometallic gelators have exhibited unique selectivity towards Pb(2+) ions (detection limit ≈10(-8)  M). The metal ion-sensing results in a gel-sol phase transition associated with a color change visible to the naked eye. Most importantly, decomplexing the metal ion from the system leads to the regeneration of the initial gel morphology, indicating the restoring ability of the organometallic gel. The metal-ligand binding nature has been analyzed by using (1)H NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and DFT calculations.

  20. Imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and by chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The resulting block copolymers have one glass transition temperature or two, depending upon the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these block copolymers form tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties.

  1. Novel quaternary ammonium microblock poly (p-phenylene-co-aryl ether ketone)s as anion exchange membranes for alkaline fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xue; Xue, Boxin; Qian, Huidong; Zheng, Jifu; Li, Shenghai; Zhang, Suobo

    2017-02-01

    Using cation compounds as raw materials, three quaternized microblock poly(p-phenylene-co-aryl ether ketone)s (s-, m-, and l-QPP-co-PAEK) were synthesized using a nickel (0)-catalyzed coupling reaction. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties were affixed using cationic quaternary ammonium (QA) groups attached to poly(p-phenylene) by a three-carbon interstitial spacer and nonionic dichloride monomers of various lengths, respectively. The morphology, water uptake, swelling ratio, mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydroxide conductivity and alkaline stability of these new membranes were investigated. Experimental results indicated that the membrane with the longest hydrophobic microblock exhibited high hydroxide conductivity (37.6 mS cm-1 at 80 °C) resulting from the aggregation of ionic clusters observed using TEM. The copolymers with longer hydrophobic nonionic segments exhibited improved alkaline stability, suggesting that the hydrophobic chain shields the QA groups and that the polymer chains pack in a manner that restricts rotation. Controlling the distribution of QA groups in poly(p-phenylene) moieties and tuning the block length of nonionic segments are demonstrated to be effective methods for improving the hydroxide conductivity and alkaline stability of anion exchange membranes.

  2. Drug-loading of poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PEGMEMA)-based micelles and mechanisms of uptake in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Teddy; Gosain, Pallavi; Stenzel, Martina H; Lord, Megan S

    2016-08-01

    In this study polymeric micelles formed from poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (P(PEGMEMA75)-b-PMMA80) block copolymer of approximately 25nm in diameter were used to encapsulate the model drug, Nile Red, with a loading efficiency of 0.08wt% and a chemotherapeutic drug, doxorubicin (DOX), with an efficiency of 2.75wt%. The release of DOX from the micelles was sufficient to be cytotoxic to human colon carcinoma cells, WiDr, while Nile Red and the unloaded micelles were found not to be cytotoxic when exposed to the cells at polymer concentrations up to 200μg/mL. Nile Red loaded micelles were used to analyze uptake of the micelles into the cells which were rapidly internalized within minutes of exposure. The three major endocytotic pathways were involved in the internalization of micelles; however other passive mechanisms were also at play as the addition of inhibitors to all three pathways did not completely inhibit the uptake of these nanoparticles. These data demonstrate the potential of the P(PEGMEMA)75-b-PMMA80 block copolymer micelles to be rapidly internalized by carcinoma cells and deliver low doses of drugs intracellularly for controlled drug release.

  3. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyethylenepolyamine and alkanediol...

  4. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyethylenepolyamine and alkanediol...

  5. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyethylenepolyamine and alkanediol...

  6. 40 CFR 721.7260 - Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol di-gly-cidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7260 Polymer of poly-ethylene-polyamine and alkanediol... chemical substance identified generically as polymer of polyethylenepolyamine and alkanediol...

  7. Synthetic evaluation of disulphide-bonded sarafotoxin on a poly(oxy ether) grafted dendrimeric poly(alkyl amine) support for polymer assisted organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Siyad, M A; Kumar, G S Vinod

    2013-08-07

    The present paper describes the synthesis, characterization and assessment of a novel class of insoluble polymeric polystyrene supports which combines polar poly(ethylene glycol)dimethacrylate as a cross-linker and poly(ethylene glycol) grafted poly(N,N-bisethylamine) as a dendritic template. Poly(N,N-bisethylamine) dendrimers were generated by a series of reactions such as Schiff base integration, acidolysis, diazotization and thionyl chloride treatment. The same successive sequences of reactions have been followed for second generation dendrimers also and subjected to PEGylation (PEG 600) to achieve the desirable physico-chemical properties. The applicability of the novel PEGylated dendrimer support was demonstrated by synthesizing linear as well as disulfide bonded peptides in high yields and purities.

  8. Poly(glycidyl ether)-Based Monolayers on Gold Surfaces: Control of Grafting Density and Chain Conformation by Grafting Procedure, Surface Anchor, and Molecular Weight.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Silke; Weinhart, Marie

    2017-03-07

    For a meaningful correlation of surface coatings with their respective biological response reproducible coating procedures, well-defined surface coatings, and thorough surface characterization with respect to layer thickness and grafting density are indispensable. The same applies to polymeric monolayer coatings which are intended to be used for, e.g., fundamental studies on the volume phase transition of surface end-tethered thermoresponsive polymer chains. Planar gold surfaces are frequently used as model substrates, since they allow a variety of straightforward surface characterization methods. Herein we present reproducible grafting-to procedures performed with thermoresponsive poly(glycidyl ether) copolymers composed of glycidyl methyl ether (GME) and ethyl glycidyl ether (EGE). The copolymers feature different molecular weights (2 kDa, 9 kDa, 24 kDa) and are equipped with varying sulfur-containing anchor groups in order to achieve adjustable grafting densities on gold surfaces and hence control the tethered polymers' chain conformation. We determined "wet" and "dry" thicknesses of these coatings by QCM-D and ellipsometry measurements and deduced anchor distances and degrees of chain overlap of the polymer chains assembled on gold. Grafting under cloud point conditions allowed for higher degrees of chain overlap compared to grafting from a good solvent like ethanol, independent of the used sulfur-containing anchor group for polymers with low (2 kDa) and medium (9 kDa) molecular weights. By contrast, the achieved grafting densities and thus chain overlaps of surface-tethered polymers with high (24 kDa) molecular weights were identical for both grafting methods. Monolayers prepared from an ethanolic solution of poly(glycidyl ether)s equipped with sterically demanding disulfide-containing anchors revealed the lowest degrees of chain overlap. The ratio of the radius of gyration to the anchor distance (2 Rg/l) of the latter coating was found to be lower than 1

  9. Use of the composite membrane of poly(ether-block-amide) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a pervaporation system incorporated with fermentation for butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Zhi-Heng; Yang, I-Kuan

    2012-04-01

    Fermentation incorporated with pervaporation was regarded as an efficient way to relieve the feedback inhibition of butanol in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The addition of CNTs (carbon nanotubes) to PEBA (poly(ether-block-amide)) could greatly enhance the removal flux of solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) in a model solution test. The butanol removing rate results in a 61% increase in the batch with PEBA+CNTs (5%) membrane compared with that of the batch with PEBA alone. Besides the increase of removal flux, the addition of CNTs enforces the mechanical strength of the pervaporation membrane, which leads to more resistance for a longer operational time. The combination of a 5-L fermenter with the pervaporation membrane of PEBA+CNTs (10%) indicates a 20% increase both in productivity and yield compared to using PEBA. In conclusion, the addition of CNTs to a PEBA pervaporation membrane has great potential when applied in the ABE fermentation industry.

  10. Atomic motions in poly(vinyl methyl ether): A combined study by quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations in the light of the mode coupling theory.

    PubMed

    Capponi, S; Arbe, A; Alvarez, F; Colmenero, J; Frick, B; Embs, J P

    2009-11-28

    Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments (time-of-flight, neutron spin echo, and backscattering) on protonated poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) have revealed the hydrogen dynamics above the glass-transition temperature. Fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations properly validated with the neutron scattering results have allowed further characterization of the atomic motions accessing the correlation functions directly in real space. Deviations from Gaussian behavior are found in the high-momentum transfer range, which are compatible with the predictions of mode coupling theory (MCT). We have applied the MCT phenomenological version to the self-correlation functions of PVME atoms calculated from our simulation data, obtaining consistent results. The unusually large value found for the lambda-exponent parameter is close to that recently reported for polybutadiene and simple polymer models with intramolecular barriers.

  11. Generation of a Focused Poly(amino ether) Library: Polymer-mediated Transgene Delivery and Gold-Nanorod based Theranostic Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lucas; Ramos, James; Potta, Thrimoorthy; Rege, Kaushal

    2012-01-01

    A focused library of twenty-one cationic poly(amino ethers) was synthesized following ring-opening polymerization of two diglycidyl ethers by different oligoamines. The polymers were screened in parallel for plasmid DNA (pDNA) delivery, and transgene expression efficacies of individual polymers were compared to those of 25 kDa polyethylenimine (PEI), a current standard for polymer-mediated transgene delivery. Seven lead polymers that demonstrated higher transgene expression than PEI in pancreatic and prostate cancer cells lines were identified from the screen. All seven lead polymers showed highest transgene expression at a polymer:pDNA weight ratio of 5:1 in the MIA PaCa-2 pancreatic cancer cell line. Among the conditions studied, transgene expression efficacy correlated with minimal polymer cytotoxicity but not polyplex sizes. In addition, this study indicated that methylene spacing between amine centers in the monomers, amine content, and molecular weight of the polymers are all significant factors and should be considered when designing polymers for transgene delivery. A lead effective polymer was employed for coating gold nanorods, leading to theranostic nanoassemblies that possess combined transgene delivery and optical imaging capabilities, leading to potential theranostic systems. PMID:23382773

  12. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, J.V.

    1996-10-22

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of the above formula together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  13. Propenyl ether monomers for photopolymerization

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of poly(Azomethines) Containing Ether and Methylene Bridges: Photophysical, Electrochemical, Conductivity and Thermal Properties.

    PubMed

    Kaya, İsmet; Yılmaz, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a series of polyazomethines (PAZs) were prepared using dihydroxy substituted Schiff bases and 1,4-diiodobenzene. Also, different group effect such as methylene carbon and etheric oxygen bridges on photophysical, electrochemical, conductivity and thermal properties were clarified. The new polymeric materials structures were confirmed by means of (1)H-NMR, FT-IR and UV-vis measurements. The molecular weight distributions of polymers were determined with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements. Photophysical behaviors of polymers were explored by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence measurements. TGA-DTA and DSC techniques have been used for the thermal characterization of the PAZs. Thermal data and fluorescence measurements showed that etheric oxygen bridge containing polymers have a bit higher char and emission intensity than the methylene carbon bridge carrying polymers. According to TG analysis, Ton values of P-2MPDP, P-2-OPDP, P-4-MPDP and P-4-OPDP were found as 210, 250, 249 and 233 °C, respectively. The HOMO-LUMO energy levels, electrochemical (E' g ) and optical (E g ) band gaps were calculated from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV-vis measurements, respectively. The electrochemical (E g ') band gaps values of P-2MPDP, P-2-OPDP, P-4-MPDP and P-4-OPDP were calculated as 2.68, 2.32, 2.34 and 2.07, respectively. Additionally, four-point probe technique was used to measure solid state electrical conductivities of both doped and undoped states of the PAZs.

  15. Poly(arlyene ether sulfone) based semi-interpenetrating polymer network membranes containing cross-linked poly(vinyl phosphonic acid) chains for fuel cell applications at high temperature and low humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kihyun; Heo, Pilwon; Ko, Taeyun; Kim, Ki-hyun; Kim, Sung-Kon; Pak, Chanho; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-10-01

    Semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) membranes are prepared by in-situ casting and thermal-initiated radical polymerization of vinyl phosphonic acid (VPA) and bis(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl) phosphate (BMAEP) in N,N-dimethylacetamide solutions of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES). The incorporation of VPA units into the SPAES membranes improves proton conductivity especially at high temperature and low humidity conditions. In addition the cross-linker, BMAEP, prevents the decrease of the mechanical and chemical stabilities by the aliphatic linear poly(vinyl phosphonic acid) chains in the semi-IPN membranes, and furthermore the phosphonic acid group in BMAEP can prevent the decrease of the proton conductivity by the formation of cross-linked structures. Therefore, the resulting semi-IPN membranes show high proton conductivities up to 15 mS cm-1 at 120 °C and 40% RH. The fuel cell performance (187 mW cm-2 at 120 °C and 40% RH) of membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) from the semi-IPN membrane is found to be superior to that (145 mW cm-2 at 120 °C and 40% RH) of MEA from the SPAES membrane. The durability test result at the operating conditions indicates that the semi-IPN membrane is electrochemically very stable maintaining the low hydrogen cross-over and high power densities.

  16. pH-sensitive micelles self-assembled from multi-arm star triblock co-polymers poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) for controlled anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Yang, You Qiang; Zhao, Bin; Li, Zhen Dong; Lin, Wen Jing; Zhang, Can Yang; Guo, Xin Dong; Wang, Ju Fang; Zhang, Li Juan

    2013-08-01

    A series of amphiphilic 4- and 6-armed star triblock co-polymers poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (4/6AS-PCL-b-PDEAEMA-b-PPEGMA) were developed by a combination of ring opening polymerization and continuous activators regenerated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization. The critical micelle concentration values of the star co-polymers in aqueous solution were extremely low (2.2-4.0mgl(-1)), depending on the architecture of the co-polymers. The self-assembled blank and doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded three layer micelles were spherical in shape with an average size of 60-220nm determined by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The in vitro release behavior of DOX from the three layer micelles exhibited pH-dependent properties. The DOX release rate was significantly accelerated by decreasing the pH from 7.4 to 5.0, due to swelling of the micelles at lower pH values caused by the protonation of tertiary amine groups in DEAEMA in the middle layer of the micelles. The in vitro cytotoxicity of DOX-loaded micelles to HepG2 cells suggested that the 4/6AS-PCL-b-PDEAEMA-b-PPEGMA micelles could provide equivalent or even enhanced anticancer activity and bioavailability of DOX and thus a lower dosage is sufficient for the same therapeutic efficacy. The results demonstrate that the pH-sensitive multilayer micelles could have great potential application in delivering hydrophobic anticancer drugs for improved cancer therapy.

  17. Thermo-responsive cell culture carriers based on poly(vinyl methyl ether)-the effect of biomolecular ligands to balance cell adhesion and stimulated detachment.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Juliane; Nitschke, Mirko; Pette, Dagmar; Valtink, Monika; Gramm, Stefan; Härtel, Frauke V; Noll, Thomas; Funk, Richard H W; Engelmann, Katrin; Werner, Carsten

    2015-08-01

    Two established material systems for thermally stimulated detachment of adherent cells were combined in a cross-linked polymer blend to merge favorable properties. Through this approach poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) with its superior switching characteristic was paired with a poly(vinyl methyl ether)-based composition that allows adjusting physico-chemical and biomolecular properties in a wide range. Beyond pure PNiPAAm, the proposed thermo-responsive coating provides thickness, stiffness and swelling behavior, as well as an apposite density of reactive sites for biomolecular functionalization, as effective tuning parameters to meet specific requirements of a particular cell type regarding initial adhesion and ease of detachment. To illustrate the strength of this approach, the novel cell culture carrier was applied to generate transplantable sheets of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC). Sheets were grown, detached, and transferred onto planar targets. Cell morphology, viability and functionality were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and determination of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) before and after sheet detachment and transfer. HCEC layers showed regular morphology with appropriate TEER. Cells were positive for function-associated marker proteins ZO-1, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and paxillin, and extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV before and after transfer. Sheet detachment and transfer did not impair cell viability. Subsequently, a potential application in ophthalmology was demonstrated by transplantation onto de-endothelialized porcine corneas in vitro. The novel thermo-responsive cell culture carrier facilitates the generation and transfer of functional HCEC sheets. This paves the way to generate tissue engineered human corneal endothelium as an alternative transplant source for endothelial keratoplasty.

  18. Thermo-responsive cell culture carriers based on poly(vinyl methyl ether)—the effect of biomolecular ligands to balance cell adhesion and stimulated detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichmann, Juliane; Nitschke, Mirko; Pette, Dagmar; Valtink, Monika; Gramm, Stefan; Härtel, Frauke V.; Noll, Thomas; Funk, Richard H. W.; Engelmann, Katrin; Werner, Carsten

    2015-08-01

    Two established material systems for thermally stimulated detachment of adherent cells were combined in a cross-linked polymer blend to merge favorable properties. Through this approach poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) with its superior switching characteristic was paired with a poly(vinyl methyl ether)-based composition that allows adjusting physico-chemical and biomolecular properties in a wide range. Beyond pure PNiPAAm, the proposed thermo-responsive coating provides thickness, stiffness and swelling behavior, as well as an apposite density of reactive sites for biomolecular functionalization, as effective tuning parameters to meet specific requirements of a particular cell type regarding initial adhesion and ease of detachment. To illustrate the strength of this approach, the novel cell culture carrier was applied to generate transplantable sheets of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC). Sheets were grown, detached, and transferred onto planar targets. Cell morphology, viability and functionality were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and determination of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) before and after sheet detachment and transfer. HCEC layers showed regular morphology with appropriate TEER. Cells were positive for function-associated marker proteins ZO-1, Na+/K+-ATPase, and paxillin, and extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV before and after transfer. Sheet detachment and transfer did not impair cell viability. Subsequently, a potential application in ophthalmology was demonstrated by transplantation onto de-endothelialized porcine corneas in vitro. The novel thermo-responsive cell culture carrier facilitates the generation and transfer of functional HCEC sheets. This paves the way to generate tissue engineered human corneal endothelium as an alternative transplant source for endothelial keratoplasty.

  19. Thermo-responsive cell culture carriers based on poly(vinyl methyl ether)—the effect of biomolecular ligands to balance cell adhesion and stimulated detachment

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Juliane; Nitschke, Mirko; Pette, Dagmar; Valtink, Monika; Gramm, Stefan; Härtel, Frauke V; Noll, Thomas; Funk, Richard H W; Engelmann, Katrin; Werner, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Two established material systems for thermally stimulated detachment of adherent cells were combined in a cross-linked polymer blend to merge favorable properties. Through this approach poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) with its superior switching characteristic was paired with a poly(vinyl methyl ether)-based composition that allows adjusting physico-chemical and biomolecular properties in a wide range. Beyond pure PNiPAAm, the proposed thermo-responsive coating provides thickness, stiffness and swelling behavior, as well as an apposite density of reactive sites for biomolecular functionalization, as effective tuning parameters to meet specific requirements of a particular cell type regarding initial adhesion and ease of detachment. To illustrate the strength of this approach, the novel cell culture carrier was applied to generate transplantable sheets of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC). Sheets were grown, detached, and transferred onto planar targets. Cell morphology, viability and functionality were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and determination of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) before and after sheet detachment and transfer. HCEC layers showed regular morphology with appropriate TEER. Cells were positive for function-associated marker proteins ZO-1, Na+/K+-ATPase, and paxillin, and extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV before and after transfer. Sheet detachment and transfer did not impair cell viability. Subsequently, a potential application in ophthalmology was demonstrated by transplantation onto de-endothelialized porcine corneas in vitro. The novel thermo-responsive cell culture carrier facilitates the generation and transfer of functional HCEC sheets. This paves the way to generate tissue engineered human corneal endothelium as an alternative transplant source for endothelial keratoplasty. PMID:27877823

  20. Imide/Arylene Ether Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Bass, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    New imide/arylene ether copolymers prepared by reacting anhydride-terminated poly(amic acids) with amine-terminated poly(arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents. Each resulting copolymer may have one glass-transition temperature or two, depending on chemical structure and/or compatibility of block units. Most of copolymers form tough, solvent-resistant films with high tensile properties. Films cast from solution tough and flexible, and exhibit useful thermal and mechanical properties. Potentially useful as moldings, adhesives, or composite matrices. Because of flexible arylene ether blocks, these copolymers easier to process than polyimides.

  1. 40 CFR 721.3488 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. 721.3488 Section 721.3488 Protection of Environment... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to...-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers (PMN P-87-323) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3488 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. 721.3488 Section 721.3488 Protection of Environment... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to...-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers (PMN P-87-323) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3488 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. 721.3488 Section 721.3488 Protection of Environment... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to...-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers (PMN P-87-323) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3488 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. 721.3488 Section 721.3488 Protection of Environment... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to...-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers (PMN P-87-323) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3488 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. 721.3488 Section 721.3488 Protection of Environment... substituted-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to...-omega-hydroxy-, C16-20 alkyl ethers (PMN P-87-323) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. High Dielectric Constants of Composites of Fiber-Like Copper Phthalocyanine-Coated Graphene Oxide Embedded in Poly(arylene Ether Nitriles)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingwei; Pu, Zejun; Wang, Zicheng; Long, Ya; Jia, Kun; Liu, Xiaobo

    2015-07-01

    The surfaces of graphene oxide (GO) sheets were coated with fiber-like copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) by use of a solvothermal process. The product, GO@ CuPc, was used as a filler in high-performance poly(arylene ether nitrile) (PEN) composites. Films of the composites had high thermal stability, and glass-transition temperatures in the range 170-182°C. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed their initial decomposition temperatures were in the range 470-483°C. Scanning electron microscopy showed that dispersion of GO@ CuPc in PEN was much better than that of unmodified GO; this can be attributed to relatively strong interaction between GO@CuPc and the PEN matrix. All the composite films were highly flexible and had enhanced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the composites were as high as 89 MPa in the presence of 1 wt.% GO@CuPc, an increase of 20% compared with pure PEN film. Dielectric constants of the composite films were as high as 52 at 100 Hz when the GO@CuPc content was 5%. Because of these excellent mechanical and dielectric properties, PEN/GO@CuPc composites have much potential for use as film capacitors.

  7. Novel proton exchange membranes based on cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone/nitrile)s with perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid moieties for passive direct methanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jifu; He, Qingyi; Gao, Nian; Yuan, Ting; Zhang, Suobo; Yang, Hui

    2014-09-01

    A new series of cardo poly(arylene ether sulfone/nitrile)s FSPES-x with perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid groups have been successfully prepared by the perfluorosulfonic acid lactone ring-opening reaction without using any metal or base catalysts. These materials have been characterized by IR, NMR and TGA. The results indicate that this simple and metal-free method of preparation is highly efficient for controlling both the degree of perfluorosulfonation and the position of the sulfonate group and no side reactions such as crosslinking is observed. The FSPES-x membranes (IEC = 1.17-1.64 m equiv g-1) show the desired characteristics such as good film-forming ability, excellent thermal and mechanical properties, low methanol permeability, high conductivity (up to 0.083 S cm-1 at room temperature), as well as appropriate cell performance compared to Nafion®117. With these properties, such fluorinated sulfonic acid side-chain-type polymers are promising PEM materials for application in fuel cells.

  8. Effects of Block Length and Membrane Processing Conditions on the Morphology and Properties of Perfluorosulfonated Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Multiblock Copolymer Membranes for PEMFC.

    PubMed

    Assumma, Luca; Nguyen, Huu-Dat; Iojoiu, Cristina; Lyonnard, Sandrine; Mercier, Régis; Espuche, Eliane

    2015-07-01

    Perfluorosulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) multiblock copolymers have been shown to be promising as proton exchange membranes. The commonly used approach for preparation of the membrane is solvent casting; the properties of the resulting membranes are very dependent on the membrane processing conditions. In this paper, we study the effects of block length, selectivity of the solvent, and thermal treatment on the membrane properties such as morphology, water uptake, and ionic conductivity. DiMethylSulfOxide (DMSO), and DiMethylAcetamide (DMAc) were selected as casting solvents based on the Flory-Huggins parameter calculated by inversion gas chromatography (IGC). It was found that the solvent selectivity has a mild impact on the mean size of the ionic domains and the expansion upon swelling, while it dramatically affects the supramolecular ordering of the blocks. The membranes cast from DMSO exhibit more interconnected ionic clusters yielding higher conductivities and water uptake as compared to membranes cast from DMAc. A 10-fold increase in proton conductivity was achieved after thermal annealing of membranes at 150 °C, and the ionomers with longer block lengths show conductivities similar to Nafion at 80 °C and low relative humidity (30%).

  9. Phase behavior in blends of ethylene oxide-propylene oxide copolymer and poly(ether sulfone) studied by modulated-temperature DSC and NMR relaxometry.

    PubMed

    Van Lokeren, Luk; Gotzen, Nicolaas-Alexander; Pieters, Ronny; Van Assche, Guy; Biesemans, Monique; Willem, Rudolph; Van Mele, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    The state diagram of a blend consisting of a copolymer containing ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, P(EO-ran-PO), and poly(ether sulfone), PES, is constructed by using modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC), T(2) NMR relaxometry, and light scattering. The apparent heat capacity signal in MTDSC is used for the characterization of polymer miscibility and morphology development. T(2) NMR relaxometry is used to detect the onset of phase separation, which is in good agreement with the onset of phase separation in the apparent heat capacity from MTDSC and the cloud-point temperature as determined from light scattering. The coexistence curve can be constructed from T(2) values at various temperatures by using a few blends with well-chosen compositions. These T(2) values also allow the detection of the boundary between the demixing zones with and without interference of partial vitrification and are in good agreement with stepwise quasi-isothermal MTDSC heat capacity measurements. Important interphases are detected in the heterogeneous P(EO-ran-PO)/PES blends.

  10. A new poly(phthalazine ether sulfone ketone)-coated fiber for solid-phase microextraction to determine nitroaromatic explosives in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenna; Xu, Feng; Liu, Wenmin; Zhao, Jinghong; Guan, Yafeng

    2007-04-13

    A novel polar solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coated with poly(phthalazine ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK) was prepared by immersion precipitation technique. The microstructure of the coating exhibits a sponge-like sublayer supporting a dense cracking shaped top layer (about 1 microm in thickness). This coating shows long lifetime (up to 100 times) and is stable at desorption temperature up to 290 degrees C due to the rigid aromatic rings in chemical structure. We evaluated the extraction-desorption properties of the PPESK fiber for nitroaromatic explosives in aqueous samples. The parameters affecting the extraction were optimized, including extraction temperature and time, salt addition, desorption temperature and time. Limits of detection (LOD), precisions and linear dynamic range for the analysis of explosives by SPME-GC/TSD or ECD were evaluated. Limits of detection of the new fiber was three orders of magnitude lower than those with carbowax/divinylbenzene (CW/DVB), and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of single fiber and fiber-to-fiber were less than 9.3 and 10.4%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the PPESK coating exhibited high extraction efficiency for nitroaromatic compounds due to the pi-pi interaction, dipole-dipole interactions and interactions by polar functional groups. The method was applied to the analysis of nitroaromatic explosives in real aqueous samples including seawater and groundwater samples, with relative recoveries better than 90.7%.

  11. Self-assembly and gelation of poly(aryl ether) dendrons containing hydrazide units: factors controlling the formation of helical structures.

    PubMed

    Malakar, Partha; Prasad, Edamana

    2015-03-23

    Self-assembly of AB2 and AB3 type low molecular weight poly(aryl ether) dendrons that contain hydrazide units were used to investigate mechanistic aspects of helical structure formation during self-assembly. The results suggest that there are three important aspects that control helical structure formation in such systems with acyl hydrazide/hydrazone linkage: i) J-type aggregation, ii) the hydrogen-bond donor/acceptor ability of the solvent, and iii) the dielectric constant of the solvent. The monomer units self-assemble to form dimer structures through hydrogen-bonding and further assembly of the hydrogen-bonded dimers leads to macroscopic chirality in the present case. Dimer formation was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The self-assembly in the system was driven by hydrogen-bonding and π-π stacking interactions. The morphology of the aggregates formed was examined by scanning electron microscopy, and the analysis suggests that aprotic solvent systems facilitate helical fibre formation, whereas introduction of protic solvents results in the formation of flat ribbons. This detailed mechanistic study suggests that the self-assembly follows a nucleation-elongation model to form helical structures, rather than the isodesmic model.

  12. Nanoscale confinement effects on the relaxation dynamics in networks of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A and low-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    Kalogeras, Ioannis M; Stathopoulos, Andreas; Vassilikou-Dova, Aglaia; Brostow, Witold

    2007-03-22

    Thermoplastic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) (Mw(PEO) approximately 4000) has been used to prepare thermosetting nanocomposites incorporating diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) epoxy oligomer. Blends with various PEO/DGEBA weight ratios were cured using stoichiometric portions of 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane. The resulting semi-interpenetrating polymer networks were studied by several techniques. Nanoscale confinement effects, thermal (glass transition, melting and crystallization temperatures) and structural features of our materials are similar to those for networks with much higher Mw(PEO) and different curing agents; however, the polyether crystallization onset occurs in our case at a lower PEO concentration; shorter PEO chains organize themselves more easily into crystalline domains. Very low estimates of the k parameter of the Gordon-Taylor equation, used to fit the compositional dependences of the dielectric and calorimetric glass transition temperatures, and a strong plasticization of the motion of the glyceryl segments (beta-relaxation) in the epoxy resin were observed. These illustrate an intensified weakening in the strength of the intermolecular interactions in the modified networks, as compared to the high strength of the self-association of hydroxyls in the neat resin. The significance of hydrogen-bonding interactions between the components for obtaining structurally homogeneous thermoset-i-thermoplastic networks is discussed.

  13. Pore size and concentration effect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles on the coefficient of thermal expansion and optical transparency of poly(ether sulfone) films.

    PubMed

    Vo, Nhat Tri; Patra, Astam K; Kim, Dukjoon

    2017-01-18

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with uniform size (<50 nm) yet with different pore diameters were synthesized, and used as fillers in poly(ether sulfone) (PES) films in order to decrease their coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) without sacrificing optical transparency. Here, both CTE and optical transparency of the MSN/PES nanocomposite films gradually decreased with increasing MSN concentration. The PES films containing MSNs with larger pores showed the best performance in CTE and optical transparency. While the CTE decreased by 32.3% with increasing MSN content up to 0.5 wt%, the optical transparency decreased by only less than 6.9% because of the small and uniform particle size of less than 50 nm, which minimizes light scattering. This pore size effect is more clearly observed via an annealing process, which enables the polymer chains to slowly move and fill in the free volume in the pores of the MSN, and thus restricts the thermal motion. The effect of the silica nanoparticles was investigated not only on the thermal stability but also on the mechanical stability. We expect the MSNs synthesized in this study to be used as a promising filler to enhance the thermal and mechanical stability of the PES substrate without sacrificing its optical transparency.

  14. Aluminum–phthalocyanine chloride associated to poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) nanoparticles as a new third-generation photosensitizer for anticancer photodynamic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Muehlmann, Luis Alexandre; Ma, Beatriz Chiyin; Longo, João Paulo Figueiró; Almeida Santos, Maria de Fátima Menezes; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2014-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy is generally considered to be safer than conventional anticancer therapies, and it is effective against different kinds of cancer. However, its clinical application has been significantly limited by the hydrophobicity of photosensitizers. In this work, a system composed of the hydrophobic photosensitizer aluminum–phthalocyanine chloride (AlPc) associated with water dispersible poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic anhydride) nanoparticles is described. AlPc was associated with nanoparticles produced by a method of solvent displacement. This system was analyzed for its physicochemical characteristics, and for its photodynamic activity in vitro in cancerous (murine mammary carcinoma cell lineage 4T1, and human mammary adenocarcinoma cells MCF-7) and noncancerous (murine fibroblast cell lineage NIH/3T3, and human mammary epithelial cell lineage MCF-10A) cell lines. Cell viability and the elicited mechanisms of cell death were evaluated after the application of photodynamic therapy. This system showed improved photophysical and photochemical properties in aqueous media in comparison to the free photosensitizer, and it was effective against cancerous cells in vitro. PMID:24634582

  15. Chemical modification of wheat protein-based natural polymers: grafting and cross-linking reactions with poly(ethylene oxide) diglycidyl ether and ethyl diamine.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Lusiana; Qiao, Greg G; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2007-09-01

    Mobile poly(ethylene oxide) diglycidyl ether (PEODGE) segments were chemically grafted onto a soluble wheat protein (WP), and different network structures were formed via coupling reactions with ethyl diamine (EDA) in different PEODGE/EDA (PE) ratios. When the PE ratio was 1:1, linear PEs were the predominant segments grafted onto WP chains and the whole WP-PEODGE-EDA (WPE) system was still soluble with an increased molecular weight. Reducing the amount of EDA in the systems produced insoluble cross-linked WPE networks. The broad distribution of network structures and chain mobility resulted in a broad glass transition for the WPE materials. However, the glass transition started at lower temperatures, and the materials became flexible at room temperature. The PE segments were present in all rigid, intermediate, and mobile phases in WPE networks, while the proportion of mobile WP chains was increased as a result of the plasticization effect from the mobile PE segments. The mobility of the most mobile component lipid was also restricted to some extent when forming the cross-linked WPE networks. The study demonstrated that the formation of different network structures with PE segments could significantly improve the flexibility of WP materials, vary the solubility, and modify the mechanical performance of WP-based natural polymer materials.

  16. Use of poly(ether-block-amide) in pervaporation coupling with a fermentor to enhance butanol production in the cultivation of Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    PubMed

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Lin, Shang-Fu; Yang, I-Kuan

    2012-03-01

    The toxicity of the end-products of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) process, mainly butanol, is recognized as the major problem contributing to the low productivity of butanol. The pervaporation technique was regarded as one of the ways to efficiently remove organic components. The results of pervaporation performance of poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBA) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane in a model solution indicated that PEBA membrane owned a higher butanol permeation flux of 9.975 gm(-2)h(-1) as opposed to 3.911 gm(-2)h(-1) using a PDMS membrane. Moreover, a higher temperature would result in a higher permeation flux, but has a lower separation factor (α) obtained, while using PEBA membrane. The batch fermentor operation connected to the pervaporation with PEBA membrane created 43% and 34% of increase in the butanol productivity and in the yield as compared to that of the simple batch. The fed-batch fermentation mode by glucose feeding combined with PEBA pervaporation lasting for 24h could achieve 39% increase of butanol productivity as compared to a simple batch. Conclusively, the pervaporation with PEBA membrane coupling with fermentor was presumed to be capable of enhancing butanol production in ABE fermentation, which might have the potential applied in the commercialized ABE fermentation process.

  17. Solvent resistant chitosan/poly(ether-block-amide) composite membranes for pervaporation of n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone/water mixtures.

    PubMed

    Prasad, N Shiva; Moulik, Siddhartha; Bohra, Subha; Rani, K Yamuna; Sridhar, S

    2016-01-20

    A novel composite barrier comprising of hydrophilic and solvent resistant chitosan (CS) membrane on porous solvent resistant poly(ether-block-amide) (PEBA-2533) substrate was synthesized for pervaporation (PV) based dehydration of the polar aprotic n-methyl-2-pyrolidone (NMP) green solvent. The composite barrier was crosslinked with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to control swelling and enhance selectivity. Operating parameters such as feed water concentration, permeate pressure and membrane thickness were varied to assess membrane flux and selectivity. A two-dimensional finite element method (FEM) model was developed to predict the concentration profile within the membrane through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). On the basis of complete mixing experiments, a numerical simulation was performed to predict membrane area requirement and exit streams' compositions for commercial pervaporation units operated in plug flow mode. Both unmodified chitosan and tetraethyl orthosilicate crosslinked composite membranes successfully separated feed mixture containing 4.6 wt% water by exhibiting water fluxes of 0.024 and 0.019 kg/m(2)h, whereas the corresponding selectivities were found to be as high as 182 and 225, respectively.

  18. Poly(phthalazine ether sulfone ketone) as novel stationary phase for stir bar sorptive extraction of organochlorine compounds and organophosphorus pesticides.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wenna; Wang, Yanjuan; Xu, Feng; Guan, Yafeng

    2008-01-04

    A novel poly(phthalazine ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK) film prepared by immersion precipitation technique was coated on stir bars for sorptive extraction. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the coating has a denser porous surface (about 1 microm in thickness) with a sponge-like sublayer, and the thickness of the coating was 250 microm. The PPESK coated stir bar has high thermostability (290 degrees C) and long lifetime (50 times). The extraction properties of this stir bar were evaluated for the extraction of both polar and semi-polar analytes, including organochlorine compounds and organophosphorus pesticides. The PPESK stir bar was proved to show higher affinity towards polar compounds than that of PDMS coated stir bar and higher sample load compared with corresponding PPESK fiber. It was applied to the determination of organochlorine compounds in seawater samples and organophosphorus pesticides in juices by gas chromatographic analysis. The effect of sample matrix was evaluated at optimized condition of extraction temperature, extraction time and salt concentration. Limits of detection were in the range of 0.05-2.53 ng L(-1) for organochlorine compounds in seawater samples using electron capture detector (ECD), with precisions of less than 11% RSD. Limits of detection for organophosphorus pesticides were in the range of 0.17-2.25 ng L(-1) and 2.47-10.3 ng L(-1) in grape and peach juice, respectively, using thermionic specified detector (TSD), with precisions of less than 12% RSD and 20% RSD, respectively.

  19. [Analysis of phenolic compounds in aqueous samples by gas chromatography coupled with headspace solid-phase microextraction using poly (phthalazine ether sulfone ketone) coated fiber].

    PubMed

    Yao, Guiyan; Guan, Wenna; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hua; Guan, Yafeng

    2008-09-01

    The direct trace analysis of phenolic compounds in aqueous samples was performed by headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography (HS-SPME/GC). A laboratory made poly (phthalazine ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK, 30 microm) coated fiber was used to extract the phenols from aqueous samples. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as extraction temperature and time, pH value, and salt concentration, were optimized. The low pH value and high salt concentration can increase the extraction efficiency of phenols. The limits of detection (LODs) were from 0.003 to 0.041 microg/L, which were within the range of EPA Method 604. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 16%. Compared with commercial polyacrylate (PA) fiber (85 microm), the PPESK fiber shows high affinity toward phenolic compounds, and therefore, high absolute recoveries. The phenols were detected with the recoveries of 100.5%-111.8% for a tap water sample and 94.8%-117.3% for a seawater sample at the spiked level of 20 microg/L.

  20. Nafion-assisted cross-linking of sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) bearing carboxylic acid groups and their composite membranes for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Haidan; Zhao, Chengji; Na, Hui

    In this study, a new type of cross-linked composite membrane is prepared and considered for its potential applications in direct methanol fuel cell. Nafion and sulfonated poly(arylene ether ketone) bearing carboxylic acid groups (SPAEK-C) are blended and subsequently cross-linked by a Friedel-Craft reaction using the carboxylic acid groups in the SPAEK-C to achieve lower methanol permeability. The perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acid groups of Nafion act as a benign solid catalyst, which assist the cross-linking of SPAEK-C. The physical and chemical characterizations of the cross-linked composite membranes are performed by varying the contents of SPAEK-C. The c-Nafion-15% membrane exhibits appropriate water uptake (10.49-25.22%), low methanol permeability (2.57 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1), and high proton conductivity (0.179 S cm -1 at 80 °C). DSC and FTIR analyze suggest the cross-linking reaction. These results show that the self-cross-linking of SPAEK-C in the Nafion membrane can effectively reduce methanol permeability while maintaining high proton conductivity.

  1. Organic-inorganic crosslinked and hybrid membranes derived from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone)/silica via sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shaoguang; Shang, Yuming; Wang, Yingzi; Xie, Xiaofeng; Mathur, V. K.; Xu, Jingming

    A series of covalently crosslinkable organic-inorganic hybrid membranes have been prepared from sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) with pendant propenyl moiety and various amounts of vinyl substituted silica via sol-gel process which are then thermally crosslinked in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) initiator. The obtained membranes are characterized in terms of oxidative stability, thermal property, ion exchange capacity (IEC), water uptake, swelling ratio in methanol aqueous solution, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability coefficient. The results indicate that the oxidative stability and thermal stability of the hybrid membranes are improved. Moreover, introduction of silica reduces the water uptake and methanol swelling of membranes. The swelling ratio of membranes in 2 mol L -1 methanol aqueous solution at 80 °C slowly decreases from 26 to 19% with the increase of SiO 2 content from 0 to 12 wt.%. Furthermore, with the increase in silica content, the methanol permeability coefficient of the hybrid membranes decreases at first and then increases. When the silica content reaches 8 wt.%, the methanol permeability coefficient is at the minimum of 6.02 × 10 -7 cm 2 s -1, a 2.64-fold decrease compared with that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the proton conductivity is found to be at about 95% of that of pristine polymer at that silica content.

  2. Imidazolium-Functionalized Poly(arylene ether sulfone) Anion-Exchange Membranes Densely Grafted with Flexible Side Chains for Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dong; Lai, Ao Nan; Lin, Chen Xiao; Zhang, Qiu Gen; Zhu, Ai Mei; Liu, Qing Lin

    2016-09-28

    With the intention of optimizing the performance of anion-exchange membranes (AEMs), a set of imidazolium-functionalized poly(arylene ether sulfone)s with densely distributed long flexible aliphatic side chains were synthesized. The membranes made from the as-synthesized polymers are robust, transparent, and endowed with microphase segregation capability. The ionic exchange capacity (IEC), hydroxide conductivity, water uptake, thermal stability, and alkaline resistance of the AEMs were evaluated in detail for fuel cell applications. Morphological observation with the use of atomic force microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering reveals that the combination of high-local-density-type and side-chain-type architectures induces distinguished nanophase separation in the AEMs. The as-prepared membranes have advantages in effective water management and ionic conductivity over traditional main-chain polymers. Typically, the conductivity and IEC were in the ranges of 57.3-112.5 mS cm(-1) and 1.35-1.84 mequiv g(-1) at 80 °C, respectively. Furthermore, the membranes exhibit good thermal and alkaline stability and achieve a peak power density of 114.5 mW cm(-2) at a current density of 250.1 mA cm(-2). Therefore, the present polymers containing clustered flexible pendent aliphatic imidazolium promise to be attractive AEM materials for fuel cells.

  3. Thin Poly(Di(Ethylene Glycol)Methyl Ether Methacrylate) Homopolymer Brushes Allow Controlled Adsorption and Desorption of PaTu 8988t Cells.

    PubMed

    Voß, Yvonne; Wassel, Ekram; Jiang, Siyu; Song, Qimeng; Druzhinin, Sergey I; Schönherr, Holger

    2016-10-20

    Poly(di(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate) (PDEGMA) brushes, which are known to suppress protein adsorption and prevent cell attachment, are reported here to possess interesting and tunable thermoresponsive behavior, if the brush thickness is reduced or the grafting density is altered. PDEGMA brushes with a dry ellipsometric thickness of 5 ± 1 nm can be switched from cell adherent behavior at 37 °C to cell nonadherent at 25 °C. This behavior coincides with the temperature-dependent irreversible adsorption of fibronectin from phosphate saline buffer and proteins present in the cell culture medium, as unveiled by surface plasmon resonance measurements. Unlike for tissue culture polystyrene reference surfaces, swelling of the PDEGMA chains below the lower critical solution temperature results in the absence of paxillin and actin containing cellular filaments responsible for cell attachment. These tunable properties of very thin homopolymer PDEGMA brushes render this system interesting as an alternative thermoresponsive layer for continuous cell culture or enzyme-free cell culture systems.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10556 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers. 721.10556 Section 721.10556 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-450; CAS...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10558 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers. 721.10558 Section 721.10558 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-452; CAS...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10558 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers. 721.10558 Section 721.10558 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-452; CAS...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10556 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers. 721.10556 Section 721.10556 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C12-15-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-450; CAS...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10557 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. 721.10557 Section 721.10557 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-451; CAS...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10557 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. 721.10557 Section 721.10557 Protection of...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers. (a) Chemical substance...-ethanediyl), .alpha.- (2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl) -.omega.-hydroxy-,C10-16-alkyl ethers (PMN P-06-451; CAS...

  10. Unveiling the Dynamics of Self-Assembled Layers of Thin Films of Poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) by Nanosized Relaxation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Sherif; Szymoniak, Paulina; Heidari, Mojdeh; von Klitzing, Regine; Schönhals, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    A combination of nanosized dielectric relaxation (BDS) and thermal spectroscopy (SHS) was utilized to characterize the dynamics of thin films of poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) (thicknesses: 7-160 nm). For the BDS measurements, a recently designed nanostructured electrode system is employed. A thin film is spin-coated on an ultraflat highly conductive silicon wafer serving as the bottom electrode. As top electrode, a highly conductive wafer with nonconducting nanostructured SiO2 nanospacers with heights of 35 or 70 nm is assembled on the bottom electrode. This procedure results in thin supported films with a free polymer/air interface. The BDS measurements show two relaxation processes, which are analyzed unambiguously for thicknesses smaller than 50 nm. The relaxation rates of both processes have different temperature dependencies. One process coincides in its position and temperature dependence with the glassy dynamics of bulk PVME and is ascribed to the dynamic glass transition of a bulk-like layer in the middle of the film. The relaxation rates were found to be thickness independent as confirmed by SHS. Unexpectedly, the relaxation rates of the second process obey an Arrhenius-like temperature dependence. This process was not observed by SHS and was related to the constrained fluctuations in a layer, which is irreversibly adsorbed at the substrate with a heterogeneous structure. Its molecular fluctuations undergo a confinement effect resulting in the localization of the segmental dynamics. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular dynamics of an adsorbed layer in thin films.

  11. Dynamic in vitro hemocompatibility testing of poly(ether imide) membranes functionalized with linear, methylated oligoglycerol and oligo(ethylene glycol).

    PubMed

    Braune, Steffen; von Ruesten-Lange, Maik; Mrowietz, Christof; Lützow, Karola; Roch, Toralf; Neffe, Axel T; Lendlein, Andreas; Jung, Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    Linear, side-chain methylated oligoglycerols (OGMe) were recently reported as potential surface passivating molecules for improving the protein resistance of cardiovascular application relevant poly(ether imide) (PEI) membranes. A previously reported in vitro screening under static test conditions allowed an end-point evaluation of the adhesion and activation of adherent thrombocytes performed on the material surfaces and revealed similar levels of thrombogenicity on PEI membranes, functionalized with OGMe and oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) of similar molecular weight (Mn = 1,300 g·mol-1 - 1,800 g·mol-1). In the present study, we investigated the hemocompatibility of these materials in a dynamic closed loop system, in order to study time-dependent thrombocyte material interactions also of the circulating thrombocytes by mimicking in vivo relevant flow conditions in a dynamic test system with multiple material contacts. Activation and aggregation of circulating thrombocytes as well as complement activation and plasmatic coagulation were evaluated after 40 circulations of thrombocyte rich plasma in the closed loop system. The results of the dynamic tests revealed no differences between the OGMe and OEG functionalized PEI membranes. Furthermore, no differences were observed between the latter and a PEI membrane treated under the conditions of functionalization at pH 11 (PEI-pH11) without an oligoether being present. Blood plasma protein adsorption, as well as activation, and adherence of circulating thrombocytes occurred in a comparable, but minor manner on all investigated PEI membranes. From this we conclude that the OGMe and OEG surface functionalization did not lead to an improvement of the already good hemocompatibility of the PEI-pH11 membrane.

  12. Effects of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on the mechanical, thermal, structural and physicochemical properties of poly (ether-block-amide) thermoplastic elastomers.

    PubMed

    Murray, Kieran A; Kennedy, James E; McEvoy, Brian; Vrain, Olivier; Ryan, Damien; Cowman, Richard; Higginbotham, Clement L

    2013-01-01

    Both gamma ray and electron beam irradiation are widely used as a means of medical device sterilisation. However, it is known that the radiation produced by both processes can lead to undesirable changes within biomedical polymers. The main objective of this research was to conduct a comparative study on the two key radiosterilisation methods (gamma ray and electron beam) in order to identify the more detrimental process in terms of the mechanical, structural, chemical and thermal properties of a common biomedical grade polymer. Poly (ether-block-amide) (PEBA) was prepared by injection moulding ASTM testing specimens and these were exposed to an extensive range of irradiation doses (5-200 kGy) in an air atmosphere. The effect of varying the irradiation dose concentration on the resultant PEBA properties was apparent. For instance, the tensile strength, percentage elongation at break and shore D hardness can be increased/decreased by controlling the aforementioned criteria. In addition, it was observed that the stiffness of the material increased with incremental irradiation doses as anticipated. Melt flow index demonstrated a dramatic increase in the melting strength of the material indicating a sharp increase in molecular weight. Conversely, modulated differential scanning calorimetry established that there were no significant alterations to the thermal transitions. Noteworthy trends were observed for the dynamic frequency sweeps of the material, where the crosslink density increased according to an increase in electron beam irradiation dose. Trans-vinylene unsaturations and the carbonyl group concentration increased with an increment in irradiation dose for both processes when observed by FTIR. The relationship between the irradiation dose rate, mechanical properties and the subsequent surface properties of PEBA material is further elucidated throughout this paper. This study revealed that the gamma irradiation process produced more adverse effects in the PEBA

  13. Effect of extracts of poly(ether imide) microparticles on cytotoxicity, ROS generation and proinflammatory effects on human monocytic (THP-1) cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Reddi K; Basu, Sayantani; Lemke, Horst-Dieter; Jankowski, Joachim; Kratz, Karl; Lendlein, Andreas; Tetali, Sarada D

    2016-01-01

    Current haemodialysis techniques are not capable to remove efficiently low molecular weight hydrophobic uremic toxins from the blood of patients suffering from chronic renal failure. With respect to the hydrophobic characteristics and the high level of protein binding of these uremic toxins, hydrophobic adsorber materials might be an alternative to remove these substances from the plasma of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Here nanoporous microparticles prepared from poly(ether imide) (PEI) with an average diameter of 90 ± 30 μm and a porosity around 88 ± 2% prepared by a spraying/coagulation process are considered as candidate adsorber materials. A prerequisite for the clinical application of such particles is their biocompatibility, which can be examined i.e. indirectly in cell culture experiments with the particles' extracts. In this work we studied the effects of aqueous extracts of PEI microparticles on the viability of THP-1 cells, a human leukemia monocytic cell line, as well as their macrophage differentiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and inflammation.A high cell viability of around 99 ± 18% and 99 ± 5% was observed when THP-1 cells were cultured in the presence of aqueous extracts of the PEI microparticles in medium A and medium B respectively. The obtained microscopic data suggested that PEI particle extracts have no significant effect on cell death, oxidative stress or differentiation to macrophages. It was further found that the investigated proinflammatory markers in THP-1 cells were not up-regulated. These results are promising with regard to the biocompatibility of PEI microparticles and in a next step the hemocompatibility of the microparticles will be examined.

  14. Influence of N-phthaloyl chitosan on poly (ether imide) ultrafiltration membranes and its application in biomolecules and toxic heavy metal ion separation and their antifouling properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagaraj, P.; Nagendran, A.; Rana, D.; Matsuura, T.; Neelakandan, S.; Karthikkumar, T.; Muthumeenal, A.

    2015-02-01

    N-phthaloyl chitosan (NPHCs), which could be dissolved in various organic solvents, is synthesized for the modification of poly (ether imide) (PEI) ultrafiltration membrane. Blend membrane with 2 wt% NPHCs exhibited higher pure water flux (112.2 l m-2 h-1), higher water content (63.4%) and lower hydraulic resistance (3 kPa/l m-2 h-1). The top surface morphology of the control PEI membrane changed from a dense surface to visible pores with the increase in NPHCs concentration. The surface roughness of PEI membranes increased with an increase in NPHCs concentration in the casting solution. Application studies were carried out to find the rejection and permeate flux of proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA), egg albumin (EA), pepsin and trypsin and toxic heavy metal ions such as Cr(III), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II). The result shows that the flux and separation performances are dependent upon the content of NPHCs. Furthermore, the blend membranes were subjected to the determination of pore statistics and MWCO. It was found that the blending of NPHCs into the PEI membrane had a visible effect upon MWCO and pore size. The significant effect of hydrophilicity of NPHCs on the fouling of PEI/NPHCs blend membranes by BSA was also discussed. It was found that the blend membranes with 2 wt% NPHCs content had a higher FRR (88.6%), higher reversible fouling (23.7%) and lower irreversible fouling (11.4%) which explained their improved antifouling properties. Thus, the modified chitosan proved to play an important role in the improvement of UF membrane performance.

  15. Ionic-liquid-mediated poly(dimethylsiloxane)- grafted carbon nanotube fiber prepared by the sol-gel technique for the head space solid-phase microextraction of methyl tert-butyl ether using GC.

    PubMed

    Vatani, Hossein; Yazdi, Ali Sarafraz

    2014-01-01

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction method was developed for the preconcentration and extraction of methyl tert-butyl ether. An ionic-liquid-mediated multiwalled carbon nanotube-poly(dimethylsiloxane) hybrid coating, which was prepared by covalent functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with hydroxyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) using the sol-gel technique, was used as solid-phase microextraction adsorbent. This innovative fiber exhibited a highly porous surface structure, high thermal stability (at least 320°C) and long lifespan (over 210 uses). Potential factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the method LOD (S/N = 3) was 0.007 ng/mL and the LOQ (S/N = 10) was 0.03 ng/mL. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.03-200 ng/mL. The RSDs for one fiber (repeatability, n = 5) at three different concentrations (0.05, 1, and 150 ng/mL) were 5.1, 4.2, and 4.6% and for the fibers obtained from different batches (reproducibility, n = 3) were 6.5, 5.9, and 6.3%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of methyl tert-butyl ether in different real water samples on three consecutive days. The relative recoveries for the spiked samples with 0.05, 1, and 150 ng/mL were between 94-104%.

  16. Biodegradation of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) and poly{(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate)-co-[poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate]} hydrogels containing peptide-based cross-linking agents.

    PubMed

    Casadio, Ylenia S; Brown, David H; Chirila, Traian V; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard; Baker, Murray V

    2010-11-08

    PHEMA-peptide and P[HEMA-co-(MeO-PEGMA)]-peptide conjugate hydrogels [where PHEMA = poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate; PEGMA = poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] were readily prepared via photoinitiated free-radical polymerization in water. The PHEMA-peptide hydrogels were opaque and had a heterogeneous morphology of interconnected polymer droplets, characteristic of polymers that separate from the aqueous phase during the polymerization experiment. The P[HEMA-co-(MeO-PEGMA)]-peptide conjugates were transparent gels with a homogeneous morphology when formed in water, but when formed in aqueous NaCl solutions the P[HEMA-co-(MeO-PEGMA)]-peptide conjugates were also opaque and exhibited the heterogeneous morphology of interconnected polymer droplets. When incubated in solutions containing activated papain, P[HEMA-co-(MeO-PEGMA)]-peptide conjugates underwent degradation that was characterized by macroscopic changes to sample shape and size, sample weight, and microscopic structure. PHEMA-peptide conjugates did not undergo any significant degradation when incubated with papain, although ninhydrin-staining experiments suggested that some peptide cross-linker groups were cleaved during the incubation. The difference in degradation behavior of PHEMA-peptide and P[HEMA-co-(MeO-PEGMA)]-peptide conjugates is attributed to differences in aqueous solubility of PHEMA and P[HEMA-co-(MeO-PEGMA)].

  17. 40 CFR 721.7700 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (3:1). 721.7700 Section 721.7700...-propanediol (3:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (3:1) (PMN P-88-2188) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7700 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (3:1). 721.7700 Section 721.7700...-propanediol (3:1). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (3:1) (PMN P-88-2188) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. Phase transformations in aqueous low molar mass poly(vinyl methyl ether) solutions: theoretical prediction and experimental validation of the peculiar solvent melting line, bimodal LCST, and (adjacent) UCST miscibility gaps.

    PubMed

    Van Durme, Kurt; Van Assche, Guy; Nies, Erik; Van Mele, Bruno

    2007-02-15

    Supported by theoretical predictions based on the Wertheim Lattice Thermodynamic Perturbation Theory, modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC) was used to further the knowledge of the phase behavior of aqueous poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) solutions. Using a narrowly dispersed low molar mass PVME, we determined the following phase boundaries: (i) a bimodal lower critical solution temperature (LCST) miscibility gap at physiological temperature (around 37 degrees C), (ii) an upper critical solution temperature (UCST) two-phase area at sub-zero temperatures and high polymer concentration, and (iii) the melting line of the solvent across the entire concentration range, showing a peculiar stepwise decrease with composition. The location of the glass transition region and its influence on the crystallization/melting behavior of the solvent is discussed.

  20. Crystalline imide/arylene ether copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Bass, Robert G. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Crystalline imide/arylene ether block copolymers are prepared by reacting anhydride terminated poly(amic acids) with amine terminated poly)arylene ethers) in polar aprotic solvents and chemically or thermally cyclodehydrating the resulting intermediate poly(amic acids). The block copolymers of the invention have one glass transition temperature or two, depending on the particular structure and/or the compatibility of the block units. Most of these crystalline block copolymers for tough, solvent resistant films with high tensile properties. While all of the copolymers produced by the present invention are crystalline, testing reveals that copolymers with longer imide blocks or higher imide content have increased crystallinity.

  1. Development of a poly(ether urethane) system for the controlled release of two novel anti-biofilm agents based on gallium or zinc and its efficacy to prevent bacterial biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongyan; Darmawan, Erica T; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Lei; Bryers, James D

    2013-12-28

    Traditional antibiotic therapy to control medical device-based infections typically fails to clear biofilm infections and may even promote the evolution of antibiotic resistant species. We report here the development of two novel antibiofilm agents; gallium (Ga) or zinc (Zn) complexed with protoporphyrin IX (PP) or mesoprotoporphyrin IX (MP) that are both highly effective in negating suspended bacterial growth and biofilm formation. These chelated gallium or zinc complexes act as iron siderophore analogs, supplanting the natural iron uptake of most bacteria. Poly (ether urethane) (PEU; Biospan®) polymer films were fabricated for the controlled sustained release of the Ga- or Zn-complexes, using an incorporated pore-forming agent, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). An optimum formulation containing 8% PEG (MW=1450) in the PEU polymer effectively sustained drug release for at least 3months. All drug-loaded PEU films exhibited in vitro ≥ 90% reduction of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria in both suspended and biofilm culture versus the negative control PEU films releasing nothing. Cytotoxicity and endotoxin evaluation demonstrated no adverse responses to the Ga- or Zn-complex releasing PEU films. Finally, in vivo studies further substantiate the anti-biofilm efficacy of the PEU films releasing Ga- or Zn- complexes.

  2. Ethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl ether ; CASRN 60 - 29 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  3. Octabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Octabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 32536 - 52 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  4. Nonabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Nonabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 63936 - 56 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  5. Hexabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Hexabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 36483 - 60 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  6. Tetrabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetrabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 40088 - 47 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  7. Tribromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tribromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 49690 - 94 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  8. Pentabromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Pentabromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 32534 - 81 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  9. Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, J.V.

    1996-01-23

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula A(OCH{double_bond}CHCH{sub 3}){sub n} (V) wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether, and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  10. Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them

    DOEpatents

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  11. Phase behavior of the mixtures of poly(oxyethylene) (10) stearyl ether (Brij-76), 1-butanol, isooctane, and mixed polar solvents II. Water and ethylene glycol (EG) or tetraethylene glycol (TEG).

    PubMed

    Nandy, Debdurlav; Mitra, Rajib K; Paul, Bidyut K

    2007-06-01

    The phase diagrams of the pseudo-quaternary systems poly(oxyethylene) (10) stearyl ether (Brij-76)/1-butanol/isooctane/water (with equal amounts of oil and water in the presence of two nonaqueous polar solvents (NPS), ethylene glycol (EG), and tetraethylene glycol (TEG)), have been constructed at 30 degrees C. Regular fish-tail diagrams were obtained up to psi (weight fraction of EG or TEG in the mixture of polar solvents) equal to 0.5, confirming the establishment of hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) of the systems. The maximum solubilization capacity passed through a minimum at psi=0.2. No HLB was obtained at higher psi. The usual fish-tail diagrams were also obtained in temperature-induced phase mapping at fixed W(1) (weight fraction of 1-butanol in total amphiphile). Solubilization capacity and HLB temperature (T(HLB)) decreased with increasing psi at a fixed W(1), the effect being more pronounced for TEG than EG. A correlation between HLB temperature (T(HLB)) and HLB number (N(HLB)) of mixed amphiphiles (Brij-76+Bu) in pseudo-quaternary systems (in the presence of water and partial substitution of water with both NPS) has been established. The novelty of the work with respect to possible applications has been discussed.

  12. System-size corrections for self-diffusion coefficients calculated from molecular dynamics simulations: The case of CO2, n-alkanes, and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moultos, Othonas A.; Zhang, Yong; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Economou, Ioannis G.; Maginn, Edward J.

    2016-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to study the self-diffusion coefficients of CO2, methane, propane, n-hexane, n-hexadecane, and various poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ethers (glymes in short, CH3O-(CH2CH2O)n-CH3 with n = 1, 2, 3, and 4, labeled as G1, G2, G3, and G4, respectively) at different conditions. Various system sizes were examined. The widely used Yeh and Hummer [J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 15873 (2004)] correction for the prediction of diffusion coefficient at the thermodynamic limit was applied and shown to be accurate in all cases compared to extrapolated values at infinite system size. The magnitude of correction, in all cases examined, is significant, with the smallest systems examined giving for some cases a self-diffusion coefficient approximately 15% lower than the infinite system-size extrapolated value. The results suggest that finite size corrections to computed self-diffusivities must be used in order to obtain accurate results.

  13. Ion Exchange and Antibiofouling Properties of Poly(ether sulfone) Membranes Prepared by the Surface Immobilization of Brønsted Acidic Ionic Liquids via Double-Click Reactions.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhuan; Liu, Cui-Jing; Zhu, Li-Ping; Xu, You-Yi

    2015-07-28

    Brønsted acidic ionic liquids (BAILs) are unique ionic liquids that display chemical structures similar to zwitterions, and they were typically used as solvents and catalysts. In this work, an imidazole-based BAIL monolayer was fabricated onto poly(ether sulfone) (PES) membranes via surface clicking reactions, and the multifunctionality, including ion exchange and biofouling resistance to proteins and bacteria, was demonstrated, which was believed to be one of few works in which BAIL had been considered to be a novel fouling resistance layer for porous membranes. The successful immobilization of the BAILs onto a membrane surface was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, contact angle measurement, and ζ potential determination. The results from Raman spectroscopy showed that, as a decisive step prior to zwitterion, the BAIL was deprotonated in aqueous solution, and biofouling resistance to proteins and bacteria was found. However, BAIL displayed ion exchange ability at lower pH, and surface hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of membranes could be tuned on purpose. Our results have demonstrated that the BAIL grafted onto membranes will not only act as an antibiofouling barrier like zwitterions but also provide a platform for surface chemical tailoring by ion exchange, the property of which will become especially important in acidic solutions where the fouling resistance performances of zwitterions are greatly weakened.

  14. System-size corrections for self-diffusion coefficients calculated from molecular dynamics simulations: The case of CO2, n-alkanes, and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Moultos, Othonas A; Zhang, Yong; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Economou, Ioannis G; Maginn, Edward J

    2016-08-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to study the self-diffusion coefficients of CO2, methane, propane, n-hexane, n-hexadecane, and various poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ethers (glymes in short, CH3O-(CH2CH2O)n-CH3 with n = 1, 2, 3, and 4, labeled as G1, G2, G3, and G4, respectively) at different conditions. Various system sizes were examined. The widely used Yeh and Hummer [J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 15873 (2004)] correction for the prediction of diffusion coefficient at the thermodynamic limit was applied and shown to be accurate in all cases compared to extrapolated values at infinite system size. The magnitude of correction, in all cases examined, is significant, with the smallest systems examined giving for some cases a self-diffusion coefficient approximately 15% lower than the infinite system-size extrapolated value. The results suggest that finite size corrections to computed self-diffusivities must be used in order to obtain accurate results.

  15. High Temperature, Low Relative Humidity, Polymer-type Membranes Based on Disulfonated Poly(arylene ether) Block and Random Copolymers Optionally Incorporating Protonic Conducting Layered Water insoluble Zirconium Fillers

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, James E.; Baird, Donald G.

    2010-06-03

    Our research group has been engaged in the past few years in the synthesis of biphenol based partially disulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) random copolymers as potential PEMs. This series of polymers are named as BPSH-xx, where BP stands for biphenol, S stands for sulfonated, H stands for acidified and xx represents the degree of disulfonation. All of these sulfonated copolymers phase separate to form nano scale hydrophilic and hydrophobic morphological domains. The hydrophilic phase containing the sulfonic acid moieties causes the copolymer to absorb water. Water confined in hydrophilic pores in concert with the sulfonic acid groups serve the critical function of proton (ion) conduction and water transport in these systems. Both Nafion and BPSH show high proton conductivity at fully hydrated conditions. However proton transport is especially limited at low hydration level for the BPSH random copolymer. It has been observed that the diffusion coefficients of both water and protons change with the water content of the pore. This change in proton and water transport mechanisms with hydration level has been attributed to the solvation of the acid groups and the amount of bound and bulk-like water within a pore. At low hydration levels most of the water is tightly associated with sulfonic groups and has a low diffusion coefficient. This tends to encourage isolated domain morphology. Thus, although there may be significant concentrations of protons, the transport is limited by the discontinuous morphological structure. Hence the challenge lies in how to modify the chemistry of the polymers to obtain significant protonic conductivity at low hydration levels. This may be possible if one can alter the chemical structure to synthesize nanophase separated ion containing block copolymers. Unlike the BPSH copolymers, where the sulfonic acid groups are randomly distributed along the chain, the multiblock copolymers will feature an ordered sequence of hydrophilic and

  16. Functional polyester materials with tunable degradability: Investigations into the use of reductive amination, ketoxime ether, and hydrazone linkages for functionalization, covalent stabilization and crosslinking of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Horn, Brooke Angela

    Aliphatic polyesters represent one class of degradable, polymeric materials that is receiving significant attention in the search for, and design of, biocompatible and bioresorbable synthetic substances. Functional and crosslinked polyesters, having potential biomedical value, are the target of many avenues of current research. This dissertation work expands the utility of a specific aliphatic polyester, poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-2-oxepane-1,5-dione) (P(CL-co-OPD)), which contains backbone ketone units that can be reacted with various functional, nucleophilic agents. Results presented in this dissertation convey both the successes had and the challenges encountered in the employment of different "iminyl" chemistries for the synthesis of functional and crosslinked materials. Specifically, the ketone-functionalized polyester was investigated as a general substrate designed to undergo solution-state intramolecular crosslinking and functionalization upon reductive amination with 1,6-hexanediamine and hexylamine, respectively, in the presence of NaCNBH3. Through detailed analysis of the products from these reactions, and simpler systems including small molecule model compounds, the polymeric gamma-keto ester functionality was determined to be incompatible with the reductive amination chemistry, resulting in chain cleavage via intramolecular lactam formation. Subsequent investigation of ketoxime ether formation using synthetic model hydroxylamines, 1-aminooxydodecane and 1,6-bis(aminooxy)hexane, in solution and in the presence of an acid catalyst, resulted in the targeted graft and crosslinked particulate/gel materials, respectively. With the significant interest in the development of synthetic polymer materials of increasing degrees of complexity, attention has been focused on the efficient and high-yielding conversion of polyesters into multi-functional materials. Facile conjugation of aminooxy- and sulfonyl hydrazide model ligands with P(CL-co-OPD) were also

  17. Crown ethers in graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; ...

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basicmore » structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.« less

  18. Crown ethers in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Junjie; Lee, Jaekwang; Contescu, Cristian I.; Gallego, Nidia C.; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

    2014-11-13

    Crown ethers, introduced by Pedersen1, are at their most basic level neutral rings constructed of oxygen atoms linked by two- or three-carbon chains. They have attracted special attention for their ability to selectively incorporate various atoms2 or molecules within the cavity formed by the ring3-6. This property has led to the use of crown ethers and their compounds in a wide range of chemical and biological applications7,8. However, crown ethers are typically highly flexible, frustrating efforts to rigidify them for many uses that demand higher binding affinity and selectivity9,10. In this Letter, we report atomic-resolution images of the same basic structures of the original crown ethers embedded in graphene. This arrangement constrains the crown ethers to be rigid and planar and thus uniquely suited for the many applications that crown ethers are known for. First-principles calculations show that the close similarity of the structures seen in graphene with those of crown ether molecules also extends to their selectivity towards specific metal cations depending on the ring size. Atoms (or molecules) incorporated within the crown ethers in graphene offer a simple environment that can be easily and systematically probed and modeled. Thus, we expect that this discovery will introduce a new wave of investigations and applications of chemically functionalized graphene.

  19. Catalytic oxidation of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang; Johnston, Christina M.; Li, Qing

    2016-05-10

    A composition for oxidizing dimethyl ether includes an alloy supported on carbon, the alloy being of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium. A process for oxidizing dimethyl ether involves exposing dimethyl ether to a carbon-supported alloy of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium under conditions sufficient to electrochemically oxidize the dimethyl ether.

  20. Poly(arylene)-based anion exchange polymer electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Yu Seung; Bae, Chulsung

    2015-06-09

    Poly(arylene) electrolytes including copolymers lacking ether groups in the polymer may be used as membranes and binders for electrocatalysts in preparation of anodes for electrochemical cells such as solid alkaline fuel cells.

  1. Cationic Polymerization of Vinyl Ethers Controlled by Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Kottisch, Veronika; Michaudel, Quentin; Fors, Brett P

    2016-12-07

    Photoinitiated cationic polymerizations are widely used in industrial processes; however, gaining photocontrol over chain growth would expand the utility of these methods and facilitate the design of novel complex architectures. We report herein a cationic polymerization regulated by visible light. This polymerization proceeds under mild conditions: a combination of a metal-free photocatalyst, a chain-transfer agent, and light irradiation enables the synthesis of various poly(vinyl ether)s with good control over molecular weight and dispersity as well as excellent chain-end fidelity. Significantly, photoreversible cation formation in this system enables efficient control over polymer chain growth with light.

  2. Propylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 52125 - 53 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  3. Chloromethyl methyl ether (CMME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chloromethyl methyl ether ( CMME ) ; CASRN 107 - 30 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  4. p-Bromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p - Bromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 101 - 55 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  5. Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monoethyl ether ; CASRN 112 - 50 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  6. Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Triethylene glycol monobutyl ether ; CASRN 143 - 22 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  7. Aliphatic polycarbonates based on carbon dioxide, furfuryl glycidyl ether, and glycidyl methyl ether: reversible functionalization and cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Hilf, Jeannette; Scharfenberg, Markus; Poon, Jeffrey; Moers, Christian; Frey, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Well-defined poly((furfuryl glycidyl ether)-co-(glycidyl methyl ether) carbonate) (P((FGE-co-GME)C)) copolymers with varying furfuryl glycidyl ether (FGE) content in the range of 26% to 100% are prepared directly from CO2 and the respective epoxides in a solvent-free synthesis. All materials are characterized by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The furfuryl-functional samples exhibit monomodal molecular weight distributions with Mw/Mn in the range of 1.16 to 1.43 and molecular weights (Mn) between 2300 and 4300 g mol(-1). Thermal properties reflect the amorphous structure of the polymers. Both post-functionalization and cross-linking are performed via Diels-Alder chemistry using maleimide derivatives, leading to reversible network formation. This transformation is shown to be thermally reversible at 110 °C.

  8. Marchantin M trimethyl ether.

    PubMed

    Mombrú, A W; Suescun, L; Pandolfi, E; Seoane, G; López, G; Mariezcurrena, R

    2000-11-01

    The title macrocycle, C(31)H(30)O(5), is comprised of two bibenzyl ether moieties linked cyclically by spacers which each consist of two-carbon alkyl chains. The observed conformation of the macrocycle may be partly stabilized by intramolecular C-H.O close contacts. The packing appears to be directed by van der Waals forces. This work explains the occurrence of a signal found in the (1)H NMR spectra of both marchantinquinone and marchantin M trimethyl ether at delta = 5. 49 and 5.56 p.p.m., respectively. The shift in the position of the expected peak can be explained by the proximity of an H atom belonging to one of the aromatic rings to another ring in the same molecule.

  9. Alkali-metal ion coordination in uranyl(VI) poly-peroxo complexes in solution, inorganic analogues to crown-ethers. Part 2. Complex formation in the tetramethyl ammonium-, Li(+)-, Na(+)- and K(+)-uranyl(VI)-peroxide-carbonate systems.

    PubMed

    Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Szabó, Zoltán; Vallet, Valerie; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Grenthe, Ingmar

    2015-10-07

    The constitution and equilibrium constants of ternary uranyl(vi) peroxide carbonate complexes [(UO2)p(O2)q(CO3)r](2(p-q-r)) have been determined at 0 °C in 0.50 M MNO3, M = Li, K, and TMA (tetramethyl ammonium), ionic media using potentiometric and spectrophotometric data; (17)O NMR data were used to determine the number of complexes present. The formation of cyclic oligomers, "[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]n", n = 4, 5, 6, with different stoichiometries depending on the ionic medium used, suggests that Li(+), Na(+), K(+) and TMA ions act as templates for the formation of uranyl peroxide rings where the uranyl-units are linked by μ-η(2)-η(2) bridged peroxide-ions. The templating effect is due to the coordination of the M(+)-ions to the uranyl oxygen atoms, where the coordination of Li(+) results in the formation of Li[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]4(7-), Na(+) and K(+) in the formation of Na/K[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]5(9-) complexes, while the large tetramethyl ammonium ion promotes the formation of two oligomers, TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]5(9-) and TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]6(11-). The NMR spectra demonstrate that the coordination of Na(+) in the five- and six-membered oligomers is significantly stronger than that of TMA(+); these observations suggest that the templating effect is similar to the one observed in the synthesis of crown-ethers. The NMR experiments also demonstrate that the exchange between TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]5(9-) and TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]6(11-) is slow on the (17)O chemical shift time-scale, while the exchange between TMA[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]6(11-) and Na[(UO2)(O2)(CO3)]6(11-) is fast. There was no indication of the presence of large clusters of the type identified by Burns and Nyman (M. Nyman and P. C. Burns, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2012, 41, 7314-7367) and possible reasons for this and the implications for the synthesis of large clusters are briefly discussed.

  10. Self-Controlled Synthesis of Hyperbranched Poly(etherketone)s from A2 + B3 Approach in Poly(phosphoric acid)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    polymerization condition was indeed strong enough to effi- ciently facilitate polycondensation via ‘‘direct’’ Friedel - Crafts reaction without gelation...Keywords: Friedel - Crafts acylation; high performance polymer; hyperbranched polymer; poly(ether-ketone)s; poly(phosphoric acid) INTRODUCTION Dendritic...Hence, the applied polymerization condition was indeed strong enough to efficiently facilitate polycondensation via ??direct?? Friedel - Crafts reaction

  11. Polyarylene Ethers with Improved Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M. (Inventor); Jensen, B. J. (Inventor); Havens, S. J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to novel polyarylene ethers which possess the combination of high strength, toughness, and high use temperature with ease of extrusion and formation into complex objects. These polyarylene ethers are suitable for use in adhesives, coatings, films, membranes, and composite matrices. The polyarylene ethers of this invention are the polycondensation products from the reaction of either 1,3-bis (4-chloro or fluorobenzoyl) benzene with any one of the following bisphenolic compounds: bis (3-hydroxyphenyl) methane; bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) methane; 1,1-dimethyl-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl)methane, or 9,9-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) fluorene. Random and block copolymers are also comprehended.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of bis(Tetrahydrofurfuryl) Ether

    PubMed Central

    Stenger‐Smith, John D.; Baldwin, Lawrence; Chafin, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite the availability of a large number of alkyl tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers that have a wide range of applications, pure bis(tetrahydrofurfuryl) ether (BTHFE) has not been previously synthesized. Here, we report the synthesis of BTHFE (consisting of the RR, SS, and meso stereoisomers) at greater than 99 % purity from tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol, using (tetrahydrofuran‐2‐yl)methyl methanesulfonate as an intermediate. Additionally, we demonstrate that BTHFE can be used as a non‐volatile solvent in poly(3,4‐propylenedioxythiophene)‐based supercapacitors. Supercapacitor devices employing solutions of the ionic liquid 1‐ethyl‐3‐methyl‐imidizolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide in BTHFE display similar performances to those prepared by using the neat ionic liquid as an electrolyte, although solution‐based devices exhibit a somewhat higher resistance. PMID:27547636

  13. Tailoring chemical and physical properties of fibrous scaffolds from block copolyesters containing ether and thio-ether linkages for skeletal differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Gigli, Matteo; Gualandi, Chiara; Truckenmüller, Roman; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Lotti, Nadia; Munari, Andrea; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive scaffolds for tissue engineering call for demands on new materials which can enhance traditional biocompatibility requirements previously considered for clinical implantation. The current commercially available thermoplastic materials, such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and their copolymers, have been used to fabricate scaffolds for regenerative medicine. However, these polymers have limitations including lacking of broadly tuning mechanical and degradable properties, and activation of specific cell-scaffold interactions, which limit their further application in tissue engineering. In the present study, electrospun scaffolds were successfully fabricated from a new class of block poly(butylene succinate)-based (PBS-based) copolyesters containing either butylene thiodiglycolate (BTDG) or butylene diglycolate (BDG) sequences. The polyesters displayed tunable mechanical properties and hydrolysis rate depending on the molecular architecture and on the kind of heteroatom introduced along the polymer backbone. To investigate their potential for skeletal regeneration, human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on the scaffolds in basic, osteogenic and chondrogenic media. Our results demonstrated that PBS-based copolyesters containing thio-ether linkages (i.e. BTDG segments) were more favorable for chondrogenesis of hMSCs than those containing ether linkages (i.e. BDG sequences). In contrast, PBS-based copolyesters containing ether linkages showed enhanced mineralization. Therefore, these new functional scaffolds might hold potential for osteochondral tissue engineering applications.

  14. Pressure and temperature dependence of excess enthalpies of methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether and methanol + polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, E.R.; Coxam, J.Y.; Fernandez, J.; Grolier, J.P.E.

    1999-12-01

    The excess molar enthalpies at 323.15 K, 373.15 K, and 423.15 K, at 8 MPa, are reported for the binary mixtures methanol + tetraethylene glycol dimethyl ether (TEGDME) and methanol + poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME 250). Excess molar enthalpies were determined with a Setaram C-80 calorimeter equipped with a flow mixing cell. For both systems, the excess enthalpies are positive over the whole composition range, increasing with temperature. The H{sup E}(x) curves are slightly asymmetrical, and their maxima are skewed toward the methanol-rich region. The excess enthalpies slightly change with the pressure, the sign of this change being composition-dependent. In the case of mixtures with TEGDME, the experimental H{sup E} values have been compared with those predicted with the Gmehling et al. version of UNIFAC (Dortmund) and the Nitta-Chao and DISQUAC group contribution models.

  15. Space, Time, Ether, and Kant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Wing-Chun Godwin

    This dissertation focused on Kant's conception of physical matter in the Opus postumum. In this work, Kant postulates the existence of an ether which fills the whole of space and time with its moving forces. Kant's arguments for the existence of an ether in the so-called Ubergang have been acutely criticized by commentators. Guyer, for instance, thinks that Kant pushes the technique of transcendental deduction too far in trying to deduce the empirical ether. In defense of Kant, I held that it is not the actual existence of the empirical ether, but the concept of the ether as a space-time filler that is subject to a transcendental deduction. I suggested that Kant is doing three things in the Ubergang: First, he deduces the pure concept of a space-time filler as a conceptual hybrid of the transcendental object and permanent substance to replace the category of substance in the Critique. Then he tries to prove the existence of such a space-time filler as a reworking of the First Analogy. Finally, he takes into consideration the empirical determinations of the ether by adding the concept of moving forces to the space -time filler. In reconstructing Kant's proofs, I pointed out that Kant is absolutely committed to the impossibility of action-at-a-distance. If we add this new principle of no-action-at-a-distance to the Third Analogy, the existence of a space-time filler follows. I argued with textual evidence that Kant's conception of ether satisfies the basic structure of a field: (1) the ether is a material continuum; (2) a physical quantity is definable on each point in the continuum; and (3) the ether provides a medium to support the continuous transmission of action. The thrust of Kant's conception of ether is to provide a holistic ontology for the transition to physics, which can best be understood from a field-theoretical point of view. This is the main thesis I attempted to establish in this dissertation.

  16. Uniaxial Stretching of Poly(keto-ether-imide) Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Dezern, James F.; Feuz, L.; Klinedinst, D.

    1999-01-01

    Fully-cured aromatic polyimides were prepared from various combinations of five dianhydrides and six diamines. When heated progressively under constant load, most of the films elongated rapidly near their glass transition temperatures. In about half of the nineteen materials, the strain was self-limiting - a possible indication of strain-induced crystallinity. The presence of crystallinity was established unambiguously for one material.

  17. Characterization of Poly(ether)urethanes - High Resolution Thermogravimetric Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    temperature is held constant until the rate of weight loss falls below a predetermined rate. Heating is then resumed until the rate of weight loss...TGA) is a technique where the weight loss of a sample is monitored at constant temperature or as temperature is scanned. It is known that plastic...thermogravimétrique (ATG) est une technique qui permet de suivre la perte de poids d’un échantillon à une température constante ou en fonction d’une variation de

  18. Synthesis of Perfluoroaliphatic Ether Monomers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-01

    number) Perfluoroalkyl ether a,w-diiodides were hydrolyzed in fuming sulfuric acid to the corresponding symmetrical diacyl fluorides. Under certain...Oligomers 4 1. Preparation of CF2 1CF 2 0CF 2 COF 5 2. Addition of TFEO to CF2 1CF 2 0CF 2 COF 7 B. Hydrolysis of Perfluoroalkyl -a-w-diiodides 9 1...Preparation of OXF/TFEO Oligomers 14 D. Preparation of HFPO-terminated OXF/TFEO Oligomers 16 III. EXPERIMENTAL 19 A. Preparation of Perfluoroalkyl Ether Halides

  19. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ether hook. 868.5420 Section 868.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5420 Ether hook. (a) Identification. An ether hook is a...

  20. Propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propylene glycol monomethyl ether ( PGME ) ; CASRN 107 - 98 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  1. Bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( chloromethyl ) ether ( BCME ) ; CASRN 542 - 88 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  2. p,p\\'-Dibromodiphenyl ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    p , p ' - Dibromodiphenyl ether ; CASRN 2050 - 47 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  3. Bis(chloroethyl)ether (BCEE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( chloroethyl ) ether ( BCEE ) ; CASRN 111 - 44 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments fo

  4. Desoxyhemigossypol-6-methyl-ether

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desoxyhemigossypol-6-methyl ether is an antimicrobial compound produced by the cotton plant in response to attack by pathogens. For the first time, we now report the crystal structure of this compound. This may prove useful in studies on the interaction of the compound with pathogenic fungal cells...

  5. Lacinilene C 7-methyl ether

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lacinilene C 7-methyl ether is an antimicrobial compound produced by the cotton plant in response to attack by pathogens. For the first time, we now report the crystal structure of this compound. This may prove useful in studies on the interaction of the compound with pathogenic fungal cells....

  6. PVDF-HFP/ether-modified polysiloxane membranes obtained via airbrush spraying as active separators for application in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Seidel, S M; Jeschke, S; Vettikuzha, P; Wiemhöfer, H-D

    2015-08-04

    Improved hybrid polymer electrolyte membranes are introduced based on ether-modified polysiloxanes and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) yielding a safe separator membrane, which is able to be sprayed directly onto lithium ion battery active materials, with an active role for enhanced ion transport.

  7. Protein-resistant polymer coatings based on surface-adsorbed poly(aminoethyl methacrylate)/poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Ionov, Leonid; Synytska, Alla; Kaul, Elisabeth; Diez, Stefan

    2010-01-11

    We report on the protein-resistant properties of glass substrates coated with novel copolymers of 2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (AEM-PEG). In comparison to currently available protein-blocking polymer systems, such as poly-l-lysine-poly(ethylene glycol), silane-based poly(ethylene glycol), and poly(ethylene glycol) brushes prepared by surface-initiated polymerization, the proposed AEM-PEG offers the combined advantages of low cost, simplicity of use, and applicability in aqueous solutions. We demonstrate the capability of AEM-PEG to block the surface binding of globular proteins (tubulin), their assemblies (microtubules), and functional motor proteins (kinesin-1). Moreover, we demonstrate the applicability of AEM-PEG for surface patterning of proteins in microfluidic devices.

  8. Measuring exposures to glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Clapp, D E; Zaebst, D D; Herrick, R F

    1984-08-01

    In 1981, NIOSH began investigating the potential reproductive health effects resulting from exposures to a class of organic solvents known generically as glycol ethers (GE). This research was begun as a result of the NIOSH criteria document development program which revealed little data available on the health effects of glycol ether exposure. Toxicologic research was begun by NIOSH and other researchers which suggested substantial reproductive effects in animals. These animal data motivated a study of human exposures in the occupational setting. In 1981 and 1982 NIOSH conducted several walk-through surveys which included preliminary measurements of exposures in a variety of industries including painting trades, coal mining, production blending and distribution facilities, aircraft fueling, and communications equipment repair facilities. The human exposure data from these surveys is summarized in this paper with most results well below 1 parts per million (ppm) and only a few values approaching 10 ppm. Blood samples were collected at one site resulting in GE concentrations below the limit of detection. Exposures to airborne glycol ethers, in the industries investigated during the collection of this data, revealed several problems in reliably sampling GE at low concentrations. It became apparent, from the data and observations of work practices, that air monitoring alone provided an inadequate index of GE exposure. Further field studies of exposure to GE are anticipated, pending location of additional groups of exposed workers and development of more reliable methods for characterizing exposure, especially biological monitoring.

  9. Molecular Engineering of Liquid Crystalline Polymers by Living Polymerization. 10. Influence of Molecular Weight on the Phase Transitions of Poly(Omega-((4-Cyano-4’-Biphenyl)oxy)alkyl Vinyl Ethers)s with Nonyl and Decanyl Alkyl Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-16

    Report No. 41 NAMAE OF PERFOMN4iNG OIRGANLZAI0N 60 OF~iCE SYMBOL 76 NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION ase Western Reserve Univ. 4Btak N L ADRESS (Oty...PL/NO’NG/SPONSOMRNG 8b OfFCE SYMBOL 9 PROCUJREMENT INSTRUJMENT IOENTIFiC-ATiON NJMBEgt ,ftGANLZATION 0f sp9J’catJe) L ADORE S(Cfry. Stire..ria ZIP...polymerization of 9.-[(4-cyano-4’-biphenyl)oxylnonyI vinyl ether ( L -9) and 10-[(4- cyano-4’-bipnenyl)oxy]decanyl vinyl ether (6-10) are described. The

  10. Novel Thermooxidatively Stable Poly(ether-imide-benzoxazole) and Poly (ester-imide-benzoxazole)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-15

    INTRODUCTION Wholly aromatic polyimldes (PI), polybenzoxazoles (PBO) and polyesters (PES, Scheme 1) all have high thermal stabilities, and find use In high...strength, high modulus fibers and engineering resins.1*2A4 Drawbacks of these systems are their insolubility and intractability, which cause difficulties...method for the production of PBO films and fibers ." Insolubility is circumvented in polyesters through polycondensations under melt conditions

  11. Crystalline Imide/Arylene Ether Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Bass, Robert G.

    1991-01-01

    Series of imide/arylene ether block copolymers prepared by using arylene ether blocks to impart low melt viscosity, and imide blocks to provide high strength and other desirable mechanical properties. Work represents extension of LAR-14159 on imide/arylene ether copolymers in form of films, moldings, adhesives, and composite matrices. Copolymers potentially useful in variety of high-temperature aerospace and microelectronic applications.

  12. Polyphenylene ethers with imide linking groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Novel polyphenylene ethers with imide linking units are disclosed. These polymers incorporate the solvent and thermal resistance of polyimides and the processability of polyphenylene ethers. Improved physical properties over those of the prior art are obtained by incorporating meta linked ethers and/or polyphenylene oxides into the polymer backbone. A novel process for making polymers of this type is also disclosed. The process is unique in that the expected need of high process temperatures and/or special atmospheres are eliminated.

  13. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.O.; McBreen, J.

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  14. Aza crown ether compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Oing; McBreen, James

    1998-08-04

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the new family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of LI.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  15. Two crown-ether-coordinated caesium halogen salts.

    PubMed

    Well, Natalija van; Klein, Christian; Ritter, Franz; Assmus, Wolf; Krellner, Cornelius; Bolte, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The crystal structures of two crown-ether-coordinated caesium halogen salt hydrates, namely di-μ-bromido-bis[aqua(1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane)caesium(I)] dihydrate, [Cs2Br2(C12H24O6)2(H2O)2]·2H2O, (I), and poly[[diaquadi-μ-chlorido-μ-(1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane)dicaesium(I)] dihydrate], {[Cs2Cl2(C12H24O6)(H2O)2]·2H2O}n, (II), are reported. In (I), all atoms are located on general positions. In (II), the Cs(+) cation is located on a mirror plane perpendicular to the a axis, the chloride anion is located on a mirror plane perpendicular to the c axis and the crown-ether ring is located around a special position with site symmetry 2/m, with two opposite O atoms exactly on the mirror plane perpendicular to the a axis; of one water molecule, only the O atom is located on a mirror plane perpendicular on the a axis, while the other water molecule is completely located on a mirror plane perpendicular to the c axis. Whereas in (I), hydrogen bonds between bromide ligands and water molecules lead to one-dimensional chains running along the b axis, in (II) two-dimensional sheets of water molecules and chloride ligands are formed which combine with the polymeric caesium-crown polymer to give a three-dimensional network. Although both compounds have a similar composition, i.e. a Cs(+) cation with a halogen, an 18-crown-6 ether and a water ligand, the crystal structures are rather different. On the other hand, it is remarkable that (I) is isomorphous with the already published iodide compound.

  16. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  17. Polymeric Electrolyte Containing 12-Crown-4 Ether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesa; Distefano, Salvador

    1992-01-01

    Experiments show incorporation of 12-crown-4 ether into solid electrolytes based on polyethylene oxide enhances their electrochemical properties. More specifically, 12-crown-4 ether increases Faradaic efficiency for Li+ ions in low-power secondary Li cells and enables operation of these cells at lower temperatures with higher efficiencies.

  18. Purification of aqueous cellulose ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Bartscherer, K.A.; de Pablo, J.J.; Bonnin, M.C.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1990-07-01

    Manufacture of cellulose ethers usually involves high amounts of salt by-products. For application of the product, salt must be removed. In this work, we have studied the injection of high-pressure CO{sub 2} into an aqueous polymer-salt solution; we find that upon addition of isopropanol in addition to CO{sub 2}, the solution separates into two phases. One phase is rich in polymer and water, and the other phase contains mostly isopropanol, water and CO{sub 2}. The salt distributes between the two phases, thereby offering interesting possibilities for development of a new purification process for water-soluble polymers. This work presents experimental phase-equilibrium data for hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose with sodium acetate and potassium sulfate, respectively, in the region 40{degree}C and 30 to 80 bar. Based on these data, we suggest a process for the manufacture and purification of water-soluble cellulose ethers. 15 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. An expedient synthesis of linden ether.

    PubMed

    Serra, Stefano; Cominetti, Alessandra A

    2014-03-01

    We here describe a comprehensive study on the preparation of the intensive flavor 3,9-epoxy-p-mentha-1,4(8)-diene (1). Key steps of the presented synthesis are the selective addition of MeLi to the keto-ester 7, the regioselective cyclization of the obtained triol to give the ethers 4 and 8 and the selective dehydration of ether 4 through the use of POCI3 and pyridine. It is worth noting that the presented synthesis represents the first expedient and reliable entry to ether 1. Being present in linden honey, 1 is also known as linden ether and it has been regarded as a potential marker for the authentication of the linden honey origin. Therefore, ether 1 can be used as a useful reference standard for the analysis of the natural flavors, as we demonstrated by means of its identification in a sample ofunifloral linden honey.

  20. 40 CFR 721.10284 - Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-hydroxy-, C14-15-branched and linear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10284 Poly , .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-hydroxy-, C14-15-branched and linear alkyl ethers, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly ,...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10283 - Poly[oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl)], .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-hydroxy-, C12-13-branched and linear...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10283 Poly , .alpha.-sulfo-.omega.-hydroxy-, C12-13-branched and linear alkyl ethers, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly ,...

  2. A transferable force field to predict phase equilibria and surface tension of ethers and glycol ethers.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Pérez-Pellitero, Javier; Mackie, Allan D; Malfreyt, Patrice; Boutin, Anne

    2011-09-15

    We propose a new transferable force field to simulate phase equilibrium and interfacial properties of systems involving ethers and glycol ethers. On the basis of the anisotropic united-atom force field, only one new group is introduced: the ether oxygen atom. The optimized Lennard-Jones (LJ) parameters of this atom are identical whatever the molecule simulated (linear ether, branched ether, cyclic ether, aromatic ether, diether, or glycol ether). Accurate predictions are achieved for pure compound saturated properties, critical properties, and surface tensions of the liquid-vapor interface, as well as for pressure-composition binary mixture diagrams. Multifunctional molecules (1,2-dimethoxyethane, 2-methoxyethanol, diethylene glycol) have also been studied using a recently proposed methodology for the calculation of the intramolecular electrostatic energy avoiding the use of additional empirical parameters. This new force field appears transferable for a wide variety of molecules and properties. It is furthermore worth noticing that binary mixtures have been simulated without introducing empirical binary parameters, highlighting also the transferability to mixtures. Hence, this new force field gives future opportunities to simulate complex systems of industrial interest involving molecules with ether functions.

  3. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants in a number of applications. EPA is concerned that some of the component congeners are persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic.

  4. Triethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether; Final Test Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final test rule under section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requiring manufacturers and processors of triethylene glycol monomethyl ether (TGME, CAS No. 112-35-6) to perform developmental neurotoxicity tasting.

  5. Polyaryl ethers and related polysiloxane copolymer molecular coatings preparation and radiation degrdation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, J. E.; Hedrick, J. L.; Webster, D. C.; Johnson, B. C.; Mohanty, D. K.; Yilgor, I.

    1983-01-01

    Poly(arylene ether sulfones) comprise a class of materials known as engineering thermoplastics which have a variety of important applications. These polymers are tough, rigid materials with good mechanical properties over a wide temperature range, and they are processed by conventional methods into products typically having excellent hydrolytic, thermal, oxidative and dimensional stability. Wholly aromatic random copolymers of hydroquinone and biphenol with 4.4 prime dichlorodiphenyl sulfone were synthesized via mechanical nucleophilic displacement. Their structures were characterized and mechanical behavior studied. These tough, ductile copolymers show excellent radiation resistance to electron beam treatment and retain much of the mechanical properties up to at least 700 Mrads under argon.

  6. Conformations and Barriers to Methyl Group Internal Rotation in Two Asymmetric Ethers: Propyl Methyl Ether and Butyl Methyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B. E.; Dechirico, F.; Cooke, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    The conformational preferences of the O-C-C-C unit are important in many biological systems with the unit generally preferring a gauche configuration compared to an anti configuration. Butyl methyl ether and propyl methyl ether provide very simple systems for this phenomenom to manifest. Pure rotational spectra of the title molecules have been recorded using chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). In the case of butyl methyl ether, only one conformer has been observed. This conformer has torsional angles of COCC = 180°, OCCC = 62° and CCCC = 180° (anti-gauche-anti) and rotational constants of A = 10259.4591(33) MHz, B = 1445.6470(13) MHz, and C = 1356.2944(14) MHz. The rotational spectrum was doubled and has been analyzed to produce an effective barrier to methyl group internal rotation of 780(35) cm-1. A prior rotational spectroscopic study on propyl methyl ether had focused only on the high energy anti-anti conformer. We have analyzed spectra from the lowest energy anti-gauche conformer and the spectroscopic constants will be presented. A summary of the differences in conformational energies and methyl group internal rotation barriers for the class of aliphatic asymmetric ethers will be presented. K. N. Houk, J. E. Eksterowicz, Y.-D. Wu, C. D. Fuglesang, D. B. Mitchell. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (4170), 1993. Hiroshi Kato, Jun Nakagawa, Michiro Hayashi. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 80 (272), 1980.

  7. Stereocontrolled Cyanohydrin Ether Synthesis through Chiral Brønsted Acid-Mediated Vinyl Ether Hydrocyanation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chunliang; Su, Xiaoge; Floreancig, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Vinyl ethers can be protonated to generate oxocarbenium ions that react with Me3SiCN to form cyanohydrin alkyl ethers. Reactions that form racemic products proceed efficiently upon converting the vinyl ether to an α-chloro ether prior to cyanide addition in a pathway that proceeds through Brønsted acid-mediated chloride ionization. Enantiomerically enriched products can be accessed by directly protonating the vinyl ether with a chiral Brønsted acid to form a chiral ion pair. Me3SiCN acts as the nucleophile and PhOH serves as a stoichiometric proton source in a rare example of an asymmetric bimolecular nucleophilic addition reaction into an oxocarbenium ion. Computational studies provide a model for the interaction between the catalyst and the oxocarbenium ion. PMID:23968162

  8. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of dimethyl ether steam reforming and dimethyl ether hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.

    The production of a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed by dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming was investigated using calculations of thermodynamic equilibrium as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0.00-4.00), temperature (100-600 °C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species. Species considered were acetone, acetylene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, dimethyl ether, ethane, ethanol, ethylene, formaldehyde, formic acid, hydrogen, isopropanol, methane, methanol, methyl-ethyl ether, n-propanol and water. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of DME steam reforming indicate complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at temperatures greater than 200 °C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure ( P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure shifts the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 to 5 atm decreases the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5 to 76.2%. The trend of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction is methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol-formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. Based on the equilibrium calculations, the optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occur at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.50, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 °C. These thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show dimethyl ether processed with steam will produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds—with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. The conversion of dimethyl ether via hydrolysis (considering methanol as the only product) is limited by thermodynamic equilibrium. Equilibrium conversion increases with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio. A maximum dimethyl ether conversion of 62% is achieved at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 5.00 and a processing temperature of 600 °C.

  9. Wholly Aromatic Ether-Imides as n-Type Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik; St. Clair, Terry L.; Dingemans, Theo J.; Samulski, Edward T.; Irene, Gene

    2006-01-01

    Some wholly aromatic ether-imides consisting of rod-shaped, relatively-low-mass molecules that can form liquid crystals have been investigated for potential utility as electron-donor-type (ntype) organic semiconductors. It is envisioned that after further research to improve understanding of their physical and chemical properties, compounds of this type would be used to make thin film semiconductor devices (e.g., photovoltaic cells and field-effect transistors) on flexible electronic-circuit substrates. This investigation was inspired by several prior developments: Poly(ether-imides) [PEIs] are a class of engineering plastics that have been used extensively in the form of films in a variety of electronic applications, including insulating layers, circuit boards, and low-permittivity coatings. Wholly aromatic PEIs containing naphthalene and perylene moieties have been shown to be useful as electrochromic polymers. More recently, low-molecular-weight imides comprising naphthalene-based molecules with terminal fluorinated tails were shown to be useful as n-type organic semiconductors in such devices as field-effect transistors and Schottky diodes. Poly(etherimide)s as structural resins have been extensively investigated at NASA Langley Research Center for over 30 years. More recently, the need for multi-functional materials has become increasingly important. This n-type semiconductor illustrates the scope of current work towards new families of PEIs that not only can be used as structural resins for carbon-fiber reinforced composites, but also can function as sensors. Such a multi-functional material would permit so-called in-situ health monitoring of composite structures during service. The work presented here demonstrates that parts of the PEI backbone can be used as an n-type semiconductor with such materials being sensitive to damage, temperature, stress, and pressure. In the near future, multi-functional or "smart" composite structures are envisioned to be able

  10. Ether and the atmospheric chemistry data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricaud, P.; Phulpin, T.; Girod, F.; Boonne, C.

    The French atmospheric chemistry data base Ether has been developed and funded by the French Space Agency (CNES) and the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (INSU/CNRS) for about 6 years. The role of Ether is to assist French atmospheric researchers, European scientists, as long as they are involved in co-operation agreements with French scientists, to locate, access and interpret atmospheric data. This centre gathers data from satellite, balloon campaigns linked to satellite validation, aircraft and model results for stratospheric and tropospheric purposes and from different levels of production (raw data, physical data, interpolated or assimilated data). All Ether data are available on-line through a World Web interface (http://ether.ipsl.jussieu.fr). Software and added-value services are provided to assist in the manipulation of the data or to generate higher levels standard data products. Extensive information is also provided on the data collection procedures, formats, contact names and references to scientific papers. In addition to data support activities, a major goal of Ether is to promote the creation of different expertise networks on varying atmospheric chemistry topics. The first working group has been created on data assimilation. It consists in gathering expertises in different themes (satellites, assimilation techniques, modelling, real-time processing) in order to optimally develop a tool able to answer different scientific questions relative to the evolution of the Earth atmosphere in terms of chemistry and dynamics. Based on the PALM tool able to interconnect different codes, it will be able to process different satellite data using two atmospheric models and assimilation schemes within the French Ether data base. Ether will focus on the handling and on the development of added-value services of data for which the French community is directly or indirectly involved. For these projects Ether will provide all the data needed, and will

  11. 40 CFR 721.9663 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′-[thiobis (1-oxo-3,1-propanediyl)]bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., alphaâ²- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis (C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl) ethers. 721.9663 Section 721.9663 Protection...(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis (C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl) ethers. (a... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis(C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9663 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′-[thiobis (1-oxo-3,1-propanediyl)]bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., alphaâ²- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis (C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl) ethers. 721.9663 Section 721.9663 Protection...(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis (C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl) ethers. (a... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis(C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9663 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′-[thiobis (1-oxo-3,1-propanediyl)]bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., alphaâ²- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis (C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl) ethers. 721.9663 Section 721.9663 Protection...(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis (C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl) ethers. (a... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis(C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.9663 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′-[thiobis (1-oxo-3,1-propanediyl)]bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., alphaâ²- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis (C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl) ethers. 721.9663 Section 721.9663 Protection...(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis (C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl) ethers. (a... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis(C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9663 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′-[thiobis (1-oxo-3,1-propanediyl)]bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., alphaâ²- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis (C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl) ethers. 721.9663 Section 721.9663 Protection...(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis (C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl) ethers. (a... poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), alpha, alpha′- bis [omega-hydroxy-,bis(C11-15 and C11-15-isoalkyl)...

  16. Degradation mechanism of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) ion exchange membranes under vanadium flow battery medium.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhizhang; Li, Xianfeng; Hu, Jinbo; Xu, Wanxing; Cao, Jingyu; Zhang, Huamin

    2014-10-07

    The degradation mechanism of hydrocarbon ion exchange membranes under vanadium flow battery (VFB) medium was investigated and clarified for the first time. This work will be highly beneficial for improving the chemical stability of hydrocarbon ion exchange membranes, which is one of the most challenging issues for VFB application.

  17. Inhalation anaesthesia: from diethyl ether to xenon.

    PubMed

    Bovill, J G

    2008-01-01

    Modern anaesthesia is said to have began with the successful demonstration of ether anaesthesia by William Morton in October 1846, even though anaesthesia with nitrous oxide had been used in dentistry 2 years before. Anaesthesia with ether, nitrous oxide and chloroform (introduced in 1847) rapidly became commonplace for surgery. Of these, only nitrous oxide remains in use today. All modern volatile anaesthetics, with the exception of halothane (a fluorinated alkane), are halogenated methyl ethyl ethers. Methyl ethyl ethers are more potent, stable and better anaesthetics than diethyl ethers. They all cause myocardial depression, most markedly halothane, while isoflurane and sevoflurane cause minimal cardiovascular depression. The halogenated ethers also depress the normal respiratory response to carbon dioxide and to hypoxia. Other adverse effects include hepatic and renal damage. Hepatitis occurs most frequently with halothane, although rare cases have been reported with the other agents. Liver damage is not caused by the anaesthetics themselves, but by reactive metabolites. Type I hepatitis occurs fairly commonly and takes the form of a minor disturbance of liver enzymes, which usually resolves without treatment. Type II, thought to be immune-mediated, is rare, unpredictable and results in a severe fulminant hepatitis with a high mortality. Renal damage is rare, and was most often associated with methoxyflurane because of excessive plasma fluoride concentrations resulting from its metabolism. Methoxyflurane was withdrawn from the market because of the high incidence of nephrotoxicity. Among the contemporary anaesthetics, the highest fluoride concentrations have been reported with sevoflurane, but there are no reports of renal dysfunction associated with its use. Recently there has been a renewed interest in xenon, one of the noble gases. Xenon has many of the properties of an ideal anaesthetic. The major factor limiting its more widespread is the high cost, about

  18. 41. LOOKING WEST AT BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. LOOKING WEST AT BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, (LEFT) AND BUILDING NO. 521, ETHER VAULT, (RIGHT) IN FOREGROUND - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  19. 37. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING. BUILDING NO. 521 (ETHER VAULT) IN BACKGROUND LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  20. Polycaprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol) multiblock copolymers as potential substitutes for di(ethylhexyl) phthalate in flexible poly(vinyl chloride) formulations.

    PubMed

    Ferruti, Paolo; Mancin, Ivan; Ranucci, Elisabetta; De Felice, Claudio; Latini, Giuseppe; Laus, Michele

    2003-01-01

    New high-molecular-weight hydrophobic/hydrophilic segmented copolymers of poly(ester ether carbonate) structure, containing poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments in their main chain, were synthesized and characterized. These copolymers were obtained by a two-step chain-extension reaction carried out in the presence of alpha,omega-dihydroxy-oligoPCL of molecular weight 1250 and PEG samples of molecular weight 150, 400, 600, 1000, and 2000. The molecular structures of all synthesized materials were characterized by means of (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, their molecular weights were determined by means of size exclusion chromatography, and their thermal properties were obtained by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The poly(ester ether carbonate)s of this study are partly or totally miscible at least up to 50 wt % with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and could be used to produce flexible PVC formulations. The miscibility between PVC and the poly(ester ether carbonate)s reported in this paper was investigated by means of DSC and DMA analysis. PVC blends were also analyzed by determining their swellability and the amount of extractables in aqueous media. By comparison purposes, the chain-extension product of PCL1250, that is, PCL polycarbonate, was also synthesized and characterized. The results obtained demonstrated that the copolymers with shortest PEG segment length, i.e. PEG150, 400, and 600, give the best results in terms of miscibility with PVC and lead to blends with maximum resistance to extraction by water. Therefore, they represent, in principle, good substitutes for low-molecular-weight, leachable PVC plasticizers, such as di(ethylhexyl) phthalate.

  1. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  2. A novel biobased plasticizer of epoxidized cardanol glycidylether: Synthesis and application in soft poly(vinyl chloride) films

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel plasticizer derived from cardanol, epoxied cardanol glycidyl ether (ECGE), was synthesized and characterized by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Effects of the ECGE combined with dioctyl phthalate (DOP), a commercial plasticizer, in soft poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films were studied. Dynamic mechanical a...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3435 - Butoxy-substituted ether alkane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. 721... Substances § 721.3435 Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as butoxy-substituted ether...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3465 - Stilbene diglycidyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stilbene diglycidyl ether. 721.3465... Substances § 721.3465 Stilbene diglycidyl ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as stilbene diglycidyl ether (PMN P-96-1427) is subject...

  5. 39. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, LOOKING AT SOUTHWEST CORNER WITH BUILDING NO. 521, ETHER VAULT, AND BUILDING NO. 519-A, ETHER & ALOCOHL STORAGE TANKS, IN BACKGROUND RIGHT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  6. Surface modification of poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) elastomer via photo-initiated graft polymerization of poly(ethylene glycol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Luan, Shifang; Yang, Huawei; Shi, Hengchong; Zhao, Jie; Jin, Jing; Yin, Jinghua; Stagnaro, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Poly(styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-b-styrene) (SEBS) copolymer biomedical elastomer was covalently grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) via a photo-initiated graft polymerization technique. The surface graft polymerization of SEBS with PEGMA was verified by ATR-FTIR and XPS. Effect of graft polymerization parameters, i.e., monomer concentration, UV irradiation time and initiator concentration on the grafting density was investigated. Comparing with the virgin SEBS film, the PEGMA-modified SEBS film presented an enhanced wettability and a larger surface energy. Besides, the surface grafting of PEGMA imparted excellent anti-platelet adhesion and anti-protein adsorption to the SEBS surface.

  7. Review of glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents used in the coating industry.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R L

    1984-01-01

    Ethylene oxide-based glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents have been used in the coatings industry for the past fifty years. Because of their excellent performance properties (evaporation rate, blush resistance, flow-out and leveling properties, solubility for coating resins, solvent activity, mild odor, good coupling ability, good solvent release) a complete line of ethylene oxide-based solvents of various molecular weights has been developed. These glycol ether and glycol ether ester solvents have better solvent activity for coating resin than ester or ketone solvents in their evaporation rate range. The gloss, flow and leveling, and general performance properties of many coating systems are dependent on the use of these products in the coating formula. Because of the concern about the toxicity of certain ethylene oxide-based solvents, other products are being evaluated as replacements in coating formulas. PMID:6499793

  8. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN US SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical analysis of thirty-three soil samples from 15 US states reveals Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs), in every sample.PBDE concentrations rangefrom 0.09 to 1200 parts per billion by mass. These data are the first analysis of soil concentrations of PBDEs in soils from a...

  9. Dimensionally Stable Ether-Containing Polyimide Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Catharine C. (Inventor); St.Clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Novel polyimide copolymers containing ether linkages were prepared by the reaction of an equimolar amount of dianhydride and a combination of diamines. The polyimide copolymers described herein possess the unique features of low moisture uptake, dimensional stability, good mechanical properties, and moderate glass transition temperatures. These materials have potential application as encapsulants and interlayer dielectrics.

  10. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... that fits inside a patient's mouth and that is intended to deliver vaporized ether. (b) Classification... the quality system regulation in part 820 of this chapter, with the exception of § 820.180,...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5420 - Ether hook.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... that fits inside a patient's mouth and that is intended to deliver vaporized ether. (b) Classification... the quality system regulation in part 820 of this chapter, with the exception of § 820.180,...

  12. Orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Watschinger, Katrin; Werner, Ernst R

    2013-01-01

    Ether lipids are an emerging class of lipids which have so far not been investigated and understood in every detail. They have important roles as membrane components of e.g. lens, brain and testis, and as mediators such as platelet-activating factor. The metabolic enzymes for biosynthesis and degradation have been investigated to some extent. As most involved enzymes are integral membrane proteins they are tricky to handle in biochemical protocols. The sequence of some ether lipid metabolising enzymes has only recently been reported and other sequences still remain obscure. Defined enzymes without assigned sequence are known as orphan enzymes. One of these enzymes with uncharacterised sequence is plasmanylethanolamine desaturase, a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of one of the most abundant phospholipids in our body, the plasmalogens. This review aims to briefly summarise known functions of ether lipids, give an overview on their metabolism including the most prominent members, platelet-activating factor and the plasmalogens. A special focus is set on the description of orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism and on the successful strategies how four previous orphans have recently been assigned a sequence. Only one of these four was characterised by classical protein purification and sequencing, whereas the other three required alternative strategies such as bioinformatic candidate gene selection and recombinant expression or development of an inhibitor and multidimensional metabolic profiling.

  13. Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( 2 - chloro - 1 - methylethyl ) ether ; CASRN 108 - 60 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  14. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) (2-Butoxyethanol)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 006F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER ( EGBE ) ( CAS No . 111 - 76 - 2 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) March 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER Thi

  15. 40 CFR 721.3380 - Anilino ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3380 Anilino ether. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as anilino...

  16. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Methyl tert - butyl ether ( MTBE ) ; CASRN 1634 - 04 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  17. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI CATFISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

  18. Imide/arylene ether block copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Two series of imide/arylene either block copolymers were prepared using an arylene ether block and either an amorphous or semi-crystalline imide block. The resulting copolymers were characterized and selected physical and mechanical properties were determined. These results, as well as comparisons to the homopolymer properties, are discussed.

  19. Side chain engineering of poly-thiophene and its impact on crystalline silicon based hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellmeier, M.; Rappich, J.; Klaus, M.; Genzel, Ch.; Janietz, S.; Frisch, J.; Koch, N.; Nickel, N. H.

    2015-11-01

    The influence of ether groups in the side chain of spin coated regioregular polythiophene derivatives on the polymer layer formation and the hybrid solar cell properties was investigated using electrical, optical, and X-ray diffraction experiments. The polymer layers are of high crystallinity but the polymer with 3 ether groups in the side chain (P3TOT) did not show any vibrational fine structure in the UV-Vis spectrum. The presence of ether groups in the side chains leads to better adhesion resulting in thinner and more homogeneous polymer layers. This, in turn, enhances the electronic properties of the planar c-Si/poly-thiophene hybrid solar cell. We find that the power conversion efficiency increases with the number of ether groups in the side chains, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of η = 9.6% is achieved even in simple planar structures.

  20. Side chain engineering of poly-thiophene and its impact on crystalline silicon based hybrid solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zellmeier, M.; Rappich, J.; Nickel, N. H.; Klaus, M.; Genzel, Ch.; Janietz, S.; Frisch, J.; Koch, N.

    2015-11-16

    The influence of ether groups in the side chain of spin coated regioregular polythiophene derivatives on the polymer layer formation and the hybrid solar cell properties was investigated using electrical, optical, and X-ray diffraction experiments. The polymer layers are of high crystallinity but the polymer with 3 ether groups in the side chain (P3TOT) did not show any vibrational fine structure in the UV-Vis spectrum. The presence of ether groups in the side chains leads to better adhesion resulting in thinner and more homogeneous polymer layers. This, in turn, enhances the electronic properties of the planar c-Si/poly-thiophene hybrid solar cell. We find that the power conversion efficiency increases with the number of ether groups in the side chains, and a maximum power conversion efficiency of η = 9.6% is achieved even in simple planar structures.

  1. A study on optical properties of poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolyte with different alkali metal iodides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, B. Narasimha; Suvarna, R. Padma

    2016-05-01

    Polymer electrolytes were prepared by adding poly (ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether (PEGDME), TiO2 (nano filler), different alkali metal iodide salts RI (R+=Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, Cs+) and I2 into Acetonitrile gelated with Poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO). Optical properties of poly (ethylene oxide) based polymer electrolytes were studied by FTIR, UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. FTIR spectrum reveals that the alkali metal cations were coordinated to ether oxygen of PEO. The optical absorption studies were made in the wavelength range 200-800 nm. It is observed that the optical absorption increases with increase in the radius of alkali metal cation. The optical band gap for allowed direct transitions was evaluated using Urbach-edges method. The optical properties such as optical band gap, refractive index and extinction coefficient were determined. The studied polymer materials are useful for solar cells, super capacitors, fuel cells, gas sensors etc.

  2. Inhibition of diethyl ether degradation in Rhodococcus sp. strain DEE5151 by glutaraldehyde and ethyl vinyl ether.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich

    2005-02-15

    Alkyl ether-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain DEE5151, isolated from activated sewage sludge, has an activity for the oxidation of a variety of alkyl ethers, aralkyl ethers and dibenzyl ether. The whole cell activity for diethyl ether oxidation was effectively inhibited by 2,3-dihydrofurane, ethyl vinyl ether and glutaraldehyde. Glutaraldehyde of less than 30 microM inhibited the activity by a competitive manner with the inhibition constant, K(I) of 7.07+/-1.36 microM. The inhibition type became mixed at higher glutaraldehyde concentrations >30 microM, probably due to the inactivation of the cell activity by the Schiff-base formation. Structurally analogous ethyl vinyl ether inhibited the diethyl ether oxidation activity in a mixed manner with decreasing the apparent maximum oxidation rate, v(max)(app), and increasing the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, K(M)(app). The mixed type inhibition by ethyl vinyl ether seemed to be introduced not only by the structure similarity with diethyl ether, but also by the reactivity of the vinyl ether with cellular components in the whole cell system.

  3. A high performance membrane for sorption and pervaporation separation of ethyl tert-butyl ether and ethanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, G.S.; Niang, M.; Schaetzel, P.

    1999-02-01

    A new kind of membrane was prepared by blending 5 wt% poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-acrylic acid) with cellulose acetate propionate for the separation of ethyl tert-butyl ether and ethanol mixtures. The membrane properties were evaluated by pervaporation and sorption of mixtures of ethyl tert-butyl ether/ethanol. The experimental results show that the selectivity and the fluxes of this membrane depend upon the feed composition and upon the temperature. The minimum values of ethanol concentration in the permeate and in the sorption solution were obtained in the vicinity of the azeotropic point. Compared with the pure CAP membrane, the new membrane shows high performance for the separation of ETBE and EtOH mixtures, especially under high temperature conditions.

  4. Synthesis and Structure-Property Relationships of Poly(sulfone)s for Anion Exchange Membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, JL; Moore, HD; Hibbs, MR; Hickner, MA

    2013-10-05

    Membranes based on cationic polymers that conduct anions are important for enabling alkaline membrane fuel cells and other solid-state electrochemical devices that operate at high pH. Anion exchange membranes with poly(arylene ether sulfone) backbones are demonstrated by two routes: chloromethylation of commercially available poly(sulfone)s or radical bromination of benzylmethyl moieties in poly(sulfone)s containing tetramethylbisphenol A monomer residues. Polymers with tethered trimethylbenzyl ammonium moieties resulted from conversion of the halomethyl groups by quaternization with trimethyl amine. The water uptake of the chloromethylated polymers was dependent on the type of poly(sulfone) backbone for a given IEC. Bisphenol A-based Udel (R) poly(sulfone) membranes swelled in water to a large extent while membranes from biphenol-based Radel (R) poly(sulfone), a stiffer backbone than Udel, only showed moderate water uptake. The water uptake of cationic poly(sulfone)s was further reduced by synthesizing tetramethylbisphenol A and 4,4-biphenol-containing poly(sulfone) copolymers where the ionic groups were clustered on the tetramethylbisphenol A residues. The conductivity of all samples scaled with the bulk water uptake. The hydration number of the membranes could be increased by casting membranes from the ionic form polymers versus converting the halomethyl form cast polymers to ionic form in the solid state. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2013, 51, 1790-1798, 2013

  5. Ether bridge formation in loline alkaloid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Juan; Bhardwaj, Minakshi; Faulkner, Jerome R.; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Charlton, Nikki D.; Higashi, Richard M.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Young, Carolyn A.; Grossman, Robert B.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    Lolines are potent insecticidal agents produced by endophytic fungi of cool-season grasses. These alkaloids are composed of a pyrrolizidine ring system and an uncommon ether bridge linking carbons 2 and 7. Previous results indicated that 1-aminopyrrolizidine was a pathway intermediate. We used RNA interference to knock down expression of lolO, resulting in the accumulation of a novel alkaloid identified as exo-1-acetamidopyrrolizidine based on high-resolution MS and NMR. Genomes of endophytes differing in alkaloid profiles were sequenced, revealing that those with mutated lolO accumulated exo-1-acetamidopyrrolizidine but no lolines. Heterologous expression of wild-type lolO complemented a lolO mutant, resulting in the production of N-acetylnorloline. These results indicated that the non-heme iron oxygenase, LolO, is required for ether bridge formation, probably through oxidation of exo-1-acetamidopyrrolizidine. PMID:24374065

  6. Thrust measurement of dimethyl ether arcjet thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakami, Akira; Beppu, Shinji; Maiguma, Muneyuki; Tachibana, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    The present paper describes thrust measurement results for an arcjet thruster using Dimethyl ether (DME) as the propellant. DME is an ether compound and can be stored as a liquid due to its relatively low freezing point and preferable vapor pressure. The thruster successfully produced high-voltage mode at DME mass flow rates above 30 mg/s, whereas it yielded low-voltage mode below 30 mg/s. Thrust measurements yielded a thrust of 0.15 N and a specific impulse of 270 s at a mass flow rate of 60 mg/s with a discharge power of 1300 W. The DME arcjet thruster was comparable to a conventional one for thrust and discharge power.

  7. Rhodium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Silylation of Acetophenone Derivatives: Formation of Silyl Enol Ethers versus Silyl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Karin; Lalrempuia, Ralte; Polo, Víctor; Fernández-Alvarez, Francisco J; García-Orduña, Pilar; Lahoz, Fernando J; Pérez-Torrente, Jesús J; Oro, Luis A

    2016-10-04

    A series of rhodium-NSiN complexes (NSiN=bis (pyridine-2-yloxy)methylsilyl fac-coordinated) is reported, including the solid-state structures of [Rh(H)(Cl)(NSiN)(PCy3 )] (Cy=cyclohexane) and [Rh(H)(CF3 SO3 )(NSiN)(coe)] (coe=cis-cyclooctene). The [Rh(H)(CF3 SO3 )(NSiN)(coe)]-catalyzed reaction of acetophenone with silanes performed in an open system was studied. Interestingly, in most of the cases the formation of the corresponding silyl enol ether as major reaction product was observed. However, when the catalytic reactions were performed in closed systems, formation of the corresponding silyl ether was favored. Moreover, theoretical calculations on the reaction of [Rh(H)(CF3 SO3 )(NSiN)(coe)] with HSiMe3 and acetophenone showed that formation of the silyl enol ether is kinetically favored, while the silyl ether is the thermodynamic product. The dehydrogenative silylation entails heterolytic cleavage of the Si-H bond by a metal-ligand cooperative mechanism as the rate-determining step. Silyl transfer from a coordinated trimethylsilyltriflate molecule to the acetophenone followed by proton transfer from the activated acetophenone to the hydride ligand results in the formation of H2 and the corresponding silyl enol ether.

  8. Promoting environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Asia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhui; Zhao, Nana; Liu, Xue; Wu, Xiaoyang

    2014-06-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers with persistent organic pollutant properties are required to be controlled by the Stockholm Convention. Recently, polybrominated diphenyl ether contamination has become widespread in Asia, mainly because of the disposal and recycling processes of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing wastes. The management status, production, usage, import/export, treatment, and disposal, as well as implementation deficiencies for the environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials in ten Asian countries were investigated and assessed in this study. This information could help the participating countries implement the Stockholm Convention and could promote the regional environmentally sound management of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing articles and products. The results obtained were as follows. (1) Most of the countries studied lacked environmental policies and regulations, or even standards of polybrominated diphenyl ether pollution management and emission control actions. Accurate data on the consumption and importation of polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials, however, were not available for all the participating countries. In addition, there were no special treatment or disposal systems for polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing materials, or emission-cutting measures for the treatment of waste in these countries, owing to the lack of sufficient funding or technologies. (2) The improper dismantling of e-waste is a major source of polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions in these countries. (3) Proper e-waste management could result in a breakthrough in the environmentally sound management of this major polybrominated diphenyl ether-containing material flow, and could significantly reduce polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions. Finally, based on the study results, this article puts forward some recommendations for improving the environmentally

  9. Biodegradation of glycol ethers in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsior, S.J.; West, R.J.

    1995-08-01

    Because of the widespread use of glycol ethers in applications ranging from consumer products to use as chemical intermediates, there is a need to better understand the fate of these compounds in the environment. Soil biodegradation studies were conducted for three propylene glycol ethers: 1-methoxy-2-propanol, 1-phenoxy-2-propanol, and 1-methoxy-2-propanol acetate. The test compounds were labeled with carbon-14 at either the methoxy or phenoxy substituents. Biodegradation of the three compounds was observed in two sandy loam soils. The time required for disappearance of 50% of the test compounds ranged from < 1 d at 0.2 ppm (w/w) to <7 d at 107 ppm. Degradation rates were slower in a sandy soil, reflecting the lower concentration of microorganisms present. No significant accumulation of intermediate products was observed, and ultimate yields of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} were in the range of 40 to 65% of the initial concentration. Results indicated that the glycol ethers were degraded in a variety of soils under aerobic conditions.

  10. Nikola Tesla, the Ether and his Telautomaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milar, Kendall

    2014-03-01

    In the nineteenth century physicists' understanding of the ether changed dramatically. New developments in thermodynamics, energy physics, and electricity and magnetism dictated new properties of the ether. These have traditionally been examined from the perspective of the scientists re-conceptualizing the ether. However Nikola Tesla, a prolific inventor and writer, presents a different picture of nineteenth century physics. Alongside the displays that showcased his inventions he presented alternative interpretations of physical, physiological and even psychical research. This is particularly evident in his telautomaton, a radio remote controlled boat. This invention and Tesla's descriptions of it showcase some of his novel interpretations of physical theories. He offered a perspective on nineteenth century physics that focused on practical application instead of experiment. Sometimes the understanding of physical theories that Tesla reached was counterproductive to his own inventive work; other times he offered new insights. Tesla's utilitarian interpretation of physical theories suggests a more scientifically curious and invested inventor than previously described and a connection between the scientific and inventive communities.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of a Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(simvastatin) Diblock Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Asafo-Adjei, Theodora A.; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Puleo, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradable polyesters are commonly used as drug delivery vehicles, but their role is typically passive, and encapsulation approaches have limited drug payload. An alternative drug delivery method is to polymerize the active agent or its precursor into a degradable polymer. The prodrug simvastatin contains a lactone ring that lends itself to ring-opening polymerization (ROP). Consequently, simvastatin polymerization was initiated with 5 kDa monomethyl ether poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and catalyzed via stannous octoate. Melt condensation reactions produced a 9.5 kDa copolymer with a polydispersity index of 1.1 at 150 °C up to a 75 kDa copolymer with an index of 6.9 at 250 °C. Kinetic analysis revealed first-order propagation rates. Infrared spectroscopy of the copolymer showed carboxylic and methyl ether stretches unique to simvastatin and mPEG, respectively. Slow degradation was demonstrated in neutral and alkaline conditions. Lastly, simvastatin, simvastatin-incorporated molecules, and mPEG were identified as the degradation products released. The present results show the potential of using ROP to polymerize lactone-containing drugs such as simvastatin. PMID:25431653

  12. From ether theory to ether theology: Oliver Lodge and the physics of immortality.

    PubMed

    Raia, Courtenay Grean

    2007-01-01

    This article follows the development of physicist Oliver Lodge's religio-scientific worldview, beginning with his reticent attraction to metaphysics in the early 1880s to the full formulation of his "ether theology" in the late 1890s. Lodge undertook the study of psychical phenomena such as telepathy, telekinesis, and "ectoplasm" to further his scientific investigations of the ether, speculating that electrical and psychical manifestations were linked phenomena that described the deeper underlying structures of the universe, beneath and beyond matter. For Lodge, to fully understand the ether was to force from the universe an ultimate Revelation, and psychical research, as the most modern and probatory science, was poised to replace religion as the means of that disclosure.

  13. Effect of acid labile ether protecting groups on the oxide etch resistance and lithographic performance of 248-nm resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Pushkara R.; Cornett, Kathleen M.; Lawson, Margaret C.

    2000-06-01

    In our attempts to develop etch resistance 248 nm positive resists, we have designed and synthesized thermally stable and acid sensitive methylbenzyl ether (MBE) protected poly(hydroxystyrene) derivatives. Results presented in this paper clearly illustrate that the MBE protecting group provides superior etch resistance to conventional carbonate, ester and acetal/ketal based protecting groups. It is also shown that the MBE protecting group is thermally stable and undergoes acid catalyzed deprotection leading to preferential rearrangement products due to electrophilic ring substitution. Such a rearrangement is shown to provide a unique mechanism to reduce/eliminate resist shrinkage and improve lithographic performance.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10067 - Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10067 Ether amine phosphonate salt (generic). (a) Chemical substances... ether amine phosphonate salt (PMNs P-05-57, P-05-58, P-05-59, P-05-61, P-05-62, P-05-63, P-05-64, and...

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (Etbe) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The draft Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether provides scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment pertaining to chronic exposure to ethyl tertiary butyl ether.

  20. Molecular Engineering of Liquid Crystalline Polymers by Living Polymerization. 9. Living Cationic Polymerization of 5-((4-Cyano-4’-Biphenyl) oxy)pentyl Vinyl Ethers and 7-((4-Cyano-4’-Biphenyl)oxy)heptyl Vinyl Ether, and the Mesomorphic Behavior of the Resulting Polymers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-16

    REPRODUCEDO A"? GOVERPNME14T EXPENSE AD 2979 T.pOCUMENTATION PiA,4j -* L E is RkEPoRT SC-R-Y CLA i.ATiO It lb RESTRiCTovE MARKiNGS 26 SECURITYr C...PROCuREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER OGN IZAT7ION If picb & L . AZORE SS (Ciay, Sr, arad ZIP Coot) 10 SOURCE OF ’UNDING NUMBERS office of Naval...mesomorphic behavior of poly( L .-.) and poly(6-_7) is discussed and compared to that of 5-[(4-cyano-4’- biphenyl)oxy]pentyl ethyl ether (8)and 7-f (4-cyano

  1. Divinyl ether synthase gene, and protein and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Gregg A.; Itoh, Aya

    2006-12-26

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  2. Divinyl ether synthase gene and protein, and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Howe, Gregg A.; Itoh, Aya

    2011-09-13

    The present invention relates to divinyl ether synthase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention encompasses both native and recombinant wild-type forms of the synthase, as well as mutants and variant forms, some of which possess altered characteristics relative to the wild-type synthase. The present invention also relates to methods of using divinyl ether synthase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of divinyl ether fatty acids, and to methods of suing divinyl ether fatty acids, including in the protection of plants from pathogens.

  3. Ether Cleavage Re-Investigated: Elucidating the Mechanism of BBr3-Facilitated Demethylation of Aryl Methyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Kosak, Talon M; Conrad, Heidi A; Korich, Andrew L; Lord, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    One of the most well-known, highly utilized reagents for ether cleavage is boron tribromide (BBr3), and this reagent is frequently employed in a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with ethers. Density functional theory calculations predict a new mechanistic pathway involving charged intermediates for ether cleavage in aryl methyl ethers. Moreover, these calculations predict that one equivalent of BBr3 can cleave up to three equivalents of anisole, producing triphenoxyborane [B(OPh)3] prior to hydrolysis. These predictions were validated by gas chromatography analysis of reactions where the BBr3:anisole ratio was varied. Not only do we confirm that sub-stoichiometric equivalents may be used for ether demethylation, but the findings also support our newly proposed three cycle mechanism for cleavage of aryl methyl ethers. PMID:26693209

  4. Ultra-fast RAFT polymerisation of poly(ethylene glycol) acrylate in aqueous media under mild visible light radiation at 25 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi; Gao, Huan; Lu, Lican; Cai, Yuanli

    2009-03-21

    Mild visible light was sufficient to activate RAFT polymerisation of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate in 50 wt% water at 25 degrees C, leading to an ultra-fast and well-controlled living RAFT polymerisation with more than 80% monomer conversion; this is the first example of an ultra-fast RAFT polymerisation under such environmentally friendly mild aqueous conditions.

  5. Unprecedented reactions: from epichlorohydrin to epoxyglycidyl substituted divinyl ether and its conversion into epoxyglycidyl propargyl ether.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yiwu; Li, Zheng; Qiu, Yatao; Bai, Jinhong; Su, Jinyue; Zhang, Dayong; Jiang, Sheng

    2015-09-18

    The reaction of epichlorohydrin with concentrated sodium hydroxide in hexane under phase transfer conditions has surprisingly led to the formation of the symmetrical di(3-epoxyglycidyl-1-propenyl) ether 1 which contains both nucleophilic and electrophilic moieties. When it was reacted with n-butyllithium, intermediate 1 once again surprisingly generated epoxyglycidyl propargyl ether, which was further reacted in situ with a variety of benzaldehydes to furnish the corresponding substituted propargylic alcohols in good yields. While the reaction is operationally simple, it provides a powerful method for the synthesis of the important products from commodity materials such as epichlorohydrin. Moreover, these reactions may have revealed that some fundamental properties of the hydroxide anion in those once thought straightforward reactions are not well understood. A careful analysis of the experimental data suggests that an unprecedented concerted elimination of the epoxyglycidyl ether with sodium hydroxide may be operative and an alpha deprotonation followed by alpha elimination of the di(3-epoxyglycidyl-1-propenyl) ether with alkyllithium may have been involved.

  6. Unprecedented reactions: from epichlorohydrin to epoxyglycidyl substituted divinyl ether and its conversion into epoxyglycidyl propargyl ether

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yiwu; Li, Zheng; Qiu, Yatao; Bai, Jinhong; Su, Jinyue; Zhang, Dayong; Jiang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The reaction of epichlorohydrin with concentrated sodium hydroxide in hexane under phase transfer conditions has surprisingly led to the formation of the symmetrical di(3-epoxyglycidyl-1-propenyl) ether 1 which contains both nucleophilic and electrophilic moieties. When it was reacted with n-butyllithium, intermediate 1 once again surprisingly generated epoxyglycidyl propargyl ether, which was further reacted in situ with a variety of benzaldehydes to furnish the corresponding substituted propargylic alcohols in good yields. While the reaction is operationally simple, it provides a powerful method for the synthesis of the important products from commodity materials such as epichlorohydrin. Moreover, these reactions may have revealed that some fundamental properties of the hydroxide anion in those once thought straightforward reactions are not well understood. A careful analysis of the experimental data suggests that an unprecedented concerted elimination of the epoxyglycidyl ether with sodium hydroxide may be operative and an alpha deprotonation followed by alpha elimination of the di(3-epoxyglycidyl-1-propenyl) ether with alkyllithium may have been involved. PMID:26383123

  7. Unprecedented reactions: from epichlorohydrin to epoxyglycidyl substituted divinyl ether and its conversion into epoxyglycidyl propargyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yiwu; Li, Zheng; Qiu, Yatao; Bai, Jinhong; Su, Jinyue; Zhang, Dayong; Jiang, Sheng

    2015-09-01

    The reaction of epichlorohydrin with concentrated sodium hydroxide in hexane under phase transfer conditions has surprisingly led to the formation of the symmetrical di(3-epoxyglycidyl-1-propenyl) ether 1 which contains both nucleophilic and electrophilic moieties. When it was reacted with n-butyllithium, intermediate 1 once again surprisingly generated epoxyglycidyl propargyl ether, which was further reacted in situ with a variety of benzaldehydes to furnish the corresponding substituted propargylic alcohols in good yields. While the reaction is operationally simple, it provides a powerful method for the synthesis of the important products from commodity materials such as epichlorohydrin. Moreover, these reactions may have revealed that some fundamental properties of the hydroxide anion in those once thought straightforward reactions are not well understood. A careful analysis of the experimental data suggests that an unprecedented concerted elimination of the epoxyglycidyl ether with sodium hydroxide may be operative and an alpha deprotonation followed by alpha elimination of the di(3-epoxyglycidyl-1-propenyl) ether with alkyllithium may have been involved.

  8. Epoxy resin cure. [Phenyl glycidyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.E.; Woodburn, G.L.

    1986-07-01

    The reactions that occur between the model epoxy, phenyl glycidyl ether, and the cure agent dicyandiamide (DICY) have been investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. It is shown that the reaction at 130/sup 0/C requires 90 min for completion when catalyzed by boron trifluoride monoethyl amine (BF/sub 3/-MEA). At least three major products are formed. The identity of these products is based on previously published spectroscopic data. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Obstetric and Other Uses of Ether Before Ether Day, According to the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal of 1828-1846.

    PubMed

    Stoller, Sundrayah N; Minehart, Rebecca D; Alston, Theodore A

    2016-04-01

    From the inception of the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal in 1828 until the prominent public demonstration of surgical anesthesia on Ether Day of 1846, ether was often mentioned in the journal. Many of the examples were related to obstetrics. Because molecular structures were not available in the early 1800s, diverse volatile liquids were termed ethers. In addition to sulphuric ether, so-called ethers included cyanide-releasing propionitrile and ethanolic solutions of chloroform and of the potent vasodilator ethyl nitrite. Familiarity with anesthetically unsuitable ethers may have long deterred consideration of inhaled sulphuric ether for analgesia and anesthesia.

  10. PEEK (polyether-ether-ketone)-coated nitinol wire: Film stability for biocompatibility applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheiko, Nataliia; Kékicheff, Patrick; Marie, Pascal; Schmutz, Marc; Jacomine, Leandro; Perrin-Schmitt, Fabienne

    2016-12-01

    High quality biocompatible poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) coatings were produced on NiTi shape memory alloy wires using dipping deposition from colloidal aqueous PEEK dispersions after substrate surface treatment. The surface morphology and microstructure were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy at every step of the process from the as-received Nitinol substrate to the ultimate PEEK-coated NiTi wire. Nanoscratch tests were carried out to access the adhesive behavior of the polymer coated film to the NiTi. The results indicate that the optimum process conditions in cleaning, chemical etching, and electropolishing the NiTi, were the most important and determining parameters to be achieved. Thus, high quality PEEK coatings were obtained on NiTi wires, straight or curved (even with a U-shape) with a homogeneous microstructure along the wire length and a uniform thickness of 12 μm without any development of cracks or the presence of large voids. The biocompatibility of the PEEK coating film was checked in fibrobast cultured cells. The coating remains stable in biological environment with negligible Ni ion release, no cytotoxicity, and no delamination observed with time.

  11. High Surface Area Poly(3-hexylthiophenes) Thin Films from Cleavable Graft Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Sivanandan, Kulandaivelu; Chatterjee, Tirtha; Treat, Neil; Kramer, Edward J.; Hawker, Craig J.

    2010-03-30

    A strategy for the fabrication of high surface area poly(3-hexylthiophene) thin films by removal of nanoscale domains formed from graft copolymers is presented. This approach relies on the synthesis and characterization of cleavable graft copolymers based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (rr-P3HT) main chain and sacrificial poly(styrene) side chains. An alkoxyamine initiator based on 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO) was incorporated at the 3-position of the functionalized thienyl repeat unit, 2, via a cleavable trityl ether linker. Grignard metathesis (GRIM) copolymerization of 2 and 2,5-dibromo-3-hexylthiophene afforded regioregular P3HT with randomly incorporated alkoxyamine groups. Polymerization of styrene from the P3HT backbone for different time periods afforded graft copolymers with controllable sacrificial chain lengths. These materials were characterized using an array of techniques such as {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography (SEC). An approach to obtain nanoporous P3HT thin films by cleavage of the trityl ether linker followed by complete removal of poly(styrene) is reported with the as-cast graft copolymer thin films displaying an irregular microphase-separated structure with an average domain size {approx}30 nm as determined by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. Significantly, this length scale was conserved after removal of the sacrificial component which allows this strategy to have potential application in diverse fields such as organic photovoltaics.

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Decabromodiphenyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Decabromodiphenyl Ether and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Da...

  13. Process for producing dimethyl ether form synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Pierantozzi, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  14. The Ether Wind and the Global Positioning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Rainer

    2000-01-01

    Explains how students can perform a refutation of the ether theory using information from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Discusses the functioning of the GPS, qualitatively describes how position determination would be affected by an ether wind, and illustrates the pertinent ideas with a simple quantitative model. (WRM)

  15. 40 CFR 721.825 - Certain aromatic ether diamines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certain aromatic ether diamines. 721... Substances § 721.825 Certain aromatic ether diamines. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses...,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, diethyl ester, compound with 4,4′- -2,5-diylbis(oxy)]bis (1:1) (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.825 - Certain aromatic ether diamines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certain aromatic ether diamines. 721... Substances § 721.825 Certain aromatic ether diamines. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses...,5-benzenetetracarboxylic acid, diethyl ester, compound with 4,4′- -2,5-diylbis(oxy)]bis (1:1) (PMN...

  17. 47. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, 4TH LEVEL, LOOKING NORTH AT TOPS OF ALCOHOL AND ETHER DISTILLATION TOWERS. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  18. 46. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, CONTROL PANEL LEVEL (2ND DECK) OF ETHER AND ALCOHOL STILL BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING TWO ALCOHOL DISTILLATION TOWERS BEHIND 'MIXED SOLVENT UNIT' CONTROL PANEL. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Decabromodiphenyl Ether: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Decabromodiphenyl Ether and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Data...

  20. 48. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, 5TH LEVEL, LOOKING NORTH AT ETHER AND ALCOHOL CONDENSERS AT TOP OF TOWER. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  1. Process for producing dimethyl ether from synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Pierantozzi, R.

    1985-06-04

    This invention pertains to a Fischer Tropsch process for converting synthesis gas to an oxygenated hydrocarbon with particular emphasis on dimethyl ether. Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen are converted to dimethyl ether by carrying out the reaction in the presence of an alkali metal-manganese-iron carbonyl cluster incorporated onto a zirconia-alumina support.

  2. Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Samta; Caforio, Antonella; Driessen, Arnold J. M.

    2014-01-01

    A vital function of the cell membrane in all living organism is to maintain the membrane permeability barrier and fluidity. The composition of the phospholipid bilayer is distinct in archaea when compared to bacteria and eukarya. In archaea, isoprenoid hydrocarbon side chains are linked via an ether bond to the sn-glycerol-1-phosphate backbone. In bacteria and eukarya on the other hand, fatty acid side chains are linked via an ester bond to the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate backbone. The polar head groups are globally shared in the three domains of life. The unique membrane lipids of archaea have been implicated not only in the survival and adaptation of the organisms to extreme environments but also to form the basis of the membrane composition of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). In nature, a diverse range of archaeal lipids is found, the most common are the diether (or archaeol) and the tetraether (or caldarchaeol) lipids that form a monolayer. Variations in chain length, cyclization and other modifications lead to diversification of these lipids. The biosynthesis of these lipids is not yet well understood however progress in the last decade has led to a comprehensive understanding of the biosynthesis of archaeol. This review describes the current knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway of archaeal ether lipids; insights on the stability and robustness of archaeal lipid membranes; and evolutionary aspects of the lipid divide and the LUCA. It examines recent advances made in the field of pathway reconstruction in bacteria. PMID:25505460

  3. Toughening epoxy resin with poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted natural rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Rezaifard, A.H.; Hodd, K.A.; Barton, J.M.

    1993-12-31

    A novel rubber, poly(methyl methacrylate)-g-natural rubber (Hevea-plus MG), has been studied as a toughening agent for bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (Shell 828 epoxy resin) cured with piperidine. Effective dispersions of the rubber, in concentrations of 2-10 parts per hundred parts resin, were achieved by adjusting the solubility parameter of the epoxy to approximate that of poly(methyl methacrylate) by adding bisphenol A. The fracture energy of the rubber-modified resin was determined by compact tension tests (in the temperature range -60 to +40{degrees}C) and by Charpy impact tests. The poly(methyl methacrylate)-g-natural rubber was found to be an effective toughening agent for the epoxy resin at both low and high rates of strain. Possible fracture mechanisms are discussed. 22 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Methacrylate polymer layers bearing poly(ethylene oxide) and phosphorylcholine side chains as non-fouling surfaces: in vitro interactions with plasma proteins and platelets.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wei; Gao, Xiang; McClung, Glenn; Zhu, Shiping; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Brash, John L

    2011-10-01

    Two methacrylate monomers, oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA; MW=300 g mol(-1), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) side chains of average length n=4.5) and 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC; MW=295 g mol(-1)), were grafted from silicon wafer surfaces via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. The grafted surfaces were used as model PEG and phosphorylcholine surface systems to allow comparison of the effectiveness of these two motifs in the prevention of plasma protein adsorption and platelet adhesion. It was found that at high graft density fibrinogen adsorption from plasma on the poly(MPC) and poly(OEGMA) surfaces for a given graft chain length was comparable and extremely low. At low graft density, poly(OEGMA) was slightly more effective than poly(MPC) in resisting fibrinogen adsorption from plasma. Flowing whole blood experiments showed that at low graft density the poly(OEGMA) surfaces were more resistant to fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion than the poly(MPC) surfaces. At high graft density, both the poly(MPC) and poly(OEGMA) surfaces were highly resistant to fibrinogen and platelets. Immunoblots of proteins eluted from the surfaces after contact with human plasma were probed with antibodies against a range of proteins, including the contact phase clotting factors, fibrinogen, albumin, complement C3, IgG, vitronectin and apolipoprotein A-I. The blot responses were weak on the poly(MPC) and poly(OEGMA) surfaces at low graft density and zero at high graft density, again indicating strongly protein resistant properties for these surfaces. Since the side chains of the poly(OEGMA) are about 50% greater in size than those of poly(MPC), the difference in protein resistance between the poly(MPC) and poly(OEGMA) surfaces at low graft density may be due to the difference in surface coverage of the two graft types.

  5. Acetylene- and Phenylacetylene-Terminated Poly(Arylene Ether Benzimidazole)s (PAEBI's)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Polymers prepared by first synthesizing polymers terminated with hydroxy groups, then reacting them with either 4-ethynylbenzoyl chloride or 4-fluoro-4'-phenylethynylbenzophenone. Endcapped polymers thermally cured to yield materials with attractive combination of properties. Cured acetylene-and phenylacetylene-terminated PAEBI's exhibit higher glass-transition temperatures and better retention of mechanical properties at high temperatures. Cured acetylene- and phenylacetylene-terminated polymers exhibit excellent adhesion to copper foil and polyimide film. Potentially useful as adhesives, coatings, composite matrices, fibers, films, membranes, and moldings.

  6. Effect of extrusion rate on morphology of Kaolin/PolyEtherSulfone (PESf) membrane precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misaran, M. S.; Sarbatly, R.; Bono, A.; Rahman, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of apparent viscosity induced by spinneret geometry and extrusion rate on morphology of Kaolin/PESf hollow fiber membranes. Different extrusion rates at two different rheology properties were introduced on a straight and conical spinneret resulting in various shear rates. The hollow fiber membrane precursors were spun using the wet spinning method to decouple the effect of shear and elongation stress due to gravity stretched drawing. The morphology of the spun hollow fiber was observed under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the overall porosity were measured using mercury intrusion porosimeter. Shear rate and apparent viscosity at the tip of the spinneret annulus were simulated using a computational fluid dynamics package; solidworks floworks. Simulation data shows that extrusion rate increment increases the shear rate at the spinneret wall which in turn reduce the apparent viscosity; consistent with a non Newtonian shear thinning fluid behavior. Thus, the outer finger-like region grows as the shear rate increases. Also, overall porosity of hollow fiber membrane decreases with extrusion rate increment which is caused by better molecular orientation; resulting in denser hollow fiber membrane. Thin outer finger-like region is achieved at low shear experience of 109.55 s-1 via a straight spinneret. Increasing the extrusion rate; thus shear rate will cause outer finger-like region growth which is not desirable in a separation process.

  7. Enthalpy of dilution of poly(ethylene glycol) monomethyl ether in 1-butanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  8. Second virial coefficient of poly(bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether-co-adipic acid)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  9. Poly(ether-imide-benzoxazole) via Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution with Fluorophenyl/phenolic Precursor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-29

    mixture cooled, and 1 equivalent of HCI Polyimides and polybenzoxazoles have good mechanical and added to give 3b; 255-257*C. Ammonium formate was reacted...synthesis and 2a: 216T0, 3a: 225- 227CC and 4a: 325- 3270C. 4-Fluorobenzoyl processing. For these reasons, polybenzoxazoles have only recently chloride...Characterization and Applications: Pie .jm Press: New York, 1989. 3. Yang, H. H., Aromatic High Strength Fibers : Wiley- lnterscience: New York, 1989

  10. TRANSPORT AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(ETHER IMIDE) ACETYLENE-TERMINATED MONOMER BLENDS. (R824727)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Chlorine resistant desalination membranes based on directly sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymers

    DOEpatents

    McGrath, James E [Blacksburg, VA; Park, Ho Bum [Austin, TX; Freeman, Benny D [Austin, TX

    2011-10-04

    The present invention provides a membrane, kit, and method of making a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer membrane includes a hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer. The hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer includes one or more hydrophilic monomers having a sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer and a second monomer and one or more hydrophobic monomers having a non-sulfonated third monomer and a fourth monomer. The sulfonated polyarylsulfone monomer introduces a sulfonate into the hydrophilic-hydrophobic random copolymer prior to polymerization.

  12. Preferential Surface Adsorption in Miscible Blends of Polystyrene and Poly(vinyl methyl ether).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-02

    PROGRAM ELEMENT PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS University of Connecticut Storrs, CT 06268 I1. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT...AOLRESft1-i iorle’t from Controlling Oflce) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of thls report) Unclassified IS. DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRAOING SCHEDULE IS...environmental chamber equipped with provisions for temperature control (± 10C). All measurements were carried out under argon atmosphere. The optical system

  13. Poly(carboxylate ether)-based superplasticizer achieves workability retention in calcium aluminate cement

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Omid; Menceloglu, Yusuf Ziya; Akbulut, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) suffers from loss of workability in less than an hour (~15 minutes) after first touch of water. Current superplasticizers that are utilized to modify the viscosity of cement admixtures are designed to target ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The high affinity between these superplasticizers and cement particles were found to be detrimental in CAC systems. Utilization of a monomer that, instead, facilitates gradual adsorption of a superplasticizer provides workability retention. For the first time in literature, we report a superplasticizer that caters to the properties of CAC such as high rate of surface development and surface charge. While neat CAC was almost unworkable after 1 hour, with the addition of only 0.4% of the optimized superplasticizer, 90% fluidity retention was achieved. PMID:28134316

  14. Poly(carboxylate ether)-based superplasticizer achieves workability retention in calcium aluminate cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhlaghi, Omid; Menceloglu, Yusuf Ziya; Akbulut, Ozge

    2017-01-01

    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) suffers from loss of workability in less than an hour (~15 minutes) after first touch of water. Current superplasticizers that are utilized to modify the viscosity of cement admixtures are designed to target ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The high affinity between these superplasticizers and cement particles were found to be detrimental in CAC systems. Utilization of a monomer that, instead, facilitates gradual adsorption of a superplasticizer provides workability retention. For the first time in literature, we report a superplasticizer that caters to the properties of CAC such as high rate of surface development and surface charge. While neat CAC was almost unworkable after 1 hour, with the addition of only 0.4% of the optimized superplasticizer, 90% fluidity retention was achieved.

  15. pVT data of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether in 1,2-propanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  16. Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and propylene glycol monomethyl ether: metabolism, disposition, and subchronic inhalation toxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.R.; Hermann, E.A.; Young, J.T.; Landry, T.D.; Calhoun, L.L.

    1984-08-01

    Short-term and subchronic vapor inhalation studies have shown that there are pronounced differences in the toxicological properties of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME). Overexposure to EGME has resulted in adverse effects on testes, bone marrow and lymphoid tissues in laboratory animals. PGME does not affect these tissues, and instead, overexposure to PGME has been associated with increases in liver weight and central nervous system depression. EGME is primarily oxidized to methoxyacetic acid in male rats, while PGME apparently undergoes O-demethylation to form propylene glycol. Since methoxyacetic acid has been shown to have the same spectrum of toxicity as EGME in male rats, the observed differences in the toxicological properties of EGME and PGME are thought to be due to the fact that the two materials are biotransformed via different routes to different types of metabolites. 6 references, 3 figures, 12 tables.

  17. Tensile Properties of a Cellulose Ether Hydrogel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A.; Gehrke, Stevin H.

    2003-01-01

    Poly(hydroxycellulose) solutions were molded into dumbell-shaped specimens crosslinked with divinyl sulfone. The resulting hydrogels were tested in tension at room temperature and also at a temperature above the 40 C shrinkage transition. In contrast to behavior seen in some other responsive gels, apparent initial tangent moduli were lower in the shrunken state; breaking elongations were significantly higher. Possible molecular mechanisms are suggested, and implications for the design of temperature-responsive actuators ("artificial muscles") from this material are discussed.

  18. Optimization of Aqueous SI-ATRP Grafting of Poly(Oligo(Ethylene Glycol) Methacrylate) Brushes from Benzyl Chloride Macroinitiator Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Rodda, Andrew E; Ercole, Francesca; Nisbet, David R; Forsythe, John S; Meagher, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (pOEGMA) brushes were grafted via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) from a poly(styrene-co-vinylbenzyl chloride) macroinitiator. While bromoisobutyryl initiator groups are most commonly used for this purpose, benzyl chloride initiators may be advantageous for some applications due to superior stability. Water-only graft solutions produced thicker brush coatings with superior low fouling properties (low protein adsorption and cell adhesion) versus mixed water/alcohol solutions. Coatings produced using 475 Da OEGMA (methyl ether terminated) further reduced non-specific interactions compared to 360 Da OEGMA (hydroxyl terminated). Initiator density had minimal effect on low fouling properties.

  19. Development of specialty chemicals from dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Tartamella, T.L.; Lee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Dimethyl ether (DME) may be efficiently produced from coal-bases syngas in a high pressure, mechanically agitated slurry reactor. DME synthesis occurs in the liquid phase using a dual catalyst. By operating in a dual catalyst mode, DME may be converted from in-situ produced methanol resulting in higher methyl productivities and syngas conversions over methanol conversion alone. The feasibility of utilizing DME as a building block for more valuable specialty chemicals has been examined. A wide variety of petrochemicals may be produced from DME including light olefins, gasoline range hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and glycol precursors. These chemicals represent an important part of petroleum industries inventory of fine chemicals. Carbonylation, hydrocarbonylation, and oxidative dimerization are but a few of the reactions in which DME may undergo conversion. DME provides an additional route for the production of industrially important petrochemicals.

  20. Acyclic archaebacterial ether lipids in swamp sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauly, George G.; Van Vleet, Edward S.

    1986-06-01

    Acyclic phytanyl diether glycerol and biphytanyl ether lipids have been quantified in two modern swamp sediment cores in concentrations ranging up to 360 μg/ml porewater. Methanogenic bacteria are the only known source organisms which can inhabit the swamp sediments. Variations in relative abundance between these lipids may reflect taxonomic changes in methanogen populations or the stage of growth. Maxima in methanogen lipid concentrations coincide with local maxima of 13C of organic matter, possibly the result of a pool effect on CO 2 or acetate. Methane production estimates calculated from lipid concentrations in swamp sediments range from 0.1 to 1.3 mmol cm -2 yr -1, values which are consistent with published methane fluxes.

  1. Vapor intrusion risk of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): A modeling study.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Xiong, Desen; Li, Haiyan; Ding, Yi; Xia, Xiangcheng; Yang, Yongqi

    2017-06-15

    Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represents a critical yet still neglected problem at sites contaminated by petroleum fuel releases. This study used an advanced numerical model to investigate the vapor intrusion potential of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Simulated indoor air concentration of these compounds can exceed USEPA indoor air screening level for MTBE (110μg/m(3)). Our results also reveal that MTBE has much higher chance to cause vapor intrusion problems than TAME and ETBE. This study supports the statements made by USEPA in the Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Guidance that the vertical screening criteria for petroleum hydrocarbons may not provide sufficient protectiveness for fuel additives, and ether oxygenates in particular. In addition to adverse impacts on human health, ether oxygenate vapor intrusion may also cause aesthetic problems (i.e., odour and flavour). Overall, this study points out that ether oxygenates can cause vapor intrusion problems. We recommend that USEPA consider including the field measurement data of synthetic fuel additives in the existing PVI database and possibly revising the PVI Guidance as necessary.

  2. Formulating liquid ethers for microtubular SOFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Kevin; Slinn, Matthew; Preece, John

    One of the key problems of applying solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in transportation is that conventional fuels like kerosene and diesel do not operate directly in SOFCs without prereforming to hydrogen and carbon monoxide which can be handled by the nickel cermet anode. SOFCs can internally reform certain hydrocarbon molecules such as methanol and methane. However, other liquid fuels usable in petrol or diesel internal combustion engines (ICEs) have not easily been reformable directly on the anode. This paper describes a search for liquid fuels which can be mixed with petrol or diesel and also injected directly into an SOFC without destroying the nickel anode. When fuel molecules such as octane are injected onto the conventional nickel/yttria stabilised zirconia (Ni/YSZ) SOFC fuel electrode, the anode rapidly becomes blocked by carbon deposition and the cell power drops to near zero in minutes. This degeneration of the anode can be inhibited by injection of air or water into the anode or by some upstream reforming just before entry to the SOFC. Some smaller molecules such as methane, methanol and methanoic acid produce a slight tendency to carbon deposition but not sufficient to prevent long term operation. In this project we have investigated a large number of molecules and now found that some liquid ethers do not significantly damage the anode when directly injected. These molecules and formulations with other components have been evaluated in this study. The theory put forward in this paper is that carbon-carbon bonds in the fuel are the main reason for anode damage. By testing a number of fuels without such bonds, particularly liquid ethers such as methyl formate and dimethoxy methane, it has been shown that SOFCs can run without substantial carbon formation. The proposal is that conventional fuels can be doped with these molecules to allow hybrid operation of an ICE/SOFC device.

  3. Characterization of Microsolvated Crown Ethers from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie; Blanco, Susana; Lopez, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Since they were first synthetized, crown ethers have been extensively used in organometallic chemistry due to their unparalleled binding selectivity with alkali metal cations. From a structural point of view, crown ethers are heterocycles containing oxygen and/or other heteroatoms, although the most common ones are formed from ethylene oxide unit. Crown ethers are conventionally seen as being hydrophilic inside and hydrophobic outside when the structures found for the metal cation complexes are considered. However, crown ethers are extremely flexible and in isolation may present a variety of stable conformations so that their structure may be easily adapted in presence of a strong ligand as an alkali metal cation minimize the energy of the resulting complex. Water can be considered a soft ligand which interacts with crown ethers through moderate hydrogen bonds. It is thus interesting to investigate which conformers are selected by water to form complexes, the preferred interaction sites and the possible conformational changes due to the presence of one or more water molecules. Previous studies identified microsolvated crown ethers but in all cases with a chromophore group attached to the structure. Here we present a broadband rotational spectroscopy study of microsolvated crown ethers produced in a pulsed molecular jet expansion. Several 1:1 and 1:2 crown ether:water aggregates are presented for 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6. Unambiguous identification of the structures has been achieved using isotopic substitution within the water unit. The subtle changes induced in the structures of the crown ether monomer upon complexation and the hydrogen-bonding network that hold them together will be also discussed. F. Gámez, B. Martínez-Haya, S. Blanco,J. C. López and J. L. Alonso, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2014, 14 12912-12918 V. A. Shubert, C.W. Müller and T. Zwier, J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113 8067-8079

  4. Microencapsulation of lobster carotenoids within poly(vinyl alcohol) and poly(D,L-lactic acid) membranes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z M; Poncelet, D; Conway, J; Neufeld, R J

    1995-01-01

    The use of natural pigments such as lobster carotenoids in fish feed formulations offers advantages over the use of the synthetic alternatives. Microencapsulation of the pigments, with or without the addition of antioxidants to the formulation, may be of benefit in terms of stabilizing pigment colour. In the present study, lobster carotenoids were extracted from lobster shell into petroleum ether and microencapsulated by phase separation and salt coacervation within (poly vinyl alcohol) and poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(D,L-lactic acid) membranes. Spherical microcapsules, with smooth, thin and resilient membranes were obtained with mean diameters ranging from 50 to 150 microns, depending on the membrane material, and source of pigment. The microcapsules were pink-orange in colour, and colour stability was followed spectrophotometrically. Enhanced stability was observed in both membrane materials, in comparison to the non-encapsulated control. Rates of discoloration were determined under a variety of storage conditions, including the absence of light, reduced temperatures and under nitrogen atmosphere. The best stability of lobster carotenoids was observed under a nitrogen atmosphere within PVA/PLA membranes, representing an 11-fold enhancement of pigment stability in comparison to the controls. Under ambient conditions, the enhancement in pigment stability was approximately 6-fold. The optimum concentration of PVA during microencapsulation was 3-4%, and the microencapsulated pigments appeared most stable under acidic conditions. The rate of discoloration appeared independent of pigment concentration.

  5. Synthesis and biological activity of gem-dichlorocyclopropyl ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Shostakovskii, S.M.; Mochalov, V.N.; Larionov, G.M.

    1986-09-01

    In order to examine the antimicrobial activity of oxygenated cyclopropanes, the authors have synthesized the bis-gem-dichlorocyclopropyl ether of ethylene glycol, the meso- and dl- forms of bis-gem-dichlorocyclopropyl ether, and the gem-dichlorocyclopropyl alkyl ethers. The physiocochemical properties of compounds obtained are presented. The authors conclude that in the case of gem-dichlorocyclopropane compounds, decontamination of microorganisms occurs at the pre-metabolic stage, and results in the denaturation of the protein components of the cell wall and external membranes and of the specific peptides of the peptide-glycan layer.

  6. Dependence of the optical absorption and Na+ binding energies of coumarin-crown ethers on the size and attachment position of ether ring: density functional investigation.

    PubMed

    Kasapbasi, Esra; Yurtsever, Mine

    2013-01-01

    The crowned coumarin complexes are well known compounds for their ion recognition abilities. They undergo photophysical changes upon cation binding. On the basis of density functional theory calculations, we examined the sodium cation (Na+) binding energies of coumarin-crown ethers based on 15-Crown-5 (15 C5) and 18-Crown-6 (18 C6) as well as the optical absorptions of coumarin-crown ethers based on 12-Crown-4 (12 C4), 15 C5 and 18 C6. We explored why the attachment of crown ether ring to coumarin affects the Na+ binding energies of coumarin-crown ethers and also why the optical absorption of coumarin is modified by the crown ethers. Our study reveals that the Na+ ion binding energies of coumarin-crown ethers depend strongly on the size of the crown ether ring and also on the attachment position of the ether ring on coumarin. These factors affect the intramolecular charge transfer and overall stability of the complexes. The absorptions of the coumarin and ether ring parts of coumarin-crown ether are red shifted from those of isolated coumarin and crown ether, respectively. The red-shift of the coumarin ester group absorption is much stronger depending on the attachment position of the ether ring to coumarin. The absorption intensity of the coumarin part in coumarin-crown ethers is reduced for the benzene group absorption, but is enhanced for the ester group absorption.

  7. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS IN HOUSE DUST AND CLOTHES DRYER LINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants are now considered ubiquitous and persistent pollutants. Few studies have examined the concentrations of these chemicals in the home and here we report measurements of PBDEs in house dust samples collected from the Washington...

  8. Fluorinated Alkyl Ether Epoxy Resin Compositions and Applications Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wohl, Christopher J. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Gardner, John M. (Inventor); Palmieri, Frank M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy resin compositions prepared using amino terminated fluoro alkyl ethers. The epoxy resin compositions exhibit low surface adhesion properties making them useful as coatings, paints, moldings, adhesives, and fiber reinforced composites.

  9. 44. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, LOOKING UP DISTILLATION TOWER FROM 2ND LEVEL. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  10. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) CONTAMINATION OF UNITED STATES FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevated levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a type of brominated flame retardant, were recently detected in United States (U.S.) nursing mothers' milk. These halogenated compounds chemically and toxicologically resemble others such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PC...

  11. Improved boundary lubrication with formulated C-ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    A comparison of five recently developed C-ether-formulated fluids with an advanced formulated MIL-L-27502 candidate ester is described. Steady state wear and friction measurements were made with a sliding pin on disk friction apparatus. Conditions included disk temperatures up to 260 C, dry air test atmosphere, 1 kilogram load, 50 rpm disk speed, and test times to 130 minutes. Based on wear rates and coefficients of friction, three of the C-ether formulations as well as the C-ether base fluid gave better boundary lubrication than the ester fluid under all test conditions. The susceptibility of C-ethers to selective additive treatment (phosphinic esters or acids and other antiwear additives) was demonstrated when two of the formulations gave somewhat improved lubrication over the base fluid. The increased operating potential for this fluid was shown in relationship to bulk oil temperature limits for MIL-L-23699 and MIL-L-27502 type esters.

  12. 36. BUILDINGS NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. BUILDINGS NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, AND NO. 523, REFRIGERATION PLANT BUILDING, LOOKING EAST. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  13. Syngas to olefins via dimethyl ether over zeolite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.G.; Sardesai, A.; Lee, S.

    1998-12-31

    Coal or natural gas-based syngas can be converted to dimethyl ether (DME) in a dual catalytic, single-stage liquid phase process. The process described here converts dimethyl ether to lower olefins, such as ethylene, propylene, and butenes. Thus, a novel process of producing olefins from syngas via dimethyl ether has been introduced. The process feasibility of dimethyl ether conversion has been evaluated and the range of products of this process has also been identified. The effect of operating parameters and catalyst characteristics on product selectivity has been studied. The superior process advantages as well as its competitive economics quite clearly identify this process to be quite promising when conducted on an industrial scale.

  14. Synthesis of a novel ether-bridged GM3-lactone analogue as a target for an antibody-based cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tietze, L F; Keim, H; Janssen, C O; Tappertzhofen, C; Olschimke, J

    2000-08-04

    We describe herein the synthesis of a new analogue of the GM3-lactone containing a cyclic ether moiety. The ether moiety was chosen as a replacement for the regular lactone group since it shows high resemblance with the lactone and is completely stable under biological conditions. The cyclic ether moiety was formed by reduction of the corresponding lactone to give the lactol followed by formation of the S,O-hemiacetal and hydrogenation. In addition, we have prepared haptens with a hexanoic acid moiety, which can be used for the preparation of poly- and monoclonal antibodies after binding to BSA or KLH. This is the first example of an analogue of the GM3-lactone which is stable under hydrolytic conditions in vitro and probably also in vivo. Reaction of lactone 18 with a Red/Al derivative led to the lactol 19 which was transformed into the S,O-hemiacetal 20 using 2,2'-bis(pyridinium) disulfide in quantitative yield. Hydrogenation with Raney Nickel gave 21 from which after removal of the protecting group at C-1a the trichloroacetimidate 25 was prepared. Reaction with azidosphingosine to give 26 followed by reduction of the azido group with NHEt3+[(PhS)3Sn], acylation with stearic acid using EDC and removal of the protecting groups led to the desired ether analogue of GM3 lactone 4. In addition the trichloroacetimidate 25 was glycosidated with 6-hydroxyhexanoic acid methyl ester, which was deprotected to give 29. The compound will be used for the preparation of poly- and monoclonal antibodies after coupling with BSA and KLH.

  15. Advanced hybrid fluoropolymers from the cycloaddition of aryl trifluorovinyl ethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligon, S. Clark, Jr.

    This dissertation discusses the synthesis of aryl trifluorovinyl ethers and their cycloaddition polymerization to give perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) polymers. To explore the stereochemistry of these polymers, simple monomfunctional aryl trifluorovinyl ethers were dimerized and the resultant cis and trans isomers were separated. Differences in structure help to improve understanding of the amorphous nature of the bulk PFCB polymeric material. To apply this knowledge, crown ether containing perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) polymers were synthesized for use in lithium ion battery applications. While poor solubility has hindered further development of these materials, slight modifications to structure may provide a solution. Also described is a fluorinated aryl vinyl ether and its attempted copolymerization with chlorotrifluoroethylene. While this copolymerization did not yield the desired materials, novel semifluorinated phenol precursors have been utilized in reactions with carboxylic acids to give polyesters and most recently with phosgene like species to give polycarbonates. Next, PFCB polymers were post functionalized with fluoroalkyl tethers to improve oleophobicity and hydrophobicity without decreasing thermal stability or optical clarity. In addition, various silica nanostructures were functionalized with aryl trifluorovinyl ethers. This includes the reaction of aryl silanes to give trifluorovinyl ether functional POSS and their polymerization to provide PFCB hybrid materials. Silane coupling agents were also used to functionalize colloidal silica and fumed silica nanoparticles. These procedures allow excellent dispersion of the silica nanoparticles throughout the fluoropolymer matrix. Finally, the reaction of aryl trifluorovinyl ether with nonfluorinated alkenes and alkynes was explored. In these reactions, the fluorinated olefin adds with the hydrocarbon olefin to give semifluorinated cyclobutanes (SFCB) and with the alkyne to give semifluorinated cyclobutene. The

  16. Spatially well-defined binary brushes of poly(ethylene glycol)s for micropatterning of active proteins on anti-fouling surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xu, F J; Li, H Z; Li, J; Teo, Y H Eric; Zhu, C X; Kang, E T; Neoh, K G

    2008-12-01

    We report a novel method for micropatterning of active proteins on anti-fouling surfaces via spatially well-defined and dense binary poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) brushes with controllable protein-docking sites. Binary brushes of poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate-co-poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate), or P(PEGMA-co-PEGMEMA), and poly(poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether methacrylate), or P(PEGMEMA), were prepared via consecutive surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerizations (SI-ATRPs) from a resist-micropatterned Si(100) wafer surface. The terminal hydroxyl groups on the side chains of PEGMA units in the P(PEGMA-co-PEGMEMA) microdomains were activated directly by 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) for the covalent coupling of human immunoglobulin (IgG) (as a model active protein). The resulting IgG-coupled PEG microdomains interact only and specifically with target anti-IgG, while the other PEG microregions effectively prevent specific and non-specific protein fouling. When extended to other active biomolecules, microarrays for specific and non-specific analyte interactions with a high signal-to-noise ratio could be readily tailored.

  17. Microporous gel electrolytes based on amphiphilic poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shicheng; Chen, Lie; Chen, Yiwang; Tong, Yongfen

    2012-03-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) grafted poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PVDF-HFP-g-PPEGMA) is simply prepared by single-step synthesis directly via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) from poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP). Thermal, mechanical, swelling and electrochemical properties, as well as microstructures of the prepared polymer electrolytes, are evaluated and the effects of the various contents and average molecular weights of PEGMA on those properties are also been investigated. By phase inversion technique, the copolymer membranes tend to form well-defined microporous morphology with the increase of content and average molecular weight of PEGMA, due to the competition and cooperation between the hydrophilic PEGMA segments and hydrophobic PVDF-HFP. When these membranes are gelled with 1 M LiCF3SO3 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/propylene carbonate (PC) (1:1, v/v), their saturated electrolyte uptakes (up to 323.5%) and ion conductivities (up to 2.01 × 10-3 S cm-1) are dramatically improved with respect to the pristine PVDF-HFP, ascribing to the strong affinity of the hydrophilic PEGMA segments with the electrolytes. All the polymer electrolytes are electrochemically stable up to 4.7 V versus Li/Li+, and show good mechanical properties. Coin cells based on the polymer electrolytes show stable charge-discharge cycles and deliver discharge capacities to LiFePO4 is up to 156 mAh g-1.

  18. Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.; Greene, Howard L.

    With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security, and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking non-petroleum based alternative fuels, along with more advanced energy technologies (e.g., fuel cells) to increase the efficiency of energy use. The most promising alternative fuel will be the fuel that has the greatest impact on society. The major impact areas include well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions, non-petroleum feed stocks, well-to-wheel efficiencies, fuel versatility, infrastructure, availability, economics, and safety. Compared to some of the other leading alternative fuel candidates (i.e., methane, methanol, ethanol, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels), dimethyl ether appears to have the largest potential impact on society, and should be considered as the fuel of choice for eliminating the dependency on petroleum. DME can be used as a clean high-efficiency compression ignition fuel with reduced NO x, SO x, and particulate matter, it can be efficiently reformed to hydrogen at low temperatures, and does not have large issues with toxicity, production, infrastructure, and transportation as do various other fuels. The literature relevant to DME use is reviewed and summarized to demonstrate the viability of DME as an alternative fuel.

  19. Atmospheric and combustion chemistry of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, O.J.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.; Sehested, J.; Wallington, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that dimethyl ether (DME) is an ideal diesel fuel alternative. DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, combines good fuel properties with low exhaust emissions and low combustion noise. Large scale production of this fuel can take place using a single step catalytic process converting CH{sub 4} to DME. The fate of DME in the atmosphere has previously been studied. The atmospheric degradation is initiated by the reaction with hydroxyl radicals, which is also a common feature of combustion processes. Spectrokinetic investigations and product analysis were used to demonstrate that the intermediate oxy radical, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}O, exhibits a novel reaction pathway of hydrogen atom ejection. The application of tandem mass spectrometry to chemi-ions based on supersonic molecular beam sampling has recently been demonstrated. The highly reactive ionic intermediates are sampled directly from the flame and identified by collision activation mass spectrometry and ion-molecule reactions. The mass spectrum reflects the distribution of the intermediates in the flame. The atmospheric degradation of DME as well as the unique fuel properties of a oxygen containing compound will be discussed.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in California wastestreams.

    PubMed

    Petreas, Myrto; Oros, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used in consumer products, including electronics, fabrics, and polyurethane foam. Exposures may occur during the products' useful lifetime and also after the products' disposal. A survey of California wastestreams (e-wastes, autoshredder waste and wastewater sewage sludge) attempted to assess the relative importance of these wastestreams as repositories of PBDEs. Based on measurements of PBDEs in samples of such wastestreams and on assumptions regarding use patterns, e-wastes appeared to be by far the predominant wastestream with 1200 metric tons (MT) of PBDEs year(-1), followed by autoshredder waste (31 MT of PBDEs year(-1)) and sewage sludge (2.3 MT of PBDEs year(-1)). When these estimates were compared with the reported use of PBDEs in California, about half of the PBDEs could not be accounted for in the wastestreams examined. This suggests that additional wastestreams, such as household wastes should be evaluated for their PBDE content. Information on the presence and fate of PBDEs in all wastestreams needs to be included in decision making practices for waste management to avoid public health and ecologic catastrophes.

  1. Nonlinear dielectric effect in supercritical diethyl ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd-Rzoska, Aleksandra; Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Martinez-Garcia, Julio Cesar

    2014-09-01

    Nonlinear dielectric effect (NDE) describes changes of dielectric permittivity induced by a strong electric field in a liquid dielectric. The most classical finding related to this magnitude is the negative sign of NDE in liquid diethyl ether (DEE), recalled by Peter Debye in his Nobel Prize lecture. This article shows that the positive sign of NDE in DEE is also possible, in the supercritical domain. Moreover, NDE on approaching the gas-liquid critical point exhibits a unique critical effect described by the critical exponent ψ ≈ 0.4 close to critical temperature (TC) and ψ ≈ 0.6 remote from TC. This can be linked to the emergence of the mean-field behavior in the immediate vicinity of TC, contrary to the typical pattern observed for critical phenomena. The multi-frequency mode of NDE measurements made it possible to estimate the evolution of lifetime of critical fluctuations. The new way of data analysis made it possible to describe the critical effect without a knowledge of the non-critical background contribution in prior.

  2. Hydrogen bonding: a channel for protons to transfer through acid-base pairs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Huang, Chuanhui; Woo, Jung-Je; Wu, Dan; Yun, Sung-Hyun; Seo, Seok-Jun; Xu, Tongwen; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2009-09-10

    Different from H(3)O(+) transport as in the vehicle mechanism, protons find another channel to transfer through the poorly hydrophilic interlayers in a hydrated multiphase membrane. This membrane was prepared from poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone kentone) (SPPESK) and H(+)-form perfluorosulfonic resin (FSP), and poorly hydrophilic electrostatically interacted acid-base pairs constitute the interlayer between two hydrophilic phases (FSP and SPPESK). By hydrogen bonds forming and breaking between acid-base pairs and water molecules, protons transport directly through these poorly hydrophilic zones. The multiphase membrane, due to this unique transfer mechanism, exhibits better electrochemical performances during fuel cell tests than those of pure FSP and Nafion-112 membranes: 0.09-0.12 S cm(-1) of proton conductivity at 25 degrees C and 990 mW cm(-2) of the maximum power density at a current density of 2600 mA cm(-2) and a cell voltage of 0.38 V.

  3. Copoly(arlene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yu Seung; Kim, Dae Sik; Robertson, Gilles; Guiver, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The P AE and PAEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2-phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. The sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sP AE and sP AEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (DS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v}(wet) (volume-based, wet state)) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm{sup 3}, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5-51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the area of outstanding properties in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based). Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  4. Temperature sensitivity of wormlike micelles in poly(oxyethylene) surfactant solution: importance of hydrophilic-group size.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Toufiq; Aramaki, Kenji

    2009-08-01

    We have studied the temperature sensitivity of the rheology of the wormlike micellar solutions formed in poly(oxyethylene) cholesteryl ether (ChEO(m), m=15 and 30) upon addition of tri(ethyleneglycol) mono n-dodecyl ether (C(12)EO(3)) and monolaurin. We have found that increasing the poly(oxyethylene) chain length of ChEO(m) greatly reduces the temperature-sensitivity of the viscosity of the solution. In the viscous region small changes in the cosurfactant composition can subtly change the temperature sensitivity depending on the temperature range and type of cosurfactant. For, C(12)EO(3), which is a poly(oxyethylene) surfactant, the temperature sensitivity is lower at lower temperatures and higher at higher temperatures if the cosurfactant mixing fraction is high and vice versa if the mixing fraction is low. For monolaurin, the temperature sensitivity increases with cosurfactant mixing fraction in the viscous region. In the ChEO(30)-monolaurin system viscous solutions are not formed at any temperature that we studied. We have discussed these results in terms of the reduction of the average curvature of micellar interface with temperature due to dehydration of the poly(oxyethylene) chain and formation of branches in long micelles. We indicate the scientific and technical significance of our findings.

  5. Solute retention and the states of water in polyethylene glycol and poly(vinyl alcohol) gels.

    PubMed

    Baba, Takayuki; Sakamoto, Ryosaku; Shibukawa, Masami; Oguma, Koichi

    2004-06-18

    The states of water sorbed in a cross-linked polyethylene glycol (PEG) gel, TSKgel Ether-250, and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gels of different pore sizes, TSKgel Toyopearl HW-40S, 50S, 55S and 75S, were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was found that there were three types of water in these hydrogels, non-freezing water, freezable bound water and free water. The amount of water that functions as the stationary phase in the column packed with the each gel was also estimated by a liquid chromatographic method. The estimated amount of the stationary phase water is in good agreement with the sum of the amount of non-freezing water and that of freezable bound water for HW-40S, 50S and 55S, while it agrees with the amount of only non-freezing water for HW-75S and Ether-250. This means that the stationary phase water consists of non-freezing water and freezable bound water for HW-40S, 50S and 55S, while only non-freezing water functions as the stationary phase in HW-75S and Ether-250 gels. This result can be attributed to the difference in the structure of the gels; the PVA gels containing PVA at relatively high concentrations, HW-40S, 50S and 55S, have a homogeneous gel phase, whereas HW-75S and Ether-250 have a heterogeneous gel phase consisting hydrated polymer domains and macropores with relatively hydrophobic surface. The freezable bound water in Toyopearl HW-40S, 50S and 55S can be regarded as a component of a homogeneous PVA solution phase, while that in HW-75S and Ether-250 may be water isolated in small pores of the hydrophobic domains. The results obtained by the investigation on the retention selectivity of these hydrogels in aqueous solutions supported our postulated view on the structures of the hydrogels.

  6. Solar CalPoly

    SciTech Connect

    Stannard, Sandra

    2016-06-15

    The target budget of INhouse was about $650,000 for all materials and student expenses of the Solar Decathlon competition. In order to reach our goal, Cal Poly students and faculty worked with the College of Architecture and Environmental Design’s External Relations office to actively fundraise for INhouse. Students connected with Cal Poly alumni through phone calls, postal mail, email, and live presentations to reach as many alumni in the state of California as possible. Before construction begun, students and faculty met on a weekly basis to determine what brands of materials for the home to use and who would be responsible for reaching out to the company to seek a donation. Our College of Architecture and Environmental Design’s administration was essential in helping us fundraise. For some time, the college was hoping to depend on about half of our fundraising expenses to be covered through the sale of INhouse. However, plans to sell the home fell through during the design development phase; the college turned to the sale of a different asset in to help us meet our goal. If we were to do this project again, completing the design concept and securing a future location of our home sooner would have enhanced our fundraising activities.

  7. Biodegradation of ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE), methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-amyl methyl ether (TAME) by Gordonia terrae.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Perez, G; Fayolle, F; Vandecasteele, J P

    2001-01-01

    Gordonia terrae strain IFP 2001 was selected from activated sludge for its capacity to grow on ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE) as sole carbon and energy source. ETBE was stoichiometrically degraded to t-butyl alcohol (TBA) and the activity was inducible. A constitutive strain, G. terrae IFP 2007, derived from strain IFP 2001, was also selected. Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-amyl methyl ether (TAME) were not used as carbon and energy sources by the two strains, but cometabolic degradation of MTBE and TAME was demonstrated, to TBA and t-amyl alcohol (TAA) respectively, in the presence of a carbon source such as ethanol. No two-carbon compound was detected during growth on ETBE, but formate was produced during cometabolic degradation of MTBE or TAME. A monooxygenase was involved in the degradation of ethers, because no degradation of ETBE was observed under anaerobic conditions and the presence of a cytochrome P-450 was demonstrated in G. terrae IFP 2001 after induction by cultivation on ETBE.

  8. Dual-Responsive pH and Temperature Sensitive Nanoparticles Based on Methacrylic Acid and Di(ethylene glycol) Methyl Ether Methacrylate for the Triggered Release of Drugs.

    PubMed

    Khine, Yee Yee; Jiang, Yanyan; Dag, Aydan; Lu, Hongxu; Stenzel, Martina H

    2015-08-01

    A series of thermo-and pH-responsive poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly[methacrylic acid-co-di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] PMMA-b-P[MAA-co-DEGMA] block copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization and self-assembled into micelles. The molar ratio of MAA was altered from 0-12% in order to modulate the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PDEGMA. The release of the drug albendazole from the micelle was strongly dependent on the temperature and the LCST value of the polymer. Systems below the LCST released the drug slowly while increasing the temperature above the LCST or decreasing the pH value to 5 resulted in the burst-like release of the drug. ABZ delivered in this pH-responsive drug carrier had a higher toxicity than the free drug or the drug delivered in a non-responsive drug carrier.

  9. Cell patterning on poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)-patterned fluoropolymer substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wan-Joong; Jung, Chang-Hee; Hwang, In-Tae; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak; Hong, Sung-Kwon

    2013-10-01

    The surface functionalization of bio-inert fluoropolymer films through ion beam-induced surface graft polymerization was investigated to control the cellular behavior. The surface of poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoropropl vinyl ether) (PFA) films was selectively activated by 150 keV H+ ion implantation in the presence of a pattern mask and sodium 4-styrenesulfonate (SS) was then graft polymerized onto the implanted PFA films to form hydrophilic poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS)-patterned PFA films. The surface of the resulting PSS-patterned PFA films was investigated in terms of the degree of graft polymerization, chemical structure, chemical composition, wettability, and morphology. The analytical results revealed that PSS was selectively grafted onto the implanted regions of the PFA films. Furthermore, in vitro cell culture on the PSS-patterned PFA films exhibited a preferential adhesion and growth of cells onto the PSS-grafted regions, resulting in well-organized 100 μm cell patterns.

  10. Friedel–Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK) Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery

    PubMed Central

    Merle, Géraldine; Ioana, Filipoi Carmen; Demco, Dan Eugen; Saakes, Michel; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan

    2014-01-01

    Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (cSPEEK) membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB) application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel–Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a) crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b) crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol) showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion. PMID:24957118

  11. Friedel-Crafts Crosslinked Highly Sulfonated Polyether Ether Ketone (SPEEK) Membranes for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery.

    PubMed

    Merle, Géraldine; Ioana, Filipoi Carmen; Demco, Dan Eugen; Saakes, Michel; Hosseiny, Seyed Schwan

    2013-12-30

    Highly conductive and low vanadium permeable crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (cSPEEK) membranes were prepared by electrophilic aromatic substitution for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery (Vanadium/Air-RFB) application. Membranes were synthesized from ethanol solution and crosslinked under different temperatures with 1,4-benzenedimethanol and ZnCl2 via the Friedel-Crafts crosslinking route. The crosslinking mechanism under different temperatures indicated two crosslinking pathways: (a) crosslinking on the sulfonic acid groups; and (b) crosslinking on the backbone. It was observed that membranes crosslinked at a temperature of 150 °C lead to low proton conductive membranes, whereas an increase in crosslinking temperature and time would lead to high proton conductive membranes. High temperature crosslinking also resulted in an increase in anisotropy and water diffusion. Furthermore, the membranes were investigated for a Vanadium/Air Redox Flow Battery application. Membranes crosslinked at 200 °C for 30 min with a molar ratio between 2:1 (mol repeat unit:mol benzenedimethanol) showed a proton conductivity of 27.9 mS/cm and a 100 times lower VO2+ crossover compared to Nafion.

  12. Laboratory Method for Analysis of Small Concentrations of Methyl tert-Butyl Ether and Other Ether Gasoline Oxygenates in Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Donna L.; Connor, Brooke F.; Abney, Sonja R.; Raese, Jon W.

    1998-01-01

    This Fact Sheet presents data for analysis of nanogram-per-liter concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and three other ether gasoline oxygenates, including methyl tert-pentyl ether (TAME), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), by purge- and-trap capillary-column gas chromatography. Long-term method detection levels (LT-MDLs) for MTBE, TAME, DIPE, and ETBE ranged from 15 to 83 nanograms per liter (0.015 to 0.083 microgram per liter). Nanogram-per-liter-concentration detections are reported if all of the identification criteria are met, whereas previous methods censored detections at a pre-determined method reporting level. The reporting level for this method is defined as two times the LT-MDL, does not censor detections at less than this concentration, and is referred to as the nondetection value (NDV). Bias and variability data from multiple analyses, analysts, and instruments over a 60-day period show the oxygenate recoveries ranging from 100 to 109 percent, with 6 to 8 percent relative standard deviation. MTBE, TAME, DIPE, and ETBE were not detected in the analysis of 225 laboratory reagent blanks from January to December 1997. A preservation study in ground water and surface water indicates that all the oxygenates are stable at pH 2 for up to 216 days, with recoveries ranging from 94 to 115 percent on day 216, and relative standard deviations ranging from 5 to 9 percent for the duration of the study.

  13. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Cyntia M; Crismaru, Ciprian G; Bartsch, Sebastian; Navickas, Vaidotas; Ditrich, Klaus; Breuer, Michael; Abu, Rohana; Woodley, John M; Baldenius, Kai; Wu, Bian; Janssen, Dick B

    2016-09-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production of the desired ether amines from the corresponding ether alcohols with inorganic ammonium as the only additional substrate. To examine conversion, individual and overall reaction equilibria were established. Using these data, it was found that the experimentally observed conversions of up to 60% observed for reactions containing 10 mM alcohol and up to 280 mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1853-1861. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Thermal oxidative degradation reactions of linear perfluoroalkyl ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.; Paclorek, K. J. L.; Ito, T. I.; Kratzer, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Thermal and thermal oxidative stability studies were performed on linear perfluoroalkyl ether fluids. The effect on degradation by metal catalysts and degradation inhibitors is reported. The linear perfluoroalkyl ethers are inherently unstable at 316 C in an oxidizing atmosphere. The metal catalysts greatly increased the rate of degradation in oxidizing atmospheres. In the presence of these metals in an oxidizing atmosphere, the degradation inhibitors were highly effective in arresting degradation at 288 C. However, the inhibitors had only limited effectiveness at 316 C. The metals promote degradation by chain scission. Based on elemental analysis and oxygen consumption data, the linear perfluoroalkyl ether fluids have a structural arrangement based on difluoroformyl and tetrafluoroethylene oxide units, with the former predominating. Previously announced in STAR as N82-26468

  15. Spontaneous Generation of Chirality in Simple Diaryl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Lennartson, Anders; Hedström, Anna; Håkansson, Mikael

    2015-07-01

    We studied the spontaneous formation of chiral crystals of four diaryl ethers, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde, 1; 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenoxybenzene, 2; di(4-aminophenyl) ether, 3; and di(p-tolyl) ether, 4. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 form conformationally chiral molecules in the solid state, while the chirality of 2 arises from the formation of supramolecular helices. Compound 1 is a liquid at ambient temperature, but 2-4 are crystalline, and solid-state CD-spectroscopy showed that they could be obtained as optically active bulk samples. It should be noted that the optical activity arise upon crystallization, and no optically active precursors were used. Indeed, even commercial samples of 3 and 4 were found to be optically active, giving evidence for the ease at which total spontaneous resolution may occur in certain systems.

  16. Highly efficient palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Ian P; Kwon, Ohyun

    2008-12-08

    The palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of acetylenes is widely exploited in organic synthesis as a means of forming vinyl stannanes for use in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Application of this methodology to ethyl ethynyl ether results in an enol ether that is challenging to isolate from the crude reaction mixture because of incompatibility with typical silica gel chromatography. Reported here is a highly efficient procedure for the palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether using 0.1% palladium(0) catalyst and 1.0 equiv of tributyltin hydride. The product obtained is a mixture of regioisomers that can be carried forward with exclusive reaction of the beta-isomer. This method is highly reproducible; relative to previously reported procedures, it is more economical and involves a more facile purification procedure.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of novel cellulose ether sulfates.

    PubMed

    Rohowsky, Juta; Heise, Katja; Fischer, Steffen; Hettrich, Kay

    2016-05-20

    The synthesis and characterization of novel cellulose sulfate derivatives was reported. Various cellulose ethers were prepared in a homogeneous reaction with common sulfating agents. The received product possess different properties in dependence on the reaction conditions like sulfating agent, solvent, reaction time and reaction temperature. The cellulose ether sulfates are all soluble in water, they rheological behavior could be determined by viscosity measurements and the determination of the sulfur content by elemental analysis lead to a resulting degree of substitution ascribed to sulfate groups (DSSul) of the product. A wide range of products from DSSul 0.1 to DSSul 2.7 will be obtained. Furthermore the cellulose sulfate ethers could be characterized by Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Copoly(arylene ether)s containing pendant sulfonic acid groups as proton exchange membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Dae Sik, Kim; Yu Seung, Kim; Gilles, Robertson; Guiver, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    A copoly(arylene ether) (PAE) with high fluorine content and a copoly(arylene ether nitrile) (PAEN) with high nitrile content, each containing pendant phenyl sulfonic acids were synthesized. The PAE and P AEN were prepared from decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) and difluorobenzonitrile (DFBN) respectively, by polycondensation with 2phenylhydroquinone (PHQ) by conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. sulfonic acid groups were introduced by mild post-sulfonation exclusively on the para-position of the pendant phenyl ring in PHQ. The membrane properties of the resulting sulfonated copolymers sPAE and sPAEN were compared for fuel cell applications. The copolymers sPAE and sPAEN, each having a degree of sulfonation (OS) of 1.0 had high ion exchange capacities (IEC{sub v})(wet) (volume-based, wet state) of 1.77 and 2.55 meq./cm3, high proton conductivities of 135.4 and 140.1 mS/cm at 80 C, and acceptable volume-based water uptake of 44.5 -51.9 vol% at 80 C, respectively, compared to Nafion. The data points of these copolymer membranes are located in the upper left-hand corner in the trade-off plot of alternative hydrocarbon polyelectrolyte membranes (PEM) for the relationship between proton conductivity versus water uptake (weight based or volume based), i.e., high proton conductivity and low water uptake. Furthermore, the relative selectivity derived from proton conductivity and methanol permeability is higher than that of Nafion.

  19. 77 FR 39236 - Nanomaterial Case Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Decabromodiphenyl Ether...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AGENCY Nanomaterial Case Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Decabromodiphenyl Ether... Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes and Decabromodiphenyl Ether Flame-Retardant Coatings... not draw conclusions regarding potential environmental risks or hazards of multiwalled...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10059 - Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of alkylphenyl... Reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and alkyl diglycidyl dibenzene... identified generically as reaction product of alkylphenyl glycidyl ether, polyalkylenepolyamine, and...

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) was released for external peer review in April 2017. EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the ETBE assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is conducting an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). The outcome of this project is a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for ETBE that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  6. Environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane.

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Sellström, Ulla; McLachlan, Michael S

    2009-01-16

    Methods for environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), and the recently discovered environmental contaminant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) are reviewed. The extensive literature on analysis of BDE209 has identified several critical issues, including contamination of the sample, degradation of the analyte during sample preparation and GC analysis, and the selection of appropriate detection methods and surrogate standards. The limited experience with the analysis of deBDethane suggests that there are many commonalities with BDE209. The experience garnered from the analysis of BDE209 over the last 15 years will greatly facilitate progress in the analysis of deBDethane.

  7. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols. Technical progress report, October--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Johansson, M.; Feeley, O.C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to synthesize high octane ethers, primarily methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), directly from H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2} coal-derived synthesis gas via alcohol mixtures that are rich in methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol). The overall scheme involves gasification of coal, purification and shifting of the synthesis gas, higher alcohol synthesis, and direct synthesis of ethers.

  8. POLY-1,2,4-TRIAZOLES AND POLY-1,3,4-OXADIAZOLES FROM PRECURSOR POLY-N-ACYLHYDRAZIDINES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    oxadiazole . Whereas, conversion of the precursor poly-N-acylhydrazidine predominantly to poly-1,2,4-triazole was affected by refluxing in solvents such... oxadiazole depending upon the heating rate. Poly-N-acylhydrazidine was of sufficient molecular weight to cast a clear yellow film which exhibited good...flexibility. The film, upon thermal treatment to temperatures as high as 300C, became brittle. The poly-1,3,4- oxadiazole and poly-1,2,4-triazole

  9. Sulfoalkyl ether-alkyl ether cyclodextrin derivatives, their synthesis, NMR characterization, and binding of 6alpha-methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Tongiani, Serena; Velde, David Vander; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Stella, Valentino J

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study is to see if random alkyl ethers of various sulfoalkyl ether cyclodextrins can be synthesized and characterized. The purpose of the alkylation was to test the hypothesis that an increase in the "height" of a cyclodextrins cavity would help in the binding/complexation of larger more structurally complex molecules. The synthesis of new cyclodextrin derivatives comprising a mixture of sulfoalkyl ether and alkyl ether substituents on the same cyclodextrin ring was performed in aqueous alkaline solutions using various sultones and alkylsulfates. The method presented provided an easy and efficient way to modify cyclodextrins avoiding the use of organic solvents and high quantities of alkylating agents and could be carried out in either a two step or "one pot" single step process. Purification was by neutralization followed by ultrafiltration. The derivatives were characterized by 1D, ((1)H and (13)C), and a 2D NMR technique (HMQC, Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Coherence). The combination of these techniques allowed an analysis of the degree of substitution and the site of substitution on the cyclodextrin (CD) nucleus. For both beta- and gamma-CD, sulfoakylation was preferred on the 2 > 3 > 6 hydroxyls while alkylation was preferred 6 > 2 > 3. Due to the simultaneous presence of short alkyl ether chains and negatively charged sulfoalkyl ether chains, these mixed water-soluble cyclodextrin derivatives, especially those of gamma-cyclodextrin, should be able to bind more complex drugs. The improved binding capacity of these new modified CDs with the model drug 6alpha-methylprednisolone is reported.

  10. The mouse immune response to the double stranded polyribonucleotide complex poly(G) . poly(C).

    PubMed Central

    Gaffiero, G V; Robin, P; Nahon, E

    1984-01-01

    Ten inbred strains of mice were immunized with the double stranded polyribonucleotide complex polyguanylic . polycytidylic acid [poly(G) . poly(C)]. While some immunogenic properties of this duplex were comparable to those of other nucleic acids antigens, differences were also noted. High (SJL/J, BALB/c), low (DBA/2, AKR) and intermediate responders were observed; these differences were not abolished by adsorption of the duplex to MBSA. This pattern of immune response is distinct both from that observed with two other synthetic polyribonucleotide double helices [poly(A) . poly(U) and poly(I) . poly(C)] and with single stranded DNA. The anti-poly(G) . poly(C) activity was localized in the 7S region, whether the sera came from high or low responders, from mice immunized with or without a carrier, after one or several injections. In contrast with anti-poly(A) . poly(U) sera which do not react with poly(G) . poly(C), anti-poly(G) . poly(C) exhibited poly(A) . poly(U) binding activity; no clear relationship between the two activities, however, could be demonstrated. Thus a series of immunological properties differentiates poly(G) . poly(C) not only from the natural polydeoxyribonucleotide single stranded DNA, but also, and more unexpectedly, from two other double stranded polyribonucleotide complexes. These observations suggest that the mechanism controlling the antibody response to poly(G) . poly(C) differs from that regulating poly(A) . poly(U) and/or poly(I) . poly(C), and are to be connected with the fact that the anti-poly(G) . poly(C) antibodies occurring in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus did not correlate with the antibody activities directed toward the other duplexes. PMID:6697564

  11. Catalytic cleavage of ether C-O bonds by pincer iridium complexes.

    PubMed

    Haibach, Michael C; Lease, Nicholas; Goldman, Alan S

    2014-09-15

    The development of efficient catalytic methods to cleave the relatively unreactive C-O bonds of ethers remains an important challenge in catalysis. Building on our group's recent work, we report the dehydroaryloxylation of aryl alkyl ethers using pincer iridium catalysts. This method represents a rare fully atom-economical method for ether C-O bond cleavage.

  12. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1580 Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with... chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs...

  2. Process simulation of single-step dimethyl ether production via biomass gasification.

    PubMed

    Ju, Fudong; Chen, Hanping; Ding, Xuejun; Yang, Haiping; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Shihong; Dai, Zhenghua

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we simulated the single-step process of dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis via biomass gasification using ASPEN Plus. The whole process comprised four parts: gasification, water gas shift reaction, gas purification, and single-step DME synthesis. We analyzed the influence of the oxygen/biomass and steam/biomass ratios on biomass gasification and synthesis performance. The syngas H(2)/CO ratio after water gas shift process was modulated to 1, and the syngas was then purified to remove H(2)S and CO(2), using the Rectisol process. Syngas still contained trace amounts of H(2)S and about 3% CO(2) after purification, which satisfied the synthesis demands. However, the high level of cold energy consumption was a problem during the purification process. The DME yield in this study was 0.37, assuming that the DME selectivity was 0.91 and that CO was totally converted. We performed environmental and economic analyses, and propose the development of a poly-generation process based on economic considerations.

  3. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/polypyrrole core-shell nanofibers: a novel polymeric adsorbent/conducting polymer nanostructures for ultrasensitive gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Li, Zhenyu; Jiang, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiwei; Li, Ye; Wang, Zhaojie; Wang, Ce

    2012-11-01

    Conducting polymers-based gas sensors have attracted increasing research attention these years. The introduction of inorganic sensitizers (noble metals or inorganic semiconductors) within the conducting polymers-based gas sensors has been regarded as the generally effective route for further enhanced sensors. Here we demonstrate a novel route for highly-efficient conducting polymers-based gas sensors by introduction of polymeric sensitizers (polymeric adsorbent) within the conducting polymeric nanostructures to form one-dimensional polymeric adsorbent/conducting polymer core-shell nanocomposites, via electrospinning and solution-phase polymerization. The adsorption effect of the SPEEK toward NH₃ can facilitate the mass diffusion of NH₃ through the PPy layers, resulting in the enhanced sensing signals. On the basis of the SPEEK/PPy nanofibers, the sensors exhibit large gas responses, even when exposed to very low concentration of NH₃ (20 ppb) at room temperature.

  4. Porous poly-ether ether ketone (PEEK) manufactured by a novel powder route using near-spherical salt bead porogens: characterisation and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Siddiq, Abdur R; Kennedy, Andrew R

    2015-02-01

    Porous PEEK structures with approximately 85% open porosity have been made using PEEK-OPTIMA® powder and a particulate leaching technique using porous, near-spherical, sodium chloride beads. A novel manufacturing approach is presented and compared with a traditional dry mixing method. Irrespective of the method used, the use of near-spherical beads with a fairly narrow size range results in uniform pore structures. However the integration, by tapping, of fine PEEK into a pre-existing network salt beads, followed by compaction and "sintering", produces porous structures with excellent repeatability and homogeneity of density; more uniform pore and strut sizes; an improved and predictable level of connectivity via the formation of "windows" between the cells; faster salt removal rates and lower levels of residual salt. Although tapped samples show a compressive yield stress >1 MPa and stiffness >30 MPa for samples with 84% porosity, the presence of windows in the cell walls means that tapped structures show lower strengths and lower stiffnesses than equivalent structures made by mixing.

  5. Long-term stability of cell micropatterns on poly((3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)-dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide)-patterned silicon oxide surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cho, Woo Kyung; Kong, Bokyung; Park, Hyung Ju; Kim, Jinkyu; Chegal, Won; Choi, Joon Sig; Choi, Insung S

    2010-12-01

    In this work, we compared the long-term stability and integrity of cell patterns on newly reported, zwitterionic poly((3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide) (poly(MPDSAH)) films with those on widely used, poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (poly(PEGMEMA)) ones. The micropatterns of both polymers were formed on a silicon oxide surface by a combination of micropattern generation of a photoresist, vapor deposition of a silane-based polymerization initiator, and surface-initiated, atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of each monomer, MPDSAH or PEGMEMA. The successful formation of the silane initiator SAMs, and poly(MPDSAH) and poly(PEGMEMA) micropatterns was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and imaging ellipsometry. Onto each substrate patterned with poly(MPDSAH) or poly(PEGMEMA), NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells were seeded, and the cell micropatterns were generated by the selective adhesion of cells on the cell-adhesive region of the patterned surfaces. The cell pattern formed on the poly(MPDSAH)-patterned surface was observed to have a superior ability of finely maintaining its original, line-shaped structure up to for 20 days, when compared with the cell pattern formed on the poly(PEGMEMA)-patterned surface. In order to verify the relationship between the integrity of the cell micropatterns and the stability of the underlying non-biofouling polymer layers, we also investigated the long-term stability of the polymer films themselves, immersed in the cell culture media, for one month, in the aid of ellipsometry, contact goniometry, and XPS.

  6. Influence of different organic solvents on degree of swelling of poly (dimethyl siloxane)-based sealer

    PubMed Central

    Vinothkumar, Thilla Sekar; Deivanayagam, Kandaswamy; Ganesh, Arathi; Kumar, Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    The study evaluated the compatibility of chloroform, ether, and xylene with poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) based sealer. Freshly mixed sealer was placed in 90 glass molds with 5 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness. All samples were stored in 75% relative humidity at 37°C for 2 weeks. All the samples were divided into three groups: group A – chloroform; group B – ether, and group C – xylene and immersed in fresh solvent at room temperature. The specimens were weighed before and after immersion for each group at the end of 2, 5, and 10 min. The swelling ratio was calculated for all the groups. Intergroup comparison revealed no difference in the mean swelling ratio for 2, 5, and 10 min (P > 0.001; Tukey HSD Post Hoc). Intragroup comparison revealed significant difference in swelling ratio between 2 and 5 min for group B and group C (P < 0.001; Paired t test). Ether has the highest compatibility with PDMS-based sealer after 2 min followed by xylene after 5 min. PMID:21814357

  7. Cellulose nanocrystal-poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) brushes with tunable LCSTs.

    PubMed

    Grishkewich, Nathan; Akhlaghi, Seyedeh Parinaz; Zhaoling, Yao; Berry, Richard; Tam, Kam C

    2016-06-25

    This paper reports on the synthesis of poly(oligoethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (POEGMA) grafted cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). An ATRP initiator (α-Bromoisobutyryl bromide) was covalently bonded to the surface of CNCs, followed by copolymerizing di(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (MEO2MA) and oligoethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA300) monomers from the surface using Cu(I)Br/2,2-dipyridal. Multiple POEGMA-g-CNC systems with varying MEO2MA/OEGMA300 content were synthesized, and they displayed a range of lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs) in aqueous medium. μDSC endotherms and microstructural analysis indicated the collapse of POEGMA chains, followed by the aggregation of nanoparticles above their LCSTs. Cloud point measurements demonstrated a hysteresis in the heating and cooling of the POEGMA-g-CNC systems. It was found that the LCST of the nanoparticles could be tuned to between 23.8 to 63.8°C by adjusting the OEGMA300 content of the POEGMA brushes.

  8. Biomimetic myocardial patches fabricated with poly(ɛ-caprolactone) and polyethylene glycol-based polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Antonella; Sartori, Susanna; Boffito, Monica; Mattu, Clara; Di Rienzo, Anna M; Boccafoschi, Francesca; Ciardelli, Gianluca

    2014-07-01

    The production of efficient heart patches for myocardium repair requires the use of biomaterials with high elastomeric properties and controllable biodegradability. To fulfil these design criteria we propose biodegradable poly(ester urethanes) and poly(ether ester urethanes) from poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as macrodiols, 1,4-diisocyanatobutane as diisocyanate, l-Lysine Ethyl Ester and Alanine-Alanine-Lysine (AAK) as chain extenders. This peptide was used to tune biodegradability properties, since the Alanine-Alanine sequence is a target for the elastase enzyme. Enzymatic degradation tests demonstrated the feasibility of tuning biodegradability properties due to the introduction of AAK peptide in polyurethane backbone. Two formulations have been processed into porous scaffolds by Thermally-Induced Phase Separation (TIPS). Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs revealed promising microstructures, which were characterized by stretched and unidirectional pores and mimicked the striated muscle tissue. Tensile tests showed that, although scaffolds are characterized by lower mechanical properties than films, these substrates have suitable elastomeric behaviors and elastic moduli for contractile and soft tissue regeneration. Viability tests on cardiomyocytes revealed the best cell response for dense film and porous scaffold obtained from PCL and Lysine Ethyl Ester-based polyurethane, with an increased viability for the porous substrate, which is ascribable to the morphological features of its microstructure. Future works will be addressed to study the in vivo behavior of these constructs and to confirm their applicability for myocardial tissue engineering.

  9. Selection and identification of bacterial strains with methyl-tert-butyl ether, ethyl-tert-butyl ether, and tert-amyl methyl ether degrading capacities.

    PubMed

    Purswani, Jessica; Pozo, Clementina; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; González-López, Jesús

    2008-11-01

    Nine bacterial strains isolated from two hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were selected because of their capacity for growth in culture media amended with 200 mg/L of one of the following gasoline oxygenates: Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). These strains were identified by amplification of their 16S rRNA gene, using fDl and rD1 primers, and were tested for their capacity to grow and biotransform these oxygenates in both mineral and cometabolic media. The isolates were classified as Bacillus simplex, Bacillus drentensis, Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter sp., Gordonia amicalis (two strains), Nocardioides sp., and Rhodococcus ruber. Arthrobacter sp. (strain MG) and A. calcoaceticus (strain M10) consumed 100 (cometabolic medium) and 82 mg/L (mineral medium) of oxygenate TAME in 21 d, respectively, under aerobic conditions. Rhodococcus ruber (strain E10) was observed to use MTBE and ETBE as the sole carbon and energy source, whereas G. amicalis (strain T3) used TAME as the sole carbon and energy source for growth. All the bacterial strains transformed oxygenates better in the presence of an alternative carbon source (ethanol) with the exception of A. calcoaceticus (strain M10). The capacity of the selected strains to remove MTBE, ETBE, and TAME looks promising for application in bioremediation technologies.

  10. Structure-property study of keto-ether polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dezern, James F.; Croall, Catharine I.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an on-going effort to develop an understanding of how changes in the chemical structure affect polymer properties, an empirical study was performed on polyimides containing only ether and/or carbonyl connecting groups in the polymer backbone. During the past two decades the structure-property relationships in linear aromatic polyimides have been extensively investigated. More recently, work has been performed to study the effect of isomeric attachment of keto-ether polyimides on properties such as glass transition temperature and solubility. However, little work has been reported on the relation of polyimide structure to mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of structural changes in the backbone of keto-ether polyimides on their mechanical properties, specifically, unoriented thin film tensile properties. This study was conducted in two stages. The purpose of the initial stage was to examine the physical and mechanical properties of a representative group (four) of polyimide systems to determine the optimum solvent and cure cycle requirements. These optimum conditions were then utilized in the second stage to prepare films of keto-ether polyimides which were evaluated for mechanical and physical properties. All of the polyimides were prepared using isomers of oxydianiline (ODA) and diaminobenzophenone (DABP) in combination with 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA).

  11. Tea saponin enhanced biodegradation of decabromodiphenyl ether by Brevibacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaoyu; Bai, Jieqiong; Yin, Hua; Ye, Jinshao; Peng, Hui; Liu, Zehua; Dang, Zhi

    2014-11-01

    Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) is a ubiquitous persistent pollutant and has contaminated the environment worldwide. To accelerate BDE209 elimination and reveal the mechanism concerned, the biosurfactant tea saponin enhanced degradation of BDE209 by Brevibacillus brevis was conducted. The results revealed that tea saponin could efficiently increase the solubility of BDE209 in mineral salts medium and improve its biodegradation. The degradation efficiency of 0.5 mg L(-1) BDE209 by 1 g L(-1) biomass with surfactant was up to 55% within 5d. Contact time was a significant factor for BDE209 biodegradation. BDE209 biodegradation was coupled with bioaccumulation, ion release and utilization, and debromination to lower brominated PBDE metabolites. During the biodegradation process, B. brevis metabolically released Na(+), NH4(+), NO2(-) and Cl(-), and utilized the nutrient ions Mg(2+), PO4(3-) and SO4(2-). GC-MS analysis revealed that the structure of BDE209 changed under the action of strain and nonabromodiphenyl ethers (BDE-208, -207 and -206), octabromodiphenyl ethers (BDE-203, -197 and -196) and heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-183) were generated by debromination.

  12. A silver-catalyzed spirocyclization of alkynyl silyl enol ethers.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Christian; Miesch, Michel; Miesch, Laurence

    2012-06-25

    Ring out the old: The cycloisomerization of alkynyl silyl enol ethers proceeds at ambient temperature under the mild conditions of silver catalysis. Mono- or bicyclic spiro compounds can be obtained by 5-exo-dig reactions. Trapping the vinyl silver species with an iodide source, such as N-iodosuccinimide (NIS), afforded the alkenyl iodide derivatives.

  13. Developmental toxicity of four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, B.D.; Goad, P.T.; Burg, J.R.

    1984-08-01

    Previous NIOSH studies demonstrated the embryo- and fetotoxicity and teratogenicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) applied to the shaved skin of pregnant rats. In the present study ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEEA), ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (diEGEE) were tested in the same experimental model, using distilled water as the negative control and EGEE as a positive control. Water or undiluted glycols were applied four times daily on days 7 to 16 of gestation to the shaved interscapular skin with an automatic pipetter. Volumes of EGEE (0.25 mL), EGEEA (0.35 mL), and diEGEE (0.35 mL) were approximately equimolar (2.6 mmole per treatment). EGBE at 0.35 mL four times daily (approximately 2.7 mmole per treatment) killed 10 of 11 treated rats, and was subsequently tested at 0.12 mL (0.9 mmole) per treatment. EGEE- and EGEEA-treated rats showed a reduction in body weight relative to water controls that was associated with completely resorbed litters and significantly fewer live fetuses per litter. Fetal body weights were also significantly reduced in those groups. Visceral malformations and skeletal variations were significantly increased in EGEE and EGEEA groups over the negative control group. No embryotoxic, genotoxic, or teratogenic effects were detected in the EGBE- or diEGEE-treated litters. 16 references, 4 tables.

  14. POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS (PBDES) IN AMERICAN MOTHERS' MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    No previous reports exist on polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in individual American mothers' milk. This report on PBDEs is an extension of our previous studies on concentrations of dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBs, and other chlorinated organics in human milk in a num...

  15. 29 CFR 1915.1006 - Methyl chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methyl chloromethyl ether. 1915.1006 Section 1915.1006 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic...

  16. 29 CFR 1915.1008 - bis-Chloromethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false bis-Chloromethyl ether. 1915.1008 Section 1915.1008 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Toxic and Hazardous...

  17. High Resolution Rotational Spectroscopy of a Flexible Cyclic Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gámez, F.; Martínez-Haya, B.; Blanco, S.; López, J. C.; Alonso, J. L.

    2011-06-01

    Crown ethers stand as one cornerstone molecular class inhost-guest Supramolecular Chemistry and constitute building blocks for a broad range of modern materials. We report here the first high resolution rotational study of a crown ether: 1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclopentadecane (15-crown-5 ether,15c5). Molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy has been employed. The liquid sample of 15c5 has been vaporized using heating methods. The considerable size of 15c5 and the broad range of conformations allowed by the flexibility of its backbone pose important challenges to spectroscopy approaches. In fact, the ab-initio computational study for isolated 15c5, yields at least six stable conformers with relative free energies within 2 kJ Mol-1 (167 Cm-1). Nevertheless, in this investigation it has been possible to identify and characterize in detail one stable rotamer of the 15c5 molecule and to challenge different quantum methods for the accurate description of this system. The results pave the ground for an extensive description of the conformational landscape of 15c5 and related cyclic ethers in the near term. J. L. Alonso, F. J. Lorenzo, J. C. López, A. Lesarri, S. Mata and H. Dreizler, Chem. Phys., 218, 267 (1997) S. Blanco, J.C López, J.L. Alonso, P. Ottaviani, W. Caminati, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 880 (2003) S.E. Hill, D. Feller, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. 201, 41 (2000)

  18. Synthesis of methyl acetate from syngas via dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect

    Tartamella, T.; Sardesai, A.; Lanterman, H.B.; Lee, S.

    1999-07-01

    Dimethyl ether (DME) can be used as a building block for a variety of specialty chemicals in the petrochemical industry. Its utilization stems mainly from its efficient production from synthesis gas in a single stage. This Liquid Phase Dimethyl Ether (LP-DME) process, based on dual catalysts slurried in inert oil, can alleviate the chemical equilibrium limitation governing the methanol synthesis reaction and concurrently improve once-through syngas conversion and reactor productivity. Studies in the past have focused on using DME as a feedstock for gasoline range hydrocarbons as well as lower olefins. The focus of this investigation is to study the synthesis of methyl acetate, an important intermediate for acetic acid, from dimethyl ether. In particular, conversion of DME to methyl acetate is investigated over a variety of Group VIII metal substituted phosphotungstic acid salts. Key aspects of the process such as the effect of active metal, support types, multiple metal loading, and feed conditions are examined. Thus, this paper introduces a novel process route for synthesis of methyl acetate from natural gas-based syngas via dimethyl ether as an intermediate.

  19. Radiation chemistry of alternative fuel oxygenates -- Substituted ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Mezyk, S. P.; Cooper, W. J.; Bartels, D. M.; Tobien, T.; O'Shea, K. E.

    1999-11-15

    The electron beam process, an advanced oxidation and reduction technology, is based in the field of radiation chemistry. Fundamental to the development of treatment processes is an understanding of the underlying chemistry. The authors have previously evaluated the bimolecular rate constants for the reactions of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and with this study have extended their studies to include ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) with the hydroxyl radical, hydrogen atom and solvated electron using pulse radiolysis. For all of the oxygenates the reaction with the hydroxyl radical appears to be of primary interest in the destruction of the compounds in water. The rates with the solvated electron are limiting values as the rates appear to be relatively low. The hydrogen atom rate constants are relatively low, coupled with the low yield in radiolysis, they concluded that these are of little significance in the destruction of the alternative fuel oxygenates (and MTBE).

  20. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 006F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5 - PENTABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 99 ) ( CAS No . 60348 - 60 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington ,

  1. 2,2\\',4,4\\'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 005F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' - TETRABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 47 ) ( CAS No . 5436 - 43 - 1 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC D

  2. Methyl substituted polyimides containing carbonyl and ether connecting groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Havens, Stephen J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Polyimides were prepared from the reaction of aromatic dianhydrides with novel aromatic diamines having carbonyl and ether groups connecting aromatic rings containing pendant methyl groups. The methyl substituent polyimides exhibit good solubility and form tough, strong films. Upon exposure to ultraviolet irradiation and/or heat, the methyl substituted polyimides crosslink to become insoluble.

  3. 40 CFR 799.4440 - Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether. 799.4440 Section 799.4440 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE...

  4. 40 CFR 799.4440 - Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether. 799.4440 Section 799.4440 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE...

  5. 40 CFR 799.4440 - Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether. 799.4440 Section 799.4440 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE...

  6. 40 CFR 799.4440 - Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Triethylene glycol monomethyl ether. 799.4440 Section 799.4440 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE...

  7. Colour Reactions of Some Aromatic Ethers Found in Essential Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The higher boiling constituents of many essential oils contain a group of compounds loosely termed ’aromatic ethers’. These compounds are usually...usually occur in essential oils together with large amounts of various terpene constituents. The communication reports the results of a survey of the

  8. 40 CFR 721.3420 - Brominated arylalkyl ether.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3420 Brominated arylalkyl ether. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10669 - Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10669 Tertiary amine alkyl ether (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tertiary...

  10. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters.

    PubMed

    Madrona, Andrés; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Mateos, Raquel; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Trujillo, Mariana; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Espartero, José L

    2009-05-11

    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  11. Li-air batteries having ether-based electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2015-03-03

    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  12. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  13. Antiknock evaluation of hydrocarbons and ethers as aviation fuel components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C

    1950-01-01

    The results of a NACA investigation conducted over a period of several years to evaluate the anti-knock characteristics of organic compounds are summarized. Included are data for 18 branched paraffins and olefins, 27 aromatics, and 22 ethers. The factors of performance investigated were blending characteristics, temperature sensitivity, lead response, and relation between molecular structure and antiknock ratings. Four engines were used.

  14. AVOIDING HYDROLYSIS OF FUEL ETHER OXYGENATES DURING STATIC HEADSPACE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A headspace autosampler, gas chromatograph and ion trap mass spectrometer (headspace GC/MS) were used for trace analysis of fuel oxygenates and related compounds and aromatics in water. A method has been developed for determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-b...

  15. 43. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, NORTH WING, 1ST LEVEL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT EQUIPMENT USED TO CONDENSE SOLVENT VAPORS TRANSMITTED BY SOLVENT RECOVERY DUCT FROM BUILDING NO. 527. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  16. 45. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, CONTROL PANEL LEVEL (2ND DECK), LOOKING AT 'MIXED SOLVENT UNIT' CONTROL PANEL (LOOKING EAST). - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  17. 42. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. BUILDING NO. 519, ETHER AND ALCOHOL RECOVERY HOUSE, INTERIOR, NORTH WING, 1ST LEVEL, VIEW OF FILTERS AND BLOWERS FOR SOLVENT VAPORS FROM BUILDING NO. 527. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  18. An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (Pbde) (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers. This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the exposure of Americans to this class of persistent organic pollutants. Individual chapters in this document ...

  19. 21 CFR 520.1846 - Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether blocks. 520.1846 Section 520.1846 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... free-choice to beef cattle and nonlactating dairy cattle only. Initially, provide one block per...

  20. Secondary li battery incorporating 12-crown-4 ether

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasubramanian, G.; DiStefano, S.

    1992-05-05

    This patent describes a solid electrolyte, it comprises: a solid polyethylene oxide matrix; a dispersion of a lithium salt in the matrix, the ratio of oxygen to lithium in the polyethylene oxide matrix being from 1 to 1 to 10 to 1; and further including 12 Crown-4-ether in an amount effective to increase conductivity.