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Sample records for polychlorinated dibenzofuran congeners

  1. Coexposure of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in free-range hens and implications derived from congener profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-02-29

    The consumption of free-range eggs is becoming more popular worldwide. We analyzed the levels of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and their congener profiles from 6 free-range and 12 caged egg samples. The mean levels of dl-PCBs in the free-range samples were 5.4 times higher than those in caged eggs. All egg samples exhibited at least two characteristic dl-PCB congener patterns, which reflected distinctive contamination sources. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that the dl-PCB levels in the free-range eggs were highly correlated with elevated levels of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) (r = 0.986; p < 0.001), indicating a coexposure scenario in free-range hens. Cluster analysis of congener patterns implied that this coexposure scenario could be attributed to distinct dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources. This congener profile information provides insights from a different perspective for further identifying potential dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources in the polluted free-range eggs.

  2. Congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in sediment, water, and fish at a soil contamination site in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hwang-Jen; Lin, Tsair-Fuh; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Yi-Ju

    2016-01-01

    The relationship of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in sediment, water, and fish was studied for 55 fish farms near a contaminated site in Tainan, Taiwan. Samples were collected from the farms and analyzed for seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs congeners. High correlations were found between PCDD/Fs in water and sediment in regard to both concentration and toxicity (R(2) = 0.933 for concentration and R(2) = 0.832 for toxicity). The congener profiles of the 17 PCDD/Fs in water were similar to those in the sediment. However, the PCDD/Fs congener composition in the fish and fish belly samples were different from those in the sediment and water samples obtained from the same fish farm and were also different among the fish samples. It is thus suggested that the biotic PCDD/Fs distribution is more complex than the abiotic PCDD/Fs distribution. Among the seven factors analyzed, only the lipid percentage presented a relationship with the PCDD/Fs congener composition in the fish and fish bellies. A multiple linear regression of the concentration of each congener in the fish was conducted using the concentration of each congener in the site-matched sediment and the lipid content of the fish as independent variables. The results showed that only seven PCDD/Fs congeners with a lower degree of chlorination, which were 4-6 chlorine substitutes, in the fish presented a significant correlation with the lipid content in the fish and their concentration in sediment (r > 0.65, P < 0.005 for both independent variables). In addition, the octanol-water partition coefficients were not significantly related to this distribution behavior.

  3. RELATIVE POTENCY VALUES FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN, DIBENZOFURAN AND BIPHENYL CONGENERS TO INDUCE CYTOCHROME P4501A MRNA IN A ZEBRAFISH LIVER CELL LINE (ZF-L)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYPIA) mRNA by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was measured in a zebrafish liver cell line (ZF-L). ZF-L cells were far less sensitive to PCDD, PCDF and PCB cong...

  4. Relative potencies of individual polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and biphenyl congeners and congener mixtures based on induction of cytochrome P4501A mRNA in a rainbow trout gonadal cell line (RTG-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, E.W.; Pollenz, R.; Peterson, R.E.

    1996-12-01

    Cytochrome P450-catalyzed enzyme activity in cell culture was investigated as a bioassay for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents in environmental mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), dibenzofuran (PCDF), and biphenyl (PCB) congeners. A problem with the use of enzyme induction is that certain congeners are unable to induce P4501A enzyme activity to the same maximal level as TCDD. The authors sought to eliminate this problem by measuring mRNA induction rather than enzyme activity. Rainbow trout gonadal cells (RTG-2) were exposed to PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners and congener mixtures, and induction of cytochrome P4501A mRNA was measured. A high level of induction in cells treated with only a medium change was seen and was due to a component of the fresh medium, 2,3,7,8-Substituted PCDD and PCDF congeners and four-non-ortho-substituted PCBs caused significant induction. Toxic equivalency factors determined in RTG-2 cells were generally higher than those in rainbow trout early life stages. Rainbow trout gonadal cell (RTG-2) bioassay TCDD equivalents (TEqs) for three environmental extracts were lower than predicted by addition of individual congener TEqs, and the synthetic congener mixture acted additively.

  5. Evaluation of 2,3,7,8 specific congener and toxic potency of persistent polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in cetaceans from the Mediterranean Sea, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, B.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Jimenez, O.; Reich, S.; Eljarrat, E.; Rivera, J.

    2000-03-01

    The present study investigates individual 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations in cetaceans and assesses the PCDD and PCDF contributions to the total TCDD equivalent concentration. Liver samples of a variety of cetaceans species found stranded along the Italian coasts during the period of 1987--1992 were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. The main aims were to scrutinize levels and patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs for the first time in cetaceans from the Mediterranean Sea and to estimate whether chlorinated compounds mentioned are implicated in the exceptionally high mortality of dolphins that occurred in the Mediterranean sea during 1990--1992. PCDD and PCDF profiles were dominated by congeners OCCD and OCDF. The new toxic equivalency factors recommended by WHO in 1997 were used for calculation of dioxin-like toxicity. On the basis of their previous study of PCBs, the overall TEQ calculated from the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs do not contribute as much dioxin-like toxicity as PCBs.

  6. Estimation of Freely-Dissolved Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-Substituted Congeners and Homologs of Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Water for Development of Total Maximum Daily Loadings for the Bluestone River Watershed, Virginia and West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, working closely with the State of West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is undertaking a polychlorinated biphenyl source assessment study for the Bluestone River watershed. The study area extends from the Bluefield area of Virginia and West Virginia, targets the Bluestone River and tributaries suspected of contributing to polychlorinated biphenyl, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contamination, and includes sites near confluences of Big Branch, Brush Fork, and Beaver Pond Creek. The objectives of this study were to gather information about the concentrations, patterns, and distribution of these contaminants at specific study sites to expand current knowledge about polychlorinated biphenyl impacts and to identify potential new sources of contamination. Semipermeable membrane devices were used to integratively accumulate the dissolved fraction of the contaminants at each site. Performance reference compounds were added prior to deployment and used to determine site-specific sampling rates, enabling estimations of time-weighted average water concentrations during the deployed period. Minimum estimated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in water were about 1 picogram per liter per congener, and total concentrations at study sites ranged from 130 to 18,000 picograms per liter. The lowest concentration was 130 picograms per liter, about threefold greater than total hypothetical concentrations from background levels in field blanks. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in water fell into three groups of sites: low (130-350 picogram per liter); medium (640-3,500 picogram per liter; and high (11,000-18,000 picogram per liter). Concentrations at the high sites, Beacon Cave and Beaverpond Branch at the Resurgence, were about four- to sixfold higher than concentrations estimated for the medium group of sites

  7. MODELLING OF POLYCHLORINATED-DIOXIN AND -FURAN CONGENER PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a model, based on experimental data, that was developed to describe the profile of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners formed in the duct region of a pilot-scale combustor simulating large-scale municipal w...

  8. Historical decline and altered congener patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fish and sediment in response to process changes at a pulp mill discharging into Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Dahmer, Shari C; Tetreault, Gerald R; Hall, Roland I; Munkittrick, Kelly R; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Improved regulations for pulp and paper mill effluents and an industry shift away from elemental chlorine bleaching in the 1990s greatly reduced the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) into the environment. However, the high potential of these contaminants to persist in sediment and bioaccumulate in biota means that they have remained a concern. To document current contamination from bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, PCDD/Fs were measured in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior. These values were contrasted to historically reported fish data as well as PCDD/F patterns from dated sediment cores. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores from Jackfish Bay and reference sites demonstrated a relationship between contamination and mill process changes. During the peak PCDD/F contamination period (1991), when the mill was still using elemental chlorine, the contamination patterns in fish and sediment were distinct and dominated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Following the reduction in the use of elemental chlorine during the early 1990s, a rapid decline was observed in PCDD/F contamination of fish tissue, and levels are now approaching background conditions with congener patterns more reflective of atmospheric sources. Although surface sediments from Jackfish Bay continue to have elevated PCDD/Fs, with some locations exceeding sediment quality guidelines, they do not appear to be highly bioavailable to benthic fish. PMID:26468966

  9. Historical decline and altered congener patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fish and sediment in response to process changes at a pulp mill discharging into Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Dahmer, Shari C; Tetreault, Gerald R; Hall, Roland I; Munkittrick, Kelly R; McMaster, Mark E; Servos, Mark R

    2015-11-01

    Improved regulations for pulp and paper mill effluents and an industry shift away from elemental chlorine bleaching in the 1990s greatly reduced the release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) into the environment. However, the high potential of these contaminants to persist in sediment and bioaccumulate in biota means that they have remained a concern. To document current contamination from bleached kraft pulp mill effluent, PCDD/Fs were measured in white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) collected from Jackfish Bay, Lake Superior. These values were contrasted to historically reported fish data as well as PCDD/F patterns from dated sediment cores. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in sediment cores from Jackfish Bay and reference sites demonstrated a relationship between contamination and mill process changes. During the peak PCDD/F contamination period (1991), when the mill was still using elemental chlorine, the contamination patterns in fish and sediment were distinct and dominated by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran. Following the reduction in the use of elemental chlorine during the early 1990s, a rapid decline was observed in PCDD/F contamination of fish tissue, and levels are now approaching background conditions with congener patterns more reflective of atmospheric sources. Although surface sediments from Jackfish Bay continue to have elevated PCDD/Fs, with some locations exceeding sediment quality guidelines, they do not appear to be highly bioavailable to benthic fish.

  10. Human biomonitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofuranes in teachers working in a PCB-contaminated school.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, M; Gabrio, T; Päpke, O; Wallenhorst, T

    2002-04-01

    Eighteen teachers from a highly contaminated school and 11 teachers from a control school participated in this study. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) indoor air concentration (six indicator congeners x 5) was beyond 12000 ng/m3 in some rooms of the contaminated school. PCB 28 and PCB 52 were the prevailing congeners. Whole blood was taken from each participant by the local health authority, pooled in two groups and analysed for the six PCB indicator congeners, non-ortho PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF). Blood analysis showed elevated mean PCB 28 and PCB 52 levels for the exposed group, however the two groups were almost identical with regard to PCB 101, 138, 153 and 180. Moreover no difference can be observed for the concentration of non-ortho PCBs and PCDD/PCDF. The data support the finding, that heavy indoor air contamination with low chlorinated PCBs causes an increase of PCB 28 and PCB 52 blood levels. However, this increment was small compared to their total PCB load.

  11. Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in shark livers from the north-western African Atlantic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, R.; Fernandez, M.A.; Hernandez, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls have been widely used by industry throughout the world since 1930. Although their use has been banned in many countries since the late 1970s, they still represent an important class of priority pollutants due to their persistence. Most open uses of these chemicals have been severely curtailed in industrialized nations, but a considerable fraction of past productions is probably still cycling in the ecosphere. In recent years, attention has been focused on the toxicity of PCBs, especially of those congeners showing similar toxicity as the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). It has been shown that PCB congeners` toxicity largely depends on the chlorine substitution pattern. The most toxic PCB cogeners are those with two para chlorines, at least two meta chlorines and 0-2 ortho chlorines. These so-called {open_quotes}coplanar{close_quotes} (non- mono- and di-ortho) PCB cogeners are able to obtain planar conformation. Recently, toxic equivalence factors have been assigned to coplanar PCBs. Thus determination of individual PCB cogeners is important for evaluating the toxic potentials of PCB residues in, for example, wildlife. This paper presents preliminary results of a study looking at levels of PCB congeners, including coplanar ones, in the liver of six shark species, collected in the North African Atlantic Ocean. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons around a thermal desorption plant in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Tong; Qi, Zhifu; Buekens, Alfons; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    This study was launched to establish comprehensive environmental monitoring on the levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) both in soil and ambient air around a thermal desorption plant in China. All 209 congeners of PCBs, 136 congeners of PCDD/Fs (P = 4 to 8) and 16 EPA priority PAHs were analyzed. The concentration of PCBs ranged from 20.0 to 536 ng g(-1) (or 0.077-5.27 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)) in soil and from 972 to 991 ng Nm(-3) (or 0.245-0.374 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3)) in air samples, much higher than the levels in cities. A single soil sampling point could have been affected by some transfer of PCBs from the untreated soil by the fingerprint characteristics and the statistical analysis. Establishing blank values prior to the start-up of new plant is a safe and sure method to establish subsequent impacts on the environment. During the treatment of hazardous waste, strict control of all waste materials and all emissions is required.

  13. Long-term hazards of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed Central

    Huff, J E; Moore, J A; Saracci, R; Tomatis, L

    1980-01-01

    During January 10-11, 1978 in Lyon, France, a joint National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/International Agency for Research on Cancer ad hoc Working Group considered and discussed the feasibility of coordinating epidemiological studies on the long-term hazards associated with the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs and and PCDFs). Nineteen invited scientists from eight countries presented introductory working papers summarizing the most up-to-date and relevant information available from their individual programs. This report represents the collective views and scientific opinions of the Working Group. The greater part of this document comprises epidemiological studies related to episodes of human exposures. The review begins with a brief section concerning possible routes of human exposure, an overview of the pertinent chemical characteristics, and the salient toxicological properties of the structurally similar PCDDs/PCDFs. The Working Group report ends with recommendations for future activities. PMID:6448744

  14. Identification of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl sources in Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Masunaga, Shigeki; Takada, Hideshige; Nakanishi, Junko

    2002-05-01

    A dated sediment core collected from Tokyo Bay, Japan, was used to assess the historical inputs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) from multiple sources. The levels, patterns, and profiles of these compounds in the core were congener-specifically investigated, and the results show that the PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) and the Co-PCB inputs increased abruptly from the late 1950s and peaked during the period 1967 to 1972. From 1972 to 1981, the inputs decreased continuously and then generally leveled off. Using principal component analysis, two herbicides widely used in the past, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chloronitrofen (CNP), as well as combustion processes were identified as the major dioxin sources in Tokyo Bay. The PCB formulations and combustion processes were estimated to be the major sources of Co-PCBs. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed for dioxin-source apportioning, and it was found that the herbicides PCP and CNP have mainly contributed to the PCDD/F burdens since the late 1950s. This study suggests that herbicide-derived PCDD/Fs remaining in agricultural land will continue to run off and pollute the aquatic environment in Japan for a long time. PMID:12013146

  15. Disposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in two Norwegian epibenthic marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Berge, John Arthur; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Knutsen, Jan Atle; Hylland, Ketil

    2006-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a group of halogenated hydrocarbons, comprising 210 different, theoretically possible congeners. They are relatively hydrophobic and persistent to biodegradation, thereby rendering them subject to bioaccumulation. This study was conducted in Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord in the Grenland fjord system, Norway, heavily polluted by PCDD/PCDF discharges from the 16,600,859 magnesium production at Herøya from 1951 to 2001. Pooled samples of surface-sediments and the following organisms were collected for the Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord study areas: common shrimp (Crangon crangon), polychaetes (mainly Nereis diversicolor), shore crab (Carcinus maenas), cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichthys flesus), trout (Salmo trutta), herring (Clupea harengus), benthic amphipods and zooplankton. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs were quantified in pooled samples for all species. The relative abundances of stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) were evaluated in the organisms as a measure of chemically-derived trophic level. Contrary to earlier studies on other persistent organochlorines, it was found that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs declined with increasing trophic level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also showed differences between species in the pattern of PCDD/Fs. Higher chlorinated congeners constituted lower percentages of the PCDD/F-concentrations higher in the food chain as compared to lower trophic levels. In general, congener patterns did not differ between fjords. Infauna (polychaetes) and zooplankton had congener patterns most similar to the pollution source. The results indicate lower accumulation of higher chlorinated congeners in species at higher trophic levels (fish), presumably due to low membrane permeability (high molecular size) and possibly slow transport through intestinal aqueous phases because of low aqueous solubility. PMID:16169571

  16. Digestive tract absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant

    SciTech Connect

    McLachlan, M.S. )

    1993-11-01

    The digestive tract absorption of environmental contaminants is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant is an important but poorly understood parameter in contaminant risk assessments. The net absorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a nursing infant was measured under natural conditions over 12 days. The levels of the substances in the mother's milk were typical for Germany. It was found that for almost all congeners over 90% of the ingested compound was absorbed. This indicates that the common assumption of 100% absorption in nursing infants is reasonable. No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the absorption of Cl7- and Cl8DD/F due to high blank levels in the cotton diapers used.

  17. Background concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the global oceanic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Dachs, Jordi; González-Gaya, Belén; Hernán, Gema; Abalos, Manuela; Abad, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The remote oceans are among the most pristine environments in the world, away from sources of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POP), but nevertheless recipients of atmospheric deposition of POPs that have undergone long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). In this work, the background occurrence of gas and aerosol phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) is evaluated for the first time in the atmosphere of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Thirty-nine air samples were collected during the eight-month Malaspina circumnavigation cruise onboard the R/V Hespérides. The background levels of dioxins and dl-PCBs remained very low and in many cases very close to or below the limit of detection. Expectedly, the levels of PCBs were higher than dioxins, PCB#118 being the most abundant compound. In the particular case of dioxins, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was the most abundant PCDD/F congener. Distribution of dl-PCB is dominated by the gas phase, while for PCDD/F the aerosol phase concentrations were higher, particularly for the more hydrophobic congeners. The Atlantic Ocean presented on average the highest PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations, being lower in the southern hemisphere. The assessment of air mass back trajectories show a clear influence of continental source regions, and lower concentrations when the air mass has an oceanic origin. In addition, the samples affected by an oceanic air mass are characterized by a lower contribution of the less chlorinated dioxins in comparison with the furans, consistent with the reported higher reaction rate constants of dibenzo-p-dioxins with OH radicals than those of dibenzofurans. The total dry atmospheric deposition of aerosol-bound ∑PCDD/F and ∑dl-PCB to the global oceans was estimated to be 354 and 896 kg/year, respectively. PMID:25083749

  18. Background concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the global oceanic atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Dachs, Jordi; González-Gaya, Belén; Hernán, Gema; Abalos, Manuela; Abad, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The remote oceans are among the most pristine environments in the world, away from sources of anthropogenic persistent organic pollutants (POP), but nevertheless recipients of atmospheric deposition of POPs that have undergone long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). In this work, the background occurrence of gas and aerosol phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB) is evaluated for the first time in the atmosphere of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans. Thirty-nine air samples were collected during the eight-month Malaspina circumnavigation cruise onboard the R/V Hespérides. The background levels of dioxins and dl-PCBs remained very low and in many cases very close to or below the limit of detection. Expectedly, the levels of PCBs were higher than dioxins, PCB#118 being the most abundant compound. In the particular case of dioxins, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was the most abundant PCDD/F congener. Distribution of dl-PCB is dominated by the gas phase, while for PCDD/F the aerosol phase concentrations were higher, particularly for the more hydrophobic congeners. The Atlantic Ocean presented on average the highest PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations, being lower in the southern hemisphere. The assessment of air mass back trajectories show a clear influence of continental source regions, and lower concentrations when the air mass has an oceanic origin. In addition, the samples affected by an oceanic air mass are characterized by a lower contribution of the less chlorinated dioxins in comparison with the furans, consistent with the reported higher reaction rate constants of dibenzo-p-dioxins with OH radicals than those of dibenzofurans. The total dry atmospheric deposition of aerosol-bound ∑PCDD/F and ∑dl-PCB to the global oceans was estimated to be 354 and 896 kg/year, respectively.

  19. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in breast milk samples from three dioxin-contaminated hotspots of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Manh, Ho Dung; Kido, Teruhiko; Tai, Pham The; Okamoto, Rie; Honma, Seijiro; Liang, Sun Xian; Anh, Le Thai; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nhu, Dang Duc; Van Tung, Dao; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2015-04-01

    We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n=51), Phu Cat (n=23), and Da Nang (n=69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n=43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n=26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3 pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1 pgTEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3 pgTEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9 pgTEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners.

  20. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in breast milk samples from three dioxin-contaminated hotspots of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Manh, Ho Dung; Kido, Teruhiko; Tai, Pham The; Okamoto, Rie; Honma, Seijiro; Liang, Sun Xian; Anh, Le Thai; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nhu, Dang Duc; Van Tung, Dao; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2015-04-01

    We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n=51), Phu Cat (n=23), and Da Nang (n=69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n=43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n=26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3 pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1 pgTEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3 pgTEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9 pgTEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners. PMID:25569577

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in livers of birds from Japan.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumar, K; Iseki, N; Hayama, S; Nakanishi, J; Masunaga, S

    2002-02-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non- and mono-ortho-chlorine-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) were measured in livers of 17 species of birds collected from Japan. Birds were grouped according to their feeding habits as granivores, piscivores, omnivores, and predators for discussions. Livers of granivores contained relatively low concentrations of PCDD/DFs (80-660 pg/g) followed in increasing order by omnivores (2,300-8,000 pg/g), piscivores (61-12,000 pg/g) and predators (480-490,000 pg/g on a fat weight basis). Especially, one species of predatory bird (mountain hawk eagle) contained elevated concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs, and the measured concentration is one of the highest reported to date. Homolog and congener patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs varied among species; hence, the results suggested that feeding habits, specific elimination, and metabolism influence contamination pattern. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs were in the order of granivores (32-83 ng/g) < predators [excluding mountain hawk eagle] (32-2,500 ng/g) < piscivore (61-12,000 ng/g) < omnivores (1,800-67,000 ng/g on a fat weight basis). Mountain hawk eagle contained the highest concentration of dioxin-like PCBs (55,000 ng/g fat weight). 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) ranged from 53-450,000 pg/g fat weight. 23478-PeCDF, 2378-TCDD/TCDF, and PCB congeners IUPAC 126 and 77 were major contributors to TEQs in birds. To our knowledge, this is the first study of PCDD/DFs and dioxin-like PCBs in livers of several species of Japanese birds.

  2. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to air from waste incinerators and high thermal processes in India.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Neeta; Sheikh, Javed; Tamane, S M; Bhanarkar, Anil; Majumdar, Deepanjan; Singh, Kanchan; Chavhan, Chatrapati; Trivedi, Jitendra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in gasses emitted from waste incinerators and thermal processes in central and western parts of India. The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs) ranged from 0.0070 to 26.8140 ng toxicity equivalent (TEQ)/Nm(3), and those of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ranged from 0.0001 × 10(-1) to 0.0295 ng TEQ/Nm(3). The characteristics of mean PCDD/F I-TEQ concentration and congener profiles were studied over all the samples of air. In particular, a pattern consisting of a low proportion of dioxin-like PCBs and high proportion of PCDDs/DFs was common for all the samples from incinerators and high-temperature processes.

  3. A toxic equivalency factor scale for polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tysklind, M.; Tillitt, D.; Eriksson, L.; Lundgren, K.; Rappe, C.

    1994-01-01

    The ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction of 20 polychiorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was examined in the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. The selection of the compounds tested was based on a multivariate chemical characterization laying the groundwork for covering the whole chemical series of PCDFs. The EROD induction potency was found to vary in ED50 values from 25 to 100,000,000 pg/mg, i.e., nearly seven orders of magnitude. The response of the bioassay was calibrated against the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, enabling the corresponding toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) to be calculated. In order to establish a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for the TEF values, 37 physicochemical descriptor variables were used to chemically characterize the 87 tetra- to octachlorinated PCDFs. Using partial least-squares modeling on a training set of 10 congeners, a QSAR model with sound predictive power was obtained. The QSAR model was validated with a validation set of additional 10 congeners. The predicted TEFs indicate that a large number of congeners are potent EROD inducers.

  4. Nondestructive scat sampling in assessment of mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs).

    PubMed

    Zwiernik, Matthew J; Moore, Jeremy N; Khim, Jong Seong; Williams, Lisa L; Kay, Denise P; Bursian, Steve; Aylward, Lesa L; Giesy, John P

    2008-10-01

    The mink (Mustela vison) is often utilized as a sentinel species for ecological assessments at sites where contaminants of concern include dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Utilizing mink scat as a nondestructive tool to determine internal exposure to dioxin-like compounds may allow for rapid, accurate estimates of exposure without the need to capture mink or their prey. To determine the relationships between concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in tissues (liver and adipose) and those in scat, mink were fed PCDFs in scat during a controlled laboratory study for 180 days. Mink were fed a control diet, diets with three doses of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), and a diet with an environmentally relevant mixture of the two congeners. Concentrations of PCDFs in liver and adipose were measured after 0, 90, and 180 days of exposure. Concentrations of the two PCDF congeners in mink scat were determined after 2, 23, 45, 90, and 180 days of exposure. Concentrations of both PCDF congeners in scat were significantly correlated with those in liver and adipose tissue (r(2) = 0.94-0.97, p < 0.01). This indicates that measurements of concentrations of both PCDFs in scat can be used to predict concentrations of PCDFs in liver and adipose. Assimilation and elimination characteristics of 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF or 2,3,7,8,-TCDF and a mixture of the two congeners by mink could be predicted from concentrations of these congeners in scat. Overall, concentrations of PCDFs in mink scat can be used as a rapid and inexpensive nondestructive method to predict concentrations of PCDFs in mink when certain assumptions are met. PMID:18227958

  5. THE EFFECT OF COFIRING HIGH-SULFUR COAL WITH MUNICIPAL WASTE ON FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of co-firing minor amounts (5-10 wt%) of high sulfur coal with municipal refuse-derived fuel (RDF) on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) was studied under a range of operating conditions. Through use of 2x facto...

  6. THE EFFECT OF METAL CATALYSTS ON THE FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalytic effects of copper and iron compounds were examined for their behavior in promoting formation of chlorine (Cl2), the major chlorinating agent of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in an environment simulati...

  7. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF CHLORINE SPECIATION ON DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of chlorine speciation on de novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) has been thoroughly studied in an entrained flow reactor during simulated waste combustion. Namely, the affects of gas-phase chlorine species suc...

  9. Accumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in liver of control laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Vanden Heuvel, J P; Clark, G C; Tritscher, A m; Lucier, G W

    1994-10-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls belong to a class of compounds, the polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs), which are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Due to the existence of a common mechanism of action, i.e., binding to the Ah receptor, the activity of members of this class of compounds is generally expressed relative to the prototypical 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). In the present studies we examined the presence of liver of untreated PCDFs in standard laboratory feed and in the liver of untreated rats at three different ages (60, 140, and 200 days) in terms of concentration and in toxic equivalents (TEQs, TEF x concentration). Feed was shown to contain trace amounts of PCDDs and PCDFs and control rat liver was shown to contain several PCDD and PCDF congeners in terms of concentration of congener and concentration of TEQs contributed by that congener. The total concentration of TEQs increased with increasing age in rat liver, going from 20 ppt TEQ at 60 days to 78 ppt TEQ at 200 days of age. This accumulation in dioxin-like activity was due primarily to PCDFs. In particular the congener 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran accrued in untreated rat liver accounting for approximately 80% of the total TEQ at 200 days of age. These studies affirm the pervasive presence of PHAHs and suggest prudence in evaluating chronic rat studies in which interference from background levels of PCDDs and PCDFs may be a factor.

  10. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran emissions from an industrial park clustered with metallurgical industries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jenshi B; Hung, Chung-Hsien; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2009-01-30

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from an industrial park operated as Taiwan's center of metallurgical industries were investigated. The characteristics of mean PCDD/F I-TEQ concentrations, congener profiles and emission factors of each source were studied over samples of stack flue gases of individual sources. Different characteristics of congener profiles and large variations of emission factors of secondary aluminum smelters (ALSs) were observed. The mean emission factors of electric arc furnaces were comparable to those for ALSs and much greater than those of municipal solid waste incinerators and sinter plants, but still less than that of clinical waste incinerators. Annual PCDD/F emission contribution of each source was estimated, raising critical concerns over the overall PCDD/F emissions from metallurgical processes. The metallurgical industries altogether contributed approximately 98.1% of the total annual emissions, while waste incinerators only 1.9%. The contributions by sinter plants and metallurgical industries to the total annual emissions of the Park were much higher than the corresponding national averages of Taiwan. The combined dioxin emissions from the entire metallurgical processes and their controls should be seriously envisaged by industrial parks devoted to metal productions.

  11. Adsorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans on activated carbon from hexane.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Activated carbon is widely used to abate dioxins and dioxin-like compounds from flue gas. Comparing commercial samples regarding their potential to adsorb dioxins may proceed by using test columns, yet it takes many measurements to characterise the retention and breakthrough of dioxins. In this study, commercial activated carbon samples are evaluated during tests to remove trace amounts of dioxins dissolved in n-hexane. The solution was prepared from fly ash collected from a municipal solid waste incinerator. The key variables selected were the concentration of dioxins in n-hexane and the dosage of activated carbon. Both polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) showed very high removal efficiencies (94.7%-98.0% for PCDDs and 99.7%-99.8% for PCDFs). The presence of a large excess of n-hexane solvent had little effect on the removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs. The adsorbed PCDD/Fs showed a linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) with the initial concentrations. Comparative analysis of adsorption isotherms showed that a linear Henry isotherm fitted better the experimental data (R(2) = 0.99 both for PCDDs and PCDFs) than the more usual Freundlich isotherm (R(2) = 0.88 for PCDDs and 0.77 for PCDFs). Finally, the results of fingerprint analysis indicated that dioxin fingerprint (weight proportion of different congeners) on activated carbon after adsorption did not change from that in hexane.

  12. Adsorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans on activated carbon from hexane.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Activated carbon is widely used to abate dioxins and dioxin-like compounds from flue gas. Comparing commercial samples regarding their potential to adsorb dioxins may proceed by using test columns, yet it takes many measurements to characterise the retention and breakthrough of dioxins. In this study, commercial activated carbon samples are evaluated during tests to remove trace amounts of dioxins dissolved in n-hexane. The solution was prepared from fly ash collected from a municipal solid waste incinerator. The key variables selected were the concentration of dioxins in n-hexane and the dosage of activated carbon. Both polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) showed very high removal efficiencies (94.7%-98.0% for PCDDs and 99.7%-99.8% for PCDFs). The presence of a large excess of n-hexane solvent had little effect on the removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs. The adsorbed PCDD/Fs showed a linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) with the initial concentrations. Comparative analysis of adsorption isotherms showed that a linear Henry isotherm fitted better the experimental data (R(2) = 0.99 both for PCDDs and PCDFs) than the more usual Freundlich isotherm (R(2) = 0.88 for PCDDs and 0.77 for PCDFs). Finally, the results of fingerprint analysis indicated that dioxin fingerprint (weight proportion of different congeners) on activated carbon after adsorption did not change from that in hexane. PMID:26476048

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in fishermen in Finland.

    PubMed Central

    Kiviranta, Hannu; Vartiainen, Terttu; Tuomisto, Jouko

    2002-01-01

    We measured plasma concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fishermen from the Finnish Baltic Sea area and fishermen fishing in inland lakes. The concentrations clearly correlated with the frequency of fish meals and consumption of Baltic fatty fish. The body burden of PCDD/Fs reached the median level of 170 pg/g toxic equivalents (I-TEq) in fat for Baltic Sea fishermen, with the maximum being 420 pg/g. Results for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (range = 4.9-110 pg/g fat) showed that lifetime exposure in a population consuming much Baltic fatty fish can reach the levels of exposures seen in Seveso, Italy, in 1976. After we summed the PCB-TEqs, the total median exposure of Baltic Sea fishermen increased to 290 pg/g TEq in fat, and the highest concentration was 880 pg/g. There was a noted individual variation in fishermen's PCDD/F congener patterns, and it was possible to associate this variation with congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in the fish species that the fisherman reported they had consumed. Linear regression models for ln WHO(PCDD/F)-TEq, ln WHO(PCB)-TEq, and ln total WHO-TEq, from the World Health Organization, explained 48%, 60%, and 53% of the variability, respectively. Age was the only significant predictor of ln WHO(PCDD/F)-TEq, whereas age, amount of fish eaten, and place of residence were significant predictors of ln WHO(PCB)-TEq, and ln total WHO-TEq. PMID:11940453

  14. Toxic equivalency factors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran, biphenyl, and polyhalogenated diphenyl ether congeners based on rainbow trout early life stage mortality.

    PubMed

    Hornung, M W; Zabel, E W; Peterson, R E

    1996-10-01

    Polybrominated and polychlorinated biphenyls (PBBs/PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs/PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs/PCDFs), and diphenyl ethers (PBDEs/PCDEs) are persistent, lipophilic environmental contaminants that may pose a risk to fish early life stage survival. To determine this potential risk, a rainbow trout early life stage mortality bioassay was used in which the potency of individual polybrominated chemicals was compared to the potency of the most potent polychlorinated chemical in these classes, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Following injection of newly fertilized rainbow trout eggs, fish-specific toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were calculated as the molar ratio of TCDD LD50 to brominated compound LD50. Signs of toxicity were identical to those produced by polychlorinated TCDD-like chemicals and included yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, multifocal hemorrhages, reduced growth, and craniofacial malformations. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls exhibited decreased potency with increased bromine substitution. Only 2,3,7,8-TBDD was more potent than 2,3,7,8-TCDD, whereas other polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins were equipotent or less potent than identically substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in this assay. Although two PBDF congeners were equipotent to identically substituted PCDFs, 2,3,7,8-TBDF was 9-fold more potent than 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Both 3,3',4,4'-TBB and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-HxBB were 10-fold more potent than identically substituted polychlorinated biphenyls. The halogenated diphenyl ethers and di-ortho polybrominated biphenyls were inactive in this assay. Thus, in this in vivo assay the polybrominated and polychlorinated TCDD-like chemicals were not always equally potent. To assess the risk posed by mixtures of these chemicals to feral fish populations, fish-specific TEFs for both polybrominated and polychlorinated chemicals should be used.

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) near a magnesium smelter in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Tolley, Cecilia; Blais, Jules M

    2007-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) near a magnesium-refining facility in Quebec (Canada) known to be a source of chlorinated organic compounds to the area. We compared contaminant concentrations in deer caught one year before the start of magnesium production with those measured three years later. Total PCB concentrations were spatially uniform in deer before magnesium production, but after magnesium production began, concentrations were higher near the smelter and decreased with distance. Many of the midrange PCB homologues that bioconcentrate most in deer showed similar relationships. Concentrations of coplanar PCB congeners and cytochrome P4501A expression in deer liver were examined in a subset of the samples, and these also showed a significant inverse relationship with distance after magnesium production began. This pattern was not observed for PCDD/F concentrations in deer. The risk involved for the human population in consuming local deer meat was assessed by applying contaminant concentrations measured in the present study to Health Canada consumption guidelines. Contaminants in deer were not shown to pose a serious risk to the population, but the number of portions of deer from beyond 20 km that could be safely consumed was less restrictive than the number for deer from within a 5-km radius of the magnesium smelter.

  16. Analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in vegetable oil samples by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Malavia, J; Abalos, M; Santos, F J; Abad, E; Rivera, J; Galceran, M T

    2007-05-18

    Gas chromatography coupled to ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (CG-MS-MS) has been evaluated for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in vegetable oil samples containing different concentration levels (0.2-6 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) for both PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs) of the 29 toxic congeners of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCBs. The effect of potential interfering compounds such as polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenylethers (PCDEs) on the quantification of mono-ortho PCBs has been investigated. In addition, the influence of the clean-up procedure on the final determination by CG-MS-MS was studied, showing that the quality of the results depends to a great extent on this analytical step. Quality parameters have been established and good precisions (CV: 3-19%) and low limits of detection for PCDD/Fs (0.04-0.20 pg g(-1) oil) and dl-PCBs (0.08-0.64 pg g(-1) oil) were obtained. The method was validated by a comparison of the CG-MS-MS results with those obtained by GC-HRMS.

  17. Occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Lake Maggiore (Italy and Switzerland).

    PubMed

    Vives, Ingrid; Canuti, Elisabetta; Castro-Jiménez, Javier; Christoph, Eugen H; Eisenreich, Steven J; Hanke, Georg; Huber, Tania; Mariani, Giulio; Mueller, Anne; Skejo, Helle; Umlauf, Gunther; Wollgast, Jan

    2007-06-01

    Samples of air (gas and particulate phases), bulk deposition, aquatic settling material and sediments were collected in Lake Maggiore (LM) in order to determine their content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Air (gas and particulate phases) concentrations were 0.5 pg m(-3), 80 pg m(-3), 13 pg m(-3) and 106 pg m(-3) for SigmaPCDD/Fs, SigmaPCBs, Sigma dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and SigmaPBDEs, respectively. Deposition fluxes ranged from 0.7 ng m(-2) d(-1) for SigmaPCDD/Fs to 32 ng m(-2) d(-1) for SigmaPCBs. Aquatic settling material presented concentrations of 0.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for SigmaPCDD/Fs, 13 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPCB, 3.4 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaDL-PCBs and 5.7 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPBDEs. Mean sediment concentrations were 0.4 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPCDD/Fs, 11 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPCB, 3 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaDL-PCBs and 5.1 ng g(-1) dw for SigmaPBDEs. Similar PCDD/F and DL-PCB congener patterns in all the environmental compartments of LM point to an important, if not dominant, contribution of atmospheric deposition as source of these pollutants into LM. In contrast, PBDE congener distribution was not similar in the different environmental compartments. BDE 47 dominated air and settling material, while BDE 209 was the predominant congener in the bulk atmospheric deposition. Moreover, sediments showed two distinct PBDE congener profiles. Lower PBDE concentrated sediments were dominated by congeners 47 and 99, while BDE 209 dominated in higher PBDE concentrated samples. This suggests the influence of local sources as well as atmospheric input of PBDEs into LM.

  18. Relationship between polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, polychlorinated dibenzofuran, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in vegetation and soil on residential properties.

    PubMed

    Demond, Avery; Towey, Timothy; Adriaens, Peter; Zhong, Xiaobo; Knutson, Kristine; Chen, Qixuan; Hong, Biling; Gillespie, Brenda; Franzblau, Alfred; Garabrant, David; Lepkowski, James; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha

    2010-12-01

    The University of Michigan Dioxin Exposure Study was undertaken to address concerns that the industrial discharge of dioxin-like compounds in the Midland, Michigan, USA area had resulted in the contamination of soil and vegetation in the Tittabawassee River floodplain and downwind of the incinerator in the City of Midland. The study included the analysis of 597 vegetation samples, predominantly grass and weeds, from residential properties selected through a multistage probabilistic sample design in the Midland area, and in Jackson and Calhoun Counties (Michigan), as a background comparison, for 29 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The mean toxic equivalent (TEQ) of the house perimeter vegetation samples ranged from 4.2 to 377 pg/g. The ratio of TEQs (vegetation to soil) was about 0.3, with a maximum of 3.5. Based on a calculation of the similarity of the congener patterns between the soil and the vegetation, it appeared that the source of the contamination on the vegetation was the surrounding soil. This conclusion was supported by linear regression analysis, which showed that the largest contributor to the R(2) for the outcome variable of log(10) of the vegetation concentration was log(10) of the surrounding soil concentration. Models of vegetation contamination usually focus on atmospheric deposition and partitioning. The results obtained here suggest that the deposition of soil particles onto vegetation is a significant route of contamination for residential herbage. Thus, the inclusion of deposition of soil particles onto vegetation is critical to the accurate modeling of contamination residential herbage in communities impacted by historic industrial discharges of persistent organic compounds.

  19. An improved clean-up strategy for simultaneous analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) in fatty food samples.

    PubMed

    Pirard, Catherine; Focant, Jean-François; De, Pauw Edwin

    2002-01-01

    The study and extension of a simple automated clean-up method for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) to a broad range of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is described. The isolation of seven PCDD, ten PCDF, and three coplanar PCB (cPCB) is extended to eight monoortho substituted PCB and seven so-called "marker PCB" (Aroclor 1260) for fatty food samples. This enables quantification of 35 compounds - including all congeners with a WHO toxic equivalent factor (TEF)--in a single extraction and single purification step. The chromatographic behaviour of mono-ortho PCB and marker PCB on a variety of adsorbents, including basic alumina, has been studied. Partitioning of analytes through multi-column sequences is described and correlated with their structural and electronic properties, by use of molecular modelling calculations. The fractionation process available with the Power-Prep automated clean-up system enables rapid independent analysis of the different groups of compounds. Gas chromatography with high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) is used for the PCDD/F and cPCB fraction and quadrupole ion-storage tandem in time mass spectrometry (GC-QISTMS) for analysis of the remaining PCB. A comparison study was performed on quality-control samples and real fatty food samples to evaluate the robustness of the new strategy compared with a reference method. On the basis of this simultaneous clean-up, a rapid simplified strategy for PCDD/F and selected PCB analysis determination is proposed for fatty food samples.

  20. Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from chemical manufacturers and waste disposal facilities.

    PubMed

    Muto, H; Saito, K; Shinada, M; Takizawa, Y

    1991-04-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in various source and environmental samples obtained from eight chemical manufacturers producing agricultural chemicals, synthetic dye, or resin and eight chemical waste disposal facilities. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs ranged from 3.0 to 3504 ng/g for PCDDs and from 1.2 to 1668 ng/g for PCDFs in fly ash. Their concentrations in emission were in the ranges of 21.8 to 3205 ng/m3 for PCDDs and not detected to 4344 ng/m3 for PCDFs. PCDD and PCDF concentrations were higher in fly and bottom ashes and in emissions from two manufacturers that incinerate waste plastics than in those from other manufacturers. For emission and liquid samples from the manufacturers. For emission and liquid samples from the manufacturers of agricultural chemicals, significantly high concentrations of tetra-CDDs were detected. Furthermore, the high concentrations of PCDFs, especially hepta- and octa-CDF congeners, existed in emissions from waste incinerators that manufacture rubber. Among manufacturers and disposal facilities, the total emission equivalent (2.94 ng/m3) of PCDDs and PCDFs was highest for a certain manufacturer of agricultural chemicals, showing that more 2,3,7,8-chlorine-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were present in their emissions.

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bear, penguin and south polar skua.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Corsolini, Simonetta; Evans, Thomas; Giesy, John P; Nakanishi, Junko; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of 2378-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (DFs) and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) were measured in livers of polar bears from the Alaskan Arctic and in eggs of Adelie penguin and south polar skua and weddell seal liver, fish and krill from Antarctica. This is one of the first reports to document the concentrations of PCDDs/DFs in polar bear livers from Alaska, and in penguin and skua eggs from Antarctica. Concentrations of total PCDD/DFs in livers of polar bears ranged from 8 to 66 (mean: 26) pg/g, on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of total PCDD/DFs in Antarctic samples were in the increasing order on a lipid weight basis; weddell seal liver (8.9 pg/g) < fish (11-17 pg/g) < krill (27 pg/g) congeners) in polar bear livers were in the range of 1,080-3,930 ng/g, lipid wt. Concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in Antarctic samples were in the following order on a lipid weight basis; south polar skua eggs (mean: 1,440 ng/g) > > penguin eggs (30 ng/g) > seal liver (57 ng/g) > fishes (6.2 ng/g) > krill (0.9 ng/g). Concentrations of 2378-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) calculated based on the WHO TEFs were higher in the eggs of polar skua (mean: 344: range: 220-650 pg/g, lipid wt.) from Antarctica than in polar bear livers from Alaska (mean: 120; range: 69-192 pg/g). In general, concentrations of PCDFs were greater than those of PCDDs in polar organisms. 23478-PeCDF is one of the dominant congener found in several samples. Concentrations of TEQs in polar bear livers and skua eggs were close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Dioxin-like PCBs, particularly, non-ortho coplanar PCBs were the major contributors to TEQ concentrations in penguin and skua eggs whereas mono-ortho PCBs accounted for a major portion of TEQs in

  2. PCDDs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins) and PCDFs (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, S.E. ); Erickson, M.D. )

    1990-01-01

    Numerous instances of human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p- dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been documented. Following the development of sufficiently specific and sensitive analytical methods during the past few years, many reports have appeared on PCDD and PCDF levels in human blood and adipose tissues. Studies have examined the PCDD and PCDF levels resulting from accidental and occupational exposures of various groups, including chemical plant workers, forestry and tannery workers, and Niet Nam veterans who had handled Agent Orange. The general background levels in the US, Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and Sweden were also determined. The results of these studies indicate that a background level of PCDDs and PCDFs is present in the overall population. In some cases, individuals exposed to specific PCDDs or PCDFs exhibit higher levels than the general population. Isomer distribution patterns are relatively consistent and indicative of sources and metabolism. This paper reviews the available data on human PCDD and PCDF levels in exposed and general populations. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Isomer-specific determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in incinerator-related environmental samples

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuhara, A.; Ito, H.; Morita, M.

    1987-10-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) ranging from tetra- to octachloro congeners in ash and fly ash from incinerators, river water, effluent water from incinerators, groundwater, soil, and sediment were determined isomer specifically by high-resolution gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry in order to manifest an environmental situation polluted with those compounds in Japan. The most toxic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was detected only in fly ash. In many samples, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin had the highest abundance in PCDDs, and heptachlorodibenzofurans had the highest abundance in PCDFs. Gas chromatographic patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs in all samples were compared with each other by use of the pattern similarity method in order to classify the pollution pattern with PCDDs and PCDFs. Gas chromatographic patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs in fly ash, effluent water, and sediment were different from each other.

  4. Results of monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air at McMurdo station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Lugar, R.M.; Harles, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents the results of ambient air monitoring for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) performed during the 1992-1993 and 1993-1994 austral summers in the vicinity of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Twenty-eight air samples were collected from four different locations to determine the identity and concentration of PCDD/PCDF compounds. PCDD/PCDF compounds were not detected at either the predominantly upwind location or a more remote site on Black Island. Trace levels of only a few PCDD/PCDF congeners were detected sporadically at a location approximately 500 m downwind of the station. The most frequent, most varied, and highest levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were measured at a `downtown` location, where concentrations of total PCDDs ranged from 0.12 to 1.80 pg/m{sup 3} and total PCDDs ranged from less than 0.02 to 2.77 pg/m{sup 3}. The data indicate that there are combustion sources at McMurdo other than the solid waste incinerator (power plants, vehicles, heating furnaces, etc.) that contribute PCDD/PCDF compounds to the ambient air. The greatest variety and highest concentration of PCDD/PCDF congeners measured in 1992-1993 during incineration of selected solid wastes implicates the interim incinerator as the likely source of the increased presence of these compounds in air. 18 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Talidda, Antonia; Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Fiedler, Heidelore; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Kooijman, Martin; Wienk, Koen J H; Traag, Wim A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2013-02-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The aim of this study was to determine the PCDD/F contents of orally consumed clays purchased from Dutch and African markets. Congener patterns were compared with those of pooled human milk samples collected in eight African countries, to investigate a possible relationship with clay consumption. From the Dutch market thirteen clay products were examined, seven of African and six of Suriname origin. From seven African countries, twenty clay products were collected. All 33 clay products were screened with a cell-based bioassay and those showing a high response were analyzed by GC/HRMS. High PCDD/F concentrations were measured in three clay products from the Dutch market, ranging from 66 to 103 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas clay products from African countries were from 24 to 75 pg TEQ g(-1). Patterns and relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d'Ivoire suggest a relationship with the consumption of contaminated clay. Frequent use of PCDD/F contaminated clay products during pregnancy may result in increased exposure of the mother and subsequently the developing fetus and new-born child. The use of these contaminated clays during pregnancy should be carefully considered or even discouraged.

  6. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Talidda, Antonia; Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Fiedler, Heidelore; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Kooijman, Martin; Wienk, Koen J H; Traag, Wim A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2013-02-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The aim of this study was to determine the PCDD/F contents of orally consumed clays purchased from Dutch and African markets. Congener patterns were compared with those of pooled human milk samples collected in eight African countries, to investigate a possible relationship with clay consumption. From the Dutch market thirteen clay products were examined, seven of African and six of Suriname origin. From seven African countries, twenty clay products were collected. All 33 clay products were screened with a cell-based bioassay and those showing a high response were analyzed by GC/HRMS. High PCDD/F concentrations were measured in three clay products from the Dutch market, ranging from 66 to 103 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas clay products from African countries were from 24 to 75 pg TEQ g(-1). Patterns and relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d'Ivoire suggest a relationship with the consumption of contaminated clay. Frequent use of PCDD/F contaminated clay products during pregnancy may result in increased exposure of the mother and subsequently the developing fetus and new-born child. The use of these contaminated clays during pregnancy should be carefully considered or even discouraged. PMID:23159200

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentration profiles in sediment and fish tissue of the Willamette Basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonn, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) are highly hydrophobic compounds that have been implicated as carcinogens and, more recently, as estrogen disrupters. An occurrence and distribution study of these compounds in the Willamette Basin, Oregon, was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Bed sediment was collected from 22 sites; fish tissue was collected from eight sites. PCDD/F were found to be ubiquitous in Willamette Basin sediment. A distinct homolog profile, dominated by octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, was observed in sediment throughout the basin. The PCDD homolog profile was consistent at all sites, regardless of total PCDD/F concentration, presence of point sources, subbasin size, geographic location or land use. Principal components analysis revealed a gradient among the homolog profiles that showed increasing dominance of highly chlorinated congeners where human and industrial activity increased. Tissue and bed sediment obtained from the same site did not have similar PCDD/F concentrations or homolog profiles. Fish tissue showed enrichment in less chlorinated congeners and congeners with chlorine substitutions in the 2, 3, 7 and 8 positions.

  8. A Survey of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Co-planar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in U.S. Meat and Poultry, 2007-2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A statistically-based survey of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in domestic meat and poultry was conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from September 2007 to September 2008. Seventeen toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and three coplanar pol...

  9. Relationship of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran levels to stable-nitrogen isotope abundance in marine birds and mammals in coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, W.M.; Sydeman, W.J.; Hobson, K.A.; Bergqvist, P.A.

    1997-05-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in common murre (Uria aalge), Brandt`s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) eggs, and Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) blubber collected from the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary in 1993. In addition, the samples were analyzed for stable-nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N). Of the PCDDs and PCDFs, the 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (TCDF) congeners were the most prominent in the birds. The levels of TCDD in the eggs ranged from 0.2 to 6.6 ng/wet kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant, respectively. The TCDF ranged from 0.30 to 2.25 ng/kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant eggs, respectively. Other prominent PCDD and PCDF congeners detected in all bird species were 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD. In the Steller sea lion the most prominent congeners were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD at 3.2 ng/kg, 2,3,7,8-TCDD at 2.9 ng/kg, OCDF at 2.2 ng/kg, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD at 1.92 ng/kg, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF at 1.3 ng/kg. Stable-nitrogen values ranged from 16.9% in the pigeon guillemot and rhinoceros auklet to 19.8% in the Steller sea lion.

  10. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in aquatic animals from an e-waste dismantling area in East China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaofei; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Chen, Zhaojing; Li, Wenjuan; Ssebugere, Patrick; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    Eight aquatic biota species were collected from an e-waste dismantling area in East China to investigate bioconcentration and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The mean concentrations of PCBs varied widely from 6.01 × 10(4) to 2.27 × 10(6) pg per g dry weight (dw). The ∑25PCB concentrations in eels were significantly higher than those in other species. The levels of PCDD/Fs changed from 8.13 pg per g dw in toads to 617 pg per g dw in stone snails. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) ranged from 2.57 to 2352 pg WHO-TEQ per g dw with a geometric mean value of 64.7 pg WHO-TEQ per g dw, which greatly exceeded the maximum levels of 4 pg per g ww set by the European Commission. The log-transferred bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 25 PCB congeners ranged from 1.0 to 6.6, with the highest value for CB-205 in crucian carp and the lowest value for CB-11 in frog. A parabolic correlation was observed between log BCF and log Kow (R(2) = 0.53, p < 0.001), where the maximum value occurred at a log Kow of approximately 7. A similar correlation was also found in the plot of log BCF against the number of chlorine atoms of PCBs (R(2) = 0.57, p < 0.001), indicating that medium-halogenated congeners of PCBs are more easily accumulated by aquatic biota species. There were no significant correlations between the log-transferred concentrations and trophic levels of aquatic species, suggesting that trophic magnification for PCBs and PCDD/Fs was not observed in this study.

  11. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in rice straw smoke and their origins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Shigeo; Kawamura, Kiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere.

  12. Bioaccumulation of mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in salty water organisms.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pei-Yu; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Liu, Wen-Yao

    2016-01-01

    Mercury and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) accumulate in organisms through food webs and exert potentially toxic effects on aquatic organisms and humans. This study examined the levels of mercury and PCDD/Fs in organisms and sediment samples collected from a saltwater pond at the An-Shun site, a chloralkali factory that shut down in Tainan City, Taiwan. It was also a pentachlorophenol production plant. After the factories were shut down in the 1980s, mercury and PCDD/Fs contamination remained, posing severe health hazards. The correlation between PCDD/Fs congener accumulation patterns in distinct fish organs and the sediment was evaluated. Mercury and PCDD/Fs levels in all the fish samples exceeded food safety limits, and the concentrations of mercury and PCDD/Fs in each species were closely correlated (n = 12, Spearman's rank correlation [R] = 0.811, p < 0.01). The mercury concentrations were positively but non-significantly correlated with the weight (n = 11, R = 0.741, p < 0.01) and length (n = 11, R = 0.618, p < 0.05) of the species. The fish likely accumulated the contaminants through ingestion of other organisms or the sediment. However, after the pollutants entered a fish, they exhibited distinct accumulation patterns because of their differing chemical properties. Specifically, the mercury concentration was correlated with organism weight and length, whereas the PCDD/Fs concentration was associated with organ lipid content. The study results are valuable for assessing the health risks associated with ingesting mercury- and PCFF/F-contaminated seafood from the study site.

  13. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens. PMID:25129161

  14. Accumulation and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Wei; Lee, Jai-Wei; Liu, Hsueh-Yen; Lin, Wei-Hsiao; Chu, Chun-Yen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo Ping; Yu, Chi

    2014-11-01

    In Taiwan, a food safety crisis involving a presence of high concentrations of dioxin residues in duck eggs occurred in 2004. The dioxin content in duck meat sampled from supermarkets was also reported to be substantially higher than in products from other farm animals. Despite increased awareness of the potential for contamination and exposure to dioxins, the accumulation and elimination of dioxins in ducks have not been well characterized. In the present study, mule ducks were fed capsules containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) for 14 days and the trial was continued for another 28 days without PCDD/Fs supplementation. Ducks were sacrificed on the 14th, 28th, and 42nd days from the beginning of administration and samples of abdominal fat, breast, and liver tissue were obtained. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs were analyzed in the samples to investigate their distribution and elimination in various duck tissues. The bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs in ducks was found to be tissue-dependent. In the abdominal fat, the bioconcentration factor was negatively correlated with the degree of chlorination. Conversely, more chlorinated PCDD/Fs (hexa- or hepta-congeners) were associated with higher bioconcentration in the liver and breast tissue. In terms of the efficiency of PCDD/Fs elimination, the liver was found to be the fastest, followed by the breast and the abdominal fat. The clearance rate positively correlated with the degree of chlorination, as determined by comparing the apparent elimination rate constant (k) of PCDD/Fs in various tissues. Overall, lower k values observed in this study imply that mule ducks have a reduced clearance of PCDD/Fs in comparison with layer and broiler chickens.

  15. Concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soils from Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Sook Hyeon; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P; Matsuda, Muneaki; Wakimoto, Tadaaki

    2002-09-01

    Soil samples were collected from Changwon and Masan Cities, Korea, and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). Nearly all tetra- through octachlorinated PCDDs/DFs including the 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/DFs were detected in all samples. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs and of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TeCDD) equivalents (TEGs) in soils ranged from 35 to 121,400 pg/g, dry weight, and from 0.2 to 3720 pg of I-TEQ/g, respectively. On the basis of guidelines for TEQ concentrations established in Germany and the United States, 9 of 23 soil samples (39% of the total samples analyzed) could not be expected to pose human health hazards. The rest of 61% of soils need measures such as investigations of source identification, soil decontamination, and/or soil removal. Total concentrations of PCDDs/DFs were greater at or near four industrial sites, which are concerned with the steel industry, petrochemical-related industry, and industrial waste incineration, than other areas. This indicates the presence of potential source areas. Soil collected from a site 50 m from an open-burning industrial waste incinerator in an industrial complex was heavily contaminated, containing a total concentration of PCDDs/DFs of 121,400 pg/g, dry weight. PCDDs/DFs were also detected in soils from the top of a 200 m mountain indicating a wide dispersal of PCDDs/DFs by atmospheric transport from point source areas. The congener pattern and relative proportions of PCDFs in soils suggest that commercial PCB preparations such as Kanechlors may be one of the sources. The wide range of PCDD/DF isomers detected in soils from many locations also suggests a multitude of sources, in addition to commercial PCBs, such as incineration of industrial wastes such as car tires, scrap wires, plastics, papers, and emission of automobile exhaust.

  16. Effects of clenbuterol on body stores of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) in rats.

    PubMed

    Shappell, N W; Billey, L O; Feil, V J

    2002-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), persistent pollutants that accumulate in the food chain, pose a risk to humans through consumption of tainted livestock. Clenbuterol, a leanness-enhancing agent, was tested for usefulness in PCDD/F body store reduction through body fat reduction (the predominant site of accumulation). To mimic the situation of contaminated animals, rats were given feed with or without a mixture of PCDD/F (0.6 to 2.7 ng/congener per day) for 10 d, followed by 16 d of feed with or without dietary clenbuterol (2 mg/kg feed). Clenbuterol reduced body fat by 28% (P < 0.05), increased muscle mass by 25% (P < 0.02), and decreased liver mass by 7% (P < 0.02). Although the concentrations of most PCDD/F per gram of fat were slightly increased after clenbuterol treatment, the total amount of PCDD/F that remained in fat was reduced by approximately 30%. Muscle PCDD/F concentrations and total burden were decreased by clenbuterol. In contrast, clenbuterol tended to increase concentration, but not total burden of PCDD/F in livers. One congener known to be rapidly metabolized and excreted, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, was the exception to this increase, decreasing 40% with clenbuterol treatment. This was also the congener that showed the greatest reduction in both fat and muscle. Examination of the ratio of PCDD/F in liver and fat revealed that clenbuterol increased the liver's share of the body burden of PCDD/F, from 38 to 75%. In a remediation/disposal context, these findings would be beneficial if clenbuterol lowered the meat and carcass burden of PCDD/F to safe levels, requiring only livers to be disposed of as hazardous waste.

  17. An IARC evaluation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans as risk factors in human carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    McGregor, D B; Partensky, C; Wilbourn, J; Rice, J M

    1998-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs program reevaluated polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and evaluated polychlorinated dibenzofurans as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans in February 1997, using the most recent epidemiologic data on exposed human populations, experimental carcinogenicity bioassays in laboratory animals, and supporting evidence on relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was evaluated as carcinogenic to humans (IARC group 1 classification) on the basis of limited evidence of carcinogenicity to humans derived from follow-up of workers who had been heavily exposed in industrial accidents and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. The evaluation also considered the following supporting evidence: TCDD is a multisite carcinogen in experimental animals and has been shown by several lines of evidence to act through a mechanism involving the aryl hydrocarbon receptor; this receptor is highly conserved in an evolutionary sense and functions the same way in humans as in experimental animals; tissue concentrations of TCDD are similar in heavily exposed human populations in which an increased overall cancer risk was observed and in exposed rats that developed tumors in carcinogenicity tests. Other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, the nonchlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans were evaluated as not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (group 3). PMID:9599727

  18. Relative potency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans for inducing mixed-function oxygenase activity in rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, J.L.; Dixon, D.G.; Hodson, P.V.; Servos, M.R.; Huestis, S.L.

    1995-06-01

    Toxic equivalent factors (TEFs) were generated for various polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) to compare the relative potencies as inducers of liver mixed-function oxygenase (MFO) activity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout, dosed orally with one of five PCDD congeners, either [{sup 3}H]-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PnCDD), 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD), [{sup 14}C]-1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD), or [{sup 14}C]-1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD) or one of four PCDF congeners, either 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1,2,3,7,8-PnCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF), or 1,2,3,4,7,8--hexachlorodibenzofuran (HxCDF), showed increases in liver ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity up to 250-fold. Liver concentrations of congeners were better predictors of EROD activity than oral dose. TEFs, ratios of the potency of each congener to that of TCDD, were calculated comparing ``threshold`` PCDD concentrations that induced EROD significantly above control levels. In cases of nonparallel dose-response curves between congeners, these comparisons are more relevant to environmental situations as PCDDs are compared at concentrations closer to those in the environment, instead of at higher pharmaceutical levels. Threshold-based TEFs were: PnCDD, 1.8; 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD, 0.4; HpCDD, 0.05; 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF, 2; TCDF, 0.5; 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDF and HxCDF, 0.4. The ranking of potencies of the PCDFs was the same in fish as in mammalian tests, with the exception of PnCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF, which were more potent to fish than was TCDD.

  19. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofuran concentrations in Xingyun Lake sediment close to the pulp mill region of Jiangchuan (China): a typical case study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Sediment cores from Xingyun Lake close to the pulp mill region of Jiangchuan (China), earlier found to be highly contaminated by pulping at least from the 1990s, were analyzed by HRGC/HRMS for the concentrations of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Regarding the contribution of individual congeners, PCDD/F levels ranged from ND (non-detectable) to 82.05 pg g(-1) dw (from ND to 0.16 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) dw) in 0-20 cm of sediment and from ND to 45.61 pg g(-1) dw (from ND to 0.67 WHO-TEQ g(-1) dw) in 20-40 cm of sediment for 17 PCDD/Fs (WHO-TEQ: WHO-endorsed toxic equivalents). Major PCDD/Fs identified and confirmed were high-chlorinated congeners including OCDD/Fs and HpCDD/Fs in the two depths. For high-chlorinated PCDD/Fs such as O, Hp-CDD/Fs across the depth of sediment, sediment had a higher proportion in 0-20 cm than that in 20-40 cm. On the contrary, for low-chlorinated PCDD/Fs such as T, Pe, Hx-CDD/Fs, the lower proportion was found in 0-20 cm. The results demonstrated that PCDD/Fs loads in the sediment of Xingyun Lake were very low compared to loads in the other regions about 8 years after closedown of a majority of pulp production with chlorine, which indicated that pulp production was an important emission source of dioxins.

  20. EFFECTS OF COMBUSTION PARAMETERS ON POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN HOMOLOGUE PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE AND COAL CO-COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variation in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF) homologue profiles from a pilot scale (0.6 MWt, 2x106 Btu/hr), co-fired-fuel [densified refuse derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur Illinois coal] combustion system was used to provide i...

  1. Modeling the atmospheric transport and deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoning; Meng, Fan; Shi, Chune; Yang, Fuquan; Wen, Deyong; Aronsson, Jonatan; Gbor, Philip K.; Sloan, James J.

    The atmospheric fate of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was simulated for the year 2000 in North America using a SMOKE/CMAQ-based chemical transport model that was modified for this purpose. The 1999 USEPA emission inventories of PCDD/Fs and criteria pollutants were used. The 1995 Canadian emission inventory of criteria pollutants and the 1995 Canadian area source emissions for PCDD/Fs were used with the 2000 Canadian point source emissions. Modifications to CMAQ involved coupling it with dual organic matter (OM) absorption and black carbon (BC) adsorption models to calculate PCDD/F gas-particle partitioning. The model satisfactorily reproduced the particle bound fractions at all rural sites for which there were measured data and across the whole domain, the modeled vs. measured differences in particle bound fractions were less than 20% for nearly all congeners. The model predicted ambient air PCDD/F concentrations were also consistent with measurements. Simulated deposition fluxes were within 58% of direct measurements. PCDD/F atmospheric depositions to each of the Great Lakes were estimated for the year 2000. The results indicate that approximately 76% of the total deposition of PCDD/Fs to the Great Lakes (in W-TEQ, or toxic equivalent units as defined by the World Health Organization) is attributed to PCDD/Fs absorbed into OM in aerosol. For all of the lakes, more than 92% of all deposition is particle phase wet deposition and only 5-8% is particle phase dry deposition. Wet deposition from the gas phase is negligible. Of the 17 toxic PCDD/F congeners, the Cl 4-5DD/F compounds contribute approximately 70% to the total atmospheric deposition to the Great Lakes. The seasonal changes in the PCDD/F deposition flux track variations in ambient temperature.

  2. Persistent organic pollutants including polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in firefighters from Northern California.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Susan D; Berger, Michelle L; Harris, Jennifer H; Yun, Se Hun; Wu, Qian; Liao, Chunyang; Blum, Arlene; Stefani, Anthony; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2013-06-01

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and PBDD/Fs) were measured in serum of twelve firefighters sampled after a fire event in San Francisco, California, along with polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), p,p'-DDE, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs), bisphenol-A (BPA) and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA). TEQPCDD/F concentrations were relatively low (mean 5pgg(-1) (lipid weight), lw, range 1-11pgg(-1)lw), but concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, a congener indicative of exposure during firefighting, were elevated. Tentative WHO2005-TEQs calculated for PBDD/Fs in our samples (mean 104pgg(-1)lw, range 0.2-734pgg(-1)lw) suggested that PBDD/Fs may contribute substantially to dioxin-like toxicity in individual firefighters. PBDE concentrations were elevated in firefighter serum (mean 135ngg(-1)lw, range 48-442ngg(-1)lw). PBDE-209, PBDE-47 and PBDE-153 were prevalent congeners; PBDE-209 contributed >50% of the total PBDE concentration in four individuals, implying continuous occupational exposure to deca-BDE. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was the dominant PFC in serum (mean 12ngml(-1) (wet weight), ww, range 3ngml(-1)ww to 59ngml(-1)ww), followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (mean 7ngml(-1)ww, range 2ngml(-1)ww to 12ngml(-1)ww). Concentrations of perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) (mean 2ngml(-1)ww, range 1-4ngml(-1)ww) were higher than those reported in the high-smoke exposure group of World Trade Center fire responders, suggesting that the California firefighters were exposed to PFNA in smoke during firefighting. Given their elevated rates of cancers, these results illustrate the importance of monitoring halogenated contaminants including PBDD/Fs in firefighters.

  3. Exposure and effects assessment of resident mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans and other dioxin-like compounds in the Tittabawassee River basin, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Zwiernik, Matthew J; Kay, Denise P; Moore, Jeremy; Beckett, Kerrie J; Khim, Jong Seong; Newsted, John L; Roark, Shaun A; Giesy, John P

    2008-10-01

    Historically, sediments and floodplain soils of the Tittabawassee River (TR; MI, USA) have been contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Median concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) based on 2006 World Health Organization tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) ranged from 6.8 x 10(-1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight upstream of the primary source of PCDF to 3.1 x 10(1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight downstream. Estimates of toxicity reference values (TRVs) derived from laboratory studies with individual PCDDs/PCDFs and PCB congeners or mixtures of those congeners, as well as application of TEFs, were compared to site-specific measures of mink exposure. Hazard quotients based on exposures expressed as concentrations of TEQs in the 95th percentile of the mink diet or liver and the no-observable-adverse-effect TRVs were determined to be 1.7 and 8.6, respectively. The resident mink survey, however, including number of mink present, morphological measures, sex ratios, population age structure, and gross and histological tissue examination, indicated no observable adverse effects. This resulted for multiple reasons: First, the exposure estimate was conservative, and second, the predominantly PCDF congener mixture present in the TR appeared to be less potent than predicted from TEQs based on dose-response comparisons. Given this, there appears to be great uncertainty in comparing the measured concentrations of TEQs at this site to TRVs derived from different congeners or congener mixtures. Based on the lack of negative outcomes for any measurement endpoints examined, including jaw lesions, a sentinel indicator of possible adverse effects, and direct measures of effects on individual mink and their population, it was concluded that current concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were not causing adverse effects on

  4. Exposure and effects assessment of resident mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans and other dioxin-like compounds in the Tittabawassee River basin, Midland, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Zwiernik, Matthew J; Kay, Denise P; Moore, Jeremy; Beckett, Kerrie J; Khim, Jong Seong; Newsted, John L; Roark, Shaun A; Giesy, John P

    2008-10-01

    Historically, sediments and floodplain soils of the Tittabawassee River (TR; MI, USA) have been contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Median concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) based on 2006 World Health Organization tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) ranged from 6.8 x 10(-1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight upstream of the primary source of PCDF to 3.1 x 10(1) ng TEQ/kg wet weight downstream. Estimates of toxicity reference values (TRVs) derived from laboratory studies with individual PCDDs/PCDFs and PCB congeners or mixtures of those congeners, as well as application of TEFs, were compared to site-specific measures of mink exposure. Hazard quotients based on exposures expressed as concentrations of TEQs in the 95th percentile of the mink diet or liver and the no-observable-adverse-effect TRVs were determined to be 1.7 and 8.6, respectively. The resident mink survey, however, including number of mink present, morphological measures, sex ratios, population age structure, and gross and histological tissue examination, indicated no observable adverse effects. This resulted for multiple reasons: First, the exposure estimate was conservative, and second, the predominantly PCDF congener mixture present in the TR appeared to be less potent than predicted from TEQs based on dose-response comparisons. Given this, there appears to be great uncertainty in comparing the measured concentrations of TEQs at this site to TRVs derived from different congeners or congener mixtures. Based on the lack of negative outcomes for any measurement endpoints examined, including jaw lesions, a sentinel indicator of possible adverse effects, and direct measures of effects on individual mink and their population, it was concluded that current concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were not causing adverse effects on

  5. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Echols, K.R.; Peterman, P.H.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.04 ??g/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.02 ??g/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. ?? 2008 US Government.

  6. Atmospheric distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls around a steel plant area, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingming; Wang, Pu; Ding, Lei; Li, Xiaomin; Wang, Thanh; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Hongbiao; Jiang, Guibin; Wei, Fusheng

    2010-04-01

    Air monitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was carried out in June 2008 and January 2009 to investigate the concentrations, profiles and estimating potential inhalation risks to the local residents around a steel plant area in northeast China. The air concentrations and WHO-TEQs of PCDD/Fs ranged 94-4944fgm(-3) (average 1352fgm(-3)) and 3-247fgm(-3) (average 81fgm(-3)), respectively. The WHO-TEQ concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs ranged 1-18fgm(-3) (average 5fgm(-3)), contributing to 3.6-26% of the total TEQ. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were observed in the winter, whereas higher dioxin-like PCB concentrations were found in the summer. The seasonal trend can be related to the significant correlation between the concentrations of dioxins and the reciprocal of temperature (positive for PCDD/Fs, P<0.01; negative for dioxin-like PCBs, P=0.05). A significant positive correlation (P<0.0001) was found between the concentration of total suspended particulate (TSP) and PCDD/F concentrations, but not for PCB congeners. Although the steel plant sites showed higher dioxin levels than the residential and background areas, the PCDD/F levels in the atmosphere of the steel plant area was at a relatively low level. The results from this study provides further aid in evaluating the impact of steel plants as PCDD/Fs emission sources to the ambient air in China. PMID:20176394

  7. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, T P; Echols, K R; Peterman, P H; May, T W; Orazio, C E; Tillitt, D E; Di Giulio, R T

    2008-11-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.04 microg/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.02 mug/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. PMID:18726540

  8. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the environment surrounding secondary copper and aluminum metallurgical facilities in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Changliang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants.

  9. Determination of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and pesticides in harp seals from the Greenland Sea.

    PubMed

    Oehme, M; Schlabach, M; Hummert, K; Luckas, B; Nordøy, E S

    1995-01-27

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), biphenyls (PCB) and compounds of the DDT group were determined in individual seal blubber and brain samples from ten male and one female harp seals caught in the Greenland Sea. No data from this region and from harp seals have been reported before. The age of the animals varied between 1 and 18 years. PCDD/PCDF concentrations in the blubber (4-10 pg/g TEQ wet weight (w.w.), Nordic model) were somewhat lower than in ringed seals from the Arctic. Non-ortho substituted PCB (CB 77,126 and 169) showed TEQ levels in the blubber which were about 4-10-times higher. CB 77 dominated in most samples, but in a few cases CB 169 was the most abundant congener. p,p'-DDE (average 760 ng/g w.w.) and di-ortho substituted PCB concentrations (2560 ng/g w.w. expressed as sigma PCB) in the blubber were comparable to those found in ringed seals from the European and Canadian Artic. Levels of PCDD/PCDF in brain correspond to the detection limit (about. 0.1-0.6 pg/g w.w.) for most congeners. With one exception, PCB amounts in brain (w.w.) were one to two orders of magnitude lower. A highly significant correlation was found between age, p,p-DDE and di-ortho PCB as well as between single PCDD and coplanar PCB congeners. No relationship was observed between levels of PCDD/PCDF, age and di-ortho-PCB.

  10. Incubation stage and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns in an altricial and precocial bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Thyen, Stefan; Becker, Peter H.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was compared between non-incubated and embryonated eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and little terns (Sterna albifrons) to determine if measurable changes in PCB congeners occurred during the embryonic period. There was no indication of changes in PCB congener patterns over the incubation period in tree swallows in 1999 and 2000 at a site with very high PCB exposure or a site with more modest PCB exposure. Additionally, congeners known to be either quickly metabolized or conserved based on experimental studies did not generally respond as predicted. Similarly, PCB congener patterns in eggs of little terns from Bottsand, Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, did not differ between non-incubated and embryonated eggs. The results from both species suggest that the stage of incubation is not an important consideration when evaluating PCB congener patterns; comparisons and assessments can be made with eggs collected at all stages of incubation.

  11. Biological effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E. |; Norstrom, R.J.; Lorenzen, A.; Kennedy, S.W.; Hart, L.E.; Bellward, G.D.; Cheng, K.M.; Philibert, H.; Stegeman, J.J.

    1996-05-01

    During the 1992 breeding season, eggs of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were collected within a gradient of exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants on the southern coast of British Columbia. Twenty-five eggs were placed in a laboratory incubator, of which 18 hatched; chicks were sacrificed within 24 h. Hatching success was not significantly different between eggs taken from pulp mill sites and reference sites. A hepatic cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) cross-reactive protein was induced nearly sixfold in chicks from near a pulp mill at Powell River compared to those from a reference site. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase (BROD) activities were also significantly elevated in chicks from nests located near pulp mills compared to reference sites. A hepatic CYP2B cross-reactive protein was threefold higher in chicks from pulp mill versus reference sites, but the difference was not significant. Residual yolk sacs of eggs collected near pulp mill sites contained greater concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) compared to reference areas. No significant differences in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho congeners, and organochlorine pesticides occurred among sites. Regressions showed that the hepatic CYP1A cross-reactive protein and EROD and BROD activities were positively correlated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, and toxic equivalents (TEQs{sub WHO}--World Health Organization toxic equivalence factors) in yolk sacs. No significant concentration-related effects were found for morphological, physiological, or histological parameters, such as chick growth, edema, or density of thymic lymphocytes. Using hepatic CYP1A induction as a biomarker, a no-observed-effect-level of 100 ng/kg and a lowest-observed-effect-level of 210 ng/kg TEQs{sub WHO} on a whole egg (wet weight basis) are suggested for bald eagle chicks.

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents in fishes from Saginaw Bay, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Giesy, J.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Jude, D.J.

    1997-04-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDTs), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) equivalents were measured in composite samples of forage fishes and several sizes of walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) collected from Saginaw Bay, Michigan, USA. The concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents determined from the use of TCDD equivalency factors (TEFs) and instrumentally determined concentrations of individual congeners were designated TEq. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents determined on the same extracts with the H4IIE bioassay were defined as TCDD-EQ. Concentrations of TCDD-EQ and TEq were significantly, but poorly correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.44). Concentrations of TCDD-EQ and TEq ranged from 10.6 to 348 and 13.5 to 69.5 ng/kg, wet weight, respectively. The ratio of TCDD-EQ to TEq ranged from 0.5 to 5.0, with the greatest ratio observed in common carp but the average ratio between TEq and TCDD-EQ was approximately 1.0. In common carp, larger walleye, and medium-sized alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) there were significant concentrations of TCDD-EQ that could not be accounted for by TEq calculated from an additive model of PCBs, PCDDs, or PCDFs. As much as 75% of the TCDD-EQ in some samples could not be accounted for by TEqs. It is unlikely that PCNs, PCDTs, or polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) occurred at concentrations that were, based on their relative potencies, great enough to contribute significant quantities of TCDD-EQ. The discrepancy between TCDD-EQs and TEqs was not due to antagonisms among congeners or extraction efficiencies.

  13. Degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    PubMed Central

    Takada, S; Nakamura, M; Matsueda, T; Kondo, R; Sakai, K

    1996-01-01

    A method for the degradation of dioxins by white rot fungi was developed. Degradation of a mixture of 10 kinds of tetra- to octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs]) and tetra- to octachlorodibenzofurans (polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]), which were chlorinated at 2-, 3-, 7-, and 8-positions of the molecules, by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 was studied in a stationary low-nitrogen medium. The percent degradation values of PCDDs and PCDFs were approximately 40 (tetra-chloro-) to 76% (hexachloro-) and 45 (tetrachloro-) to 70% (hexachloro-), respectively. Metabolites of 2,3,7,8-tetra- and octaCDD formed by P. sordida YK-624 included 4,5-dichlorocatechol and tetrachlorocatechol, respectively. These results suggest that white rot fungus is able to substantially degrade both PCDDs and PCDFs. This is the first report of the degradation of highly chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs by a microorganism. PMID:8953705

  14. Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in mothers' milk from Sweden, 1972-2011.

    PubMed

    Fång, Johan; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Bignert, Anders; Bergman, Åke

    2013-10-01

    Temporal trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in mothers' milk are still quite rare. Data are particularly scarce when it comes to concentrations from the last decade, 2000 and onwards. The aims of the present study were to assess temporal trends of PCDD, PCDF and DL-PCB in mothers' milk from Stockholm, 1972-2011 and to compare the results with previous analysis of some of the older samples. The samples were analyzed by high resolution GC/MS and results were statistically evaluated for the periods, 1972-2011 and 2002-2011. The rate of which ∑PCDDs, ∑DL-PCBs and the ∑TEQ are decreasing (on pg/g fat WHO-TEQ2005) is higher in the last decade compared to the 40year period, 1972-2011. A similar trend is indicated, but not confirmed, for ∑TEQ of PCDFs, probably due to too many PCDF congeners below LOQ in the period 2002-2011. Concentrations of ∑PCDDs, ∑PCDFs, ∑DLPCBs and ∑TEQ, all expressed as pg/g fat on TEQ-WHO2005-basis, show a statistically significant decline over time, 5.8-6.8% per year, 1972-2011. The last ten years the annual declines for ∑PCDDs, ∑DL-PCBs and ∑TEQ are 9.2-11% and for ∑PCDF, 5.4%. Congener specific trend analysis, 2002-2001, of PCDDs and DL-PCBs showed the same pattern, while the PCDF congeners showed no such general trend. The results from the re-analysis showed good agreement with slightly lower ∑TEQ1998 pg/g fat concentrations in six out of seven samples and mean difference of 13% in ∑TEQ1998. The study shows that time series can be elongated from previous studies, as long as the sample population remains the same.

  15. A Critical Review about Human Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) through Foods.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, R; Yebra-Pimentel, I; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-01-01

    Dioxins include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and part of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Only the compounds that are chlorinated at the 2,3,7, and 8 positions have characteristic dioxin toxicity. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs accumulate in the food chain due to their high lipophilicity, high stability, and low vapor pressure. They are not metabolized easily; however their hydroxylated metabolites are detected in feces. They cause a wide range of endocrine disrupting effects in experimental animals, wildlife, and humans. Endocrine related effects of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs on thyroid hormones, neurodevelopment and reproductive development were referenced. In addition, some studies of contamination of foods, bioaccumulation, dietary exposure assessment, as well as challenges of scientific research in these compounds were reviewed.

  16. Characteristic and potential sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans in agricultural soils in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Chaoqin; Chen, Zuosheng; Cai, Zongwei

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed in 25 background and 80 agricultural soil samples collected from 21 sites in Beijing, China. The levels of PCDD/Fs in the north agricultural soils were low (0.15-0.58 ng international toxic equivalent quantity [I-TEQ]/kg), which were comparable with those of the background soils (0.091-0.35 ng I-TEQ/kg). In the southern agricultural soils, however, concentrations were several times higher (0.27-3.3 ng I-TEQ/kg). Comparison of PCDD/Fs congener compositions between possible sources and samples indicated that agricultural soils in Beijing had not been contaminated by the 3 main PCDD/F contamination sources in China--ferrous and nonferrous metal, waste incineration, and power generation. They had, however, been slightly contaminated by the impurities of some organochlorine pesticides, such as sodium pentachlorophenate, and by open burning of biomass, vehicle exhaust, atmospheric deposition, sediment, and sewage sludge. These results have been supported by the principal components analysis.

  17. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls in coastal sediments from Spain.

    PubMed

    Eljarrat, Ethel; De La Cal, Agustina; Larrazabal, David; Fabrellas, Begoña; Fernandez-Alba, Amadeo Rodriguez; Borrull, Francesc; Marce, Rosa Maria; Barcelo, Damia

    2005-08-01

    Fifteen sediment samples were analysed in order to determine their content of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs). Samples were collected from several hot spots on the Spanish coast, such as the harbours of Almeria and Tarragona, and the mouths of the Besos and Llobregat rivers in Barcelona. A generic analytical procedure based on Soxhlet extraction followed by an automated cleanup system and gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry was employed for determining the toxic congeners of PCDDs and PCDFs, as well as dioxin-like PCBs. As regards PBDE determinations, a rapid method based on the use of selective pressurized liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry was applied. Total toxicity equivalent (WHO-TEQ) values were calculated using the toxicity equivalent factors proposed by WHO for dioxin-like PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs. WHO-TEQ values ranged from 0.3 to 75 pg/g dry weight (dw), with PCB contribution on the toxicity of the samples between 1 and 84%. Total PBDE levels ranged from 2.7 to 134 ng/g dw, with BDE-209 contribution on the total PBDE contamination between 50 and 99%.

  18. ANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 25 % of pesticides and other toxic organic pollutants are chiral, as are 19 of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers (PCB enantiomers are called atropisomers). The enantiomers of a chiral compound...

  19. Release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by setting off fireworks.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, O; Wichmann, H; Lorenz, W

    1999-09-01

    Selected pyrotechnic articles were set off under laboratory conditions. Residues and vapors of smoke as well as unburnt charges were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and their precursors chlorinated benzenes and phenols. The contamination of the selected products with these organic xenobiotics proved to be very variable. Remains of fireworks contained octachlorinated dioxins and furans up to 142 ng I-TEQ/kg as well as hexachlorobenzene in the range of 0.05 to 1,400 mg/kg. The deflagration of detonating compositions usually resulted in a dispersion of contaminants, whereas continuously burning flare compositions partially led to a thermal decomposition of organic pollutants. A significant rate of formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans was observed when setting off blue-lightning rockets and fountains. Further investigations revealed that even high temperatures during the deflagration of black powder charges could not suppress the formation of PCDD/F from appropriate precursors. PMID:10448567

  20. Release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by setting off fireworks.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, O; Wichmann, H; Lorenz, W

    1999-09-01

    Selected pyrotechnic articles were set off under laboratory conditions. Residues and vapors of smoke as well as unburnt charges were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and their precursors chlorinated benzenes and phenols. The contamination of the selected products with these organic xenobiotics proved to be very variable. Remains of fireworks contained octachlorinated dioxins and furans up to 142 ng I-TEQ/kg as well as hexachlorobenzene in the range of 0.05 to 1,400 mg/kg. The deflagration of detonating compositions usually resulted in a dispersion of contaminants, whereas continuously burning flare compositions partially led to a thermal decomposition of organic pollutants. A significant rate of formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans was observed when setting off blue-lightning rockets and fountains. Further investigations revealed that even high temperatures during the deflagration of black powder charges could not suppress the formation of PCDD/F from appropriate precursors.

  1. Dibenzofuran

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dibenzofuran ; CASRN 132 - 64 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effe

  2. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from their food

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; O'Connor, D.V.; Rediske, R.R.; O'Keefe, J. P.; Pothoven, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks over a 133-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, 10 to 14 of the fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 40 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 15 lake whitefish remaining in each of the four tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the rainbow smelt fed to the lake whitefish. Each lake whitefish was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake whitefish during the experiment was tracked. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (??) from the rainbow smelt to the lake whitefish in each of the four tanks was calculated for each of the 40 PCB congeners. Results showed that ?? decreased exponentially as log KOW for the congeners increased from 6 to 8. Further, ?? averaged 0.70 for the tetrachloro congeners but averaged only 0.45 for the higher chlorinated congeners. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  3. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in food from Agent Orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas of Laos.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Malisch, Rainer; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-28

    During the Vietnam War, a phenoxy-herbicide mixture called Agent Orange, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, or TCDD, was used primarily for destruction of forest and other foliage in order to prevent enemy troop movement and protect American and allied troops and military bases in the south of Vietnam. Smaller areas of Laos and Cambodia were also sprayed with Agent Orange between 1962 and 1971 from fixed-wing aircraft. In 2001, 28 food samples consisting of meat, fish, and dairy products were collected in sprayed and nonsprayed areas of Laos and analyzed for dioxins, dioxinlike dibenzofurans, and selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry at laboratories in Germany and Canada. Low levels of dioxin and other dioxinlike substances were found in Laotian food, similar to levels present in recent exported Vietnamese food to United States. Vietnam is geographically adjacent to Laos. Total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels were similar in samples from sprayed and non-sprayed areas, ranging from 0.009 to 0.851 pg/g or parts per trillion (ppt) in sprayed Sepone, and from 0.022 to 0.537 pg/g or ppt wet weight in non sprayed Vientiane. However, the Laotian fish samples from the Agent Orange-sprayed area had, on average, a higher proportion of total TEQ from TCDD (31.7% vs. 9.4%) compared to the nonsprayed area. Some other food items, duck eggs and pork liver from Sepone, also had severalfold higher TCDD levels than similar food samples from Vientiane, 0.029 vs. 0.011 pg/g and 0.070 vs. 0.004 pg/g wet weight, respectively. There were no substantial differences in levels of dibenzofuran and PCB congeners. In general, elevated TCDD levels were not found in Laotian food samples. It is possible that dioxin-contaminated areas, or "hot spots," exist in Laos as they do in Vietnam, although they have not yet been identified. PMID:14710598

  4. Absence of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans after lactoperoxidase-catalyzed transformation of chlorophenols

    SciTech Connect

    Oeberg, L.G.; Swanson, S.E.

    1987-06-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) have been detected in many species and environments their bioresistance and toxicity being of great concern. PCDDs and PCDFs, or the predioxins and -furans, are formed from chlorophenols (CPs) by burning and pyrolysis by arcing and by photolysis. PCDDs and PCDFs have also been found in emissions from automobiles, municipal waste incinerators, and nickel and copper smelting. Peroxidases (POs), a group of heme-proteins, are found in many organs and organisms. They are exceptional enzymes because of low substrate specificity and multiple reaction mechanisms. This enzyme-catalyzed free radical reaction resembles reactions in pyrolysis, arcing, and photolysis. Halogenated phenols are among the peroxidase substrates, and phenolic substrates have been found to yield dibenzodioxin- and dibenzofuran like products. The question then arose whether CP's in peroxidase-mediated reactions could yield chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. Since no-one has yet reported a biological formation of PCDDs and PCDFs the authors have analyzed the rpdoct mixture from the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of some chlorophenols.

  5. Patterns of bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in marine mussels.

    PubMed

    Debruyn, Adrian M H; Meloche, Lizanne M; Lowe, Christopher J

    2009-05-15

    Marine mussels (Modiolus modiolus) and sediment from 14 stations near a municipal outfall and three reference locations were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to evaluate and compare patterns of bioaccumulation of individual congeners between these two groups of chemicals. Of the 47 PBDEs and 209 PCBs analyzed, 34 PBDE and 153 PCB congeners or coeluting groups of congeners were detected in one or more matrices. The predominant PBDE congeners were BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 209, accounting for 80-90% of the total PBDEs in all matrices. PCBs and PBDEs exhibited a parabolic relationship of the biota-sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) versus the log octanol-water partition coefficient(Kow). Below Kow 10(5.5), BSAFs ranged between 1 and 3, reflecting approximate equilibrium between mussels and sedimentforthese relatively water soluble congeners. BSAFs increased with increasing Kow to maximum values of approximately 30-100 for congeners with Kow approximately 10(7) and then declined at higher Kow to a value of approximately 1 for BDE 209. BSAFs for PBDEs were generally 2- to 3-fold higher than those for PCBs of a similar Kow. The calculated BSAFs for PBDE congeners indicate that PBDEs have a pattern of bioaccumulative behavior in mussels similar to that of the PCBs, and that some PBDE congeners may be more bioaccumulative in mussels than PCBs. PMID:19544876

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener distributions in burbot: evidence for a latitude effect.

    PubMed

    Stapanian, Martin A; Madenjian, Charles P; Cott, Peter A; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P

    2014-11-01

    The authors compared the distributions of the congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) detected in whole-body samples of burbot (Lota lota) from Great Slave Lake and Lake Erie. Total PCB concentrations in Great Slave Lake burbot were about one-sixtieth of the concentrations in Lake Erie burbot. Burbot from Great Slave Lake contained a higher proportion of lower-chlorinated (2-6 chlorines) congeners than did burbot from Lake Erie; the reverse occurred for more highly chlorinated (7-9 chlorines) congeners. Hexachloro congeners, followed by pentachloro congeners, dominated the proportions of total PCBs in burbot from both lakes. There were no differences between sexes in whole-body samples or between gonad and somatic tissues in the proportions of the 39 congeners and 3 sets of coeluters detected in burbot from Great Slave Lake. In contrast, there were distinct sex differences in congener distributions for older burbot from Lake Erie. The results generally supported a prediction of higher proportions of lower-chlorinated PCB homologs in organisms in remote polar areas. However, the latitudinal effect on PCB congener distribution may be more complex than that portrayed in previous studies.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener distributions in burbot: evidence for a latitude effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Cott, Peter A.; Rediske, Richard R.; O'Keefe, James P.

    2014-01-01

    We compared the distributions of the congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) detected in whole-body samples of burbot (Lota lota) from Great Slave Lake and Lake Erie. Total PCB concentrations in Great Slave Lake burbot were about 1/60 of the concentrations in Lake Erie burbot. Burbot from Great Slave Lake contained a higher proportion of lower-chlorinated (2-6 chlorines) congeners than did burbot from Lake Erie; the reverse occurred for more highly chlorinated (7-9 chlorines) congeners. Hexachloro congeners, followed by pentachloro congeners, dominated the proportions of total PCB in burbot from both lakes. There were no differences between sexes in whole-body samples or between gonad and somatic tissues in the proportions of the 39 congeners and three sets of co-eluters detected in burbot from Great Slave Lake. In contrast, there were distinct sex differences in congener distributions for older burbot from Lake Erie. Our results generally supported a prediction of higher proportions of lower-chlorinated PCB homologs in organisms in remote polar areas. However, the latitudinal effect on PCB congener distribution may be more complex than that portrayed in previous studies.

  8. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments.

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, T O; Taylor, M L; Garrett, J H; VanNess, G F; Solch, J G; Wagel, D J; Ferguson, G L; Schecter, A

    1985-01-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed. PMID:3921357

  9. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, T O; Taylor, M L; Garrett, J H; VanNess, G F; Solch, J G; Wagel, D J; Ferguson, G L; Schecter, A

    1985-02-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed. PMID:3921357

  10. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tiernan, T.O.; Taylor, M.L.; Garrett, J.H.; VanNess, G.F.; Solch, J.G.; Wagel, D.J.; Ferguson, G.L.; Schecter, A.

    1985-02-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed.

  11. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides in yellow-blotched map turtle from the Pascagoula River basin, Mississippi, USA.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Ueda, M; Shelby, J A; Mendonca, M T; Kawano, M; Matsuda, M; Wakimoto, T; Giesy, J P

    2000-04-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides were measured in tissues of map turtles collected from two locations in the Pascagoula River drainage of Mississippi, USA. PCBs were most predominant among the organochlorines with a concentration of up to 99 ng/g, wet weight (580 ng/g, lipid weight) in livers. The greatest concentration of PCDDs/DFs of 1.1 pg/g, wet weight (15.76 pg/g, lipid weight) was found in the liver of a male turtle. The measured concentrations of organochlorines were less than those reported for turtles from the Great Lakes Basin and upper St. Lawrence River. PCBs contributed 90-99% of the total estimated 2, 3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs). Particularly, PCB congeners 105, 118, and 156 accounted for 68-80% of the estimated toxic potency of PCBs in turtles.

  12. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: GAS-PHASE HYDROXYL RADICAL REACTIONS AND RELATED ATMOSPHERIC REMOVAL. (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH) are
    expected to be an important removal pathway of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans
    (PCDD/F)
    in the atmosphere. Our laboratory recently developed
    a system to measure the rate constants of ...

  13. AN EVALUATION OF THREE EMPIRICAL AIR-TO-LEAF MODELS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three empirical air-to-leaf models for estimating grass concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (abbreviated dioxins and furans) from air concentrations of these compounds are described and tested against two field data sets. All are empirical in th...

  14. Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Southern Mississippi Catfish and Estimation of Potential.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated tissue levels of the 17 laterally-substituted PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 97 non-...

  15. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  16. Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in feedstuffs and milk from farms in the vicinity of incineration plants in Tuscany, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ingelido, Anna Maria; Abballe, Annalisa; di Domenico, Alessandro; Fochi, Igor; Iacovella, Nicola; Saragosa, Alberto; Spagnesi, Maurizio; Valentini, Silvia; De Felip, Elena

    2009-08-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were determined in samples of bovine and ovine milk collected in farms located in the province of Grosseto, Tuscany, in the vicinity of two incineration plants as well as in farms located in areas with presumable background levels of contamination. Samples of feedstuffs of local origin used in the investigated farms were also collected and analysed. The cumulative levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in feedstuffs ranged from 0.25 to 0.61 pg WHO-TE/g fresh weight (fw) in the farms under impact from incinerator emissions and from 0.21 to 0.34 pg WHO-TE/g fw in the control area farms. The sums of the six non-dioxin-like indicator PCB (NDL-PCB) congeners were 0.13 to 9.3 ng/g fw and 1.2 to 1.9 ng/g fw, respectively. In milk samples, the levels detected were 0.71 to 2.9 pg WHO-TE/g fat and 0.52 to 0.59 pg WHO-TE/g fat in farms under impact from the incinerators and in the control area farms, respectively. The corresponding sums of the six indicator PCB congeners were 1.4 to 8.2 ng/g fat and 0.90 to 1.6 ng/g fat. In all samples, contamination levels were below the limits set by the European Community (EC; Commission Directive 2006/13/EC and Commission Regulation 1881/2006/EC.) No relevant differences were found between samples collected in potentially exposed areas and control areas for total toxic equivalents and cumulative analytic levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, DL-PCBs, and NDL-PCBs (p > 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). Observed levels were in agreement with those found in other countries in areas with background levels of exposure. Congener levels and profiles of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in feedstuffs and milk samples that were compared describe congener-specific transfer behavior.

  17. Evaluation of the leachability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in raw and solidified air pollution control residues from municipal waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Yu, Tsung-Hsien

    2007-04-01

    Leachability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from raw and solidified air pollution control (APC) residues with selected solvents, including acetic acid, simulated acid rain, humic acid, linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) and n-hexane was investigated. High-chlorinated PCDD/F congeners were observed in all leachates of raw APC residue samples, with the largest total leaching concentration (61.60 ngm(-3); 0.30 ngI-TEQm(-3)) from treatment with humic acid. Low-chlorinated congeners were mainly leached with LAS and n-hexane. Solidification and stabilization (S/S) processes with cement and sulfur-containing chelating agent decreased the leachability of PCDD/Fs by up to 98% with humic acid and LAS as solvents. However, S/S processes enhanced the leachability of both high- and low-chlorinated PCDD/F congeners with n-hexane as the solvent, which largely increased the toxic equivalent quantity of leachates. These results suggest that conventional S/S processes may effectively restrain the release of PCDD/Fs when APC residues are leached with rain water or natural organic compounds (e.g., humic acid), but may have a deteriorated effect when APC residues are leached with nonpolar organic solvents (e.g., n-hexane) coexisting in the landfill sites.

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in water and six fish species from Dongting Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Xiao, Ke

    2014-11-01

    There have been few studies of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in environmental water because of the large volume of water required for PCDD/Fs analysis. Water quality directly affects aquatic organisms, and little is known about how PCDD/Fs are transported in aquatic environments. PCDD/Fs were analyzed in eight water samples from Dongting Lake, China, which was contaminated with PCDD/Fs because of sodium pentachlorophenate use between the 1960s and the 1980s. The total PCDD/F concentrations in the samples were 36-345 pg L(-1), and the mean was 191 pg L(-1). Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was the most abundant PCDD/F congener in every sample, contributing 67-95% of the total 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDD/F concentrations. The toxic equivalent (WHO-TEQ) concentrations in the samples were 0.17-0.37 pg L(-1), and the mean was 0.28 pg L(-1), which is higher than the Canadian environmental quality guideline (0.038 pg L(-1) WHO-TEQ for freshwater) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency water quality criterion (0.014 pg L(-1) WHO-TEQ). PCDD/Fs were also determined in six fish species collected from Dongting Lake, to assess the concentrations, accumulation patterns, and potential for toxic effects. The total 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDD/F concentrations in the fish samples were 2.2-17.9 pg g(-1) (wet weight), and the dominant congeners were octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran. The PCDD/F WHO-TEQs were 0.10-0.92 ww (3.3-65.3l w) pg g(-1) in different species of fish. PCDD/F congener patterns in fish may be affected by food chain biomagnification and the lipid content of the species.

  19. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in human tissues, meat, fish, and wildlife samples from India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K S; Kannan, K; Paramasivan, O N; Shanmuga Sundaram, V P; Nakanishi, J; Masunaga, S

    2001-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs) were measured in tissues of humans, fishes, chicken, lamb, goat, predatory birds, and Ganges River dolphins collected from various locations in India. PCDDs/DFs were found in most of the samples analyzed with the liver of spotted owlet containing the highest concentration of 3,300 pg/g, fat wt. 2,3,7,8-Substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were found in human fattissues at concentrations ranging from 170 to 1,300 pg/g, fat wt. Concentrations of PCDDs were generally greaterthan those of PCDFs in human tissues, fishes, animal fat, and dolphin. Among fishes, meat, and wildlife samples analyzed, concentrations of PCDDs/DFs were found in the following order: country chicken < goat/lamb fat < fishes < river dolphins < predatory birds. Hepta-CDDs and OCDD were the major PCDD homologues found in humans, fishes, meat products, and dolphins. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of PCDDs/DFs were greater than those of PCBs in selected fish, dolphin, and human samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PCDDs and PCDFs in human tissues, fishes, meat, and wildlife collected from India. PMID:11563645

  20. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran formation and emission in the thermal desorption waste treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Leckey, J.H.

    1995-03-01

    It is extremely unlikely that significant amounts of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) will be emitted in the off-gas stream from the thermal desorption process, or the treated waste, particularly if the baseline design and anticipated operating conditions of the enhanced bench-scale (EBS) system are used. However, because of the acute toxicity of these compounds and because most of the data on their formation have been extrapolated from studies more related to incineration and fire conditions than thermal desorption, specific laboratory tests and specific EBS runs should be performed to monitor the rate of emission of PCDDs and PCDFs under thermal desorption conditions. In general, the following four conditions need to exist for significant amounts of PCDD or PCDF to be formed: (1) the presence of fly ash; (2) the presence of an oxidizing source; (3) a suitable temperature, and (4) the presence of a suitable precursor. Although the EBS system provides some of these conditions, it is unlikely that enough fly ash will be produced in the system to allow a significant amount of PCDD or PCDF formation. Additionally, particulate matter controls will be used to remove airborne particulates from the gas phase. If PCDD/Fs are presented in a waste stream being evaluated in the EBS, they will likely volatilize in the kiln and subsequently condense in the venturi scrubber system.

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively.

  2. [Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in newsprints and copy papers by HRGC/HRMS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Yang, Zhijun; Chen, Jiping; Wu, Wenzhong; Liang, Xinmiao; Lu, Peizhang

    2004-07-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in newsprints and copy papers which included blank and printed paper samples were determined by isotope dilution and high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). All of the paper samples collected at random were extracted with organic solvents and the extracts were cleaned up successively by three different chromatographic columns. The results indicated that the total concentrations of PCDD/ Fs in newsprints were higher than those in copy papers, but the total toxicity equivalent (TEQ) values of newsprint samples were lower than those in copy paper samples. In addition, for both papers, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in printed papers were higher than the blank papers. Moreover, the patterns of PCDD/Fs in newsprint samples and copy paper samples were different. The total international TEQ values of PCDD/Fs in newsprints and printed newsprints were 0.48 ng/kg and 0.61 ng/kg, respectively. Moreover, the total TEQ values of PCDD/Fs in copy paper and printed copy paper samples were 0.74 ng/kg and 0.79 ng/kg, respectively. The recoveries of 13C labeled 2, 3 ,7, 8-substituted PCDD/Fs spiked before extraction into all paper samples were between 49.82% and 131.34%.

  3. Evaluation of the Spanish hot dip galvanising sector as a source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M Angeles; Sanz, Paloma; Ruiz, M Luisa; Fabrellas, Begoña; Abad, Esteban; Rivera, Josep

    2008-04-01

    A survey to estimate the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) emissions of Spanish hot dip galvanising sector was carried out during 2002. This investigation is the first presenting Spanish experimental data related to this industrial sector. Three different matrices: flue gas, ash and filter dust were tested to quantify the PCDD/Fs generated during the galvanising process. The organic source of PCDD/F formation could be from the insufficient degreasing o from inhibitors or additives used in the pickling steps such as quinoline, isoquinoline, 8-methylquinoline or polyether phosphoric acid. Low levels PCDD/Fs were achieved in air emissions when air control devices are used. On the contrary, filter dusts are highly contaminated; indicating that the absence of air control devices would increase the risk of fugitive emissions. Homologue profiles and Principal Component Analysis demonstrate there are differences in the formation mechanisms in the bath zone (ashes) compared to the stack location (filter dusts and air emissions), related to the de novo synthesis and reaction time. The annual PCDD/F emission to the atmosphere for this sector during 2002 has been estimated in 0.023g I-TEQ. The emission factor of plants with air control devices has been calculated at 0.030microg I-TEQ/ton of galvanised steel. PMID:18083211

  4. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxins during combustion, electrical equipment fires and PCB incineration.

    PubMed Central

    Hutzinger, O; Choudhry, G G; Chittim, B G; Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are likely formed by thermal synthesis of a variety of primary precursors. Highest levels of these compounds are expected, however, when the starting material requires only one or two reaction steps for their formation, as is the case with chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Laboratory pyrolyses have indeed shown that PCBs give significant yields of PCDFs, and chlorobenzenes give both PCDFs and PCDDs. In addition, a variety of other chloroaromatic compounds are formed. From these experiments and from accidents involving PCB fires, it is known that PCDFs are the most important toxic compounds associated with PCBs. Most commercial PCBs contain PCDFs in the low ppm range. PCDF concentration does not increase during normal operation in electrical equipment. Accidents (fires and explosions) involving PCBs can give PCDF levels in soot of up to 1000 ppm and higher. Effective thermal destruction of PCB is possible in modern incineration units, provided high temperatures, excess air and sufficient residence times are used. Exact figures for minimum temperature and residence time cannot be given, since feedstock and incinerator construction greatly influence destruction efficiency. Effluents from EPA-licensed incinerators used for PCB destruction contain only very low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:3928357

  5. CORRELATION OF POLYCHLORINATED NAPHTHALENES WITH POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS FORMED FROM WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isomer composition of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) was measured for municipal waste incinerator fly ash samples,and for emission samples produced from soot and copper deposit experiments conducted at EPA. Two types of PCN isomer patterns were identified. One pattern cxonta...

  6. Differential toxicity of three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in developing sea urchin embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, L.E.; Suffet, I.H.; Hose, J.E.; Bay, S.M.

    1997-07-01

    The relationship between body burden and toxicity of three individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in developing sea urchin embryos was investigated to evaluate the validity of current predictive models of PCB toxicity in an invertebrate system. Body burdens of radiolabeled PCB congeners (IUPAC-47, 77, and 153) accumulated from a seawater were used to determine median effective concentrations (EC50s) for developmental and cytogenetic effects following a 72-h exposure. Congener 47, a di-ortho-substituted tetrachlorobiphenyl, was found to be at least four times more toxic than congener 77, a non-ortho-substituted (coplanar) tetrachlorobiphenyl, with EC50s of 47 and >218 mmol/kg, respectively, using an embryo development assay. This result contradicts the structure-activity prediction of the mammalian-based toxic equivalents (TEQs) approach, demonstrating the need for an ecotoxicologic model. Congener 153, a di-ortho-substituted hexachlorobiphenyl, was virtually nontoxic in terms of developmental effects at the highest dose achievable at its limit of water solubility. Cytogenetic analysis was a more sensitive method for assessing toxicity than the embryo development assay. Dose-response relationships were established with mitotic activity being the most sensitive endpoint because the PCBs appeared to inhibit mitosis. At the highest doses, complete mitotic arrest was observed. Congener 77 was found to be at least two times more toxic than congener 153 but not as toxic as congener 47 using mitotic activity as the endpoint for toxicity. Thus, the developmental and cytogenetic endpoints ranked the toxicity of the congeners similarly, but established different EC50s.

  7. Depositional flux of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in an urban setting.

    PubMed

    Correa, Oscar; Raun, Loren; Rifai, Hanadi; Suarez, Monica; Holsen, Thomas; Koenig, Larry

    2006-08-01

    Dry and wet deposition fluxes of the PCDD/F substituted congeners were measured at two different sites (Clinton Drive and Lang Road) in Houston, TX between December 2003 and April 2004. Average total dry deposition fluxes of 351 and 125pgm(-2)d(-1) were found at Clinton Drive and Lang Road, respectively. A wet deposition flux of 2.873pgm(-2)d(-1) was measured at the Clinton Drive site. The results indicated that the dry deposition process exhibited spatial variability. In addition, the results also demonstrated that precipitation, although intermittent, is the most important mechanism for the removal of dioxins from atmosphere in the area of study. Combining the contributions of the dry and wet deposition processes at Clinton Drive resulted in a total bulk deposition flux of 527pg m(-2)d(-1). The total dry and wet deposition fluxes were dominated by OCDD followed by 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD at both sites. Overall average dry deposition velocities of 0.35 and 0.15cms(-1) were calculated at Clinton Drive and Lang Road sites, respectively. While these velocities were similar to velocities observed in other geographical areas, the contribution of OCDD to the total deposition flux in Houston was significantly higher, probably reflecting the unique nature and character of Houston dioxin sources. The results also showed that lower chlorinated congeners, primarily present in the gas phase, are more likely to be removed from the atmosphere by precipitation. Relationships between the detected congeners in the dry deposition samples and other routinely measured air pollutants/meteorological parameters were found. The results showed that in general, the dry deposition of these congeners was consistently negatively correlated with SO(2) and NO(x) concentrations in the air and positively correlated with relative humidity. However, more research is needed to ascertain those correlations.

  8. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans formed from sucralose at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shujun; Liu, Guorui; Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui

    2013-01-01

    Sucralose is a widely-used artificial high-intensity sweetener. Although doubts have been raised about the safety of sucralose by several researchers, it can still be found in a broad range of foods and beverages worldwide, including in baked goods. Sucralose may decompose at high temperatures, and participate in chlorination reactions, generating highly toxic compounds. Here, we demonstrate that heating sucralose at high temperatures in stainless steel or other metal utensils in the presence of rust (Al2O3, Fe2O3, and CuO) produces polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PCDD/Fs were found in smoke generated during the heating of sucralose and in the residues after heating. CuO enhanced the PCDD/F yield in comparison with Al2O3 and Fe2O3. PMID:24126490

  9. Polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in soils of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelepchikov, A. A.; Brodskii, E. S.; Feshin, D. B.; Zhil'Nikov, V. G.; Mir-Kadyrova, E. Ya.; Balashova, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    The contents of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) in the soils of Moscow were estimated. The concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs mainly vary in the range of 0.27-16.1 ng WHO-TEQ/kg with single points of very high contamination up to 57.3 ng WHO-TEQ/kg; the concentrations of PCBs are in the range of 2.1-50.8 ng/g with sites of high contamination up to 4020 ng/g. The contribution of dioxin-like PCBs to the total dioxin toxic equivalent is very high: from 16 to 85%. The high levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the soils indicate the strong contamination of the atmospheric air. The main source of these compounds is apparently motor transport.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in emergent mayflies from the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Schwartz, T.R.; Wiener, J.G.; Lebo, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) in emergent mayflies (hexagenia bilineata) from a 1250-km reach of the upper mississippi river (umr). Total pcb concentrations (sum of 125 congeners) ranged from 0.21 To 4.1 Mu g/g of dry weight (1.2-29 mu g/g of lipid weight). Concentrations were highest in pools near the twin cities and the quad cities metropolitan areas. Longitudinal movement of pcbs was extensive downstream from the twin cities (175-320 km) but was not apparent downstream from the quad cities. The pcb composition of mayflies was relatively homogeneous throughout most of the river. However, the congener composition in mayflies from two distant locations differed markedly from the other samples and contained a greater abundance of lower molecular weight congeners. Recent pcb discharges from point and nonpoint sources may account for these differences. Emergent mayflies seem to be a useful indicator of pcb contamination of the umr.

  11. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided.

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residues in estuarine and coastal North Sea sediments: Sources and distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Evers, E.H.G.; Klamer, H.J.C.; Laane, R.W.P.M. . Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management); Govers, H.A.J. . Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry)

    1993-09-01

    Sediments from two depositional zones of the North Sea (the Wadden Sea and Oyster Grounds) and from the estuaries of the rivers Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, Ems, and Humber were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) using a congener-specific procedure. A simple grain-size correction procedure was utilized for the comparison of PCDF and PCDD concentrations in sediments from different origin. PCDFs were more widely encountered than PCDDs in all sediments, except for the Ems-Dollard and the Humber estuary. The highest concentrations were found in the outflow sediments of the rivers Rhine and Humber. Concentrations up to 2,980 ng/kg PCDFs, principally 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF and OCDF, and up to 1,760 ng/kg PCDDs, principally OCDD, were determined in the River Rhine sediments. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the compositional changes of Rhine sediments. Principal component analysis was used to visualize the compositional changes of PCDD and PCDF profiles in the sediments. Two-dimensional projections based on sample scores from the principal component models showed a marked influence of the River Rhine on the presence of these compounds in the western Wadden Sea and the Oyster Grounds. Based on a chemometric evaluation of chromatographic profiles of these coastal, estuarine and related freshwater sediments, the authors have deduced that these compounds originate from industrial operation discharges, related to the production of chloroaliphatic compounds and the chloralkali compounds and the chloralkali industry along the River Rhine. The atmospheric deposition of combustion-generated PCDDs and PCDFs appeared significant only for remote marine environments.

  13. Transport and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Van Thuong, Nguyen; Hung, Nguyen Xuan; Mo, Nguyen Thi; Thang, Nguyen Manh; Huy, Pham Quang; Van Binh, Hoang; Nam, Vu Duc; Van Thuy, Nguyen; Son, Le Ke; Minh, Nguyen Hung

    2015-10-01

    The Bien Hoa airbase (south of Vietnam) is known as one of the Agent Orange hotspots which have been seriously contaminated by Agent Orange/dioxin during the Vietnam War. Hundreds of samples including soil, sediment and fish were collected at the Bien Hoa Agent Orange hotspot for assessment of the environmental contamination caused by dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The toxicity equivalency quotient (TEQ) concentration of PCDD/Fs in soil and sediment varied from 7.6 to 962,000 and 17 to 4860 pg/g dry wt, respectively, implying very high contamination of PCDD/Fs in several areas. PCDD/F levels in fish ranged between 1.8 and 288 pg/g TEQ wet wt and was generally higher than advisory guidelines for food consumption. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (2,3,7,8-TCDD) contributed 66-99 % of TEQ for most of the samples, suggesting 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) from Agent Orange as the major source of the contamination. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs was observed in soil column with high TEQ levels above 1000 pg/g dry wt (Vietnamese limit for necessary remediation activities- TCVN 8183:2009 (2009)) even at a depth of 1.8 m. The vertical transport of PCDD/Fs has probably mainly taken place during the "Ranch Hand" defoliant spray activities due to the leaks and spills of phenoxy herbicides and solvents. The congener patterns suggest that transports of PCDD/Fs by weathering processes have led to their redistribution in the low-land areas. Also, an estimate for the total volume of contaminated soil requiring remediation to meet Vietnamese regulatory limits is provided. PMID:25510612

  14. Mono- to Octachlorinated Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Emissions from Sintering Plants Synergistically Controlled by the Desulfurization Process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjing; Liu, Wenbin; Hou, Meifang; Li, Qianqian; Han, Ying; Li, Haifeng; Yan, Nan; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-05-17

    The influence of desulfurization systems in sintering plants on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations, profiles, and emission factors was studied. Mono- to tri-CDD/Fs and tetra- to octa-CDD/F concentrations were 4.4 ± 2.3 and 10.5 ± 8.3 ng m(-3), respectively, at the inlets and 0.87 ± 0.48 and 0.47 ± 0.22 ng m(-3), respectively, after desulfurization. The toxic equivalents (TEQs) were 0.95 ± 0.093 and 0.51 ± 0.040 ng of I-TEQ m(-3) at the inlets and after desulfurization, respectively. The congener profiles and homologue distributions were dominated by 2-MoCDF and MoCDF, respectively. The PCDD/F removal efficiencies achieved by desulfurization increased as the chlorination level increased. The PCDD/Fs became adsorbed to gypsum. Annual mono- to tri-CDD/Fs PCDD/F and TEQ (tetra- to octa-CDD/F) emission factors for flue gas and gypsum between 2003 and 2012 were determined. The total amounts of mono- to tri-CDD/Fs emitted in flue gas and gypsum between 2003 and 2012 were 10.7 and 10.2 kg, respectively. The total TEQs emitted in flue gas and gypsum between 2003 and 2012 were estimated to be 15486 and 1878 g of I-TEQ, respectively. PCDD/Fs adsorbed to gypsum are not effectively eliminated. The PCDD/F concentrations increased as the fly ash surface area increased moving through the electrostatic precipitator stages.

  15. Uptake by roots and translocation to shoots of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in typical crop plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haijun; Chen, Jiping; Ni, Yuwen; Zhang, Qing; Zhao, Liang

    2009-08-01

    Root uptake and subsequent translocation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in 12 agricultural crops were comparatively investigated. All crop plants were exposed hydroponically to a mixture of three kinds of dioxin congeners over 4d. The root concentration factor (RCF) of dioxin showed a logarithmic correlation with extractable lipid content in plant root. On the assumption that the dioxin escaping via gas phase from nutrient solution in the closed container can evenly diffuse in the air and equally absorb onto the shoot tissues of the dioxin-exposed plant and their nearby blank control plant, the amount of translocated dioxin was estimated by subtracting dioxin content in the shoot tissues of the blank control plant from that of the dioxin-exposed plant, and then the transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) of dioxin was calculated. The TSCF values of PCDD/Fs largely varied according to the plant species, and the TSCF values of 2,4,8-TrCDF were a little higher than those for 1,3,6,8-TeCDD expect for zucchini. For 1,3,6,8-TeCDD, zucchini had the highest TSCF value of 0.0089, followed by pumpkin (0.0064) towel gourd (0.0027), and cucumber (0.0010), verifying plants of the genus Cucurbita have the higher abilities of dioxin translocation. The TSCF values of 1,3,6,8-TeCDD for wheat and sorghum were 0.0013 and 0.0012, respectively. For maize, soybean, rice, Chinese cabbage, tomato and garland chrysanthemum, translocation was an insignificant mechanism of dioxin contamination in shoot tissues. PMID:19541345

  16. An automated HPLC method for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in fish tissue on a porous graphitic carbon column

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; O'Laughlin, Jerome

    1997-01-01

    The Ah (aryl-hydrocarbon) hydroxylase-receptor active polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were fractionated by an automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using the Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. This commercially available column was used to fractionate the di-, mono-, and non-ortho PCBs into three fractions for gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection analysis, and a fourth fraction containing the PCDDs/PCDFs for GC/mass spectrometry analysis. The recoveries of the PCBs ranged from 68 to 96%, and recoveries of the PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 74 to 123%. The PGC column has the advantage of faster separations (110 min versus 446 min) and less solvent use (275 ml versus 1,100 ml) compared with automated fractionation of these compounds on activated carbon (PX-21), while still affording good separation of the classes. The PGC column may have an advantage over the pyrenyl-based HPLC method because it has a greater loading capacity (400 μg total PCBs versus 250 μg). Overall, the PGC is a standard column that provides reproducible fractionation of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs for analytical measurement in environmental samples.

  17. The impact of production type and region on polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations in Canadian chicken egg yolks.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Sadler, Amy R; Quade, Sue C; Sun, Wing-Fung; Kosarac, Ivana; Hayward, Stephen; Ryan, J Jake

    2012-11-01

    Chicken eggs from five different production types (conventional, omega-3 enriched, free range, organic and free run) were collected, when available, from three regions (west, central and east) of Canada to determine persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations. Total polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (∑37 congeners) in yolks from the eggs ranged from 0.162 ng g(-1) lipid to 24.8 ng g(-1) lipid (median 1.25 ng g(-1) lipid) while the concentration of the sum of the 6 indicator PCBs ranged from 0.100 ng g(-1) lipid to 9.33 ng g(-1) lipid (median 0.495 ng g(-1) lipid). Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) concentrations ranged from 2.37 pg g(-1) lipid to 382 pg g(-1) lipid (median 9.53 pg g(-1) lipid). The 2005 WHO toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged from 0.089 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+dioxin-like[DL]-PCB) g(-1) lipid to 12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid (median 0.342 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations were significantly different (p<0.001) in egg yolks from different regions of collection. In contrast to observations in Europe, PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in Canadian egg yolks were not impacted solely by the production type (e.g., conventional, free range, organic, etc.) used to maintain the laying chickens. Additionally, only one Canadian free range yolk from western Canada (12.8 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid) exceeded the European toxic equivalent concentration limits for eggs (5 pg TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) g(-1) lipid). This differs from observations in Europe where free range/home produced eggs frequently have higher POP concentrations than eggs from other production types. Median PCB dietary intake estimates based on consumption of eggs were less than 10 ng d(-1) while median PCDD/F intakes were less than 45 pg d(-1).

  18. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  19. Serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans among people eating contaminated home-produced eggs and beef.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, L R; Harnly, M; Flattery, J; Patterson, D G; Needham, L L

    2000-01-01

    We compared serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) among residents of two homes to levels among age- and sex-matched comparison subjects. The residents of the two homes consumed contaminated eggs and beef from animals raised at the homes. The animals had greater soil contact than those raised with conventional commercial husbandry practices. The comparison subjects were from a similar rural area, but did not consume home-produced beef and eggs. Serum levels of 2,3,7, 8-substituted tetra-, penta-, and hexaCDDs and penta-, hexa-, and heptaCDFs were increased between 2- and 6-fold in residents from one home; contaminated eggs and beef were consumed by residents for 2-15 years. Elevations were less for those in the other index home, where only home-produced eggs were consumed for 2 years; a 3-fold elevation of 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexaCDD as compared to controls was most apparent. Very strong bivariate correlations among all of the 2,3,7, 8 penta- and hexaCDDs/CDFs were observed. The elevations observed verify that PCDD/PCDF-contaminated food contributed to the body burden of these compounds. The blood levels among the highest exposed participants are generally higher than those observed in other studies of U.S. contaminated-fish consumers and higher than average adipose tissue levels observed in U.S. urban populations. There are sufficient animal toxicologic and human epidemiologic data to recommend that exposures be reduced. In the study area, pentachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol incineration sources have been identified, and the animal contamination and blood elevations probably reflect these sources. Soil reference values and site-specific risk assessments should include estimates of exposures to contamination in home-produced animal products. Such estimates can be verified with limited PCDD/PCDF sampling of animals and humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10620519

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzofurans and quaterphenyls in toxic rice-bran oil and in the blood and tissues of patients with PCB poisoning (Yu-Cheng) in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.H.; Wong, C.K.; Rappe, C.; Nygren, M.

    1985-02-01

    A mass outbreak of poisoning occurred in central Taiwan in 1979 due to the ingestion of rice-bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and quaterphenyls (PCQs). The incident was called PCB poisoning or Yu-Cheng in Taiwan. The major PCB and PCDF congeners in the toxic oil and in the blood and tissues of the poisoned patients were characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using highly efficient glass capillary columns. The levels of toxic agents in the rice oil samples collected from the factory and school cafeterias and the families of the poisoned patients are in the range of 53 to 99 ppm, 0.18 to 0.40 ppm and 25 to 53 ppm for PCBs, PCDFs, and PCQs, respectively. The blood samples of 165 patients collected 9 to 18 months after the onset of poisoning contained 10 to 720 ppb of PCBs, with a mean value of 38 ppb. The blood samples of 10 patients collected 9 to 27 months after poisoning contained 0.02 to 0.20 ppb of PCDFs. Comparative rates of elimination of some PCB congeners from the blood of patients were studied. Various tissues from a patient who died 2 years after poisoning were analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs and PCQs. The intestinal fat contains the highest level of PCBs, while the liver contains the highest concentration of PCDFs. The major PCDF congeners retained in the tissues were 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachloro-DF, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro-DF and 1,2,4,7,8-pentachloro-DF. The former two congeners, especially 2,3,4,7,8-pentachloro-DF, are very toxic PCDFs; they may play important roles in the etiology of Yu-Cheng.

  1. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides, and butyltins in southern sea otters and their prey.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Nakata, Haruhiko; Thomas, Nancy J; Stephenson, Mark; Jessup, David A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], and p,p'-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  2. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides and butlyns in southern sea otters and their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Watanabe, M. E.; Nakata, H.; Thomas, N.J.; Stephenson, M.; Jessup, David A.; Tanabe, S.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,pa??-DDE], p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,pa??-DDD], and p,pa??-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  3. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  4. Accumulation and depletion of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the housefly (musca domestica, L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, L.G. ); Storr-Hansen, E. )

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) residues in food chains and in the environment are dynamic complex mixtures and there is considerable interest in the disposition as well as toxicities of individual congeners. The persistence and biological activities of PCBs are intimately associated with microsomal monooxygenases. The house fly, Musca domestica (L.), has long been a standard organism for studies of pesticide toxicology and has an active and well-defined microsomal monooxygenase system. These oxidases in the fly can be induced by PCBs. It was considered of interest to provide data which may indicate whether or not the relatively large and mobile biomass of insects in general may play a role in the global disposition of PCBs. It was also of interest to determine if the house fly could serve as a model for determining the relative accumulation, elimination, and toxicities of individual PCB congeners.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the aquatic environment of the Mekong River, South of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fernando P; Villeneuve, J-P; Cattini, C; Thuan, Dao Dinh; Nhan, Dang Duc

    2009-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs) were analyzed in sediments and clams' soft tissues from sampling sites in the Mekong River delta from the border with Cambodia to the coast of South China Sea. Concentrations of 13 individual PCB congeners are reported. Median concentration of SigmaPCB congeners was 0.279 ng g(-1) dry weight (range 0.106-2.016 ng g(-1) dry weight) in sediments, and 5.20 ng g(-1) dry weight (range 1.89-19.37 ng g(-1)) in clams. Distribution and bioaccumulation of PCBs in the delta are discussed. It is concluded that in the Mekong River delta PCB concentrations were generally lower than in other regions of Vietnam and their likely sources have been waste discharges from repair workshops and other facilities in the delta cities.

  6. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.

  7. Chemometric comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl residues and toxicologically active polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the eggs of Forster's Terns (Sterna fosteri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Stalling, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The separation and characterization of complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is approached from the perspective of a problem in chemometrics. A technique for quantitative determination of PCB congeners is described as well as an enrichment technique designed to isolate only those congener residues which induce mixed aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzyme activity. A congener-specific procedure is utilized for the determination of PCBs in whichn-alkyl trichloroacetates are used as retention index marker compounds. Retention indices are reproducible in the range of ±0.05 to ±0.7 depending on the specific congener. A laboratory data base system developed to aid in the editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatography was employed to quantitate chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in VAX-DSM (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the VAX-DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.) family of computers.In the chemometric evaluation of these complex chromatographic profiles, data are viewed from a single analysis as a point in multi-dimensional space. Principal Components Analysis was used to obtain a representation of the data in a lower dimensional space. Two-and three-dimensional proections based on sample scores from the principal components models were used to visualize the behavior of Aroclor® mixtures. These models can be used to determine if new sample profiles may be represented by Aroclor profiles. Concentrations of individual congeners of a given chlorine substitution may be summed to form homologue concentration. However, the use of homologue concentrations in classification studies with environmental samples can lead to erroneous conclusions about sample similarity. Chemometric applications are discussed for evaluation of Aroclor mixture analysis and compositional description of environmental residues of PCBs in eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna fosteri) collected from colonies near Lake Poygan

  8. DETERMINATION OF THE VAPOR PRESSURES OF SELECT POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS AT 75–275°C

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor pressures were determined for several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at 75–275°C, extending the available literature data to more relevant temperature regions and providing the first experimental data for 2,3,7...

  9. Comparison of the contributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and other unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants to the total toxic equivalents in air of steel plant areas.

    PubMed

    Li, Sumei; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Mei; Xiao, Ke; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2015-05-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and the "dioxin-like" (dl) compounds polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), and dibenzofurans (PBDFs), were determined in the air samples collected from six steel plants. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of the PCDDs, PCDFs, dl-PCBs, dl-PCNs, PBDDs, and PBDFs in the air were 0.01-0.19 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3), 0.01-0.69 pg WHO-TEQN m(-3), 0.001-0.089 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3), 0.002-0.011 pg TEQ Nm(-3), 0.004-0.02 pg TEQ Nm(-3), and 0.02-0.12 pg TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The PCNs were the most abundant compounds (by mass concentration), contributing about 87% of the total mass concentrations of the analytes that were found in the air of the steel plant areas. The PCDFs contributed about 47% of the total TEQs, following by the PBDFs (28%) and the PCDDs (18%). The dioxin-like compounds together contributed up to 40% of the total TEQs, so their contributions to the toxic effects that could be caused by exposure to the air of the steel plant areas were significant. The congener profiles in the air were similar to the congener profiles that were found in stack gas emissions, indicating that the steelmaking plants were possible sources of the PCDDs, PCDFs, and dioxin-like compounds that were found in the air of the steel plant areas.

  10. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from various industrial sources.

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Full; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2006-12-01

    This study characterized the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the stack flue gases of 17 industrial sources, which were classified into 10 categories. The results show that the mean PCDD/PCDF concentration of secondary zinc smelter (Zn-S) and secondary copper smelter (Cu-S) is 2.44 ng international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ)/Nm3 (N represents normal conditions at 0 degrees C, 760 mmHg), which was found to be significantly greater than that of industrial waste incinerators (mean concentration = 0.15 ng I-TEQ/Nm3). These results imply that the controlling of secondary metallurgical melting processes is more important than industrial waste incineration for the reduction of PCDD/PCDF emissions. The mean emission factors of cement production, Zn-S and Cu-S, are 0.052, 1.99, and 1.73 microg I-TEQ/t product, respectively. For industrial waste incineration, the mean emission factors of waste rubber, waste liquor, waste sludge, industrial waste solid (IWI)-1, IWI-2, IWI-3, and IWI-4 are 0.752, 0.435, 0.760, 6.64, 1.67, 2.38, and 0.094 microg I-TEQ/t feed, respectively. Most of the PCDD/PCDF emission factors established in this study are less than those reported in previous studies, which could be because of the more stringent regulations for PCDD/PCDF emissions in recent years. PMID:17195489

  11. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from various industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Long-Full Lin; Wen-Jhy Lee; Guo-Ping Chang-Chien

    2006-12-15

    This study characterized the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from the stack flue gases of 17 industrial sources, which were classified into 10 categories. The results show that the mean PCDD/PCDF concentration of secondary zinc smelter (Zn-S) and secondary copper smelter (Cu-S) is 2.44 ng international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ)/Nm{sup 3} (N represents normal conditions at 0{sup o}C, 760 mmHg), which was found to be significantly greater than that of industrial waste incinerators (mean concentration = 0.15 ng I-TEQ/Nm{sup 3}). These results imply that the controlling of secondary metallurgical melting processes is more important than industrial waste incineration for the reduction of PCDD/PCDF emissions. The mean emission factors of cement production, Zn-S and Cu-S, are 0.052, 1.99, and 1.73 {mu}g I-TEQ/t product, respectively. The cement plant uses bituminous coal as fuel. For industrial waste incineration, the mean emission factors of waste rubber, waste liquor, waste sludge, industrial waste solid (IWI)-1, IWI-2, IWI-3, and IWI-4 are 0.752, 0.435, 0.760, 6.64, 1.67, 2.38, and 0.094 {mu}g I-TEQ/t feed, respectively. Most of the PCDD/PCDF emission factors established in this study are less than those reported in previous studies, which could be because of the more stringent regulations for PCDD/PCDF emissions in recent years. 20 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  12. Exposure to a Mixture of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans Resulted in a Prolonged Time to Pregnancy in Women

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chiu-Yueh; Wang, Ying-Jan; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq; Guo, Yueliang Leon

    2008-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) may affect the female reproductive system in animals and humans. In 1978–1979, a mass poisoning occurred in central Taiwan due to PCB/PCDF-contaminated cooking oil; this incident was called Yucheng (“oil disease” in Chinese). Objective The purpose of our study was to determine whether PCB/PCDF exposure affected fertility in exposed women. Methods After the event, we followed the exposed individuals and a reference group who were sex-, age-, and community-matched. In 2003, we obtained fertility histories from Yucheng and reference women by telephone interview. We used Kaplan–Meier survival curves and multivariable Cox regression to compare time to pregnancy (TTP) between Yucheng and reference women, and we performed multiple logistic regression to determine whether PCB/PCDF exposure caused infertility. Results In total, 412 women responded, with a median TTP of 4 months in Yucheng women and 3 months in reference women (p = 0.019). After adjusting for confounders by Cox regression, we found a fecundability ratio of 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80–1.00] for Yucheng women. Among the 408 women who had noncontraceptive sexual activity for > 12 months, 19.7% of Yucheng women and 9.7% of reference women did not become pregnant (i.e., they were infertile). After we adjusted for confounders by logistic regression, the infertility odds ratio was 2.34 (95% CI, 1.23–4.59) for Yucheng women compared with the reference group. Conclusions We found prolonged TTP and reduced fertility among women previously exposed to PCBs/PCDFs. Because of the limited sample size and the relatively small decrease in the fertility rate, these effects require cautious interpretation and further investigation for confirmation. PMID:18470317

  13. Elimination half-lives of selected polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans in breast-fed human infants.

    PubMed

    Leung, Hon-Wing; Kerger, Brent D; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2006-03-01

    Elimination half-life estimates for several polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/furans (PCDD/F) were calculated by modeling the blood and breast milk concentrations in two breast-fed human infants as reported by Abraham et al. (1996, 1998). Our analysis differs from that of other investigators in that we analyzed individual dioxin and furan congeners while the other studies considered TCDD only and we determined the half-lives in infants, rather than simply predicting body burdens in infants and older children. The average half-life values for each consistently measurable congener were determined to be less than about 6 mo and did not vary substantially between the two infants studied. The average elimination half-life values for 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD, 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD, and octaCDD were 0.40, 0.32, 0.39, 0.32, and 0.46 yr, respectively, and 0.27 yr for 2,3,4,7,8-pentaCDF. These values are in stark contrast with the 7 to 15+ yr values reported for these congeners in human adults (Michalek et al., 1996). These much shorter half-life values, likely attributable to rapid growth of the adipose tissue volume and enhanced fecal excretion of dioxins for breast-fed infants, explain why the much higher daily dioxin intake during breastfeeding does not translate to proportionately higher tissue concentrations. Thus, the shorter half-life of dioxins during breastfeeding needs to be considered when evaluating the dioxin hazard to children.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning: correlation of sensory and motor nerve conduction, neurologic symptoms, and blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, quaterphenyls, and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, R.C.; Tang, S.Y.; Miyata, H.; Kashimoto, T.; Chang, Y.C.; Chang, K.J.; Tung, T.C.

    1985-08-01

    In 1979 in Taiwan, more than 2000 people were poisoned with rice cooking oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). One hundred ten patients were studied within one year of the exposure. The blood PCB levels were 39.3 +/- 16.6 ppb. The blood levels of the PCB derivatives, polychlorinated quaterphenyls (PCQ) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), were 8.6 +/- 4.8 and 0.076 +/- 0.038 ppb, respectively. Both the sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities (NCV) of the patients were significantly lower than the control. Abnormal slowing of sensory NCV was found in 43.6% and abnormal slowing of motor NCV was seen in 21.8%. Patients who had higher PCQ blood levels has significantly slower median nerve sensory NCV than those with lower PCQ levels. Patients with higher PCB blood levels had significantly slower peroneal nerve motor NCV than those with lower PCB levels.

  15. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans from incineration of nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Vejerano, Eric P; Holder, Amara L; Marr, Linsey C

    2013-05-01

    Disposal of some nanomaterial-laden waste through incineration is inevitable, and nanomaterials' influence on combustion byproduct formation under high-temperature, oxidative conditions is not well understood. This work reports the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from incineration of paper and plastic waste containing various nanomaterials, including titania, nickel oxide, silver, ceria, iron oxide, quantum dots, and C60-fullerene, in a laboratory-scale furnace. The presence of nanomaterials in the waste stream resulted in higher emissions of some PAH species and lower emissions of others, depending on the type of waste. The major PAH species formed were phenanthrene and anthracene, and emissions were sensitive to the amount of nanomaterials in the waste. Generally, there were no significant differences in emission factors for the larger PAH species when nanomaterials were added to the waste. The total PAH emission factors were on average ~6 times higher for waste spiked with nanomaterials v. their bulk counterparts. Emissions of chlorinated dioxins from poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) waste were not detected; however, chlorinated furans were formed at elevated concentrations with wastes containing silver and titania nanomaterials, and toxicity was attributable mainly to 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran. The combination of high specific surface area and catalytic, including electrocatalytic, properties of nanomaterials might be responsible for affecting the formation of toxic pollutants during incineration.

  16. Thermal treatment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wen-Jhy; Shih, Shun-I; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Lai, Yi-Chieh; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Thermal treatment technology was used to remove polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from heavily contaminated soil. For a soil with an original PCDD/F content of 35,970ng International Toxic Equivalents (I-TEQ)/kg, >99.99% PCDD/F removal efficiency was obtained with a primary furnace at two different treatment temperatures (750 degrees C and 850 degrees C), while a secondary furnace at 1200 degrees C gave >98% decomposition efficiency. The total PCDD/F I-TEQ contents in treated soils at 750 degrees C and 850 degrees C were 1.56ngI-TEQ/kg and 2.15ngI-TEQ/kg, respectively, which were far below the soil pollution standard of Taiwan (1000ngI-TEQ/kg soil). Although air pollution control devices had significant effects on the removal of PCDD/Fs, the total I-TEQ concentrations in the upstream flue gas of PUF cartridge at 750 degrees C and 850 degrees C (2.61ngI-TEQ/Nm(3) and 2.38ngI-TEQ/Nm(3), respectively) were still higher than the stationary emission limit of the Taiwan EPA (0.5ngI-TEQ/Nm(3)). The above results also suggested that additional APCDs, such as activated carbon injection in front of the filter are needed to enhance PCDD/F removal efficiency.

  17. Human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzofurans associated with toxicity based on the yusho and yucheng incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.J.; Gasiewicz, T.A.; Brown, J.F. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    The polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are one group of man-made toxicants for which reasonably extensive data exist relevant to dose-response relationships in humans. Examination of contaminated food oil consumption from the yusho (Japan) poisoning incident indicates the mean uptake or body burden of 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PnCDF) equivalents (PEQ) associated with nausea and anorexia to be 4.4 micrograms/kg body wt and that associated with chloracne to be 5.9 micrograms/kg. For the yucheng (Taiwan) poisoning incident, blood measurements for chloracne show a similar body burden of 4.0 micrograms/kg. The latter value is toxicologically equivalent to a 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalent (TEQ) body burden of 2.0 micrograms/kg body wt or about 150 micrograms for an adult person. This corresponds to an adipose tissue level of about 10 micrograms/kg fat, and is comparable to that known to cause chloracne in rhesus monkeys. These body burdens on a TEQ basis are more than 200 times higher than the average current levels of PCDDs/PCDFs found in North American populations and are the first to relate human body burdens of PCDFs with a known effect and to compare them to animal data. Since the effects reported may not be the most sensitive indicator of human toxicity, lower body burdens could be associated with more subtle toxicological events.

  18. Removal efficiencies for 136 tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuran congeners with activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the removal efficiency of 136 tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD)/furan (F) congeners from a nitrogen + oxygen carrier gas was studied using a laboratory-scale, fixed bed adsorption system. Two kinds of activated carbon with dissimilar pore structures were used as adsorbents. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in the source gas was 541 ng/Nm(3) and that of the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs 96.35 ng/Nm(3), accounting for 17.8% of the total original weight amount. Their toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) was 8.31 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). For both activated carbons, the removal efficiencies of the ten PCDD/F homologue groups rise with chlorine substitution number. The removal efficiencies vary approximately as a power function of vapor pressure (correlation coefficients r(2) = 0.93 and 0.81, respectively). Competitive adsorption and desorption occur as adsorption time went on, causing elution of the lower chlorinated homologues, i.e. tetra-CDD/F and Penta-CDD/F congeners. In addition, there are significantly different concentration distributions for isomers in the same homologue groups. However, their removal efficiencies have weak correlation with their initial concentrations. The correlation coefficients are from -0.47 to 0.32 and from -0.57 to 0.46 respectively for the two kinds of activated carbons.

  19. Bioaccumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and organochlorine pesticides in Ganges River dolphins

    SciTech Connect

    Senthilkumar, K.; Kannan, K.; Sinha, R.K.; Tanabe, S.; Giesy, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    Isomer-specific concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including non-, mono-, and di-ortho-substituted congeners, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers, chlordane compounds, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were determined in river dolphin blubber and prey fishes collected during 1993 through 1996 from the River Ganges in India. Concentrations of organochlorines were also measured in the milk and liver of dolphins, benthic invertebrates, and sediments. The DDTs and PCBs were the predominant compounds found in dolphin tissues and fish that comprise the diet of dolphins. Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs in the blubber of dolphins were in the range of 30 to 120 and 1.5 to 25 {micro}g/g, lipid weight, respectively. Penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls collectively accounted for 68 to 80% of the total PCB concentrations in river dolphins. Hexachlorobiphenyl congener 138 (2.2{prime}, 3,4,4{prime},5{prime}-) was the most abundant in dolphin blubber and prey fishes. The isomer/congener pattern of PCBs and organchlorine pesticides suggested that there is less metabolism due to cytochrome P450 enzymes in Ganges river dolphins than in marine or terrestrial mammals. The mean 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) estimated in river dolphin blubber was greater than those that can cause adverse effects in mink. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in river dolphins with those of the values reported for samples analyzed during 1988 through 1992 suggested that the contamination by these compounds has increased in the River Ganges.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and breast cancer: A congener-specific meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Ling; Li, Jing; Luo, Xiu-mei; Kim, Jun-young; Li, Yi-meng; Guo, Xue-mei; Chen, Xi; Yang, Qiao-yun; Li, Guang; Tang, Nai-jun

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is related to various risk factors, especially that the environmental and lifestyle factors account for major contribution at the rate of 70% to 95% over all. However, there still remains some controversy over the epidemiological evidence regarding the effects of environmental carcinogens on the risk of breast cancer. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis aiming at full evaluation of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on breast cancer in a congener-specific fashion. Four online literature databases were systematically searched before 1st January 2015, for studies stating correlation between PCB congeners and breast cancer. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the quality of the studies that were included in our analysis. Sixteen studies were included in our final meta-analysis after screening based on the priori inclusion criteria. Nine PCB congeners were reported by more than two studies and they were presented in detail. The pooled Odds Ratios (ORs) showed a significant increase in the risk of breast cancer in individuals with higher plasma/fat levels of PCB 99 (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.80), PCB 183 (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.25 to 1.95) and PCB 187 (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.39). Besides, the outcomes did not support a relationship between dioxin-like PCB congeners and the risk of breast cancer. The results of our meta-analysis imply that PCB 99, PCB 183 and PCB 187 would increase the risk of breast cancer. The mechanism of this increased risk may be by the induction of the CYP2B family in cytochrome P450 enzymes.

  1. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofura...

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Andres; Schnoebelen, Douglas J; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2016-02-01

    We determined polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and radionuclide (137)Cs in sediment cores from the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) and the Iowa River, Iowa, at their confluence. Vertical distribution of (137)Cs indicated negligible mixing in the UMR core, while the Iowa River core showed signs of mixing. A clear (137)Cs peak was found in the UMR core, which was correlated to 1963. The PCB vertical distribution in UMR core was similar to the historical trend in Aroclor production observed in Great Lakes cores, with a peak close to the (137)Cs peak, suggesting a date near 1960. In general, PCB congener profiles in both cores resembled the Iowa soil background signal. We concluded that despite evidence of mixing in the Iowa River core, both cores retain the PCB signature of historical and regional environmental exposure. Further, our results indicate that this iconic waterway has a long history of PCBs that reflects national production and use. PMID:26547030

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in water and suspended particulate matter from the Xijiang River, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanlin; Peng, Ping'an; Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Sukun; Ren, Man

    2008-03-21

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected from the Xijiang River, China, were measured by the quarter from September 2005 to June 2006. Total PCDD/F concentration ranged from 2.659 to 4.596pg/L for water and from 562.4 to 3259.5pg/g for SPM. Concentrations were high in summer and low in winter. I-TEQ values in water and SPM were low, ranging from 0.012 to 0.075pg/L, with a mean value of 0.039pg/L. Calculated annual loadings of total PCDD/Fs and I-TEQ were 8.55kg and 0.026kg, respectively. Composition and homologue distribution of PCDD/Fs were varied because of large seasonal differences in discharge from the Xijiang River into the South China Sea. Comparison of the PCDD/Fs homologue and congener profiles of atmospheric deposition, soil, and water revealed that soil was the dominant source of PCDD/Fs in the Xijiang River. Industrial effluents were also possible sources of PCDD/Fs. A good correlation between logK(oc) and logK(ow) was observed for 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs and correlation coefficients were 0.71 and 0.84, indicating organic matter in SPM played a dominant role in PCDD/Fs partition between SPM and water.

  4. Removal efficiencies for 136 tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofuran congeners with activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the removal efficiency of 136 tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (CDD)/furan (F) congeners from a nitrogen + oxygen carrier gas was studied using a laboratory-scale, fixed bed adsorption system. Two kinds of activated carbon with dissimilar pore structures were used as adsorbents. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in the source gas was 541 ng/Nm(3) and that of the 17 toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs 96.35 ng/Nm(3), accounting for 17.8% of the total original weight amount. Their toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) was 8.31 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). For both activated carbons, the removal efficiencies of the ten PCDD/F homologue groups rise with chlorine substitution number. The removal efficiencies vary approximately as a power function of vapor pressure (correlation coefficients r(2) = 0.93 and 0.81, respectively). Competitive adsorption and desorption occur as adsorption time went on, causing elution of the lower chlorinated homologues, i.e. tetra-CDD/F and Penta-CDD/F congeners. In addition, there are significantly different concentration distributions for isomers in the same homologue groups. However, their removal efficiencies have weak correlation with their initial concentrations. The correlation coefficients are from -0.47 to 0.32 and from -0.57 to 0.46 respectively for the two kinds of activated carbons. PMID:26154037

  5. Linking habitat use of Hudson River striped bass to accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley, J.T.F.; Secor, D.H.; Zlokovitz, E.; Wales, S.Q.; Baker, J.E.

    2000-03-15

    Since 1976, the commercial striped bass fishery in the Hudson River (NY) has been closed due to total polychlorinated biphenyl (t-PCB) concentrations that exceed the US Food and Drug Administration's advisory level of 2 {micro}g/g-wet weight. Extensive monitoring of Hudson River striped bass demonstrated much more variability in t-PCB levels among individual striped bass than could be explained by their age, sex, or lipid contents. To investigate the possible role of differential habitat use among subpopulations of striped bass in controlling their PCB exposures, 70 fish collected throughout the Hudson River estuary and Long Island Sound in 1994--1995 were analyzed for PCB congeners, and their lifetime migration behaviors were estimated by otolith microchemistry. The mean salinity encountered during the fish's last growth season prior to capture was inversely correlated with the t-PCB body burden. Striped bass permanently residing in fresh and oligohaline portions of the estuary adjacent to known PCB sources had elevated t-PCB levels and congeneric patterns with higher proportions of di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls. Conversely, fish spending the majority of their life in more saline waters of the estuary or migrating frequently throughout the salinity gradient contained lower PCB levels composed of more highly chlorinated congeners. The approach used in this study allows habitat use to be incorporated into exposure assessments for anadromous fish species such as striped bass.

  6. Toxic cell concentrations of three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, P. |; Halling-Soerensen, B.; Nyholm, N.; Sijm, D.T.H.M.

    1998-09-01

    Algal growth inhibition tests were performed with the unicellular green alga Selenastrum capricornutum and three {sup 14}C-labeled polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Toxicity was related to external aqueous concentrations and additionally to internal algal bound PCB concentrations. Estimates of the concentrations at 50% effectiveness (EC50s) for the three PCB congeners ranged within a factor of 17 when based on measured aqueous concentrations. When based on internal toxicant concentrations the corresponding range was 6.7 to 14.3 mmol/kg wet weight. Thus, changing the basis from external to internal concentrations reduced the range by almost one order of magnitude. Additional toxic cell concentrations of five monoaromatic compounds and S. capricornutum were calculated from literature data to be in the same order of magnitude as the experimental toxic cell concentrations for the PCBs, whereas EC50 values for all substances ranged by more than four orders of magnitude. The experimental and calculated data indicate that observed differences in the estimated EC50 values were mainly due to differences in bioconcentration behavior rather than to different intrinsic toxicities. These findings are in agreement with the concept of baseline toxicity, meaning that a number of hydrophobic organics exerts their acute toxicity by one relatively nonspecific mode of action.

  7. An egg injection method for assessing early life stage mortality of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in rainbow trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, M.K.; Hufnagle, L.C.; Clayton, M.K.; Peterson, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    To characterize the risk that polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) pose to salmonid early life stage survival, we developed a method to expose rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs to graded doses of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners, using 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) as a prototype. Rainbow trout eggs were injected 24–50 h post-fertilization with 0.2 μl of 50 mM phosphatidylcholine (PC) liposomes (control) or 0.2 μl of 5–7 graded doses of TCDD incorporated into 50 mM PC liposomes. Injection volume never exceeded 0.6% egg volume. Immediately following injection, the injection site was sealed with Super glue®, resulting in 92–97% of TCDD dose retained by the egg. Following both egg injection and waterborne egg exposure. TCDD toxicity in rainbow trout was manifested by half-hatching mortality but predominantly by sac fry mortality associated with hemorrhages, pericardial edema, and yolk sac edema. TCDD LD50s, following injection and waterborne exposure of rainbow trout eggs, were 421 (331–489) and 439 (346–519) pg TCDD/g egg (LD50, 95% fiducial limits), respectively. As in rainbow trout, TCDD toxicity in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) following the same two routes of exposure was manifested by half-hatching mortality but predominantly by sac fry mortality preceded by hemorrhages and yolk sac edema. LD50s, based on the dose of TCDD in lake trout eggs, were 47 (21–65) and 65 (60–71) pg/g following injection and waterborne exposure, respectively. The egg injection method is ideal for assessing the relationship between early life stage mortality in rainbow trout and graded egg doses of individual PCDD, PCDF, or PCB congeners.

  8. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyl patterns in eggs of aquatic birds from the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mora, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Eggs from four aquatic bird species nesting in the Lower Laguna Madre, Texas, were collected to determine differences and similarities in the accumulation of congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to evaluate PCB impacts on reproduction. Because of the different toxicities of PCB congeners, it is important to know which congeners contribute most to total PCBs. The predominant PCB congeners were 153, 138, 180, 110, 118, 187, and 92. Collectively, congeners 153, 138, and 180 accounted for 26 to 42% of total PCBs. Congener 153 was the most abundant in Caspian terns (Sterna caspia) and great blue herons (Ardea herodias) and congener 138 was the most abundant in snowy egrets (Egretta thula) and tricolored herons (Egretta tricolor). Principal component analysis indicated a predominance of higher chlorinated biphenyls in Caspian terns and great blue herons and lower chlorinated biphenyls in tricolored herons. Snowy egrets had a predominance of pentachlorobiphenyls. These results suggest that there are differences in PCB congener patterns in closely related species and that these differences are more likely associated with the species` diet rather than metabolism. Total PCBs were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in Caspian terns than in the other species. Overall, PCBs in eggs of birds from the Lower Laguna Madre were below concentrations known to affect bird reproduction.

  9. Levels of specific polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in fatty foods from five Canadian cities between 1986 and 1988.

    PubMed

    Mes, J; Newsome, W H; Conacher, H B

    1991-01-01

    A total of 155 fatty food composites from five major Canadian cities were analysed for 36 selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Total PCB congener levels of more than 1 ng/g (wet weight) were found in fresh water fish, canned fish, butter, marine fish and cheese, with fresh water fish (18.7 ng/g) containing 5 to 10 times more total PCBs than the other four food commodities. Milk (2%), cooking oils/salads and canned meat soup contained less than 0.1 ng/g (wet weight). The observed total PCB residue levels in fatty foods were well within the Canadian guidelines for fish, dairy products, poultry, eggs and beef. The most predominant congeners found in fish, butter, cheese, meat and poultry were the 2,2',4,4',5-, 2,3',4,4', 5-pentachloro-, 2,2',3,4,4',5'-, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachloro- and 2,2',3,4,4',5,5'-heptachlorobiphenyls. The predominant congener pattern was not always evident in other dairy products (e.g. ice cream) and processed foods (e.g. canned meat soup). An attempt was made to relate the intake of PCB congeners from fatty foods with congener levels found in adipose tissue of Canadians. The estimated daily intake of some specific PCB congeners from fatty foods, in most cases accounted for more than half the total deposit of these congeners in adipose tissue of Canadians.

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the U.S. population: current levels, temporal trends, and comparison with dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Päpke, Olaf; Tung, Kuang Chi; Joseph, Jean; Harris, T Robert; Dahlgren, James

    2005-03-01

    Brominated flame retardants have come into common use in the United States during the past 3 decades. This study reports levels of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in blood from the U.S. population at the present time and 30 years previously and also current human milk levels. This is also the first study to report measured congeners and dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from archived, 1973, blood and compare them with current levels. The findings indicate there have been significant changes in levels of each class of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in U.S. human blood. Although dioxin, dibenzofuran, and PCB levels are markedly higher in the 1973 blood, the opposite is true for PBDEs. Furthermore, unlike dioxins, dibenzofurans, and PCBs, which increase with age, there was no significant correlation found in our study between PBDE levels and age. Current total PBDE levels in U.S. blood are the highest reported worldwide to date, with 2 pooled samples (N = 100 each) measuring 61.7 and 79.7 parts per billion (ppb) lipid, and in a series of 39 individual analyses, the range was 4.6 to 365.5 ppb with a median of 29 ppb and a mean of 52.6 ppb. The median for women in this study was 43.3 ppb, and for men it was 25.1 ppb. Although women have a higher level of PBDEs in blood than men, in our study, this is not statistically significant. Blood levels are similar to levels in U.S. human milk from 59 women, 6.2 to 418.8 ppb lipid. Levels of PBDE in pooled 2003 serum are far higher at 61.7 ppb than in 1973 archived pooled serum in which almost no PBDEs were quantified, although the estimated level using half the detection limit for nondetects was 0.77 ppb. Although no human health studies have been conducted on PBDEs, they are of concern because in vivo and in vitro animal studies show nervous system, reproductive, developmental, and endocrine effects, as well as cancer in

  11. Preliminary hazard assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to Yangtze finless porpoise in Dongting Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangxing; Zhang, Qinghua; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Guibin; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Ding

    2008-04-01

    Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), a protected endangered species, is the sole freshwater subspecies of finless porpoise, living only in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, and its appended lakes. Its population has decreased sharply to 1,400 because of human activities, including environmental contamination. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in the blubber, liver, kidney, stomach, small intestine, and brains of five individual Yangtze finless porpoises collected from 1998 to 2004. The results showed PCB concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 1.89 microg/g lipid weight in the organs and consisted mainly of penta-, hexa-, and decachlorinated biphenyls. The PBDE concentrations were between 5.32 and 72.76 ng/g lipid weight. Tetra-, penta-, and hexabrominated diphenyl ethers were the major homologues. The PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 65 to 1,563 pg/g lipid weight, and their predominant homologues were penta- and hexachlorinated dibenzofurans and hepta- and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. The hazard quotients (HQs) based on toxic equivalency were determined to be greater than one in all individuals for PCBs, for PCDD/Fs, and for PCBs and PCDD/Fs In addition, HQs would be higher if PBDEs were included. The results suggest that reduction of environmental contamination may contribute greatly to protecting this highly endangered species. PMID:18333690

  12. Preliminary hazard assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans to Yangtze finless porpoise in Dongting Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangxing; Zhang, Qinghua; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Guibin; Wang, Yawei; Wang, Ding

    2008-04-01

    Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis), a protected endangered species, is the sole freshwater subspecies of finless porpoise, living only in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China, and its appended lakes. Its population has decreased sharply to 1,400 because of human activities, including environmental contamination. In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in the blubber, liver, kidney, stomach, small intestine, and brains of five individual Yangtze finless porpoises collected from 1998 to 2004. The results showed PCB concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 1.89 microg/g lipid weight in the organs and consisted mainly of penta-, hexa-, and decachlorinated biphenyls. The PBDE concentrations were between 5.32 and 72.76 ng/g lipid weight. Tetra-, penta-, and hexabrominated diphenyl ethers were the major homologues. The PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 65 to 1,563 pg/g lipid weight, and their predominant homologues were penta- and hexachlorinated dibenzofurans and hepta- and octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. The hazard quotients (HQs) based on toxic equivalency were determined to be greater than one in all individuals for PCBs, for PCDD/Fs, and for PCBs and PCDD/Fs In addition, HQs would be higher if PBDEs were included. The results suggest that reduction of environmental contamination may contribute greatly to protecting this highly endangered species.

  13. A worldwide survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and related contaminants in butter.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jana; Päpke, Olaf; Bergman, Ake

    2005-12-01

    The main source of human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is, in general, food. In this study, 64 butter samples from 37 countries were analyzed to assess the global contamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and 2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) together with its major metabolites. The objectives of the study were to assess the presence of major organohalogen contaminants in butter, to trace geographical differences, and to determine toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in butter. The highest PCDD/F concentrations were found in butter from Korea with an average of 1.4 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid weight (l.w.). from PCDD/F and an additional contribution from the non- and mono-ortho-PCBs of 0.55 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. Belgian butter showed average levels of 0.53 and 1.2 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. for PCDDs/Fs and PCBs, respectively, but one sample of Belgium butter had a total TEQ level as high as 4.0 pg TEQ g(-1) l.w. Three out of five butter samples from Portugal showed similarly high PCDD/F TEQ levels. The sigmaPCB levels in European butter appeared to be somewhat higher than in the samples from the rest of the world. The average contribution of CB-153 to the total PCB concentration was 22% (SD 6.4, coefficient of variation 29%). Generally, the PCBs contributed around 60% of the total TEQ value, with CB-126 contributing approximately half of this value. This shows the important TEQ contribution from dioxinlike PCBs to the total TEQs. The highest HCB levels were found in butter samples from Russia, Ukraine, Belgium, and Slovenia. Low levels of HCB in butter were generally found in the Southern Hemisphere. Butter samples from countries from Eastern Europe had elevated sigmaDDT concentrations, with a particularly high concentration in Ukraine butter, followed by some Russian samples, Brazil, and the U.S. PMID:16521833

  14. FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS FROM A MIXTURE OF CHLOROPHENOLS OVER FLY ASH: INFLUENCE OF WATER VAPOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    To offer a polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) parameter for plant operation control, the on-line estimation of PCDD/Fs emissions by surrogates like chlorophenols is useful. Formation of PCDD/Fs over fly ash was studied in an isothermal (310 degree...

  15. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners from Lake Champlain sediments by Mysis relicta

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, D.C.; McIntosh, A. . Vermont Water Resources and Lake Studies Center)

    1994-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Champlain often exceed the F.D.A. tolerance level of 2 [mu]g/g (wet weight). Of added concern are recent studies that suggest a relationship between the dioxin-like properties of non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners and impaired lake trout egg hatchability. Dietary accumulation of PCBs is thought to be an important exposure route for fish. The epibenthic freshwater shrimp Mysis relicta is an integral part of the benthic and pelagic food web in lake Champlain and may act as a link between PCBs in sediments and lake trout. Previous investigations have shown that diurnal migrations of mysids enhance the movement and distribution of toxic contaminants, effectively coupling the benthic and pelagic zones. The objective of this research was to examine the role contaminated sediments play in the transfer of PCBs to mysids. Bioaccumulation was assessed by exposing mysids to such sediments in two ways: (a) with organisms screened from sediments; and (b) with organisms in direct contact with sediments. Accumulation of PCBs over the course of the 24-day exposure period was examined on the following days: 0, 3, 6, 12, 21, and 24. Eighty-nine individual PCB congeners were measured in tissue and sediment. Mysids in direct contact with sediments accumulated significantly higher levels of PCBs than did organisms screened from sediments. Mysids accumulated substantial levels of PCBs, suggesting they may play an important part in the transfer of PCBs from sediments into the Lake Champlain food web. It is clear from this research that sediments can play a critical role in the accumulation of PCBs by mysids.

  16. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food and feed in Latvia in 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2014-01-01

    During 2009-2011 a monitoring programme for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was conducted in the Latvian food and feed market. Using ISO 17025-accredited analytical methodology, investigation of 121 food (milk, dairy products, meat, eggs, fish, fish products) and 66 feed samples (fish meal and oil, compound and mineral feed, vegetable and animal fats) was performed. Most samples showed contamination below the European Commission (EC) Regulation No. 1881/2006 and Commission Directive 2006/13/EC limits. Average total toxicological equivalent (total-TEQ(1998)) concentrations within the food sample groups, except fish and fish products, ranged between 0.41 and 15.1 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fat. Fish and fish products showed contamination levels from 0.18 to 46.0 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fresh weight (f.w.). Fifty-seven per cent of cod liver samples were non-compliant. The most contaminated feed samples were fish meal and fish oil. A comparison with WHO-TEF(2005) data is given.

  17. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters. PMID:12530594

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food and feed in Latvia in 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2014-01-01

    During 2009-2011 a monitoring programme for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was conducted in the Latvian food and feed market. Using ISO 17025-accredited analytical methodology, investigation of 121 food (milk, dairy products, meat, eggs, fish, fish products) and 66 feed samples (fish meal and oil, compound and mineral feed, vegetable and animal fats) was performed. Most samples showed contamination below the European Commission (EC) Regulation No. 1881/2006 and Commission Directive 2006/13/EC limits. Average total toxicological equivalent (total-TEQ(1998)) concentrations within the food sample groups, except fish and fish products, ranged between 0.41 and 15.1 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fat. Fish and fish products showed contamination levels from 0.18 to 46.0 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fresh weight (f.w.). Fifty-seven per cent of cod liver samples were non-compliant. The most contaminated feed samples were fish meal and fish oil. A comparison with WHO-TEF(2005) data is given. PMID:25029402

  19. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in cultivated oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in western Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, M D; Fang, H-T; Lee, C-L; Ko, F-C; Baker, J E

    2006-08-01

    Spatial and temporal variations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in cultivated oysters from five aquaculture areas along the western coast of Taiwan were investigated. Poor correlations between total PCB concentrations (ng/g dry weight [dw]) and physiologic parameters of oysters (shell length, width, thickness, and lipid content) were found. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 94 cng/g dw. The highest value was found in oysters from the Lu'ermen aquaculture area, which receives wastewater from a sodium hydroxide and pentachlorophenol factory. Furthermore, principal component analysis confirmed that the PCB congener pattern in this area was distinct from others and that two additional pollution sources might exist in the Tainan and Hsinchu areas. Oysters with PCB concentrations > 1 SD above the geometric mean were found mainly in Tainan (stations TN5 to TN9) with only one increased concentration in the Yunlin (station YL2) and Hsinchu (station HC4) aquaculture areas. Except for four confined stations, TN3 to TN6, where total PCB concentrations were higher (p = 0.028) in the warmer (May and July) than in the colder season (November and March), seasonal variation of total PCB concentrations in oysters was not significant. Geometric mean and geometric mean plus 1 SD of total PCB concentrations in this study are lower than those in South Korea and the United States (Mussel Watch). PMID:16583259

  20. Dioxins and congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls in three avian species from the Wisconsin River, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, Randy K.

    2002-01-01

    Sediments from the Wisconsin River, WI, USA are contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Wet weight concentrations of TCDD and PCBs in eggs were at background levels and highest in the piscivorous hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus; geometric MEAN=7 pg/g TCDD and 0.92 I?g/g PCBs) and lowest in the omnivorous wood duck (Aix sponsa) (<1 pg/g and 0.07 I?g/g); concentrations in eggs of the insectivorous tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) were intermediate (<1 pg/g and 0.33 I?g/g). Positive accumulation rates of TCDD (8a??19 pg/day) and PCBs (0.4a??0.7 I?g/day) in tree swallow nestlings suggest that the Wisconsin River is the source of these contaminants for tree swallow nestlings. The lower representation of trichlorobiphenyls and tetrachorobiphenyls in hooded merganser eggs compared to wood duck or tree swallow eggs suggests that the hooded merganser or its diet has a greater ability to metabolize lower-numbered PCB congeners than wood ducks or tree swallows.

  1. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in cultivated oysters (Crassostrea gigas) in western Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, M D; Fang, H-T; Lee, C-L; Ko, F-C; Baker, J E

    2006-08-01

    Spatial and temporal variations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in cultivated oysters from five aquaculture areas along the western coast of Taiwan were investigated. Poor correlations between total PCB concentrations (ng/g dry weight [dw]) and physiologic parameters of oysters (shell length, width, thickness, and lipid content) were found. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 94 cng/g dw. The highest value was found in oysters from the Lu'ermen aquaculture area, which receives wastewater from a sodium hydroxide and pentachlorophenol factory. Furthermore, principal component analysis confirmed that the PCB congener pattern in this area was distinct from others and that two additional pollution sources might exist in the Tainan and Hsinchu areas. Oysters with PCB concentrations > 1 SD above the geometric mean were found mainly in Tainan (stations TN5 to TN9) with only one increased concentration in the Yunlin (station YL2) and Hsinchu (station HC4) aquaculture areas. Except for four confined stations, TN3 to TN6, where total PCB concentrations were higher (p = 0.028) in the warmer (May and July) than in the colder season (November and March), seasonal variation of total PCB concentrations in oysters was not significant. Geometric mean and geometric mean plus 1 SD of total PCB concentrations in this study are lower than those in South Korea and the United States (Mussel Watch).

  2. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    PubMed

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  3. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in blood of informal e-waste recycling workers from Agbogbloshie, Ghana, and controls.

    PubMed

    Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Fobil, Julius N; Till, Holger; Burchard, Gerd-Dieter; Wilhelm, Michael; Feldt, Torsten

    2015-06-01

    The formation and environmental release of highly toxic organohalogen compounds associated with informal recycling of waste electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) is a growing problem at e-waste dumps/recycling sites (EWRSs) in many developing countries worldwide. We chose a cross-sectional study design to measure the internal exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of individuals working on one of the largest EWRSs of Africa, located at Agbogbloshie, Accra, Ghana, and in controls from a suburb of Accra without direct exposure to EWRS activities. In whole blood samples of 21 age matched male exposed individuals (mean age: 24.7 years, SD 6.0) and 21 male controls (mean age: 24.4 years, SD 5.7) 17 PCDD/F congeners were determined. Moreover three indicator PCB congeners (#138, #153 and #180) were measured in blood of 39 exposed (mean age: 27.5 years, SD 11.7) and 19 non-exposed (mean age: 26.8 years, SD 9.7) patients. Besides a health examination, biometric and demographic data, residential and occupational history, occupational exposures and working conditions were recorded using a standardized questionnaire. In the exposed group, median PCDD/F-concentrations were 6.18 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 2.1-42.7) and significantly higher compared to the control group with 4.60 pg/g lipid base WHO2005-TEq (range: 1.6-11.6). Concentrations were different for 2,3,7,8-TetraCDD, three HexaCDD and all 10 PCDF congeners, indicating a combustion pattern. Using a multivariate regression analysis exposure to EWRS activities was the most important determinant for PCDD/F exposure. Median PCB levels for the indicator congeners #138, #153 and #180 were 0.011, 0.019 and 0.008 μg/l whole blood (ranges: 0.002-0.18, 0.003-0.16, 0.002-0.078) in the exposed group and, surprisingly, significantly higher in the controls (0.037, 0.062 and 0.022; ranges: 0.005-0.46, 0.010-0.46, 0.004-0.21). In a

  4. Modeling study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans behavior in flue gases under electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, Gennady

    2016-09-01

    The efficiency of the electron beam treatment of industrial flue gases for the removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides was investigated as applied to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) using methods of mathematical modeling. The proposed kinetic model of the process includes mechanism of PCDD/Fs decomposition caused by their interaction with OH radicals generated in the flue gases under the electron beam (EB) irradiation as well as PCDD/Fs formation from unburned aromatic compounds. The model allows to predict the main features of the process, which are observed in pilot plant installations, as well as to evaluate the process efficiency. The results of calculations are compared with the available experimental data. PMID:27258900

  5. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) isomer patterns from municipal waste combustion: formation mechanism fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jae-Yong; Choi, Kum-Chan; Mulholland, James A

    2006-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) byproducts can be formed in combustion systems by a variety of mechanisms. While total PCDD/F emissions and, to a lesser extent, homologue distributions from incinerators have been found to vary widely depending on combustion conditions, PCDD/F isomer distributions do not. Formation mechanisms can be grouped into two general categories: condensation of precursors, such as chlorinated phenols, and formation from particulate carbon, termed de novo synthesis. In addition to these mechanisms, chlorination and dechlorination reactions may affect isomer patterns. In this work, isomer patterns from field and laboratory municipal waste combustion samples are compared with computed thermodynamic distributions and those from the following experimental investigations: both gas-phase and metal-catalyzed condensation of chlorinated phenols, chlorination of dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran, and dechlorination of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and octachlorodibenzofuran. PCDD/F isomer patterns produced by different formation mechanisms in controlled experiments are distinct and robust, largely unaffected by combustion conditions. PCDD isomer patterns from municipal waste combustion are most similar to those produced by CuCl(2)-catalyzed phenol condensation from 10 chlorinated phenols. PCDF isomer patterns are most similar to those produced by chlorination and dechlorination.

  6. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality.

    PubMed

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. alpha-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas beta-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  7. Determination of Polychlorinated Diben-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Flue Gas by High Resolution Gas Chromatography Coupled with High Resolution Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.; Yan, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Cen, K. F

    2007-06-05

    In 1988 the first municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator plant was built in Shenzhen, China. Since then Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities have built a few MSW incineration plants. MSW incineration has gradually been used in some cities of China due to its advantages such as significant volume reduction (about 90%), mass reduction (about 70%), and toxicity reduction of the waste and energy recovery. However, MSW incineration is sometimes considered to the general public as the secondary pollution source, because of concerns about is toxic combustion byproducts (TCBs). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are the most toxic compounds among the TCBs. In this paper, PCDD/Fs in flue gas produced from a MSW incinerator were isokinetically withdrawn and collected in a multi component sampling train. Then the PCDD/Fs samples were extracted, concentrated and cleaned up step by step. Finally, the determination of PCDD/Fs was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The two PCDD/Fs emission levels were the similar, which was 0.115 and 0.096ng TEQ/Nm3 although different sampling time. The PCDD/Fs emission levels were lower than the PCDD/Fs emission regulation in China (1.0 ng TEQ / Nm3) and close to the developed countries' regulations, i.e., 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was the dominant congener of the total TEQ.

  8. Effects of injected activated carbon and solidification treatment on the leachability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from air pollution control residues of municipal waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Wang, Lin-Chi; Yu, Tsung-Hsien

    2007-04-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the injected activated carbon, cement, and sulfur-containing chelating agent in controlling polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) release from the surface of air pollution control (APC) residues, this study examined the leachability of PCDD/Fs from APC residues generated by municipal solid waste incinerators. Results showed that PCDD/Fs were stably retained in the APC residues when the samples were leached with acetic acid solution. Highly chlorinated PCDD/F homologues (i.e., hepta- and octa-CDDs and CDFs) were relatively easy to leach. The leaching percentages of PCDD/Fs from raw APC residue samples containing activated carbon were smaller than those from samples without activated carbon, especially when n-hexane was used as the leachant. These results indicate that the flue gas injected activated carbon not only controls PCDD/F emissions, but also suppresses the leachability of PCDD/Fs from the APC residues. Solidification/stabilization (S/S) processes with 30wt% cement and 5wt% sulfur-containing agent can additionally decrease the leachability of PCDD/Fs with humic acid. Using n-hexane as the leachant, S/S processes increased the leachability of PCDD/Fs. Various low chlorinated PCDD/F congeners were moreover leached out of the APC residue samples, markedly increasing the leachate toxicity. The enhancement of leachability and toxicity owing to S/S processes may negatively impact the environment when APC residues are exposed to nonpolar organic solvents.

  9. Modeling of indoor air treatment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using high-efficiency particulate air-carbon filtration.

    PubMed

    Li, Hebi; Chen, Yongsheng; Crittenden, John; Hand, David; Taylor, Roy

    2006-08-01

    A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-carbon filtration system was developed by the Access Business Group, LLC, to reduce the indoor levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The HEPA filter removes the particle-bound PCDD/Fs, and the carbon filter removes the gaseous fraction. Because of the toxicity of PCDD/Fs, it is very difficult to handle them in the laboratory. In this study, mathematical modeling was performed to evaluate the performance of the HEPA-carbon filtration system for PCDD/Fs removal and to optimize its design and operation. The model was calibrated with experimental data conducted with toluene in a sealed room. Model simulations with four selected congeners demonstrated that it takes approximately 1 hr for the indoor air treatment system to reach the maximum removal efficiency and that the carbon air filter has a life time of 10(7) yr for dioxin removal. Given a zero emission from the HEPA filter, the overall removal efficiency is 78.7% for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins, 89.8% for octa-chlorodibenzodioxin, 78% for tetra-chlorodibenzofuran, and 89.8% for octa-chlorodibenzofuran. The larger the mass emission from the HEPA filter, the lower the overall removal efficiency, and the larger the ratio of the filter flow rate (Q(f)) to the room flow rate (Q), the higher the overall removal efficiency. When the ratio of Q(f)/Q is 15, an overall removal efficiency of 90% can be reached for all four of the selected compounds. The removal of the four selected compounds does not change as the relative humidity increases < or = 90%. PMID:16933648

  10. Modeling of indoor air treatment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans using high-efficiency particulate air-carbon filtration.

    PubMed

    Li, Hebi; Chen, Yongsheng; Crittenden, John; Hand, David; Taylor, Roy

    2006-08-01

    A high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-carbon filtration system was developed by the Access Business Group, LLC, to reduce the indoor levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The HEPA filter removes the particle-bound PCDD/Fs, and the carbon filter removes the gaseous fraction. Because of the toxicity of PCDD/Fs, it is very difficult to handle them in the laboratory. In this study, mathematical modeling was performed to evaluate the performance of the HEPA-carbon filtration system for PCDD/Fs removal and to optimize its design and operation. The model was calibrated with experimental data conducted with toluene in a sealed room. Model simulations with four selected congeners demonstrated that it takes approximately 1 hr for the indoor air treatment system to reach the maximum removal efficiency and that the carbon air filter has a life time of 10(7) yr for dioxin removal. Given a zero emission from the HEPA filter, the overall removal efficiency is 78.7% for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins, 89.8% for octa-chlorodibenzodioxin, 78% for tetra-chlorodibenzofuran, and 89.8% for octa-chlorodibenzofuran. The larger the mass emission from the HEPA filter, the lower the overall removal efficiency, and the larger the ratio of the filter flow rate (Q(f)) to the room flow rate (Q), the higher the overall removal efficiency. When the ratio of Q(f)/Q is 15, an overall removal efficiency of 90% can be reached for all four of the selected compounds. The removal of the four selected compounds does not change as the relative humidity increases < or = 90%.

  11. Determination of Polychlorinated Diben-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Flue Gas by High Resolution Gas Chromatography Coupled with High Resolution Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Yan, J. H.; Li, X. D.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-06-01

    In 1988 the first municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator plant was built in Shenzhen, China. Since then Beijing, Shanghai and other big cities have built a few MSW incineration plants. MSW incineration has gradually been used in some cities of China due to its advantages such as significant volume reduction (about 90%), mass reduction (about 70%), and toxicity reduction of the waste and energy recovery. However, MSW incineration is sometimes considered to the general public as the secondary pollution source, because of concerns about is toxic combustion byproducts (TCBs). Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are the most toxic compounds among the TCBs. In this paper, PCDD/Fs in flue gas produced from a MSW incinerator were isokinetically withdrawn and collected in a multi component sampling train. Then the PCDD/Fs samples were extracted, concentrated and cleaned up step by step. Finally, the determination of PCDD/Fs was carried out by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The two PCDD/Fs emission levels were the similar, which was 0.115 and 0.096ng TEQ/Nm3 although different sampling time. The PCDD/Fs emission levels were lower than the PCDD/Fs emission regulation in China (1.0 ng TEQ / Nm3) and close to the developed countries' regulations, i.e., 0.1ng TEQ/Nm3. 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) was the dominant congener of the total TEQ.

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) in food samples collected in southern Mississippi, USA.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, H; Cooper, K R; Bergek, S; Hjelt, M; Rappe, C

    1997-01-01

    In 1994, we analyzed 43 foodstuff samples from local supermarkets in southern Mississippi, USA, for PCDD/PCDF. 2,3,7,8-Cl4DD could be quantified in 31 of these samples. On a lipid basis, levels in meat (0.53-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) and dairy products (0.42-1.10 pg I-TEQ/g) were slightly lower than those reported from other industrialized countries. While levels in dairy samples from the United States and Europe are comparable, there is a difference in the contribution of individual congeners to the I-TEQ: for example, in milk samples from Germany approximately 40% of the I-TEQ is due to the presence of 2,3, 4,7,8-Cl5DF while in the Mississippi samples this congener only contributes 16%. The highest concentrations of PCDD/PCDF in our study were detected in the farm-raised catfish (10.2-27.8 pg I-TEQ/g). A unique finding was that in addition to the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/PCDF the catfish samples contained many non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. This is unusual because vertebrate animals selectively eliminate or metabolize the non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Great Lakes lake trout and their eggs: relations to survival and congener composition 1979-1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Schwartz, Ted R.; Edsall, Carol C.; Frank, Anthony M.

    1993-01-01

    Eggs taken from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) captured from various Great Lakes between 1979 and 1988 were analyzed for individual polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Eggs from the same fish had been previously reared through hatching and early fry development to ascertain egg quality. Tissues from a subsample of the adult females that provided eggs were similarly analyzed. Significant relations were found between embryonic mortality (eggs dying between fertilization and hatch) and the concentrations of total PCBs in both the eggs and adults. PCB concentrations were also negatively correlated with the percentage of normal fry that successfully hatched, but no relation was found between PCB residues and fry mortality. Pattern recognition analysis indicated that the PCB congener fingerprint for eggs from Lake Superior was different than that of eggs from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario. A difference between PCB residue patterns was also identified between eggs and the parent fish. While this difference indicated some preferential deposition of congeners in the eggs, the difference was not attributed to the toxic AHH-active congeners. No difference in the PCB pattern was observed over the 10 years of sample collection, demonstrating that concentrations of individual congeners are declining at similar rates.

  14. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in fires of arsenic-free treated wood: role of organic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Tame, Nigel W; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z; Kennedy, Eric M

    2007-09-15

    This article demonstrates that biocidal organochlorines such as tebuconazole and permethrin, employed in formulations of wood preservatives, produce significant quantities of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) when subjected to thermal decomposition under oxidative conditions. Both tebuconazole and permethrin form PCDD/F during gas-phase oxidation, but much greater yields occurred in the presence of surrogate ash corresponding to wood treated with copper-based fungicides. The significant yields have implications for the increased toxicity of PCDD/F emissions during fires of wood impregnated by combination of organic and copper-based preservatives. The oxidative pyrolysis of tebuconazole and permethrin over simulated wood ash generated amounts of PCDD/F exceeding those of untreated wood by 3 orders of magnitude. We obtained yields of 1000 ng WHO97-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 5500 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin when reacting the organochlorines in an oxidizing atmosphere over surrogate wood ash. Gas-phase oxidation also produce measurable quantities of PCDD/F, corresponding to 1 ng WH097-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 36 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin. In the case of tebuconazole, the present measurements correlate well with those obtained from oxidative pyrolysis of CBA-treated wood in the cone calorimeter. It appears that permethrin and tebuconazole provide phenyl and diphenyl precursors to formation of PCDD/F and both constitute a source of chlorine upon fragmentation. PMID:17948789

  15. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and wild moose (Alces alces) meat in Finland.

    PubMed

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2009-05-01

    Semi-domesticated reindeer and wild moose meat samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Both calves and adults were studied. Individual reindeer and moose meat samples and pooled reindeer calf meat samples were collected from the northern, the middle, and the southern reindeer herding regions in Finland. Samples represented the edible parts of carcasses. In individual samples of reindeer the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was on average 3.2pgg(-1) in calves and 2.3pgg(-1) in adults. In moose calves the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration (1.9pgg(-1)) was lower than in reindeer calves. WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration in the adult moose samples was equal as in the adult reindeer samples. The mean fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was highest in reindeer calf samples from the middle region. These samples contained also the highest content of fat. Individual samples of reindeer contained on average more WHO-PCB-TEQ than WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ, while the opposite was true for moose samples, and also samples of adult reindeer from the southern area. The contributions of PCDD/Fs and PCBs to the total TEQ were similar in the reindeer calves' pooled samples which were collected from more western regions than individual samples.

  16. Estimated dietary intake and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from fish consumption in the Korean general population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-su; Kim, Jongchul; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kang, Young-Woon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in samples from various fish species available at food markets in nine Korean cities. The estimated dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated from the raw concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in each sample and from the food consumption of the Korean general population, and a comparison was made with the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The average daily dietary exposure and the 95th percentile of intake of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 0.21 and 0.49 pg WHO05-toxic equivalents (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight d(-1) representing 5.27% and 12.26%, respectively, of the Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI). We applied the monthly fish consumption limits to the evaluation of improved risk assessment and concluded that unlimited consumption of most fish species does not contribute to the elevated cancer risk. This investigation was the first such large-scale study in Korea, and incorporated 37 species, including a species of whale, and 480 samples. The major aims of this study were to demonstrate the health risks associated with fish intake and to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS).

  17. Assessment of dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from the Chinese Total Diet Study in 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yin, Shuaixing; Wang, Xiangyong; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Xiaowei; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Yongning

    2015-10-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in food samples from the fifth Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS) performed in 2011. A total of 152 composite samples from various food groups were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC-HRMS). The dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were subsequently estimated for the adult from various regions in China. The mean dietary intake of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was 20.1 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) (WHO-TEF of 1998) within a range of 4.2 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) to 53.7 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) which were all much lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) established by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). By comparing with results from previous Chinese TDS, a decline of the average dietary intake was observed from 2000 to 2011, but a notable elevation was observed in some regions partly stem from increasing contamination levels in certain foods.

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in fish, seafood products and fish oil in Spain.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lucía; Martínez, Aníbal; Ferreira, Martiña; Vieites, Juan; Cabado, Ana

    2013-01-01

    A total of 84 samples of wild and farmed fish, cephalopods and fish oils for animal feeding, traded in Spain, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in 2009-2012, by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). The method was optimised for screening at moderate costs, allowing PCDD/Fs determination at 1 pg World Health Organization-toxic equivalent quantities (WHO-TEQ) g⁻¹ wet weight (w w) and dl-PCBs at 0.02 pg WHO-TEQ g⁻¹ w w. Concentrations in fish and cephalopods ranged from values below the limit of detection to 1.7 pg g⁻¹ WHO-TEQ sum PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, considered as safe with regard to EU legislation. Higher levels were found in cod livers (5.4-54.2) and fish oils (3.3-30.7), with one noncompliant sample in each group.

  19. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water samples from the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in freshwater since the volume of water needed for dioxin analysis is large. In this study, 19 water samples from the middle reaches of the Yangtze River were analysed for the levels of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs). The results showed that the concentration ranges of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were 0.6-8.5 and 2.0-15.8 pg/L, respectively, which were relatively low compared with those reported in the literature. The WHO-TEQ concentration range of dioxins was 0.002-0.040 pg/L. The PCA results indicated that the main sources of PCDD/Fs may be the applications of pentachlorophenol or sodium pentachlorophenate and domestic wood and coal burning. For dl-PCBs, domestic wood burning and coal burning were the main sources.

  20. Occurrence and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in industrial and domestic sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Aparna; Rifai, Hanadi S

    2015-10-01

    Sewage sludge samples collected from 43 different domestic and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industries that discharge to the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), which are highly toxic and carcinogenic towards humans and animals. The measured total PCDD/F toxic equivalency (TEQ) ranged between 0.73 and 7348.40 pg/g dry weight. The mean TEQ of PCDD/Fs in industrial sludge was approximately 40 times higher than that in sewage sludge. The PCDD homolog concentrations in the industrial samples were higher than those observed at the wastewater treatment plants by a factor of 10, with total heptachlorodibenzodioxin (HpCDD) exhibiting the maximum concentration in most of the samples. Among the PCDF homologs, total heptadichlorodibenzofuran (HpCDF) dominated the total homolog concentration in sludge from the wastewater treatment plants, whereas total tetradichlorodibenzofuran (TeCDF) dominated the industrial sludge samples. Overall, the total PCDD/F TEQ in sludge samples was much higher than that in effluent samples from the same facility. A linear correlation (R (2) = 0.62, p value < 0.068) was found indicating that sludge sampling can be used as a surrogate for effluent concentrations in wastewater treatment plants but not for industrial discharges.

  1. Method development for the simultaneous determination of polybrominated, polychlorinated, mixed polybrominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Rjabova, J; Viksna, A; Bartkevics, V

    2015-01-01

    An analytical methodology was developed for simultaneous determination of five groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polybrominated, polychlorinated and mixed brominated-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/DFs, PCDD/DFs and PXDD/DFs, respectively), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish samples. The presented analytical approach was based on well established and robust method for determination of PCDD/DFs and PCBs, which was augmented with gas chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS) to include PBDEs, as well as poorly investigated PBDD/DFs and PXDD/DFs at toxicologically significant levels. Intensive clean-up and fractionation procedures in combination with optimized instrumental parameters provided reliable detection and quantification of these compounds. The application of (13)C12-labeled surrogates of analyzed compounds allowed the internal standardization and accurate measurement of selected contaminants. The developed procedure was validated while taking into account the Commission Regulation (EU) 252/2012 requirements for PCDD/DFs and PCBs, and was used to measure the occurrence of priority POPs in Baltic wild salmon.

  2. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American kestrels, and common terns

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Eisemann, J.D.; Spann, J.W.

    1998-04-01

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, PCB 126 (3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCB) and PCB 77 (3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetraCB), were examined in chicken (Gallus gallus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryos through hatching, following air cell injections on day 4. PCB 126 caused malformations and edema in chickens starting at 0.3 ppb, in kestrels at 2.3 to 23 ppb, but in terns only at levels affecting hatching success (44 ppb). Extent of edema was most severe in chickens and least in terns. Defects of the beak were common in all species but with crossed beak most prevalent in terns. Effects on embryo growth were most apparent for PCB 126 in chickens and kestrels. The approximate 50% lethal dose (LD50) for PCB 126 in chickens was 0.4 ppb, in kestrels was 65 ppb, and in terns was 104 ppb. The approximate LD50 for PCB 77 in chickens was 2.6 ppb and in kestrels was 316 ppb. Induction of cytochrome P450 associated monooxygenase activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity) by PCB 126 in chick embryo liver was about 800 times more responsive than in tern and at least 1,000 times more responsive than in kestrel. High concentrations of PCB 126 found in bald eagle eggs are nearly 20-fold higher than the lowest toxic concentration tested in kestrels. Concentrations of PCB 126 causing low-level toxic effects in common tern eggs are comparable to highest levels in common terns and Forster`s terns in the field, suggesting additional involvement of other compounds in the Great Lakes.

  3. A mass spectroscopic method for analysis of AHH-inducing and other polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and selected pesticides in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners exhibit a wide range in toxicity to fish, birds, and mammals. This paper discusses the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry negative chemical ionization (GC/MS-NCI) to quantify congeners of highly suspected toxicity such as IUPAC #77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and #126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). GC/MS analysis time needed to produce the necessary resolution was reduced to 1 h per sample or standard, allowing an autosampler to inject 12 samples in 24 hours, plus 12 standards/QC samples. Identification and quantification of some 60+ congeners and several selected pesticides and estimation of total PCBs are also possible within the 1 h analysis. For congeners of high chlorination (penta through octa), the method exhibited excellent sensitivity, such that we could not locate a fish which exhibited PCB levels below our calibrated quantitation range. NCI was not as sensitive for mono through tri and for some tetrachlorinated PCB congeners, an exception being PCB #77, for which sensitivity was of the same order as for the more highly chlorinated biphenyls. Long term stability was excellent. Over a 6-mo period, results of replicate analyses for PCB congeners and pesticides in a composited sample of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Michigan had a relative standard deviation of 12% of the mean. Over the same time period, mean recoveries for samples spiked at concentrations similar to those in Lake Michigan lake trout were 90-102%. Response was linear over a wide range of concentrations for each of the analyzed compounds. This method is now being used for routine analysis of PCB congeners and selected pesticides in our laboratory.

  4. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia.

  5. Contamination of food samples from Malaysia with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and estimation of human intake.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Chiang, Pui-Nyuk; Jaafar, Hajjaj Juharullah; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-04-01

    A total of 126 food samples, categorised into three groups (seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products) from Malaysia were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The concentration of PCDD/Fs that ranged from 0.16 to 0.25 pg WHO05-TEQ g(-1) fw was found in these samples. According to the food consumption data from the Global Environment Monitoring System (GEMS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the dietary exposures to PCDD/F from seafood and seafood products, meat and meat products, as well as milk and dairy products for the general population in Malaysia were 0.064, 0.183 and 0.736 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. However, the exposure was higher in seafood and seafood products (0.415 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and meat and meat products (0.317 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1)) when the data were estimated using the Malaysian food consumption statistics. The lower exposure was observed in dairy products with an estimation of 0.365 pg WHO05-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1). Overall, these dietary exposure estimates were much lower than the tolerable daily intake (TDI) as recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that the dietary exposure to PCDD/F does not represent a risk for human health in Malaysia. PMID:24392728

  6. CONGENER-SPECIFIC DETECTION OF DIOXINS USING JET-REMPI. (R827927)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although 210 chemically different polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners can be produced during combustion, it is currently believed that fewer than 20 are toxic enough to warrant monitoring. SRI is developing a continuous emissions monitor to study...

  7. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  8. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in wood burning stoves and fireplaces

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.E.; Tosine, H.M.; Ali, B.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of bottom ash and chimney ash were collected from two wood burning stoves, one open fireplace, and from out-of-doors open-air burning. Although only untreated wood was burned, PCDD/PCDF was detected in all samples. Large differences in total PCDD/PCDF and relative congener amounts were observed between samples, although within-congener isomer patterns were very similar and in some cases resembled the patterns detected in municipal incinerator fly ash. Acid treatment of the ash before extraction increased the amounts of PCDD/PCDF detected.

  9. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls from uncontrolled burning of garden and domestic waste (backyard burning).

    PubMed

    Hedman, Björn; Näslund, Morgan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

    2005-11-15

    To assess emissions of dioxins (chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) and PCB from uncontrolled domestic combustion of waste ("backyard burning"), test combustions in barrels and open fires were monitored. The waste fuels used were garden waste, paper, paper and plastic packaging, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), PVC, and electronic scrap. Combustions including PVC and electronic scrap emitted several orders of magnitude more dioxins than the other waste fuels. Emissions from the other fuels had considerable variations, but the levels were difficult to relate to waste composition. Emission factors of PCDD/F and PCB from the backyard burning ranged from 2.2 to 13 000 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg. The levels found in ash usually were less than 5% of the total. For assessment of total emissions of dioxins and PCB from backyard burning of low and moderately contaminated wastes, an emission factor range of 4-72 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg is suggested. These figures implythat combusting waste in the backyard could contribute substantially to total emissions, even if the amounts of fuel involved are equivalent to just a few tenths of a percent of the amounts combusted in municipal waste incinerators.

  10. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls from uncontrolled burning of garden and domestic waste (backyard burning).

    PubMed

    Hedman, Björn; Näslund, Morgan; Nilsson, Calle; Marklund, Stellan

    2005-11-15

    To assess emissions of dioxins (chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) and PCB from uncontrolled domestic combustion of waste ("backyard burning"), test combustions in barrels and open fires were monitored. The waste fuels used were garden waste, paper, paper and plastic packaging, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), PVC, and electronic scrap. Combustions including PVC and electronic scrap emitted several orders of magnitude more dioxins than the other waste fuels. Emissions from the other fuels had considerable variations, but the levels were difficult to relate to waste composition. Emission factors of PCDD/F and PCB from the backyard burning ranged from 2.2 to 13 000 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg. The levels found in ash usually were less than 5% of the total. For assessment of total emissions of dioxins and PCB from backyard burning of low and moderately contaminated wastes, an emission factor range of 4-72 ng (WHO-TEQ)/kg is suggested. These figures implythat combusting waste in the backyard could contribute substantially to total emissions, even if the amounts of fuel involved are equivalent to just a few tenths of a percent of the amounts combusted in municipal waste incinerators. PMID:16323778

  11. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in human blood samples from Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Hoon; Ikonomou, Michael G; Lee, Se-Jin; Kim, Hee-Sun; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of blood samples is an effective way of evaluating contamination by persistent pollutants such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human population. Concentrations of PBDEs, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were measured in the blood of laborers (n = 13) working full time in two different municipal waste incinerator (MWI) plants and residents from the general population (n = 22) living in areas near MWIs in Korea. The concentrations of PBDEs were found to be slightly higher in the blood of incineration workers (8.61-46.05 ng/g lipid; mean, 19.33 ng/g lipid; median, 15.94 ng/g lipid) in comparison to that of residents from the general population (7.24-28.89 ng/g lipid; mean, 15.06 ng/g lipid; median, 14.34 ng/g lipid). The total average PCDD/Fs and PCB TEQ concentration was 20.11 pg/g lipid, averaged over incineration workers (17.73 pg/g lipid) and the general population (21.52 pg/g lipid). In addition, the average total crude concentration of PCDD/Fs was 7.40 ng/g lipids, which was 4.1 times greater than for PBDEs. Congener specific analysis confirmed that BDE 47 was a predictive indicator for total PBDE concentration (correlation coefficient r = 0.912), and that PCB 153 was a predictive indicator for total PCB concentration (r = 0.967). The PBDE levels in human blood in Korea are much higher than those reported in other countries. The presence of the BDE 183 congener was characteristic in the blood of workers from an electronic dismantling facility in MWIs.

  12. ELECTRONIC ELASTICITY-TOXICITY RELATIONSHIPS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN CONGENERS. (R826166)

    EPA Science Inventory

    SCF-MO computations have been performed on tetra- to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin congeners (PCDD) using an MNDO-PM3 Hamiltonian. Qualitative relationships were developed between empirical, international-toxic equivalence factors for PCDD congeners and their relati...

  13. Assessing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in air across Latin American countries using polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Harner, Tom; Fillmann, Gilberto; Ahrens, Lutz; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Aristizábal, Beatriz; Bastos, Wanderley; Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Cortés, Johana; Fentanes, Oscar; Gusev, Alexey; Hernandez, Maricruz; Ibarra, Martín Villa; Lana, Nerina B; Lee, Sum Chi; Martínez, Ana Patricia; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Puerta, Andrea Padilla; Segovia, Federico; Siu, May; Tominaga, Maria Yumiko

    2015-03-17

    A passive air sampling network has been established to investigate polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) sites and six additional sites in the Group of Latin American and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC) region. The air sampling network covers background, agricultural, rural, and urban sites. Samples have been collected over four consecutive periods of 6 months, which started in January 2011 [period 1 (January to June 2011), period 2 (July to December 2011), period 3 (January to June 2012), and period 4 (July 2012 to January 2013)]. Results show that (i) the GAPS passive samplers (PUF disk type) and analytical methodology are adequate for measuring PCDD/F burdens in air and (ii) PCDD/F concentrations in air across the GRULAC region are widely variable by almost 2 orders of magnitude. The highest concentrations in air of Σ4-8PCDD/Fs were found at the urban site São Luis (Brazil, UR) (i.e., 2560 fg/m3) followed by the sites in São Paulo (Brazil, UR), Mendoza (Argentina, RU), and Sonora (Mexico, AG) with values of 1690, 1660, and 1610 fg/m3, respectively. Very low concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air were observed at the background site Tapanti (Costa Rica, BA), 10.8 fg/m3. This variability is attributed to differences in site characteristics and potential local/regional sources as well as meteorological influences. The measurements of PCDD/Fs in air agree well with model-predicted concentrations performed using the Global EMEP Multimedia Modeling System (GLEMOS) and emission scenario constructed on the basis of the UNEP Stockholm Convention inventory of dioxin and furan emissions. PMID:25686404

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  15. Assessing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in air across Latin American countries using polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Harner, Tom; Fillmann, Gilberto; Ahrens, Lutz; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Aristizábal, Beatriz; Bastos, Wanderley; Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Cortés, Johana; Fentanes, Oscar; Gusev, Alexey; Hernandez, Maricruz; Ibarra, Martín Villa; Lana, Nerina B; Lee, Sum Chi; Martínez, Ana Patricia; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Puerta, Andrea Padilla; Segovia, Federico; Siu, May; Tominaga, Maria Yumiko

    2015-03-17

    A passive air sampling network has been established to investigate polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) sites and six additional sites in the Group of Latin American and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC) region. The air sampling network covers background, agricultural, rural, and urban sites. Samples have been collected over four consecutive periods of 6 months, which started in January 2011 [period 1 (January to June 2011), period 2 (July to December 2011), period 3 (January to June 2012), and period 4 (July 2012 to January 2013)]. Results show that (i) the GAPS passive samplers (PUF disk type) and analytical methodology are adequate for measuring PCDD/F burdens in air and (ii) PCDD/F concentrations in air across the GRULAC region are widely variable by almost 2 orders of magnitude. The highest concentrations in air of Σ4-8PCDD/Fs were found at the urban site São Luis (Brazil, UR) (i.e., 2560 fg/m3) followed by the sites in São Paulo (Brazil, UR), Mendoza (Argentina, RU), and Sonora (Mexico, AG) with values of 1690, 1660, and 1610 fg/m3, respectively. Very low concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air were observed at the background site Tapanti (Costa Rica, BA), 10.8 fg/m3. This variability is attributed to differences in site characteristics and potential local/regional sources as well as meteorological influences. The measurements of PCDD/Fs in air agree well with model-predicted concentrations performed using the Global EMEP Multimedia Modeling System (GLEMOS) and emission scenario constructed on the basis of the UNEP Stockholm Convention inventory of dioxin and furan emissions.

  16. Spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls around a municipal solid waste incinerator, determined using polyurethane foam passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lidan; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-six ambient air samples were collected around a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in the summer and winter using polyurethane foam passive air samplers, and analyzed to assess the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three stack gas samples were also collected and analyzed to determine PCDD/F (971 pg m(-3) in average) and PCB (2,671 pg m(-3) in average) emissions from the MSWI and to help identify the sources of the pollutants in the ambient air. The total PCDD/F concentrations in the ambient air samples were lower in the summer (472-1,223 fg m(-3)) than the winter (561-3913 fg m(-3)). In contrast, the atmospheric total PCB concentrations were higher in the summer (716-4,902 fg m(-3)) than the winter (489-2,298 fg m(-3)). Principal component analysis showed that, besides emissions from the MSWI, the domestic burning of coal and wood also contributed to the presence of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air. The PCDD/F and PCB spatial distributions were analyzed using ordinary Kriging Interpolation and limited effect was found to be caused by emissions from the MSWI. Higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were observed downwind of the MSWI than in the other directions, but the highest concentrations were not to be found in the direction with the greatest wind frequency which might be caused by emissions from domestic coal and wood burning. We used a systemic method including sampling and data analysis method which can provide pioneering information for characterizing risks and assessing uncertainty of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air around MSWIs in China.

  17. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals.

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.).

    PubMed

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Verta, Matti; Korhonen, Markku; Nieminen, Mauri; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2011-02-01

    To explore the concentrations and dynamics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) the reindeer milk and tissue samples were collected from the sub-arctic northern Finland. Reindeer milk's PCB sum (1.20 ng g(-1) wet weight) and PCDD/F sum (0.70 pg g(-1) ww) in autumn were higher than in summer (PCBs 0.50 ng g(-1) ww and PCDD/Fs 0.20 pg g(-1) ww). The mean fat content in autumn milk (26%) was significantly higher than in summer (10%). Concentrations in reindeer milk were generally far below 50% of that in adult reindeer body burden. However, the bioaccumulation factors were multiple in milk/reindeer calf ratio and that aroused the question of other important exposure routes than lactation. The muscle and liver of reindeer calves had higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations than adult animals that possibly indicate the significance of transfer of these compounds from dam to calf through lactation and placenta. However, PBDE concentrations were higher in adult reindeer, especially in liver. In addition, reindeer liver seems to have a special feature to collect highly toxic PCDD/Fs, although the PCB sum concentrations (range from 0.33 to 1.69 ng g(-1) wet weight) were clearly higher than the sums of PCDD/Fs (range from 3.78 to 39.2 pg g(-1) ww). Stillborn reindeer calves represented individuals who had got their PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE load only via the placenta. Concentrations in muscle and brown adipose tissue samples did not indicate dependency on fat content. Obviously effective placental transfer of PCBs and PBDEs from reindeer dam to foetus was seen in this study.

  19. The Role of Hydrology in the Polychlorinated Dibenzo--dioxin and Dibenzofuran Distributions in a Lowland River.

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Kiedrzyńska, Edyta; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Zieliński, Marek; Grochowalski, Adam

    2015-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo--dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are environmental contaminants that have widespread distribution and pose a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We conducted a study to quantify the distribution, patterns, and transport of PCDDs and PCDFs along the Pilica River in central Poland under different hydrological conditions to estimate the loads of these compounds and understand their fate in aquatic systems. Water samples were collected at five sampling points along the river that represent a range of hydrological conditions including flooding and stable and low water flows. Reduced river water flow was associated with lower average total and toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of PCDDs plus PCDFs: 33.6 pg L and 4.21 pg TEQ L for flooding; 28.3 pg L and 3.6 pg TEQ L for stable flow; 18.4 pg L and 1.0 pg TEQ L for low-water flow. Similar results were observed for daily loadings of total and TEQ concentrations: the highest values were observed during flooding (331.1-839.4 mg d and 27.8-110.7 mg TEQ d), medium under stable hydrological conditions (55.8-121.0 mg d and 7.7-15.3 mg TEQ d), and the lowest values during low water flow (30.9 and 40.3 mg d and 1.4-2.4 mg TEQ d). The results demonstrate that diffuse sources of pollution play a key role during periods of high water flow (i.e., flooding season), whereas point sources of pollution, including municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plant discharges, mainly determine the PCDD and PCDF concentrations seen during low water periods. PMID:26437098

  20. The Role of Hydrology in the Polychlorinated Dibenzo--dioxin and Dibenzofuran Distributions in a Lowland River.

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Magdalena; Kiedrzyńska, Edyta; Kiedrzyński, Marcin; Zieliński, Marek; Grochowalski, Adam

    2015-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo--dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are environmental contaminants that have widespread distribution and pose a serious threat to aquatic ecosystems. We conducted a study to quantify the distribution, patterns, and transport of PCDDs and PCDFs along the Pilica River in central Poland under different hydrological conditions to estimate the loads of these compounds and understand their fate in aquatic systems. Water samples were collected at five sampling points along the river that represent a range of hydrological conditions including flooding and stable and low water flows. Reduced river water flow was associated with lower average total and toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of PCDDs plus PCDFs: 33.6 pg L and 4.21 pg TEQ L for flooding; 28.3 pg L and 3.6 pg TEQ L for stable flow; 18.4 pg L and 1.0 pg TEQ L for low-water flow. Similar results were observed for daily loadings of total and TEQ concentrations: the highest values were observed during flooding (331.1-839.4 mg d and 27.8-110.7 mg TEQ d), medium under stable hydrological conditions (55.8-121.0 mg d and 7.7-15.3 mg TEQ d), and the lowest values during low water flow (30.9 and 40.3 mg d and 1.4-2.4 mg TEQ d). The results demonstrate that diffuse sources of pollution play a key role during periods of high water flow (i.e., flooding season), whereas point sources of pollution, including municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plant discharges, mainly determine the PCDD and PCDF concentrations seen during low water periods.

  1. Distribution and uptake of key polychlorinated biphenyl and polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in benthic infauna relative to sediment organic enrichment.

    PubMed

    Burd, Brenda J; Macdonald, Tara A; Macdonald, Robie W; Ross, Peter S

    2014-10-01

    As part of a broader study of budgets, transport, and bioaccumulation of persistent organic contaminants in the Strait of Georgia, Canada, matching samples of sediment and bulk benthos were collected near two marine sewage outfalls, two large urban harbours, and background areas. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners. We present data for those congeners that fell within the top six rankings by concentration (23 PCBs and 10 PBDEs) within at least one of the environmental media measured in other studies (air, water, sediments, benthos, pelagic biota). Multifactor regression analyses incorporating sediment characteristics (total organic carbon, fines) predicted uptake (r (2) = 0.74 to 0.98, p < 0.04) over the range of congeners and habitats examined. PBDEs were taken up by biota more readily than PCBs, suggesting a large, potentially available biological reservoir of PBDEs in sediments. Dominant congeners in benthos comprised PBDEs 47, 99, 209, and 100 and PCBs 138/163, 153, 101, 118, and 110. PBDE uptake was anomalously high near one wastewater outfall, likely due to selective feeding on PBDE-enriched particulates from that source. Conversely, outfalls supply food and sediments with PCB concentrations similar to ambient sediments. However, organic enrichment of sediments near outfalls clearly enhanced PCB uptake by benthos, probably due to greatly increased biomass turnover near these sources. Data suggest there to be an initial reservoir of PCBs in newly settled juvenile benthos, which is much less evident for PBDEs. This is likely a consequence of the ecosystem-wide distribution of legacy PCBs but not the more current-use PBDEs. Congener-uptake patterns were dependent on source and input dynamics, feeding methods, and contaminant metabolism or debromination, particularly of deca-BDE.

  2. Identification of indicator congeners and evaluation of emission pattern of polychlorinated naphthalenes in industrial stack gas emissions by statistical analyses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Cai, Zongwei; Zheng, Minghui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Wang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Identifying marker congeners of unintentionally produced polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) from industrial thermal sources might be useful for predicting total PCN (∑2-8PCN) emissions by the determination of only indicator congeners. In this study, potential indicator congeners were identified based on the PCN data in 122 stack gas samples from over 60 plants involved in more than ten industrial thermal sources reported in our previous case studies. Linear regression analyses identified that the concentrations of CN27/30, CN52/60, and CN66/67 correlated significantly with ∑2-8PCN (R(2)=0.77, 0.80, and 0.58, respectively; n=122, p<0.05), which might be good candidates for indicator congeners. Equations describing relationships between indicators and ∑2-8PCN were established. The linear regression analyses involving 122 samples showed that the relationships between the indicator congeners and ∑2-8PCN were not significantly affected by factors such as industry types, raw materials used, or operating conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis and similarity calculations for the 122 stack gas samples were adopted to group those samples and evaluating their similarity and difference based on the PCN homolog distributions from different industrial thermal sources. Generally, the fractions of less chlorinated homologs comprised of di-, tri-, and tetra-homologs were much higher than that of more chlorinated homologs for up to 111 stack gas samples contained in group 1 and 2, which indicating the dominance of lower chlorinated homologs in stack gas from industrial thermal sources.

  3. Evidence of latitudinal fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners along the Baltic Sea region

    SciTech Connect

    Agrell, C.; Okla, L.; Larsson, P.; Backe, C.; Wania, F.

    1999-04-15

    Annual cycles of the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs were determined at 16 (mostly rural) stations around the Baltic Sea between 1990 and 1993. The concentration levels of individual congeners were found to be influenced by their physical-chemical properties, ambient temperature, and geographical location. Median levels of PCBs were similar at all stations except at one urban site near Riga. A latitudinal gradient with higher levels in the south was found for the sum of PCB as well as for individual congeners, and the gradient was more pronounced for the low volatility congeners. As a result, the high volatility congeners increased in relative importance with latitude. Generally, PCB concentrations increased with temperature, but slopes of the partial pressure in air versus reciprocal temperature were different between congeners and between stations. In general, the low volatility congeners were more temperature dependent than the high volatility PCB congeners. Steep slopes at a sampling location indicate that the concentration in air is largely determined by diffusive exchange with soils. Lack of a temperature dependence may be due to the influence of long-range transported air masses at remote sites and due to the episodic or random nature of PCB sources at urban sites.

  4. Exposure of arc-furnace-plant workers to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs).

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Po-Chin; Hsieh, Chia-Yi; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2006-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) levels in electric-arc-furnace workers according to their corresponding occupational exposure. In addition, the ambient PCDD/Fs of the work environment were measured to provide additional support for the exposure and accumulation inside the electric arc furnace. The ambient PCDD/F concentrations inside the electric arc furnace were 1.557-1.917 pg-TEQ/Nm(3), 5-24 folds higher than those outside (0.080-0.385 pg-TEQ/N m(3)). In addition, higher average serum levels were measured in the workers with high occupational dioxin exposure (24.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid) than in those with lower occupational dioxin exposure (13.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid). Higher PCDFs/PCDDs ratios were found in serum samples from high-exposure groups than in low-exposure groups. The higher ratio of PCDFs/PCDDs was also found in ambient samples consistent with other metallurgical processes reported previously. Our results suggest that PCDD/Fs exposure exits in the smelting process of electric arc furnace, and the occupational hygiene should be taken more seriously concern in that workplace.

  5. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-07-15

    Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between -400 and +80mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37-1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran concentrations in common fish species in the Pearl River Delta area, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianqing; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Yousheng; Jiang, Jie; Zhuang, Zhixiong; Liu, Xiaoli; Wu, Yongning

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) concentrations in 31 fish samples from 19 commonly consumed freshwater and saltwater species from the Pearl River Delta Area were analyzed. The PCDD/Fs dietary intake from fish for the local population was evaluated to provide a database for setting the national PCDD/F limits in fish for the People's Republic of China. The median concentration from the 31 fish samples was 1.27 pg/g wet weight for the total of PCDD/Fs, and the median WHO-TEQ was 0.26 pg/g wet weight, and ranged from 0.063 to 1.30 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet weight. The dominant contributors to the WHO-TEQ were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, which accounted for 38% and 28%, respectively. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs from fish for local people was estimated to be 0.47 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw x day. In view of the findings, the dietary of PCDD/Fs from other foods of animal origins in China should be studied in more detail as soon as possible in order that standards can be put forward to protect human health.

  7. Health risk analysis of human exposures to soil amended with sewage sludge contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Eschenroeder, A.; Jaeger, R.J.; Ospital, J.J.; Doyle, C.P.

    1986-10-01

    The risk of cancer to humans exposed to soil treated with wastewater/sewage treatment plant sludge, known to be contaminated with small amounts of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs), was evaluated. The particulate-bound PCDDs and PCDFs are found in trace amounts in the effluent from ground water pumping (dewatering) at an abandoned wood preservation facility. The water, which was sent to a water recovery plant, underwent primary and secondary treatment prior to discharge. The residual sludge was added to agricultural soil as a conditioner. The present analysis treats the extreme case of sludge applied near the home of a target individual, a lifetime resident, who is also a farm worker in the area of the application. The successive stages of infancy, childhood and adulthood are treated separately to assess the contributions of typical age-specific indoor and outdoor activities on exposure rates. Five toxicity rating schemes using so-called TCDD equivalents, and two unit risk slopes are applied to the chemical profile in sludge to determine the cancer potency of the soil contaminants. These risk estimates range from 1 X 10-8 to 3 X 10-7.

  8. Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on nesting wood ducks (Aix Sponsa) at Bayou Meto, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Wood ducks (Aix sponsa) nesting along Bayou Meto downstream from a hazardous waste site in central Arkansas were contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Residues in eggs, based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), ranged up to 611 parts per trillion (ppt), and egg arithmetic means were 90-fold higher at the site nearest the point source compared with a reference site. We monitored productivity of wood ducks in artificial nest boxes at three sites on the bayou and at a reference site on a separate drainage during 1988-1990. Productivity was suppressed (p 20 to 50 ppt. Oxidative stress and teratogenic effects occurred in ducklings at the more contaminated nesting sites nearest the point source. These findings suggest that wood ducks may be more sensitive to PCDD and PCDF contamination than some other aquatic birds and could serve as an indicator species for monitoring biological impacts from these contaminants.

  9. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-07-15

    Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between -400 and +80mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37-1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable. PMID:27037469

  10. Levels and distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in surface sediments from Galicia coast (Northwestern, Spain) according to granulometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Moureira, A

    2002-08-01

    In order to know distribution patterns of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the marine environment from Galida, PCBs n degrees 31, 28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 105, 138, 156 and 180 were isolated by Soxhlet extraction from three fractions of different particle size (<0.063 mm, 0.063-0.2 mm and >0.2 mm) in surface marine sediments; the quantification was performed using GC-MS and GC-ECD. Distribution of PCB congeners was shifted in favour of higher chlorinated compounds (CBs 138,153 and 180) and highly correlated to TOC content. In general, the finest fractions (<0.063 mm) of sediment presented the highest loadings of PCBs, only the sediment from As Pías zone exhibited the highest concentration of chlorinated congeners in the coarsest fraction. CB 52 concentration, slightly volatile compound, was related to water temperature. By means of multivariate techniques of data exploration as hierarchical duster analysis and principal components analysis, sediment samples from un-contaminated and slightly contaminated areas were clearly separated; groupings between samples from nearby zones appeared.

  11. Congener specific determination and enantiomeric ratios of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, S.; Schurig, V.; Jimenez, B.; Hernandez, L.M.; Gonzalez, M.J.; Marsili, L.

    1999-06-01

    Blubber and liver samples from six striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) found dead in the Mediterranean Sea in 1989--1990 were tested for 37 coplanar and chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including the enantiomeric ratios of 9 chiral PCBs. The method includes a fractionation step using HPLC (PYE column) for separating the PCBs according to the number of chlorine atoms in the ortho positions. HRGC/ECD and HRGC/LRMS with an a chiral column (DB-5) were used to determine the PCB congeners. The enantiomeric ratios of nine chiral PCBs were determined by HRGC/LRMS (SIM) with a chiral column (Chirasil-Dex) and by MDGC as the confirmatory technique. The total PCB concentration (sum of 37 congeners) ranged from 7.2 to 89.6 {micro}g/g (wet weight) and from 0.52 to 29.2 {micro}g/g (wet weight) for blubber and liver samples, respectively. PCB profiles were dominated by congeners 138, 153, 170, and 180. The toxic equivalent values (TEQ) ranged from 0.17 to 3.93 ng/g (wet weight) and from 0.02 to 0.73 ng/g (wet weight) for blubber and liver samples, respectively. PCBs 95, 132, 135, 149, and 176 revealed an enantiomeric excess of the second eluted enantiomer in almost all of the samples, whereas PCBs 136 and 174 were racemic or almost racemic. PCBs 88 and 91 were under the detection limits of the methodology used.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl source attribution in Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA, using multivariate similarity among congener profiles in sediment samples.

    PubMed

    Cacela, Dave; Beltman, Douglas J; Lipton, Joshua

    2002-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations measured in 1,189 sediment samples from Green Bay (MI/WI, USA), Lake Michigan (MI/WI, USA), and the Fox River (WI, USA) were analyzed statistically to evaluate whether PCB congener profiles in outer Green Bay are more similar to those observed in inner Green Bay or Lake Michigan. Similarities among PCB profiles were assessed with complementary multivariate analysis techniques: Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis, and classification trees. The PCA indicated that profiles in outer Green Bay are distinct from those of inner Green Bay or Lake Michigan but are more similar to those of inner Green Bay. The outer bay profiles are dissimilar to profiles that would result from a simple process of mixing contaminated sediments from the inner bay with Lake Michigan sediments and, therefore, support the conclusion that contaminants in outer Green Bay come from discharges of the Fox River. Several classification trees based on small sets of congener proportions defined simple rules that consistently distinguished the regional profiles. Application of these rules to classify the outer bay samples suggests that the profiles of less than 7% of outer bay samples are similar to Lake Michigan profiles. These results are interpreted with respect to physical transport and chemical weathering processes that may account for the observed differences.

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in commercialized food products from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pemberthy, D; Quintero, A; Martrat, M G; Parera, J; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Villa, A L

    2016-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are commonly known as dioxins and are the most toxic members of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because present a variety of health effects especially as promoting agent of growing and transformation of cancer cells. They are bio-accumulate in humans primarily via the diet, specifically by ingestion of foods that have high lipid content which are generally associated with foods of animal origin such as oils and fats and with fishery and dairy products. In Colombia the Ministry of Health and Social Protection which is the entity responsible for surveillance food conditions, has established maximum levels for dioxins and dl-PCBs in oils from animal and vegetable origins. Oils of vegetable and animal origin represent an appreciable intake in the country thus the presence of dioxins and dl-PCBs in these materials is a matter of concern because they can bioaccumulate in fat. In this contribution the levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in olive, soybean, fish oil, butter and shrimp consumed in Colombia were determined using HRGC-HRMS and were compared with the maximum levels permitted in oil samples according to both the Colombian and European regulations. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs ranged from 0.24 to 1.710pgWHO-TEQ PCDD/Fg(-1) of fat and from 0.050 to 3.000pgWHO-TEQ PCBg(-1) of fat, respectively. As expected, fish oils and shrimp present the highest WHO-TEQ PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs values followed by butter and soybean oil sample, while the olive oil shows the lowest levels. In general, the vegetable oils show levels below the limits established by both the Colombian and European regulations. The levels from soybean oil found in this study were slightly higher than the threshold established both by the Commission Regulation European Union (EU) and the Colombian legislation, while fish oils showed concentrations

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like PCBs in commercialized food products from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pemberthy, D; Quintero, A; Martrat, M G; Parera, J; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Villa, A L

    2016-10-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are commonly known as dioxins and are the most toxic members of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) because present a variety of health effects especially as promoting agent of growing and transformation of cancer cells. They are bio-accumulate in humans primarily via the diet, specifically by ingestion of foods that have high lipid content which are generally associated with foods of animal origin such as oils and fats and with fishery and dairy products. In Colombia the Ministry of Health and Social Protection which is the entity responsible for surveillance food conditions, has established maximum levels for dioxins and dl-PCBs in oils from animal and vegetable origins. Oils of vegetable and animal origin represent an appreciable intake in the country thus the presence of dioxins and dl-PCBs in these materials is a matter of concern because they can bioaccumulate in fat. In this contribution the levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in olive, soybean, fish oil, butter and shrimp consumed in Colombia were determined using HRGC-HRMS and were compared with the maximum levels permitted in oil samples according to both the Colombian and European regulations. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs ranged from 0.24 to 1.710pgWHO-TEQ PCDD/Fg(-1) of fat and from 0.050 to 3.000pgWHO-TEQ PCBg(-1) of fat, respectively. As expected, fish oils and shrimp present the highest WHO-TEQ PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs values followed by butter and soybean oil sample, while the olive oil shows the lowest levels. In general, the vegetable oils show levels below the limits established by both the Colombian and European regulations. The levels from soybean oil found in this study were slightly higher than the threshold established both by the Commission Regulation European Union (EU) and the Colombian legislation, while fish oils showed concentrations

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations in seabirds found dead in mortality incidents around the British coast.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, H M; Osborn, D; Wright, J; Wienburg, C L; Sparks, T H

    2003-07-01

    Livers from 121 birds killed in mortality incidents in U.K. coastal waters between 1991 and 1996 were analyzed for 16 PCB congeners (IUPAC numbers 8, 18, 28, 31, 52, 77, 101, 118, 126, 128, 138, 149, 153, 169, 170, and 180). Species analyzed were guillemot (Uria aalge), shag (Phalacrocorax arisotelis), kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), puffin (Fratercula arctica), razorbill (Alca torda), fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis), gannet (Sula bassana), and herring gull (Larus argentatus). This is the first report of PCBs in U.K. seabird tissues to be presented since 1983. Mean concentrations of total PCBs ranged from 0.47 to 15.8 mg/kg WW, similar to concentrations reported for North Sea birds during the 1970s and 1980s and lower than those reported for the same species in the Irish Sea during the late 1960s and early 1970s. The congeners generally present in the highest concentrations were (in decreasing order) 153, 138, 180, 118, and 170. Despite the birds having similar diets, both inter- and intraspecies differences in PCB congener profile were found. In guillemots from several sites on the east coast, the dominant congener was 138, compared to guillemots from the south coast, which had the more typical congener pattern found in seabirds. Some of the differences in total PCB values could be due to different causes of death, with a subsequent effect on body lipid levels. PMID:12948183

  16. Discrimination of aerial deposition sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran downwind from a pulp mill near Ketchikan, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Peek, Daniel C; Butcher, Matthew K; Shields, Walter J; Yost, Lisa J; Maloy, John A

    2002-04-15

    Drinking water is supplied by individual roof-catchment systems for homes and businesses near a dissolving sulfite pulp mill (now closed) located just north of Ketchikan in southeast Alaska. This study was conducted to determine if polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) found in the sediments of the roof-catchment cisterns resulted from historical deposition of stack emissions from the pulp mill's multi-fuel power boilers. Fly ash from the power boilers had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 3.08 x 10(5)-3.10 x 10(6) ng/kg, which resulted from combustion of bleach plant wastewater sludge and saltwater-soaked wood waste. Cistern sediments had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 7.71 x 10(4) ng/kg. Potential sources of PCDDs/Fs in the cistern sediments were considered to be automobile exhaust, heating oil combustion, and private trash burning as well as pulp mill boiler emissions. Discriminant analysis was used to analyze differences between profiles of tetra through octa homologue classes of PCDDs/ Fs (defined as proportional contributions to total concentration) from different source terms. Homologue profiles of potential sources from Ketchikan included in this analysis were fly ash collected from the mill's power boilers and soils collected from background areas (areas with similar PCDD/F sources as the residences [e.g., auto exhaust and burn barrels] near the mill but beyond the zone of aerial deposition of emissions from the mill). Profiles for emissions from automobile exhaust, fertilizers, oil heating, residential trash burning, and residential wood heating were also included in the source "training" data set (for the discriminant analysis) using data from published literature. The classification rules developed from the discriminant analysis were applied to the following test media sampled at Ketchikan: roof-catchment cistern sediments and soils collected from areas in the vicinity of the mill's power boilers (i

  17. Tissue Distribution of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Organochlorine Pesticides and Potential Toxicity to Alaskan Northern Fur Seals Assessed Using PCBs Congener Specific Mode of Action Schemes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of 145 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry in 8 different tissues (blubber, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, and reproductive tissues) of 10 Alaskan northern fur seals. The mean concentrations of bot...

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments and biota of the Saguenay Fjord and the St. Lawrence Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Brochu, C.; Moore, S.; Pelletier, E.

    1995-12-31

    Sediment samples and marine organisms were collected in the Saguenay Fjord and at two selected sites of the St. Lawrence Estuary in 1991. Total PCDDs and total PCDFs ranged from 22 to 352 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and 29 to 188 ng kg{sup {minus}1}, respectively in Saguenay sediments, while total PCDFs reached, 287 ng kg{sup {minus}1} in Baie des Anglais, a small and deep bay of the St. Lawrence Estuary impacted by PCBs during the 1970s. All biological samples contained detectable amounts of chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, apart from the North Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The highest concentrations (up to 59.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1} total PCDFs and 2.54 ng kg{sup {minus}1} 2,3,7,8T4CDD Equivalent (TCDD TEQ)) were observed in crab (Chionoecetes opilio) caught in Saguenay Fjord and in crab and whelk (Buccinwn undatwn) collected in Baie des Anglais. Nordic shrimp (Pandalus borealis) is less contaminated with a maximum total PCDDs and PCDFs concentration of 14.0 ng kg{sup {minus}1} and TCDD TEQ never exceeding 0.7 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) caught in the Saguenay Fjord contained only 2,3,7,8 substituted congeners in their tissues leading to a low average TCDD TEQ of 1.66 ng kg{sup {minus}1}. Based upon this first series of results, benthic organisms and fish from the Saguenay Fjord and the north shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary are exposed to low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs, and carry tissue concentrations well below international guidelines for fisheries products.

  19. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from stack gases of electric arc furnaces and secondary aluminum smelters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Shan; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Wang, Lin-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Kuen-Yuh; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2005-02-01

    This study investigates the emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from four electric arc furnaces (EAFs) and eight secondary aluminum smelters (secondary ALSs) in Taiwan. The mean PCDD/F International-Toxicity Equivalents (I-TEQ) concentrations in the stack gases of these EAFs and secondary ALSs are 0.28 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (relative standard deviation [RSD]= 100%) and 3.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm3 (RSD = 260%), respectively. The high RSDs, especially for those obtained from secondary ALSs, could be caused by the intrinsic differences in their involved feeding materials, furnace operating conditions, and air pollution control devices. The mean I-TEQ emission factor of PCDD/Fs for EAFs (1.8 microg I-TEQ/tonne-feedstock) is lower than that for secondary ALSs (37 microg I-TEQ/tonne-feedstock). This result might be because the involved furnace temperatures for secondary ALSs (650-750 degrees C) are lower than those for EAFs (1600-1700 degrees C), resulting in the deterioration of the combustion condition, leading to the formation of PCDD/Fs during the industrial process. This study found that the total PCDD/F emissions from EAFs (20 g I-TEQ/yr) and secondary ALSs (18 g I-TEQ/yr) are approximately 27, 53, and approximately 24, 49 times higher than those from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs; 0.74 g I-TEQ/yr) and medical waste incinerators (MWIs; 0.37 g I-TEQ/yr), respectively; while those are 44 and 40% of total PCDD/F emission from sinter plants (45 g I-TEQ/ yr), respectively. Considering a more stringent emission limit has been applied to waste incinerators (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm3) in Taiwan lately, the results suggest that the control of the emissions from metallurgical processes has become the most important issue for reducing the total PCDD/F emission from industrial sectors to the ambient environment.

  20. Atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in urban and suburban areas of Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; Lee, Su-Jeong; Choi, Hee-Gu; Ok, Gon

    2005-03-01

    Bulk atmospheric samples (wet and dry) were collected monthly throughout a year at urban and suburban areas of Korea to assess the deposition flux and seasonal variations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The PCDDs/DFs deposition fluxes ranged from 1.0 to 3.7 ng TEQ/m2/year in the urban area and from 0.5 to 4.6 ng TEQ/m2/year in the suburban area. The deposition fluxes of PCDDs/DFs in this study were comparable to or lower than those previously reported at different locations. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of particles and PCDDs/DFs in winter tended to be higher than those in summer. However, monthly variations between particle and PCDDs/DFs deposition fluxes were small, and the correlation coefficients between the deposition fluxes of air particles and each homologue group of PCDDs/DFs varied according to the degree of chlorination of the homologue group. The deposition velocity of PCDDs/DFs in the urban area was estimated at 0.04 cm/s, which is a lower value than those found in other studies. The two most likely factors affecting the monthly variation of deposition fluxes are the ambient temperature and the amount of precipitation. In particular, the ambient temperature had an influence on the lower chlorinated homologues of PCDDs/DFs while precipitation had an influence on the higher chlorinated PCDDs/DFs. The PCDDs/DFs profiles in atmospheric deposition bulk samples showed a similar pattern at the urban and suburban sites. The possibility of the loading of PCDDs/DFs by Asian dust events could be partly confirmed by investigation of homologue profiles.

  1. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD. PMID:27043380

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and their association with cancer mortality among workers in one automobile foundry factory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihua; Weng, Shaofan; Wen, Sheng; Shi, Tingming; Sun, Gangtao; Zeng, Yuyu; Qi, Cheng; Chen, Weihong

    2013-01-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) have been reported as possible carcinogenic hazards to humans. However, epidemiological studies on their carcinogenic roles are limited. The current study was designed to determine the concentrations and characteristics of PCDD/Fs and evaluate their association with cancer mortality in exposed workers in one automobile foundry factory. PCDD/F levels in factory and surrounding environment were analyzed through air and settling dust sampling. The cancer mortalities among workers in this foundry factory were calculated using data from a cohort study. The results showed that the PCDD/F concentrations of air in workplace ranged 0.36-2.25 pg World Health Organization-Toxic Equivalent (WHO-TEQ) Nm(-3) (average 1.01 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3)), which were 1.16-7.26 times higher than those outside the factory. The PCDD/F concentrations of settling dust in the workplace ranged 3.34-18.64 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) (average 8.25 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)), which were lower than those just outside the factory (average 16.13 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). Furthermore, a cohort study of workers in this factory with average follow-up of 24.52 years showed that cancer was the leading cause of death, with significant elevated mortality (standardized mortality ratio (SMR)=1.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.35-2.13) among workers, when compared with Chinese national mortality. The cancer mortality among front-line workers was increased significantly (adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.73, 95% CI: 1.14-2.60), particularly among melting and casting workers, when compared with that among assistant workers. Our results indicated that there was a dose-response relationship between PCDD/F exposure and cancer mortality among foundry workers.

  3. Effectiveness of activated carbon and biochar in reducing the availability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in soils.

    PubMed

    Chai, Yunzhou; Currie, Rebecca J; Davis, John W; Wilken, Michael; Martin, Greg D; Fishman, Vyacheslav N; Ghosh, Upal

    2012-01-17

    Five activated carbons (ACs) and two biochars were tested as amendments to reduce the availability of aged polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in two soils. All sorbents (ACs and biochars) tested substantially reduced the availability of PCDD/Fs measured by polyoxymethylene (POM) passive uptake and earthworm (E. fetida) biouptake. Seven sorbents amended at a level of 0.2 × soil total organic carbon (0.2X) reduced the passive uptake (physicochemical availability) of total PCDD/Fs in POM by 40% to 92% (or toxic equivalent by 48% to 99%). Sorbents with finer particle sizes or more macropores showed higher reduction efficiencies. The powdered regenerated AC and powdered coconut AC demonstrated to be the most effective and the two biochars also performed reasonably well especially in the powdered form. The passive uptake of PCDD/F in POM increased approximately 4 to 5 fold as the contact time between POM and soil slurry increased from 24 to 120 d while the efficacy of ACs in reducing the physicochemical availability remained unchanged. The reduction efficiencies measured by POM passive uptake for the regenerated AC were comparable to those measured by earthworm biouptake (bioavailability) at both dose levels of 0.2X and 0.5X. The biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) values for unamended soil ranged from 0.1 for tetra-CDD/F to 0.02 for octa-CDD/F. At both dose levels, the regenerated AC reduced the BSAFs to below 0.03 with the exception of two hexa-CDD/Fs. The reduction efficiencies measured by earthworm for coconut AC and corn stover biochar were generally less than those measured by POM probably due to larger particle sizes of these sorbents that could not be ingested by the worms. PMID:22136630

  4. Investigating differential binding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in soil and soil components using selective supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Hawthorne, Steven B; Chai, Yunzhou; Grabanski, Carol B; Davis, John W; Wilken, Michael; Martin, Greg D; Miller, David J; Ghosh, Upal

    2012-07-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with pure carbon dioxide was performed at increasingly strong conditions to investigate differential binding of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in two impacted soils, in their sieved size fractions, and in small (a few mg) samples of industry-related waste products separated from impacted soil. The binding strengths of PCDD/Fs were shown to be different in the two soils, and in their different soil particle size fractions. As might be expected based on surface area considerations, one soil showed the strongest binding in the smallest (<5μm) sieved fraction. However, the other soil showed the strongest binding in the larger sized fractions, possibly indicating that process-related particles could be controlling PCDD/F binding. Selective SFE of various types of particles including black carbon and charcoal (separated from soil), and from a suspected process anode residue did show different PCDD/F binding behavior ranging from quite weak binding (charcoal) to very strong binding (anode particles). Shifts to the stronger SFE fractions in the soils after activated carbon treatment agreed well with the decreases previously found in the uptake of PCDD/Fs by earthworms, as well as decreases in their freely-dissolved aqueous concentrations in soil/water slurries. These results show that, as previously demonstrated for PAHs and PCBs, selective SFE can be a useful tool to investigate differences in PCDD/F binding behaviors in impacted soils and sediments and their component parts, as well as a rapid tool for estimating the effectiveness of activated carbon treatments on decreasing the bioavailability of PCDD/Fs in soils and sediments. PMID:22406311

  5. The polychlorinated dibenzofuran fingerprint of iron ore sinter plant: Its persistence with suppressant and alternative fuel addition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis; Ooi, Tze C; Anderson, David R; Fisher, Ray; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2016-07-01

    An earlier demonstration that the relative concentrations of isomers of polychlorinated dibenzofuran do not vary as the flamefront of an iron ore sinter plant progresses through the bed, and profiles are similar for two sinter strands has been widened to include studies of the similarity or otherwise between full scale strand and sinter pot profiles, effect of addition of suppressants and of coke fuel substitution with other combustible materials. For dioxin suppressant addition, a study of the whole of the tetra- penta- and hexaCDF isomer range as separated by the DB5MS chromatography column, indicates no significant change in profile: examination of the ratios of the targeted penta- and hexaCDF isomers suggests the profile is similarly unaffected by coke fuel replacement. Addition of KCl at varied levels has also been shown to have no effect on the 'fingerprint' and there is no indication of any effect by the composition of the sinter mix. The recently published full elution sequence for the DB5MS column is applied to the results obtained using this column. It is confirmed that isomers with 1,9-substitution of chlorine atoms are invariably formed in low concentrations. This is consistent with strong interaction between the 1 and 9 substituted chlorine atoms predicted by DFT thermodynamic calculations. Non-1,9-substituted PCDF equilibrium isomer distributions based on DFT-derived thermodynamic data differ considerably from stack gas distributions obtained using SP2331 column separation. A brief preliminary study indicates the same conclusions (apart from the 1,9-interaction effect) hold for the much smaller content of PCDD.

  6. Characteritization of, and health risks from, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans from incense burned in a temple.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ming-Tsan; Chen, Shen-Jen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Jen-Hsiung; Lee, Jia-Twu; Chiu, Chuen-Huey

    2009-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) may cause adverse health effects. However, PCDD/F emissions from burning incense in temples have rarely been addressed. This study investigates PCDD/F emissions from burning incense in a temple. The mean total PCDD/F concentrations were 72.4-82.2 pg Nm(-3) at two indoor sites; their corresponding mean total PCDD/Fs I-TEQ concentrations (0.24-0.27 pg I-TEQ Nm(-3)) were approximately 11 times that at a background location. In air samples collected from burning incense, OCDFs accounted for approximately 90% of total PCDD/Fs at the two indoor sites and an outdoor site near the temple, while the major PCDD/Fs in incense ash were PCDDs. The total PCDD/F content and toxic equivalent value of incense ash were 617 pg g(-1) and 1.55 pg I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. At the three sites inside/outside the temple, the air and ash samples contained the same four primary PCDD/Fs-OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. The Cl- emission factor, which is related to the PCDD/F formation, from burning incense was 0.454 mg g(-1). The resultant lifetime average daily dose and cancer risk for temple workers were 0.00964 pg I-TEQ day(-1) kg(-1) and 9.64 x 10(-6), respectively, approximately 2 times that for residents near the temple (0.00489 pg I-TEQ day(-1) kg(-1) and 4.89 x 10(-6), respectively). We suggest that the chlorine content in incense must be regulated, and the high risk of PCDD/F exposure from burning incense for temple workers and visitors should be of concern.

  7. EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENER 153 ON AUDITORY AND MOTOR FUNCTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pervasive environmental contaminants that have been shown to detrimentally affect somatic and behavioral endpoints. In the present study, primiparous Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0, 1, 5, 20 or 60mg/kg/day PCB153 via oral gavage from Gesta...

  8. Risk from exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans emitted from municipal incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Maukerjee, D.; Cleverly, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Incineration of wastes seems to be one of the major sources of PCDDs and PCDFs (dioxins). Their prevalence and extreme stability in the environment, bioavailability and bioaccumulation in the biota and human adipose tissues and breast milk are of much concern. 2,3,7,8-TCDD is one of the most toxic chemicals known and has been found to have teratogenic and carcinogenic activities in animals. Exposure to TCDD can result in chloracne, general weakness, drastic weight loss, hyperpigmentation of skin, hirsutism, porphyria cutanea tarda, liver damage, changes in activities of various liver enzymatic levels, abnormal lipid metabolism, abnormalities of the endocrine and immune systems, and possible teratogenic effects in humans. Moreover, chronic bioassay data indicate that TCDD is one of the most potent carcinogens known. It promotes liver and skin carcinogeneses, and is an initiator for various target organs in rodent test systems. According to the classification system of IARC, the qualitative evidence for carcinogenicity of TCDD is considered to be sufficient in animals and inadequate in humans. Consequently, TCDD has been placed in IARC's 2B category. In the absence of chronic bioassay data on other PCDDs and PCDFs, several TCDD equivalent approaches have been proposed for risk assessment on other congeners or mixtures. The paper compares the various approaches.

  9. Potential soil contaminant levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans at industrial facilities employing heat transfer operations

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.

    1992-04-01

    Certain manufacturing facilities formerly used large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fluids in heat transfer operations. At many of these locations, operations have also involved PCB-containing electrical equipment. Commonly, over many years of plant operations, spills and leaks have resulted in PCB soil contamination. Dioxins and furans have been associated with PCB contamination in both the technical and popular press. Consequently, the need for analyses for dioxins and furans must be evaluated at locations where soils are contaminated with PCBs. This report presents an evaluation of potential dioxin and furan soil contamination based on heat transfer operations and spills from electrical equipment. The following five scenarios were examined for dioxin and furan contamination: (1) impurities in heat transfer fluids, (2) formation during heat transfer operations, (3) pyrolysis of heat transfer fluids, (4) impurities in dielectric fluids, and (5) pyrolysis of dielectric fluids. The potential contamination with dioxins and furans was calculated and compared with a 20 ppb guideline that has been used by the Centers for Disease Control for dioxin in subsoil. The results demonstrated that dioxins are formed only under pyrolytic conditions and only from the trichlorobenzenes present in dielectric fluids. Furans are found as impurities in PCB fluids but, as with dioxins, are not formed in significant quantities except during pyrolysis. Fortunately, pyrolytic conditions involving PCB fluids and soil contamination are unlikely; therefore, analyses for dioxin and furan contamination in soils will rarely be needed.

  10. Seasonal variation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in surficial sediment, trapped settling material, and suspended particulate material in Lake Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Sander D; Landrum, Peter F; Van Hoof, Patricia L; Eadie, Brian J

    2008-02-01

    A unique time series of surface sediment, trapped settling material, and suspended particulate material polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) samples were collected at a 45-m deep site off Grand Haven (MI, USA) over a 14-month period. Both concentrations and congener distributions remained constant for the sediments, although there were seasonal and interannual variability in the other matrices. Trapped settling material and suspended particulate material PCB concentrations were substantially lower (~50%) in 1997 than in the samples from December 1997 through July 1998. The cause could not be determined from the data collected, but there were some very large storms during the winter-spring period of 1998, resulting in major sediment resuspension throughout the southern basin. Observed seasonal variation in PCB concentration and congener distribution on particles likely was due to the changes in particle composition. These include particle size and the source of particles (such as the amount of resuspended sediment in trapped settling material), and the role of diagenesis of the organic matter on particles.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in industrial and municipal effluents: concentrations, congener profiles, and partitioning onto particulates and organic carbon.

    PubMed

    Balasubramani, Aparna; Howell, Nathan L; Rifai, Hanadi S

    2014-03-01

    Wastewater effluent samples were collected in the summer of 2009 from 16 different locations which included municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants and petrochemical industrial outfalls in the Houston area. The effluent samples were analyzed for all 209 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) using the USEPA method 1668A. The total PCBs (∑209) concentration in the dissolved medium ranged from 1.01 to 8.12 ng/L and ranged from 2.03 to 31.2 ng/L in the suspended medium. Lighter PCB congeners exhibited highest concentrations in the dissolved phase whereas, in the suspended phase, heavier PCBs exhibited the highest concentrations. The PCB homolog concentrations were dominated by monochlorobiphenyls through hexachlorobiphenyls, with dichlorobiphenyls exhibiting the highest concentration amongst them at most of the effluent outfalls, in the suspended phase. Both total suspended solids (TSS) and various organic carbon fractions played an important role in the distribution of the suspended fractions of PCBs in the effluents. The log Koc values determined in the effluents suggest that effluent PCB loads might have more risk and impact than what standard partitioning models predict.

  12. OXIDATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS BY LIVER TISSUE SLICES FROM PHENOBARBITAL-PRETREATED MICE IS CONGENER-SPECIFIC AND ATROPSELECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xianai; Duffel, Michael; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models are powerful tools to study the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); however, studies of the oxidation of chiral PCB congeners to potentially neurotoxic hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in mice have not been reported. Here we investigate the atropselective oxidation of chiral PCB 91 (2,2',3,4',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 95 (2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl), PCB 132 (2,2',3,3',4,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl), PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl) and PCB 149 (2,2',3,4',5',6-hexachlorobiphenyl) to OH-PCBs in liver tissue slices prepared from female mice. The metabolite profile of PCB 136 typically followed the rank order 5-OH-PCB > 4-OH-PCB > 4,5-OH-PCB, and metabolite levels increased with PCB concentration and incubation time. A similar OH-PCB profile was observed with the other PCB congeners, with 5-OH-PCB:4-OH-PCB ratios ranging from 2 to 12. More 5-OH-PCB 136 was formed in liver tissue slices obtained from animals pretreated with phenobarbital (P450 2B inducer) or, to a lesser extent, dexamethasone (P450 2B and 3A enzyme inducer) compared to tissue slices prepared from vehicle-pretreated animals. The apparent rate of 5-OH-PCBs formation followed the approximate rank order PCB 149 > PCB 91 > PCB 132 ~ PCB 136 > PCB 95. Atropselective gas chromatography revealed a congener-specific atropisomeric enrichment of major OH-PCB metabolites. Comparison of our results with published OH-PCB patterns and chiral signatures (i.e., the direction and extent of the atropisomeric enrichment) from rat liver microsomal revealed drastic differences between both species, especially following induction of P450 2B enzymes. These species differences in the metabolism of chiral PCBs should be considered in developmental neurotoxicity studies of PCBs. PMID:24107130

  13. Differentiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran sources in coastal British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Bright, D.A.; Grundy, S.L. ); Cretney, W.J.; MacDonald, R.W.; Kionomou, M.G. )

    1999-06-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis techniques, principal components analysis, and polytopic vector analysis (PVA) were used to apportion sources of dioxins and furans to Howe Sound and the lower Strait of Georgia marine ecosystem, British Columbia, Canada, based on deposition in recent sediments. In sediment cores collected in 1990, differences between congeners in the depth of maximum concentration suggested the influence over time of several different sources. Those with a predominance of hexachlorinated dibenzodioxins and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran comprised one of the major contributions to the sediment core samples and surficial samples collected from Howe Sound, consistent with past inputs of pulpmill effluent. For most sediment samples, however, over 50% of the composition was attributable to a separate source with octachlorodibenzofuran and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). This source signature is consistent with the composition of dioxins/furans in formulations of pentachlorophenol-based wood preservatives, which were used extensively in British Columbia, Canada prior to the mid-1980s. This major input signature to the greater Strait of Georgia cannot be unequivocally ascribed to PCP use and disposal, however, since several other dioxin/furan sources also exhibit a highly similar composition, one dominated by OCDD. For example, source signatures similar to PCP formulations include those from diesel emissions, coal combustion, municipal solid waste, or other incineration stack emissions (fly ash, in particular), chimney soot from oil central heating, black-liquor recovery furnace flue gas, and scrap wire and car incineration. Further research is required to discriminate among the OCDD-containing sources and, hence, provide for improved future source management.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener effects on the longevity of the housefly

    SciTech Connect

    Tehseen, W.M.; Hansen, L.G.; Schaeffer, D.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The microsomal monooxygenase system in the housefly is well-characterized, active, inducible and inhibited by the same types of compounds as in vertebrate systems. Flies metabolize PCBs to polar products and retain congeners from a commercial mixture in proportions consistent with PCB biotransformation and elimination in vertebrates. Although TCDD has been shown to have a high affinity for, and be an effective agonist of the juvenile hormone receptor in insects, toxic manifestations in adult insects may differ from those in certain highly sensitive vertebrate species. This study was undertaken to determine if the housefly bioassay could effectively compare the net adverse biological activity of a group of PCB congeners independent of Ah receptor effects.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, using a novel statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Read, Lorraine B

    2006-07-01

    A novel application of a commonly used statistical approach was used to examine differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener patterns among locations and sample matrices in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed in western Massachusetts, USA. The most prevalent PCB congeners in tree swallow tissue samples from the Housatonic River watershed were Ballsmitter Zell numbers 153, 138, 180, 187, 149, 101, and 170. These congeners were seven of the eight most prevalent congeners in Aroclor 1260, the PCB mixture that was the primary source of contamination in the Housatonic River system. Using paired-Euclidean distances and tolerance limits, it was demonstrated that congener patterns in swallow tissues from sites on the main stem of the Housatonic River were more similar to one another than to two sites upstream of the contamination or from a nearby reference area. The congener patterns also differed between the reference area and the two upstream tributaries and between the two tributaries. These pattern differences were the same in both pipper (eggs or just hatched nestlings) and 12-day-old nestling samples. Lower-chlorinated congeners appeared to be metabolized in nestlings and pippers compared to diet, and metabolized more in pippers compared to nestlings. Euclidean distances and tolerance limits provide a simple and statistically valid method to compare PCB congener patterns among groups.

  16. Concentrations, atmospheric partitioning, and air-water/soil surface exchange of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran along the upper reaches of the Haihe River basin, North China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Die, Qingqi; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) were overall measured and compared in ambient air, water, soils, and sediments along the upper reaches of the Haihe River of North China, so as to evaluate their concentrations, profiles, and to understand the processes of gas-particle partitioning and air-water/soil exchange. The following results were obtained: (1) The average concentrations (toxic equivalents, TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/PCDF in air, water, sediment, and soil samples were 4,855 fg/m(3), 9.5 pg/L, 99.2 pg/g dry weight (dw), and 56.4 pg/g (203 fg TEQ/m(3), 0.46 pg TEQ/L, 2.2 pg TEQ/g dw, and 1.3 pg TEQ/g, respectively), respectively. (2) Although OCDF, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD, and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD were the dominant congeners among four environmental sinks, obvious discrepancies of these congener and homologue patterns of PCDD/PCDF were observed still. (3) Significant linear correlations for PCDD/PCDF were observed between the gas-particle partition coefficient (K p) and the subcooled liquid vapor pressure (P L (0)) and octanol-air partition coefficient (K oa). (4) Fugacity fraction values of air-water exchange indicated that most of PCDD/PCDF homologues were dominated by net volatilization from water into air. The low-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (tetra- to hexa-) presented a strong net volatilization from the soil into air, while high-chlorinated PCDD/PCDF (hepta- to octa-) were mainly close to equilibrium for air-soil exchange. PMID:24643387

  17. Effect of injection of di- and tricyclic aromatic compounds on post-combustion formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Stina; Fick, Jerker; Tysklind, Mats

    2011-08-15

    The formation of mono- to octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PC₁₋₈DD) and dibenzofurans (PC₁₋₈DF) was studied using a model waste in a laboratory-scale combustion reactor with simultaneous collection of flue gas at three different temperatures (450 °C, 300 °C, and 200 °C) in the post-combustion zone. To investigate the influence of chlorination reactions and the effects of carbon backbone-containing compounds present in the flue gases, five aromatic compounds were injected into the flue gas, namely dibenzofuran (DF), biphenyl (BP), naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene. The injection of DF induced a reduction in the concentration of PC₃₋₅DD, but did not significantly influence the concentration of PCDF. A reduction in the concentration of PC₃₋₅DD was also observed during the injection of fluorene, which is structurally very similar to DF. The injection of biphenyl, naphthalene and phenanthrene had less pronounced effects on the formation of PCDD and PCDF. A possible explanation of the observed changes during injection of DF and fluorene, based on homologue profiles and affected congeners, involves formation of radical species from fluorene and/or dibenzofuran. The fluorene radical is stabilized by the delocalization of electrons across the aromatic ring structure and has the propensity to react with highly abundant hydrogen chloride, whereas the molecular species would require reaction with Cl₂ or chlorine radicals.

  18. Differential accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the terrestrial food web of the Kalamazoo River Superfund site, Michigan.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Alan L; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Coady, Katherine K; Kay, Denise P; Newsted, John L; Strause, Karl; Park, Cyrus; Bradley, Patrick W; Neigh, Arianne M; Millsap, Stephanie D; Jones, Paul D; Giesy, John P

    2005-08-15

    A series of field studies was conducted to determine the bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the terrestrial food web of the Kalamazoo River flood plain. Samples included colocated soils, native plants likely to be consumed by wildlife, several taxa of terrestrial invertebrates, small mammals, passerine bird eggs, nestlings, and adults, and great horned owl plasma and eggs. Mean concentrations of total PCBs in samples from the former Trowbridge impoundment were 6.5 mg/kg dry weight for soils and 0.023, 0.13, 1.3, 1.3, 1.6, and 8.2 mg/kg wet weight for plants, small herbivorous mammals, depurated earthworms, shrews, great horned owl eggs, and house wren eggs, respectively. Historical data from the Kalamazoo River have reported Aroclor-equivalent total PCB concentrations in the terrestrial food web; however, the degree of environmental weathering of the parent PCB mixtures was unknown. In this study, earthworms and composite samples of coleoptera exhibited PCB congener patterns that were similar to patterns in colocated soils. However, in plants, less chlorinated PCBs (e.g., mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrachlorinated biphenyls) were predominant, and in small mammals, there was a notable enrichment of PCBs 153, 180, 138, 118, and 99. In general, concentrations of PCBs were lower in most biota than in soil from the Kalamazoo River Area of Concern (KRAOC) although there was a modest biomagnification of PCBs from lower trophic level biota to highertrophic levels. As a consequence of environmental weathering of PCBs in the terrestrial food web of the KRAOC, the relative potency of the PCBs (expressed as mg TEQs/kg PCBs) decreased from soil to most biota. While there was a general trend, as expected, in which concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) increased with total PCBs, this relationship was rather poor (R2 = 0.13). Taken together, these data suggest that the differential accumulation of PCB congeners in the

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in Mussel and other mollusc from Da Chen Island, East China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.G.; Xi, Z.Q.; Xu, X.B

    1995-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most persistent and toxic pollutants in environment. Determination of these contaminants in fish, shellfish and other mollusc is very important, not only because these aquatics are important food for mankind, but also because they can bioconcentrate contaminants preferentially in their adipose tissue, and serve as biomarker of the aquatic pollution. Mussels and oysters have been widely used to monitor the pollution in the coastal environment. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations and the main source of PCBs in mussels and other mollusca from the coastal areas of East China Sea. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener patterns in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, using a novel statistical approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Read, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    A novel application of a commonly used statistical approach was used to examine differences in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener Patterns among locations and sample matrices in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) nesting in the Housatonic River watershed in western Massachusetts. USA. The most prevalent PCB congeners in tree swallow tissue samples from the Housatonic River watershed were Ballsmitter Zell numbers 153. 138 180, 187 149, 101, and 170. These congeners were seven of the eight most prevalent congeners in Aroclor (R) 1260, the PCB mixture that was the primary source of contamination in the Housatonic River system. Using paired-Euclidean distances and tolerance limits, it was demonstrated that conuener patterns in swallow tissues from sites on the main stem of the Housatonic River were more similar to one another than to two sites upstream of the contamination or from a nearby reference area. The congener patterns also differed between the reference area and the two upstream tributaries and between the two tributaries. These pattern differences were the same in both pipper (eggs or just hatched nestlings) and 12-day-old nestling samples. Lower-chlorinated congeners appeared to be metabolized in nestlings and pippers compared to diet. and metabolized more in pippers compared to nestlings. Euclidean distances and tolerance limits provide a simple and statistically valid method to compare PCB congener patterns among groups. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Dioxin-like toxicity in the Saginaw River Watershed: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in sediments and floodplain soils from the Saginaw and Shiawassee Rivers and Saginaw Bay, Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Yun, Se Hun; Ostaszewski, Arthur; McCabe, John M; Mackenzie-Taylor, Deborah; Taylor, Allan B

    2008-01-01

    Sediment and floodplain soils in the Saginaw River Watershed, Michigan, USA, have been demonstrated to be contaminated with a variety of organic compounds, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Existing data indicate that, at some locations, the contamination exceeds human health risk-based regulatory levels and ecological risk-based screening levels. In this study, concentrations of PCBs including non-ortho coplanar congeners, PCDDs, and PCDFs were measured in more than 120 sediment and floodplain soil samples collected from the Shiawassee River (a tributary of the Saginaw River), the Saginaw River, and Saginaw Bay, to determine the sources and magnitude of contamination, and to elucidate the contributions from individual contaminant groups to the overall 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibezo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs). Sediment and soil extracts were also analyzed for total dioxin-like activity by means of the H4IIE-luc cell bioassay. Elevated concentrations of PCBs (>1000 ng/g, dry weight) were found in surface sediment and floodplain soil samples collected from the Shiawassee River near Chase Lake, from Middleground Island in the Saginaw River, and from subsurface sediments in Saginaw Bay. Concentrations of PCDDs and PCDFs in sediment and floodplain soils from the Saginaw River and Saginaw Bay were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than concentrations in the samples from the Shiawassee River. The highest PCDD/F concentration (55,200 pg/g, dry weight in a subsurface layer) was found in sediment collected at the mouth of the Saginaw River. Concentrations of PCDFs were greater than the concentrations of PCDDs in sediment from the Saginaw River. 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF were the major PCDF congeners found in sediments from the Saginaw River. The elevated concentrations of PCDFs, and the predominance of the less highly chlorinated PCDF congeners, in sediments

  2. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in wild terrestrial mammals from Croatia: Interspecies comparison of residue levels and compositions.

    PubMed

    Herceg Romanić, Snježana; Klinčić, Darija; Kljaković-Gašpić, Zorana; Kusak, Josip; Reljić, Slaven; Huber, Đuro

    2015-10-01

    In this pilot study, we investigated levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the adipose tissues of two free-ranging terrestrial carnivores from Croatia sampled in 2010 and 2011: the brown bear (Ursus arctos; N=32) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus; N=29). Concentrations of ∑OCPs and ΣPCBs ranged from 0.45 to 4.09 ng g(-1) lipid mass (lm) and from 0.93 to 8.52 ng g(-1) lm in brown bear, and from 1.18 to 5.67 ng g(-1) lm and 2.68 to 48.9 ng g(-1) lm in grey wolf adipose tissues, respectively. PCBs were dominant accounting for over 72% of total analyzed persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The sum of six indicator non-dioxin-like PCBs (Σ6IndNDL PCBs) made up 60-93% and 58-85% of the total congener concentrations in brown bears and wolves, respectively. Although the levels of the measured parameters were significantly higher in grey wolves than in bears, the contaminant profiles of the two species were similar, with γ-HCH, HCB, β-HCH and DDE as major OCP contaminants, and PCB-153>PCB-180≈PCB-170>PCB-138 as the dominant congeners. The sum of hexachlorocyclohexanes (ΣHCHs) and 8 toxicologically relevant dioxin-like PCBs (Σ8ToxDL PCBs) was higher in the males than in the females of the brown bear. Concentrations of ΣDDTs, HCB, ΣOCP, ΣPCBs, Σ6IndNDL PCBs, and toxicologically relevant non-dioxin-like PCBs (ΣToxNDL PCBs) were significantly positively correlated with lipid content in the grey wolf. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in brown bears and wolves from Croatia were low and normal for large terrestrial mammals.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) effects, PCB congener distributions, and cytochrome P-450 regulation in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Elskus, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    PCB studies were conducted in gonadally mature winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) collected from spawning grounds with different degrees of PCB contamination. Flounder from Fox Is., RI, Gaspee Pt., RI and New Bedford, MA (US) had mean hepatic PCB concentrations between 1.6-10.6, 3.8-17.7, and 58-333 {mu}g PCB/g dry liver, respectively. PCB congener distributions in these flounder indicated that PCB disposition was not influenced by reproductive condition, that these migratory fish accumulate a significant portion of their PCB body burden during residence in their spawning grounds, and that flounder selectively metabolize congeners with adjacent meta-, para-unsubstituted carbon atoms. The most significant reproductive effect of PCBs in flounder was a 32 to 52% decrease in the mean ovarian size of highly contaminated females from New Bedford. Plasma levels of the sex hormones, estradiol and testosterone, and of the egg yolk precursor, vitellogenin, as well as hepatic estradiol metabolism (measured as estradiol 2-hydroxylase), showed no relationship to hepatic PCB concentration. PCB effects on flounder P4501A indicated that hepatic PCB concentrations as low as 0.9 {mu}g PCB/g were associated with decreased P4501A catalytic efficiency. Additional suppression of flounder P4501A by estrogens was suggested by depressed levels of P4501A messenger RNA, protein and catalytic activity in highly contaminated female fish with high estradiol titers. The mechanism of P4501A suppression by estrogens was studied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) treated wit {beta}-napthoflavone ({beta}-NF), a P4501A inducer, and/or estradiol.

  4. Chlorinated and brominated dioxins and dibenzofurans in human tissue following exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Ryan, J J; Masuda, Y; Brandt-Rauf, P; Constable, J; Hoang, D C; Le, C D; Hoang, T Q; Nguyen, T N; Pham, H P

    1994-01-01

    With substantial improvements in analytic techniques over the past decade, it has become possible to measure polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in human tissue in a congener-specific fashion down to the low parts per trillion level. This paper reviews findings using these new techniques from a number of recent medical and environmental case studies. These studies include those of workers exposed to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) transformer fire in the United States, German chemical workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) while cleaning up after an explosion, workers at a municipal incinerator in New York City, a chemist exposed to brominated and chlorinated dioxins, U.S. veterans and also Vietnamese civilians exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with TCDD in Vietnam, and victims of the polychlorinated dibenzofuran and PCB contaminated rice oil (Yusho) incident in Japan. PMID:8187703

  5. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends. PMID:24645918

  6. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends.

  7. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p < 0.001), while fungi and G(-) bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R(2) = 0.590, p < 0.01). Therefore, Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils. PMID:24077568

  8. Polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxin and furan (PCDD/F) congener profiles in cement kiln emissions and impacts.

    PubMed

    Ames, Michael; Zemba, Stephen; Green, Laura; Botelho, Maria João; Gossman, David; Linkov, Igor; Palma-Oliveira, José

    2012-03-01

    Cement kilns are known to emit polychlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs; "dioxins"), but estimates of the amounts and patterns of these emissions vary widely. These variations may stem from a combination of factors, including the design and operating conditions of the kiln, and the fuels and raw materials fed into the kiln. The goal of this study was to examine the patterns of dioxin emissions in a large set of stack-tests at two Portland cement kilns in Portugal that use a variety of fuels. A total of 152 stack-tests provided data on PCDD/F congener concentrations during which the kilns combusted a varied mix of fuels, including petroleum coke, coal, various "special" supplemental fuels, and refinery distillation ends, which are classified as hazardous wastes. The use of coal to fuel the kilns was found to generate significantly different emission-profiles relative to the use of petroleum coke, but the addition of hazardous wastes as a supplemental fuel did not significantly alter profiles. All of the kiln emission profiles were found to differ markedly from profiles in ambient air. However, the small absolute dioxin emission rates from the kilns suggested that kiln impacts would not be detectable via ambient air monitoring, even in rural settings.

  9. Cucurbita spp. and Cucumis sativus enhance the dissipation of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by stimulating soil microbial community development.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    A number of Cucurbita species have the potential to extract polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil, but their impact on the soil microbial communities responsible for PCB degradation remains unclear. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of three Cucurbita and one Cucumis species on PCB dissipation and soil microbial community structure. Compared to the unplanted control, enhanced losses of PCBs (19.5%-42.7%) were observed in all planted soils. Cucurbita pepo and Cucurbita moschata treatments were more efficient in PCB dissipation, and have similar patterns of soil phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and PCB congener profiles. Cucurbita treatments tend to have higher soil microbial biomass than Cucumis. Gram-negative (G(-)) bacteria were significantly correlated with PCB degradation rates (R(2) = 0.719, p < 0.001), while fungi and G(-) bacteria were correlated with dissipation of the penta homologue group (R(2) = 0.590, p < 0.01). Therefore, Cucurbita related soil microorganisms could play an important role in remediation of PCB contaminated soils.

  10. Docking-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) predicts binding affinities to aryl hydrocarbon receptor for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jintao; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong

    2013-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) cause toxic effects after binding to an intracellular cytosolic receptor called the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Thymic atrophy, weight loss, immunotoxicity, acute lethality, and induction of cytochrome P4501A1 have all been correlated with the binding affinity to AhR. To study the key molecular features for determining binding affinity to AhR, a homology model of AhR ligand-binding domains was developed, a molecular docking approach was employed to obtain docking-based conformations of all molecules in the whole set, and 3-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) methodology, namely, comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA), was applied. A partial least square analysis was performed, and QSAR models were generated for a training set of 59 compounds. The generated QSAR model showed good internal and external statistical reliability, and in a comparison with other reported CoMFA models using different alignment methods, the docking-based CoMFA model showed some advantages.

  11. Comparative developmental toxicity of planar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in chickens, American kestrels, and common terns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Klein, P.N.; Eisemann, J.D.; Spann, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of PCB congeners, PCB 126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentaCB) and PCB 77 (3,3'4,4'-tetraCB), were examined in chicken (Gallus gallus), American kestrel (Falco sparverius), and common tern (Sterna hirundo) embryos through hatching, following air cell injections on day 4. PCB 126 caused malformations and edema in chickens starting at 0.3 ppb, in kestrels at 2.3 ppb, but in terns only at levels affecting hatching success (44 ppb). Extent of edema was most severe in chickens and least in terns. Defects of the beak were common in all species, but with crossed beak most prevalent in terns. Effects on embryo growth were most apparent for PCB 126 in chickens and kestrels. The approximate LD50 for PCB 126 in chickens was 0.4 ppb, in kestrels was 65 ppb, and in terns was 104 ppb. The approximate LD50 for PCB 77 in chickens was 2.6 ppb and in kestrels was 316 ppb. Induction of cytochrome P450 associated monooxygenase activity (EROD activity) by PCB 126 in chick embryo liver was about 800 times more responsive than in tern and at least 1000 times more responsive than in kestrel. High concentrations of PCB 126 found in bald eagle eggs are nearly 20-fold higher than the lowest toxic concentration tested in kestrels. Concentrations of PCB 126 causing low level toxic effects in common tern eggs are comparable to highest levels in common terns and Forster's terns in the field, suggesting additional involvement of other compounds in the Great Lakes.

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans distributions in ash from different units in a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Kang-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Hung, Chung-Hsien; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-06-15

    This study determined the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contents in ash in the super heater (SH), economizer (EC), semi-dryer absorber (SDA), fabric filter (FF), fly ash pit (FAP) and bottom residue (BR) in a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was utilized for analyzing 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results showed that average PCDD/F contents in ash samples from the SH, EC, SDA, FF, FAP and BR were 0.102, 0.788, 0.210, 1.95, 2.04 and 0.0218 ng I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. PCDD/F content was very low in the SH and BR due to high temperatures (around 461 degrees C in the SH and 914 degrees C in combustion chamber). Conversely, total PCDD/F content was significantly high in ash samples from the EC (around 340 degrees C), mainly because the temperature is within the favorable range of 250-400 degrees C for PCDD/F formation due to de nova reformation mechanisms. Although the SDA operated at 245 degrees C, the PCDD/F content decreased very significantly, mainly because the temperature was relatively low and because calcium carbonate was introduced into flue gases to dechlorinate and dilute chlorine-containing species. PCDD/Fs were captured by the active carbon in the FF. Furthermore, the duration that fly ash remained in the FF was longer than that for other incinerator units, and thus causing an increasing trend of PCDD/Fs level downstream (except the SDA). Total PCDD/Fs emission factors (microg tonnes-waste(-1); microg I-TEQ tonnes-waste(-1)) in ash samples from different units were: SH (42.3; 0.846), EC (326; 6.12), SDA (58.1; 1.10), FF (1540; 61.3), FAP (2950; 107) and BR (537; 4.31). Most PCDD/Fs in ash were contributed by the FF (about 56%), and the generation of PCDD/Fs in ash was significant (about 35%) during the transfer process from different units to the FAP. A strong and positive correlation in a logarithmic form existed between PCDD/Fs and

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans distributions in ash from different units in a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Chen, Kang-Shin; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Hung, Chung-Hsien; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-06-15

    This study determined the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contents in ash in the super heater (SH), economizer (EC), semi-dryer absorber (SDA), fabric filter (FF), fly ash pit (FAP) and bottom residue (BR) in a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS) was utilized for analyzing 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results showed that average PCDD/F contents in ash samples from the SH, EC, SDA, FF, FAP and BR were 0.102, 0.788, 0.210, 1.95, 2.04 and 0.0218 ng I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. PCDD/F content was very low in the SH and BR due to high temperatures (around 461 degrees C in the SH and 914 degrees C in combustion chamber). Conversely, total PCDD/F content was significantly high in ash samples from the EC (around 340 degrees C), mainly because the temperature is within the favorable range of 250-400 degrees C for PCDD/F formation due to de nova reformation mechanisms. Although the SDA operated at 245 degrees C, the PCDD/F content decreased very significantly, mainly because the temperature was relatively low and because calcium carbonate was introduced into flue gases to dechlorinate and dilute chlorine-containing species. PCDD/Fs were captured by the active carbon in the FF. Furthermore, the duration that fly ash remained in the FF was longer than that for other incinerator units, and thus causing an increasing trend of PCDD/Fs level downstream (except the SDA). Total PCDD/Fs emission factors (microg tonnes-waste(-1); microg I-TEQ tonnes-waste(-1)) in ash samples from different units were: SH (42.3; 0.846), EC (326; 6.12), SDA (58.1; 1.10), FF (1540; 61.3), FAP (2950; 107) and BR (537; 4.31). Most PCDD/Fs in ash were contributed by the FF (about 56%), and the generation of PCDD/Fs in ash was significant (about 35%) during the transfer process from different units to the FAP. A strong and positive correlation in a logarithmic form existed between PCDD/Fs and

  14. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on secondary combustor/boiler ash from a rotary kiln burning hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Addink, R; Altwicker, E R

    2004-10-18

    Ash from the secondary combustor/boiler of a rotary kiln burning hazardous chemical waste was tested in the laboratory for its potential to form polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). The ash contained only a small quantity of "native" PCDD/F, i.e., formed on the ash in the facility. However, it produced a considerable amount of these compounds when heated in 10% O(2)/N(2) under "de novo" conditions, i.e., with residual carbon (present on the ash as result of incomplete combustion) as the only organic material. The ash yielded PCDD/F for up to 90 min; gave PCDD/F yields proportional to the amount of ash used in the reaction bed; and displayed an optimum temperature range for formation (397-548 degrees C) higher than seen for most municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ashes. The role of copper and iron as catalytic material on the ash is discussed.

  15. Comparison of Gas Chromatography and Mineralization Experiments for Measuring Loss of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Cultures of White Rot Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Beaudette, Lee A.; Davies, Stephen; Fedorak, Phillip M.; Ward, Owen P.; Pickard, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Two methods were used to compare the biodegradation of six polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by 12 white rot fungi. Four fungi were found to be more active than Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 24725. Biodegradation of the following congeners was monitored by gas chromatography: 2,3-dichlorobiphenyl, 4,4′-dichlorobiphenyl, 2,4′,5-trichlorobiphenyl (2,4′,5-TCB), 2,2′,4,4′-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobiphenyl, and 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl. The congener tested for mineralization was 2,4′,5-[U-14C]TCB. Culture supernatants were also assayed for lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activities. Of the fungi tested, two strains of Bjerkandera adusta (UAMH 8258 and UAMH 7308), one strain of Pleurotus ostreatus (UAMH 7964), and Trametes versicolor UAMH 8272 gave the highest biodegradation and mineralization. P. chrysosporium ATCC 24725, a strain frequently used in studies of PCB degradation, gave the lowest mineralization and biodegradation activities of the 12 fungi reported here. Low but detectable levels of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase activity were present in culture supernatants, but no correlation was observed among any combination of PCB congener biodegradation, mineralization, and lignin peroxidase or manganese peroxidase activity. With the exception of P. chrysosporium, congener loss ranged from 40 to 96%; however, these values varied due to nonspecific congener binding to fungal biomass and glassware. Mineralization was much lower, ≤11%, because it measures a complete oxidation of at least part of the congener molecule but the results were more consistent and therefore more reliable in assessment of PCB biodegradation. PMID:9603809

  16. Diabetes Prevalence in Relation to Serum Concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Congener Groups and Three Chlorinated Pesticides in a Native American Population

    PubMed Central

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Rej, Robert; Schymura, Maria J.; Santiago-Rivera, Azara; Morse, Gayle; DeCaprio, Anthony; Carpenter, David O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is known to increase risk of diabetes. Objective: To determine which POPs are most associated with prevalence of diabetes in 601 Akwesasne Native Americans. Methods: Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between quartiles of concentrations of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congeners, congener groups and three chlorinated pesticides [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex] with diabetes. In Model 1, the relationship between quartiles of exposure and diabetes were adjusted only for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and total serum lipids. Model 2 included additional adjustment for either total PCBs or total pesticides. Results: Total serum PCB and pesticide concentrations were each significantly associated with prevalence of diabetes when adjusted only for covariates (Model 1), but neither showed a significant OR for highest to lowest quartiles after additional adjustment for the other (Model 2). When applying Model 2 to PCB congener groups and individual pesticides, there were significant omnibus differences between the four quartiles (all ps < 0.042) for most groups, with the exception of penta- and hexachlorobiphenyls, DDE and mirex. However, when comparing highest to lowest quartiles only non- and mono-ortho PCBs [OR = 4.55 (95% CI: 1.48, 13.95)], tri- and tetrachloro PCBs [OR = 3.66 (95% CI: 1.37, –9.78)] and HCB [OR = 2.64 (95% CI: 1.05, 6.61)] showed significant associations with diabetes. Among the non- and mono-ortho congeners, highest to lowest quartile of dioxin TEQs was not significant [OR = 1.82 (95% CI: 0.61, 5.40)] but the OR for the non-dioxin-like congeners was [OR = 5.01 (95% CI: 1.76, 14.24)]. Conclusion: The associations with diabetes after adjustment for other POPs were strongest with the more volatile, non-dioxin-like, low-chlorinated PCB congeners and HCB. Because low-chlorinated congeners are more volatile

  17. Modelling the environmental transfer of phthalates and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into agricultural products: the EN-forc model.

    PubMed

    Fierens, T; Cornelis, C; Standaert, A; Sioen, I; De Henauw, S; Van Holderbeke, M

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to predict the occurrence of four phthalates, two polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and two polychlorinated dibenzofurans in environmental and agricultural media from observed concentrations in air, sludge, manure and concentrate. For the environmental and agricultural fate modelling, the newly developed multimedia model "EN-forc" (ENvironmental Food transfer model for ORganic Contaminants) was used. To validate EN-forc calculations, the predicted concentrations of the considered chemicals in soil, groundwater, drinking water, plants and animal products were compared with both observed and modelled concentrations available in the literature. For the majority of the considered matrices, predicted phthalate and dioxin levels differed one order of magnitude at most with observed concentrations. Unfortunately, the transfer models implemented in EN-forc lacked power to predict levels of some phthalates and dioxins in pasture, root crops and/or tubers. Concentrations of phthalates and dioxins in offal could not be predicted due to the absence of suitable models that have an acceptable level of complexity to implement in EN-forc. For this type of food products, further research is highly encouraged. In a next step, the modelling framework of EN-forc will be extended in order to be able to predict human dietary exposure to organic chemicals like phthalates and dioxins.

  18. Dibenzofurans and derivatives from lichens and ascomycetes.

    PubMed

    Millot, Marion; Dieu, Amandine; Tomasi, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Covering: up to 2016.When looking for dibenzofuran in the biochemical databases, most papers and reviews deal with pollutants and polychlorinated dibenzofurans like dioxins. But dibenzofurans are also biosynthetized by a wide diversity of organisms in nature. Even if dibenzofurans from natural sources represent a small class of secondary metabolites, compared to flavonoids, xanthones or terpenoids, they are often endowed with interesting biological properties which have been recently described. This review provides an update on papers describing dibenzofurans from lichens, ascomycetes and cultured mycobionts. Other sources, such as basidiomycetes, myxomycetes or plants produce sporadically interesting dibenzofurans in terms of structures and activities. PMID:26867808

  19. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, paraffins and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine fish species from Ebro River Delta (Spain).

    PubMed

    Parera, J; Abalos, M; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T; Abad, E

    2013-09-01

    The results of a surveillance programme on the determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in marine fish and shellfish species which are fished, commercialised and consumed in the Ebro River Delta area (NE, Spain) are presented. The study included the analysis of five marine fish species (sardine, gilthead sea bream, conger, eel and flounder) and three shellfish species (murex, carpet shell and mussel) collected in 2012 in five fishing harbours near to this area. WHO-TEQ concentrations for PCDD/Fs and dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs) ranged from 0.03 to 0.31 pg WHO-TEQ2005PCDD/Fg(-1)wetweight (ww) and from 0.02 to 3.15 pg WHO-TEQ2005PCBg(-1)ww, respectively. All levels were below the maximum concentrations established by the EU Regulation. The PCBs and PCDD/Fs accumulation pattern found in the samples analysed showed a distribution typically reported for marine samples. For marker PCBs and PBDEs, concentration levels ranging from 929 to 57494 pg g(-1)ww and from 36.2 to 827 pg g(-1)ww were obtained, respectively, meanwhile for SCCPs levels were between 3.1 and 141 ng g(-1)ww. Finally, the trends in the levels of PCDD/F and dl-PCBs found from 2006 to 2012 in fish and shellfish species were studied. A slight decrease of PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations was found since 2006.

  20. Daily intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) in foodstuffs consumed in Tarragona, Spain: a review of recent studies (2001-2003) on human PCDD/PCDF exposure through the diet.

    PubMed

    Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) were measured in foodstuffs randomly acquired in various locations of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) in September 2002. A total of 36 composite samples, belonging to various food groups (vegetables, fruits, meat and meat products, fish and seafood, cereals, pulses, milk, dairy products, eggs, and oils and fats) were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs was subsequently determined. For calculations, recent data on consumption of the selected food items were used. Total dietary intake of PCDD/Fs for the general population of Tarragona County was estimated to be 59.6 pg I-TEQ/day (63.8 pg WHO-TEQ/day). Fish and seafood (33.7%), oils and fats (15.3%), cereals (14.4%), and dairy products (13.7%) were the most important contributors to this intake. This PCDD/F intake is notably lower than the intake estimated in 1998 for the same geographical area, 210.1 pg I-TEQ/day. The current PCDD/F dietary intake is below the tolerable intake range of 1-4 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day established by the WHO in 1998. Finally, the current intake is compared with the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs recently (2001-2003) reported for a number of regions and countries.

  1. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in ash from different units in a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tay-Lung; Liao, Chiu-Jung; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2010-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are some of the major organic contaminants emitted in municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). The distribution of PAHs and PCDD/Fs in different MSWI unit ashes, including bottom residue (BR), fly ash pit (FAP), fabric filter (FF), semi-dryer absorber (SDA), economizer (EC) and super heater (SH), has seldom been discussed. Average PAHs content in ash samples from BR, FAP, FF, SDA, EC and SH were found to be 0.020, 0.237, 0.234, 0.125, 0.037 and 0.034 µg TEQ g(-1), respectively. In addition, the range of total emission factor from different unit ashes varied between 0.30-13.85 mg TEQ tonne(-1) of waste, low molecular weight compounds (2~3-ring) being the dominant species. Furthermore, PAHs in ashes were mainly found in BR (41%) and FAP (31%). The FAP ash included 18% of PAHs coming from FF ash. On the other hand, PCDD/Fs content in BR, FAP, FF, SDA, EC and SH was found to be 0.0329, 1.1589, 1.2807, 0.1476, 0.6868 and 0.0921 ng I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. PCDD/ Fs emission factors in this study ranged between 1.029-67.740 µg I-TEQ tonne(-1) of waste, most PCDD/Fs being present in FAP (55%). The FAP ash included 33% of PCDD/Fs coming from FF ash. Therefore, PCDD/Fs content in FAP and FF exceeded the legal limit of 1 ng I-TEQ g( -1); therefore, a solidification process is necessary before landfilling in Taiwan. PMID:20022903

  2. Occurrence and impact of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans in the air and soil around a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguang; Ren, Yue; Chu, Jiazhi; Li, Nan; Zhen, Sen; Zhao, Hu; Fan, Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Pengjun; Qi, Li; Liang, Shuting; Zhao, Bin

    2016-06-01

    To assess the influence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) on the environment in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs), we determined the levels of PCDD/Fs in air and soil samples collected around a MSWI, which is the largest in China. The International Toxicity Equivalency Quantity (I-TEQ) concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air samples were from 0.0300 to 1.03pgI-TEQ/m(3) (0.445-13.6pg/m(3)), with an average of 0.237pgI-TEQ/m(3), while in soil samples they ranged from 0.520 to 3.40pgI-TEQ/g (2.41-88.7pg/g) with an average of 1.49pgI-TEQ/g. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air and soil samples were comparable to other areas, and PeCDFs were the dominant contributors, which was different from stack gas homologue patterns. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that PCDD/Fs emission from the MSWI did not directly affect the profiles of PCDD/Fs in air and soils, so that vehicles and unidentified emission sources should be considered. The daily inhalation levels of PCDD/Fs for children (0.0110 to 0.392pgI-TEQ/(kg·day) and adults (0.00600 to 0.221pgI-TEQ/(kg·day) near the MSWI were lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1.00 to 4.00pg WHO-TEQ/(kg·day), but in winter the values were higher than in summer. These results can be used as basic data for assessing the risk of PCDD/Fs exposure in residents living around this MSWI, and more monitoring programs and studies should be carried out around MSWIs. PMID:27266321

  3. Developmental exposure to purity-controlled polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB74 and PCB95) in rats: effects on brainstem auditory evoked potentials and catalepsy.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Hellmuth; Korkalainen, Merja; Andersson, Patrik L; Viluksela, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the effects of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are well described, less is known about non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs), including influences on the nervous system and related behavioral effects after developmental exposure. Following the examination of the highly purified NDL congeners PCB52 and PCB180, we report here the results of experiments with PCB74 and PCB95. Rat dams were orally exposed to equimolar doses of either congener (40μmol/kg bw - 11.68mg PCB74/kg bw or 13.06mg PCB95/kg bw) from gestational day (GD) 10 to postnatal day (PND) 7. Control dams were given the vehicle. Adult offspring were tested for cataleptic behavior after induction with haloperidol, a classical neuroleptic drug, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), using clicks and tone pips of different frequencies for stimulation. Results revealed slight effects on latencies to movement onset in female offspring exposed to PCB74, whereas PCB74 males and offspring exposed to PCB95 were not affected. Pronounced changes were observed in BAEPs at low frequencies in PCB74 offspring, with elevated thresholds in both sexes. PCB95 increased thresholds in males, but not females. Small effects were detected on latency of the late wave IV in both sexes after developmental exposure to PCB74 or PCB95. Compared with the other NDL-PCB congeners tested, PCB74 caused the most pronounced effects on BAEPs.

  4. Prenatal exposure to a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener influences fixation duration on biological motion at 4-months-old: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hirokazu; Nishitani, Shota; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Nagai, Tomoko; Kakeyama, Masaki; Maeda, Takahiro; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Adverse effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on postnatal brain development have been reported in a number of previous studies. However, few studies have examined the effects of prenatal PCB exposure on early social development. The present study sought to increase understanding of the neurotoxicity of PCBs by examining the relationship between PCB congener concentrations in umbilical cord blood and fixation patterns when observing upright and inverted biological motion (BM) at four-months after birth. The development of the ability to recognize BM stimuli is considered a hallmark of socio-cognitive development. The results revealed a link between dioxin-like PCB #118 concentration and fixation pattern. Specifically, four-month-olds with a low-level of prenatal exposure to PCB #118 exhibited a preference for the upright BM over inverted BM, whereas those with a relatively high-level of exposure did not. This finding supports the proposal that prenatal PCB exposure impairs the development of social functioning, and indicates the importance of congener-specific analysis in the risk analysis of the adverse effects of PCB exposure on the brain development.

  5. Part 1: (Previous year`s abstract) toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) of polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and polychlorinated diphenylethers based on early life stage mortality of rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Hornung, M.W.; Zabel, W.E.; Abnet, C.C.; Peterson, R.E.; Chu, I.; Safe, S.H.; Cook, P.M.

    1994-12-31

    Polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls (PCBs, PBBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, PBDDs) and furans (PCDFs, PBDFs), along with mixed polychlorinated/brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PC/BDDs) and polychlorinated diphenylethers (PCDPEs), comprise a complex mixture of chemicals found in aquatic environments which may pose a risk to fish early life stage survival. To evaluate this potential risk, the lethal potency of individual congeners relative to TCDD must be determined. TEFs were calculated based on the ratio of TCDD LD{sub 50} to congener LD{sub 50} in rainbow trout. Mortality was assessed from hatching to swim-up; no congener related mortality occurred during the egg stage. TEFs from PCBs and PBBs were; 3,4,4{prime},5-TCB (IUPAC {number_sign}81) = 0.0056; 3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-TBB ({number_sign}77) = 0.002; 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime}-HxBB ({number_sign}169) = 0.0001. PCBs {number_sign}4, {number_sign}28, {number_sign}52, {number_sign}105, {number_sign}118, {number_sign}128, {number_sign}138, {number_sign}156, {number_sign}170 and PBBs {number_sign}4, {number_sign}52, {number_sign}153 all had TEF values < 0.00005. TEFs for PCDDs and PBDDs were: 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD = 0.024; 1,2,3,4, 6,7,8-HpCDD = 0.0020; 2,3,7,8-TBDD = 1.5; 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD = 0.08. Of two PBDFs tested, 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF had TEF = 0.04 and 2,7-DBDF, had TEF < 0.0004. TEFs for two equipotent PC/BDDs, 2,3,7,-Cl-8-BrDD and 2,8-Cl-3,7-BrDD were 0.6. PCDPEs 3,3{prime}4,4{prime}-; 2,3{prime},4{prime}, 6-; 2,2{prime},4,5,6{prime}-; 2,3{prime},4,4{prime},5-; and 3,3{prime},4,4{prime},5 had TEFs < 0.000002.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofuran mass distribution in both start-up and normal condition in the whole municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Che-Kuan; Lin, Chieh; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Although many researches focused on the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions from stack, in the bottom ash and in the surrounding environment, researches focused on PCDD/F mass distributions in the whole incineration plant have seldom been addressed. This study determined PCDD/F emissions in the whole plant. A high-resolution gas chromatograph/high-resolution mass spectrometer was utilized for analyzing 17 PCDD/F species. Experimental results displayed that PCDD/Fs were formed during fly ash from super heater (SH), economizer (EC), semi-dryer absorber (SDA) and fabric filter (FF) was transferred to fly ash pit. Mass distribution ratios of PCDD/Fs in g I-TEQ (Toxicity Equivalency Quantity) per week from stack, SH, EC, SDA, FF, generation and bottom residue (BR) in start-up operations were 14.6%, 0.1%, 8.3%, 1.0%, 41.7%, 33.4% and 0.9%, respectively. Above results indicated that main PCDD/F source in the MSWI was from fly ash. However, the fly ash is easily controlled and PCDD/F emitted from stack flue gases will be difficult to be handled. Therefore, we should pay more attention on PCDD/F emission from flue gases especially from start-up procedure. Besides, fly ash should be controlled by sodium hypophosphite before being landfilled. MSWI did require further detoxification treatments for the solid residues and flue gases. PMID:18440134

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts.

  8. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thu T; Traag, Wim A; Murk, AlberTinka J; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2014-11-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US Army. The latter area now is inhabited and people keep their own laying hens. Egg samples were first screened with an in vitro reporter gene bioassay and a selection was analyzed by GC/HRMS. Samples from Bien Hoa airbase showed very high PCDD/F levels, up to 249 pg dioxin-equivalents (TEQ)/g fat, mainly due to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In the sprayed areas, levels (3.2-8.2 pg TEQ g(-1)) were comparable to those observed in background areas (3.2-8.2 pg TEQ g(-1) fat). The estimated average consumption of 22 g d(-1) of the highly contaminated eggs will result in a 2-fold exceedance of the current exposure limits for adults and 5-fold for children, even without considering other contaminated food sources. This indicates a potential health risk from consumption of these highly contaminated eggs, which were not yet considered as a source for exposure to PCDD/Fs of people living in the highly contaminated areas.

  9. Influence of temperature and atmosphere on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans desorption from waste incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Yan, Mi; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Tong; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-01-01

    A fly ash sample was heated for 1 h to 200°C, 300°C and 400°C, in order to study the influence of temperature and gas phase composition on the removal of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from fly ash derived from municipal solid waste incineration. The tests were conducted by treating a fixed bed of fly ash both in an inert (nitrogen) and in a reducing (nitrogen+hydrogen) gas flow in a horizontal bench-scale quartz tubular reactor, heated by a surrounding tubular furnace. The results indicate that most of the PCDD/Fs in fly ash were removed by thermal treatment, especially when the temperature was higher than 300°C: the PCDD/Fs' removal efficiency attained up to 96%. PCDD/Fs dechlorination and destruction were much more important than PCDD/Fs desorption, under either inert or reducing atmosphere. At 200°C and 300°C, the experiments with reducing atmosphere yielded slightly better results than those in nitrogen; yet, this tendency was reversed at 400°C. In general, both treatment modes can fully meet the requirements regarding the concentration of dioxins in fly ash to be sent for landfill in China.

  10. Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in raw and treated water from water treatment plants in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feina; Jiang, Yousheng; Wu, Dongting; Zhou, Jian; Li, Shengnong; Zhang, Jianqing

    2016-04-01

    Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed for the first time in raw and treated water from five water treatment plants in Shenzhen, South China. The average PCDD/Fs concentrations were 32.93 pg/L (0.057 pg international toxic equivalent quantity (I-TEQ)/L) and 0.64 pg/L (0.021 pg I-TEQ/L) in raw and treated water, respectively. The removal rate of PCDD/Fs in terms of mass concentration varied from 93.4% to 98.8%, whereas a negative removal rate was observed in one plant in terms of TEQ concentration. The PCDD/Fs concentration in raw water was lower than most of the published data from other countries and regions, and the PCDD/Fs concentration in treated water was below the Maximum Contaminants Level (MCL) of 30 pg/L for dioxin in drinking water set by the US EPA. Historical pentachlorophenol usage, local waste incineration and industrial emissions, as well as surface runoff or even soil erosion, might be the main sources for PCDD/F pollution in water. The daily intake of PCDD/Fs for local residents from drinking water was estimated to be 0.69 fg I-TEQ/kg/day, which is negligible compared with that from food consumption (1.23 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day) in the local area.

  11. Leaching of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators to a water system.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, R; Akimoto, Y

    1991-08-01

    In order to predict how much polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) are leached from fly ash by rain water when fly ash is disposed, leaching of PCDDs/Fs from a fly ash obtained from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) was investigated by packing the ash in a column and eluting with water. In the beginning of the elution, PCDDs/Fs associated with water-soluble particulates in the ash were eluted, whereas in the latter half, those associated with water slightly soluble particles were eluted, judging from the comparison of PCDDs/Fs in eluate fractions with those transferred to solutions from the original ash by stepwise batch methods with water and 2N hydrochloric acid. The amounts of PCDDs/Fs eluted from the ash column were 2.9% and 1.7% of those extracted from the original ash, respectively, while large amounts of PCDDs/Fs were contained in the fly ash in the column after the elution, suggesting that PCDDs/Fs in water-insoluble particulates of the ash would not be eluted by water.

  12. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs in free range eggs from Vietnam, including potential health risks.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Thu T; Traag, Wim A; Murk, AlberTinka J; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2014-11-01

    Chicken and duck eggs collected from three different areas in Vietnam were examined for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). These regions included a background area, an area sprayed with Agent Orange and the Bien Hoa airbase area where Agent Orange was handled by the US Army. The latter area now is inhabited and people keep their own laying hens. Egg samples were first screened with an in vitro reporter gene bioassay and a selection was analyzed by GC/HRMS. Samples from Bien Hoa airbase showed very high PCDD/F levels, up to 249 pg dioxin-equivalents (TEQ)/g fat, mainly due to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In the sprayed areas, levels (3.2-8.2 pg TEQ g(-1)) were comparable to those observed in background areas (3.2-8.2 pg TEQ g(-1) fat). The estimated average consumption of 22 g d(-1) of the highly contaminated eggs will result in a 2-fold exceedance of the current exposure limits for adults and 5-fold for children, even without considering other contaminated food sources. This indicates a potential health risk from consumption of these highly contaminated eggs, which were not yet considered as a source for exposure to PCDD/Fs of people living in the highly contaminated areas. PMID:25113212

  13. Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans in raw and treated water from water treatment plants in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feina; Jiang, Yousheng; Wu, Dongting; Zhou, Jian; Li, Shengnong; Zhang, Jianqing

    2016-04-01

    Levels and profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were analyzed for the first time in raw and treated water from five water treatment plants in Shenzhen, South China. The average PCDD/Fs concentrations were 32.93 pg/L (0.057 pg international toxic equivalent quantity (I-TEQ)/L) and 0.64 pg/L (0.021 pg I-TEQ/L) in raw and treated water, respectively. The removal rate of PCDD/Fs in terms of mass concentration varied from 93.4% to 98.8%, whereas a negative removal rate was observed in one plant in terms of TEQ concentration. The PCDD/Fs concentration in raw water was lower than most of the published data from other countries and regions, and the PCDD/Fs concentration in treated water was below the Maximum Contaminants Level (MCL) of 30 pg/L for dioxin in drinking water set by the US EPA. Historical pentachlorophenol usage, local waste incineration and industrial emissions, as well as surface runoff or even soil erosion, might be the main sources for PCDD/F pollution in water. The daily intake of PCDD/Fs for local residents from drinking water was estimated to be 0.69 fg I-TEQ/kg/day, which is negligible compared with that from food consumption (1.23 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/day) in the local area. PMID:26774770

  14. Atmospheric bulk deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the vicinity of an iron and steel making plant.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mingliang; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Baek, Song-Yee; Park, Hyokeun; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2011-08-01

    An IRA-743 resin bulk sampler was validated to monitor long-term bulk deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Six consecutive sampling campaigns (2008-2009) were conducted at four sites around steel complexes in Pohang, South Korea to investigate spatial and seasonal variations of PCDD/F bulk deposition. The bulk deposition within the steel complex showed the highest ∑(4-8)PCDD/F (Tetra-Octa) fluxes, ranging from 204 to 608 (mean: 352)pg m(-2)d(-1), indicating steel complexes were major sources of PCDD/Fs. The homologue profiles were dominated with lower chlorinated PCDFs. Furthermore, the prevailing winds were confirmed to influence the spatial distribution of PCDD/F deposition. There were apparent seasonal variations of the bulk deposition at each site, and seasonal homologue patterns of PCDD/Fs were clearly observed. According to the passive air sampling, however, no significant seasonal change of ambient air concentrations of PCDD/Fs was observed. Therefore, it was concluded that the seasonal variations of deposition fluxes of PCDD/Fs probably resulted from temperature-dependent gas/particle partitioning.

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in surface dust at an E-waste processing site in Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anna O W; Zheng, Jinshu; Yu, Chik Kin; Liu, Wing Keung; Wong, Chris K C; Cai, Zongwei; Wong, Ming H

    2011-07-01

    Surface dust collected from printed circuit board recycling workshop floors, roads, a schoolyard, and an outdoor food market in Guiyu, China, a village intensely involved in e-waste processing, were investigated for levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). PBDE concentrations in dust from workshop-floors (14,800 ± 5130 ng/g) and on adjacent roads to the workshops (24,900 ± 31,600 ng/g) were highest among the study sites whereas PCDD/F concentrations were highest at the schoolyard (1316 pg/g) and in a workshop (1264 pg/g). Analyses of <2 mm and <53 μm dust particle sizes did not show any significant differences in PBDE concentrations. The cytotoxicity was investigated using two bioassays: 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD-TEQ) and MTT. EROD-TEQ values ranged from 260 to 432 pg/g, with the highest in dust collected from a street lined with workshops. Using the MTT assay, cytoxicity of dust from the plastic chips drying district in Guiyu was higher than dust from the other sites investigated. This study showed that the primitive recycling of e-waste introduced toxic pollutants into the environment which are potentially harmful to the health of e-waste workers and local residents, especially children, and warrants an urgent investigation into POPs related health impacts. PMID:21639085

  16. Influence of a municipal waste landfill on the spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) in the natural environment.

    PubMed

    Gworek, Barbara; Hajduk, Aleksandra; Koda, Eugeniusz; Grochowalski, Adam; Jeske, Agnieszka

    2013-08-01

    The paper presents the influence of a municipal waste landfill on the pollution of soil, plants and groundwater by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs). Analysis of their migration in the environment was made in relation to the direction of groundwater flow in the study area. Determination of PCDDs/Fs was performed by isotope dilution high resolution chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (ID-HRGC/MS-MS) on a Thermo Scientific GCQ-1100/Trace2000 system equipped with an Xcalibur data acquisition and analysis software. The content in soil was in the range of 0.04-27.3pg I-TEQg(-1) of soil dry mass and decreased with depth. Similar values were obtained for plants: in Solidago virgaurea L. there were 0.13-1.9pg I-TEQg(-1) dry mass and in grass from the Family Poaceae - 0.12-3.18pg I-TEQg(-1) dry mass. The concentration in groundwater reached 1.16-6.6pg I-TEQdm(-3); the highest concentration was obtained in water samples collected from a ditch collecting leachates from the landfill. The study has shown that the analyzed object is not responsible for PCDDs/Fs emission to the environment. The increased concentration of these compounds in the topsoil may be influenced by processes linked with waste management (transportation and unloading) and other localized sources of low emission located beyond the landfill. PMID:23659967

  17. Biochemical and toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) after in ovo exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, M. Van Den; Craane, B.L.H.J.; Sinnige, T. . Research Inst. of Toxicology)

    1994-05-01

    Ecological investigation revealed differences in breeding success of cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) between two colonies in the Netherlands. In this study the possible role of organohalogen pollutants was investigated. Thirty-nine cormorant eggs were collected from two colonies with marked differences in contamination. Seventeen cormorant eggs were hatched in an incubator. The respiration rate was monitored regularly during the incubation. Hatchlings were euthanized at day 1. Several morphological parameters were measured. PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were analyzed in the yolk sac. Blood and liver were collected for analysis of cytochrome P450, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) and pentoxyresorufin-O-depentylation (PROD) activities, vitamin A, and thyroid hormone levels. Residue levels differed two- to five-fold for PCBs and 25% for PCDDs and PCDFs between both colonies. Birds from the most contaminated colony showed an increase in ovo respiration rate, increased cytochrome P450 and EROD activity, and reduced plasma thyroid hormone and hepatic retinyl palmitate levels. Large interindividual differences were observed for all parameters. The data were compared on an individual basis (n = 17) to detect any concentration-effect relationships. Significant concentration-effect relationships were observed for EROD induction, plasma free thyroxine reduction, yolk sac weight, relative liver weight, and head size. It is concluded these compounds may, at least in part, have played a role in the observed low breeding success of cormorants.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations, congener profiles, and ratios in the fat tissue, eggs, and plasma of snapping turtles (Chelydra s. serpentina) from the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie, USA.

    PubMed

    Dabrowska, H; Fisher, S W; Estenik, J; Kidekhel, R; Stromberg, P

    2006-08-01

    Concentrations and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in three tissues of adult snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) from six locations in the Ohio Basin of Lake Erie to characterize tissue variation and geographic trends. The locations included the Ohio Areas of Concern, i.e., the Ashtabula, Black, and Maumee Rivers; the Ottawa River near Toledo; and two reference sites. Mean total PCBs were greatest in turtles from the Ottawa River followed by the Maumee, Ashtabula, and Black Rivers. All three types of samples-fat tissue (FT), eggs, and plasma-showed the same geographic trend in PCB levels. On a wet-weight basis, mean concentrations ranged from 2,148 to 18,669 ng/g in FT, from 183 to 3,683 ng/g in eggs, and from 18 to 201 ng/g in plasma. Across all sites, total PCB concentrations between the tissues were significantly correlated (0.001 < p < 0.005; Pearson correlation coefficient (r ( P )) was between 0.720 and 0.954). Two distinctly different profiles with respect to relative congener and homologue concentrations were found among the sites. One that included four of the six sites examined was characterized by hexa-chlorobiphenyl (hexa-CB) dominance followed by hepta-CBs, with PCBs no. 138 + 163, 153 + 132 + 105, and 180 being the most abundant congeners. The second profile, specific for turtles from the Ottawa River, was different from the first in that tetra-CBs were the most abundant congeners followed by hexa-CBs. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated significant intertissue differences in the PCB homologue profiles, i.e., FT had a higher percentage of hepta-, octa-, and nona-CBs compared with eggs and plasma, whereas eggs showed a higher percentage of hexa-CBs. At any listed location, FT, eggs, and plasma had the same congener profile. An intertissue distribution of lipid-normalized individual congener concentrations examined by regression analyses revealed significant egg-FT, egg-plasma, and FT-plasma relations for

  19. Characteristics of the abundance of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment samples from selected Asian regions in Can Gio, Southern Vietnam and Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Viet, Pham Hung; Kondo, Akira; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were determined in sediment samples from Can Gio, South Vietnam, and Osaka, Japan. Can Gio is known for the defoliation of its mangrove forests by aerial spraying with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War, whereas Osaka is renowned for a PCDD/PCDF pollution accident at a municipal solid-waste incinerator. For comparison, we also analyzed PCDD/PCDFs and DL-PCBs in sediment samples from Hue and Hanoi, Vietnam. The toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values in Can Gio were as high as those in Hue, Hanoi, and suburban areas of Osaka, but much lower than those in urban areas of Osaka. The proportion of the World Health Organization (WHO)-TEQ value contributed by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Can Gio was approximately 30%, higher than the values in the other sample areas. These data suggest that residual sedimentary TCDD that originated from aerial spraying of Agent Orange occur in only low concentrations in Can Gio. The main contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Can Gio are natural sources, as in Hue. In contrast, commercial PCBs are the dominant contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Hanoi. In Osaka, agrochemicals used in rice cultivation, the incineration of solid waste, and commercial PCBs equally contributed to WHO-TEQ values at suburban locations. The dumping of incinerator-related materials and/or the inadequate management of commercial PCBs have resulted in significantly elevated WHO-TEQ values of 240-370 ng kg(-1)dw at urban locations in Osaka.

  20. Characteristics of the abundance of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment samples from selected Asian regions in Can Gio, Southern Vietnam and Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Masao; Imamura, Kiyoshi; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Viet, Pham Hung; Kondo, Akira; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were determined in sediment samples from Can Gio, South Vietnam, and Osaka, Japan. Can Gio is known for the defoliation of its mangrove forests by aerial spraying with Agent Orange during the Vietnam War, whereas Osaka is renowned for a PCDD/PCDF pollution accident at a municipal solid-waste incinerator. For comparison, we also analyzed PCDD/PCDFs and DL-PCBs in sediment samples from Hue and Hanoi, Vietnam. The toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) values in Can Gio were as high as those in Hue, Hanoi, and suburban areas of Osaka, but much lower than those in urban areas of Osaka. The proportion of the World Health Organization (WHO)-TEQ value contributed by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in Can Gio was approximately 30%, higher than the values in the other sample areas. These data suggest that residual sedimentary TCDD that originated from aerial spraying of Agent Orange occur in only low concentrations in Can Gio. The main contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Can Gio are natural sources, as in Hue. In contrast, commercial PCBs are the dominant contributors to WHO-TEQ values in Hanoi. In Osaka, agrochemicals used in rice cultivation, the incineration of solid waste, and commercial PCBs equally contributed to WHO-TEQ values at suburban locations. The dumping of incinerator-related materials and/or the inadequate management of commercial PCBs have resulted in significantly elevated WHO-TEQ values of 240-370 ng kg(-1)dw at urban locations in Osaka. PMID:19892385

  1. Hepatic P450 enzyme activity, tissue morphology and histology of mink (Mustela vison) exposed to polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeremy N; Newsted, John L; Hecker, Markus; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kay, Denise P; Zhang, Xiaowei; Higley, Eric B; Aylward, Lesa L; Beckett, Kerrie J; Budinsky, Robert A; Bursian, Steven J; Giesy, John P

    2009-08-01

    Dose- and time-dependent effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ) of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), or a mixture of these two congeners on hepatic P450 enzyme activity and tissue morphology, including jaw histology, of adult ranch mink were determined under controlled conditions. Adult female ranch mink were fed either TCDF (0.98, 3.8, or 20 ng TEQ(TCDF)/kg bw/day) or PeCDF (0.62, 2.2, or 9.5 ng TEQ(PeCDF)/kg bw/day), or a mixture of TCDF and PeCDF (4.1 ng TEQ(TCDF)/kg bw/day and 2.8 ng TEQ(PeCDF)/kg bw/day, respectively) for 180 days. Doses used in this study were approximately eight times greater than those reported in a parallel field study. Activities of the cytochrome P450 1A enzymes, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-deethylase (MROD) were significantly greater in livers of mink exposed to TCDF, PeCDF, and a mixture of the two congeners; however, there were no significant histological or morphological effects observed. It was determined that EROD and MROD activity can be used as sensitive biomarkers of exposure to PeCDF and TCDF in adult female mink; however, under the conditions of this study, the response of EROD/MROD induction occurred at doses that were less than those required to cause histological or morphological changes. PMID:19458992

  2. Oceanic Sink and Biogeochemical Controls on the Accumulation of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Plankton.

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Dachs, Jordi; Fernández-Pinos, María-Carmen; Berrojalbiz, Naiara; Mompean, Carmen; González-Gaya, Belén; Jiménez, Begoña; Bode, Antonio; Ábalos, Manuela; Abad, Esteban

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in plankton samples from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans collected during the Malaspina circumnavigation cruise. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in plankton averaged 14 and 240 pg gdw(-1), respectively, but concentrations were highly variable. The global distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was not driven by proximity to continents but significantly correlated with plankton biomass, with higher plankton phase PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations at lower biomass. These trends are consistent with the interactions between atmospheric deposition, biomass dilution, and settling fluxes of organic matter in the water column (biological pump), as key processes driving POPs plankton phase concentrations in the global oceans. The application of a model of the air-water-plankton diffusive exchange reproduces in part the influence of biomass on plankton phase concentrations and suggests future modeling priorities. The estimated oceanic sink (Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans) due to settling fluxes of organic matter bound PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs is of 400 and 10,500 kg y(-1), respectively. The atmospheric inputs due to gross diffusive absorption and dry deposition are nearly 3 and 10 times larger for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, respectively, than the oceanic sink. These observations suggest that the coupling of atmospheric deposition with water column cycling supports and drives the accumulation of dl-PCBs and PCDD/Fs in plankton from the global oligotrophic oceans.

  3. Subchronic inhalation exposure study of an airborne polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture resembling the Chicago ambient air congener profile

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xin; Adamcakova-Dodd, Andrea; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri; Thorne, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    Although inhalation of atmospheric PCBs is the most universal exposure route and has become a substantial concern in urban areas, research is lacking to determine the body burden of inhaled PCBs and consequent health effects. To reflect the Chicago airshed environment and mimic the PCB profile in Chicago air, we generated vapors from a Chicago Air Mixture (CAM). Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the CAM vapor for 1.6 hr/day via nose-only inhalation for 4 wks, 520±10 μg/m3. Congener-specific quantification in tissue and air samples was performed by GC/MS/MS. In contrast to the lower-chlorinated congener enriched vapor, body tissues mainly contained tri- to hexachlorobiphenyls. Congener profiles varied between vapor and tissues, and among different organs. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) were also investigated for tissue distribution. We evaluated a variety of endpoints to catalog the effects of long-term inhalation exposure, including immune responses, enzyme induction, cellular toxicity and histopathologic abnormalities. GSSG/GSH ratio was increased in blood of exposed animals, accompanied by elevation of hematocrit. This study demonstrated that inhalation contributed to the body burden of mostly tri- to hexachlorobiphenyls and produced a distinct profile of congeners in tissue, yet minimal toxicity was found at this exposure dose estimated at 134 μg/rat. PMID:22846166

  4. Congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the major Chinese technical PCB formulation from a stored Chinese electrical capacitor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Yamauchi, Makoto; Matsumura, Toru; Yamazaki, Norimasa; Weber, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Impurity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) formulations has been recognized as a relevant source of PCNs in the environment. Congener-specific analysis of most main PCB formulations has been accomplished previously, excluding the Chinese product. The insulating oil in a stored Chinese electric capacitor containing the major Chinese technical formulation "PCB3" was sampled and tested by isotope dilution technology using high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The detected concentration of PCNs in the Chinese PCB oil sample was 1,307.5 μg/g and therefore significantly higher than that reported in PCB formulations from other countries, as well as that in the transformer oil (ASKAREL Nr 1740) additionally tested in the present study for comparison. Based on the measurement, the total amount of PCNs in Chinese PCB3 oil is estimated to be 7.8 t, which would mean only 0.005 % of global production of PCNs of 150,000 t. The homolog profile is similar to those of PCN in Aroclor 1262 and Clophen A40, where the contributions from hexa-CNs and hepta-CNs are predominant and accounted for similar proportions. The Toxic Equivalent Quantity (TEQ) concentration of dioxin-like PCN congeners is 0.47 μg TEQ/g, with the dominant contributors of CN-73 and CN-66/67. This TEQ content from PCN is higher than that in most other PCB formulations with the exemption of the Russian Sovol formulation. The total TEQ in the historic 6,000 t of the Chinese PCB3 formulation is estimated to be 2.8 kg TEQ.

  5. Distribution and elimination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, and p,p'-DDE in tissues of bald eagles from the Upper Peninsula of Michigan.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Giesy, John P; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2002-07-01

    Liver, muscle, fat, kidney, and gall bladder of eight bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found dead in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan during 2000 were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (including coplanar PCBs), p,p'-DDE, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Necropsy results showed that the birds suffered from peritonitis, bacterial infection, or trauma. Concentrations of PCDD/DFs in livers ranged from 23 to 4500 pg/g on a wet weight basis (wet wt), whereas the least concentrations were found in blood plasma of bald eagle nestlings (2.3-49 pg/g, wet wt). A maximum total PCB concentration of 280,000 ng/g, wet wt, was found in the liver of a dead bald eagle affected by peritonitis. The greatest concentrations of p,p'-DDE and HCB in eagle livers were 17,000 and 120 ng/g, wet wt, respectively. Eagles with elevated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or total PCB concentrations tended to have great TCDD/TCDF or PCB126/PCB77 ratios, hypothesized to be due to induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and subsequent metabolism of TCDF and PCB77. Concentrations of TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs) in the tissues of bald eagles exceeded the thresholds for toxicity in a few avian species. Non-ortho coplanar PCBs accounted for 68-88% of the total TEQs in bald eagle tissues. PCDDs and PCDFs collectively accounted for, on average, 17% of the total TEQs. On the basis of the analysis of a single gall bladder with bile, biliary excretion rates of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were estimated as 0.015-0.02% per day.

  6. Perspective on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran emissions during chemical production in China: an overlooked source of contemporary relevance.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Fang, Yanyan; Tian, Shulei; Yang, Yufei; Die, Qingqi; Tian, Yajun; Liu, Feng; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2015-10-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs) are pollutants of significant global concern, and China with its large size and industries is one of the main dioxin-emitting countries in the world. PCDDs/DFs may be formed during the manufacture of chemicals and can either remain in the products as impurities or be emitted into the environment or residues disposed to landfills. The uncertainties in the environmental emissions of PCDDs/DFs from the chemical production industry in China are large because of the complex nature of the industry and variability in the technologies used and limited monitoring conducted. In the current study, we used the PCDD/DF emission factor from the updated United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) toolkit 2013, information from otherwise published data, and the chemical production data in 2010 to estimate PCDD/DF emissions from the chemical productions in China. Based on these data, it was estimated that there is 1480 g toxic equivalent (TEQ) from the chemical production industry in China, which is much higher than the value that was estimated and used in the national implementation plans (NIPs) for China (102.4 g TEQ in 2004). These results indicate that current PCDD/DF emissions from the chemical production industry in China may be overlooked. Therefore, we suggest that attention should be paid to PCDD/DF emissions from the chemical production industry in future updates of the Chinese NIP and that appropriate measures to decrease PCDD/DF emissions should be taken by better monitoring of products and processes in chemical production industry.

  7. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay.

    PubMed

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives "early warning" to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1-4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies.

  8. Emissions of polychlorinated-p-dibenzo dioxin, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from rice straw biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shun-Shiang; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Holsen, Thomas M.; Li, Hsing-Wang; Wang, Lin-Chi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2014-09-01

    Biomass burning in Asia has been widely studied owing to its adverse effects on visibility, human health, and global climate. However the impact of rice straw burning on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) concentrations is not known. In this study concentrations of these pollutants were measured at a farm site and two nearby sites during rice straw (open) burning and non-burning periods. During non-burning periods atmospheric PCDD/F and PBDE concentrations ranged from 0.0263 to 0.0329 pg I-TEQ/Nm3 and 43.5 to 58.3 pg/Nm3 respectively, and were similar at all of the sites. During rice straw burning periods PCDD/F and PBDE concentrations measured near the combustion (farm) site increased dramatically by six to twenty times. The strong correlation between the natural logarithm of PBDE and PCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.949, p < 0.01) at each site indicates that the elevated PCDD/Fs and PBDEs were due to emissions from the rice straw burning. The calculated emission factors, determined using the burned carbon method and the Industrial Source Complex Short-Term Dispersion Model (ISCST3), ranged from 12.6 to 14.5 ng TEQ/kg Cburned and 11.7 to 14.5 μg/kg Cburned, for PCDD/Fs and PBDEs respectively. The PBDE emission factors were at least 38 times higher than those of PCDD/Fs, revealing that rice straw burning is an important PBDE emission source.

  9. Formation and potential mechanisms of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on fly ash from a secondary copper smelting process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Liu, Guorui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Xiao, Ke; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-06-01

    Secondary copper smelting (SeCu) is widely considered to be an important source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs; PCDD/Fs). Laboratory experiments were performed using SeCu fly ash as a matrix for thermochemical reactions to investigate the effects of fly ash on the formation of PCDD/Fs and the potential mechanisms. Thermochemical reactions on SeCu fly ash over a temperature range of 250-450 °C and reaction times of 10-120 min caused the PCDD/F concentrations in the fly ash to increase significantly. The PCDD/F concentrations formed in the thermal reactions were about 99-139 times higher than the PCDD/F concentrations in the original fly ash, clearly indicating that fly ash promoted the formation of PCDD/Fs. The PCDFs dominated the PCDDs, and the PCDF/PCDD concentration ratio was about 30-40. Octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF), octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and the heptachlorodibenzofurans were the most dominant homologs that were formed. A comparison of the PCDD/F patterns produced in the thermochemical reactions and the patterns in the original fly ash suggested that the chlorination of less chlorinated PCDFs might be an important pathway in the formation of higher chlorinated furans. The results of this study indicated that SeCu fly ash has a high PCDD/F formation potential. It is crucial to have the fly ash filter at low temperature and that fly ash in the cooling system should be minimized.

  10. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans via fish consumption and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay.

    PubMed

    Chan, Janet Kit Yan; Man, Yu Bon; Xing, Guan Hua; Wu, Sheng Chun; Murphy, Margaret B; Xu, Ying; Wong, Ming H

    2013-10-01

    Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) via fish consumption in two major electronic (e) waste sites: Guiyu (GY), Guangdong Province and Taizhou (TZ), Zhejiang Province, and dioxin-like activity in fish determined by H4IIE-luc bioassay. In the present study, all fish were below EU's maximum allowable concentration in muscle of fish (4 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt), except crucian (4.28 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) and silver carps (7.49 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) collected from GY rivers. Moreover, the residual concentration in bighead carp collected from GY (2.15 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) was close to the EU's action level (3 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet wt) which gives "early warning" to the competent authorities and operators to take measures to eliminate contamination. In addition, results indicated that the maximum human intake of PCDD/Fs via freshwater fish consumption in GY was 4.31 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, which exceeds the higher end of the tolerable daily intake recommended by the WHO, EC-SCF and JECFA (1-4, 2 and 2.3 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day respectively). Furthermore, H4IIE-luc cell bioassay provides a very sensitive and cost-efficient screening tool for assessing the overall dioxin-like toxicity in the study, and is therefore valuable for high-throughput environmental monitoring studies. PMID:22959899

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) in rice grains and straw; risk surveillance, congener specific analysis, distribution and source apportionment from selected districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Mehvish; Mehmood, Andleeb; Qadir, Abdul; Mahmood, Adeel; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sabir, Arshed Makhdoom; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2016-02-01

    The current study presents health risk surveillance by investigating the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains and rice straw. Samples were collected from four districts (Okara, Sahiwal, Lahore and Sheikhpura) of Punjab Province, Pakistan for congener specific analysis of PCBs, and to observe the spatial distribution pattern and point sources. Level of Σ30 PCB (ng g(-1)) in rice grains and rice straw ranged from 4.31 to 29.68 and 6.11-25.35, respectively. Tetra-CBs were found predominant in rice straw (49%) and grains (38%) over other PCB homologs. No significant variation (P>0.005) was observed for most of the screened PCBs congeners except, PCB-66, -77, -60, -101, -74, -138, -153 and -105 in rice grains and PCB-66 in rice straw. Reported toxicity equivalency (TEQ) values for dioxin like PCBs in rice grains were found lower than the previously published reports from Asian countries, however higher TEQ values are reported for rice straw in this study. Health was found at risk of cancer among one in million by consumption of the study area food stuffs, though no considerable carcinogenic risks to human health was found. PMID:26613515

  12. Significance of biomass open burning on the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the ambient air.

    PubMed

    Shih, Shun-I; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lin, Long-Full; Huang, Jiao-Yan; Su, Jen-Wei; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2008-05-01

    In southern Taiwan, two areas (L- and Y-) with/without biomass open burning were selected to compare the PCDD/F concentrations and their congener profiles in the ambient air. The results of this study indicate that biomass (rice straw) open burning exhibited a significant impact on the PCDD/F concentration level in the ambient air. During the biomass burning season, the total PCDD/F I-TEQ concentrations in the ambient air of L- and Y-areas were approximately 4 and 17 times higher than those without biomass open burning, respectively. When 10% mass fraction of rice straw was burned, the contribution fraction of biomass burning on annual total PCDD/F I-TEQ emission was 3.28 and 8.11% for KC County and for Taiwan, respectively; however, when the calculation was on a weekly basis, the contribution fraction of biomass burning on weekly total PCDD/F I-TEQ emission was 30.6 and 53.4% for KC County and for Taiwan, respectively. The results of this study imply that during the week of biomass burning, it appears to be the most significant source of total I-TEQ PCDD emission. The results of this research can be applied to the study of other agricultural areas.

  13. Emission profiles of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from secondary metallurgy industries in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Pedro; Viana, Paula; Vinhas, Tereza; Rivera, J; Gaspar, Elvira M S M

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports, for the first time, a study of dioxin emissions from 10 siderurgies and metallurgies, secondary copper, aluminum and lead metallurgies, in Portugal. The study reports the emission factors and total emission amounts of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The congener patterns were characterized and are discussed. The results showed that the total amount of PCDFs is higher than PCDDs in flue gas of each industrial unit. The toxic equivalent emission factors of pollutants emitted are 3098-3338 ngI-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 597-659 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in siderurgies production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 3.9-4.5 g I-TEQyr(-1)), 50-152 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 24-121 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.0010-0.0016 g I-TEQyr(-1)) and 5.8-5715 ng I-TEQt(-1) for PCDD/Fs and 0.49-259 ng I-TEQt(-1) for dioxin-like PCBs in non-ferrous foundries production (total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.00014-0.12 g I-TEQyr(-1)). The HCB emission from siderurgies production is 0.94-3.2 mg t(-1) (total estimated emission amounts released 0.94-3.8 g yr(-1)), being much smaller, residual, in the emissions of the other types of plants (0.0012-0.026 mg t(-1) production and total estimated emission amounts released to atmosphere of 0.013-1.7 mg yr(-1)).

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments and fish species from the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssebugere, Patrick; Sillanpää, Mika; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Kiremire, Bernard T; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Zhu, Chaofei; Ren, Daiwei; Shang, Hongtao; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2014-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in sediments and fish from the Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria by high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Average concentrations of total (Σ) PCDD/Fs and ΣPBDEs in sediments ranged from 68.8 to 479 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw) and 60.8 to 179 pg g(-1) dw, respectively. Contamination levels of sedimentary PCDD/Fs and PBDEs were low to moderate compared to other urbanized regions worldwide. The concentrations in different fish species (Nile perch; Lates niloticus and Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus) were 5.32 to 49.0 pg g(-1) wet weight (ww) for PCDD/Fs and 59.3 to 495 pg g(-1) ww for PBDEs. Higher concentrations of the pollutants were found in L. niloticus than O. niloticus, which could be attributed to species differences in feeding habits and lifestyles. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) for PCDD/Fs ranged from 0.08 to 0.33 pgTEQg(-1) dw and 0.001-0.14 pg TEQg(-1) ww in sediments and fish, respectively. The TEQ values were low compared to the data for fresh water fish reported in literature and within a permissible level of 3.5 pg g(-1) ww recommended by the European Commission. Based on the Commission set value and minimum risk level criteria formulated by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, the fish from the Murchison Bay was fit for human consumption.

  15. Congener specific biotransformation and bioaccumulation of PCDDs and PCDFs from fly ash in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Sijm, D.T.H.M.; Opperhuizen, A. . Research Inst. of Toxicology, Environmental Chemistry Group); Wever, H. . Dept. of Environmental and Toxicological Chemistry)

    1993-10-01

    Biotransformation may be responsible for the lack of bioaccumulation of a number of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Goldfish (Carassius auratus) that were exposed to PCDDs and PCDFs, and piperonylbutoxide (PBO) in water bioconcentrated significantly more congeners than goldfish exposed to PCDDs and PCDFs only. Monooxygenase activity, which is responsible for the oxidation of specific PCDD and PCDF congeners in untreated fish, was inhibited by fish treated with PBO. In the PBO-treated group and in the control group, congeners with all lateral positions substituted were found. Congeners that lack chlorine substitution on one or more of the lateral positions substituted were found. Congeners that lack chlorine substitution on one or more of the lateral (2,3,7,8) positions and congeners that have all lateral positions chlorinated were found only in PBO-treated fish. Congeners that have at least one free lateral position were therefore assumed to be biotransformed. There was no relationship between the octanol/water partition coefficient and biotransformed. There was no relationship between the octanol/water partition coefficient and biotransformation of the PCDDs and PCDFs. No limitation of uptake for higher chlorinated PCDD and PCDF congeners was found.

  16. Relationships between dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) congener concentrations in aquatic organisms from Sydney Estuary, Australia and physiology, spatial, seasonality, trophodynamic and life history traits.

    PubMed

    Sezmis, Aysha Laila; Birch, Gavin; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-08-15

    Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their accumulative properties in aquatic organisms. Several factors, such as environmental concentrations (i.e. in sediment) and physiological characteristics of organisms determine species-specific accumulation patterns of POPs in marine animal tissue. The present study investigated factors that govern species-specific accumulation patterns of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in a food web from Sydney Estuary (Australia). The results indicated that physiological characteristics, i.e. lipid %, spatial, i.e. distance from Homebush Bay (point source of POPs) and life history characteristics of the organisms, such as diet and home range, influence PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue concentrations to a varying degree. For example, PCDD/F tissue concentrations increased with the presence of detritivorous diet, species with limited home range and close proximity to Homebush Bay. On the other hand, lipid %, piscivorous diet and close proximity to Homebush Bay were the main predictors causing increases in dl-PCB tissue levels. Distance from Homebush Bay was the only predictor affecting both PCDD/F and dl-PCB tissue levels at a similar rate, i.e. decreasing tissue concentrations as the distance increases from Homebush Bay.

  17. Concentrations, profiles, and estimated human exposures for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from electronic waste recycling facilities and a chemical industrial complex in Eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Kannan, K.; Cheng, J.; Horii, Y.; Wu, Q.; Wang, W.

    2008-11-15

    Electronic shredder waste and dust from e-waste facilities, and leaves and surface soil collected in the vicinity of a large scale e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou, Eastern China, were analyzed for total dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) including 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. We also determined PCDD/Fs in surface agricultural soils from several provinces in China for comparison with soils from e-waste facilities. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs were high in all of the matrices analyzed and ranged from 30.9 to 11,400 pg/g for shredder waste, 3460 to 9820 pg/g dry weight for leaves, 2560 to 148,000 pg/g dry weight for workshop-floor dust, and 854 to 10200 pg/g dry weight for soils. We also analyzed surface soils from a chemical industrial complex (a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) in Shanghai. Concentrations of total PCDD/Fs in surface soil from the chemical industrial complex were lower than the concentrations found in soils from e-waste recycling plants, but higher than the concentrations found in agricultural soils. Agricultural soils from six cities in China contained low levels of total PCDD/Fs. Profiles of dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQs) of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs in soils from e-waste facilities in Taizhou differed from the profiles found in agricultural soils. The estimated daily intakes of TEQs of PCDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposure were 2 orders of magnitude higher in people at e-waste recycling facilities than in people at the chemical industrial site, implying greater health risk for humans from dioxin exposures at e-waste recycling facilities. The calculated TEQ exposures for e-waste workers from dust and soil ingestion alone were 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than the exposures from soils in reference locations. 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Pollution characteristics and potential health risk of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in soil/sediment from Baiyin City, North West, China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xibang; Xu, Zhencheng; Peng, Xiaochun; Ren, Mingzhong; Zhang, Sukun; Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Junneng

    2013-10-01

    In order to better understand the environmental behaviors of persistent organic pollutants, the characteristics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were investigated in twenty-three soil/sediment samples from Baiying City, Northwest China, in 2008. The possible sources and potential health risk of PCDD/Fs were also discussed. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in nineteen soil samples varied between 20.13 and 496.26 pg/g dry weight (dw.), with an average value of 125.59 pg/g dw. The highest International Toxic Equivalent (I-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs (8.34 pg/g dw.) in soil was found at sample S1 collected from proximity to a copper metallurgy plant. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in four sediment samples ranged from 37.69 to 491.49 pg/g dw., with an average value of 169.95 pg/g dw. The highest I-TEQ of PCDD/Fs (8.56 pg/g dw.) in sediment was found at sample S12 collected from the East big ditch with waste water discharged into the Yellow River. The results indicated that PCDD/Fs contamination of soil/sediment is originated from three sources: chlorine-containing chemicals, non-ferrous metal industrial PCDD/Fs emission and coal burning. The health risk exposure to PCDD/Fs through soil, dust ingestion and dermal absorption ranged from 0.0006 to 0.0134 pg/kg/day Word Health Organization's toxic equivalent in 1998 (WHO1998-TEQ) with mean values 0.0032 pg WHO1998-TEQ for adults and varied between 0.0012 and 0.0256 pg/kg/day WHO1998-TEQ with mean values 0.006 pg/kg/day WHO1998-TEQ for children, respectively. These results indicated that health risk of PCDD/Fs for children should be paid more attention.

  19. Contaminants in ospreys from the Pacific Northwest: I. Trends and Patterns in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans in eggs and plasma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Machmer, M.M.; Henny, Charles J.; Wilson, L.K.; Norstrom, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs were collected from 1991 to 1997 at nests (na??=a??121) upstream and downstream of bleached kraft pulp mills and at reference sites in the Fraser and Columbia River drainage systems of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. Blood samples were collected from nestling ospreys during the 1992 breeding season on the Thompson River. Samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and -dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Mean concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD were significantly higher in eggs collected in 1991 at downstream compared to upstream nests near pulp mills at Kamloops and Castlegar, British Columbia. There were no significant temporal trends in 2,3,7,8-TCDD, -TCDF or other measured compounds at a sample of nests monitored between 1991 and 1994 downstream of the Castlegar pulp mill, despite changes in bleaching technology (CIO2 substitution). However, by 1997 concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and -TCDF were significantly lower than previous years in nests sampled downstream at both Castlegar and Kamloops. An unusual pattern of higher chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs was found in many of the osprey eggs collected in this study, and considerable individual variation in the pattern existed among eggs from the same site. For example, eggs from four different nests at one study area (Quesnel) on the Fraser River had concentrations of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD ranging from <1 to 1,100 ng/kg and OCDD from <1 to 7,000 ng/kg wet weight. Higher mean concentrations of HpCDD and OCDD were found in eggs from the Thompson River, a tributary of the Fraser, compared to the Columbia River, and concentrations were generally higher at nests upstream of pulp mills. In plasma samples, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and OCDD were the main compounds detected, with no significant differences measured between samples upstream versus downstream or earlier versus later in the breeding season. Use of chlorophenolic wood preservatives by lumber processors was considered the

  20. Field confirmation of modified pressurized solvent extraction vessels for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in blood samples from Great Lakes Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Haskins, Stacey D; Kelly, David G; Weir, Ron D

    2013-06-01

    Miniaturized pressurized solvent extraction vessels were used to examine polychlorinated biphenyl congener (PCB) concentrations in 0.2 g sample sizes of whole blood, liver, heart and breast tissue sampled from twelve Great Lakes Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). This study successfully supported the blood extraction method, previously validated only using laboratory prepared blood samples, using field samples. In situ clean-up offered excellent sample throughput without degradation of GC-MS performance; using this method, extraction, instrument analysis and data interpretation for 100 samples could be accomplished within a one to two week time period. Results indicated contamination in the blood (∑PCB = 1.9-13 ng g(-1) ww), liver (∑PCB = 0.8-11 ng g(-1) ww), breast (∑PCB = <0.1-9 ng g(-1) ww) and heart tissue (∑PCB = <0.1-6 ng g(-1) ww). Quality control included the analysis of blank samples, NIST SRM 1589a and a duplicate of each sample type (blood or tissue). All blank samples were below the method detection limit, SRM values were within 70% of their certified values and duplicates were within 70% of each other. Correlations were examined for the suite of analysed congeners between blood and various tissues; within select individuals a strong and significant correlation was observed. TEQs were calculated and compared against known toxicity data for bird species. Based on the PCB levels found in this study, no adverse health effects are expected in the birds themselves. ∑PCB concentrations in the breast tissue were also compared against both the Canadian and American guidelines for the consumption of edible poultry and based on these values, the Mallards used in this research would be safe for human consumption.

  1. Methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from an electronic waste-recycling site in South China: levels, congener profiles, and chiral signatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; She, Ya-Zhe; Mo, Ling; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-11-01

    Great concerns have been raised about the fate and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other organic contaminants contained in electronic waste (e-waste) exported from industrialized countries at midlatitudes to subtropical and tropical regions. Information on the metabolites of these chemicals, for example, methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO(2)-PCBs) in wildlife from the later regions is scarce. In the present study, 17 MeSO(2)-PCBs, including five chiral congeners, were detected in the muscle, liver, and brain tissues of two benthic fish species--northern snakehead and mud carp--from a small pond near an electronic waste recycling site in South China. The mean concentrations of the sum of the MeSO(2)-PCBs ranged from 80 to 340 ng/g lipid weight in the tissues, with relative higher levels in the liver than the muscle and brain tissues. These levels were one order of magnitude greater than the highest levels of MeSO(2)-PCBs previously reported in fish. The 3'-MeSO(2)-CB 87, 3'- and 4'-MeSO(2)-CB 101, 4-MeSO(2)-CB 110, and 4-MeSO(2)-CB 149 were dominant, collectively comprising more than 55% of the total MeSO(2)-PCBs. Except for 4-MeSO(2)-CB149, all of the investigated chiral MeSO(2)-PCBs displayed a clear, congener-specific enantiomeric enrichment in the tissues. No tissue-specific enantioselective retention of the enantiomers was observed in the investigated fish. This is the first report on chiral signatures of MeSO(2)-PCBs in fish tissues. PMID:22927054

  2. Methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyls in fish from an electronic waste-recycling site in South China: levels, congener profiles, and chiral signatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Luo, Xiao-Jun; She, Ya-Zhe; Mo, Ling; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2012-11-01

    Great concerns have been raised about the fate and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other organic contaminants contained in electronic waste (e-waste) exported from industrialized countries at midlatitudes to subtropical and tropical regions. Information on the metabolites of these chemicals, for example, methylsulfonyl-PCBs (MeSO(2)-PCBs) in wildlife from the later regions is scarce. In the present study, 17 MeSO(2)-PCBs, including five chiral congeners, were detected in the muscle, liver, and brain tissues of two benthic fish species--northern snakehead and mud carp--from a small pond near an electronic waste recycling site in South China. The mean concentrations of the sum of the MeSO(2)-PCBs ranged from 80 to 340 ng/g lipid weight in the tissues, with relative higher levels in the liver than the muscle and brain tissues. These levels were one order of magnitude greater than the highest levels of MeSO(2)-PCBs previously reported in fish. The 3'-MeSO(2)-CB 87, 3'- and 4'-MeSO(2)-CB 101, 4-MeSO(2)-CB 110, and 4-MeSO(2)-CB 149 were dominant, collectively comprising more than 55% of the total MeSO(2)-PCBs. Except for 4-MeSO(2)-CB149, all of the investigated chiral MeSO(2)-PCBs displayed a clear, congener-specific enantiomeric enrichment in the tissues. No tissue-specific enantioselective retention of the enantiomers was observed in the investigated fish. This is the first report on chiral signatures of MeSO(2)-PCBs in fish tissues.

  3. Profiles of ortho-polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and Mirex among male Lake Ontario sportfish consumers: the New York State Angler cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Michael S; Vena, John E; Swanson, Mya K; Moysich, Kirsten B; Olson, James R

    2005-02-01

    Great Lakes sportfish consumption is a recognized human exposure source to environmental organochlorine compounds. Using data collected as part of the New York State Angler Cohort Study, 203 males were considered with regard to history of Lake Ontario sportfish consumption and sera levels of 57 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, hexachlorobenzene, and Mirex. Consumption of six species of highly contaminated Lake Ontario sportfish during the years 1980 to 1990 was considered. Exposure was weighted by average annual frequency of consumption, whole-fish PCB estimates, and meal size to determine a continuous index of exposure. This index was dichotomized to compare "consumers" to "nonconsumers" in several procedures. Recovery and lipid-adjusted serum values for PCB congener IUPAC Nos. 138+163 (rsp=0.3), 183 (rsp=0.3), 187 (rsp=0.4), and 188 (rsp=0.3) and Mirex (rsp=0.4) were significantly correlated with the index of fish consumption (P<0.001). A logistic regression model, using forward stepwise selection procedures (alpha in/out=0.002/0.004), was employed to account for high intercorrelations among organochlorine predictor variables. Mirex was the sole statistically significant predictor variable of "consumer/nonconsumer." A one-unit increase in log Mirex was associated with a 92.0% increase in the odds of having reported sportfish consumption (OR=1.92, 95%CI=1.43, 2.58). Age, body mass index, cigarette smoking, water/wildfowl consumption, and year of sampling were considered covariates. The results of this study support the premise that long-term dietary consumption of Lake Ontario sportfish, even at comparatively low levels, contributes significantly to the body burden of organochlorine compounds in western New York anglers and sportsmen.

  4. Concentration and toxic potential of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in migratory oceanic birds from the North Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Guruge, K S; Tanaka, H; Tanabe, S

    2001-09-01

    Concentrations of PCBs and their toxic potential were examined in subcutaneous fat of eight albatross and one petrel species collected from the North Pacific and the Southern Oceans. Among all the species analyzed, high PCB levels were found in adult male blackfooted albatross from the North Pacific with the mean value of 92 microg/g wet weight. No significant gender difference in PCB accumulation was observed (P>0.1). The mean PCB levels in Southern Oceanic birds were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than those from the North Pacific albatrosses. A regional-specific accumulation of non-ortho coplanar congeners were observed, most birds from the Southern Ocean had higher IUPAC 169 levels while IUPAC 126 concentrations were higher in those from the North Pacific. The estimated toxic equivalents for black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific were in the same range of some fish-eating birds, which were highly contaminated by PCBs. The correlation between ratio of IUPAC 169/126 concentration and total PCBs concentration indicated the possibility of induction in cytochrome P450 activities in North Pacific albatrosses (P<0.01). The calculated hazard indices indicated that black-footed and Laysan albatrosses inhabiting in the North Pacific had similar threshold levels which were known to cause toxic effects in some populations of fish-eating birds. PMID:11570807

  5. Occurrence, variability and human exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in dairy products from Chile during the 2011-2013 survey.

    PubMed

    Pizarro-Aránguiz, N; Galbán-Malagón, C J; Ruiz-Rudolph, P; Araya-Jordan, C; Maddaleno, A; San Martin, B

    2015-05-01

    Levels, congener profiles of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and human exposure for these xenobiotics never have been reported in Chile. For that purpose 102 raw cow milk samples were collected from seven different regions of Chile during 2011 until 2013. The highest mean level for PCDD/Fs, corresponds to 0.32 pg WHO-TEQ2005 g(-1) fat (2012) and for DL-PCBs 0.17 pg WHO-TEQ2005 g(-1) fat (2011), using the upper bound approach. Penta and tetra chlorinated congeners dominated PCDD/Fs profiles in a WHO-TEQ2005 basis during the survey. In the case of DL-PCBs, PCB 126 dominated the profiles with 89%. Statistical analysis showed significant difference among years only in DL-PCBs residues. Also dietary intake was estimated, and the highest level for total sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for adult was 0.16 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.w d(-1) (2011) and for children correspond to 0.65 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) b.wd(-1) (2011). Concentrations and dietary intake for the studied compounds in milk and butter samples were below international and national regulations.

  6. RELATIVE CONGENER SCALING OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS TO ESTIMATE BUILDING FIRE CONTRIBUTIONS IN AIR, SURFACE WIPES, AND DUST SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA collected ambient air samples in lower Manhattan for about nine months following the September 11, 2001 (9/11) World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. Measurements were made of a host of airborne contaminants including volatile organic compounds (VOCs), polycyclic aromatic hydroca...

  7. Seasonal, anthropogenic, air mass, and meteorological influences on the atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs): Evidence for the importance of diffuse combustion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.G.M.; Green, N.J.L.; Lohmann, R.; Jones, K.C.

    1999-09-01

    Sampling programs were undertaken to establish air polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) concentrations at a semirural site on the northwest coast of England in autumn and summer and to investigate factors causing their variability. Changing source inputs, meteorological parameters, air masses, and the impact of a festival when it is customary to light fireworks and bonfires were investigated. Various lines of evidence from the study point to diffuse, combustion-related sources being a major influence on ambient air concentrations. Higher PCDD/F concentrations were generally associated with air masses that had originated and moved over land, particularly during periods of low ambient temperature. Low concentrations were associated with air masses that had arrived from the Atlantic Ocean/Irish Sea to the west of the sampling site and had little or no contact with urban/industrialized areas. Concentrations in the autumn months were 2 to 10 times higher than those found in the summer.

  8. Source identification and fish exposure for polychlorinated biphenyls using congener analysis from passive water samplers in the Millers River basin, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, John A.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish and in streambed sediments of the Millers River Basin, Massachusetts and New Hampshire, have been reported without evidence of the PCB source. In 1999, an investigation was initiated to determine the source(s) of the elevated PCB concentrations observed in fish and to establish the extent of fish exposure to PCBs along the entire main stems of the Millers River and one of its tributaries, the Otter River. Passive samplers deployed for 2-week intervals in the water-column at 3 1 stations, during summer and fall 1999, were used to assess PCB concentrations in the Millers River Basin. The samplers concentrate PCBs, which diffuse from the water column through a polyethylene membrane to hexane (0.200 liters) contained inside the samplers. Only dissolved PCBs (likely equivalent to the bioavailable fraction) are subject to diffusion through the membrane. The summed concentrations of all targeted PCB congeners (summed PCB) retrieved from the samplers ranged from 1 to 8,000 nanograms per hexane sample. Concentration and congener-pattern comparisons indicated that the historical release of PCBs in the Millers River Basin likely occurred on the Otter River at the upstream margin of Baldwinville, Mass. Elevated water-column concentrations measured in a wetland reach on the Otter River downstream from Baldwinville were compatible with a conceptual model for a present-day (1999) source in streambed sediments, to which the PCBs partitioned after their original introduction into the Otter River and from which PCBs are released to the water now that the original discharge has ceased or greatly decreased. Two four-fold decreases in summed PCB concentrations in the Millers River, by comparison with the highest concentration on the Otter River, likely were caused by (1) dilution with water from the relatively uncontaminated upstream Millers River and (2) volatilization of PCBs from the Millers River in

  9. Differential effects of two lots of aroclor 1254: congener-specific analysis and neurochemical end points.

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, P R; Kannan, N; Yamashita, N; Derr-Yellin, E C; Ward, T R; Burgin, D E; Tilson, H A; Birnbaum, L S

    2001-01-01

    Aroclor 1254 is a widely studied commercial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture which, by definition, contains 54% chlorine by weight. Recent reports indicate substantial differences in the congener composition among Aroclor lots and hence their biologic effects. We designed the current study to compare the effects of two lots of Aroclor 1254 (lots 6024 and 124-191). We analyzed these two lots for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). We used previously established techniques for analyzing intracellular Ca(2+) buffering and protein kinase C (PKC) translocation to test their biologic activity in neuronal preparations. PCB congener-specific analysis indicated that ortho and non-ortho congeners in these two lots varied in their percent contribution. Among all congeners, the percentages of non-ortho congeners (PCBs 77, 81, 126, and 169) were higher in lot 6024 (2.9% of total) than in lot 124-191 (0.02% of total). We detected no dioxins in these two lots (< 2 ppb). Although there are some differences in the congener composition, total PCNs were similar in both lots: 171 ppm in lot 6024 and 155 ppm in lot 124-191. However, total PCDFs were higher in lot 6024 (38.7 ppm) than in lot 124-191 (11.3 ppm). When we tested these two Aroclors on Ca(2+) buffering and PKC translocation in brain preparations, the effects were significantly different. Although lot 124-191 was more potent on PKC translocation than lot 6024, lot 6024 was slightly more active on Ca(2+) buffering than lot 124-191. These effects could not be attributed to the differences in the percentage of non-ortho congeners or PCDFs because they were inactive on these two parameters. The effects could not be attributed to PCNs because the levels were almost similar. The effects seen with two lots of Aroclor 1254 in neuronal cells were also not predicted based on the TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), although TEQs predicted

  10. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and trace metals in the blood of nonoccupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator and electric arc furnace.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan-Min; Lin, Yuan-Chung; Wu, Tzi-Yi; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Ma, Wen-Feng

    2010-06-01

    This study examines levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and trace metals in the blood of the nonoccupationally exposed residents living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) and electric arc furnaces (EAFs). The analysis found that older females had higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs and older males had higher body mass index (BMI) values and higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs. Moreover, sex appeared to affect the levels of PCDD/Fs because, overall, females showed higher levels of PCDD/Fs. The results of a principal component analysis indicated that the characteristics of the blood were more similar to the characteristics of the stack flux gas in MSWIs than those in EAFs. When sex, age, and BMI values were taken into consideration, none of the factors appeared to significantly affect PCDD/F and trace metal blood levels. However, when participants were divided into eight categories and analyzed, it was found that sex was the most important factor affecting levels of trace metals in blood and that males had higher concentrations of Pb, Al, Cd, and Cu.

  11. Brominated dibenzofurans

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Brominated dibenzofurans ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  12. Isomer-specific analysis and toxic evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalenes in soil, sediment, and biota collected near the site of a former chlor-alkali plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kannan, K.; Blankenship, A.L.; Giesy, J.P.; Imagawa, T.

    1998-09-01

    Concentrations and composition of polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners were determined in soil, sediments, blue crab, striped mullet, and boat-tailed grackle collected near a chlor-alkali plant to determine their congener profile, bioaccumulation properties, and toxic potential. Concentrations of total PCNs as high as 23 {micro}g/g, dry wt, were found in sediments collected at the marsh contaminated by disposal of wastes from the chlor-alkali process. The spatial distribution of sediment-PCN concentrations was not related with those observed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The PCN congener profile did not resemble those of any technical mixtures. Hepta- and octa-chloronaphthalenes were the most abundant congeners accounting for greater than 50% of the total PCN concentrations in soil and sediments. A characteristic profile of PCNs in samples collected at the chlor-alkali site suggests the formation of chloronaphthalene congeners during chlor-alkali process, as has been suggested for polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Concentrations of total PCNs in biota were 3--5 orders of magnitude less than in sediments. The profile of PCN congeners in biota was predominated by tetra- or penta-chloronaphthalenes, while hepta- and octa-chloronaphthalenes were not detected.

  13. Tracking polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congener patterns in Newark Bay surface sediment using principal component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF).

    PubMed

    Saba, Tarek; Su, Steave

    2013-09-15

    PCB congener data for Newark Bay surface sediments were analyzed using PCA and PMF, and relationships between the outcomes from these two techniques were explored. The PCA scores plot separated the Lower Passaic River Mouth samples from North Newark Bay, thus indicating dissimilarity. Although PCA was able to identify subareas in the Bay system with specific PCB congener patterns (e.g., higher chlorinated congeners in Elizabeth River), further conclusions reading potential PCB source profiles or potential upland source areas were not clear for the PCA scores plot. PMF identified five source factors, and explained the Bay sample congener profiles as a mix of these Factors. This PMF solution was equivalent to (1) defining an envelope that encompasses all samples on the PCA scores plot, (2) defining source factors that plot on that envelope, and (3) explaining the congener profile for each Bay sediment sample (inside the scores plot envelope) as a mix of factors. PMF analysis allowed identifying characteristic features in the source factor congener distributions that allowed tracking of source factors to shoreline areas where PCB inputs to the Bay may have originated. The combined analysis from PCA and PMF showed that direct discharges to the Bay are likely the dominant sources of PCBs to the sediment. Review of historical upland activities and regulatory files will be needed, in addition to the PCA and PMF analysis, to fully reconstruct the history of operations and PCB releases around the Newark Bay area that impacted the Bay sediment. PMID:23831929

  14. Characteristics of air pollution by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in the typical industrial areas of Tangshan City, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Bing; Lu, Pu; Li, Cheng; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui

    2011-01-01

    The ambient air in vicinity of different industrial sources for PCDD/PCDFs was sampled by TSP/PM10 active samplers and passive PUF disk samplers in Tangshan City, a metropolis containing clusters of various industrial plants. The TEQ concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs ranged from 44.2 to 394.1 fg I-TEQ/m3 with an average of 169.9 fg I-TEQ/m3. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the dominant contributor to sigma TEQ, contributing 41% (12% to 55%), while 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, OCDD and OCDF were the major congeners for the total concentrations. The ratios of sigma PCDF/ sigma PCDD reached 2.54 on average, suggesting that de novo synthesis in thermal processes played an important role to the airborne pollution of PCDD/PCDFs. The similarities congener profiles indicated that TSP and PM10 active sampling methods are comparable for the determination of the PCDD/PCDFs in ambient air, and the ratios of concentrations determined by the two methods suggested that the PCDD/PCDFs tended to stay in fine particles. It was found that 2,3,7,8-TCDF and OCDD were the dominating congeners in the passive PUF disks samples. Through principal components analysis, the coke industry was suggested to be a relatively high potential emission source for PCDD/PCDFs in the ambient air of Tangshan, which was possibly formed by de novo synthesis mechanism. In this study, the atmospheric impacts to the environment from different industrial sources could be ranked as follows (from high to low): coking, iron sintering, steel making, power generation and chlorinate alkali chemical production industries.

  15. Elevated PCDD/F levels and distinctive PCDD/F congener profiles in free range eggs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jing-Fang; Chen, Chun; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2010-07-14

    Chicken eggs are one of the most important foods in the human diet all over the world, and the demand for eggs from free range hens has steadily increased. Congener-specific analyses of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were performed on 6 free range and 12 caged chicken egg samples collected in Taiwan. The mean level of PCDD/Fs in the free range egg samples was 5.7 (1.79/0.314) times higher than those in the caged egg samples. Principle component analysis revealed that at least three characteristic patterns of PCDD/F congener were observed among the 18 egg samples. The different PCDD/F congener patterns between free range and caged egg samples may reflect distinctive exposure scenarios among the free range and caged hens. We suggest that the differences of PCDD/F levels and congener patterns between free range and caged egg samples give rise to the issues related to the safety of eating free range chicken eggs. The present data may provide useful information for further investigation of the possible PCDD/F sources in the contaminated free range eggs.

  16. THE ISOMER DISTRIBUTION AND CONGENER PROFILE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS) IN BALL CLAY FROM THE MISSISSIPPI EMBAYMENT (SLEDGE, MISSISSIPPI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several recent studies have found elevated levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in chickens and farm raised catfish grown in the United States resulting from the use of contaminated animal feed. The dioxins were discovered to have originated from the ball clay use...

  17. Temporal trends in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Niagara river suspended sediments.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Chris; Williams, Donald; Kuntz, Ken; Klawunn, Paul; Backus, Sean; Kolic, Terry; Lucaciu, Corina; MacPherson, Karen; Reiner, Eric

    2007-04-01

    Archived suspended sediment samples collected over the period 1980-2002 at Niagara-on-the-Lake in the Niagara river were analyzed to assess temporal trends in contaminants associated with historical industrial activities in the watershed (PCDDs/PCDFs, DLPCBs), compared to more modern industrial chemicals (PBDEs). The temporal trends for PCDDs/PCDFs and DLPCBs were generally similar, and showed a general trend toward decreasing concentrations, which was presumably due to implementation of control measures in the Niagara river watershed, including the remediation of hazardous waste facilities. The temporal trend in PBDEs contrasted with those of PCDDs/PCDFs and DLPCBs. Prior to 1988, PBDEs (sum of 16 congeners including deca-BDE) were generally detected at low-ppb concentrations, but showed a trend toward increasing concentrations over the period 1980-1988. After 1988, PBDE concentrations in the Niagara river showed a more rapidly increasing trend to a maximum of approximately 35 ng/g in 1995, with deca-BDE as the predominant congener detected. Samples collected over the period February 2003 to March 2004 at the head and mouth of the Niagara river were also analyzed for PBDEs; in all cases PBDE concentrations were higher at the mouth of the river at the outflow to Lake Ontario, indicating the Niagara river watershed is a source of PBDE contamination to Lake Ontario. However, PBDE concentrations in suspended sediments of the Niagara river were comparable to, or lower than, concentrations in bottom sediments in other industrialized/urbanized areas of the world. Based on these comparisons of global PBDE bottom sediment concentrations, the Niagara river watershed does not appear to be a significant local source of PBDEs to Lake Ontario, and concentrations in suspended sediments appear to be indicative of general PBDE contamination from a contamination of local, regional, and continental sources.

  18. Toxic equivalency factors for tetra- through octachlorinated dibenzofurans in PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Tysklind, M.; Rappe, C.; Tillift, D.E.; Eriksson, L.

    1995-12-31

    Planar halogenated hydrocarbons (PHHs) elicit dioxin-like effects in fish at extremely low doses. However, the relative potencies of PHHs in fish differ from mammals in both absolute magnitude and relative rank order. Therefore, the relative potencies of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were examined in PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cells. The response of PHHs in this cell line correlates with their toxicity to cause early life stage toxicity in fish. Twenty PCDFs were selected by means of a multivariate chemical characterization in combination with a 2{sup 4}-factorial design and separated into a 10 congener training set and 10 congener validation set. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) were determined for all 20 PCDF congeners based on ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction in the PLHC-1 cells. A quantitative structure-activity relation-ship (QSAR) model was constructed by partial least square modelling (PLS) of the physiochemical descriptor variables for the PCDFs in the training set and their EROD responses in the PLHC-1 cells. A predictive model was developed which accurately assessed the TEFs of the validation set of PCDFs. The model accounted for 87% (R{sup 2}) of the variance in TEFs and a cross-validated variance (Q{sup 2}) of 79%. From this QSAR, TEF values were predicted for all of the tetra through octa-chlorinated PCDFs in fish. Interestingly, there was a high degree of correlation among TEF values calculated in the PLHC-1 cells and the TEF values calculated in H411 E rat hepatoma cells.

  19. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenz-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cubic meter ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C-12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cubic meter and sub-pg/cubic meter levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured.

  20. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both of point and area sources of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant and their impacts to the vicinity environments.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kuei-Min; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Fang, Kenneth; Lin, Mark

    2010-08-01

    This study was set out to investigate emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from both the stack (i.e., point source) and plant fugitives (i.e., area source) of an electric-arc furnace-dust treatment plant (EAFDTP) and their impact to the vicinity environments. The emission rate of the point source (2,360 ng I-TEQh(-1)) was determined directly by measuring PCDD/F concentrations of the stack flue gas. The emission rate of the area source (1,080 ng I-TEQ m(-2)h(-1)) was estimated by using the Industrial Sources Complex Short-Term (ISCST3) model based on concentrations measured at the downwind side of the plant. The mean emission factors of 785 and 893 ng I-TEQ ton(-1) ZnO were found for the point and area source, respectively. The above results suggest that the area source accounted for more than 50% of total PCDD/F emissions for the selected EAFDTP. The contribution of the point source to the atmospheric PCDD/F concentrations of the upwind site and downwind site of the EAFDTP were 0 and 0.27 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The contributions of the area source were 0.020 and 3.3 fg I-TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. The total contribution of the selected EAFDTP (including both the point and area sources) to the concentrations in both upwind and downwind side vicinities were all less than 10%. Finally, the impact of PCDD/F emissions from the selected EAFDTP to the vicinity atmospheric environments was discussed in the present study.

  1. Persistent organic pollutants in fish oil supplements on the canadian market: polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    PubMed

    Rawn, D F K; Breakell, K; Verigin, V; Nicolidakis, H; Sit, D; Feeley, M; Ryan, J J

    2009-01-01

    Canadians are interested in improving their diet through the consumption of fish oil food supplements, which are marketed to be rich in omega-3 fatty acids. Convenience samples of omega-3 enriched dietary supplements (n = 30) were collected in Vancouver, Canada, between 2005 and 2007. All of the omega-3 supplements were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and, although every sample was found to contain detectable residues of PBDEs, only 24 samples were found to have PCDD/F concentrations above the level of detection. PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 0.05 pg TEQ/g lipid to 45.7 pg TEQ/g lipid in salmon and shark oils, respectively. Maximum PBDE concentrations similarly were observed in shark oil (113 microg/kg lipid), however, most supplements had concentrations below 5 microg/kg lipid. Average PCDD/F and PBDE intake estimates, based on consumption of maximum supplement dose following product label recommendations, were 4.32 pg TEQ/d and 25.1 ng/d lipid, respectively.

  2. Accumulation of polychlorinated organic contaminants from sediment by three benthic marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Rubinstein, N.I.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the accumulation of selected polychlorinated compounds by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment. Sandworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sediment collected from the Passaic River, New Jersey. All three species accumulated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the sediment. In addition, a recently identified sulfur containing analog of tetrachlorinated dibenzofurans. The objectives of the study were to determine the relative bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and selected PCB congeners from bottom sediments as well as to examine the relationship between contaminant concentrations in sediments and biota.

  3. In vitro metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners by beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) and pilot whale (Globicephala melas) and relationship to cytochrome P450 expression.

    PubMed

    White, R D; Shea, D; Schlezinger, J J; Hahn, M E; Stegeman, J J

    2000-07-01

    We measured rates of oxidative metabolism of two tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) congeners by hepatic microsomes of two marine mammal species, beluga whale and pilot whale, as related to content of selected cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms. Beluga liver microsomes oxidized 3,3',4,4'-TCB at rates averaging 21 and 5 pmol/min per mg for males and females, respectively, while pilot whale samples oxidized this congener at 0.3 pmol/min per mg or less. However, rates of 3,3',4,4'-TCB metabolism correlated with immunodetected CYP1A1 protein content in liver microsomes of both species. The CYP1A inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone inhibited 3,3',4,4'-TCB metabolism by 40% in beluga, supporting a role for a cetacean CYP1A as a catalyst of this activity. Major metabolites of 3,3',4,4'-TCB generated by beluga liver microsomes were 4-OH-3,3',4',5-TCB and 5-OH-3,3',4,4'-TCB (98% of total), similar to metabolites formed by other species CYP1A1, and suggesting a 4,5-epoxide-TCB intermediate. Liver microsomes of both species metabolized 2,2',5,5'-TCB at rates of 0.2-1.5 pmol/min per mg. Both species also expressed microsomal proteins cross-reactive with antibodies raised against some mammalian CYP2Bs (rabbit; dog), but not others (rat; scup). Whether CYP2B homologues occur and function in cetaceans is uncertain. This study demonstrates that PCBs are metabolized to aqueous-soluble products by cetacean liver enzymes, and that in beluga, rates of metabolism of 3,3',4,4'-TCB are substantially greater than those of 2,2',5,5'-TCB. These directly measured rates generally support the view that PCB metabolism plays a role in shaping the distribution patterns of PCB residues found in cetacean tissue.

  4. Polychlorinated dioxins and furans in sediments at a site colonized by Dreissena in western Lake Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, C.H.; Howell, E.T.; Reiner, E.J.

    2000-02-01

    Potential impacts of Dreissena on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in sediment were investigated by comparing PCDD/PCDF levels in colonized sediment with levels in sediment in the same area that was not colonized but that was exposed to similar environmental conditions. Levels of PCDDs/PCDFs were also determined in Dreissena tissues. The particle size distribution of colonized sediment was characterized by silt-size material with peak abundance in the range of 7.5 to 20 {micro}m, whereas noncolonized sediment was coarser in nature (30--60 {micro}m). Total organic carbon (TOC) and concentrations of the PCDD/PCDF congener groups and individual 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers were greater in colonized sediment. A trend was observed toward decreasing concentrations of PCDF congener groups with increased chlorine substitution in mussel tissues in contrast to increasing concentrations of PCDF congener groups with increased chlorination in sediments. The trend in the PCDD congener group profile in mussel tissues appeared more similar to the profile in sediments. Areal estimates of toxicity equivalents (TEQ) in Dreissena biomass at Port Dalhousie, Ontario, Canada (approx. 1,300 pg/m{sup 2}) were about 0.9% of the TEQ in the top 3 cm of sediment (approx. 135,000 pg/m{sup 2}). Differences in particle size distribution and PCDD/PCDF levels between colonized and noncolonized sediment suggest that Dreissena may influence chemical and physical properties of sediment they colonize.

  5. Maternal transfer of contaminants: case study of the excretion of three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and technical-grade endosulfan into eggs by white Leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    PubMed

    Bargar, T A; Scott, G I; Cobb, G P

    2001-01-01

    Reported avian maternal transfer rates of organochlorine contaminants range from 1% to as much as 20% of maternal body burdens. However, to our knowledge, no investigation of factors governing maternal transfer has been reported. Here, we report an investigation of maternal transfer of 2,3,3',4,4'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 105), 2,3,3',4,4',5-hexachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 156), 2,3,3',4,4',5,5'-heptachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 189), and technical-grade endosulfan into eggs by white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus). Two experiments were performed to evaluate individual chemical excretion into eggs when hens were injected with each chemical individually (experiment one) or with a mixture of all four chemicals (experiment two). Each hen was injected subcutaneously every 4 d during a 21-d period with 100 microliters of the dosing solution during both experiments. The mass of each chemical excreted into the egg was compared among eggs and with the mass injected into hens to determine the influence of chemical structure (experiment one) and interaction (experiment two) on maternal transfer of those chemicals into eggs. Maternal transfer of PCBs was inversely related to congener chlorination. The congener mass in eggs, as a percentage of the mass injected into hens, was 0.42% for PCB 189, 0.54% for PCB 156, and 0.61% for PCB 105. In experiment two, absolute excretion of only PCB 189 and alpha-endosulfan into eggs was affected by the presence of other chemicals. Excretion of PCB 189 (0.51%) and alpha-endosulfan (0.03%) increased and decreased, respectively, compared with when they were individually injected into hens during experiment one. Lastly, much less of the more metabolically susceptible endosulfan (0.04-0.12% of the mass injected) was excreted into the egg relative to PCBs, despite being injected into the hens at concentrations comparable with those of PCBs, suggesting, at least in avian species, lower maternal transfer of more metabolically susceptible

  6. Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congener Concentration and Sediment Supplementation on Rates of Methanogenesis and 2,3,6-Trichlorobiphenyl Dechlorination in an Anaerobic Enrichment

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Alfred W.; Blake, Cheryl K.; Price, W. Allen; May, Harold D.

    1993-01-01

    We have employed a method of enrichment that allows us to significantly increase the rate of reductive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination. This method shortens the time required to investigate the effects that culture conditions have on dechlorination and provides an estimate of the potential activity of the PCB-dechlorinating anaerobes. The periodic supplementation of sterile sediment and PCB produced an enhanced, measurable, and sustained rate of dechlorination. We observed volumetric rates of the dechlorination of 2,3,6-trichlorobiphenyl (2,3,6-CB) to 2,6-dichlorobiphenyl (2,6-CB) of more than 300 μmol liter-1 day-1 when the cultures were supplemented daily. A calculation of this activity that is based on an estimate of the number of dechlorinating anaerobes present indicates that 1.13 pmol of 2,3,6-CB was dechlorinated to 2,6-CB day-1 bacterial cell-1. This rate is similar to that of the reductive dechlorination of 3-chlorobenzoate by Desulfomonile tiedjei. Methanogenesis declined from 585.3 to 125.9 μmol of CH4 liter-1 day-1, while dechlorination increased from 8.2 to 346.0 μmol of 2,3,6-CB dechlorinated to 2,6-CB liter-1 day-1. PMID:16349045

  7. Determination of toxic congeners of 17 PCDDs/PCDFs and 12 dl-PCBs using polyurethane foam passive air samplers in ten cities around Seoul.

    PubMed

    Yoonki, Min; Jongwon, Heo; Meehye, Lee

    2014-09-01

    Twenty-nine toxic congeners including 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were determined using passive air samplers (PAS) at ten satellite cities of Seoul for two years. Chemical analysis was done by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The ten monitoring sites represent urban-residential, industrial, urban-rural mixed, and rural types of regions in Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. The concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs ranged from 0.59 pg·day(-1) to 29.7 pg·day(-1) and from 3.44 pg·day(-1) to 99.7 pg·day(-1), respectively with the highest values at industrial areas. The relative abundance of more toxic congeners (tetra- and penta-chlorinated PCDDs/PCDFs) was the highest in urban-rural mixed group despite the less emission sources than industrial group. It implies that this group was under the influence of fugitive emissions that have not yet been identified or regulated. This study reports the first attempt of atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs and dl-PCB measurements with PAS in the monitoring network of Korea, which highlights the efficacy of PAS in continuous and long-term monitoring of those species particularly at regions that could easily slip out of environmental governance or of low accessibility to monitoring.

  8. Assays of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying the recombinant guinea pig aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Sayuri; Ohta, Masaya; Ohkawa, Hideo; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic Arabidopsis plant XgD2V11-6 carrying the recombinant guinea pig (g) aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was examined for assay of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and co-contaminated heavy metals. When the transgenic Arabidopsis plants were treated with PCB126 (toxic equivalency factor; TEF: 0.1) and PCB169 (TEF: 0.03), the GUS activity of the whole plants was increased significantly. After treatment with PCB80 (TEF: 0), the GUS activity was nearly the same level as that treated with 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a vehicle control. After exposure to a 1:1 mixture of PCB126 and PCB169, the GUS activity was increased additively. However, after exposure to a mixture of PCB126 and PCB80, the GUS activity was lower than that of the treatment with PCB126 alone. Thus, PCB80 seemed to be an antagonist towards AhR. When the transgenic plants were treated with each of the heavy metals Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb together with PCB126, Cd and Pb increased the PCB126-induced GUS activity. On the other hand, Fe, Cu and Zn did not affect the PCB126-induced GUS activity. In the presence of the biosurfactant mannosylerythritol lipid-B (MEL-B) and the carrier protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), the PCB126-induced GUS activity was increased, but the Cd-assisted PCB126-induced GUS activity was not affected. Thus, MEL-B and BSA seemed to increase uptake and transport of PCB126, respectively. PMID:22938576

  9. Early life-stage mortalities of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed to polychlorinated diphenyl ethers

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, C.D.; Metcalfe, T.L.; Cormier, J.A.; Huestis, S.Y.; Niimi, A.J.

    1997-08-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are a group of compounds that resemble polychlorinated dibenzofurans in structure that have been detected at ppb concentrations in fish from the Great Lakes. The objective of this project was to determine the toxicological significance of PCDE residues in fish. PCDE congener 77 (3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorodiphenyl ether), congener 71 (2,3{prime},4{prime},6-tetrachlorodiphenyl ether), congener 118 (2,3{prime}4,4{prime},5-pentachlorodiphenyl ether), and congener 105 (2,3,3{prime},4,4{prime}-pentachlorodiphenyl) were tested for toxicity with early life stages (ELS) of Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes. These embryotoxicity data showed that the mono-ortho congeners 105 and 118 and the non-ortho congener 77 were embryotoxic to medaka. However, the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) estimated for congeners 105, 77, and 118 relative to 2,3,7,8-TCDD were relatively low at 0.00056, 0.00003, and 0.00001, respectively. PCDE compounds were isolated in a fraction prepared from a bulk extract of Lake Ontario lake trout. In this fraction, congeners 99 (2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5-pentaCDE), 153 (2,2{prime},4,m4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexaCDE), 154 (2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,6{prime}-hexaCDE), and 163 (2,3,3{prime},4{prime},5,6-hexaCDE) comprised 81.3% of total PCDEs, while congeners 77, 71, 118, and 105 comprised only 1.1% of total PCDEs. The LC50 for embryotoxicity of this fraction was equivalent to 15.5 ng/ml of total PCDEs. Toxicopathic lesions noted in medaka embryos exposed to either individual PCDEs or the lake trout extract included vascular hemorrhage but no edematous lesions. Medaka fry did not exhibit symptoms of hyperexcitability prior to death, as has been noted for ELS of lake trout exhibiting swim-up syndrome. These data indicate that PCDEs in Lake Ontario lake trout have the potential to induce toxic effects in early life stages of fish.

  10. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase induction potency of polychlorinated diphenyl ethers in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Koistinen, J.; Sanderson, J.T.; Giesy, J.P.; Nevalainen, T.; Paasivirta, J.

    1996-11-01

    Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PCDEs) are structurally similar to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some PCDE congeners have been reported to cause toxic responses similar to those caused by some of the non-ortho-substituted PCBs, which are mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Twenty-nine PCDEs were tested for their potency as AhR agonists relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by measuring their ability to induce the cytochrome P-450 1A1-associated enzyme activity, ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), in the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. All PCDE congeners tested were found to be inactive as EROD inducers except for PCDE 156, which was a weak EROD inducer with a 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalency factor of about 1.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}. During this study the authors determined that small amounts of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) that occurred as impurities in the PCDE preparations were the cause of the apparent EROD induction initially measured in their experiments. Once the PCDF impurities were removed by purification on florisil, little or no activity could be attributed to the PCDEs.

  11. Evaluation of a sampling and analysis method for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and (13)C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hrs to sample 350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with (13)C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on microcolumns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from the study indicated the PS-1 ambient air samplers and the analytical procedures were very efficient and that pg/cu m and sub-pg/cu m levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, BCDDs/BCDFs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners could be accurately measured. Background levels of these compounds in the ambient air were also determined. Total PCDDs, PCDFs, TBDFs, and PeBDFs were detected in a low concentration range of 0.3 to 3.0 pg/cu m.

  12. PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in zooplankton in the Baltic Sea - spatial and temporal shifts in the congener-specific concentrations.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Heikki; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Korhonen, Markku; Kiviranta, Hannu; Flinkman, Juha; Verta, Matti

    2014-11-01

    In the marine food-webs, zooplankton is a key element in the transfer of persistent organic pollutants to higher trophic levels. We determined the congener-specific concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in offshore zooplankton (size from 0.2 to 20mm) collected in 2001, 2002 and 2010 in the northern and central Baltic Sea. Of the PCDD/Fs, the concentrations of 2378-TCDF were from 18 to 47 and of 23478-PeCDF from 7.9 to 29 pg g(-1)fat and showed little temporal differences. However, 1234678-HpCDF and OCDF were abundant in 2001-2002 especially in the eastern Gulf of Finland (average concentrations 50 and 89 pg g(-1)fat, respectively). In 2010 the concentrations of these two congeners were lower, 29 and 30 pg g(-1)fat, respectively, but still substantially higher than in the other surveyed areas. The principal components analysis (PCA) supported that area-specific patterns in pollution strongly contributed to the congener profiles particularly in surface sediment and in sediment trap material, but even in zooplankton. The concentrations of the PCBs were highest in the Gulf of Finland and in the Bothnian Bay. The concentrations of most PCBs were somewhat lower in 2010 than in 2001-2002. Of the dioxin-like PCBs, the concentrations of PCB-77 were highest (271-572 pg g(-1)fat) but PCB-126 (32-113 pg g(-1)fat) contributed from 85% to 91% of the total toxicity of PCBs due to its higher toxic potency. Of the PBDEs, the BDE47 and BDE99 were the most abundant (concentrations from 1.2 to 4.6 and from 0.4 to 3.3 ng g(-1) fat, respectively). The concentrations of most PBDEs were lower in 2010 than in 2001/2002 except in the eastern Gulf of Finland.

  13. Identification and preliminary evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from hot dip galvanizing plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Hot dip galvanizing (HDG) processes are sources of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Close correlations have been found between the concentration of PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) that are produced and released during industrial thermal processes. We speculated, therefore, that HDG plants are potential PCN sources. In this preliminary study, PCNs were analyzed in solid residues, ash and precipitate from three HDG plants of different sizes. The total PCN concentrations (∑2-8PCNs) in the residue samples ranged from 60.3 to 226pgg(-1). The PCN emission factors for the combined ash and precipitate residues from the HDG plants ranged from 75 to 178ngt(-1) for the dichlorinated and octachlorinated naphthalenes. The preliminary results suggested that the HDG industry might not currently be a significant source of PCN emissions. The trichloronaphthalenes were the dominant homologs followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and the tetrachloronaphthalenes. The PCN congeners CN37/33/34, CN52/60, CN66/67, and CN73 dominated the tetrachlorinated, pentachlorinated, hexachlorinated, and heptachlorinated naphthalene homologs, respectively. The PCNs emitted from the HDG plants had similar homolog distributions and congener profiles to the PCNs emitted from combustion plants and other metallurgical processes. The identification and preliminary evaluation of PCN emissions from HDG plants presented here will help in the prioritization of measures for controlling PCN emissions from industrial sources.

  14. Variation in net trophic transfer efficiencies among 21 PCB congeners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Chernyak, S.M.; Elliott, R.F.; Desorcie, T.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the efficiency with which fish retain polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from their food strongly depends on Kow and degree of chlorination of the congener. We used diet information, determinations of concentrations of individual PCB congeners in both coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiencies with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain various PCB congeners from their food. The retention efficiency for the tetrachloro congeners averaged 38%, whereas retention efficiencies for higher chlorinated congeners ranged from 43 to 56%. Not including tetrachloro congeners, we found neither decreasing nor increasing trends in the efficiencies with which the coho salmon retained the PCB congeners from their food with either increasing Kow or increasing degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners. We concluded that (a) for PCB congeners with 5−8 chlorine atoms/molecule, Kow and degree of chlorination had little influence on the efficiency with which coho salmon retained the various PCB congeners in their food, and (b) the efficiency with which coho salmon retained tetrachloro PCB congeners in their food appeared to be slightly lower than that for higher chlorinated PCB congeners.

  15. Liver function tests in workers with occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): comparison with Yusho and Yu-Cheng

    SciTech Connect

    Fischbein, A.

    1985-05-01

    The results of liver function tests in a population manufacturing capacitors and transformers are presented. Two clinical field examinations were performed, one in 1976 when PCBs were still used in the manufacturing of the electrical equipment and one at the end of 1979, 2.5 years after discontinuation of PCBs use. A low prevalence of abnormal liver function tests was found and mean values for all tests were within normal laboratory ranges. At the initial examination, weak, but statistically significant correlations were found between log LDH and plasma levels of log HPCB (higher chlorinated congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls) and log TPCB (total polychlorinated biphenyls) among the female workers, while log el-GTP correlated significantly only with log HPCB among the male workers. A significant increase to abnormal levels of el-GTP was noted at the follow-up examination in both male and female workers, and preliminary results indicate significant correlations between el-GTP and serum levels of PCBs among the male workers. These findings are in accordance with previously reported data on populations occupationally exposed to PCBs, but differ from hepatic biochemistry findings in accidental poisonings due to ingestion of cooking oil contaminated with PCBs and related compounds, i.e., polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated quaterphenyls (PCQs). Hence, the importance of considering the related compounds as etiologic factors in PCB poisoning is emphasized.

  16. Characterizing the emissions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) from metallurgical processes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Wang, Ya-Fen; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2010-02-15

    This study investigated the characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in the stack flue gases of the metallurgical processes. An examination of the PBDEs existing in the stack flue gases of sinter plants revealed that PBDEs can form during the combustion processes through the similar formation conditions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The PBDD/F and PBDE emission rates of the metallurgical facilities were 0.446-3.19 microg TEQ/h and 4470-27000 microg/h, correspondingly. Both emission rates could reach several orders higher than those of the reported sources, revealing that the metallurgical facilities are not only important PCDD/F but also significant PBDD/F and PBDE emission sources to the environment. BDE-209 is the most abundant PBDE congener in the emissions of metallurgical facilities and is found to be dominant in the atmosphere and soils. However, few studies have considered metallurgical facilities as potential PBDE contributors to the environment. Because PBDEs could form or not be completely destroyed in the feeding materials in the combustion system, PBDE contributions from combustion emission sources to the atmosphere should not be ignored and need further investigation.

  17. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDDs/Fs) in dust, soil, sediment and health risk assessment from an intensive electronic waste recycling site in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianfang; Xiao, Xiao; Peng, Ping'an; Huang, Weilin; Chen, Deyi; Cai, Ying

    2013-10-01

    Workshop dust, soil and sediment samples were collected to investigate the level and spatial distribution of PCDDs/Fs at an intensive electronic waste (e-waste) recycling site in Southern China, and also to characterize the dioxin emission in different e-waste recycling procedures. The concentrations of total PCDDs/Fs ranged from 1866 to 234292 ng kg(-1) for the dust samples, from 3187 to 63998 ng kg(-1) dry wt for the top soils, and 33718 ng kg(-1) for the surface sediment. All the samples were characterized by abnormally high concentrations of OCDD and an extremely low portion of PCDFs. Different e-waste recycling procedures may generate different congener profiles. Open burning and dismantling were the two procedures emitting relatively higher concentrations of PCDDs/Fs in this case, indicating that low-tech recycling operations were one of the major contributors of PCDDs/Fs to the environment. The variation and distinction of the concentrations and homologue/congener profiles among different environmental matrices reveal the characteristics of contaminant environmental behavior and fate during the transportation from "source" to "sink". Daily intake of PCDDs/Fs through soil ingestion and dermal absorption was negligible, but the rough estimated total PCDD/F intake dose far exceeded the tolerance daily intake value of 4 pg-TEQ per kg per day recommended by WHO, indicating that residents in Longtang were at a high risk of exposure to dioxins, especially children.

  18. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from a refinery process for zinc oxide used in feed additives: a source of dioxin contamination in Chilean pork.

    PubMed

    Kim, Meekyung; Kim, Dong-Gyu; Choi, Si-Weon; Guerrero, Pedro; Norambuena, Julio; Chung, Gab-Soo

    2011-02-01

    The Republic of Korea found dioxin at concentrations exceeding the Korean maximum residue limit (MRL) in pork (2 pg TEQ g(-1) fat) imported from Chile in June 2008. Korea and Chile collaborated and investigated to find out the sources of contamination. An isotope dilution method and high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HR-GC/MS) were used for the analysis of PCDD/Fs. PCDD/Fs were found from 2.17 to 36.7 pg TEQ g(-1) fat from Chilean pork. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF, and 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF were found as the major congeners in pork samples. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF showed the highest concentration and contributed about 30% among the congeners in most of the samples. 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD, OCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF, and OCDF were not detected or exist at background levels in the less contaminated samples. Remarkably high concentrations of PCDD/Fs were found in samples of zinc oxide (17147 pg TEQ g(-1)), zinc oxide based premix (6673 pg TEQ g(-1)), and the residue crust (800 pg TEQ g(-1)) in a mixing chamber in the feed mill. From the results of various investigations, this case concluded that zinc oxide in the feed was the major source of the dioxin contamination in pork. The dioxins were formed from a metal refinery process to collect zinc oxide.

  19. Loading capacity and chromatographic behavior of a porous graphitic carbon column for polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, K.R.; Gale, R.W.; Feltz, K.; O'Laughlin, J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    A porous graphitic carbon column (Hypercarb) was used for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into classes of 2-4 ortho chlorines, 1 ortho chlorine and 0 ortho chlorine congeners. A method was developed that combined the fractionation of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a variety of biotic environmental samples. Many of these samples have high concentrations of PCBs which cause fractionation problems as adsorption sites on the graphitic surface are occupied. The loading capacity of the column for PCBs was determined by injecting up to 1 mg of total PCBs and monitoring changes in chromatographic behavior of tetra-/di-ortho, mono-ortho and non-ortho substituted PCBs. Effective loading capacities were 1 mg for tetra-/di-ortho PCBs, but only 3- 5 ??g for non-ortho PCBs and about 2 ??g for mono-ortho PCBs. Loading capacity of the PGC column for environmental fish and avian egg samples was determined to depend on the mono-ortho and non-ortho PCB levels found in these samples.

  20. Differences in the action of lower and higher chlorinated polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) congeners on estrogen dependent breast cancer cell line viability and apoptosis, and its correlation with Ahr and CYP1A1 expression.

    PubMed

    Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L; Barć, Justyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-07-29

    There are data showing that exposition to PCNs mixture increased incidence of gastrointestinal and respiratory neoplasms, but data regarding incidence of hormone-dependent cancer so far not shown. The objective was to determine if exposure to single lower and higher chlorinated PCN congeners is associated with altered proliferation and apoptosis of estrogen dependent breast cancer cells, and whether such effects are related to induction of AhR and CYP1A1 protein expression. MCF-7 cells were exposed to PCN 34, 39, 42, 46, 48, 52, 53, 54, 66, 67, 70, 71, 73 and 74 at concentrations of 100-10,000pg/ml. We evaluated the action of these PCN congeners on cell proliferation, DNA fragmentation and caspase-8,-9 activity. AhR and CYP1A1 protein expression and CYP1A1 activity was evaluated at a concentration of 1000pg/ml. An opposite action of tri- to tetraCNs than of penta-to heptaCNs on cell proliferation and apoptosis was evident. Tetra PCNs increased cell proliferation, but had no effect on DNA fragmentation nor caspase activity. Fast induction of CYP1A1 protein expression under the influence of lower chlorinated PCNs suggests faster metabolism and a possible stimulatory action of locally formed metabolites on cell proliferation. None of the higher chlorinated PCNs affected cell proliferation but all higher chlorinated PCNs increased caspase-8 activity, and hexa PCNs also increased caspase-9 activity. The rapid activation of the Ah receptor and CYP1A1 protein expression by higher chlorinated PCNs point to their toxicity; however, it is not sufficient for potential carcinogenicity. Action of lower chlorinated naphthalenes metabolites should be explored.

  1. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomin; Su, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Copper sulfates (CuSO4) are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g). In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw) was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4) application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1) also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw) after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date. PMID:26658158

  2. Assessment of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Occurrence in Copper Sulfates and the Influential Role of PCB Levels on Grapes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaomin; Su, Xiaoou

    2015-01-01

    Copper sulfates (CuSO4) are widely used as the primary component of fungicides in the grape industry. The agricultural-grade CuSO4 that we collected from Chinese nationwide markets were found to be contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ19PCBs: 0.32~9.51 ng/g). In the following research, we studied the impact of CuSO4 application on PCB levels in grape products through a field experiment, and conducted a national survey to speculate the role that CuSO4 played on the occurrence of PCB in grapes. In the field experiment, an obvious increase of PCBs in grape leaves (from 174 to 250 pg/g fw) was observed after Bordeaux mixture (the main component of which is CuSO4) application. As to the main PCB congener in CuSO4, the most toxic CB 126 (toxic equivalency factor = 0.1) also increased in grape peels (from 1.66 to 2.93 pg/g fw) after pesticide spray. Both the correlation study and the principal component analysis indicated that environmental factors were dominant PCB contributors to grapes, and grapes from e-waste dismantling area containing the highest PCBs also proved the notion. It is worth noting that this report describes the first research examining PCBs in CuSO4 and its influence on agricultural products to date. PMID:26658158

  3. Distinguishing PCB Isomeric Congeners with their Gas Chromatographic and Mass Spectrometric Ortho Effect using Comprehensive Gas Chromatography

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and associated nine isomeric groups (nine groups of PCBs with the same degree of chlorination) have been long recorded as high endocrine disrupting chemicals in the environment. Difficult analytical problems exist, in those frequen...

  4. Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peakall, David B.; Lincer, Jeffrey L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes structure, use, analysis, and toxicological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls. Provides data on occurrence and biological magnification in ecosystems. Significance, and synergistic relationships with DDT summarized. (AL)

  5. PCB congener accumulation by periphyton, herbivores, and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Hill, W R; Napolitano, G E

    1997-05-01

    The concentrations of 20 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in periphyton, herbivorous fish (stoneroller minnows, Campostoma anomalum), and omnivorous fish (striped shiners, Luxilus chrysocephalus) in an industrially contaminated stream and a reference stream in eastern Tennessee. The sum of the concentrations of the 20 congeners, normalized by dry mass, was one to two orders of magnitude higher in stonerollers and shiners than in periphyton. Normalizing PCB concentrations by lipid mass reduced concentration differences between periphyton and stonerollers, but PCBs per unit lipid in stonerollers were still 50-350% higher than those in periphyton. Shiners had significantly higher lipid-specific PCB concentrations than did stonerollers, so a trophic hierarchy of primary producer < herbivore < omnivore was evident in lipid-specific PCB concentrations. Differences in lipid type, exposure duration, and exposure sources may account for the trophic-level differences in total PCBs. Congener profiles were roughly similar in periphyton, stonerollers, and shiners: five congeners (IUPAC numbers 101, 110, 138, 153, and 180) constituted >60% of the total mass of PCBs analyzed in all three trophic levels. However, stoneroller and shiner tissue was enriched in congeners 153, 118, and 187 relative to periphyton; congeners 153 and 187 are resistant to metabolic breakdown by monooxygenases found in fish liver. Principal component analysis of congener percentages separated periphyton from fish and distinguished between sampling locations.

  6. EXTENSION OF U.S. EPA METHODS 0023A/8290 TO INCLUDE 13C12-LABELLED MONO-, DI-, AND TRI-CHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are typically reported only in terms of the tetra-through octa-CDD/CDF isomers, either as homologue sums or as subsets thereof. This practice is common because the toxic isomers ...

  7. Distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing municipal waste incinerator fly ash.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zhan, Jiayu; Zhao, Yuyang; Li, Li; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Fu, Jianjie; Li, Chunping; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-07-01

    Co-processing municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in cement kilns is challenging because the unintentional production of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the process is not well understood. The distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) as new POPs covered under Stockholm Convention in two cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash were studied. The average concentrations of PCNs in stack gas samples were 710 ng m(-3). The PCN concentration in particle samples collected from different process stages in the cement kilns ranged from 1.1 to 84.7 ng g(-1). Three process sites including suspension pre-heater boiler, humidifier tower, and the kiln back-end bag filter were identified to be the major formation sites of PCNs in cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash. The PCN distribution patterns were similar to that of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs), which indicates the possibility for simultaneous control of PCNs and PCDD/Fs in cement kilns co-processing fly ash. Chlorination was suggested to be an important formation mechanism of PCNs, and chlorination pathways of PCN congeners are proposed based on the congener profiles. Thermodynamic calculations, including relative thermal energies (ΔE) and standard free energy of formation (ΔG), and the charge densities of the carbon atoms in PCN supported the proposed chlorination mechanisms for PCN formation. The results presented in this study might provide helpful information for developing techniques and strategies to control PCN emissions during cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash.

  8. Distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes in cement kilns co-processing municipal waste incinerator fly ash.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zhan, Jiayu; Zhao, Yuyang; Li, Li; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Fu, Jianjie; Li, Chunping; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-07-01

    Co-processing municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in cement kilns is challenging because the unintentional production of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during the process is not well understood. The distributions, profiles and formation mechanisms of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) as new POPs covered under Stockholm Convention in two cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash were studied. The average concentrations of PCNs in stack gas samples were 710 ng m(-3). The PCN concentration in particle samples collected from different process stages in the cement kilns ranged from 1.1 to 84.7 ng g(-1). Three process sites including suspension pre-heater boiler, humidifier tower, and the kiln back-end bag filter were identified to be the major formation sites of PCNs in cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash. The PCN distribution patterns were similar to that of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs), which indicates the possibility for simultaneous control of PCNs and PCDD/Fs in cement kilns co-processing fly ash. Chlorination was suggested to be an important formation mechanism of PCNs, and chlorination pathways of PCN congeners are proposed based on the congener profiles. Thermodynamic calculations, including relative thermal energies (ΔE) and standard free energy of formation (ΔG), and the charge densities of the carbon atoms in PCN supported the proposed chlorination mechanisms for PCN formation. The results presented in this study might provide helpful information for developing techniques and strategies to control PCN emissions during cement kilns co-processing MSWI fly ash. PMID:27135696

  9. Physical-Chemical Property Data for Dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD), Dibenzofuran (DF), and Chlorinated DD/Fs: A Critical Review and Recommended Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Åberg, Annika; MacLeod, Matthew; Wiberg, Karin

    2008-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are of global concern due to their persistence, their tendency to bioaccumulate, and their extremely high toxicity. The fate of the PCDD/Fs in the environment is largely determined by their physical-chemical properties, such as solubility in water (SW, molm-3), solubility in octanol (SO, molm-3), and vapor pressure (P, Pa). It is not unusual that the range of reported values for a given property varies over several orders of magnitude, especially for the highly chlorinated congeners, and consequently, it is a challenge to select physical-chemical property data from the literature for use in chemical fate and risk assessments. In the current study, physical-chemical property data [P, SW, SO, Henry's law constant (H ), partitioning coefficients between octanol-water (KOW) and octanol-air (KOA)] for 15 DDs and 17 DFs at 293-299K are compiled from the literature and evaluated to select literature derived values that are then adjusted to conform to thermodynamic constraints using a least-squares adjustment procedure. We also present an analysis of available data on internal energies of phase change (ΔUA, ΔUW, ΔUO, ΔUOW, ΔUAW, ΔUOA) at 298K, which describe the temperature dependence of the partitioning properties. The final adjusted values (FAVs) derived from this study are recommended as physical-chemical property data for PCDD/Fs for use in environmental fate modeling. The FAVs for internal energies of phase change can be used as a first approximation for estimating properties at temperatures other than 298K.

  10. [Influences of polychlorinated dibenzofuran on experimental carcinogenesis in mice].

    PubMed

    Hirose, R; Hori, M; Toyoshima, H; Shukuwa, T; Udono, M; Yoshida, H

    1989-05-01

    To ascertain whether 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PCDF) has the possibility of cocarcinogen, three different concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 5 ppm PCDF was evaluated in the course of experimental carcinogenesis in mice. Concerning the difference of total number of tumors occurred among the groups of mice with various treatments, the mice treated with 0.5 ppm PCDF and 20-methylcholanthrene (MC) have produced twice as many tumors as those of the other groups. Then the adequate concentration of PCDF to be a promoter was supposed to be 0.5 ppm. Two kinds of tumors were seen in mice which were treated by MC with or without PCDF, and there was no difference of tumors between the groups by appearance and pathologically. One is a benign papilloma, and the other is a squamous cell carcinoma which tends to keratinize and looks like a keratoacanthoma. The latter had a tendency to arise much more four weeks after the treatments had been done, even though the number of the former increased gradually. There was no evidence that PCDF of these concentrations could permeate through the skin and could be toxic. Furthermore PCDF seemed to neither stay nor act directly on the follicular epithelium, since there was no acne formation on the back skin of mice. One of the possible factors to cause malignant changes of epidermal cells was supposed to be a prolonged inflammation of the skin. PMID:2744687

  11. Emissions behavior and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from cement kilns in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    The production of cement in China is accompanied by various emissions, such as fine particulate matter, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide…. Moreover, cement kiln presents a potential health risk to its surroundings, linking to emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Flue gas samples were collected from five typical cement kilns during twelve runs and were used to evaluate the levels and distribution of PCDD/Fs in the emissions from cement kilns. The PCDD/Fs concentrations (136 congeners) and I-TEQ values ranged from 2.3 to >40 ng/m(3) and 9.3~90.8 × 10(-3) ng I-TEQ/m(3), respectively, which were lower than the emission standard in China (0.1 ng I-TEQ/m(3)). In weight units, the dominant congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF; 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor (36-66 %) to the total I-TEQ value of twelve runs. HxCDF and TCDF were the first two most abundant homologue groups (12-85 and 4-52 %), and the homologue concentration decreased with rising chlorine number for PCDDs. In addition, there was no marked difference in homologue profiles when solid wastes (refuse-derived fuel and municipal solid waste) and hazardous wastes (DDT and POPs) were combusted as supplemental fuels. The use of various supplemental fuels had no obvious effect on the fingerprint of PCDD/F homologues. Moreover, there was no significant difference in levels of PCDD/Fs emission due to the diversity of production capacity, which were consistent with reported previously. Air pollution control device had effect on the homologue profiles, and cement system with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) had more fractions of octachloro congeners to the total. PMID:24306724

  12. Emissions behavior and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from cement kilns in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Guo, Ying; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2014-03-01

    The production of cement in China is accompanied by various emissions, such as fine particulate matter, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide…. Moreover, cement kiln presents a potential health risk to its surroundings, linking to emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Flue gas samples were collected from five typical cement kilns during twelve runs and were used to evaluate the levels and distribution of PCDD/Fs in the emissions from cement kilns. The PCDD/Fs concentrations (136 congeners) and I-TEQ values ranged from 2.3 to >40 ng/m(3) and 9.3~90.8 × 10(-3) ng I-TEQ/m(3), respectively, which were lower than the emission standard in China (0.1 ng I-TEQ/m(3)). In weight units, the dominant congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF; 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor (36-66 %) to the total I-TEQ value of twelve runs. HxCDF and TCDF were the first two most abundant homologue groups (12-85 and 4-52 %), and the homologue concentration decreased with rising chlorine number for PCDDs. In addition, there was no marked difference in homologue profiles when solid wastes (refuse-derived fuel and municipal solid waste) and hazardous wastes (DDT and POPs) were combusted as supplemental fuels. The use of various supplemental fuels had no obvious effect on the fingerprint of PCDD/F homologues. Moreover, there was no significant difference in levels of PCDD/Fs emission due to the diversity of production capacity, which were consistent with reported previously. Air pollution control device had effect on the homologue profiles, and cement system with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) had more fractions of octachloro congeners to the total.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p{prime}-DDT) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p{prime}-DDE) in human plasma related to fish consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Asplund, L.; Eriksson, U.; Jansson, B.; Wideqvist, U.; Svensson, B.G.; Nilsson, A.; Skerfving, S.; Jensen, S.

    1994-11-01

    Fatty fish species, e.g., salmon and herring, in the Baltic Sea have high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p{prime}-DDT), and its main metabolite: 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p{prime}-DDE). We determined levels of 10 different PCB congeners, including non- and mono-ortho-PCBs, as well as DDT and DDE, in human blood plasma from 37 subjects with varying intake of fish (0-1 750 g/wk) from the Baltic Sea. With respect to all of the PCB congeners we investigated, as well as for DDT and DDE, there were statistically significant associations with fish intake. Thus, fish from the Baltic Sea is a major source of exposure to these compounds in Swedes. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) had been determined earlier in 29 of the subjects. The PCB contribution to {open_quotes}dioxin-like{close_quotes} effects among high consumers of fish (calculated as Nordic TCDD equivalents) was almost 80%, whereas that from PCDD and PCDF was only 20%. 32 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Accumulation of polychlorobiphenyl congeners and p,p'-DDE at environmental concentrations by corn and beans

    SciTech Connect

    Shane, L.A.; Bush, B.

    1989-02-01

    The uptake of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners present at low concentrations in the environment was investigated in leaf composites of four crop species and final fruits at two sites. All four species preferentially accumulated the same eight congeners, although not in the same degree or rank. No bean species demonstrated a significant increase in accumulation over time, and corn significantly reduced its PCB load over time. Mechanisms are suggested for such behavior. Fruits were 100 times less contaminated than plant leaves.

  15. Phylogenetic Characterization of a Polychlorinated-Dioxin- Dechlorinating Microbial Community by Use of Microcosm Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Naoko; Takahashi, Nobutaka; Hiraishi, Akira

    2005-01-01

    Microcosms capable of reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were constructed in glass bottles by seeding them with a polluted river sediment and incubating them anaerobically with an organic medium. All of the PCDD/F congeners detected were equally reduced without the accumulation of significant amounts of less-chlorinated congeners as the intermediate or end products. Alternatively, large amounts of catechol and salicylic acid were produced in the upper aqueous phase. Thus, the dechlorination of PCDD/Fs and the oxidative degradation of the dechlorinated products seemed to take place simultaneously in the microcosm. Denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis and clone library analyses of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes from the microcosm showed that members of the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes predominated. A significant number of Chloroflexi clones were also detected. Quantitative real-time PCR with specific primer sets showed that the 16S rRNA genes of a putative dechlorinator, “Dehalococcoides,” and its relatives accounted for 0.1% of the total rRNA gene copies of the microcosm. Most of the clones thus obtained formed a cluster distinct from the typical “Dehalococcoides” group. Quinone profiling indicated that ubiquinones accounted for 18 to 25% of the total quinone content, suggesting the coexistence and activity of ubiquinone-containing aerobic bacteria. These results suggest that the apparent complete dechlorination of PCDD/Fs found in the microcosm was due to a combination of the dechlorinating activity of the “Dehalococcoides”-like organisms and the oxidative degradation of the dechlorinated products by aerobic bacteria with aromatic hydrocarbon dioxygenases. PMID:16085820

  16. Copolymerization of dibenzofuran and dichloromethane

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S.P.; Jones, M.B.; Baltisberger, R.J.; Brown, C.E.; Burger, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    As part of a project involving synthesis of model oligomers of coal derived asphaltenes and preasphaltenes, we required bis(2-dibenzofuranyl)methane (1). The successful preparation of 1 was carried out via coupling of 2-lithio-dibenzofuran with 2-formyldibenzofuran, followed by reduction of the resulting diaryl substituted methanol. Attempts to prepare 1 by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of dibenzofuran (DBF) with stoichiometric amounts of CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ failed. However, when CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ was present in excess (as solvent), alkylation of DBF proceeded smoothly at ambient temperature to yield an insoluble, infusible, yellow powder. We report herein preliminary observations on the characteristics and structural features of this new copolymer.

  17. Emission of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes during Thermal Related Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-05-01

    Due to the structural similarity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) to those of dioxins, PCNs exhibit toxicological properties similar to dioxins (Olivero-Verbel et al., 2004). Based on their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-distance transmission, PCNs were also selected as a candidate POP for the UN-ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) POP protocol (Lerche et al., 2002). In addition, some studies suggested that PCNs contributed a greater proportion of the dioxin-like activity than polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contributed in some locations (Kannan et al., 1998). However, the identification and quantitation for PCN sources are very scarce compared with PCDD/Fs. Understanding the emission levels and developing the emission inventory of PCNs is important for regulatory and source reduction purposes. In this study, several potential sources were preliminarily investigated for PCN release. Coking process (CP), iron ore sintering (IOS), and electric arc furnace steel making units (AF) were selected due to their huge activity level of industrial production in China. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and medical waste incineration (MWI) were also investigated because of the possible high concentration of PCNs in stack gas. Two plants were investigated for each thermal related process, except for MWI with one incinerator was investigated. The stack gas samples were collected by automatic isokinetic sampling system (Isostack Basic, TCR TECORA, Milan Italy). Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique was used for the identification and quantitation of PCN congeners. The concentrations of PCNs from the selected thermal processes were determined in this study. The average concentrations of total PCNs were 26 ng Nm-3 for CP, 65 ng Nm-3 for IOS, 720 ng Nm-3 for AF, 443 ng Nm-3 for MSWI, and

  18. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  19. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  20. Passive Sampling Provides Evidence for Neward Bay as a Source of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Furans to the New York/New Jersey, USA, Atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freely dissolved and gas phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in the water column and atmosphere at five locations within Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) from May 2008 to August 2009 with polyethylene (PE) passive ...

  1. Polychlorinated naphthalenes: an environmental update.

    PubMed

    Falandysz, J

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs; CNs) form a complex mixture of up to 75 congeners containing from one to eight chlorine atoms per naphthalene molecule. Chloronaphthalenes are widespread global environmental pollutants which accumulate in biota. All chloronaphthalenes are planar compounds and can contribute to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor-mediated mechanism of toxicity with a combination of various 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin like toxic responses. There are three known main sources of environmental pollution with PCNs: technical PCN formulations, technical polychlorinated biphenyl formulations, and thermal and other processes in the presence of chlorine. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review the most recent data on environmental pollution, chemistry, analysis, sources, formation, persistence, toxicity and behavior of PCNs.

  2. The toxicity of brominated and mixed-halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, L.W.D. |; Greim, H.

    1997-02-21

    Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans can be formed under laboratory conditions by pyrolysis of flame retardants based on polybrominated biphenyls and biphenyl ethers. Their occurrence in the environment, however, is due to combustion processes such as municipal waste incineration and internal combustion engines. As these processes generally take place in the presence of an excess of chlorine, predominantly mixed brominated and chlorinated compounds have been identified so far in environmental samples. Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins or dibenzofurans bind to the cytosolic Ah receptor about as avidly as their chlorinated congeners and induce hepatic microsomal enzymes with comparable potency. The same holds true for mixed brominated-chlorinated compounds. Gross pathologic symptoms-hypothyroidism, thymic atrophy, wasting of body mass, lethality-also occur at doses that, on a molar concentration basis, are virtually identical to those seen with the chlorinated compounds. Their potency to induce malformations in mice following prenatal exposure is equivalent to that of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans. Possible activities as (co)carcinogens and endocrine disrupters have not been evaluated, but are likely to exist. Considering the overall similarity in action of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, environmental and health assessment should be based on molar body burdens without discrimination for the nature of the halogen. 107 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  3. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF TWO LOTS OF AROCLOR 1254R: CONGENER ANALYSIS AND NEUROCHEMICAL ENDPOINTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction
    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widely used in industry as heat transfer and dielectric fluids for transformers and capacitors1. PCBs were commercially produced as AroclorR mixtures in USA by the chlorination of biphenyl. Although all 209 congeners can be syn...

  4. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in egg and egg products in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Olanca, Burcu; Cakirogullari, Gul Celik; Ucar, Yunus; Kirisik, Dursun; Kilic, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in eggs from cage hens without soil contact, pasteurized egg samples and imported egg yolk powder samples in Turkey. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs in eggs and pasteurized egg samples are in the range of 0.247-1.527 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.282-1.762 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 202-1,235 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. For egg yolk powder samples, concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are in the range of 0.122-0.494 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.214-0.640 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 217-1,498 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. All results for PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are below the values of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 5.0 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 40 ng g(-1) fat imposed in Turkish Regulation for eggs and egg products, respectively. In all samples 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and PCB126 are the most prominent congeners. Mean estimated daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for Turkish population from egg is 0.011 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)d(-1)kg body weight (bw)(-1). Although the exposure levels are below the TDI of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(1998)kg bw(-1), the results were based only on consumption of egg. In order to estimate total dietary intake for Turkish population, various food items should be investigated.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) exposure among Native American men from contaminated Great Lakes fish and wildlife.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, E F; Brix, K A; Deres, D A; Hwang, S A; Bush, B; Lambert, G; Tarbell, A

    1996-01-01

    The New York State Department of Health is performing an investigation of Mohawk men, women, and infants who live at the Akwesasne Reserve along the St. Lawrence River in New York, Ontario, and Quebec Three large industrial facilities bordering the Akwesasne Reserve have seriously contaminated the soil and the sediments and fish of the adjacent St. Lawrence River with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The main study goals are to investigate the associations among the consumption of locally caught fish, residential exposure, body burdens of PCBs, and liver enzyme induction. Contamination with PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) and other chemicals has been documented in locally caught fish, ducks, and other wildlife. The contamination of fish and wildlife is a major concern of the Mohawk people, since their tradition and culture emphasize the interdependence of man and his environment and because many residents formerly depended heavily on local fish and waterfowl for food. The focus of this research from 1986-1992 was on nursing women and infants. The major purpose of the current project is to determine if there are associations between dietary, residential, and occupational exposures to PCBs and DDE and individual body burdens in Mohawk men, specifically the husbands, partners, fathers, brothers, or other male relatives of the women in our other studies. In other fish-eating populations, adult men have tended to demonstrate higher PCB and DDE body burdens than women and children. Exposure estimates based on the reported consumption of locally caught fish and wildlife and residential histories will be correlated with the specific pattern of PCB congeners found in serum, thereby establishing a direct relationship between two potential sources of exposure and body burdens. Liver function will be examined through the caffeine breath test (CBT), a sensitive, noninvasive

  6. ORIGIN OF CARBON IN POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FORMED DURING SOOTING COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an investigation on the importance of solid- and gas-phase carbon precursors for the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during sooting combustion. Experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor (EFR)...

  7. Vapor pressures of the polychlorinated naphthalenes

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Wania, F.

    1999-05-01

    The vapor pressures of the supercooled liquid P{sub L} for 17 polychlorinated naphthalene congeners were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The method was calibrated with vapor pressure data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which had been measured by other techniques. These data were employed to predict temperature-dependent vapor pressures for all polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) from a regression with published retention time indices. Enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub VAP}H and activity coefficients in 1-octanol were calculated for the PCNs and compared with those for polychlorinated biphenyls. Data analysis suggests that the dependence of P{sub L} and {Delta}{sub VAP}H on molecular size, as well as the partitioning behavior into 1-octanol of the PCNs, is very similar to that of coplanar PCBs, i.e., those congeners with no or only one chlorine substitution in the ortho positions. The affinity of these chemicals to 1-octanol increases with the degree of chlorination.

  8. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  9. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  10. Near-real-time combustion monitoring for PCDD/PCDF indicators by CG-REMPI-TOFMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The boiler exit flue gas of a municipal waste combustor was sampled to evaluate an on-line monitoring system for chlorobenzene congeners as indicators of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) concentrations. Continuous measurements of chlorobenzene congeners ...

  11. ANALYSIS OF 209 CHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS USING COMPREHENSIVE TWO-DIMENSIONAL GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETRY IN THE 1-D MODE FOLLOWED BY THE 2-D MODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the initial discovery of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment, the detection and identification of certain PCB congeners using the traditional one dimensional (1-D) chromatographic technique has been very challenging, especially, separating the 46 isomeric pe...

  12. Laboratory study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination and mitigation in buildings; Part 1. Emissions from selected primary sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 organic compounds, known as congeners, with the chemical formula of C12H1O-xClx, where x is the number of chlorine atoms in the range of 1 to 10. Different mixtures of these congeners were sold under many brands and trade names ...

  13. Natural formation of chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins, and dibenzofurans in soil of a Douglas fir forest

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, E.J.; De Weerd, H. ); De Leer, E.W.B. ); Brinkman, U.A.T. . Dept. of Analytical Chemistry)

    1999-08-01

    The natural formation of 4-MCP, 24/25- and 26-DCP, and 245-TrCP was detected in four selected areas of a rural Douglas fir forest where the humic layer was spiked in situ with a solution of Na[sup 37]Cl and covered by an enclosure, after 1 year of incubation. Chlorinated phenols (CP) can be formed naturally from organic matter and inorganic chloride by either de novo synthesis or chloroperoxidase (CPO)-catalyzed chlorination. The natural CP congeners were found to be present in high concentrations in soil compared to the other congeners, except for the 245-TrCP which was present in a relatively low concentration. This study did not reveal which source, natural or anthropogenic, caused the observed concentrations. Some 20 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (CDD/F) were found to be formed naturally in soil of the Douglas fir forest; the formation of three 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners, 2378-TeCDD, 12378-PeCDD, and 123789-HxCDD, deserves special attention. A formation mechanism has been proposed which starts from naturally formed CP congeners and which probably involves peroxidase mediation. Chlorination of CDD/F congeners by the CPO-mediated reaction cannot be ruled out, but seems to be less likely due to the absence of several predicted congeners.

  14. Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago

    PubMed Central

    HU, DINGFEI; LEHMLER, HANS-JOACHIM; MARTINEZ, ANDRES; WANG, KAI; HORNBUCKLE, KERI C.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ΣPCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m−3 to 5500 pg m−3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ΣPCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like and neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources. PMID:21918637

  15. The shy prefer familiar congeners.

    PubMed

    Benhaïm, David; Ferrari, Sébastien; Chatain, Béatrice; Bégout, Marie-Laure

    2016-05-01

    The shy-bold continuum is both a fundamental aspect of human behavior and a relatively stable behavioral trait for many other species. Here we assessed whether shy individuals prefer familiar congeners, taking the European sea bass, a recently domesticated fish showing similar behavioral responses to wild fish, as a model to better understand the inter-individual variability in social behavior previously observed in this species. In the wild, the link between familiarity i.e., the preference of fish for familiar congeners and boldness could be part of the mechanism underlying shoaling formation in fish. Thirty fish were individually tested in a device designed to assess the preference for a familiar vs. an unfamiliar congener on the basis of visual cues only. An open field test (OFT) with shelter was performed on the same fish 32 days later to assess the boldness of each individual. Variables of interest included the proportion of time spent in the shelter, border and center zone of the arena and variables of activity. Variables measured in OFT were collapsed into first principal component scores using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which allowed characterizing a shy-bold continuum. Time spent near the familiar congener was negatively correlated with boldness i.e., shy individuals spent most of the time near the familiar congener. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the understanding of the behavior of European sea bass and suggest that the link between familiarity and shyness is a general aspect of both animal and human behavior.

  16. Atmospheric PCB congeners across Chicago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Dingfei; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Martinez, Andres; Wang, Kai; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2010-04-01

    We have measured PCBs in 184 air samples collected at 37 sites in the city of Chicago using an innovative system of high-volume air samplers mounted on two health clinic vans. Here we describe results of sampling conducted from November 2006 to November 2007. The samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using a gas chromatograph with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The ΣPCBs (sum of 169 peaks) in Chicago ranged from 75 pg m -3 to 5500 pg m -3 and primarily varied as a function of temperature. The congener patterns are surprisingly similar throughout the city even though the temperature-corrected concentrations vary by more than an order of magnitude. The average profile resembles a mixture of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254, and includes many congeners that have been identified as being aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists (dioxin-like) and/or neurotoxins. The toxic equivalence (TEQ) and neurotoxic equivalence (NEQ) in air were calculated and investigated for their spatial distribution throughout the urban-industrial complex of Chicago. The NEQ concentrations are linearly correlated with ΣPCBs while the TEQ concentrations are not predictable. The findings of this study suggest that airborne PCBs in Chicago are widely present and elevated in residential communities; there are multiple sources rather than one or a few locations of very high emissions; the emission includes congeners associated with dioxin-like or neurotoxic effects and congeners associated with unidentified sources.

  17. Congener specificity in the accumulation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in zucchini plants grown hydroponically.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hideyuki; Wakai, Taketo; Gion, Keiko; Yamazaki, Kiyoshi; Kim, Yun-Seok; Eun, Heesoo

    2011-01-01

    Zucchini cultivars Cucurbita pepo subsp. ovifera cv. Patty Green and subsp. pepo cv. Gold Rush were cultivated hydroponically in a nutrient solution supplemented with a mixture of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds. Patty Green and Gold Rush showed low and high accumulation of these compounds in the aerial parts respectively. In both cultivars, the accumulation of each congener negatively depended on its hydrophobicity. This suggests that desorption and solubilization were partly responsible for congener specificity of accumulation, since this was not found in soil experiments. In contrast, no clear difference in accumulation in the roots was observed between the cultivars, whereas the translocation factors, which are indicators of efficient translocation from the roots to the aerial parts, differed among the congeners hydrophobicity-dependently. There were positive correlations between accumulation in the roots and the hydrophobicity of the polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in both cultivars. These results indicate that translocation was also partly responsible for the congener specificity and accumulation concentrations.

  18. FRAMEWORK FOR APPLICATION OF THE TOXICITY EQUIVALENCE METHODOLOGY FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS, FURANS, AND BIPHENYLS IN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenols (PCBs) commonly occur as complex mixtures in the environment, including in animal tissues. For more than a decade the USEPA and other organizations have estimated the combined risks that such mixtures...

  19. Subchronic effects of five di-ortho PCB congeners on survival, growth and reproduction in the fathead minnow Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Suedel, B.C.; Dillon, T.M.; Benson, W.H.

    1997-07-01

    The effects of five di-ortho polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on survival, growth, and reproduction in the fathead minnow. Pimephales promelas, were determined. Fish were exposed to one of two nominal concentrations of each congener for a total of 13 weeks (7-week prespawning period plus 6-week spawning period) under flow-through conditions using methanol as a carrier solvent. At termination, P. promelas survival was high in all PCB congener treatments. PCB congeners had no significant sublethal effects on reproductive success within the concentration range examined. The total number of eggs, clutch size, number of clutches, percent hatchability, and presence of terata in offspring were not significantly affected. Reproductive success was slightly but not significantly enhanced in the solvent control and high treatment concentrations for congeners 52, 101, 138, and 153. Growth expressed as wet weight was not affected for both adult males or females. Male lengths were not significantly affected but female lengths were significantly reduced when exposed to congeners 101, 138, 153, and 180. Pimephales promelas accumulated substantial amounts of all PCBs, with tissue concentrations ranging from 13 to 183 mg/kg wet weight at termination in PCB-exposed fish. These tissue residues are one to several orders of magnitude greater than those reported for these congeners in aquatic biota previously collected in industrial waterways of the Great Lakes. Several di-ortho PCB congeners frequently found in aquatic biota showed minimal adverse effects on fathead minnow survival, growth, and reproduction even though bioaccumulation of these congeners was substantial.

  20. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in adipose tissue of the general US population and selected subpopulations.

    PubMed Central

    Orban, J E; Stanley, J S; Schwemberger, J G; Remmers, J C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The Environmental Protection Agency's National Human Adipose Tissue Survey (NHATS) was conducted in fiscal year (FY) 1987 to (1) estimate average concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in the adipose tissue of humans in the US population, (2) identify differences in average concentrations among subpopulations, and (3) compare average concentrations with those from the FY 1982 NHATS. METHODS. Population estimates of the average levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were established on the basis of 865 human adipose tissue specimens collected in FY 1987. Average levels among subpopulations were compared. RESULTS. The average concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the adipose tissue of the US population was 5.38 pg/g, increasing from 1.98 pg/g in children under 14 years of age to 9.40 pg/g in adults over 45. The effect of age was significant for nine compounds. Regional differences in the levels of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzofurans were statistically significant, but there were no significant differences associated with sex or race. CONCLUSIONS. The survey provides a baseline of average levels of PCDDs and PCDFs in the adipose tissue of humans in the US population. PMID:8129062

  1. Phytoalexins of the Pyrinae: Biphenyls and dibenzofurans

    PubMed Central

    Chizzali, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    Summary Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are the phytoalexins of the Pyrinae, a subtribe of the plant family Rosaceae. The Pyrinae correspond to the long-recognized Maloideae. Economically valuable species of the Pyrinae are apples and pears. Biphenyls and dibenzofurans are formed de novo in response to infection by bacterial and fungal pathogens. The inducible defense compounds were also produced in cell suspension cultures after treatment with biotic and abiotic elicitors. The antimicrobial activity of the phytoalexins was demonstrated. To date, 10 biphenyls and 17 dibenzofurans were isolated from 14 of the 30 Pyrinae genera. The most widely distributed compounds are the biphenyl aucuparin and the dibenzofuran γ-cotonefuran. The biosynthesis of the two classes of defense compounds is not well understood, despite the importance of the fruit crops. More recent studies have revealed simultaneous accumulation of biphenyls and dibenzofurans, suggesting sequential, rather than the previously proposed parallel, biosynthetic pathways. Elicitor-treated cell cultures of Sorbus aucuparia served as a model system for studying phytoalexin metabolism. The key enzyme that forms the carbon skeleton is biphenyl synthase. The starter substrate for this type-III polyketide synthase is benzoyl-CoA. In apples, biphenyl synthase is encoded by a gene family, members of which are differentially regulated. Metabolism of the phytoalexins may provide new tools for designing disease control strategies for fruit trees of the Pyrinae subtribe. PMID:22563359

  2. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  3. Passive sampling provides evidence for Newark Bay as a source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans to the New York/New Jersey, USA, atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Carey L; Cantwell, Mark G; Lohmann, Rainer

    2012-02-01

    Freely dissolved and gas phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in the water column and atmosphere at five locations within Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) from May 2008 to August 2009 with polyethylene (PE) passive samplers. Mono- to octa-CDDs and mono- to hepta-CDFs were detected in bottom and surface waters at ≤ 20 pg/L with no clear gradient between sampling locations, suggesting freely dissolved PCDD/Fs are well mixed in Newark Bay. The most concentrated, freely dissolved gas phase congener was 2,7/2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,7/2,8-DiCDD), likely originating from photochemical conversion of triclosan in Newark Bay. Air-surface water gradients strongly favored net volatilization of PCDD/PCDFs from Newark Bay. Water-to-air fluxes of 2,7/2,8-DiCDD and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), the most concentrated and the most toxic PCDD/PCDFs, respectively, were approximately 60 ng/m(2) per month and 14 to 51 pg/m(2) per month. Significant decreases in freely dissolved 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations with increasing freshwater near the Passaic River and conservative behavior during the summer of 2009 suggested Passaic sediments as a likely source of 2,3,7,8-TCDD to Newark Bay. Mass balance calculations implied that almost 50% of freely dissolved 2,3,7,8-TCDD delivered to Newark Bay from the Hackensack and Passaic Rivers was lost to volatilization in the summer of 2009.

  4. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in a U.S. meat market basket and estimates of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Huwe, Janice K; Larsen, Gerald L

    2005-08-01

    Persistent environmental contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed in 65 meat samples collected from supermarkets across the U.S. in 2001. The samples included hamburger, sirloin steaks, pork chops, bacon, and whole chickens from nine different cities. The average PCDD/F/non-ortho-PCB toxic equivalency (TEQ) for all the samples was 0.55 pg/g of lipid (nd (nondetect) = DL (detection limit)/2) with a range from nondetectable to 3.21 pg/g of lipid. For PBDEs, eight congeners were routinely found in the meat samples with an average sum of 1.71 ng/g of lipid (nd = DL/2) and a range from nondetectable to 16.6 ng/g of lipid. While average TEQs were similar to recent values reported in Europe and Asia, the sums of PBDEs in chicken and pork were 3-20 times higher than levels reported in Spain and Japan for these foods. The presence of a few outliers raised the average PBDE sums and indicated that isolated sources of contamination may exist that, if identified, could be removed from the U.S. animal production chain. Using these TEQ and PBDE values and USDA food consumption data, the estimated dietary intake ranges from meat products were 5.3-16.0 pg TEQ and 14.9-44.7 ng of PBDEs/d or 0.1-0.3 pg TEQ and 0.3-0.5 (ng of PBDEs/kg of body mass)/d for an average individual, similar to intakes in other countries.

  5. A modeling approach to compare ΣPCB concentrations between congener-specific analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson, Polly P.; Mills, Marc A.; Kraus, Johanna M.; Walters, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in analytical methods over time pose problems for assessing long-term trends in environmental contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Congener-specific analyses vary widely in the number and identity of the 209 distinct PCB chemical configurations (congeners) that are quantified, leading to inconsistencies among summed PCB concentrations (ΣPCB) reported by different studies. Here we present a modeling approach using linear regression to compare ΣPCB concentrations derived from different congener-specific analyses measuring different co-eluting groups. The approach can be used to develop a specific conversion model between any two sets of congener-specific analytical data from similar samples (similar matrix and geographic origin). We demonstrate the method by developing a conversion model for an example data set that includes data from two different analytical methods, a low resolution method quantifying 119 congeners and a high resolution method quantifying all 209 congeners. We used the model to show that the 119-congener set captured most (93%) of the total PCB concentration (i.e., Σ209PCB) in sediment and biological samples. ΣPCB concentrations estimated using the model closely matched measured values (mean relative percent difference = 9.6). General applications of the modeling approach include (a) generating comparable ΣPCB concentrations for samples that were analyzed for different congener sets; and (b) estimating the proportional contribution of different congener sets to ΣPCB. This approach may be especially valuable for enabling comparison of long-term remediation monitoring results even as analytical methods change over time. 

  6. Sources of polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes in Newark Bay estuary sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Huntley, S.L.; Wenning, R.J.; Paustenbach, D.J.; Wong, A.S.; Luksemburg, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDTS) are sulfur-containing structural analogs of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Research to date indicates that PCDTs are formed by mechanisms similar to those that result in the formation of PCDFs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). PCDTs have been detected in fly ash from municipal incinerators and effluent from pulp and paper mills. Under laboratory conditions, PCDTs have been formed by thermal reaction of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated benzenes in the presence of elemental sulfur. The available data on sources of PCDTs suggests that environmental contamination is likely to be widespread. Recently, six samples collected from the lower Passaic River were reported to have a mean concentration of 3,680 ppt 2,4,6,8-tetrachlorodibenzothiophene. It has been suggested that this compound is a chemical marker for 2,4,5-trichlorophenol production. Such a relationship, however, has not been demonstrated. Several pulp and paper mills on the Passaic River, numerous municipal and industrial incinerators, manufacturers of sulfur-containing pesticides, and a nearby PCB-contaminated site are possible sources of PCDTs in the Newark Bay estuary. This study reports on the results of recent investigations to characterize the sources of 2,4,6,8-PCDT in the estuary.

  7. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants....mass spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-class, multi-residue method for the analysis of 13 novel flame retardants, 18 representative pesticides, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners in catfish muscle was developed and evaluated...

  8. Total PCBs and PCB congeners in Spanish Imperial Eagle eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila (heliaca) adalberti is the only directly endangered bird of prey in Europe. Lowered reproductive success in numerous bird species has been associated with eggshell thinning and reduced production caused by DDE, the most common organochlorine residue found in wild birds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are usually the second most common organochlorine pollutant found in wild birds. Research to evaluate the incidence of organochlorine pollutants in the Spanish Imperial Eagle has been previously conducted. The authors have now determined the levels of total PCBs and selected PCB congeners in 34 eggs of Spanish Imperial Eagle collected at Donana National Park, Castile Plateau and Nature Park of Monfrague, since this has considerable significance when attempts are made to correlate the embryonic mortality of avian wildlife with PCB residue levels.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in commercially wild caught and farm-raised fish fillets in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Douglas; Wong, Jon; Krynitsky, Alexander J

    2007-01-01

    Wild caught and farm-raised fish fillets collected in fish markets and large-chain super markets located in the Maryland, Washington, DC, and North Carolina were measured for their polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) levels. PCB and PBDE concentrations were the highest in a wild bluefish fillet (800 and 38 ng/g wet weight, respectively) and the lowest in wild Coho salmon fillet (0.35 and 0.04 ng/g, respectively). Levels for both PCBs and PBDEs in ng/g wet weight decreased from bluefish with medians of 200 and 6.2, to rockfish 66 and 4.7, followed by farmed-raised salmon with 9.0 and 1.1, with the lowest in wild salmon, 4.0 and 0.3 ng/g for PCBs and PBDEs, respectively (PCBs are the sum of 25 congeners). The chlorinated biphenyl (CB)-153 and brominated diphenyl ether (BDE)-47 levels correlated in the 22 fish fillets with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.94. Bluefish, rockfish (striped bass), wild caught and farm-raised salmons all showed different linear regression slopes between CB-153 and BDE-47 of 7.5, 2.7, 0.97, and 1.5, respectively. A Wilcoxon rank sum test showed no significant difference in the CB-153/BDE-47 ratios between farmed raised and all species of wild salmon combined, but was significant between bluefish and rockfish, farmed raised salmon or wild salmon.

  10. Investigation of American lobster, Homarus americanus, for the presence of chlorinated dibenzo-rho-dioxins and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Clement, R.E.; Tosine, H.M.; Taguchi, V.; Musial, C.J.; Uthe, J.F.

    1987-12-01

    The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) are a group of 75 compounds of current environmental concern. Most attention has been focused on the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8,-TCDD) because of high toxicity exhibited in laboratory animal studies. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) comprise 135 compounds similar to the PCDD in structure and toxicity. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) is the most toxic of this group. Two principal sources of PCDD and PCDF in the environment are incineration and as by-products in the manufacture and use of pentachlorophenols. American lobsters (Homarus americanus) have not been previously investigated for the presence of PCDD and PCDF. Lobsters were examined in this study because of their proximity to possible sources of PCDD and PCDF and an ability to concentrate hydrophobic organics such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the digestive gland.

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Probes of Biogeochemical Processes in Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzgerald, S.A.; Steuer, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the use of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congener and homolog assemblages as tracers of biogeochemical processes in the Milwaukee and Manitowoc Rivers in southeastern Wisconsin from 1993 to 1995. PCB congeners in the dissolved and suspended particle phases, along with various algal indicators (algal carbon and pigments), were quantitated in the water seasonally. In addition, PCB congener assemblages were determined seasonally in surficial bed sediments. Biogeochemical processes investigated included: determination of the source of suspended particles and bottom sediments by comparison with known Aroclor mixtures, water-solid partitioning, and algal uptake of PCBs. Seasonal differences among the PCB assemblages were observed mainly in the dissolved phase, somewhat less in the suspended particulate phase, and not at all in the bed sediments.

  12. Correlation between human maternal-fetal placental transfer and molecular weight of PCB and dioxin congeners/isomers.

    PubMed

    Mori, Chisato; Nakamura, Noriko; Todaka, Emiko; Fujisaki, Takeyoshi; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Nakaoka, Hiroko; Hanazato, Masamichi

    2014-11-01

    Establishing methods for the assessment of fetal exposure to chemicals is important for the prevention or prediction of the child's future disease risk. In the present study, we aimed to determine the influence of molecular weight on the likelihood of chemical transfer from mother to fetus via the placenta. The correlation between molecular weight and placental transfer rates of congeners/isomers of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins was examined. Twenty-nine sample sets of maternal blood, umbilical cord, and umbilical cord blood were used to measure PCB concentration, and 41 sample sets were used to analyze dioxins. Placental transfer rates were calculated using the concentrations of PCBs, dioxins, and their congeners/isomers within these sample sets. Transfer rate correlated negatively with molecular weight for PCB congeners, normalized using wet and lipid weights. The transfer rates of PCB or dioxin congeners differed from those of total PCBs or dioxins. The transfer rate for dioxin congeners did not always correlate significantly with molecular weight, perhaps because of the small sample size or other factors. Further improvement of the analytical methods for dioxin congeners is required. The findings of the present study suggested that PCBs, dioxins, or their congeners with lower molecular weights are more likely to be transferred from mother to fetus via the placenta. Consideration of chemical molecular weight and transfer rate could therefore contribute to the assessment of fetal exposure.

  13. Stepping backward to improve assessment of PCB congener toxicities.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, L G

    1998-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous global contaminants that have been intensively investigated for three decades. They are broad-acting toxicants occurring in complex mixtures and accurate risk assessment has proven to be elusive. Focusing on a limited set of end points and emphasizing a fixed set of congeners have led to more streamlined data sets that are meant to expedite hazard characterization and risk assessment for the most potent congeners--aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Unfortunately, this has made it impossible to confirm or deny significant contributions from the more prevalent components of the mixtures. PCBs may be only coincidentally present, rather than causal, in some diseases. Still, attempts to determine associations with incomplete residue data may lead to erroneous conclusions and make accurate risk assessment even more elusive. Responses not mediated through the AhR are presented and emphasize large data gaps. Dissimilar analytical reports emphasize that selection of analytes is not consistent. Collectively, these data confirm that AhR-focused objectives unintentionally created the impression that nonplanar PCBs have little if any potential for hazards to humans and wildlife. Near steady-state exposure of healthy adults are probably of minor consequence except for emerging correlations with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; however, pulses of exposure to more labile mixtures may contribute to developmental effects without leaving a residue record. More broadly based criteria are suggested and harmonization of data collection and presentation are desirable. A more comprehensive list of PCB congeners is proposed that would provide more adequate data upon which to base associations with adverse outcomes. PMID:9539012

  14. GENERATING THE RIGHT PCB DATA DETERMINATION OF AROCLORS VERSUS PCB CONGENERS

    SciTech Connect

    NARQUIS CT; PRIGNANO AL

    2007-11-21

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a major environmental concern due to their ubiquity and tendency to bio-accumulate. as well as their persistence and toxicity. As the cleanup of waste and contaminated soil progresses at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, the costs for accurate PCB data are increasing. PCBs are actually a broad name for a group of 209 individual compounds known as congeners. PCBs were originally produced in the United States as specific mixtures of congeners known as Aroclors'. PCBs can be analyzed and quantified either as Aroclor mixtures or as individual congeners. Aroclor analysis, which is the more common analytical method applied to PCBs. has been in use for decades, and in general, most cleanup regulations are based on total PCB concentrations using Aroclor analyses. Congener analysis is relatively new to environmental cleanup and restoration due to both technical issues and associated cost. The benefits of congener analysis are that it allows a more direct analysis of the risk of the PCBs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified twelve specific congeners as dioxin-like with toxicity ranging from 0.00003 to 0.1 times the standard 2,3,7.8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2.3.7.8-TCDD) toxicity. This paper defines Aroclors and congeners and compares the current application and usefulness of the two analytical methods for environmental restoration and cleanup. A strategy for the best use of the two methods to optimize overall characterization cost is presented. As part of the strategy. a method using the data from Aroclor analyses to calculate 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent concentrations is also presented.

  15. Generating the Right PCB Data: Determination of Aroclors Versus PCB Congeners

    SciTech Connect

    Prignano, A.L.; Narquis, C.T.; Hyatt, J.E.

    2008-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a major environmental concern due to their ubiquity and tendency to bio-accumulate, as well as their persistence and toxicity. As the cleanup of waste and contaminated soil progresses at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, the costs for accurate PCB data are increasing. PCBs are actually a broad name for a group of 209 individual compounds known as congeners. PCBs were originally produced in the United States as specific mixtures of congeners known as Aroclors. PCBs can be analyzed and quantified either as Aroclor mixtures or as individual congeners. Aroclor analysis, which is the more common analytical method applied to PCBs, has been in use for decades, and in general, most cleanup regulations are based on total PCB concentrations using Aroclor analyses. Congener analysis is relatively new to environmental cleanup and restoration due to both technical issues and associated cost. The benefits of congener analysis are that it allows a more direct analysis of the risk of the PCBs. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified twelve specific congeners as dioxin-like with toxicity ranging from 0.00003 to 0.1 times the standard 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) toxicity. This paper defines Aroclors and congeners and compares the current application and usefulness of the two analytical methods for environmental restoration and cleanup. A strategy for the best use of the two methods to optimize overall characterization cost is presented. As part of the strategy, a method using the data from Aroclor analyses to calculate 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent concentrations is also presented. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of methodology for determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in ambient air

    SciTech Connect

    Harless, R.L.; Lewis, R.G.; McDaniel, D.D.; Gibson, J.F.; Dupuy, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    General Metals Works PS-1 PUF air samplers and an analytical method based on high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) were evaluated for determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs) in ambient air. Dilute solutions of these compounds and 13C12-1234-TCDD were used to spike the filters of PS-1 air samplers which were then operated 24 hours to sample 350-400 cu m ambient air. After sampling, each quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) were spiked with 13C12-labeled PCDD, PCDF, PBDD, and PBDF internal standards before separate Soxhlet extractions with benzene. The extracts were subjected to clean-up procedures using microcolumns of silica gel, alumina and carbon and then analyzed by HRGC-HRMS. Results derived from this study satisfied QA/QC requirements for analytical data and demonstrated that the methodology could accurately determine pg/cu m and sub-pg/cu m levels of these compounds in ambient air. Background levels detected in ambient air are also discussed.

  17. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES (AROCLORS) INHIBIT LPS-INDUCED MURINE SPLENOCYTE PROLIFERATION IN VITRO. (R826687)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The immune system is believed to be a sensitive indicator for adverse polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced health effects. Four commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors) or six individual PCB congeners were evaluated for their effect on splenocyte viability and lip...

  18. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)emissions from caulking materials and light ballasts

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners from 13 caulk samples were tested in a micro-chamber system. Twelve samples were from PCB-contaminated buildings and one was prepared in the laboratory. Nineteen light ballasts collected from buildings that represent 13 di...

  19. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  20. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar PCB levels in Laotian blood and milk from agent orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas, 2001.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-14

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was used by American military forces during the United States-Vietnam war between 1962 and 1971 primarily as a defoliant to destroy forests where enemy troops might find cover. Agent Orange was used mainly in Vietnam, but also to a lesser extent in Laos and Cambodia. In Laos, there have been no prior studies of TCDD contamination from Agent Orange, despite known defoliation and documented records of Agent Orange spraying. This article presents findings of TCDD in human blood and milk from two geographic areas in Laos: Vientiane, a nonsprayed area, and Sepone, an Agent Orange-sprayed area. German and Canadian laboratories used high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 7 dioxin, 10 dibenzofuran, and 4 non-ortho or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in Laotian blood and milk samples. Most subjects tested in this Laos Ministry of Health Study showed low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels, consistent with what would be expected in a primarily rural nonindustrial country. These findings are consistent with relatively low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels recently found in food from these same areas. The chemically and toxicologically related non-ortho PCBs were measured but were found at low levels compared to specimens from other countries, presumably because of less industrialization and industrial pollution in Laos. PMID:14555402

  1. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar PCB levels in Laotian blood and milk from agent orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas, 2001.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-14

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was used by American military forces during the United States-Vietnam war between 1962 and 1971 primarily as a defoliant to destroy forests where enemy troops might find cover. Agent Orange was used mainly in Vietnam, but also to a lesser extent in Laos and Cambodia. In Laos, there have been no prior studies of TCDD contamination from Agent Orange, despite known defoliation and documented records of Agent Orange spraying. This article presents findings of TCDD in human blood and milk from two geographic areas in Laos: Vientiane, a nonsprayed area, and Sepone, an Agent Orange-sprayed area. German and Canadian laboratories used high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 7 dioxin, 10 dibenzofuran, and 4 non-ortho or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in Laotian blood and milk samples. Most subjects tested in this Laos Ministry of Health Study showed low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels, consistent with what would be expected in a primarily rural nonindustrial country. These findings are consistent with relatively low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels recently found in food from these same areas. The chemically and toxicologically related non-ortho PCBs were measured but were found at low levels compared to specimens from other countries, presumably because of less industrialization and industrial pollution in Laos.

  2. Effects of in ovo exposure of white leghorn chicken, common pheasant, and Japanese quail to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and two chlorinated dibenzofurans on CYP1A induction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinfei; Wiseman, Steve; Cohen-Barnhouse, Andrew M; Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise P; Kennedy, Sean W; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Bursian, Steven J; Giesy, John P

    2010-07-01

    In birds, activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by some polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) results in induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression. This response has been useful for predicting relative sensitivity of birds to dioxin-like compounds. To further investigate species-sensitivity to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds induction of cytochrome P450 1A4 and 1A5 (CYP1A4 and CYP1A5) mRNA and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity were quantified in liver of posthatch white leghorn chicken, common pheasant, and Japanese quail exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) via air cell injection. The rank-order of sensitivity of TCDD- and TCDF-exposed birds, based on CYP1A, was chicken>pheasant>quail. Based on CYP1A5 mRNA expression and EROD induction, the order of sensitivity of PeCDF-exposed birds was identical to that for TCDD and TCDF. However, based on CYP1A4 mRNA expression the rank-order was pheasant>chicken>quail. When comparing the potency of the three compounds in each species, based on CYP1A4 mRNA expression, TCDD was the most potent compound in chicken. However, PeCDF was equally potent to TCDD in quail and was more potent than TCDD in pheasant. These results suggest that quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) analysis of CYP1A expression, particularly CYP1A4 mRNA expression, may be a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than analysis of EROD induction, especially in less responsive avian species. Based on these findings future risk assessments should consider the sensitivity of the species inhabiting a site and the congeners of concern that are present.

  3. Phenomenological and Spectroscopic Analysis on the Effects of Sediment Ageing and Organic Carbon on the Fate of a PCB Congener Spiked to Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study assesses the full cycle transport and fate of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener spiked to sediment to empirically and spectroscopically investigate the effects of sediment ageing and organic carbon on the adsorption, desorption, and reaction of the PCB. Caesar ...

  4. Data on sediment quality and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls from the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality in the lower Neponset River, which is a tributary to Boston Harbor. Grab and core samples of sediment were tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Physical properties of sediment samples, including grain size, were also measured. Selected sediment-core samples were tested for reactive sulfides and metals by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, which are sediment-disposal-related tests. Water quality, with respect to polychlorinated biphenyl contamination, was determined by testing samples collected by PISCES passive-water-column samplers for polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls were calculated by congener and by Aroclor.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies and method for detecting dioxins and dibenzofurans

    DOEpatents

    Vanderlaan, Martin; Stanker, Larry H.; Watkins, Bruce E.; Bailey, Nina R.

    1989-01-01

    Compositions of matter are described which include five monoclonal antibodies that react with dioxins and dibenzofurans, and the five hybridomas that produce these monoclonal antibodies. In addition, a method for the use of these antibodies in a sensitive immunoassay for dioxins and dibenzofurans is given, which permits detection of these pollutants in samples at concentrations in the range of a few parts per billion.

  6. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination.

  7. Levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk of women residing in two cities in the Irkutsk Region of Russian Siberia compared with American levels.

    PubMed

    Schecter, A; Piskac, A L; Grosheva, E I; Matorova, N I; Ryan, J J; Fürst, P; Päpke; Adibi, J; Pavuk, M; Silver, A; Ghaffar, S

    2002-04-01

    The presence of dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human tissue, food, and environmental samples from Russia has been monitored since 1988 as part of a research collaboration between a number of countries including Finland, the United States, Germany, the former Soviet Union, and Canada. Although elevated TCDD and PnCDD levels have previously been found in blood of male and female Russian chemical manufacturing workers and in their children, dioxin levels in the general population have usually been found to be lower than in Americans and Europeans. This study continues earlier work in the Irkutsk region of Russian Siberia, where we report levels of dioxin, dibenzofurans, and PCBs in human milk samples taken from general population women living in the industrialized cities of Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye, near Lake Baikal. Total polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) compared in this paper for the industrialized regions of Siberia, Ukraine, and the US are similar, ranging from 6.1 to 7 parts per trillion (ppt). Recent 1998 milk samples from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye have total mean polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) TEQs of 10 and 21.7 ppt, respectively, with the other industrialized countries ranging from 2.3 to 6.7 ppt. Although dioxin-like PCBs were not measured for the city of Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998), total mean PCDD/F TEQ from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye (1998) were the two highest levels in this study, with 26.9 and 28.5 ppt, respectively, followed by 1993-1994 Ukraine samples with 24 ppt, 1989 Siberian samples with 13.6 ppt, and 1996 USA with 11.4 ppt total TEQ. In this study, higher levels of dioxins are noted in milk from Angarsk and Usolye-Sibirskoye than found in earlier Russian studies, with mean levels also exceeding 1996 and 1999 US breast milk dioxin levels. PMID:11993631

  8. Isolation and synthesis of polyoxygenated dibenzofurans possessing biological activity.

    PubMed

    Love, Brian E

    2015-06-01

    Reports from the past ten years describing the isolation and/or synthesis of bioactive dibenzofurans possessing three or more oxygen-containing substituents are reviewed. Dibenzofuranoquinones are included in the review.

  9. Determination of acute toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to photobactrium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.; Xu, X.; He, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners. PCBs were discovered before the turn of the century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The distribution of PCBs in the environment was not noticed until Jensen and his colleagues found PCBs in wildlife samples. Since then, investigations in many parts of the world have revealed the widespread distribution of PCBs in environmental samples and PCVs are persistent and accumulate in food webs. Thus, determination of toxicities of commercial PCB mixtures and PCB congeners are required. Toxicity tests using luminous bacteria have shown high correlation to traditional bioassays. This study compared the EC50 values of the commercial mixtures, PCB3 and PCB5, with those of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in tree bark and wood growth rings

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the bark of black walnut and tulip poplar trees growing near a PCB-contaminated landfill. PCBs were also found in the bark of white oak trees growing 14 km away from the landfill. The concentration of individual congeners in the bark averaged 18 ppb at the landfill and 0.5 ppb at the other site. The PCB congeners were accumulated into the bark in proportion to their lipophilicity (as measured by octanol-water partition coefficients). The authors findings suggest that tree bark could be used for biomonitoring of lipophilic organic pollutants in the atmosphere. There is little evidence that PCBs are present in the wood of trees. The signal to blank ratios are always less than 3, and the relative concentrations between 20-year time intervals do not show trends that correlate with the known inputs of PCBs in Bloomington, IN. 2 tables.

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  12. Environmental determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in residential carpet dust.

    PubMed

    DellaValle, Curt T; Wheeler, David C; Deziel, Nicole C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Cerhan, James R; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K; Flory, Abigail R; Locke, Sarah J; Colt, Joanne S; Hartge, Patricia; Ward, Mary H

    2013-09-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), banned in the United Sates in the late 1970s, are still found in indoor and outdoor environments. Little is known about the determinants of PCB levels in homes. We measured concentrations of five PCB congeners (105, 138, 153, 170, and 180) in carpet dust collected between 1998 and 2000 from 1187 homes in four sites: Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Home characteristics, occupational history, and demographic information were obtained by interview. We used a geographic information system to geocode addresses and determine distances to the nearest major road, freight route, and railroad; percentage of developed land; number of industrial facilities within 2 km of residences; and population density. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the covariates of interest and the odds of PCB detection in each site separately. Total PCB levels [all congeners < maximum practical quantitation limit (MPQL) vs at least one congener ≥ MPQL to < median concentration vs at least one congener > median concentration] were positively associated with either percentage of developed land [odds ratio (OR) range 1.01-1.04 for each percentage increase] or population density (OR 1.08 for every 1000/mi(2)) in each site. The number of industrial facilities within 2 km of a home was associated with PCB concentrations; however, facility type and direction of the association varied by site. Our findings suggest that outdoor sources of PCBs may be significant determinants of indoor concentrations.

  13. Environmental determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in residential carpet dust

    PubMed Central

    DellaValle, Curt T.; Wheeler, David C.; Deziel, Nicole C.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; Flory, Abigail R.; Locke, Sarah J.; Colt, Joanne S.; Hartge, Patricia; Ward, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), banned in the United Sates in the late 1970s, are still found in indoor and outdoor environments. Little is known about the determinants of PCB levels in homes. We measured concentrations of 5 PCB congeners (105, 138, 153, 170, 180) in carpet dust collected between 1998–2000 from 1,187 homes in four sites: Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Home characteristics, occupational history, and demographic information were obtained by interview. We used a geographic information system to geocode addresses and determine distances to the nearest major road, freight route, and railroad, percentage of developed land, number of industrial facilities within 2 km of residences, and population density. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the covariates of interest and the odds of PCB detection in each site separately. Total PCBs levels (all congeners < maximum practical quantitation limit [MPQL] vs. at least one congener ≥ MPQL to < median concentration vs. at least one congener >median concentration) were positively associated with either percentage of developed land (ORrange: 1.01-1.04 for each percentage increase) or population density (OR: 1.08 for every 1,000/mi2) in each site. The number of industrial facilities within 2 km of a home was associated with PCB concentrations; however, facility type and the direction of the association varied by site. Our findings suggest that outdoor sources of PCBs may be significant determinants of indoor concentrations. PMID:23952055

  14. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  15. Impact of humic constituents on microbial dechlorination of polychlorinated dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Barkovskii, A.; Adriaens, P.

    1998-06-01

    The authors recently reported on the ability of a microbial consortium eluted from dioxin-contaminated Passaic River sediments to dechlorinate polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) through peridechlorination of 2,3,7,8-substituted hepta- to penta-CDDs resulting in the transient production of 2,3,7,8-tetra-CDD and through perilateral dechlorination pathway of non-2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. The dechlorination of PCDDs under combined reductive activities of the same microbial community and model humic constituents (MHCs) was investigated. Model humic constituents alone caused reductive dechlorination of PCDDs, resulting in the production of hepta-, hexa-, and tetra-CDD congeners. Whereas abiotic MHC-stimulated dechlorination ceased at the tetra-CDD group of congeners, microbial activity caused further dechlorination to tri-, di-, and mono-CDDs. Combined with the microbial community, MHCs effected the appearance of a new profile of tetra- through mono-CDD congeners that was distinguishable from either microbially or MHC-stimulated processes alone. An important overall trend could be discerned: the peridechlorination of PCDDs was promoted by MHCs, resulting in both a relative and an absolute (except for 3,4-DHBA) increase of 2,3,7,8-tetra-CDD relative to either microbially or MHC-stimulated dechlorination. This study indicates that, aside from direct deposition, the increase of 2,3,7,8-tetra-CDD concentrations in the environment may result from combined biotic and abiotic PCDD dechlorination.

  16. Thermally induced formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans from Aroclor 1254-contaminated mineral oil.

    PubMed Central

    Narang, R S; Swami, K; Stein, V; Smith, R; O'Keefe, P; Aldous, K; Hilker, D; Eadon, G; Vernoy, C; Narang, A S

    1989-01-01

    Numerous laboratory simulations and real-world events have demonstrated the thermal conversion of neat or high concentration of PCBs into the much more toxic PCDFs. Since millions of mineral oil transformers currently in service contain PCB concentrations in the 50 to 5000 ppm range, the thermal behavior of dilute PCB solutions is of practical and regulatory significance. In this work, neat Aroclor 1254 and 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 in mineral oil were subjected to pyrolysis and combustion under a range of experimental conditions to define parameters resulting in maximal PCDF yields. The dependence of PCDF yield on Aroclor 1254 concentrations was then investigated in the 5000 to 50 ppm range. Combustion experiments demonstrated that PCDF yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram PCB were independent of concentration range, confirming that the process is kinetically first order in PCB. Much lower yields of PCDF were observed in the open tube pyrolysis experiments, as compared to combustion experiments and to earlier and concurrent sealed tube experiments. Slightly improved yields were observed in the pyrolysis experiments at lower concentrations, suggesting the existence of a PCB or PCDF destruction process of higher than first order kinetics. In all cases, yields expressed as micrograms PCDF/gram mixture were sharply and monotonically lower as concentrations decreased between neat or 5000 ppm Aroclor 1254 and 50 ppm Aroclor 1254. PMID:2495933

  17. Kinetic Modeling of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxin and Dibenzofuran Formation Based on Carbon Degradation Reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion experiments in a laboratory-scale fixed bed reactor were performed to determine the role of temperature and time in PCDD/F formation allowing a global kinetic expression to be written for PCDD/F formation due to soot oxidation in fly ash deposits. Rate constants were c...

  18. Dioxins, dibenzofurans, dioxin-like PCBs, and DDE in U.S. fast food, 1995.

    PubMed

    Schecter, A; Li, L

    1997-01-01

    Food, especially dairy products, meat, and fish, is the primary source of environmental exposure to dioxins in the general population. Little data exists on dioxin levels in the popular and widely consumed "fast foods". Data presented in a previously published pilot study was limited to measuring only the levels of dioxins and dibenzofurans in three types of U.S. fast food. This study adds to the previous paper by presenting data, in addition to dioxins and dibenzofurans, on the closely related dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the persistent metabolite of DDT, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE), in four types of popular U.S. fast food. These include McDonald's Big Mac Hamburger, Pizza Hut's Personal Pan Pizza Supreme, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) three piece original recipe mixed dark and white meat luncheon package, and Häagen-Daz chocolate-chocolate chip ice cream. Dioxin plus dibenzofuran dioxin toxic equivalents (TEQ) ranged from 0.03 to 0.28 TEQ pg/g wet or whole weight for the Big Mac, from 0.03 to 0.29 for the Pizza, from 0.01 to 0.31 for the KFC, and from 0.03 to 0.49 TEQ pg/g for the ice cream. Daily TEQ consumption per kilogram body weight (kg/BW), assuming an average 65 kg adult and a 20 kg child, from one serving of each of these fast food ranged between 0.046 and 1.556 pg/kg in adults whereas in children the values were between 0.15 and 5.05 pg/kg. Total measured PCDD/Fs in the Big Mac, Personal Pan Pizza, KFC, and the Häagen-Daz ice cream varied from 0.58 to 9.31 pg/g. Measured DDE levels in the fast foods ranged from 180 to 3170 pg/g. Total mono-ortho PCB levels ranged up to 500 pg/g or 1.28 TEQ pg/g for the KFC and for di-ortho PCBs up to 740 pg/g or 0.014 TEQ pg/g for the pizza sample. Total PCB values in the four samples ranged up to 1170 pg/g or 1.29 TEQ pg/g for the chicken sample.

  19. The effect of dibenzo-p-dioxin- and dibenzofuran-contaminated soil on the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    PubMed

    Roubalová, Radka; Dvořák, Jiří; Procházková, Petra; Elhottová, Dana; Rossmann, Pavel; Škanta, František; Bilej, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) belong to the group of persistent organic pollutants, highly toxic environmental pollutants that include hydrophobic compounds with the tendency to bioaccumulate. Earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were exposed to PCDD/Fs-contaminated soil, and changes in their lipophilic structures and the gene expression of their defense molecules were followed. Damage to the intestinal wall and adjacent chloragogenous tissue was observed. Further, the up-regulation of the expression of several genes was detected. On the basis of these results, the mechanism of the impact of PCDD/Fs on earthworms has been proposed. Dioxins that accumulate in the lipophilic structures cause an increase in reactive oxidative species that triggers oxidative stress followed by the gene expression of two molecules that play a role in protection against oxidant toxicity, calreticulin (CRT) and Hsp70. Moreover, the effect of microbial biomass on the expression of coelomic cytolytic factor (CCF), a pattern recognition receptor, was also observed.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) ; CASRN 1336 - 36 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  1. Formation of polybrominated dibenzofurans from polybrominated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z

    2015-01-01

    Decades after phasing out their production and use, especially in the formulations of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) still pose serious environmental and health problems. The oxidation of PBB has been hypothesised as a pathway for the formation of the notorious polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) and their dispersion in the environment. However, the exact reaction corridor remains misunderstood, with the existing mechanisms predicting the reaction to proceed via a high energy process that involves the breakage of C-C linkage (∼118.0 kcal mol(-1)) and the subsequent formation of bromophenols molecules, where the latter are supposed to act as precursors for the formation of PBDFs (∼40.0-60.0 kcal mol(-1)). Herein, we show that PBBs produce PBDFs in a facile mechanism through a series of highly exothermic reactions (i.e., overall barriers reside 8.2-10.0 kcal mol(-1) below the entrance channel). Whilst the fate of the ROO-type intermediates in oxidation of all aromatics is to emit CO or CO2, PBDFs constitute the dominant products from the oxidation of PBBs. Initially formed R-OO adduct evolves in a very exoergic mechanism to yield PBDFs. In view of the facile oxidative transformation of PBBs into PBDFs, we conclude that, it is unsafe to dispose BFRs in oxidation processes, as this practice generates high yields of toxic PBDFs. PMID:25303667

  2. CONGENER PROFILES OF POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS, -DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND -DIBENZOFURANS AS IMPURITIES IN TECHNICAL PREPARATION OF POLYBROMIANTED DIPHENYL ETHERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants used in textiles, and electronic equipment to prevent these products from burning. PBDEs have been marketed as penta- (DE-71), octa- (DE-79), and deca-brominated (DE-83) preparations. Commercial PBDE preparations were an...

  3. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil, vegetation, workshop-floor dust, and electronic shredder residue from an electronic waste recycling facility and in soils from a chemical industrial complex in eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Jing Ma; Rudolf Addink; Sehun Yun; Jinping Cheng; Wenhua Wang; Kurunthachalam Kannan

    2009-10-01

    In this study, 11 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/Fs and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were determined in electronic shredder waste, workshop-floor dust, soil, and leaves (of plants on the grounds of the facility) from a large-scale electronic wastes (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical-industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant) as well as agricultural areas in eastern China. Total PBDD/F concentrations in environmental samples were in the range of 113-818 pg/g dry wt (dw) for leaves, 392-18,500 pg/g dw for electronic shredder residues, 716-80,0000 pg/g dw for soil samples, and 89,600-14,3000 pg/g dw for workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility and in a range from nondetect (ND) to 427 pg/g dw in soil from the chemical-industrial complex. The highest mean concentrations of total PBDD/Fs were found in soil samples and workshop-floor dust from the e-waste recycling facility. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (measured as TEQ) concentrations of PBDD/Fs were greater than the TEQs of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) reported in our previous study for the same set of samples. The concentrations of PBDFs were several orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations of PBDDs in samples from the e-waste facility or from soil from the chemical-industrial complex. A significant correlation was found between the concentrations of {Sigma}PBDD/Fs and {Sigma}PBDEs (r = 0.769, p < 0.01) and between SPBDD/Fs and the previously reported SPCDD/F concentrations (r = 0.805, p < 0.01). The estimated daily human intakes of TEQs contributed by PBDD/Fs via soil/dust ingestion and dermal exposures in e-waste recycling facilities were higher than the intakes of TEQs contributed by PCDD/Fs, calculated in our previous study. 45 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the atmosphere of southern Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, J.E. ); Wania, F. ); Lei, Y.D. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

    1999-07-15

    Atmospheric concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC No. 101, 105, 118, 138/163, 153, 156, 180) were measured every week from 1992 to 1995 in Lista, a coastal station in Southern Norway. This data set of 200 samples was analyzed with respect to the influence of time, temperature, air mass origin, and wind speed on both the absolute level and the relative congeneric composition of the PCBs. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of the seven PCB congeners was 114 pg[center dot]m[sup [minus]3], which is in the range observed at urban locations in Europe during the early 1990s. No obvious concentration decrease could be observed during the 4 years. PCB concentrations showed a clear seasonal fluctuation with higher levels during the summer. The temperature dependence of the air concentrations of individual congeners increased with the number of chlorine atoms per molecule resulting in an increase in the relative importance of the higher chlorinated congeners during warm periods. Air arriving in Southern Norway from southwesterly directions had slightly higher concentrations than air coming from the North, whereas the relative composition of the PCB congeners was not influenced by air mass origin. At higher wind speed the concentrations of PCBs decreased. Episodes of conspicuously elevated PCB concentrations neither were associated with a particular air mass origin nor had an unusual congeneric composition. The data analysis suggests that whereas regional air transport from central Europe contributes to the occurrence of PCBs in Lista, a large fraction of the PCBs stems likely from local sources.

  5. Classification of polychlorinated biphenyl residues: isomers vs. homologue concentrations in modeling aroclors and polychlorinated biphenyl residues

    SciTech Connect

    Stalling, D.L.; Schwartz, T.R.; Dunn, W.J. III; Wold, S.

    1987-07-15

    SIMCA (soft independent modeling by class analogy), a principal components chemometric modeling program, was used to examine complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyl residues (PCBs) in fish and turtles. Individual PCB isomers were measured by electron capture capillary gas chromatography. The authors calculated PCB (Cl/sub 1-10/) congener concentrations by summing 105 isomer concentrations into homologue subgroups. Information theory was used to estimate the maximum information content of the two data sets. The authors compared the results from principal components modeling of samples and Aroclors by using both isomer and Cl/sub 1-10/ homologue concentrations. Modeling of normalized data from Aroclors or their mixtures gave similar sample score plots for both data sets. However, modeling environmental sample congener concentrations gave erroneous classification results when compared to results from modeling isomer data. Although the Cl/sub 1-10/ sums accurately reflect the concentration of PCBs in the sample, calculations to determine PCB profiles as Aroclor mixtures should be made by using individual PCB isomers.

  6. Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls isolated from Aroclor and Clophen technical mixtures.

    PubMed

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Holmstrand, Henry; Andersson, Per; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2008-03-01

    Compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis (CSIA-Cl) is promising as a novel and powerful method for monitoring in situ degradation of organochlorines in the environment and for source fingerprinting purposes. In order to apply CSIA-Cl in field studies of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the chlorine isotopic composition (delta(37)Cl) of individual PCB congeners in source materials must be known. In the present study, we determined delta(37)Cl of 18 congeners isolated from three widely produced technical mixtures. All congeners provided delta(37)Cl ranging between -1.9 per thousand and -3.5 per thousand. Although the comparable products Aroclor 1242 (-2.0 per thousand to -2.5 per thousand) and Clophen A30 (-1.9 per thousand to -3.0 per thousand) were synthesized by different industries, they provided similar delta(37)Cl for the same type of congeners. On the contrary, the more chlorinated congeners present in Aroclor 1254 (-2.1 to -3.5 per thousand) were more (37)Cl depleted compared to Aroclor 1242 manufactured by the same company. Overall, delta(37)Cl of PCB congeners decreased by -0.26 per thousand for each additional chlorine atom.

  7. In silico predictive studies of mAHR congener binding using homology modelling and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Panda, Roshni; Cleave, A Suneetha Susan; Suresh, P K

    2014-09-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is one of the principal xenobiotic, nuclear receptor that is responsible for the early events involved in the transcription of a complex set of genes comprising the CYP450 gene family. In the present computational study, homology modelling and molecular docking were carried out with the objective of predicting the relationship between the binding efficiency and the lipophilicity of different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and the AHR in silico. Homology model of the murine AHR was constructed by several automated servers and assessed by PROCHECK, ERRAT, VERIFY3D and WHAT IF. The resulting model of the AHR by MODWEB was used to carry out molecular docking of 36 PCB congeners using PatchDock server. The lipophilicity of the congeners was predicted using the XLOGP3 tool. The results suggest that the lipophilicity influences binding energy scores and is positively correlated with the same. Score and Log P were correlated with r = +0.506 at p = 0.01 level. In addition, the number of chlorine (Cl) atoms and Log P were highly correlated with r = +0.900 at p = 0.01 level. The number of Cl atoms and scores also showed a moderate positive correlation of r = +0.481 at p = 0.01 level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study employing PatchDock in the docking of AHR to the environmentally deleterious congeners and attempting to correlate structural features of the AHR with its biochemical properties with regards to PCBs. The result of this study are consistent with those of other computational studies reported in the previous literature that suggests that a combination of docking, scoring and ranking organic pollutants could be a possible predictive tool for investigating ligand-mediated toxicity, for their subsequent validation using wet lab-based studies.

  8. Inhalation and Dietary Exposure to PCBs in Urban and Rural Cohorts via Congener-Specific Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of 209 persistent organic pollutants, whose documented carcinogenic, neurological, and respiratory toxicities are expansive and growing. However, PCB inhalation exposure assessments have been lacking for North American ambient conditions and lower-chlorinated congeners. We assessed congener-specific inhalation and dietary exposure for 78 adolescent children and their mothers (n = 68) in the Airborne Exposure to Semi-volatile Organic Pollutants (AESOP) Study. Congener-specific PCB inhalation exposure was modeled using 293 measurements of indoor and outdoor airborne PCB concentrations at homes and schools, analyzed via tandem quadrupole GS-MS/MS, combined with questionnaire data from the AESOP Study. Dietary exposure was modeled using Canadian Total Diet Survey PCB concentrations and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food ingestion rates. For ∑PCB, dietary exposure dominates. For individual lower-chlorinated congeners (e.g., PCBs 40+41+71, 52), inhalation exposure was as high as one-third of the total (dietary+inhalation) exposure. ∑PCB inhalation (geometric mean (SE)) was greater for urban mothers (7.1 (1.2) μg yr–1) and children (12.0 (1.2) μg yr–1) than for rural mothers (2.4 (0.4) μg yr–1) and children (8.9 (0.3) μg yr–1). Schools attended by AESOP Study children had higher indoor PCB concentrations than did homes, and account for the majority of children’s inhalation exposure. PMID:25510359

  9. Reduction of Chlorinated Dibenzodioxin and Dibenzofuran Formation in the Beilstein Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Theodore D.; Fontana, Sabine G.

    1997-07-01

    We have confirmed that significant amounts of the highly toxic polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) may be formed under the conditions by which the Beilstein test for halogenated organic compounds is commonly employed in undergraduate laboratories. In this paper we describe the results of studies designed to increase the safety of the Beilstein test by minimizing the production of these toxins. Simple adjustments in Bunsen burner temperature and the length of time the copper test loop is exposed to the flame were found to be ineffective. Diluting test compounds (which should not be direct precursors of dioxins or furans) to concentrations as low as 5g/L in solvents like methanol or acetone was found to reduce PCDD/F formation by a factor of approximately 103, while still producing definitive test results. Triethanolamine was found to be an effective inhibitor. The addition of 0.5 mL of this compound to 10-mg test samples lowered the toxicity of the gaseous effluent by more than two orders of magnitude.

  10. Congener Patterns of Persistent Organic Pollutants Establish the Extent of Contaminant Biotransport by Pacific Salmon in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Gerig, Brandon S; Chaloner, Dominic T; Janetski, David J; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Moerke, Ashley H; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-01-19

    In the Great Lakes, introduced Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can transport persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), to new environments during their spawning migrations. To explore the nature and extent of POP biotransport by salmon, we compared 58 PCB and 6 PBDE congeners found in spawning salmon directly to those in resident stream fish. We hypothesized that stream fish exposed to salmon spawners would have congener patterns similar to those of salmon, the presumed contaminant source. Using permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), we found that POP congener patterns of Pacific salmon varied among regions in the Great Lakes basin (i.e., Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, or Lake Superior), tissue type (whole fish or eggs), and contaminant type (PCB or PBDE). For stream-resident fish, POP congener pattern was influenced by the presence of salmon, location (i.e., Great Lakes Basin), and species identity (i.e., brook trout [Salvelinus fontinalis] or mottled sculpin [Cottus bairdii]). Similarity in congener patterns indicated that salmon are a source of POPs to brook trout in stream reaches receiving salmon spawners from Lake Michigan and Lake Huron but not from Lake Superior. Congener patterns of mottled sculpin differed from those of brook trout and salmon, suggesting that brook trout and mottled sculpin either use salmon tissue to differing degrees, acquire POPs from different dietary sources, or bioaccumulate or metabolize POPs differently. Overall, our analyses identified the important role of salmon in contaminant biotransport but also demonstrated that the extent of salmon-mediated POP transfer and uptake in Great Lakes tributaries is location- and species-specific.

  11. Photochemical decomposition of 15 polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners in methanol/water.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan; Green, Nicholas; Marsh, Göran; Bergman, Ake

    2004-06-01

    Among all brominated flame retardants in use, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been identified as being of particular environmental concern due to their global distribution and bioaccumulating properties, as observed in humans and wildlife worldwide. Still there is a need for more data on the basic characteristics of PBDEs to better understand and describe their environmental fate. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the photochemical degradation of PBDEs with different degrees of bromination. The photochemical degradation of 15 individual PBDEs substituted with 4-10 bromine atoms was studied in methanol/water (8:2) by UV light in the sunlight region. Nine of these were also studied in pure methanol, and four of the nine PBDEs were studied in tetrahydrofuran. The photochemical reaction rate decreased with decreasing number of bromine substituents in the molecule but also in some cases influenced by the PBDE substitution pattern. The reaction rate was dependent on the solvent in such a way that the reaction rate in a methanol/water solution was consistently around 1.7 times lower than in pure methanol and 2-3 times lower than in THF. The UV degradation half-life of decaBDE (T1/2 = 0.5 h) was more than 500 times shorter than the environmentally abundant congener 2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE (T1/2 = 12 d) in methanol/water. The quantum yields in the methanol/water solution ranged from 0.1 to 0.3. The photochemical reaction of decaBDE is a consecutive debromination from ten- down to six-bromine-substituted PBDEs. Products with less than six bromines were tentatively identified as brominated dibenzofurans and traces of what was indicated as methoxylated brominated dibenzofurans. PMID:15224744

  12. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and diphenyl ethers in Japanese human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Won; Fujimaki, T Susumu; Kitamura, Kimiyoshi; Hashimoto, Shunji; Ito, Hiroyasu; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Morita, Masatoshi

    2003-03-01

    Human adipose samples collected in Tokyo, Japan in 1970 and 2000 were analyzed for the presence of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), dibenzofurans (PBDFs), and diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and the concentrations in the two groups were compared. As far as we know, the concentrations of the PBDD/Fs in adipose tissue from the general Japanese population are reported for the first time. Three PBDD/F congeners were found in the following adipose tissues: 2,3,7,8-TeBDD, 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, and 2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF. The median concentrations (ranges) of three PBDD/Fs in 1970 and 2000 were 5.1 (3.4-8.3) and 3.4 (1.9-5.3) pg/g lipid wt (l.w.), respectively. For PBDEs, seven PBDE congeners were determined in the following samples: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), 2,2',4,4',5',6-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), and 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-183). Median concentrations (ranges) of PBDEs showed a significant increase from 29.2 (6.8-78.4) pg/g l.w. in 1970 to 1288 (466-2,753) pg/g l.w. in 2000. BDE-47, the major congener of PBDEs, was 56.2% and 35.6% of the total in 1970 and 2000, respectively, whereas the BDE-153 was < 1% and 29.7% of the total in 1970 and 2000, respectively. This may indicate that the source of PBDEs had changed during this period. Further analysis of archived human samples from 1970 to 2000 is needed to describe the details of the contamination trends of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs in the Japanese population. Furthermore, PBDD/F monitoring, particularly 2,3,7,8-TeBDD and 2,3,7,8-TeBDF, may give more toxicological information based on TeCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs).

  13. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated biphenyls from multiple industrial thermal processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Cai, Mingwei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Du, Bing; Dong, Shujun; Hu, Jicheng; Xiao, Ke

    2013-03-01

    In this study, field measurements were conducted to estimate and characterize the atmospheric emission levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from multiple industrial thermal processes. The emission levels and profiles of PCBs from five types of thermal processes at twenty-three plants were studied and compared with eight processes reported in our previous studies. Correlation analysis was preformed to identify a marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. A significant correlation was observed between congener CB-118 and ΣPCB (R(2)=0.65 and p<0.01), which suggests that CB-118 is a good marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. The profiles of PCBs emitted from the thirteen thermal processes were compared, and this information could be used for studying source-receptor relationships and identifying the specific sources of PCBs. To prioritize the sources for control, the concentrations of PCBs from thirteen industrial thermal sources were compared. The PCB concentrations from secondary zinc smelting and thermal wire reclamation were about one to three order magnitude higher than those of other sources, which suggests that these two sources be given priority in PCB source control. Finally, the atmospheric emission factors of PCBs from the thirteen industrial sources were summarized, and these data will be useful for developing an integrated emission inventory of PCBs.

  14. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES BUT NOT INDIVIDUAL CONGENERS INHIBIT B LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION. (R826687)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS AND THEIR VARIATION WITH TEMPERATURE. (R825245)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. DIFFUSIVE EXCHANGE OF GASEOUS POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ACROSS THE AIR-WATER INTERFACE OF THE CHESAPEAKE BAY. (R825245)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved and gas-phase concentrations of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 46 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were measured at eight sites on the Chesapeake Bay at four different times of the year to estimate net diffusive air-water gas exchange rates. Gaseous PAHs ar...

  17. BACKGROUND CONTAMINATION BY COPLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN TRACE LEVEL HIGH RESOLUTION GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/HIGH RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY (HRGC/HRMS) ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addition of the "dioxin-like" polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners to the assessment of risk associated with the 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted dioxins and furans has dramatically increased the number of laboratories worldwide that are developing analytical procedures for t...

  18. Congener-specific carbon isotopic analysis of technical PCB and PCN mixtures using two-dimensional gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Horii, Yuichi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Petrick, Gert; Gamo, Toshitaka; Falandysz, Jerzy; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi

    2005-06-01

    Analysis of stable carbon isotope fractionation is a useful method to study the sources and fate of anthropogenic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment. To evaluate the utility of carbon isotopes, determination of isotopic ratios of 13C/12C in source materials, for example, technical PCB preparations, is needed. In this study, we determined delta13C values of 31 chlorobiphenyl (CB) congeners in 18 technical PCB preparations and 15 chloronaphthalene (CN) congeners in 6 polychlorinated naphthalene preparations using two-dimensional gas chromatography-combustion furnace-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (2DGC-C-IRMS). Development of 2DGC-IRMS enabled improved resolution and sensitivity of compound-specific carbon isotope analysis (CSIA) of CB or CN congeners. Delta13C values of PCB congeners ranged from -34.4 (Delors) to -22.0/1000 (Sovol). Analogous PCB preparations with similar chlorine content, but different geographical origin, had different delta13C values. PCB preparations from Eastern European countries--Delors, Sovol, Trichlorodiphenyl, and Chlorofen--had distinct delta13C values. PCB mixtures showed increased 13C depletion with increasing chlorine content. Delta13C values for individual CB congeners varied depending on the degree of chlorination in technical mixtures. Delta13C values of CN congeners in Halowaxes ranged from -26.3 to -21.7/1000 and these values are within the ranges observed for PCBs. This study establishes the range of delta13C values in technical PCB and PCN preparations, which may prove to be useful in the determination of sources of these compounds in the environment. This is the first study to employ 2DGC-IRMS analysis of delta13C values in technical PCB and PCN preparations.

  19. Thyrotoxic and dopaminergic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, D.K.

    1994-01-01

    Perturbations in the developing nervous system have been associated with perinatal exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To determine which PCBs accumulate in brain following perinatal exposure, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by gavage to Aroclor 1242 (4 or 16 mg/kg/day) during days 10-16 of gestation. At weaning (day 21), analysis of pup brain (frontal cortex, hippocampus, and caudate putamen) by gas chromatography revealed ten peaks representing 10-14 congeners in PCB-exposed animals. Brain PCB concentrations were greatest in high-dose pups for all congeners except for 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28) which had a higher concentration in the low-dose group. Congeners differed significantly in their degree of bioaccumulation, but no significant differences among brain regions were found. A lack of regionalization of PCB residues in the brain was also demonstrated by autoradiography in weanling rats treated iv with [[sup 14]C]-3,3[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl or [[sup 14]C]-2,2[prime],4,4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl. Time-mated Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed on days 10-16 of gestation to three environmentally-relevant PCBs: 2,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 28), 8 or 32 mg/kg/day; 2,3[prime],4,4[prime],5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 118), 4 or 16 mg/kg/day; or 2,2[prime],4,4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153), 16 or 64 mg/kg/day. At weaning, serum total thyroxin, but not triiodothyronine, was markedly depressed in pups exposed perinatally to PCB 118 or 153; and thyroid glands from PCB 118-treated pups revealed histologic changes suggestive of sustained TSH stimulation. No significant PCB-induced changes were detected in the activity of the rate limiting enzyme in the synthesis of catecholamines, tyrosine hydroxylase, in the caudate putamen at weaning or in adulthood. Likewise no significant changes were detected in dopamine receptor (D1 and D2) concentrations in several regions in the mesocortical and nigrostriatal pathways.

  20. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) levels in the sera of young children

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Humphrey, H.E.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schantz, S.L.; Mullin, M.D.; Welch, R. )

    1989-10-01

    Serum samples from 285 4-year-old Michigan children were evaluated for levels of 11 environmental contaminants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in half the samples tested; polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in 13-21 percent; dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), in more than 70 percent. Nursing (Mothers' milk) was the principal source of these exposures. Congener-specific analysis documented the presence of at least one highly toxic PCB congener, 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl. The data demonstrate the multigenerational impact of female exposure to persistent organic environmental contaminants.

  1. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) levels in the sera of young children

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, J.L.; Humphrey, H.E.B.; Jacobson, S.W.; Schantz, S.L.; Mullin, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Serum samples from 285 4-year old Michigan children were evaluated for levels of 11 environmental contaminants. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in half the samples tested; polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in 13-21%; dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), in more than 70%. Nursing (Mothers milk) was the principal source of these exposures. Congener-specific analysis documented the presence of at least one highly toxic PCB congener, 2,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl. The data demonstrate the multigenerational impact of female exposure to persistent organic environmental contaminants.

  2. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Ding, Gangqiang; Wu, Yongning; Pan, Guoshao; Zhou, Xiaoping; Han, Jianlong; Li, Jingguang; Wen, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    Breast milk samples (n=74) from the general maternal population of Zhejiang province were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Samples were divided into urban and rural groups. Mean ∑PCDD/F, ∑PCB and ∑PBDE concentrations were 71.4±40.8, 42774±27841 and 2679±944 pg g(-1) lipid in the urban group and 38.6±38.1, 26546±11375 and 2731±1093 pg g(-1) lipid in the rural group, respectively. WHO-TEQ concentrations for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs were 2.66±1.43 and 3.90±2.60 pg g(-1) lipid in the urban group and 1.83±0.93 and 2.27±1.55 pg g(-1) lipid in the rural group, respectively. Congener profiles for these pollutants were compared between human samples (adipose tissue and breast milk) and foodstuffs (seafood, hen eggs, and freshwater fish). Similar PCB and PCDD/F congener patterns were observed, suggesting that dietary intake is a significant source for human exposure to PCBs and PCDD/Fs. However, much lower PBDE congener levels were detected in breast milk than in foodstuffs, which implies that pathways other than dietary intake may also account for human exposure to PBDEs.

  3. Updated Abraham solvation parameters for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    van Noort, Paul C M; Haftka, Joris J H; Parsons, John R

    2010-09-15

    This study shows that the recently published polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) Abraham solvation parameters predict PCB air-n-hexadecane and n-octanol-water partition coefficients very poorly, especially for highly ortho-chlorinated congeners. Therefore, an updated set of PCB solvation parameters was derived from four PCB properties and associated Abraham solvation equations. Additionally, the influence of ortho-chlorination on PCB solvent accessible volume and surface area was investigated. The updated PCB solvation parameters were tested on partitioning between five other phase combinations. Compared to the original PCB solvation parameter set, the updated PCB solvation parameters resulted in substantially improved estimates from Abraham solvation equations for (subcooled) liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, HPLC capacity factors, and for coefficients of air-n-hexadecane, air-water, organic carbon-water, and n-octanol-water partitioning. For water to polydimethyl siloxane and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) partitioning, the updated PCB solvation parameters yielded no improvement compared to the original data set. The main difference between the updated and the original parameter set is that updated PCB McGowan specific volumes depend on the degree of ortho-chlorination, which is qualitatively confirmed by trends in the PCB solvent accessible volumes and surface areas. The use of the updated PCB solvation parameters instead of the original values is therefore recommended.

  4. Estimation of polychlorinated biphenyl fugacity ratios.

    PubMed

    Van Noort, Paul C M

    2006-11-01

    On the quantitative comparison of solubilities or vapor pressures of homologous series, the variation in the effect of crystal structure on solid properties may substantially influence the outcome of the comparison. Usually, the effect of this variation is eliminated by comparing values of the liquid state. The ratio of solid to liquid properties is called the fugacity ratio. Fugacity ratios are usually calculated from fusion thermodynamic data. For 41 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), fusion enthalpy was found to be correlated with fusion entropy. Highly linear correlations were observed for non-ortho-PCBs, mono-ortho-PCBs, and diortho-PCBs. Fugacity ratios estimated from the fusion enthalpy-entropy linear regression parameters were equal, within 10% on average, to fugacity ratios calculated from fusion enthalpy for ortho chlorinated PCBs with melting points below 380 K and for non-ortho-PCBs. For ortho chlorinated PCBs with melting points above 380 K, fugacity ratios were better estimated from a nonlinear regression of fugacity ratios against the melting point and the system temperature. For all 209 PCB congeners, fugacity ratios at 298 K are listed on the basis of experimental fusion data or estimates from the regressions.

  5. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-08

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  6. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  7. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  8. Effect of sediment remediation on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in tomatoes grown near New Bedford Harbor.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Alison C; Altshul, Larisa M; Vorhees, Donna J

    2007-10-01

    Measurements of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener concentrations and profiles from produce grown near New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, before, during, and after remediation of PCB-contaminated sediment are presented. Samples of tomatoes collected from locations upwind and downwind relative to harbor contamination are compared with the use of measurements of 47 individual PCB congeners. The PCB concentration in the locally grown tomatoes, as expressed by the sum of congeners, is highest during the period of harbor dredging and drops to its lowest point after remediation, which included dredging and excavation. The downwind location is characterized by higher concentrations of PCBs than the upwind location in every time period. Principal component analysis is used to distinguish both the effect of remediation over time and the effect of cultivation location on the congener profiles. Evidence of the PCB congener profile representing the contaminated harbor sediments is strongest during the dredging period and in the downwind location. These results have important implications for understanding human exposure via the food chain and highlight the importance of considering exposure pathways related to atmospheric transport during remediation of contaminated sediments.

  9. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David M.; Lee, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of “fresh” polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low KOW congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs.

  10. Estimating the half-lives of PCB congeners in former capacitor workers measured over a 28-year interval.

    PubMed

    Seegal, Richard F; Fitzgerald, Edward F; Hills, Elaine A; Wolff, Mary S; Haase, Richard F; Todd, Andrew C; Parsons, Patrick; Molho, Eric S; Higgins, Donald S; Factor, Stewart A; Marek, Kenneth L; Seibyl, John P; Jennings, Danna L; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    To date, most estimates of the half-life of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans have been based on relatively short follow-up periods. To address this issue, we determined the half-lives of PCB congeners of occupational origin in the serum of former capacitor workers as part of a study conducted in 2003-2006--approximately 28 years after their last occupational exposure. A total of 241 persons from a source population of 6798 former capacitor workers were interviewed and asked to donate a blood sample for serum PCB congener analysis. A subgroup of 45 participants also had serum archived from 1976 and reanalyzed for the same 27 PCB congeners by the same laboratory. Our estimates of the half-lives of the congeners among these 45 persons were longer than those reported by Wolff et al. (1992), due primarily to the much longer interval between exposure and determination of serum PCB concentrations. Half-lives were significantly greater for the heavy versus light occupational congeners, for women versus men and for those with low versus high initial exposure. Current serum total PCB concentrations, expressed as the geometric mean of wet weight data, averaged 6.7 ng/g for the entire 241-person cohort, which represents a 10-fold decrease from values reported in the late 1970s, but is still nearly twice the average for persons of similar age residing in the same area, but without occupational exposure. In addition, current serum PCB concentrations remained significantly and positively associated with earlier occupational exposure, but were not associated with fresh water fish consumption. In general, the results support a consistent and long-duration trend of increased PCB body burden in this cohort of former capacitor workers compared with non-occupationally exposed individuals. The results may aid in further understanding the toxicological/epidemiological consequences of exposure to PCBs in humans. PMID:20216575

  11. Enhanced accumulation of PCB congeners by Baltic Sea blue mussels, Mytilus edulis, with increased algae enrichment

    SciTech Connect

    Gilek, M.; Bjoerk, M.; Broman, D.; Kautsky, N.; Naef, C.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine if natural variations in the quantity of phytoplankton-derived particulate and dissolved organic carbon influences the accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the tissues of Baltic Sea blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). In a laboratory flow-through experiment the authors exposed M. edulis to the technical PCB mixture Aroclor{reg_sign} 1248 for 21 d at three different enrichments of the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas sp., 0.10, 0.16, and 0.32 mg particulate organic carbon (POC)/L. Tissue and water concentrations were determined for seven PCB congeners and 21-d bioaccumulation factors were calculated against total water concentrations. Contrary to what would be expected, an increase in algae enrichment from 0.10 to 0.32 mg POC/L resulted in an enhanced PCB accumulation by a factor of approx. 2. This increase in PCB accumulation was more pronounced for PCB congeners with lower hydrophobicity. These observations have implications for the design of laboratory accumulation studies and potentially for PCB accumulation and cycling in field populations of suspension-feeding mussels in response to changes in eutrophication status.

  12. Sediment quality and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, and implications for urban river restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to restore fish passage, habitat, and recreational use of the Neponset River, a tributary to Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, have raised concerns about the sediment, water, and biota quality of the river. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality, with a specific focus on polychlorinated biphenyls, in the Neponset River. Sediment samples were collected throughout the Neponset River and tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Although enriched compared to background concentrations, sediment quality in the Neponset River was generally better than that of other urban rivers in the United States, except with respect to one constituent, polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of lead, some polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediment may be toxic to aquatic organisms and may pose a risk to human health. The sediment quality also fails to meet the minimum requirements set by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for lined landfill disposal. The locations of the source(s) of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River were determined by means of congener analysis from PISCES passive water-column samplers. The PISCES data indicate a sharp increase in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and a substantial shift in congener pattern downstream of one PISCES sampling location near Fairmont Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. This result indicates that the area upstream of this sampling location may be the location of a historical source of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River. The present (2003) source to the water column may likely be PCB contaminated sediment.

  13. Levels and congener profiles of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in seafood from China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Yu, Cun; Ying, Ying; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Han, Jianlong; Xu, Qingyuan

    2009-11-01

    A nationwide investigation into polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in market seafood was conducted for the first time in this study. Total PCDD/F concentrations in fatty fish ranged from 0.13 to 8.64 pg g(-1) wet weight (mean 2.05 pg g(-1) wet weight), total PCB concentrations ranged from 38.9 to 3514 pg g(-1) wet weight (mean 1133 pg g(-1) wet weight), and total PBDE concentrations ranged from 42.8 to 913 pg g(-1) wet weight (mean 322 pg g(-1) wet weight). Corresponding mean toxicity equivalent (TEQ) values for total PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB were 0.25 pg g(-1) wet weight (WHO 98-TEQ) and 0.32 pg g(-1) wet weight (WHO 98-TEQ), respectively. OCDD, PCB-138 and PBDE-47 were the dominant compounds according to their respective congeners. WHO 98-TEQ (PCDD/PCDF/PCB) for fatty fish and shell fish were 0.60 and 0.070 pg g(-1) wet weight, respectively, lower than the standard set by the European Commission. The contamination levels and profiles were compared with those documented in previous publications.

  14. Rapid assay for screening and characterizing microorganisms for the ability to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Bedard, D.L.; Unterman, R.; Bopp, L.H.; Brennan, M.J.; Haberl, M.L.; Johnson, C.

    1986-04-01

    A rapid assay has been designed that (i) assesses the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degradative competence and congener specificity of aerobic microorganisms, (ii) identifies strains capable of degrading highly chlorinated biphenyls, and (iii) distinguishes among those that degrade PCBs by alternative pathways. Prior attempts to assay PCB-degradative competence by measuring disappearance of Aroclors (commercial PCB mixtures) have frequently produced false-positive findings because of volatilization, adsorption, or absorption losses. Furthermore, these assays have generally left the chemical nature of the competence obscure because of incomplete gas chromatographic resolution and uncertain identification of Aroclor peaks. These problems were avoided by using defined mixtures of PCB congeners and by adopting incubation and extraction methods that prevent physical loss of PCB's. The assay mixtures include PCB congeners ranging from dichloro- to hexachlorobiphenyls and representing various structural classes, e.g., congeners chlorinated on a single ring (2,3-dichlorobiphenyl), blocked at 2,3 sites (2,5,2'5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl), blocked at 3,4 sites (4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl), and lacking adjacent unchlorinated sites (2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl). The PCB-degradative ability of microorganisms is assessed by packed-column gas chromatographic analysis of these defined congener mixtures following 24-h incubation with resting cells. When tested with 25 environmental isolates, this assay (i) revealed a broad range of PCB-degradative competence, (ii) highlighted differences in congener specificity and in the extent of degradation of individual congeners, (iii) predicted degradative competence on commercial PCBs, and (iv) identified strains with superior PCB-degradative ability.

  15. Accumulation of PCB congeners in nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) on the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Nichols, John W.; Secord, Anne L.; McCarty, John P.

    2004-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were used as a sentinel species to monitor the contamination and bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Hudson River watershed. Several tree swallow nest box colonies around and downstream from Hudson Falls, NY, were studied. Tree swallow eggs, adults, and 5-, 10-, and 15-day-old nestlings were collected and analyzed for 103 PCB congeners. Emergent insects collected by net (primarily Odonata) or as a food bolus (primarily Diptera) taken from the mouths of adult tree swallows returning to the nest were analyzed in the same manner. Total PCB concentrations (wet weight) in eggs from two contaminated sites ranged from 9000 to 25 000 ng/g and accumulated to 32 000 and 96 000 ng/g in 15-day-old nestling at two contaminated sites. The congener patterns of PCBs in eggs, nestlings, and adults were compared to those found in emergent insects (Odonata and Diptera) using principal components analysis. The PCB patterns of the biota differed from that of Aroclor technical mixtures. PCB patterns in adult tree swallows were similar to those in eggs, while the patterns in dietary insects were similar to nestling tree swallows. Uptake rate constants were determined for tree swallow nestlings and compared between the two contaminated sites. The estimated PCB congener uptake rate constants were 0.008-0.02 d-1 based on uptake in nestlings until day 15 post-hatch. The rate constants were comparable between the two study areas and may be used to predict nestling contamination at other locations. Our studies confirm the utility of nestling tree swallows to evaluate localized PCB contamination.

  16. ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS RELATED TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson – Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051

  17. Contamination profiles of selected PCB congeners, chlorinated pesticides, PCDD/Fs in Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Alessandra; Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of some major environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and organochlorine pesticides in Antarctic samples. Concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Antarctic fur seal pups and eggs of three species of penguins. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) was the main pollutant, followed by PCBs; other organochlorine compounds such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCDD/Fs were usually found only in minor quantities. Adélie penguin eggs had significantly higher mean PCB concentrations (p<0.05) compared to the other two penguin species, but there was no difference in DDT levels (p>0.05). TEQ values in fur seal blubber in our study were one order of magnitude lower than those considered to elicit physiological effects in aquatic mammals. In general, POP concentrations in our samples suggested that likely the study populations were not currently at risk for adverse health effects, but indicated a clear need for further monitoring to assess the presence and time trend of a broad range of contaminants, mainly emerging POPs thought to be increasing in polar regions. PMID:19375148

  18. Contamination profiles of selected PCB congeners, chlorinated pesticides, PCDD/Fs in Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Alessandra; Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Focardi, Silvano

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of some major environmental contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and organochlorine pesticides in Antarctic samples. Concentrations of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in Antarctic fur seal pups and eggs of three species of penguins. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) was the main pollutant, followed by PCBs; other organochlorine compounds such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and PCDD/Fs were usually found only in minor quantities. Adélie penguin eggs had significantly higher mean PCB concentrations (p<0.05) compared to the other two penguin species, but there was no difference in DDT levels (p>0.05). TEQ values in fur seal blubber in our study were one order of magnitude lower than those considered to elicit physiological effects in aquatic mammals. In general, POP concentrations in our samples suggested that likely the study populations were not currently at risk for adverse health effects, but indicated a clear need for further monitoring to assess the presence and time trend of a broad range of contaminants, mainly emerging POPs thought to be increasing in polar regions.

  19. PREDICTION OF DIOXIN/FURAN INCINERATOR EMISSIONS USING LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT VOLATILE PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) from incinerators and other stationary combustion sources are of environmental concern because of the toxicity of certain PCDD/PCDF congeners. Measurement of trace levels of PCDDs/PCDFs...

  20. Distribution and transport of polychlorinated biphenyls and associated particulates in the Milwaukee River System, Wisconsin, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, Jeffrey S.; Fitzgerald, Sharon A.; Hall, David W.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution and transport of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined at various sites on Cedar Creek and its receiving stream, the Milwaukee River. PCB congener distributions were determined in the operationally defined dissolved phase, suspended-particle phase, and surficial bed sediments (0?2 centimeters depth). At most sites, the relative abundances of PCB congeners in the suspended particles and surficial bed sediments were similar to each other, and in some cases, to known Aroclor mixtures (1242 and 1260). Dissolved PCB congener distributions were higher in the less chlorinated congeners as predicted by their lower hydrophobicity and higher solubility. Log partition coefficients for the dissolved and the particle-associated organic carbon phases ranged from 5.0 to 5.8 and 6.5 to 7.5, respectively, for SPCB?s (congener summation). Particle-associated PCB?s exhibited two patterns: (1) a general increase in spring and summer associated with algal growth and, (2) episodic increases associated with resuspension of bed sediments during storms. Total suspended solids loads in water year 1994 ranged from 8,700 tons at Pioneer Road to 15,800 tons at Estabrook Park. PCB loads decreased from Highland Road (3.7 kilograms) to Pioneer Road (1.8 kilograms) from August 1994 to August 1995, indicating PCB deposition between those sites. PCB transport at Estabrook Park was 8 to 16 kilograms during this same time period.

  1. [Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in paddy soil slurry].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Yao, Xiao-yan; Chen, Chen; Shen, Chao-feng; Qin, Zhi-hui; Huang, Rong-lang

    2015-10-01

    We studied the dechlorination process of Aroclor1260, a high-chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) mixture in an anaerobic paddy soil slurry, and further analyzed the related microbial community structures. The Aroclor1260 was reduced up to 55.5% in the natural paddy soil slurry in 128 days, and the reduction percentage dropped to 46.9% after incoculating the paddy soil slurry with a PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture. The dechlorination mainly occurred in congeners of pentachlorobiphenyl, hexachlorobiphenyl, and specially, the heptachlorobiphenyl, with pentachlorobiphenyl accumulated as dechlorination intermediate. Hydrogen gas produced from fermentation of organic matters was maintained at a lower partial pressure due to its consumption during the dechlorination process, so that the methanogens was suppressed as well. The microbial community structure was significantly different between natural and inoculated paddy soils. Introducing the PCBs-dechlorination enrichment culture changed the local microbial community by the competition between the exogenetic dchlorinators and the indigenous bacteria, overall decreasing the dechlorination activity.

  2. Characterization of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) in environmental matrices from an intensive electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Hu, Jianfang; Peng, Ping'an; Chen, Deyi; Bi, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Information on environmental distribution and human exposures of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) are little reported. In the present study, workshop dust, soil and sediment samples from Longtang and Shijiao, the intensive e-waste recycling sites within Qingyuan City, southern China, were collected and analyzed following the standard method. PBDD/F concentrations (sum of eight 2378-substituted PBDD/F congeners) in different environmental matrices were in the range of 122-4667 ng kg(-1) dry wt (dw) for workshop dust, 19.6-3793 ng kg(-1) dw for the top soils, and 527 ng kg(-1) dw for the surface sediment, which were substantially higher than those of reference sites. The long-distance transport of PBDDs/Fs also impacted the adjacent areas. Contribution of the most two toxic congeners (2,3,7,8-TBDD and 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) increased significantly from "source" (dust) to "sink" (sediment). Dismantling and open burning were the two procedures contributing relatively higher level PBDDs/Fs to the atmosphere, while acid leaching would contaminate soils and waters directly. The estimated daily intakes of eight PBDD/F congeners via soil/dust ingestion and dermal absorption for local residents were higher than those contributed by seventeen PCDD/F congeners in the same set of samples. Children and e-waste processing workers were the most affected groups by the low-tech recycling activities there.

  3. Characterization of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) in environmental matrices from an intensive electronic waste recycling site, South China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiao; Hu, Jianfang; Peng, Ping'an; Chen, Deyi; Bi, Xinhui

    2016-05-01

    Information on environmental distribution and human exposures of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PBDDs/Fs) are little reported. In the present study, workshop dust, soil and sediment samples from Longtang and Shijiao, the intensive e-waste recycling sites within Qingyuan City, southern China, were collected and analyzed following the standard method. PBDD/F concentrations (sum of eight 2378-substituted PBDD/F congeners) in different environmental matrices were in the range of 122-4667 ng kg(-1) dry wt (dw) for workshop dust, 19.6-3793 ng kg(-1) dw for the top soils, and 527 ng kg(-1) dw for the surface sediment, which were substantially higher than those of reference sites. The long-distance transport of PBDDs/Fs also impacted the adjacent areas. Contribution of the most two toxic congeners (2,3,7,8-TBDD and 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD) to the total toxic equivalent quantity (TEQ) increased significantly from "source" (dust) to "sink" (sediment). Dismantling and open burning were the two procedures contributing relatively higher level PBDDs/Fs to the atmosphere, while acid leaching would contaminate soils and waters directly. The estimated daily intakes of eight PBDD/F congeners via soil/dust ingestion and dermal absorption for local residents were higher than those contributed by seventeen PCDD/F congeners in the same set of samples. Children and e-waste processing workers were the most affected groups by the low-tech recycling activities there. PMID:26952275

  4. PCB congener analysis of water and caddisfly larvae (Insecta:Trichoptera) in the upper Hudson River by glass capillary chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, B.; Simpson, K.W.; Shane, L.; Koblintz, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    The separation and analysis of the constituents of industrially produced polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has been almost exclusively performed using techniques involving packed gas chromatographic columns. However, the packed column chromatograms proved to be inadequate with regard to the separation of the many congeners which compose the complex PCB mixtures. Unlike the packed column methods, a separation technique based upon gas capillary technology produces chromatograms with sharp peaks, and hence accurate analysis is possible according to individual congener concentrations. This capability permitted more precise analysis of macroinvertebrates - specifically aquatic insects in the polluted water of the upper Hudson River. This study examines the presence and relative concentration of 74 congeners in water and caddisfly larvae collected from 3 sites in the Hudson River. Caddisfly larvae (Insecta:Trichoptera) usually dominate the macroinvertebrate communities in riffle habitats of the study area. Their relatively large size and abundance facilitated the acquisition of sufficient biomass for analysis (200 mg wet weight). The sampling was carried out on July 6, 1983 and August 15, 1983.

  5. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Schoeters, Greet; Hoogenboom, Ron

    2006-10-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of concentrations of these contaminants in food and feed is needed. Eggs from free-range chicken are increasingly becoming an important part of the diet. These eggs have a higher risk of being contaminated with increased levels of dioxins and DL-PCB than barn or cage eggs. Ingestion of soil particles from environmentally contaminated areas may contribute to elevated dioxin levels in free-range chicken eggs. Available data show that current soil levels of dioxins and DL-PCB in residential and agricultural areas in Europe often appear to be too high to produce free-range eggs with dioxin levels below the current limit values in the EU. On the other hand, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans concentrations in eggs from free-range chicken are not necessarily above the limit values. Contamination levels in soil should be kept low and should be controlled in areas with free foraging chicken although all modifying factors that influence uptake of dioxins and PCB from the environment and transfer into eggs are yet not well understood.

  6. Thermochemical Formation of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans Mediated by Secondary Copper Smelter Fly Ash, and Implications for Emission Reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Liu, Guorui; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Lili; Zhao, Yuyang; Jin, Rong

    2016-07-19

    Heterogeneous reactions mediated by fly ash are important to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) formation. However, the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) through heterogeneous reactions is not yet well understood. Experiments were performed to investigate the thermochemical formation of PBDD/Fs at 150-450 °C through heterogeneous reactions on fly ash from a secondary copper smelter. The maximum PBDD/F concentration was 325 times higher than the initial PBDD/F concentration in the fly ash. The PBDD/F concentration after the experiment at 150 °C was five times higher than the initial concentration. PBDD/Fs have not previously been found to form at such a low temperature. Secondary-copper-smelter fly ash clearly promoted PBDD/F formation, and this conclusion was supported by the low activation energies that were found in Arrhenius's law calculations. Thermochemical formation of PBDD/Fs mediated by fly ash deposited in industrial facilities could explain "memory effects" that have been found for PCDD/Fs and similar compounds released from industrial facilities. Abundant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) that were formed through fly ash-mediated reactions could be important precursors for PBDD/Fs also formed through fly ash-mediated reactions. The amounts of PBDEs that formed through fly ash-mediated reactions suggested that secondary copper smelters could be important sources of reformed PBDEs. PMID:27347728

  7. Distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Wang, Ya-Fen; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping

    2010-05-01

    The stack flue gases and the ashes in different units of two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are sampled to investigate the characteristics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and