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Sample records for polychlorinated terphenyls pcts

  1. Synthesis of polychlorinated terphenyl mixtures and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry data of tetra- to octachlorinated ortho-, meta-, and para-terphenyls.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Walter; Kirres, Jochen; Bendig, Paul

    2012-11-09

    Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are a class of polyhalogenated compounds previously used in similar applications as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). According to present knowledge all industrial production was closed in the 1970s. The total PCT manufacture reached about 5% of the production of PCBs. Unlike the PCBs, PCTs have been scarcely analyzed in environmental samples mostly due to analytical difficulties. PCTs were synthesized by the chlorination of technical terphenyl which consists of ortho-, meta- and para-terphenyls. This procedure led to very complex mixtures of polychlorinated compounds whose composition, especially with regard to the terphenyl backbones, remained unknown. Here we report the individual chlorination of the three terphenyl backbones to mixtures of Tetra- to OctaCTs, respectively. The average degree of chlorination of the ortho-, meta- and para-PCTs ranged from 6.8 to 7.4. These products were analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry in electron ionization (GC/EI-MS) and electron capture negative ion (GC/ECNI-MS) modes. The elution order of isomers was ortho-PCTs≪meta-PCTs. In both GC/MS modes, the mass spectra of ortho-PCTs differed from those of the meta- and para-homologues in that the molecular ion was less prominent (GC/EI-MS) or very frequently absent (GC/ECNI-MS). In addition, the relative GC/ECNI-MS responses of para-PCTs were on average higher compared with meta- and ortho-PCTs.

  2. Polychlorinated terphenyl patterns and levels in selected marine mammals and a river fish from different continents.

    PubMed

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Vetter, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants which have been used from the 1920s to the 1980s for similar purposes as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Comparably little data was available on the PCT distribution in the environment mainly due to analytical difficulties in their determination. By means of a calculation algorithm recently developed we now studied the PCT pattern in individual marine mammal samples and one fish sample from different continents. Altogether, 97 PCTs were detected in eight samples and twelve to 66 tetra- to nonachloroterphenyl (tetra- to nonaCT) congeners were detected in individual samples. PCTs were present in all marine mammal samples which originated from four continents, but the PCT pattern was varied. TetraCTs were dominant in the sample from Africa, Australia, Spitsbergen (European Arctic) and in a sample from the Baltic Sea, heptaCTs in samples from the North Sea and octaCTs in a sample from Iceland. The abundance of sumPCTs relative to PCB 153, estimated from the GC/ECNI-MS response corrected for the degree of chlorination, ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%, corresponding with ~0.22-2.2% of the total PCB content. The highest PCT level detected was 980 mg/kg lipid in a harbour seal from the North Sea, Germany. The results from this study indicated that samples from certain areas, e.g. the North Sea may still be polluted with PCTs.

  3. Sources and Distribution of Polychlorinated Terphenyls at a Major US Aeronautics Research Facility.

    PubMed

    HALE; ENOS; GALLAGHER

    1998-11-01

    / High concentrations of an unusual, complex mixture of chlorinated compounds were discovered in sediments and oysters near a federal aeronautics facility during implementation of a pollutant screening protocol. The mixture was identified as Aroclor 5432, a polychlorinated terphenyl (PCT) formulation, produced in the US until 1972. PCTs, particularly low chlorinated mixtures, have rarely been reported in the environment, despite significant manufacture and usage. Releases were traced to two outfalls. Creek sediments downstream of one contained concentrations as high as 200,000 |gmg/kg (dry weight basis); those in indigenous oysters reached 35,000 |gmg/kg, indicating significant bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential. Subsequent work showed that PCTs were widely disseminated in marsh grass, crabs, and fish. PCTs, PCBs, and mercury were also detected in storm drain lines entering these outfalls. The lines received input from both storm water and research buildings. Historical hydraulic fluid leaks and in-service compressor fluids in some buildings contained PCTs and PCBs. Contaminated materials on-site were removed to minimize pollutant spread. Aroclor 5432 usage, most likely as compressor/hydraulic fluid additives, probably ended about ten years prior to its on-site detection. In terms of biological effects, intraperitoneal injection of fish with Aroclor 5432 induced cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity to a similar degree as PCB Aroclor 1254 and to a greater extent than PCT Aroclor 5460. The presence of high concentrations of PCTs contributed to the facility being included on the National Priorities List. It subsequently became the first US federal facility to sign a Federal Facility Agreement, identifying cleanup responsibilities, prior to formal listing.KEY WORDS: Polychlorinated terphenyls; Aroclor; Contaminated sediments; Hydraulic fluid; Enzyme induction; Polychlorinated biphenyls

  4. Sources and distribution of polychlorinated terphenyls at a major US aeronautics research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, R.C.; Enos, C.; Gallagher, K.

    1998-11-01

    High concentrations of an unusual, complex mixture of chlorinated compounds were discovered in sediments and oysters near a federal aeronautics facility during implementation of a pollutant screening protocol. The mixture was identified as Aroclor 5432, a polychlorinated terphenyl (PCT) formulation, produced in the US until 1972. PCTs, particularly low chlorinated mixtures, have rarely been reported in the environment, despite significant manufacture and usage. PCBs, and mercury were also detected in storm drain lines entering these outfalls. The lines received input from both storm water and research buildings. Historical hydraulic fluid leaks and in-service compressor fluids in some buildings contained PCTs and PCBs. Contaminated materials on-site were removed to minimize pollutant spread. Aroclor 5432 usage, most likely as compressor/hydraulic fluid additives, probably ended about ten years prior to its on-site detection, in terms of biological effects, intraperitoneal injection of fish with Aroclor 5432 induced cytochrome P-4501A (CYP1A) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity to a similar degree as PCB Aroclor 1254 and to a greater extent than PCT Aroclor 5460. The presence of high concentrations of PCTs contributed to the facility being included on the National Priorities List. It subsequently became the first US federal facility to sign a Federal Facility Agreement, identifying cleanup responsibilities, prior to formal listing.

  5. 40 CFR 704.45 - Chlorinated terphenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... No. 61788-33-6, comprised of chlorinated ortho-, meta-, and paraterphenyl. (2) Extent of chlorination means the percent by weight of chlorine for each isomer (ortho, meta, and para). (3) Isomeric ratio means the ratios of ortho-, meta-, and parachlorinated terphenyls. (4) Polychlorinated biphenyl means...

  6. Novel chlorinated terphenyls in sediments and shellfish of an estuarine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, R.C.; Greaves, J.; Gallagher, K.; Vadas, G.G. )

    1990-11-01

    Polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) are structurally similar to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and have been used in analogous applications. Aroclor 5432, a PCT formulation whose congeners contain predominantly two to five chlorines, was detected in sediments and oysters from a saltmarsh creek and an adjacent Chesapeake Bay tributary, Back River. Reports of the occurrence of Aroclor 5432 are virtually nonexistent, although sporadic reports of the more highly chlorinated PCT formulation Aroclor 5460 have been published. Capillary gas chromatography with electrolytic conductivity detection was used for quantitation. Identifications were confirmed by both electron ionization and negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Sediment concentrations detected were as high as 250,000 {mu}g/kg (dry-weight basis). Oysters collected from these areas contained up to 35,000 {mu}g/kg. This value is equivalent to 6,300 {mu}g/kg, on a wet-weight basis, and exceeds the applicable US limit for PCBs in edible shellfish by more than a factor of 3.

  7. 40 CFR 704.45 - Chlorinated terphenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subject to the rule: (1) Persons who manufacture or propose to manufacture chlorinated terphenyl. (2... or as part of a mixture. (c) What information to report. Persons subject to this rule as described in paragraph (b) of this section must notify EPA of current or proposed manufacture or import of...

  8. 40 CFR 704.45 - Chlorinated terphenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subject to the rule: (1) Persons who manufacture or propose to manufacture chlorinated terphenyl. (2... or as part of a mixture. (c) What information to report. Persons subject to this rule as described in paragraph (b) of this section must notify EPA of current or proposed manufacture or import of...

  9. Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peakall, David B.; Lincer, Jeffrey L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes structure, use, analysis, and toxicological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls. Provides data on occurrence and biological magnification in ecosystems. Significance, and synergistic relationships with DDT summarized. (AL)

  10. Syntheses of naturally occurring terphenyls and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Sawayama, Yusuke; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Sugino, Kumi; Nishikawa, Toshio; Isobe, Minoru; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2006-12-01

    Naturally occurring terphenyls and related compounds such as terferol and its corresponding quinone and phlebiarubrone were synthesized from 2,5-diphenyl-1,4-benzoquinone. According to the proposed biosynthetic pathway, chemical conversion of phlebiarubrone to ustalic acid, a toxic compound isolated from the poisonous mushroom, Tricholoma ustale, was examined to find a low-yield conversion to the ustalic acid dimethyl ester.

  11. A practical and general synthesis of unsymmetrical terphenyls.

    PubMed

    Miguez, Jose M Antelo; Adrio, Luis Angel; Sousa-Pedrares, Antonio; Vila, Jose M; Hii, King Kuok Mimi

    2007-09-28

    A synthetic procedure was developed that enables sequential chemoselective Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of chlorobromobenzene with arylboronic acids. The first coupling is achieved at room temperature using a ligandless palladium catalyst. The chlorobiaryl product can then be subjected directly to the second coupling, facilitated by the SPhos ligand. Using this methodology, parallel synthesis of 32 unsymmetrical o-, m-, and p-terphenyl compounds was accomplished in good to excellent overall yields.

  12. Efficient synthesis of oxygenated terphenyls and other oligomers: sequential arylation reactions through phenol oxidation-rearomatization.

    PubMed

    Dohi, Toshifumi; Kamitanaka, Tohru; Watanabe, Shohei; Hu, Yinjun; Washimi, Naohiko; Kita, Yasuyuki

    2012-10-22

    One by one: starting from simple phenols, a diverse series of oxygenated terphenyl compounds can be prepared in a concise and practical manner using sequential arylation reactions involving phenol oxidation/rearomatization and quinone monoacetal intermediates. Many of the terphenyl products can be used for preparing well-defined oligomers and, furthermore, contain valuable functional groups that can be transformed for further diversification.

  13. Studies on Structural, Optical, Thermal and Electrical Properties of Perylene-Doped p-terphenyl Luminophors.

    PubMed

    Desai, Netaji K; Mahajan, Prasad G; Bhopate, Dhanaji P; Dalavi, Dattatray K; Kamble, Avinash A; Gore, Anil H; Dongale, Tukaram D; Kolekar, Govind B; Patil, Shivajirao R

    2017-10-02

    A simple solid state reaction technique was employed for the preparation of polycrystalline luminophors of p-terphenyl containing different amounts of perylene followed by spectral characterization techniques viz. XRD, SEM, TGA-DSC, UV-Visible spectroscopy, thermo-electrical conductivity, fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence life time spectroscopy and temperature dependent fluorescence. X-ray diffraction profiles of the doped p-terphenyl reveal well-defined and sharp peaks indicate homogeneity and crystallinity. The SEM micrograph of pure p-terphenyl exhibit flakes like grains and then compact and finally gets separately with perylene amounts. The observed results indicate that closed packed crystal structures of doped p-terphenyl during crystal formation. The band gaps estimated from UV-visible spectroscopy decreased from 5.20 to 4.10 eV, while thermo-electrical conductivity increases with perylene content. The fluorescence spectra showed partial quenching of p-terphenyl fluorescence and simultaneously sensitization of perylene fluorescence at the excitation wavelength of p-terphenyl (290 nm) due to excitation energy transfer from p-terphenyl to perylene. The observed sensitization results are in harmony with intense blue color seen in fluorescence microscopy images and has high demand in scintillation process.

  14. Directions of the Electronic Transition Moments in Dioxido-p-terphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryczyński, Z.; Kawski, A.

    1988-03-01

    The directions of the absorption, fluorescence and phosphorescence transition moments of dioxido-p-terphenyl are determined from measurements of the absorption and emission anisotropies as functions of the dichroic ratio in stretched PVA films.

  15. Using ceramic membranes for the separation of hydrogen produced by dehydrogenation of perhydro- m-terphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenchuk, A. N.; Bogdan, V. I.; Kustov, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of a variety of ceramic membranes for the purification of hydrogen obtained by dehydrogenation of perhydro- m-terphenyl in a catalytic flow reactor from vapors of initial hydrocarbons and dehydrogenation products is investigated.

  16. Luminescence of benzoic acid polycrystals doped with n-terphenyl and n-quaterphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Zarochentseva, E.P.; Korotkov, V.I.; Oleinik, Y.P.

    1994-10-01

    The luminescence and luminescence excitation spectra of benzoic acid polycrystals, terphenyl, quaterphenyl, and benzoic acid doped with terphenyl and quaterphenyl are studied. Blue shifts of the fluorescence and fluorscence excitation spectra are found. These shifts result from nonplanar entering of polyphenyl molecules into the unit cell of the benzoic acid dimmers around the acid carbonyl groups. In the impurity polycrystals at room temperature, the internal conversion from the triplet level efficiently occurs resulting in the absence of phosphorescence. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Ligand influences on homoleptic Group 12 m-terphenyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Toby J; Hastings, Fiona R; Gridley, Benjamin M; Moxey, Graeme J; Lewis, William; Blake, Alexander J; Kays, Deborah L

    2014-10-14

    Three m-terphenyl ligands 2,6-Ar2C6H3(-) [Ar = 2,6-Me2C6H3 (2,6-Xyl); 3,5-Me2C6H3 (3,5-Xyl); 2,3,4,5,6-Me5C6 (Pmp)] have been used to stabilise three series of two-coordinate Group 12 diaryl complexes; (2,6-Ar2C6H3)2M [M = Zn, Cd, Hg, Ar = 2,6-Xyl 1-3, 3,5-Xyl 4-6, Pmp 7-9], where differing steric demands on the metal centres are imparted. These are the first homoleptic d-block complexes featuring any of these ligands. Complexes 1-9 have been characterised in solution and the solid state; the analysis of structural changes produced by differences in ligand properties is reported. In particular, complexes 4-6 show smaller C-M-C bond angles and contain secondary ligand interactions that are not seen in the analogous complexes 1-3 and 7-9.

  18. Binding of polychlorinated biphenyls to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Kafafi, S.A.; Ali, A.H.; Said, H.K. ); Afeefy, H.Y. ); Kafafi, A. G. )

    1993-10-01

    A new thermodynamic model for calculating the dissociation constants of complexes formed between the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is reported. The free energies of binding of PCBs to AhR are controlled by their lipophilicites, electron affinities, and entropies. The corresponding physicochemical properties of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans also control their interactions with AhR. We present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the majority of PCBs are likely to interact with AhR in their nonplanar conformations. In addition, we demonstrate that the affinities of PCBs for AhR relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin correlate with corresponding toxic equivalency factors in animals. The reported methodology is likely to be applicable to the polyhalogenated and mixed polyhalogentated bi- and terphenyls and related xenobiotics; thus, it could minimize the number of in vivo studies in laboratory animals and facilitate the identification of potentially and facilitate the identification of potentially hazardous aromatic xenobiotics.

  19. Robust, transformable, and crystalline single-node organometallic networks constructed from ditopic m-terphenyl isocyanides

    DOE PAGES

    Agnew, Douglas W.; Gembicky, Milan; Moore, Curtis E.; ...

    2016-11-01

    Here, the preparation of 3D and 2D Cu(I) coordination networks using ditopic m-terphenyl isocyanides is described. The incorporation of sterically encumbering substituents enables the controlled, solid-state preparation of Cu(I) tris-isocyanide nodes with a labile solvent ligand in a manner mirroring solution-phase chemistry of monomeric complexes. The protection afforded by the m-terphenyl groups is also shown to engender significant stability towards heat as well as acidic or basic conditions, resulting in robust single-metal-node networks that can transition from 3D to 2D extended structures.

  20. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Evaluation of Some New Functionalized Terphenyl Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Samshuddin, Seranthimata; Narayana, Badiadka; Sarojini, Balladka Kunhanna; Shetty, Divya N.; Suchetha Kumari, Nalilu

    2012-01-01

    New functionalized terphenyl derivatives incorporating various heterocyclic rings are prepared by using 4,4′′-difluoro-5′-hydroxy-1,1′:3′,1′′-terphenyl-4′-carbohydrazide as a key intermediate derived from 4,4′-difluoro chalcone, a versatile synthone. All the derivatives are characterized by 1H NMR, IR, and mass spectral data. All the synthesized products are screened for their in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. The majority of the tested compounds exhibited significant antioxidant activity and some of them showed good antimicrobial activity. PMID:25379286

  1. Multistep Synthesis of a Terphenyl Derivative Showcasing the Diels-Alder Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Elizabeth A. Colby

    2015-01-01

    An adaptable multistep synthesis project designed for the culmination of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course is described. The target compound is a terphenyl derivative that is an intermediate in the synthesis of compounds used in organic light-emitting devices. Students react a conjugated diene with dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate…

  2. Multistep Synthesis of a Terphenyl Derivative Showcasing the Diels-Alder Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Elizabeth A. Colby

    2015-01-01

    An adaptable multistep synthesis project designed for the culmination of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course is described. The target compound is a terphenyl derivative that is an intermediate in the synthesis of compounds used in organic light-emitting devices. Students react a conjugated diene with dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate…

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) ; CASRN 1336 - 36 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  4. A nuclear magnetic resonance study of higher-order correlation functions in supercooled ortho-terphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhmer, R.; Diezemann, G.; Hinze, G.; Sillescu, H.

    1998-01-01

    Using deuteron NMR techniques two-, effective three-, and various four-time correlation functions were recorded for supercooled ortho-terphenyl at 10-15 K above the calorimetric glass transition in order to characterize the heterogeneous nature of its primary response. The experimental results could successfully be described within various energy landscape models as well as via continuous time random walk simulations. These theoretical considerations provide a suitable basis for a definition of the term dynamic heterogeneity. We discuss the power but also some limitations of the present multidimensional NMR techniques when applied to amorphous materials.

  5. Orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystals containing biphenyl, terphenyl, or naphthyl mesogenic unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dąbrowski, R.; Drzewiński, W.; Dziaduszek, J.; Gąsowska, J.; Henderson, P. A.; Kula, P.; Otón, J. M.; Bennis, N.

    2007-03-01

    Three homologous series of orthoconic (45 degree tilt) antiferroelectric liquid crystals containing either naphthyl or terphenyl groups as mesogenic unit have been synthesized and their mesomorphic behaviour investigated by DSC and polarized light microscopy, and their properties discussed. X-ray diffraction studies have shown the presence of a de Vries-type smectic A phase which does not exhibit a layer shrinkage on transition to the ferroelectric smectic C phase. Mixtures of the new materials have been formulated and their electro-optical properties investigated for their use in surface stabilized orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystal (SSOAFLC) devices

  6. m-Terphenyl thiols: rigid and bulky molecules for the formation of bioactive self-assembled monolayers on gold.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Diane A; Chan, Andy Y C; Jalali, Hanifa; Jenkins, Hilary A; Yu, Hua-Zhong; Clyburne, Jason A C

    2004-11-07

    The m-terphenyl 4-mercaptomethyl-2,6-diphenylbenzoic acid (3), was prepared and shown to form omega-carboxyl terminated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on gold with high surface pKa(10.1 +/- 0.2) and low density favourable for the binding of biological macromolecules.

  7. Synthesis of Acyl Terphenyls and Higher Polyaromatics via Base-Promoted C-H Functionalization of Acetylarenes with Arylacetylenes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Elena Yu; Ivanova, Elena V; Tatarinova, Inna V; Ushakov, Igor' A; Semenova, Nadezhda V; Vashchenko, Alexander V; Trofimov, Boris A

    2016-05-06

    KO(t)Bu/DMSO-promoted C-H functionalization of acetylarenes with arylacetylenes (100 °C, 30 min), generating β,γ-ethylenic ketones, triggers upon further heating (100 °C, 4 h, with or without acidifying additive) the cascade assembly of acyl terphenyls and higher polyaromatics in good yields.

  8. Low-Coordinate First Row Early Transition Metal Complexes Stabilized by Modified Terphenyl Ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, Jessica Nicole

    The research in this dissertation is focused on the synthesis, structural, and magnetic characterization of two-coordinate open shell (d1-d4) transition metal complexes. Background information on this field of endeavor is provided in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 I describe the synthesis and characterization of the mononuclear chromium (II) terphenyl substituted primary amido complexes and a Lewis base adduct. These studies suggest that the two-coordinate chromium complexes have significant spin-orbit coupling effects which lead to moments lower than the spin only value of 4.90 muB owing to the fact that lambda (the spin orbit coupling parameter) is positive. The three-coordinated complex 2.3 had a magnetic moment of 3.77 muB. The synthesis and characterization of the first stable two-coordinate vanadium complexes are described in Chapter 3. The values suggest a significant spin orbital angular momentum contribution that leads to a magnetic moment that is lower than their spin only value of 3.87 muB. DFT calculations showed that the major absorptions in their UV-Vis spectra were due to ligand to metal charge transfer transitions. The titanium synthesis and characterization of the bisamido complex along with its three-coordinate titanium(III) precursor are described in Chapter 4. Compound 4.1 was obtained via the stoichiometric reaction of LiN(H)AriPr 6 with the Ti(III) complex TiCl3 *2NMe 3 in trimethylamine. The precursor 4.1 has trigonal pyramidal coordination at the titanium atom, with bonding to two amido nitrogens and a chlorine as well as a secondary interaction to a flanking aryl ring of a terphenyl substituent. Compound 4.2 displays a very distorted four-coordinate metal environment in which the titanium atom is bound to two amido nitrogens and to two carbons from a terphenyl aryl ring. This structure is in sharp contrast to the two-coordinate linear structure that was observed in its first row metal (V-Ni) analogs. The synthesis and characterization of

  9. New α-glucosidase inhibitors with p-terphenyl skeleton from the mushroom Hydnellum concrescens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Mei; Han, Jun-Jie; Ma, Ke; Jin, Tao; Bao, Li; Pei, Yun-Fei; Liu, Hong-Wei

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the bioactive components responsible for the the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity detected in the EtOAc extract of the mushroom Hydnellum concrescens. Two new p-terphenyl derivatives, concrescenins A (1) and B (2), in along with six known compounds thelephantins L (3), I (4), J (5), K (6), dihydroauran-tiacin dibenzoate (7), and curtisian A (8) were isolated from the fruiting bodies of H. concrescens. Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR experiments. Compounds 1-4 and 6-8 showed the inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase with the IC50 of 0.99, 3.11, 4.53, 18.77, 2.98, 5.16, and 8.34 μM, respectively. Kinetic analysis of α-glucosidase indicated that compounds 1 and 2 inhibited the activity of α-glucosidase in a noncompetitive fashion with a Ki value of 0.02 and 0.21 μM, respectively. In antioxidant evaluation, compounds 1 and 4 showed weak DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=82.50 and 161.75 μM) and weak reducing ability (EC50=193.57 and 152.94 μM). The current research supports the potential use of mushroom-derived p-terphenyl derivatives for the treatment of diabetes.

  10. Fluorinated and nonfluorinated polyimides based on 4,4{double_prime}-diamino-p-terphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Auman, B.C.

    1993-12-31

    The synthesis of stiff, rod-like polyimides based on rod-like 4,4{double_prime}-diamino-p-terphenyl (DATP) is described. Both fluorinated and nonfluorinated materials were prepared. Polyimide films based on DATP and standard dianhydrides, pyromellitic dianhydride and biphenyl tetracarboyxlic dianhydride, exhibited remarkably low moisture absorption; while those based on DATP and rigid, fluorinated dianhydrides, 9,9-bis(trifluoromethyl)- and 9-phenyl-9-trifluoromethyl-xanthene-2,3,6,7-tetracarboxylic dianhydrides showed low dielectric constant, but were higher in moisture absorption than expected. All four structures studied showed very low CTE typical of very stiff, rodlike materials. These materials have potential uses in electronics applications in which low CTE (for less stress), low moisture and low dielectric constant are important. Other potential uses include fibers, resins, coatings and composites.

  11. Density scaling and decoupling in o-terphenyl, salol, and dibutyphthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalini, R.; Bair, S. S.; Roland, C. M.

    2016-08-01

    We present new viscosity and equation of state (EoS) results extending to high pressures for o-terphenyl, salol, and dibutylphthalate. Using these and data from the literature, we show that the three liquids all conform to density scaling; that is, their reduced viscosities and reorientational relaxation times are a function of the ratio of temperature and density with the latter raised to a constant. Moreover, the functional form of the dependence on this ratio is independent of the experimental probe of the dynamics. This means that there is no decoupling of the viscosities and relaxation times over the measured range of conditions. Previous literature at odds with these results was based on erroneous extrapolations of the EoS or problematic diamond anvil viscosity data. Thus, there are no exceptions to the experimental fact that every non-associated liquid complies with density scaling with an invariant scaling exponent.

  12. Optimizing UV-glass multi-anode PMTs with a p-Terphenyl wavelength shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehfuss, Melanie; Joosten, Sylvester; Meziani, Zein-Eddine

    2015-04-01

    Due to their small form-factor, lower sensitivity to magnetic fields and potential for advanced noise-rejection, multi-anode (MA) PMTs are supremely suited for application in future open-environment Cherenkov detectors at very high luminosities. This will become critical at Jefferson Lab after the 12 GeV upgrade, as well as for a future electron-ion collider. I will present the results from performance characterization and magnetic field sensitivity testing of the 64-channel Hamamatsu H8500C-03 series MA PMT conducted at Temple University. Moreover, I will explore their behavior after the application of a p-Terphenyl wavelength shifter. Such a wavelength shifter can dramatically boost the quantum efficiency below 300 nm, strongly improving the overall Cherenkov detector efficiency.

  13. A Bulky m-Terphenyl Cyclopentadienyl Ligand and Its Alkali-Metal Complexes.

    PubMed

    Veinot, Alex J; Todd, Angela D K; Masuda, Jason D

    2017-09-11

    The synthesis of the new m-terphenyl-substituted cyclopentadienyl ligand precursor 1-cyclopentadiene-2,6-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)benzene (Ter(Mes) CpH) is described. The synthesis proceeds through the reaction of Ter(Mes) Li with cobaltocenium iodide, followed by oxidation of the intermediate cobalt(I) species to give the corresponding cyclopentadiene as a mixture of isomers. The preparation and spectroscopic properties of the alkali-metal salts (Li-Cs) is described, as well as structural information obtained by X-ray diffraction studies for the lithium, potassium, and cesium analogues. Crystallographic data demonstrate the ability of these new ligands to act as monoanionic chelates by forming metal complexes with Cp-M-Ar bonding environments. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Traceless liquid-phase synthesis of biphenyls and terphenyls using pentaerythritol as a tetrapodal soluble support.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chul-Bae; Cho, Chul-Hee; Kim, Chang Keun; Park, Kwangyong

    2007-01-01

    Application of a novel sulfonate-based traceless multifunctional linker system using pentaerythritol as a tetrapodal soluble support was demonstrated using liquid-phase parallel and combinatorial preparation of biphenyl and terphenyl compounds. Nickel-catalyzed reactions of pentaerythritol tetrakis(arenesulfonate)s with arylmagnesium bromides generated the desired products in sufficient yields through reductive cleavage/cross-coupling of the C-S bond. Homogeneous pentaerythritol-supported reactions could be accomplished using less nucleophile with shorter reaction periods than could the corresponding heterogeneous polymer-supported reactions. This liquid-phase approach using a small polyfunctionalized support combines advantages of solution-phase and solid-phase syntheses by allowing high reactivity, high atom economy, simple isolation, and real-time monitoring of the reaction progress.

  15. Mesomorphic, dielectric, and optical properties of fluorosubstituted biphenyls, terphenyls, and quaterphenyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kula, P.; Spadło, A.; Dziaduszek, J.; Filipowicz, M.; Dąbrowski, R.; Czub, J.; Urban, S.

    2008-12-01

    Compounds with moderate and large negative dielectric anisotropy (Δɛ) are very attractive liquid crystal (LC) for vertical alignment mode (VA). Materials with such properties can be achieved by lateral substitution of a polar group into a mesogenic molecule. We synthesized some new LC materials with a negative value of Δɛ, a moderately high birefringence (Δn), and a low viscosity. The mesomorphic and physical behaviour of the novel biphenyls, terphenyls and quaterphenyls fluorosubstituted in the rigid core and also with fluorinated alkyl and alkoxy chains are investigated. The prepared series of four LC compounds are promising for new LC mixtures for various applications. Examples of nematic mixtures with Δɛ˜-3.25 will be presented.

  16. p-Terphenyl: An alternative to liquid scintillators for neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sardet, A.; Varignon, C.; Laurent, B.; Granier, T.; Oberstedt, A.

    2015-08-01

    A detailed characterization of doped paraterphenyl (p-Terphenyl) neutron detectors was obtained by means of γ-sources and a 252Cf fission chamber. The intrinsic timing resolution, the energy resolution up to 2 MeVee, and the electron-equivalent energy calibration were determined using γ-sources. The neutron time-of-flight spectrum from the spontaneous fission of 252Cf provided information on the proton energy calibration, the light output function, and the intrinsic neutron detection efficiency between 0 and 8 MeV for a threshold of 250 keV. Measurements of the latter were also performed using monoenergetic neutron beams. The applied experimental methods were cross-checked using two BC501A scintillation detectors, which were previously calibrated at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig, Germany. Results were compared to Monte-Carlo simulations performed using NRESP7 and NEFF7 codes.

  17. New p-terphenyls from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YXf3.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Wuringege; Li, Sui-Jun; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Wei, Wei; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Jiao, Rui-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Five new p-terphenyls named prenylterphenyllin D (1), prenylterphenyllin E (2), 2'-O-methylprenylterphenyllin (3), 4-O-methylprenylterphenyllin (4) and 3'-O-methylterphenyllin (5) together with seven known compounds (6-12), were isolated from cultures of Aspergillus sp. YXf3. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive MS and NMR analyses. The NMR and MS data of 5 is reported for the first time, as its structure was listed in SciFinder Scholar with no associated reference. Compounds 6 and 7 were distinguished from each other on the basis of 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 8 showed antibacterial activities against X. oryzae pv. oryzicola Swings and E. amylovora with the same MIC values of 20μg/mL while 10 exhibited activities against E. amylovora with an MIC value of 10μg/mL.

  18. Applications of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Mitchell D; Kaley, Robert G

    2011-02-01

    In the 50 years or so that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured in the USA and elsewhere, they were widely used in numerous applications because of their desirable properties. The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize in one place the factual information about the uses of PCBs, as well as to correct some misconceptions that have arisen over the years. The focus is on applications in the USA for which there is ample documentation. However, use patterns were probably similar worldwide. Review. PCBs were used primarily as electrical insulating fluids in capacitors and transformers and also as hydraulic, heat transfer, and lubricating fluids. PCBs were blended with other chemicals as plasticizers and fire retardants and used in a range of products including caulks, adhesives, plastics, and carbonless copy paper. In the USA, PCBs were manufactured from 1929 through mid-1977, although many products remained in service for decades after the manufacture of PCBs was terminated. This article reviews the historic uses of PCBs in the USA and discusses, where possible, the relative sales volumes. Especially with smaller volume, military, and third-party uses, documenting a use and/or differentiating between a commercial use and an experimental test batch is not possible. A major contribution of this paper is to differentiate reported commercial applications of PCBs that can be documented from those which cannot. Undocumented uses may include actual minor uses as well as reported applications that are unlikely ever to have been commercialized.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, monolayer assembly and 2D lanthanide coordination of a linear terphenyl-di(propiolonitrile) linker on Ag(111).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Urgel, José I; Écija, David; Fuhr, Olaf; Auwärter, Willi; Barth, Johannes V; Ruben, Mario

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of our work employing polyphenylene-dicarbonitrile molecules and in particular the terphenyl derivative 1 (TDCN), we have synthesized a novel ditopic terphenyl-4,4"-di(propiolonitrile) (2) linker for the self-assembly of organic monolayers and metal coordination at interfaces. The structure of the organic linker 2 was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). On the densely packed Ag(111) surface, the terphenyl-4,4"-di(propiolonitrile) linkers self-assemble in a regular, molecular chevron arrangement exhibiting a Moiré pattern. After the exposure of the molecular monolayer to a beam of Gd atoms, the propiolonitrile groups get readily involved in metal-ligand coordination interactions. Distinct coordination motifs evolve with coordination numbers varying between three and six for the laterally-bound Gd centers. The linker molecules retain an overall flat adsorption geometry. However, only networks with restricted local order were obtained, in marked contrast to previously employed, simpler polyphenylene-dicarbonitrile 1 linkers.

  20. Carcinogenic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; De Rosa, C

    2001-03-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls [ATSDR. 2000: Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.] into the scientific literature. This article focuses on the carcinogenic effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (polychlorinated biphenyls) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile.

  1. Improving UV-glass PMTs with a p-Terphenyl Wavelength Shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joosten, Sylvester; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Kaczanowicz, Ed; Rehfuss, Melanie; Duran, Burcu; Paolone, Michael

    2015-10-01

    UV-glass PMTs are often the limiting factor in a Cherenkov detector, due to their poor quantum efficiency (QE) below 300nm due to the UV-glass transparency. The application of a p-Terphenyl wavelength shifter to the face of these PMTs dramatically improves the QE for short wavelengths, rivaling that of a much more expensive quartz PMT. This is especially interesting in the context of multi-anode (MA) PMTs, which are supremely suited for application in future open-environment Cherenkov detectors at very high luminosities due to their small size, lower sensitivity to magnetic fields, and high potential for advanced background rejection. This will become critical at Jefferson Lab entering the 12 GeV era, as well as for a future electron-ion collider. We will discuss the process of coating the PMTs through vacuum evaporation, and the performance testing taking place at Temple University for these multi-anode PMTs, as well as the results obtained with the more traditional 5-inch PMTs that were coated for the low-threshold Cherenkov counter (LTCC) of the CLAS12 spectrometer at Jefferson Lab.

  2. Performance of UV-glass MaPMT with p-Terphenyl Wavelength Shifter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehfuss, Melanie; Joosten, Sylvester; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Kaczanowicz, Edward

    2016-03-01

    UV-glass PMTs are often the limiting factor in a Cherenkov detector because of their poor quantum efficiency (QE) below 300nm due to the UV-glass transparency. The application of a p-Terphenyl wavelength shifter to the face of these PMTs dramatically improves the QE for short wavelengths, rivaling that of a much more expensive quartz PMT. This is especially interesting in the context of multi-anode (Ma) PMTs, which are supremely suited for application in future open-environment Cherenkov detectors at very high luminosities due to their small size, lower sensitivity to magnetic fields, and high potential for advanced background rejection due to their pixelization. This will become critical at Jefferson Lab entering the 12 GeV era, as well as for a future electron-ion collider both providing a high luminosity. We will discuss the process of coating the PMTs through vacuum evaporation, and the performance testing taking place at Temple University for Hamamatsu model H12700A-03 multi-anode PMTs as well the background rejection schemes that will be devised using these MaPMTs.

  3. Enhanced UV light detection using a p-terphenyl wavelength shifter

    DOE PAGES

    Joosten, Sylvester J.; Kaczanowicz, Ed; Ungaro, Maurizio; ...

    2017-07-25

    Here, UV-glass photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have poor photon detection efficiency for wavelengths belowmore » $$300\\,\\text{nm}$$ due to the opaqueness of the window material. Costly quartz PMTs could be used to enhance the efficiency below $$300\\,\\text{nm}$$. A less expensive solution that dramatically improves this efficiency is the application of a thin film of a p-terphenyl (PT) wavelength shifter on UV-glass PMTs. This improvement was quantified for Photonis XP4500B PMTs for wavelengths between $$200\\,\\text{nm}$$ and $$400\\,\\text{nm}$$. The gain factor ranges up to 5.4 $$\\pm$$ 0.5 at a wavelength of $$215\\,\\text{nm}$$, with a material load of $$110\\pm10\\,\\mu\\text{g}/\\text{cm}^2$$ ($$894\\,\\text{nm}$$). The wavelength shifter was found to be fully transparent for wavelengths greater than $$300\\,\\text{nm}$$. The resulting gain in detection efficiency, when used in a typical Cherenkov counter, was estimated to be of the order of 40%. Consistent coating quality was assured by a rapid gain testing procedure using narrow-band UV LEDs. Based on these results, 200 Photonis XP4500B PMTs were treated with PT for the upgraded low-threshold Cherenkov counter (LTCC) to be used in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer upgraded detector (CLAS12) at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility.« less

  4. Solvent-Free Dynamic Nuclear Polarization of Amorphous and Crystalline ortho-Terphenyl

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Ta-Chung; Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L.; Walish, Joseph J.; Michaelis, Vladimir K.; Corzilius, Björn; Smith, Albert A.; Clausen, Andrew M.; Cheetham, Janet C.; Swager, Timothy M.; Griffin, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) of amorphous and crystalline ortho-terphenyl (OTP) in the absence of glass forming agents is presented in order to gauge the feasibility of applying DNP to pharmaceutical solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance experiments and to study the effect of intermolecular structure, or lack thereof, on the DNP enhancement. By way of 1H–13C cross-polarization, we obtained a DNP enhancement (ε) of 58 for 95% deuterated OTP in the amorphous state using the biradical bis-TEMPO terephthalate (bTtereph) and ε of 36 in the crystalline state. Measurements of the 1H T1 and electron paramagnetic resonance experiments showed the crystallization process led to phase separation of the polarization agent, creating an inhomogeneous distribution of radicals within the sample. Consequently, the effective radical concentration was decreased in the bulk OTP phase, and long-range 1H–1H spin diffusion was the main polarization propagation mechanism. Preliminary DNP experiments with the glass-forming anti-inflammation drug, indomethacin, showed promising results, and further studies are underway to prepare DNP samples using pharmaceutical techniques. PMID:23421391

  5. Nanosuspension for parenteral delivery of a p-terphenyl derivative: preparation, characteristics and pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiaona; Li, Han; Zhang, Dianrui; Liu, Guangpu; Jia, Lejiao; Zheng, Dandan; Shen, Jingyi; Shen, Yuemao; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-08-01

    Recently, nanosuspension technology has evolved into a mature drug delivery system, which can enhance the saturation solubility and dissolution velocity of poorly soluble drugs. In this study, nanosuspensions of a p-terphenyl derivative (H2) were prepared by combining microfluidization and precipitation method and transformed into dry powder by lyophilization. The resultant nanosuspensions had a mean particle size of 201.7±5.87nm and a zeta potential of -21.07±0.57mV. The X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis verified that the crystalline state of H2 was not transformed when it was prepared to nanosuspensions. An increased saturation solubility (1.46ug/ml) and accelerated dissolution velocity were achieved. The percent drug release of bulk H2 and H2 nanosuspension dried powder was 7.16% and 93.5% at 120min point, respectively. The pharmacokinetic test in rats indicated that the area under plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0~∞) value of H2 nanosuspension (5.183mg/Lh) was about 5-fold higher than that of H2 solution (1.094mg/Lh). Additionally, the mean retention time (MRT) value of H2 nanosuspension (2.832h) was significantly longer than that of H2 solution (0.997h).

  6. Supramolecular organization and chiral resolution of p-terphenyl-m-dicarbonitrile on the Ag(111) surface.

    PubMed

    Marschall, Matthias; Reichert, Joachim; Seufert, Knud; Auwärter, Willi; Klappenberger, Florian; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Klyatskaya, Svetlana; Zoppellaro, Giorgio; Nefedov, Alexei; Strunskus, Thomas; Wöll, Christof; Ruben, Mario; Barth, Johannes V

    2010-05-17

    The supramolecular organization and layer formation of the non-linear, prochiral molecule [1, 1';4',1'']-terphenyl-3,3"-dicarbonitrile adsorbed on the Ag(111) surface is investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). Upon two-dimensional confinement the molecules are deconvoluted in three stereoisomers, that is, two mirror-symmetric trans- and one cis-species. STM measurements reveal large and regular islands following room temperature deposition, whereby NEXAFS confirms a flat adsorption geometry with the electronic pi-system parallel to the surface plane. The ordering within the expressed supramolecular arrays reflects a substrate templating effect, steric constraints and the operation of weak lateral interactions mainly originating from the carbonitrile endgroups. High-resolution data at room temperature reveal enantiormorphic characteristics of the molecular packing schemes in different domains of the arrays, indicative of chiral resolution during the 2D molecular self-assembly process. At submonolayer coverage supramolecular islands coexist with a disordered fluid phase of highly mobile molecules. Following thermal quenching (down to 6 K) we find extended supramolecular ribbons stabilised again by attractive and directional noncovalent interactions, the formation of which reflects a chiral resolution of trans-species.

  7. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of hydrogen release during the heterogeneous catalytic dehydrogenation of cis- and trans-isomers of perhydro-m-terphenyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalenchuk, A. N.; Bogorodskii, S. E.; Bogdan, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    Comparative studies on the temperature dependence of the dehydrogenation of cis- and trans-isomers of perhydro- m-terphenyl are performed in a flow catalytic reactor. Rate constants and equilibrium constants of all elementary acts of this reaction are calculated on basis of experimental data using the KINET 0.8 program for the mathematical modeling of the kinetics of complex reactions. The resulting data indicate that perhydro- m-terphenyl cis- and trans-isomers structural differences have no appreciable effect on dehydrogenation.

  8. Chemical Detoxification of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The present invention relates to the chemical detoxification of polychlorinated biphenyls by converting them to non-hazardous substances. In...particular, the invention relates to chemically destroying polychlorinated biphenyls on site for decontamination purposes without creating pollution or...hazardous situations. The invention provides a two-step process where polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. biphenyl having 2 to 10 chlorine atoms, are

  9. Spectroscopic Evidence for Through-Space Arene-Sulfur-Arene Bonding Interaction in m-Terphenyl Thioether Radical Cations.

    PubMed

    Monney, Nicolas P-A; Bally, Thomas; Yamamoto, Takuhei; Glass, Richard S

    2015-12-31

    Electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemical calculations of the radical cations of m-terphenyl tert-butyl thioethers, where the S-t-Bu bond is forced to be perpendicular to the central phenyl ring, show the occurrence of through-space [π···S···π](+) bonding interactions which lead to a stabilization of the thioether radical cations. In the corresponding methyl derivatives there is a competition between delocalization of the hole that is centered on a p-AO of the S atom into the π-system of the central phenyl ring or through space into the flanking phenyl groups, which leads to a mixture of planar and perpendicular conformations in the radical cation. Adding a second m-terphenyl tert-butyl thioether moiety does not lead to further delocalization; the spin and charge remain in one of the two halves of the radical cation. These findings have interesting implications with regard to the role of methionines as hopping stations in electron transfer through proteins.

  10. Spatially heterogeneous dynamics in supercooled o-terphenyl and polystyrene melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chia-Ying

    Dynamics in supercooled o-terphenyl (OTP) and polystyrene (PS) melts at temperatures near their glass transition have been studied using optical photobleaching techniques. Translational diffusion of 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl) anthracene (BPEA) in PS at temperatures near Tg (Tg = 373K) was observed to be enhanced relative to rotational motion by 2.5 decades (based on the assumption of homogenous dynamics). The translational enhancement of BPEA in PS is intermediate between that observed for tetracene and rubrene in the same matrix. These observations are consistent with the existence of spatially distinct dynamic domains near Tg. Further, tetracene translational motion in PS was measured down below Tg. A transition from Fickian to non-Fickian diffusion was observed and this observation can also be explained on the basis of spatially heterogeneous dynamics. For tetracene in OTP, the lifetime of regions with slow dynamics was determined to be 6 times the probe correlation time at Tg + 4K (Tg = 243K). These results reconcile the previous optical experiments at Tg + 1K (Cicerone and Ediger, J. Chem. Phys. 1995, 103, 5684) and the multidimensional NMR experiments on deuterated OTP at Tg + 10K (Bohmer et al., Europhys. Lett. 1996, 36, 55). These comparisons suggest that the lifetime of heterogeneous dynamic domains is a strong function of temperature. Furthermore, the lifetime of dynamic heterogeneity in PS was determined by measuring the reorientation of two probes, tetracene and rubrene. Similar results were acquired for both probes in PS, which are consistent with what was observed in OTP. These results indicate that the observation of long-lived heterogeneous dynamic domains very near Tg is neither matrix nor probe specific. Rubrene reorientation in thermoset resins was investigated at temperatures below Tg. A bimodal distribution of local relaxation times was observed to develop with the addition of the minor component in the two-component cross-linked matrix; the shape

  11. Determination of mono- and non-o,o′-chlorine substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in Aroclors and environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Feltz, Kevin P.; Peterman, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    High resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC) is the best known technique for the separation of complex mixtures; however, no single GC column has yet separated all 209 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A number of coeluting PCB congener pairs exist, and even under favorable separation conditions such as with multidimensional GC, assignment of peak identities to known PCB structures is tedious, subject to errors from other contaminants, and requires enrichment to achieve the necessary detection limits for the most toxic PCB congeners. Routine analysis of PCBs is also complicated by coelution with other halogenated hydrocarbons such as naphthalenes, terphenyls, dibenzofurans, and pesticides. Therefore, techniques for class separations of PCBs prior to gas chromatography must be developed. These techniques should separate PCB congeners along lines that have environmental or toxicological significance. The unique ability of activated carbon to separate halogenated aromatics on the basis of molecular planarity and degree of halogenation has been demonstrated. We present a method that uses dispersed carbon on glass fibers and commercially available instrumentation to fractionate and determine mono- and non-o,o′-chlorine substituted PCB congeners in Aroclors and environmental samples.

  12. Spatial distribution of organochlorine contaminants in soil, sediment, and fish in Bikini and Enewetak Atolls of the Marshall Islands, Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Caccamise, Sarah A L; Wu, Liejun; Woodward, Lee Ann; Li, Qing X

    2011-08-01

    Several nuclear tests were performed at Enewetak and Bikini Atolls in the Marshall Islands between 1946 and 1958. The events at Bikini Atoll involved several ships that were tested for durability during nuclear explosions, and 24 vessels now rest on the bottom of the Bikini lagoon. Nine soil samples were collected from different areas on the two islands of the atoll, and eighteen sediment, nine fish, and one lobster were collected in the vicinity of the sunken ships. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in these samples were analyzed using gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS). The average recoveries ranged from 78% to 104% for the different PCB congeners. The limits of detection (LOD) for PCBs, PCTs, DDE, DDT, and dieldrin ranged 10-50 pg g(-1). Some fish from Enewetak contained PCBs at a concentration range of 37-137 ng g(-1), dry weight (dw), and most of the soils from Enewetak showed evidence of PCBs (22-392 ng g(-1)dw). Most of the Bikini lagoon sediment samples contained PCBs, and the highest was the one collected from around the Saratoga, an aircraft carrier (1555 ng g(-1)dw). Some of the fish samples, most of the soil samples, and only one of the sediment samples contained 2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (DDE) and PCBs. In addition to PCBs, the soils from Enewetak Atoll contained PCTs. PCTs were not detected in the sediment samples from Bikini Atoll. The results suggest local pollution sources of PCBs, PCTs, and OCPs.

  13. Anomalous doping of a molecular crystal monitored with confocal fluorescence microscopy: Terrylene in a p-terphenyl crystal.

    PubMed

    Białkowska, Magda; Deperasińska, Irena; Makarewicz, Artur; Kozankiewicz, Bolesław

    2017-09-21

    Highly terrylene doped single crystals of p-terphenyl, obtained by co-sublimation of both components, showed bright spots in the confocal fluorescence images. Polarization of the fluorescence excitation spectra, blinking and bleaching, and saturation behavior allowed us to attribute them to single molecules of terrylene anomalously embedded between two neighbor layers of the host crystal, in the (a,b) plane. Such an orientation of terrylene molecules results in much more efficient absorption and collection of the fluorescence photons than in the case of previously investigated molecules embedded in the substitution sites. The above conclusion was supported by quantum chemistry calculations. We postulate that the kind of doping considered in this work should be possible in other molecular crystals where the host molecules are organized in a herringbone pattern.

  14. On the ergodicity of supercooled molecular glass-forming liquids at the dynamical arrest: the o-terphenyl case

    PubMed Central

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Leone, Nancy; Villari, Valentina; Micali, Norberto; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of supercooled ortho-terphenyl has been studied using photon-correlation spectroscopy (PCS) in the depolarized scattering geometry. The obtained relaxation curves are analyzed according to the mode-coupling theory (MCT) for supercooled liquids. The main results are: i) the observation of the secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation (β) that has its onset just at the dynamical crossover temperature TB (TM > TB > Tg); ii) the confirmation, of the suggestion of a recent statistical mechanical study, that such a molecular system remains ergodic also below the calorimetric glass-transition temperature Tg. Our experimental data give evidence that the time scales of the primary (α) and this secondary relaxations are correlated. Finally a comparison with recent PCS experiments in a colloidal system confirms the primary role of the dynamical crossover in the physics of the dynamical arrest. PMID:24434872

  15. On the ergodicity of supercooled molecular glass-forming liquids at the dynamical arrest: the o-terphenyl case.

    PubMed

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Leone, Nancy; Villari, Valentina; Micali, Norberto; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2014-01-17

    The dynamics of supercooled ortho-terphenyl has been studied using photon-correlation spectroscopy (PCS) in the depolarized scattering geometry. The obtained relaxation curves are analyzed according to the mode-coupling theory (MCT) for supercooled liquids. The main results are: i) the observation of the secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation (β) that has its onset just at the dynamical crossover temperature TB (TM > TB > Tg); ii) the confirmation, of the suggestion of a recent statistical mechanical study, that such a molecular system remains ergodic also below the calorimetric glass-transition temperature Tg. Our experimental data give evidence that the time scales of the primary (α) and this secondary relaxations are correlated. Finally a comparison with recent PCS experiments in a colloidal system confirms the primary role of the dynamical crossover in the physics of the dynamical arrest.

  16. On the ergodicity of supercooled molecular glass-forming liquids at the dynamical arrest: the o-terphenyl case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, Francesco; Corsaro, Carmelo; Leone, Nancy; Villari, Valentina; Micali, Norberto; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of supercooled ortho-terphenyl has been studied using photon-correlation spectroscopy (PCS) in the depolarized scattering geometry. The obtained relaxation curves are analyzed according to the mode-coupling theory (MCT) for supercooled liquids. The main results are: i) the observation of the secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation (β) that has its onset just at the dynamical crossover temperature TB (TM > TB > Tg); ii) the confirmation, of the suggestion of a recent statistical mechanical study, that such a molecular system remains ergodic also below the calorimetric glass-transition temperature Tg. Our experimental data give evidence that the time scales of the primary (α) and this secondary relaxations are correlated. Finally a comparison with recent PCS experiments in a colloidal system confirms the primary role of the dynamical crossover in the physics of the dynamical arrest.

  17. Anomalous doping of a molecular crystal monitored with confocal fluorescence microscopy: Terrylene in a p-terphenyl crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Białkowska, Magda; Deperasińska, Irena; Makarewicz, Artur; Kozankiewicz, Bolesław

    2017-09-01

    Highly terrylene doped single crystals of p-terphenyl, obtained by co-sublimation of both components, showed bright spots in the confocal fluorescence images. Polarization of the fluorescence excitation spectra, blinking and bleaching, and saturation behavior allowed us to attribute them to single molecules of terrylene anomalously embedded between two neighbor layers of the host crystal, in the (a,b) plane. Such an orientation of terrylene molecules results in much more efficient absorption and collection of the fluorescence photons than in the case of previously investigated molecules embedded in the substitution sites. The above conclusion was supported by quantum chemistry calculations. We postulate that the kind of doping considered in this work should be possible in other molecular crystals where the host molecules are organized in a herringbone pattern.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls in honey bees

    SciTech Connect

    Morse, R.A.; Culliney, T.W.; Gutenmann, W.H.; Littman, C.B.; Lisk, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) may traverse a radius of several miles from their hives and contact innumerable surfaces during their collection of nectar, pollen, propolis and water. In the process, they may become contaminated with surface constituents which are indicative of the type of environmental pollution in their particular foraging area. Honey has also been analyzed as a possible indicator of heavy metal pollution. Insecticides used in the vicinity of bee hives have been found in bees and honey. It has been recently reported that appreciable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found in honey bees sampled throughout Connecticut. In the work reported here, an analytical survey was conducted on PCBs in honey bees, honey, propolis and related samples in several states to learn the extent of contamination and possible sources.

  19. Dipalladium(I) Terphenyl Diphosphine Complexes as Models for Two-Site Adsorption and Activation of Organic Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sibo; Herbert, David E.; Velian, Alexandra; Day, Michael W.; Agapie, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    Well-defined models for binding of organic molecules across two metal centers are relatively rare. A paraterphenyl diphosphine was employed to support a dipalladium(I) moiety. Unlike previously reported dipalladium(I) species, the present system provides a single molecular hemisphere for binding of ligands across two metal centers, enabling the characterization and comparison of the binding of a wide variety of saturated and unsaturated organic molecules. The dipalladium(I) terphenyl diphosphine toluene-capped complex was synthesized from a dipalladium(I) hexaacetonitrile precursor in the presence of toluene. The palladium centers display interactions with the π-systems of the central ring of the terphenyl unit and that of the toluene. Exchange of toluene for anisole, 1,3-butadiene, 1,3-cyclohexadiene, thiophenes, pyrroles, or furans resulted in well-defined π-bound complexes which were studied by crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and density functional theory. Structural characterization shows that the interactions of the dipalladium unit with the central arene of the diphosphine does not vary significantly in this series allowing for a systematic comparison of the binding of the incoming ligands to the dipalladium moiety. Several of the complexes exhibit rare μ2-η2:η2 or μ2-η2:η1 (O or S) bridging motifs. Hydrogenation of the thiophene and benzothiophene adducts was demonstrated to proceed at room temperature. The relative binding strength of the neutral ligands was determined by competition experiments monitored by NMR spectroscopy. The relative equilibrium constants for ligand substitution span over 13 orders of magnitude. This represents the most comprehensive analysis to date of the relative binding of heterocycles and unsaturated ligands to bimetallic sites. Binding interactions were computationally studied with electrostatic potentials and molecular orbital analysis. Anionic ligands were also demonstrated to form

  20. Arene C-H Amination at Nickel in Terphenyl Diphosphine Complexes with Labile Metal-Arene Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, David E.; Lara, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    The meta-terphenyl diphosphine, m-P2: 1, was utilized to support Ni centers in the oxidation states 0, I and II. A series of complexes bearing different substituents and/or ligands at Ni were prepared to investigate the dependence of metal-arene interactions on oxidation state and substitution at the metal. Compound (m-P2)Ni (2), shows close Ni(0)-arene interactions between the metal centre and the central arene ring of the terphenyl ligand both in solution and the solid-state. These interactions are significantly less pronounced in Ni(0) complexes bearing L-type ligands (2-L: L = CH3CN, CO, Ph2CN2), Ni(I)X complexes [3-X: X = Cl, BF4, N3, N3B(C6F5)3] and (m-P2)Ni(II)Cl2 (4). Complex 2 reacts with substrates such as diphenyldiazoalkane, sulfur ylides (Ph2S=CH2), organoazides (RN3: R = para-C6H5OMe, para-C6H5CF3, 1-adamantyl) and N2O with the locus of observed reactivity dependent on the nature of the substrate, leading to isolation of an η1-diphenyldiazoalkane adduct (2-Ph2CN2), methylidene insertion into a Ni-P bond, followed by rearrangement of a nickel-bound phosphorus ylide (5) to a benzylphosphine (6), Staudinger oxidation of the phosphine arms and metal-mediated nitrene insertion into an arene C-H bond of 1 to give the insertion product 8, all derived from the same compound (2). Hydrogen atom abstraction from a nickel(I)-amide (9) and resulting nitrene transfer chemistry supports the viability of nickel-imide intermediates in the reaction of 1 with 1-azido-arenes. PMID:24127196

  1. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  2. Laboratory evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyls encapsulation methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectiveness and limitations of the encapsulation method for reducing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in indoor air and contaminated surface have been evaluated in the laboratory study. Ten coating materials such as epoxy and polyurethane coatings, latex paint, a...

  3. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  4. A Highly Resolved Yibronic Spectra of Dioxido-p-terphenyl and Trioxido-p-quaterphenyl in n-Hexanc at 77 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawski, A.; Ligȩza, M.

    1982-01-01

    Highly resolved vibronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of dioxido-p-terphenyl and the fluorescence spec-trum of trioxido-p-quaterphenyl in n-hexane at 77 K were obtained. The analysis of the vibrational structure in the excited singlet Si and in the ground So state gives funda-mental frequencies in the ground state in good agreement with those from infrared (IR) and Raman spectra.

  5. Polychlorinated naphthalenes and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in arctic air

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, T.; Kylin, H.; Bidleman, T.F.; Barrie, L.A.; Halsall, C.; Strachan, W.M.J.; Fellin, P.

    1998-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are reported for the first time in arctic air. The data represent combined air samples from the Barents Sea, eastern Arctic Ocean, Norwegian Sea, and two land-based monitoring stations at Alert, Canada, and Dunai Island in eastern Siberia, Russia. Values for {Sigma}PCN were 6--49 for shipboard samples and 0.3--8 for land-based stations and were dominated by the 3-Cl and 4-Cl homologues, which accounted for 90--95% of the total mass. Average values for {Sigma}PCB for the shipboard samples were 126, 24, and 75 for the Barents Sea, eastern Arctic, and Norwegian Sea, respectively. Three-dimensional 5-day air parcel back-trajectories arriving at the ship at 850 and 925 hPa suggested that elevated PCB and PCN concentrations for shipboard samples originated in Europe. Concentrations (fg m{sup {minus}3}) of coplanar PCBs in arctic air were 3--40 (PCB 77) and 0.3--8 (PCB 126) -- about an order of magnitude lower than in urban air. Higher concentrations of PCB 77 and PCB 126, 347 and 5.0 (fg m{sup {minus}3}), respectively, were found in the Barents Sea for two samples with elevated {Sigma}PCBs.

  6. Theoretical simulations of the tip-induced configuration changes of the 4,4(')-diacetyl-p-terphenyl molecule chemisorbed on Si(001).

    PubMed

    Mamatkulov, M; Stauffer, L; Sonnet, Ph; Mayne, A J; Comtet, G; Dujardin, G

    2008-06-28

    We have investigated from a theoretical point of view modifications of the 4,4(')-diacetyl-p-terphenyl molecule chemisorbed on Si(001) induced by the scanning tunneling microscope (STM). In previous experiments, these modifications were observed to occur preferentially at the end of the molecule after a +4.0 V voltage pulse and at the center after a +4.5 V voltage pulse. In the framework of ab initio simulations, we have realized a systematic energetic study of the dissociative chemisorption of one, two, or three phenyl rings of the substituted p-terphenyl molecule. Charge densities were then calculated for the investigated configurations and compared to the STM topographies. Before manipulation with the STM tip, the substituted p-terphenyl molecule is preferentially adsorbed without phenyl ring dissociation, allowing a partial rotation of the central phenyl ring. Our results show that the STM induced modifications observed at the end of the molecule might originate from the dissociation of two phenyl rings (one central and one external ring), while the modifications occurring at the central part of the molecule can be interpreted as a dissociation of the two external rings.

  7. Highly chlorinated toxic contaminants in pesticide-treated wooden art objects.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Kawaki, Peter; Indekeu, Charles; Schepens, Paul; Neels, Hugo

    2006-01-01

    Although the contamination of wooden art objects with pesticides is well known, to the authors' knowledge no attempt has yet been made to investigate the eventual presence of other toxic compounds that have been produced during the degradation of pesticides or that may be present in the technical formulations. Here, the authors report on the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs) in scrapings from wooden antique art objects, namely printing blocks, sculptures, and masks. These antiques belong to 2 fine art museums in Belgium--Antwerp's Ethnographic Museum and the Plantin-Moretus Museum. It is documented that these art objects were treated with pesticides in the 1950s. In addition, 2-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD) isomers and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) were also identified. The presence of these toxic compounds in these antiques requires a better understanding of safety for the persons (conservators, museum employees, restorers, and visitors) coming in contact with these objects.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.; Jarnagin, R.E.

    1990-09-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is planning to implement a conservation acquisition program in new and existing commercial buildings. In anticipation of that program, Bonneville is examining the potential environmental effects of conservation measures in commercial buildings. An important conservation measure is the installation of new energy-efficient lighting fixtures. Some of the old lighting fixtures that these new lights will be replacing were manufactured before 1978, when polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were still used in the capacitors of the lighting ballasts. This report focuses on a summary of information about PCBs in fluorescent light fixtures manufactured before 1978. A key issue associated with these PCBs is the potential effect of lamp change-outs on ballast failure. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) speculates that installing energy-efficient lamps in old, PCB-laden ballasts may contribute to ballast failure and PCB leaks, which is addressed in Section 3 of this report. Section 2 discusses applicable standards and regulations; Section 4 describes PCB concentrations in commercial buildings. Sections 5 and 6 discuss cleanup practices and disposal options. 4 tabs.

  9. Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polychlorinated Biphenyl

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2008-04-01

    A simple, rapid, and highly sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) and disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) has been developed to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PCB-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PCB (HRP-PCB). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreactions among PCB-antibody-coated MBs, PCB analyte, and HRP-PCB. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing o-aminophenol and hydrogen peroxide for electrochemical detection. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PCB conjugates, immunoreaction time, and the concentration of substrate that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 5 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical immunoassay was successfully evaluated with untreated river water spiked with PCBs, and the results were validated by commercial PCB enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental application and trace PCBs monitoring.

  10. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofura...

  11. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS FROM THE OPEN BURNING OF HOUSEHOLD WASTE IN BARRELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofura...

  12. Fast surface diffusion of amorphous o-terphenyl and its competition with viscous flow in surface evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Brian, Caleb W; Yu, Lian

    2015-04-16

    Surface self-diffusion coefficients have been measured for the model molecular glass o-terphenyl (OTP) through surface-grating decay driven by capillarity. The decay mechanism transitions from viscous flow at high temperatures to surface diffusion at low temperatures; for 1000 nm wavelength gratings, the transition occurs at Tg + 11 K. The surface diffusion of OTP is 10(8) times faster than bulk diffusion at Tg and even faster at lower temperatures because of its weaker temperature dependence. At Tg, OTP has approximately the same bulk diffusivity as the previously studied molecular liquid indomethacin, but its surface diffusion is 100 times faster. While the molecular glass-formers exhibit transitions from viscous flow to surface diffusion as the mechanism of capillarity-driven surface flattening, polystyrenes and silicates show no such transition under comparable conditions, suggesting slower surface diffusion on these materials and a general dependence of surface diffusion on intermolecular forces. The velocity of surface crystal growth on molecular glasses is proportional to surface diffusivity, indicating a common kinetic barrier for both processes for temperatures below Tg.

  13. Adam-Gibbs model for the supercooled dynamics in the ortho-terphenyl ortho-phenylphenol mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roland, C. M.; Capaccioli, S.; Lucchesi, M.; Casalini, R.

    2004-06-01

    Dielectric measurements of the α-relaxation time were carried out on a mixture of ortho-terphenyl (OTP) with ortho-phenylphenol, over a range of temperatures at two pressures, 0.1 and 28.8 MPa. These are the same conditions for which heat capacity, thermal expansivity, and compressibility measurements were reported by Takahara et al. [S. Takahara, M. Ishikawa, O. Yamamuro, and T. Matsuo, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3288 (1999)] for the same mixture. From the combined dynamic and thermodynamic data, we determine that density and temperature govern to an equivalent degree the variation of the relaxation times with temperature. Over the measured range, the dependence of the relaxation times on configurational entropy is in accord with the Adam-Gibbs model, and this dependence is invariant to pressure. Consistent with the implied connection between relaxation and thermodynamic properties, the kinetic and thermodynamic fragilities are found to have the same pressure independence. In comparing the relaxation properties of the mixture to those of neat OTP, density effects are stronger in the former, perhaps suggestive of less efficient packing.

  14. Adam-Gibbs model for the supercooled dynamics in the ortho-terphenyl ortho-phenylphenol mixture.

    PubMed

    Roland, C M; Capaccioli, S; Lucchesi, M; Casalini, R

    2004-06-08

    Dielectric measurements of the alpha-relaxation time were carried out on a mixture of ortho-terphenyl (OTP) with ortho-phenylphenol, over a range of temperatures at two pressures, 0.1 and 28.8 MPa. These are the same conditions for which heat capacity, thermal expansivity, and compressibility measurements were reported by Takahara et al. [S. Takahara, M. Ishikawa, O. Yamamuro, and T. Matsuo, J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 3288 (1999)] for the same mixture. From the combined dynamic and thermodynamic data, we determine that density and temperature govern to an equivalent degree the variation of the relaxation times with temperature. Over the measured range, the dependence of the relaxation times on configurational entropy is in accord with the Adam-Gibbs model, and this dependence is invariant to pressure. Consistent with the implied connection between relaxation and thermodynamic properties, the kinetic and thermodynamic fragilities are found to have the same pressure independence. In comparing the relaxation properties of the mixture to those of neat OTP, density effects are stronger in the former, perhaps suggestive of less efficient packing.

  15. Highly Soluble p-Terphenyl and Fluorene Derivatives as Efficient Dopants in Plastic Scintillators for Sensitive Nuclear Material Detection.

    PubMed

    Sellinger, Alan; Yemam, Henok A; Mahl, Adam; Greife, Uwe; Tinkham, Jonathan; Koubek, Joshua

    2017-04-10

    Plastic scintillators are commonly used as first-line detectors for special nuclear materials. Current state-of-the-art plastic scintillators based on poly(vinyltoluene) (PVT) matrices containing high loadings (>15.0 wt%) of 2,5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) offer neutron signal discrimination in gamma radiation background (termed pulse shape discrimination, PSD), however they suffer from poor mechanical properties. In this work, a series of p-terphenyl and fluorene derivatives were synthesized and used as dopants in PVT based plastic scintillators as possible alternatives to PPO to address the mechanical property issue and to study the PSD mechanism. The derivatives were synthesized from low cost starting materials in high yields using simple chemistry. The photophysical and thermal properties were investigated for their influence on radiation sensitivity/detection performance, and mechanical stability. A direct correlation was found between the melting point of the dopants and the subsequent mechanical properties of the PVT based plastic scintillators. Select fluorene derivatives produced scintillator samples whose mechanical properties exceeded those of the commercial PPO based scintillators while producing acceptable PSD capabilities. The physical properties of the synthesized dopants were also investigated to examine their effect on the samples. Planar derivatives of fluorene were found to be highly soluble in PVT matrices with little to no aggregation induced effects.

  16. Toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls during salmonid early development

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.K.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the lethal potency and signs of toxicity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) during salmonid early development. Metabolism, elimination, and toxicity of 2,3,7,8tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) during lake trout early life stage development was investigated following waterborne exposure of lake trout eggs to ({sup 3}H)TCDD. TCDD was not metabolized or eliminated by eggs or sac fry, but was rapidly eliminated from fry. TCDD toxicity was manifested by some hatching mortality, but predominantly by sac fry mortality associated with subcutaneous yolk sac edema and hemorrhages, resembling blue-sac disease. Based on the egg TCDD concentration, the no-observable-adverse-effect level for mortality was 34 pg TCDD/g egg and the lowest-observable-adverse-effect level for mortality was 40 pg/g. LD{sub 50} was 65 pg/g. An injection method was developed to administer graded doses of non-radiolabeled PCDD, PCDF, and PCB congeners to lake trout and rainbow trout eggs. Following TCDD egg injection, lake trout were more sensitive than rainbow trout to the lethal effect of TCDD with LD{sub 50}S of 47 and 402 pg/g, respectively; however, TCDD toxicity in both species was manifested by sac fry mortality and blue-sac disease. Toxicity of TCDD was assessed during lake trout early life stage development following TCDD maternal-deposition, TCDD egg injection, and TCDD waterborne egg exposure. The lethal potency of TCDD and signs of toxicity during lake trout early development following all three routes of egg exposure were essentially the same.

  17. Vapor pressures of the polychlorinated naphthalenes

    SciTech Connect

    Lei, Y.D.; Shiu, W.Y.; Wania, F.

    1999-05-01

    The vapor pressures of the supercooled liquid P{sub L} for 17 polychlorinated naphthalene congeners were determined as a function of temperature with a gas chromatographic retention time technique. The method was calibrated with vapor pressure data for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which had been measured by other techniques. These data were employed to predict temperature-dependent vapor pressures for all polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) from a regression with published retention time indices. Enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub VAP}H and activity coefficients in 1-octanol were calculated for the PCNs and compared with those for polychlorinated biphenyls. Data analysis suggests that the dependence of P{sub L} and {Delta}{sub VAP}H on molecular size, as well as the partitioning behavior into 1-octanol of the PCNs, is very similar to that of coplanar PCBs, i.e., those congeners with no or only one chlorine substitution in the ortho positions. The affinity of these chemicals to 1-octanol increases with the degree of chlorination.

  18. Isolation and characterization of new p-Terphenyls with antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant activities from halophilic actinomycete Nocardiopsis gilva YIM 90087.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shou-Zheng; Pu, Xiang; Luo, Guoyong; Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Li, Wen-Jun; Luo, Yinggang

    2013-03-27

    A new p-terphenyl 1 and a novel p-terphenyl derivative 3 bearing a benzothiazole moiety were isolated from halophilic actinomycete Nocardiopsis gilva YIM 90087, along with known p-terphenyl 2, antibiotic novobiocin 4, cyclodipeptides 5-13, and aromatic acids 14 and 15. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of the interpretation of spectral data and by comparison of the corresponding data with those reported previously. The p-terphenyl 1 showed antifungal activity against the three pathogenic fungi, including Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium graminearum, and Fusarium culmorum, that caused Fusarium head blight with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8, 16, and 128 μg/mL, respectively. Compound 1 showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans with a MIC of 32 μg/mL and antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with a MIC of 64 μg/mL. Novobiocin 4 showed antifungal activity against Pyricularia oryzae with a MIC of 16 μg/mL and antibacterial activity against B. subtilis with a MIC of 16 μg/mL and Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC of 64 μg/mL. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay suggested that 1, 3, and 4 exhibited 54.9% (2 mg/mL), 14.3% (4 mg/mL), and 47.7% (2 mg/mL) free radical scavenging activity, respectively. The positively charged 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS(+•)) scavenging assay indicated that 1, 3, 4, and 8 exhibited 68.6% (1 mg/mL), 28.4% (2 mg/mL), 78.2% (0.5 mg/mL), and 54.6% (2 mg/mL) ABTS(+•) scavenging capacity, respectively. The superoxide anion radical scavenging assay suggested that 4 exhibited 77.9% superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity at 2 mg/mL. N. gilva YIM 90087 is a new resource for novobiocin 4.

  19. Experimental and computational studies of the molybdenum-flanking arene interaction in quadruply bonded dimolybdenum complexes with terphenyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Mario; Mendoza, Irene; Álvarez, Eleuterio; Grirrane, Abdessamad; Maya, Celia; Peloso, Riccardo; Rodríguez, Amor; Falceto, Andrés; Álvarez, Santiago; Carmona, Ernesto

    2015-01-02

    To clarify the nature of the Mo-Carene interaction in terphenyl complexes with quadruple Mo-Mo bonds, ether adducts of composition [Mo2 (Ar')(I)(O2 CR)2 (OEt2)] have been prepared and characterized (Ar'=Ar(Xyl) 2 , R=Me; Ar'=ArMes2, R=Me; Ar'=Ar(Xyl2), R=CF3) (Mes=mesityl; Xyl=2,6-Me2 C6 H3, from now on xylyl) and their reactivity toward different neutral Lewis bases investigated. PMe3 , P(OMe)3 and PiPr3 were chosen as P-donors and the reactivity studies complemented with the use of the C-donors CNXyl and CN2 C2 Me4 (1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazol-2-ylidene). New compounds of general formula [Mo2 (Ar')(I)(O2 CR)2 (L)] were obtained, except for the imidazol-2-ylidene ligand that yielded a salt-like compound of composition [Mo2 (Ar(Xyl2))(O2 CMe)2 (CN2 C2 Me4)2]I. The Mo-Carene interaction in these complexes has been analyzed with the aid of X-ray data and computational studies. This interaction compensates the coordinative and electronic unsaturation of one of the Mo atoms in the above complexes, but it seems to be weak in terms of sharing of electron density between the Mo and Carene atoms and appears to have no appreciable effect in the length of the Mo-Mo, Mo-X, and Mo-L bonds present in these molecules. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Nitrogen nuclear spin flips in nitroxide spin probes of different sizes in glassy o-terphenyl: Possible relation with α- and β-relaxations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, N. P.; Dzuba, S. A.

    2011-09-01

    The pulsed electron-electron double resonance (ELDOR) technique was employed to study nitroxide spin probes of three different sizes dissolved in glassy o-terphenyl. A microwave pulse applied to the central hyperfine structure (hfs) component of the nitroxide electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum was followed by two echo-detecting pulses of different microwave frequency to probe the magnetization transfer (MT) to the low-field hfs component. The MT between hfs components is readily related to flips in the nitrogen nuclear spin, which in turn are induced by molecular motion. The MT on the time scale of tens of microseconds was observed over a wide temperature range, including temperatures near and well below the glass transition. For a bulky nitroxide, it was found that MT rates approach dielectric α (primary) relaxation frequencies reported for o-terphenyl in the literature. For small nitroxides, MT rates were found to match the frequencies of dielectric β (secondary) Johari-Goldstein relaxation. The most probable motional mechanism inducing the nitrogen nuclear spin flips is large-angle angular jumps, between some orientations of unequal occupation probabilities. The pulsed ELDOR of nitroxide spin probes may provide additional insight into the nature of Johari-Goldstein relaxation in glassy media and may serve as a tool for studying this relaxation in substances consisting of non-rigid molecules (such as branched polymers) and in heterogeneous and non-polar systems (such as a core of biological membranes).

  1. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-2 - Polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AND CERTAIN CATEGORIES OF PROPERTY 42.11-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-2 Polychlorinated biphenyls. (a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Polychlorinated...

  2. Waste disposal technologies for polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T; Lindstrom, F T

    1985-01-01

    Improper practices in the disposal of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes by land burial, chemical means and incineration distribute these chemicals and related compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) throughout the environment. The complete range of methods for disposal that have been proposed and are in use are examined and analyzed, with emphasis given to the two most commonly used methods: land burial and incineration. The understanding of aquifer contamination caused by migration of PCBs from subsurface burial sites requires a description of the physical, chemical and biological processes governing transport in unsaturated and saturated soils. For this purpose, a model is developed and solved for different soil conditions and external driving functions. The model couples together the fundamental transport phenomena for heat, mass, and moisture flow within the soil. To rehabilitate a contaminated aquifer, contaminated groundwaters are withdrawn through drainage wells, PCBs are extracted with solvents or activated carbon and treated by chemical, photochemical or thermal methods. The chemical and photochemical methods are reviewed, but primary emphasis is devoted to the use of incineration as the preferred method of disposal. After discussing the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs during combustion from chloroaromatic, chloroaliphatic, as well as organic and inorganic chloride precursors, performance characteristics of different thermal destructors are presented and analyzed. To understand how this information can be used, basic design equations are developed from governing heat and mass balances that can be applied to the construction of incinerators capable of more than 99.99% destruction with minimal to nondetectable levels of PCDFs and PCDDs. PMID:3921358

  3. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D; Kania-Korwel, I; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed. PMID:25629923

  4. [Male reproductive toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls].

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming; Wu, Nan-xiang

    2011-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants with estrogen-like effects that exist widely in the environment, and its male reproductive toxicity is arousing more and more attention. Studies indicate that different types of cells in the testis respond differently to PCBs exposure. This article presents an overview on the toxicity of PCBs to testicular germ cells, Leydig cells, Sertoli cells and male offspring. We suggest that deeper studies focus on the mechanism of PCBs according to the results of investigations on male reproductive epidemiology. An insight into the intercellular junctions of Sertoli cells might produce a breakthrough in the studies of the testicular toxicity of PCBs.

  5. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Fabian A; Hu, Dingfei; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Ludewig, Gabriele; Hornbuckle, Keri C; Duffel, Michael W; Bergman, Åke; Robertson, Larry W

    2015-03-01

    Abstract The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity, and thereby on the assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general, and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism, and to identify the metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed.

  6. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  7. THE EFFECT OF COFIRING HIGH-SULFUR COAL WITH MUNICIPAL WASTE ON FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of co-firing minor amounts (5-10 wt%) of high sulfur coal with municipal refuse-derived fuel (RDF) on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) was studied under a range of operating conditions. Through use of 2x facto...

  8. THE EFFECT OF COFIRING HIGH-SULFUR COAL WITH MUNICIPAL WASTE ON FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of co-firing minor amounts (5-10 wt%) of high sulfur coal with municipal refuse-derived fuel (RDF) on emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) was studied under a range of operating conditions. Through use of 2x facto...

  9. THE EFFECT OF METAL CATALYSTS ON THE FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN PRECURSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The catalytic effects of copper and iron compounds were examined for their behavior in promoting formation of chlorine (Cl2), the major chlorinating agent of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), in an environment simulati...

  10. ON-ROAD EMISSION SAMPLING OF A HEAVY DUTY DIESEL VEHICLE FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first known program to characterize mobile heavy diesel vehicle emissions for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during highway and in-city driving routes was successfully conducted. The post-muffler exhaust of a diesel tractor haul...

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF CHLORINE SPECIATION ON DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of chlorine speciation on de novo formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) has been thoroughly studied in an entrained flow reactor during simulated waste combustion. Namely, the affects of gas-phase chlorine species suc...

  12. Process for removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil

    DOEpatents

    Hancher, C.W.; Saunders, M.B.; Googin, J.M.

    1984-11-16

    The present invention relates to a method of removing polychlorinated biphenyls from soil. The polychlorinated biphenyls are extracted from the soil by employing a liquid organic solvent dispersed in water in the ratio of about 1:3 to 3:1. The organic solvent includes such materials as short-chain hydrocarbons including kerosene or gasoline which are immiscible with water and are nonpolar. The organic solvent has a greater affinity for the PCB's than the soil so as to extract the PCB's from the soil upon contact. The organic solvent phase is separated from the suspended soil and water phase and distilled for permitting the recycle of the organic solvent phase and the concentration of the PCB's in the remaining organic phase. The present process can be satisfactorily practiced with soil containing 10 to 20% petroleum-based oils and organic fluids such as used in transformers and cutting fluids, coolants and the like which contain PCB's. The subject method provides for the removal of a sufficient concentration of PCB's from the soil to provide the soil with a level of PCB's within the guidelines of the Environmental Protection Agency.

  13. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk from different regions of France.

    PubMed

    Focant, Jean-François; Fréry, Nadine; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Eppe, Gauthier; Scholl, Georges; Saoudi, Abdessattar; Oleko, Amivi; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2013-05-01

    We report on the pilot study carried out before the start of the Elfe project (French longitudinal study from childhood). A total of 44 samples of mature human milk were collected at home 8 weeks after delivery. A total of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 12 dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 6 non dioxin-like (NDL)-PCBs were measured. For total TEQ (PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs), the geometric mean concentration was 17.81 pg TEQ(WHO05)/g lipids. Relative PCDD, PCDF, and DL-PCB contributions to the arithmetic mean TEQ(WHO05) were 38%, 18%, and 44%, respectively. The use of TEF(WHO05) instead of TEF(WHO98) resulted in a 27% reduction of the total TEQ value. Although PCDD levels did not significantly change (less than 0.5% increase), PCDF and DL-PCB levels both decreased by 35% and 38%, respectively. Levels have been compared to data obtained during a previous non-reported national study conducted in 1998 (TEF(WHO98)) in French lactaria (n=244). The mean of PCDD/Fs has decreased about 39.4% (18.8 pg TEQ(WHO98)/g lipids in 1998 vs 11.4 pg TEQ(WHO98)/g lipids in pilot study), respectively 41.5% for PCDDs (10.6 pg TEQ(WHO98)/g lipids in 1998 vs 6.2 pg TEQ(WHO98)/g lipids in pilot study) and 36.7% for PCDFs (7.9 pg TEQ(WHO98)/g lipids in 1998 vs 5.0 pg TEQ(WHO98)/g lipids in pilot study). For the sum of the 6 NDL-PCBs, the 2007 geometric mean concentration in milk was 176.3 ng/g lipids. The arithmetic mean lipid concentration in 2007 breast milk was 26.4 g/l (range from 6.0 to 46.7 g/l). A PCDD/F and DL-PCB daily intake was estimated to be 62.3 pg TEQ(WHO05)/kg body weight per day (85.0 pg TEQ(WHO98)/kg body weight per day) for a baby of 5 kg of body weight fed daily with 700 ml of maternal milk containing 25 g/l of lipids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in sediments from Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Müller, Jochen F; Gaus, Caroline; Prange, Joelle A; Päpke, Olaf; Poon, Ka Fai; Lam, M H W; Lam, Paul K

    2002-01-01

    Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in 14 sediment samples collected from four sites in the Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve (within a RAMSAR Site) and from another six sites in Victoria Harbour and along the Hong Kong coastline. Elevated levels of PCDDs, and particularly OCDD, were detectable in all samples collected from the Mai Po Marshes and five of the six sites. In contrast to PCDDs, PCDFs were mainly found in sediment samples collected from industrial areas (Kwun Tong and To Kwa Wan) in Victoria Harbour. PCDD/ F levels and congener profiles in the samples from the Mai Po Marshes Nature Reserve in particular show strong similarities to those reported in studies which have attributed similar elevated PCDD concentrations to nonanthropogenic PCDD sources.

  15. Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum using programmable-temperature vaporization gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhong, Yuxin; Liu, Xin; Bao, Yan; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning; Cai, Zongwei; Li, Jingguang

    2017-09-01

    The determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in blood from a non-occupational population is essential for the investigation of adverse health effects from these pollutants. In this study, a sensitive method based on programmable-temperature vaporization with large-volume injection coupled with gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry was developed to determine these pollutants in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. Various key parameters of programmable-temperature vaporization injector, including vent temperature, vent time, vent flow, transfer temperature and transfer time were optimized by factorial design. The accuracy and precision as well as applicability were assessed by determining polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in calibration standard solutions, standard reference materials and real human serum samples from non-occupational population. The method detection limits of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls were 1.5-9.0 and 0.005-0.02 ng/kg wet weight, respectively. By comparing with typically splitless injection, the application of programmable-temperature vaporization injector could effectively lead to higher detectable rate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in 1-2 mL of human serum samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. ROLE OF COMBUSTION AND SORBENT PARAMETERS IN PREVENTION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURAN FORMATION DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research uses experimental data and a statistical approach to determine the effect of combustion- and sorbent-injection-related parameters on the mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF, respectively) formation and preven...

  17. Reactive Functionalized Membranes for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Minghui; Ormsbee, Lindell E; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2013-08-07

    Membranes have been widely used in water remediation (e.g. desalination and heavy metal removal) because of the ability to control membrane pore size and surface charge. The incorporation of nanomaterials into the membranes provides added benefits through increased reactivity with different functionality. In this study, we report the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl in the aqueous phase by a reactive membrane system. Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized (in-situ) within polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Biphenyl formed in the reduction was further oxidized into hydroxylated biphenyls and benzoic acid by an iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical (OH•) reaction. The formation of magnetite on Fe surface was observed. This combined pathway (reductive/oxidative) could reduce the toxicity of PCBs effectively while eliminating the formation of chlorinated degradation byproducts. The successful manufacturing of full-scale functionalized membranes demonstrates the possibility of applying reactive membranes in practical water treatment.

  18. PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO REMEDIATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  19. PRACTICAL APPROACHES TO REMEDIATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  20. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls by mixed microbial cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R R; Chian, E S; Griffin, R A

    1979-01-01

    Three different enriched mixed cultures capable of degrading polychlorinated biphenylas were isolated from two soil samples and a river sediment, respectively. The predominant organisms found in all three mixed cultures were Alcaligenes odorans, Alcaligenes dentrificans, and an unidentified bacterium. The polychlorinated biphenyl isomers that were more water soluble and had lower chlorination were not only degraded at a faster rate than those that were less water soluble and had higher chlorination, but were also more completely utilized by these mixed cultures. This resulted in the presence in the environment of polychlorinated biphenyl residues consisting mainly of higher-chlorinated isomers. A form of cometabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls was also found with these cultures in the presence of acetate as the cosubstrate. PMID:110265

  1. Separation of extracts from biological tissues into polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran fractions prior to analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, P W; Miller, J; Smith, R; Connor, S; Clayton, W; Storm, R

    1997-05-30

    A low-pressure liquid chromatography method is presented for separating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) from biological tissue extracts. After removing lipid from extracts, the PAHs are separated from PCBs and PCDDs/PCDFs on a deactivated 13-24 microns silica gel column. The PCBs are subsequently separated from PCDDs/PCDFs by collecting the first fraction from an automated three column cleanup procedure for PCDDs/PCDFs. The complete method has been used to obtain high recoveries of the three compound classes for analysis by GC-electron capture detection (PCBs) or GC-MS (PAHs and PCDDs/PCDFs).

  2. A Critical Review about Human Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) through Foods.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, R; Yebra-Pimentel, I; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-01-01

    Dioxins include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and part of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Only the compounds that are chlorinated at the 2,3,7, and 8 positions have characteristic dioxin toxicity. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs accumulate in the food chain due to their high lipophilicity, high stability, and low vapor pressure. They are not metabolized easily; however their hydroxylated metabolites are detected in feces. They cause a wide range of endocrine disrupting effects in experimental animals, wildlife, and humans. Endocrine related effects of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs on thyroid hormones, neurodevelopment and reproductive development were referenced. In addition, some studies of contamination of foods, bioaccumulation, dietary exposure assessment, as well as challenges of scientific research in these compounds were reviewed.

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and links to Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Jordan T.; Petriello, Michael C.; Newsome, Bradley J.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The pathology of cardiovascular disease is multi-faceted, with links to many modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Epidemiological evidence now implicates exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; all of which are clinically relevant to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. PCBs exert their cardiovascular toxicity either directly or indirectly via multiple mechanisms, which are highly dependent on the type and concentration of PCBs present. However, many PCBs may modulate cellular signaling pathways leading to common detrimental outcomes including induction of chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine disruption. With the abundance of potential toxic pollutants increasing globally, it is critical to identify sensible means of decreasing associated disease risks. Emerging evidence now implicates a protective role of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and/or nutritional modulation via anti-inflammatory foods, which may help to decrease the vascular toxicity of PCBs. This review will outline the current state of knowledge linking coplanar and non-coplanar PCBs to cardiovascular disease and describe the possible molecular mechanism of this association. PMID:25877901

  4. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  5. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl {PCB} emissions ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber serving as a stable source of PCBs and building materials in the test chamber. During the tests, the PCB concentrations in the outlet air of the test chamber were monitored and the building materials were removed from the test chamber at different times to determine their PCB content. Among the materials tested, a petroleum-based paint, a latex paint, and a certain type of carpet were among the strongest sinks. Solvent-free epoxy coating, certain types of flooring materials, and brick were among the weakest sinks. For a given sink material, PCB congeners with lower vapor pressures were sorbed in larger quantities. Rough estimates of the partition and diffusion coefficients were obtained by applying a sink model to the data acquired from the chamber studies. A desorption test with the concrete panels showed that re-emission is a slow process, suggesting that PCB sinks, e.g. concrete, can release PCBs into the air for a prolonged period of time (years or decades). This study could fill some of the data gaps associated with the characterization of PCB sinks in contaminated buildings. This paper summarizes the laboratory research results for PCB transport from primary sources to PCB sinks, includ

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Organochlorine Pesticides, and Neurodevelopment

    PubMed Central

    Korrick, Susan A.; Sagiv, Sharon K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Although environmental levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and certain organochlorine pesticides – hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) and its primary metabolite, dichlorodiphenyl dicloroethene (DDE) – are generally on the decline, early-life exposures to these prevalent contaminants continue. This review will describe current understanding of the potential neurodevelopmental consequences of low-level exposures to these contaminants. Findings Animal models suggest that early-life exposures to PCBs, DDT/DDE, or HCB are associated with decreased cognitive or behavioral function in later development. However, despite almost 30 years of research, results of human studies are inconsistent regarding the nature of the observed effects and their persistence over time. Overall, epidemiologic studies support modest associations of primarily prenatal PCB exposures with differences in neuromotor development, decrements in cognition, and behavioral deficits, particularly regarding attention and impulse control. There are limited published human data regarding potential neurodevelopmental toxicities of early-life exposures to DDT/DDE and HCB. Summary Exposures to PCBs, DDT/DDE and HCB are likely detrimental to neurodevelopment. Effective control of exposure is complicated by variable exposure sources and variable contaminant levels in food, particularly fish, for which it is important to balance the risk of contaminants with nutritional benefits. PMID:18332718

  7. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  8. Reactive Functionalized Membranes for Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Gui, Minghui; Ormsbee, Lindell E.; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2014-01-01

    Membranes have been widely used in water remediation (e.g. desalination and heavy metal removal) because of the ability to control membrane pore size and surface charge. The incorporation of nanomaterials into the membranes provides added benefits through increased reactivity with different functionality. In this study, we report the dechlorination of 2-chlorobiphenyl in the aqueous phase by a reactive membrane system. Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized (in-situ) within polyacrylic acid (PAA) functionalized polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes for degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Biphenyl formed in the reduction was further oxidized into hydroxylated biphenyls and benzoic acid by an iron-catalyzed hydroxyl radical (OH•) reaction. The formation of magnetite on Fe surface was observed. This combined pathway (reductive/oxidative) could reduce the toxicity of PCBs effectively while eliminating the formation of chlorinated degradation byproducts. The successful manufacturing of full-scale functionalized membranes demonstrates the possibility of applying reactive membranes in practical water treatment. PMID:24954974

  9. Chamber study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The sorption of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by twenty building materials and their subsequent re-emission (desorption) from concrete were investigated using two 53-L environmental chambers connected in series with a field-collected caulk in the source chamber serving as a stable source of PCBs and building materials in the test chamber. During the tests, the PCB concentrations in the outlet air of the test chamber were monitored and the building materials were removed from the test chamber at different times to determine their PCB content. Among the materials tested, a petroleum-based paint, a latex paint, and a certain type of carpet were among the strongest sinks. Solvent-free epoxy coating, certain types of flooring materials, and brick were among the weakest sinks. For a given sink material, PCB congeners with lower vapor pressures were sorbed in larger quantities. Rough estimates of the partition and diffusion coefficients were obtained by applying a sink model to the data acquired from the chamber studies. A desorption test with the concrete panels showed that re-emission is a slow process, suggesting that PCB sinks, e.g. concrete, can release PCBs into the air for a prolonged period of time (years or decades). This study could fill some of the data gaps associated with the characterization of PCB sinks in contaminated buildings. This paper summarizes the laboratory research results for PCB transport from primary sources to PCB sinks, includ

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls and links to cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jordan T; Petriello, Michael C; Newsome, Bradley J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2016-02-01

    The pathology of cardiovascular disease is multi-faceted, with links to many modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Epidemiological evidence now implicates exposure to persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), with an increased risk of developing diabetes, hypertension, and obesity; all of which are clinically relevant to the onset and progression of cardiovascular disease. PCBs exert their cardiovascular toxicity either directly or indirectly via multiple mechanisms, which are highly dependent on the type and concentration of PCBs present. However, many PCBs may modulate cellular signaling pathways leading to common detrimental outcomes including induction of chronic oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine disruption. With the abundance of potential toxic pollutants increasing globally, it is critical to identify sensible means of decreasing associated disease risks. Emerging evidence now implicates a protective role of lifestyle modifications such as increased exercise and/or nutritional modulation via anti-inflammatory foods, which may help to decrease the vascular toxicity of PCBs. This review will outline the current state of knowledge linking coplanar and non-coplanar PCBs to cardiovascular disease and describe the possible molecular mechanism of this association.

  11. Octanol/air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Komp, P.; McLachlan, M.S.

    1997-12-01

    The partitioning of 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between air and 1-octanol was investigated using a fugacity meter. The measurements were conducted over an environmentally relevant temperature range (10--43 C). For a given congener the measured 1-octanol/air partition coefficient K{sub OA} was exponentially proportional to the reciprocal temperature. The enthalpy of phase change (octanol to air) {Delta}H{sub OA} ranged from 71 to 93 kJ/mol. Up to log K{sub OA} values of 9.37 (corresponding to 2,2{prime},3,4{prime},5{prime},6-hexachlorobiphenyl), the enthalpy of phase change was similar to the enthalpy of vaporization of the subcooled liquid PCB. For the less volatile congeners (log K{sub OA} > 9.37), the enthalpies of vaporization exceeded the enthalpies of phase change, the difference increasing with increasing log K{sub OA}. Solubilities of the PCBs in 1-octanol were calculated from the data, and the results were in excellent agreement with octanol solubilities calculated using the OCTASOL fragment method. A very good correlation between the measured octanol/air partition coefficients and values calculated from octanol/water and air/water partition coefficients was obtained. This yielded a method to estimate reliably the octanol/air partitioning of all PCB congeners.

  12. Studies on populations exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Kreiss, K

    1985-01-01

    Mean serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in U.S. population groups without occupational exposure to PCBs are usually between 4 and 8 ng/mL, with 95% of individuals having serum PCB measurements of less than 20. Subpopulations consuming fish taken from contaminated waters, such as Lake Michigan and near Triana, AL, have mean serum PCB levels several times those found in other general population groups and ranges that extend into concentrations found in industrial populations involved in capacitor manufacture. Two studies of general populations and several studies of industrial workers have demonstrated associations of PCBs with various serum lipids and liver enzyme levels. Six groups of investigators have found associations between PCB or chlorinated pesticide levels and blood pressure. Research efforts are needed in clarifying determinants of serum-adipose partition ratios; the utility of urinary porphyrins as a measure of subclinical hepatic effects; human metabolites and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons; and the relation, if any, between blood pressure and organochlorine compounds when controlled for confounding variables. Established cohorts, such as those in Triana, Lake Michigan sportsfishers, the Michigan PBB cohort, residents of farms with PCB-lined silos, and occupational groups, could all be studied further with attention to these research questions. PMID:3928345

  13. Can Stress Enhance Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls?

    PubMed Central

    Kalinowski, Tomasz; Halden, Rolf U.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phytoremediation—plant-facilitated remediation of polluted soil and groundwater—is a potentially effective treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metals and certain organic compounds. However, contaminant attenuation rates are often not rapid enough to make phytoremediation a viable option when compared with alternative treatment approaches. Different strategies are being employed to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation, including modification to the plant genome, inoculation of the rhizosphere with specialized and/or engineered bacteria, and treatment of the soil with supplementary chemicals, such as surfactants, chelators, or fertilizers. Despite these efforts, greater breakthroughs are necessary to make phytoremediation a viable technology. Here, we introduce and discuss the concept of integrating controlled environmental stresses as a strategy for enhancing phytoremediation. Plants have a diverse suite of defense mechanisms that are only induced in response to stress. Here, we examine some stress-response mechanisms in plants, focusing on defenses involving physiological changes that alter the soil microenvironment (rhizosphere), and outline how these defense mechanisms can be co-opted to enhance the effectiveness of phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls and other contaminants. PMID:23236249

  14. Environmental toxicology of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Heuvel, J P; Lucier, G

    1993-01-01

    Few environmental compounds have generated as much interest and controversy within the scientific community and in the lay public as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Their ubiquitous presence in the environment and the risk of accidental exposure has raised concern over a possible threat of PCDDs or PCDFs to human health. The most extensively studied and potent isomer is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin). Dioxin is a multisite toxicant in laboratory rodents resulting in a number of tissue-, species-, and sex-dependent responses. Much has been learned about the mechanism of dioxin's effects, especially for the induction of cytochrome P-450 enzymes. Binding of PCDDs and PCDFs to a receptor protein, termed the dioxin or Ah receptor, is necessary for most biological and toxic responses. The most common toxic response used for evaluating the human health risk posed by PCDDs and PCDFs is the hepatocarcinogenic response observed primarily in rodents. Despite extensive research efforts, the effects of PCDDs and PCDFs on humans are not well characterized. However, available data indicate there is good agreement between known effects of dioxin in laboratory animals and those described in epidemiological studies for effects in humans. The sequence in events initiated by the Ah receptor interacting with dioxin-responsive genes and ending with altered patterns of differentiation and growth must be sought in order to understand tissue, species, sex, and interindividual variation in biological responses and the health risk posed by PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:8394802

  15. Photodegradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: direct photolysis and photocatalysis processes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chung-Hsin; Ng, How-Yong

    2008-03-01

    This study employed direct photolysis to treat mixed polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) solutions. The solutions included a synthetic standard 17 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners solution and a practical liquid extracted from the bag filter ash of an electric arc furnace. Additionally, this work utilized a coupled catalyst (ZnO/SnO2) under UV irradiation for photocatalytic degradation of 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8-HxCDD and OCDD. The direct photolysis rate of PCDFs was faster than that of PCDDs. The degradation rate of international toxicity equivalency quantity (I-TEQ) for PCDDs and PCDFs in the synthetic standard solution was 1.369 and 1.472 h(-1), respectively, and that in the ash-extracted solution was 0.061 and 0.117 h(-1), respectively. The rate of photocatalytic degradation declined as the number of chlorine atoms increased. No 2, 3, 7, 8-substituted congeners were identified during photocatalytic degradation; additionally, the photolytic rate of the UV/coupled catalyst was higher than that of UV/single catalyst system. Experimental results suggested that the primary degradation pathway for direct photolysis and photocatalysis of PCDD/Fs was the CCl cleavage and CO cleavage, respectively.

  16. A Survey of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins, Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans and Co-planar Polychlorinated Biphenyls in U.S. Meat and Poultry, 2007-2008

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A statistically-based survey of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in domestic meat and poultry was conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) from September 2007 to September 2008. Seventeen toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and three coplanar pol...

  17. Sources of polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes in Newark Bay estuary sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Huntley, S.L.; Wenning, R.J.; Paustenbach, D.J.; Wong, A.S.; Luksemburg, W.J.

    1994-12-31

    Polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDTS) are sulfur-containing structural analogs of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Research to date indicates that PCDTs are formed by mechanisms similar to those that result in the formation of PCDFs and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). PCDTs have been detected in fly ash from municipal incinerators and effluent from pulp and paper mills. Under laboratory conditions, PCDTs have been formed by thermal reaction of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated benzenes in the presence of elemental sulfur. The available data on sources of PCDTs suggests that environmental contamination is likely to be widespread. Recently, six samples collected from the lower Passaic River were reported to have a mean concentration of 3,680 ppt 2,4,6,8-tetrachlorodibenzothiophene. It has been suggested that this compound is a chemical marker for 2,4,5-trichlorophenol production. Such a relationship, however, has not been demonstrated. Several pulp and paper mills on the Passaic River, numerous municipal and industrial incinerators, manufacturers of sulfur-containing pesticides, and a nearby PCB-contaminated site are possible sources of PCDTs in the Newark Bay estuary. This study reports on the results of recent investigations to characterize the sources of 2,4,6,8-PCDT in the estuary.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of three 2D Cd (II) coordination polymers built with terphenyl-2, 2‧, 4, 4‧-tetracarboxylate and flexible bis(imidazole)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-Jiang; Tang, Long; Zhang, Mei-Li; Gao, Lou-Jun; Ren, Yi-Xia; Hou, Xiang-Yang; Fu, Feng

    2015-04-01

    Three new CdII coordination polymers, namely, {[Cd2 (L) (1, 2-bix)2(H2O)2]ṡ2H2O}n(1), [Cd2 (L) (1, 3-bix)2]n (2), and {[Cd (H2L) (1, 4-bix) (H2O)2]ṡ2H2O}n (3) [H4L = terphenyl-2, 2‧, 4, 4‧-tetracarboxylic acid, 1, n-bix = 1, n-bis(imidazol-l-ylmethyl) benzene (n = 2, 3, 4)], have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR, thermogravimetric analysis, and fluorescent analysis. Complex 1 is a 2D wavelike network structure incorporating the dinuclear Cd2 (1, 2-bix)2 units, whereas complex 2 possesses a 2D stair-like network structure consisting of the dinuclear Cd2O2 units. Complex 3 features a 2D puckered network constructed by 1D [Cd (H2L)]n and 1D [Cd (1, 4-bix)]n chains. The results show that the structural diversity of the polymers is mainly attributed to the usage of diverse ancillary bis (imidazol-1-ylmethyl)-benzene isomers ligands. The thermal stabilities and photoluminescence behaviors were also investigated.

  19. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, David H.; Mincher, Bruce J.; Arbon, Rodney E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilogray. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste.

  20. Process for gamma ray induced degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls

    DOEpatents

    Meikrantz, D.H.; Mincher, B.J.; Arbon, R.E.

    1998-08-25

    The invention is a process for the in-situ destruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in transformer oils and transformers. These compounds are broken down selectively by irradiation of the object or mixture using spent nuclear fuel or any isotopic source of high energy gamma radiation. For example, the level of applied dose required to decompose 400 ppm of polychlorinated biphenyl in transformer oil to less than 50 ppm is 500 kilograms. Destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls to levels of less than 50 ppm renders the transformer oil or transformer non-PCB contaminated under current regulations. Therefore, this process can be used to treat PCB contaminated oil and equipment to minimize or eliminate the generation of PCB hazardous waste. 5 figs.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls as hormonally active structural analogues

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, J.D. ); Waller, C.L. )

    1994-03-01

    Among the environmental chemicals that may be able to disrupt the endocrine systems of animals and humans, the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a chemical class of considerable concern. One possible mechanism by which PCBs may interfere with endocrine function is their ability to mimic natural hormones. These actions reflect a close relationship between the physicochemical properties encoded in the PCB molecular structure and the responses they evoke in biological systems. These physiocochemical properties determine the molecular reactivities of PCBs and are responsible for their recognition as biological acceptors and receptors, as well as for triggering molecular mechanisms that lead to tissue response. [open quotes]Coplanarity[close quotes] of PCB phenyl rings and [open quotes]laterality[close quotes] of chlorine atoms are important structural features determining specific binding behavior with proteins and certain toxic responses in biological systems. We compare qualitative structure-activity relationships for PCBs with the limited information on the related non-coplanar chlorinated diphenyl ethers, providing further insights into the nature of the molecular recognition processes and support for the structural relationship of PCBs to thyroid hormones. Steriodlike activity requires conformational restriction and possibility hydroxylation. We offer some simple molecular recognition models to account for the importance of these different structural features in the structure-activity relationships that permit one to express PCB reactivities in terms of dioxin, thyroxine, and estradiol equivalents. The available data support the involvement of PCBs as mimics of thyroid and other steroidal hormones. The potential for reproductive and developmental toxicity associated with human exposure to PCBs is of particular concern. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Mammalian Cytochrome P450-Dependent Metabolism of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Coplanar Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Hideyuki; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ikushiro, Shin-Ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD). Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126) to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs. PMID:25123135

  3. Mammalian cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Inui, Hideyuki; Itoh, Toshimasa; Yamamoto, Keiko; Ikushiro, Shin-Ichi; Sakaki, Toshiyuki

    2014-08-13

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contribute to dioxin toxicity in humans and wildlife after bioaccumulation through the food chain from the environment. The authors examined human and rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent metabolism of PCDDs and PCBs. A number of human CYP isoforms belonging to the CYP1 and CYP2 families showed remarkable activities toward low-chlorinated PCDDs. In particular, human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 showed high activities toward monoCDDs, diCDDs, and triCDDs but no detectable activity toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD). Large amino acids located at putative substrate-recognition sites and the F-G loop in rat CYP1A1 contributed to the successful metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Rat, but not human, CYP1A1 metabolized 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (CB126) to two hydroxylated metabolites. These metabolites are probably less toxic than is CB126, due to their higher solubility. Homology models of human and rat CYP1A1s and CB126 docking studies indicated that two amino acid differences in the CB126-binding cavity were important for CB126 metabolism. In this review, the importance of CYPs in the metabolism of dioxins and PCBs in mammals and the species-based differences between humans and rats are described. In addition, the authors reveal the molecular mechanism behind the binding modes of dioxins and PCBs in the heme pocket of CYPs.

  4. Properties of 2,3, and 2″,3″-difluorosubstituted 4″-alkyl[1,1':4',1″]terphenyl-4-yl alkyl carbonates with SmC phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chołuj, A.; Szczuciński, Ł.; Milewska, K.; Kula, P.; Dąbrowski, R.; Mazur, R.; Piecek, W.

    2014-08-01

    In the paper is presented the influence of different orthodifluorosubstitution on the mesomorphic properties of 4″-alkyl[1,1‧:4‧,1″]terphenyl-4-yl alkyl carbonates described by general formulae presented below: ? where X1;2 (acronym nFFTm) or X3;4 = F (acronym nTFFm). Phase transition was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopic methods. Compounds exhibit nematic and smectic phases: SmA, SmC, G and H. Mixture with smectic SmC phase in wide temperature range was prepared using these carbonates. Its physical and electro-optic properties are shown and discussed.

  5. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dioxins, polychlorinated furans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and biphenylenes after an electrical panel and transformer accident in an office building in Binghamton, NY.

    PubMed Central

    Schecter, A; Tiernan, T

    1985-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and tri- and tetrachlorinated benzene-containing electrical transformer was involved in an explosion and fire in a modern office building in Binghamton, New York, on February 5, 1981. Because of an unusual system of air shafts the entire building and adjacent garage became contaminated with toxic chemicals. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and biphenylenes were formed as pyrolytic by-products. Before the extent of the chemical contamination was appreciated workers were exposed to these chemicals. Four years after the explosion and after the expenditure of over $22 million for cleaning and other expenses, the building remains closed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. PMID:3928358

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  7. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in School Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. PCB emission rates from caulk and fluorescent light ballasts were measured in laboratory chambers. PCB concentrat...

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  9. DIRECT ELECTROCHEMICAL IMMUNOSENSOR FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water. The assay is based on the measurement of the current due to the specific binding between PCB and anti-PCB antibody-immobilized conducting polymer matrix. T...

  10. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sources, Emissions, and Environmental Levels in School Buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. PCB emission rates from caulk and fluorescent light ballasts were measured in laboratory chambers. PCB concentrat...

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls: In situ Bioremediation from the Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of hydrophobic and stable organic compounds consisting of 209 possible congeners. Because of their unique physico-chemical properties, PCBs were used in a wide range of industrial applications. The properties that made PCBs useful in i...

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyl sources, environmental levels, and exposures in school buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Building materials and components containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in some U.S. school buildings until the late 1970s and may be present today. There is limited information on source factors and occupant exposures. Methods: Analysis of PCBs in mat...

  13. DIRECT ELECTROCHEMICAL IMMUNOSENSOR FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS. (R825323)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in water. The assay is based on the measurement of the current due to the specific binding between PCB and anti-PCB antibody-immobilized conducting polymer matrix. T...

  14. Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric exposure to polychlorinated biphynels (PCBs) is a national health concern with significant implications for school psychologists. According to the healthcare collaboration model, the school psychologist plays a key role in the provision of services to children affected by environmental teratogens. To effectively function as healthcare…

  15. A cohort study on mortality and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, S F; Yen, Y Y; Lan, S J; Hsieh, C C; Lee, C H; Ko, Y C

    1996-01-01

    In 1979, an outbreak of food poisoning ("Yu-Cheng") occurred in Central Taiwan, ROC, involving more than 2000 people. The event was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans, and quaterphenyls. A retrospective cohort study on mortality was undertaken, and possible long-term health effects in the affected individuals were studied. The mortality experience of 1940 victims (929 males, 1011 females) between 1980 and 1991 was compared with the expected numbers, which were calculated from national and local mortality rates. By the end of 1991, 102 deaths were identified, thus producing a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of overall mortality of 0.99 for males and 1.34 for females. Total cancer mortality was lower than in each comparison group. Mortality from liver diseases was elevated significantly (SMR = 3.22), especially during the first 3 y after the food-poisoning event (SMR = 10.76). Increased clinical severity of polychlorinated biphenyl intoxication was associated with increased mortality from all causes and from liver diseases. In summary, there was a positive association between mortality and intoxication dose, and severe polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning acutely affected mainly the liver. A continued follow-up of this cohort would be valuable in the study of long-term health effects of polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning.

  16. Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric exposure to polychlorinated biphynels (PCBs) is a national health concern with significant implications for school psychologists. According to the healthcare collaboration model, the school psychologist plays a key role in the provision of services to children affected by environmental teratogens. To effectively function as healthcare…

  17. 77 FR 54818 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Revisions to Manifesting Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (``EPA'' or ``the Agency'') is issuing this direct final rule to update and clarify several sections of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) regulations associated with the manifesting requirements, which uses the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest, under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Today's changes are......

  18. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND...

  19. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND...

  20. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND...

  1. 21 CFR 109.30 - Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tolerances for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). 109.30 Section 109.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND...

  2. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-2 - Polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental contaminant requiring special handling and disposal in accordance with the U.S. Environmental... airports, the Department of Defense or the Federal Aviation Administration, respectively, shall obtain the... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a toxic environmental contaminant, require(s) special handling and disposal...

  3. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-2 - Polychlorinated biphenyls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... environmental contaminant requiring special handling and disposal in accordance with the U.S. Environmental... airports, the Department of Defense or the Federal Aviation Administration, respectively, shall obtain the... polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a toxic environmental contaminant, require(s) special handling and disposal...

  4. Mass spectrometry and photoelectron spectroscopy of o-, m-, and p-terphenyl cluster anions: the effect of molecular shape on molecular assembly and ion core character.

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Masaaki; Ando, Naoto; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2008-06-26

    Mass spectrometry and photoelectron spectroscopy of o-, m-, and p-terphenyl cluster anions, (o-TP)n(-) (n = 2-100), (m-TP)n(-) (n = 2-100), and (p-TP)n(-) (n = 1-100), respectively, are conducted to investigate the effect of molecular shape on the molecular aggregation form and the resultant ion core character of the clusters. For (o-TP)n(-) and (m-TP)n(-), neither magic numbers nor discernible isomers are observed throughout the size range. Furthermore, their vertical detachment energies (VDEs) increase up to large n and depend linearly on n(-1/3), implying that they possess a three-dimensional (3D), highly reorganized structure encompassing a monomeric anion core. For (p-TP)n(-), in contrast, prominent magic numbers of n = 5, 7, 10, 12, and 14 are observed, and the VDEs show pronounced irregular shifts below n = 10, while they remain constant above n = 14 (isomer A). These results can be rationalized with two-dimensional (2D) orderings of p-TP molecules and different types of 2D shell closure at n = 7 and 14, the monomeric and multimeric anion core, respectively. Above n = 16, the new feature (isomer B) starts to appear at the higher binding side of isomer A, and it becomes dominant with n, while isomer A gradually disappears for larger sizes. In contrast to isomer A, the VDEs of isomer B continuously increase with the cluster size. This characteristic size evolution suggests that the transition to modified 2D aggregation forms from 2D ones occurs at around n = 20.

  5. An automated HPLC method for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in fish tissue on a porous graphitic carbon column

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, Kathy R.; Gale, Robert W.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; O'Laughlin, Jerome

    1997-01-01

    The Ah (aryl-hydrocarbon) hydroxylase-receptor active polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were fractionated by an automated high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system using the Hypercarb™ porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. This commercially available column was used to fractionate the di-, mono-, and non-ortho PCBs into three fractions for gas chromatography (GC)/electron capture detection analysis, and a fourth fraction containing the PCDDs/PCDFs for GC/mass spectrometry analysis. The recoveries of the PCBs ranged from 68 to 96%, and recoveries of the PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 74 to 123%. The PGC column has the advantage of faster separations (110 min versus 446 min) and less solvent use (275 ml versus 1,100 ml) compared with automated fractionation of these compounds on activated carbon (PX-21), while still affording good separation of the classes. The PGC column may have an advantage over the pyrenyl-based HPLC method because it has a greater loading capacity (400 μg total PCBs versus 250 μg). Overall, the PGC is a standard column that provides reproducible fractionation of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs for analytical measurement in environmental samples.

  6. [Effect of green tea (matcha) on gastrointestinal tract absorption of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in rats].

    PubMed

    Morita, K; Matsueda, T; Iida, T

    1997-05-01

    This paper presents the liver distribution and fecal excretion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) congeners and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) congeners, in male rats fed with powdered green tea (matcha). The rats were given a treatment diet containing 10% matcha for the first five days. Then, the animals were administered 4 g of 10% matcha diet containing 0.5 ml of the casual rice-bran oil of Yusho that had occurred in the Southwest part of Japan in 1968 and kept on the same diet for another five days. The fecal excretion of PCB, PCDF and PCDD in the group fed with 10% matcha were 4.4, 2.4-9.1 and 2.5-4.7 times higher (p < 0.01), respectively, than that in the control group. The liver distribution of PCB, PCDF and PCDD in the same groups were 79%, 20-75% and 26-67% of the control group, respectively. These findings suggest that administration of matcha is useful as a treatment of Yusho patients exposed to PCB, PCDF and PCDD.

  7. Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in cow's milk collected in Campania, Italy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M; Cavallo, S; Serpe, F P; D'Ambrosio, R; Gallo, P; Colarusso, G; Pellicanò, R; Baldi, L; Guarino, A; Serpe, L

    2009-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and certain dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are a family of chemically-related lipophilic compounds characterized by similar toxicity. Due to their properties they are universally distributed in the environment and classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). From most of studies carried out to evaluate human dietary intake, milk and dairy products result as a major contributors of PCDD/Fs uptake. Of course the main source of milk contamination is animal feeds. Lactating ruminants, cows included, transfer these compounds to the food chain by ingestion of contaminated vegetables or soil. Their resistance to degradation and a high lipophilicity means that PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs may be accumulated into fat tissues from which they are transferred to milk during lactation period. Seventy-nine cows milk samples, collected in the monitoring plan 2008, were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Eleven milk samples were non-compliant corresponding to five breeding livestock located in Caserta province. The distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs congeners in these samples was examined in order to determine the likely sources of dioxins. The results show that the congener profile is characterized by a prevalence of PCDFs in respect of PCDDs, that represents the typical pattern of thermal origin contamination.

  8. Health risk assessment for polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in seafood from Guangzhou and Zhoushan, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qinting; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Miyake, Yuichi; Okazawa, Tsuyoshi; Lau, Ridge K F; Chen, Kun; Wyrzykowska, Barbara; So, Man Ka; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, Paul K S

    2007-07-01

    This study determined the concentrations of organochlorine contaminants in common seafood in two Chinese coastal cities (Guangzhou and Zhoushan), and assessed the health risk due to the daily consumption of contaminated seafood. Twenty-six pooled samples, belonging to five food categories (fish, bivalves, shrimp, crab, and cephalopods), were purchased from local markets in Guangzhou and Zhoushan in 2003 and 2004. These samples were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non- and mono-ortho-PCBs (coplanar PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/DFs). The concentrations of total PCBs and coplanar PCBs in fish samples were higher in Guangzhou than in Zhoushan, while the levels of PCNs and PCDDs/DFs were comparable between the two cities. The total daily intake values of dioxin-like compounds were 1.05 and 0.86pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight in Guangzhou and Zhoushan, respectively. Hazard ratios of non-cancer risk in the two cities were all less than unity.

  9. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in workplaces of secondary nonferrous metallurgical facilities in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Changliang; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke; Dong, Shujun

    2013-07-16

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were determined in workplace air from eight secondary nonferrous metal processing plants to investigate occupational exposure to these toxic compounds. The total estimated daily intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for workers by inhalation in the workplace were in the range of 0.15-9.91 and 0.13-8.59 pg of WHO-TEQ/kg of body weight (bw) for moderate and light activities, respectively. The daily inhalation doses for workers in the workplaces of three investigated plants exceeded the tolerable daily intake recommended by the World Health Organization. These results indicate that the risk of occupational exposure to dioxins by inhalation in the workplace of plants investigated was considerably high. For PCNs, the daily inhalation doses for workers in the workplace were in the range of 0.005-4.46 and 0.004-3.87 pg of TEQ/kg of bw for moderate and light activities, respectively, which were lower than those of dioxins. To identify the source of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PCNs in workplace air, their homologue profiles were compared with those in stack gas from the plants investigated. It was found that significant dioxin contamination in workplace air was mainly attributed to the emission of fugitive gas from smelting furnaces during reclamation processes.

  10. Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sheep milk from an industrialised area of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Scarano, C; Spanu, C; De Santis, E P L; Busco, V P; Storelli, A; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2012-05-01

    Concentrations of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12 dioxin like-PCBs (non- and mono-ortho PCBs) were measured in 80 sheep milk samples from farms located in an industrialized area of Sardinia, Italy. PCDDs and PCDFs mean concentrations were 2.45 and 3.69 pgg(-1) fat basis, respectively. The mean dl-PCB concentration was 2.01 ngg(-1) fat basis, while cumulative ndl-PCB levels ranged from 1.02 to 20.42, with a mean of 4.92 ngg(-1) fat. The results expressed in pg WHO-TEQ/g fat showed that contamination level of milk was below the limit values for human consumption established by EC legislation. In the same way, all the investigated milk exhibited PCDD/Fs concentrations below EU action levels, while dl-PCBs concentrations exceeded the action level of 2.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat. These findings point to the need to continue to conduct general monitoring programmes, including also milk samples from areas not close to the contaminant-emitting industries, in order to better evaluate the impact of industrial activities on surrounding environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polybrominated, polychlorinated and monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in marine surface sediments from Hong Kong and Korea.

    PubMed

    Terauchi, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shin; Lam, Paul K S; Min, Byung-Yoon; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-03-01

    In this study we investigated occurrences and distribution patterns of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) such as polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), monobromo-polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (MoBPCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in marine surface sediments collected from the coastal waters of Hong Kong and Korea. In most sampling sites, concentrations of PCDDs were the highest, followed by DL-PCBs, PCDFs, PBDFs, PBDDs, MoBPCDDs and MoBPCDFs in this order. Levels of PBDD/Fs were generally 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than chlorinated analogues. Levels of PCDDs are higher than PCDFs in Hong Kong while levels of PBDFs are higher than PBDDs in Korea (p<0.05). Report of PBDD/Fs and MoBPCDD/Fs in sediments from East Asian countries is novel and original. Environmental levels of PBDD/Fs are supposed to start increasing in accordance with rising production, use and disposal of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and recycling processes of e-waste in Asian developing countries.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  13. Exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between air and a mixed pasture sward.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jonathan L; Thomas, Gareth O; Bailey, Rebekah; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin C

    2004-07-15

    To improve understanding of air-to-vegetation transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), uptake and depuration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) between grass sward and air was investigated. Pasture swards were placed in fanned (2 m s(-1) wind speed) and unfanned conditions for a period of 20 days and sampled at intervals. Depuration was carried out after a short (4 days) and a long (14 days) exposure period. Prior to contamination, a mixed pasture sward at a semi-rural location contained sigmaPCN concentrations 15-20% of the sigmaPCB concentration. Uptake of both PCBs and PCNs was broadly linear in fanned and unfanned conditions over the 20-day period, i.e., the pasture did not reach equilibrium with the air. Uptake rates (fluxes) were greater under the fanned conditions. The difference in uptake rates between fanned and unfanned conditions increased with degree of chlorination for both PCBs and PCNs, ranging between a factor of 2 for tri-chlorinated PCBs and PCNs and a factor 5 for octa-chlorinated PCBs. Depuration results over the first hours were very scattered, showing an initial period of loss, followed by an increase in concentrations, possibly as a result of re-volatilization of PCBs from the soil in the trays, with consequent recapture by the overlying sward. Rapid clearance was observed over the following days, but depuration of PCBs and PCNs was still incomplete after 14 days, with 20% of the initial concentration of the sigmaPCBs and 10% of the sigmaPCNs retained by the sward. There was no difference in the proportion of POPs retained in the sward between the 4- and 14-day contamination treatments. POP-specific differences in the amount of compound "trapped" in leaves after contamination were observed. The results show that, although changes in the rate of air movement around a pasture have an effect on the uptake rate of POPs into the vegetation, plant-side resistance controls both the air-to-pasture and

  14. Syntheses, structures and properties of metal-carboxylate chain-based coordination polymers (CPs) with 1,1‧:4‧,1″-terphenyl-2‧,4,4″,5‧-tetracarboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xinhui; Song, Lin; Li, Liang; Yang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    Two coordination polymers (CPs) {[Mg2L(μ2-H2O) (μ2-DMA)]·DMA}n (1), and [Ag4L(DMF)2]n (2) (H4L = 1,1‧:4‧,1″-terphenyl-2‧,4,4″,5‧-tetracarboxylic acid, DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamine, DMF = N,N-dimethylformamide) have been synthesized and structurally characterized. In 1 and 2, there exist a series of parallel aligned Msbnd Osbnd C chains, which are linked along two directions by para-terphenyl moieties of L4- ligands to lead to the metal-carboxylate chain-based three-dimensional frameworks. The photoluminescence properties of the compounds 1 and 2 have also been investigated. 1 displays blue-violet light emission with the emission maximum at 380 nm. 2 exhibits a broad emission peak from 300 to 800 nm with an emission maximum at 484 nm and some of the shoulder peaks.

  15. Classification of polychlorinated biphenyl residues: isomers vs. homologue concentrations in modeling aroclors and polychlorinated biphenyl residues

    SciTech Connect

    Stalling, D.L.; Schwartz, T.R.; Dunn, W.J. III; Wold, S.

    1987-07-15

    SIMCA (soft independent modeling by class analogy), a principal components chemometric modeling program, was used to examine complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyl residues (PCBs) in fish and turtles. Individual PCB isomers were measured by electron capture capillary gas chromatography. The authors calculated PCB (Cl/sub 1-10/) congener concentrations by summing 105 isomer concentrations into homologue subgroups. Information theory was used to estimate the maximum information content of the two data sets. The authors compared the results from principal components modeling of samples and Aroclors by using both isomer and Cl/sub 1-10/ homologue concentrations. Modeling of normalized data from Aroclors or their mixtures gave similar sample score plots for both data sets. However, modeling environmental sample congener concentrations gave erroneous classification results when compared to results from modeling isomer data. Although the Cl/sub 1-10/ sums accurately reflect the concentration of PCBs in the sample, calculations to determine PCB profiles as Aroclor mixtures should be made by using individual PCB isomers.

  16. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls of the French population: Results of the second French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Tard, Alexandra; Venisseau, Anaïs; Brosseaud, Aline; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioaccumulate through the food chain and are therefore of public health concern. Exposure to these compounds was assessed in the second French Total Diet Study (TDS). Food samples (n=583) were collected to be representative of the whole diet of the population, prepared as consumed, and analyzed. Contamination data were combined with national individual food consumption data. Mean exposure (95th percentile) to PCDD/F+DL-PCBs was assessed to be 0.57 (1.29) pg TEQ(WHO-98) (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the adult population and 0.89 (2.02) pg TEQ(WHO-98) (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the child and teenager population. Less than 4% of the population exceeded the health-based guidance value for PCDD/F+DL-PCBs. Mean exposure (95th percentile) to the six indicator PCBs (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) was estimated at 2.71 (7.90) ng (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the adult population and 3.77 (11.7) ng (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the child and teenager population. Only 2.6% of the adults [CI(95%): 1.9; 3.3] and 6.5% of the children and teenagers [5.2; 7.8] exceeded the health-based guidance value for total PCBs. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general French population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined (by a factor of 3.2 for PCDD/F+DL-PCBs and about three for total PCBs) since the last evaluation, which was conducted using another methodology in 2005 and 2007, and show the efficiency of the European risk management measures which came into force after these evaluations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in mackerel obtained from the Japanese market, 1999-2003.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamano, Testuo

    2017-09-01

    This study analysed the concentrations and toxic-equivalent (TEQ) levels of dioxin congeners in mackerel commercially available in Japan in early 2000s. The content of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was determined in 17 mackerel samples from different areas. TEQ levels in mackerel muscle were 0.78 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet weight (wt) on average (range = 0.21-2.26 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt) for PCDD/Fs (PCDDs plus PCDFs), 2.81 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt on average (range = 1.02-8.5 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt) for DL-PCBs, and 3.59 pg TEQ g(-)(1) wet wt on average (range = 1.24-10.8 pg g(-)(1) wet wt) for dioxins (PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs). The results revealed somewhat higher TEQ levels for dioxins compared with the other data for fish and shellfish in the Japanese market. TEQ levels were well correlated with mackerel body weight; the main contributors were tetra- and penta-CDD/Fs, some hexa-CDD/Fs, and all 12 DL-PCBs, which are known to have high bioaccumulation potential. In particular, PCB 126 was mostly responsible for the observed correlation of DL-PCB and dioxins-TEQ levels with mackerel body weight. The average daily intake of dioxins in terms of TEQ through mackerel consumption was estimated to be 4.81 pg TEQ/person/day, accounting for 7% of the total intake of dioxins-TEQ through fish and shellfish in Japan.

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Presence in the Columbia River Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    R. M. Hermann

    2007-09-06

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 regulations to develop a conceptual understanding of potential contaminant releases from the Hanford Site based on an evaluation of existing data and known historical practices. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one environmental contaminant potentially released through leaks, spills, or disposal. This document presents a summary of selected relevant existing information, including environmental studies and Hanford Site analytical data.

  19. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 528 was created to address polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination identified during the CAU 262 corrective action investigation. CAU 528 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): CAS 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination.

  20. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    TITLE: Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Caroline M. Tanner, M.D...2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0490 Control Study in...now in progress in Anchorage. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Parkinson’s disease, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Organochlorine pesticides, Methylmercury, Alaska

  1. Occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in electrical workers. I. Environmental and blood polychlorinated biphenyls concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, M; Colombi, A; Cantoni, S; Ferioli, E; Foa, V

    1981-01-01

    Industrial exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and internal dose were investigated in 80 worker exposed for many years to PCB mixtures with a 42% chlorine content (Pyralene 3010 and Apirolio). PCBs were determined by liquid gas chromatography on samples taken from workroom air, workroom surfaces and tools, the palms of the hand, and the blood of the workers. In the workroom air samples, PCB concentrations ranged from 48 to 275 micrograms/m3. All tested surfaces and tools were heavily contaminated, with a range from 0.2 to 159 micrograms PCBs per cm2 of surface. Considerable amounts of PCBs were detected on the palms of the hands of the workers (2-28 microgram/cm2 of skin surface). In blood, total PCB concentrations from 88 to 1319 micrograms/kg were observed: comparing the blood concentrations of low and high chlorine content biphenyls, a significant difference was found for the low-chlorinated biphenyl concentrations between workers currently exposed and workers exposed only in the past. In groups of workers who were homogeneous as regards work area and job, the PCB concentrations in the blood were closely correlated with the length of actual occupational exposure to these compounds. These findings led to the conclusion that absorption of PCBs in these workers had occurred mainly through the skin, therefore industrial preventive surveillance must take this route of exposure into account. Since blood PCB concentrations appear to be correlated with the length of exposure, PCB determination on whole blood may be used to monitor industrial and environmental exposure to PCBs. PMID:6781529

  2. Dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in seafood samples from Malaysia: estimated human intake and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Gan, Chee-Yuen; Majid, Mohamed Isa Abdul

    2014-07-01

    A total of 127 and 177 seafood samples from Malaysia were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), respectively. The World Health Organization-toxic-equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQ) of PCDD/Fs varied from 0.13 to 1.03 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas dl-PCBs ranged from 0.33 to 1.32 pg TEQ g(-1). Based on food-consumption data from the global environment monitoring system-food contamination monitoring and assessment programme, calculated dietary exposures to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs from seafood for the general population in Malaysia were 0.042 and 0.098 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1), respectively. These estimations were quite different from the values calculated using the Malaysian food-consumption statistics (average of 0.313 and 0.676 pg TEQ kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, respectively). However, both of the dietary exposure estimations were lower than the tolerable daily intake recommended by WHO. Thus, it is suggested that seafood from Malaysia does not pose a notable risk to the health of the average consumer.

  3. EFFECT OF SULFUR DIOXIDE ON THE FORMATION MECHANISM OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation mechanism of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) in the postcombustion, downstream region (500-300 °C) of a municipal waste combustor (MWC) was investigated. Laboratory experiments simulating t...

  4. Non-targeted analysis of electronics waste by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry: Using accurate mass information and mass defect analysis to explore the data.

    PubMed

    Ubukata, Masaaki; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Reichenbach, Stephen E; Tao, Qingping; Hang, Jiliang; Wu, Zhanpin; Dane, A John; Cody, Robert B

    2015-05-22

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) offer the best possible separation of their respective techniques. Recent commercialization of combined GC×GC-HRMS systems offers new possibilities for the analysis of complex mixtures. However, such experiments yield enormous data sets that require new informatics tools to facilitate the interpretation of the rich information content. This study reports on the analysis of dust obtained from an electronics recycling facility by using GC×GC in combination with a new high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. New software tools for (non-traditional) Kendrick mass defect analysis were developed in this research and greatly aided in the identification of compounds containing chlorine and bromine, elements that feature in most persistent organic pollutants (POPs). In essence, the mass defect plot serves as a visual aid from which halogenated compounds are recognizable on the basis of their mass defect and isotope patterns. Mass chromatograms were generated based on specific ions identified in the plots as well as region of the plot predominantly occupied by halogenated contaminants. Tentative identification was aided by database searches, complementary electron-capture negative ionization experiments and elemental composition determinations from the exact mass data. These included known and emerging flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromobenzene, tetrabromo bisphenol A and tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), as well as other legacy contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs).

  5. Determination of ground and excited state dipole moments of 4,5'-diamino[1,1':3',1''-terphenyl]-4',6'-dicarbonitrile using solvatochromic method and quantum-chemical calculations.

    PubMed

    Józefowicz, Marek; Milart, Piotr; Heldt, Janina R

    2009-11-01

    Electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4,5'-diamino[1,1':3',1''-terphenyl]-4',6'-dicarbonitrile (1) were recorded at room temperature in several solvents of different polarity. The results of spectroscopic measurements are analyzed using the theory of solvatochromism, based on a dielectric continuum description of the solvent and the classical Onsager cavity model. The difference in the excited and ground state dipole moments (mu(e)-mu(g)) of the molecule under study was estimated using methods applied by Bayliss, Ooshika, McRae, Lippert, Mataga, Bakhshiev and Kawski. Finally, the influence of polarizability on the determined change of the dipole moment was discussed. Austin model 1 (AM1) semiempirical molecular calculations were carried out to estimate the ground state dipole moment.

  6. Determination of ground and excited state dipole moments of 4,5'-diamino[1,1':3',1″-terphenyl]-4',6'-dicarbonitrile using solvatochromic method and quantum-chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józefowicz, Marek; Milart, Piotr; Heldt, Janina R.

    2009-11-01

    Electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4,5'-diamino[1,1':3',1″-terphenyl]-4',6'-dicarbonitrile ( 1) were recorded at room temperature in several solvents of different polarity. The results of spectroscopic measurements are analyzed using the theory of solvatochromism, based on a dielectric continuum description of the solvent and the classical Onsager cavity model. The difference in the excited and ground state dipole moments ( μe- μg) of the molecule under study was estimated using methods applied by Bayliss, Ooshika, McRae, Lippert, Mataga, Bakhshiev and Kawski. Finally, the influence of polarizability on the determined change of the dipole moment was discussed. Austin model 1 (AM1) semiempirical molecular calculations were carried out to estimate the ground state dipole moment.

  7. Survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and non-orthopolychlorinated biphenyls in U.S. meat and poultry from 2012-2013: Toxic equivalency levels, patterns, temporal trends, and implication

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically-based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken, and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-P...

  8. Temporal trend of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/polychlorinated dibenzofuran and dioxin like-polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in food from Taiwan markets during 2004-2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Chang; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Kao, Ya-Min; Chang, Mei-Hua; Chen, Hsiu-Ling

    2016-07-01

    The levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in foodstuffs have decreased over the past decade in many countries. However, the trend for the levels of these compounds in foodstuffs in Taiwan remains unknown. In this study, we compared the distribution of PCDD/F and PCB in nine foodstuff categories acquired from Taiwan markets from 2004 to 2012. The levels expressed as World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs) in the different foodstuffs tested were as follows: fish, average 0.463 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample > seafood, 0.163 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > eggs, 0.150 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > oils, 0.126 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > meats, 0.095 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > dairy products, 0.054 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > cereals, 0.017 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > vegetables, 0.013 pg WHO98-TEQ/g > fruits, 0.009 pg WHO98-TEQ/g. Levels were particularly high in crab (average: 0.6 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample (1.243 pg WHO98-TEQ/g sample) and large marine fish (0.6). In Taiwan, a decreasing trend of PCDD/Fs or dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) was observed in meat, dairy, eggs, and vegetables, whereas an elevated trend was observed in cereals or the levels were nearly equal in fruits and oils at alternative time shift. Dl-PCBs contributed to 60-65% toxicity equivalence levels in fish and seafood, but only to 13-40% in meat and cereal samples. The decreasing trend was consistent with the results in other countries; however, the trends in cereals, fruits, and oils were in contrast to previous results reported in other countries. Cereals and fruits are important crops in southern Taiwan, and the local pollution generated by industries or incinerators may seriously affect the distribution of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. To ensure food safety, a risk assessment for residents living in different areas should be adopted for all food categories simultaneously in the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. PAPER FIBERS AS A CARBON SOURCE FOR THE DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzefurans (PCDDs/Fs) from carbons that were produced from pyrolysis of paper fibers and from a wood charcoal was investigated experimentally. Fibers obtained from a filter paper were pyrolyzed at 300 and 800 d...

  10. MODELLING OF POLYCHLORINATED-DIOXIN AND -FURAN CONGENER PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a model, based on experimental data, that was developed to describe the profile of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners formed in the duct region of a pilot-scale combustor simulating large-scale municipal w...

  11. MODELLING OF POLYCHLORINATED-DIOXIN AND -FURAN CONGENER PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a model, based on experimental data, that was developed to describe the profile of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners formed in the duct region of a pilot-scale combustor simulating large-scale municipal w...

  12. PAPER FIBERS AS A CARBON SOURCE FOR THE DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzefurans (PCDDs/Fs) from carbons that were produced from pyrolysis of paper fibers and from a wood charcoal was investigated experimentally. Fibers obtained from a filter paper were pyrolyzed at 300 and 800 d...

  13. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN THE REMOTE NORTH ATLANTIC MARINE ATMOSPHERE (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a sampling strategy that allows us to determine
    femtogram/cubic meter concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
    and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in remote marine atmospheres. Using
    this sampling strategy, a total of 37 a...

  14. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS IN THE REMOTE NORTH ATLANTIC MARINE ATMOSPHERE (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a sampling strategy that allows us to determine
    femtogram/cubic meter concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
    and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in remote marine atmospheres. Using
    this sampling strategy, a total of 37 a...

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls may alter marine trophic pathways by reducing phytoplankton size and production.

    PubMed

    O'Connors, H B; Wurster, C F; Powers, C D; Biggs, D C; Rowland, R G

    1978-08-25

    Polychlorinated biphenyls at concentrations of 1 to 10 micrograms per liter reduced phytoplankton biomass and size in natural estuarine phytoplankton communities grown within dialysis bags in situ in an estuarine marsh. In polychlorinated biphenyls-contaminated waters, these changes could increase the number of trophic levels and divert the flow of biomass from harvestable fish to jellyfish and other gelatinous predators.

  16. Pesticide Monitoring Study. Evaluation of Silicic Acid Column Pesticide/Polychlorinated Biphenyl Separation Procedure: Recovery and Elution Patterns of 24 Pesticides and Pesticide Metabolites and Two Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    This report presents silicic acid column recovery and elution characteristics for 24 pesticides and pesticide metabolites and two polychlorinated ... biphenyls . The average percent recoveries for all except a few compounds studied were essentially quantitative. The average percent relative standard

  17. Health and productivity of dairy cows fed polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, L.B.; Liu, T.T.; Durst, H.I.; Smith, K.L.; Redman, D.R.

    1987-07-01

    Holstein cows were studied through a complete lactation, a nonlactating period, and 42 days of a subsequent lactation for overt and subtle responses to a commercial mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls. Dosed cows (n = 4) received consecutive 60-day periods of daily dosing with 10, 100, and 1000 mg of Aroclor 1254. Control cows (n = 6) received daily sham doses. The following were recorded: daily milk production, feed intake, and health observations; weekly body weight, temperature, heart and respiratory rates and rectal palpation; semi-monthly clinical chemistry determinations; and monthly milk fat, microbiological culture of quarter foremilk samples, and composite milk somatic cell counts. Mean daily milk production (22.4 +/- 1.1 vs 24.8 +/- 1.0 kg) and net energy of a complete lactation (1.46 +/- 0.05 vs 1.45 +/- 0.03 Mcal/kg dry matter intake) were not different (p = 0.85) for control and PCB-dosed cows. Milk production during the first 42 days of the subsequent lactation was also similar for control and dosed cows. Occurrences of injuries, dysfunctions, and general infections were not related to polychlorinated biphenyl exposure. Intramammary infections were detected for both lactations with 51 and 32 infections detected in microbiological cultures, respectively, for the control and dosed groups. Environmental pathogens were most frequently isolated from cases of clinically apparent mastitis. The majority of quarter infections detected were due to Corynebacterium bovis. Only one animal (dosed, necropsy revealed left oviduct obstructed) failed to conceive with three to six services required before conception for the other control and dosed cows. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls resulting in maximal residues in milk fat, near 100 micrograms/g, had no apparent effect on health and productivity.

  18. Isolation and characterization of bacteria degrading polychlorinated biphenyls from transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Avelizapa, N G; Rodríguez-Vázquez, R; Martínez-Cruz, J; Esparza-García, F; Montes de Oca-García, A; Ríos-Leal, E; Fernández-Villagómez, G

    1999-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls from transformer oil were degraded in liquid culture under aerobic conditions using a mixed bacterial culture isolated from a transformer oil sample with a high content of polychlorinated biphenyls and other hydrocarbons. Four strains were identified, three of them corresponded to genus Bacillus, the other one to Erwinia. Bacteria in the transformer oil could remove as much as 65% of polychlorinated biphenyls (88% W/V in the transformer oil). Additional data showed that the two isolated strains of B. lentus were able to grow on transformer oil and degrade polychlorinated biphenyls by 80 and 83%. Our results provide evidence that microorganisms occurring in transformer oil have the potential to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L.; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J. |

    1995-10-01

    Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) partitioning between adipose tissue and serum

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.F. Jr.; Lawton, R.W.

    1984-09-01

    It has been recently suggested that variabilities in the partitioning of chronically retained lipophilic xenobiotics between adipose tissue and serum may be relatable to variations in the lipid content of the serum. Here, the authors present theoretical considerations and experimental data showing that this is indeed the case for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans. At equilibrium, in the absence of active transport, any lipophilic substance must distribute itself among body tissues in such a way that its chemical activity and also its chemical potential are the same at all points. In order to verify the theoretical relationships, three sorts of data relating to serum PCB levels in a human population were examined.

  1. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300{degrees}C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB`s utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium.

  2. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in Antarctic macroalgae Desmarestia sp.

    PubMed

    Montone, R C; Taniguchi, S; Sericano, J; Weber, R R; Lara, W H

    2001-09-28

    Selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were measured in Desmarestia sp., an abundant algae in the Antarctica Peninsula and South Shetlands. Samples were collected from various points of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctic Peninsula, during the 1993-1994 austral summer. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 0.46 to 3.86 ng g(-1) (dry weight). Predominant PCB congeners were 52, 101, 110, 138 and 153. The low levels of PCBs found on all samples and the predominance of low molecular weight congeners indicate that there are no significant local PCBs sources in the area of study.

  3. Influence of polychlorinated biphenyls on the growth of chicken embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Hatano, Yasuhiko; Hatano, Akira

    1994-12-31

    Incubation of chicken embryos with either 0.01 or 0.03 ppm polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for 12, 15, or 18 d resulted in a significant decrease in liver and body weight associated with enhanced mortality. Teratological examination revealed an increased frequency of malformations including hydrops, eventration, wry neck, and brevicollis. PCB exposure was also found to produce histologic damage to liver and cutaneous tissue. Our data demonstrate that exposure of chicks to PCBs during development results in a retardation of growth, an increased incidence of malformations, and histopathologic damage. 9 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Construction of a bioluminescent reporter strain to detect polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, A.C.; Muccini, M.; Ghosh, M.M.; Sayler, G.S.

    1998-12-01

    A bioluminescent reporter strain, Ralstonia eutropha ENV307 (pUTK60), was constructed for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls by inserting the biphenyl promoter upstream of the bioluminescence genes. In the presence of a nonionic surfactant, which enhances the solubility of chlorinated biphenyls, bioluminescence was induced three- to fourfold over background by biphenyl, monochlorinated biphenyls, and Aroclor 1242. The minimum detection limits for these compounds ranged from 0.15 mg/liter for 4-chlorobiphenyl to 1.5 mg/liter for Aroclor 1242.

  5. Maternal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and the secondary sex ratio: an occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Though commercial production of polychlorinated biphenyls was banned in the United States in 1977, exposure continues due to their environmental persistence. Several studies have examined the association between environmental polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and modulations of the secondary sex ratio, with conflicting results. Objective Our objective was to evaluate the association between maternal preconceptional occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and the secondary sex ratio. Methods We examined primipara singleton births of 2595 women, who worked in three capacitor plants at least one year during the period polychlorinated biphenyls were used. Cumulative estimated maternal occupational polychlorinated biphenyl exposure at the time of the infant's conception was calculated from plant-specific job-exposure matrices. A logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between maternal polychlorinated biphenyl exposure and male sex at birth (yes/no). Results Maternal body mass index at age 20, smoking status, and race did not vary between those occupationally exposed and those unexposed before the child's conception. Polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed mothers were, however, more likely to have used oral contraceptives and to have been older at the birth of their first child than non-occupationally exposed women. Among 1506 infants liveborn to polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed primiparous women, 49.8% were male; compared to 49.9% among those not exposed (n = 1089). Multivariate analyses controlling for mother's age and year of birth found no significant association between the odds of a male birth and mother's cumulative estimated polychlorinated biphenyl exposure to time of conception. Conclusions Based on these data, we find no evidence of altered sex ratio among children born to primiparous polychlorinated biphenyl-exposed female workers. PMID:21418576

  6. Reevaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in milk and body fat of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Willett, L B; Liu, T T; Fries, G F

    1990-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls occur as mixtures of congeners, each of which may be absorbed, excreted, or metabolized differently. Quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls by packed-column GLC has been difficult. Many quantification techniques, generally based on quantification of a selected group of the congeners present, have been used by researchers. Results of these studies have not provided a consistent basis to determine the relationship between the amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls consumed and residual polychlorinated biphenyls in milk and animal tissues. In the present study, we hypothesized that if a standardized quantification procedure was applied, consistent dose:residue predictions could be made. Weighted percentage of each peak in the polychlorinated biphenyl mixture procedures was used as a standard method to quantify polychlorinated biphenyls in milk fat from published and unpublished studies where lactating cows were fed between 3.5 and 1000 mg/d (Aroclor 1254) for greater than or equal to 15 d. When steady state occurred by 60 d of dosing, the relationship between concentration in milk fat (microgram/g) and daily dose as mg and as mg/kg BW were described by the equations: [polychlorinated biphenyls, microgram/g]milk fat = .28 (daily dose, mg).82, and [polychlorinated biphenyls, microgram/g]milk fat = 50.2 (daily dose, mg/kg BW).81. Similar equations described the relationships between daily dose and concentrations in adipose tissue and blood plasma. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls residues in milk fat of 79 animals that were dosed with known quantities of polychlorinated biphenyls for 15 to 107 d confirmed that the equations could be valuable in predicting exposure over a wide range of exposure durations and concentrations.

  7. Atmospheric occurrence and health risks of PCDD/Fs, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes by air inhalation in metallurgical plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lili; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jin, Rong; Zhu, Qingqing; Zhao, Yuyang; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Yang

    2017-02-15

    Metallurgical plants are important sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). It is significant to evaluate the air levels and human risks of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs in metallurgical plants considering their adverse effects on human health and thousands of metallurgical plants being in operation in China. The estimated inhalation intakes of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PCNs together in eight iron ore sintering plants, three secondary copper plants, four secondary aluminum plants, and one secondary lead plant were 4.9-213.4, 21.4-4026.4, 28.7-630, and 11.7fgTEQkg(-1)day(-1), respectively, and the corresponding cancer risks were estimated to be 8.7×10(-7) to 3.8×10(-5), 5.1×10(-6) to 1.1×10(-4), 3.8×10(-6) to 7.1×10(-4), and 2.1×10(-6), respectively. The estimated cancer risk were higher than 100 per million people for three secondary aluminum and copper smelters among the sixteen metallurgical plants, indicating high cancer risks. Stack gas samples from metallurgical plants were also collected and analyzed for comparing their emission profiles with that of air samples. The comparison of PCDD/F, PCB and PCN profiles between air samples and stack gas samples by similarity calculation and principal component analysis suggested the influence of stack gas emissions from metallurgical plants on surrounding air. These results are helpful for understanding the exposure risk to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs in numerous metallurgical plants being operation in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Terphenyl Derivatives from Allantophomopsis lycopodina.

    PubMed

    Andernach, Lars; Sandjo, Louis P; Liermann, Johannes C; Schlämann, Ricardo; Richter, Christian; Ferner, Jan-Peter; Schwalbe, Harald; Schüffler, Anja; Thines, Eckhard; Opatz, Till

    2016-10-28

    Three secondary fungal metabolites 1-3 with a benzo[b]naphtho[2,1-d]furan skeleton were isolated from submerged cultures of the ascomycete Allantophomopsis lycopodina. The NMR-based structure elucidation was challenging due to a low H/C ratio of only 0.64 and 0.68, respectively. NMR measurements in two different solvents and the use of NMR experiments such as HSQC-TOCSY and LR-HSQMBC proved to be helpful in this respect. The proposed structures obtained from the comprehensive analysis of the NMR data were verified by comparison of recorded and computed NMR chemical shifts from quantum chemical calculations of several constitutional isomers and were further analyzed with the aid of the DP4 and DP4+ probabilities.

  9. Semipermeable membrane devices used to estimate bioconcentration of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    Aquatic organisms passively accumulate hydrophobic organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls, even when ambient water concentrations of the contaminant are below analytical detection limits. However, contaminant concentrations in tissue samples are subject to an inherently high level of variability due to differences in species, life stage, and gender bioconcentration potentials. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to sample Aroclor 1254, a mixture of readily bioconcentrated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in a contaminated wetland near Flat Top, WV. The devices consisted of triolein, a lipid found in fish, enclosed in a polyethylene membrane. SPMDs were deployed in the water column and in direct contact with wetland sediments along a previously identified concentration gradient of PCBs. The devices were retrieved after a 25-day exposure period. Analytes were recovered by dialyzing the devices in nanograde hexane. Hexane dialysates were condensed and analyzed by gas chromatography. All deployed devices sequestered quantifiable amounts of Aroclor 1254. Water-column SPMDs accumulated PCBs far in excess of ambient water concentrations. The devices contacting sediments accumulated PCBs at all sites, though accumulated concentrations did not exceed concentrations in sediment. Patterns of PCB concentration in the devices corresponded to the identified gradient at the site. Results from the water-column SPMDs were used to estimate the concentration of the dissolved, bioavailable fraction of PCBs present in the water column. These concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 0.09 ??g/L of bioavailable Aroclor 1254.

  10. Emission of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes during Thermal Related Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-05-01

    Due to the structural similarity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) to those of dioxins, PCNs exhibit toxicological properties similar to dioxins (Olivero-Verbel et al., 2004). Based on their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-distance transmission, PCNs were also selected as a candidate POP for the UN-ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) POP protocol (Lerche et al., 2002). In addition, some studies suggested that PCNs contributed a greater proportion of the dioxin-like activity than polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contributed in some locations (Kannan et al., 1998). However, the identification and quantitation for PCN sources are very scarce compared with PCDD/Fs. Understanding the emission levels and developing the emission inventory of PCNs is important for regulatory and source reduction purposes. In this study, several potential sources were preliminarily investigated for PCN release. Coking process (CP), iron ore sintering (IOS), and electric arc furnace steel making units (AF) were selected due to their huge activity level of industrial production in China. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and medical waste incineration (MWI) were also investigated because of the possible high concentration of PCNs in stack gas. Two plants were investigated for each thermal related process, except for MWI with one incinerator was investigated. The stack gas samples were collected by automatic isokinetic sampling system (Isostack Basic, TCR TECORA, Milan Italy). Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique was used for the identification and quantitation of PCN congeners. The concentrations of PCNs from the selected thermal processes were determined in this study. The average concentrations of total PCNs were 26 ng Nm-3 for CP, 65 ng Nm-3 for IOS, 720 ng Nm-3 for AF, 443 ng Nm-3 for MSWI, and

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons around a thermal desorption plant in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Li, Xiaodong; Chen, Tong; Qi, Zhifu; Buekens, Alfons; Lu, Shengyong; Yan, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    This study was launched to establish comprehensive environmental monitoring on the levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) both in soil and ambient air around a thermal desorption plant in China. All 209 congeners of PCBs, 136 congeners of PCDD/Fs (P = 4 to 8) and 16 EPA priority PAHs were analyzed. The concentration of PCBs ranged from 20.0 to 536 ng g(-1) (or 0.077-5.27 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)) in soil and from 972 to 991 ng Nm(-3) (or 0.245-0.374 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3)) in air samples, much higher than the levels in cities. A single soil sampling point could have been affected by some transfer of PCBs from the untreated soil by the fingerprint characteristics and the statistical analysis. Establishing blank values prior to the start-up of new plant is a safe and sure method to establish subsequent impacts on the environment. During the treatment of hazardous waste, strict control of all waste materials and all emissions is required.

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyl emissions from different smelting stages in secondary copper metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2013-01-01

    Secondary copper production has received much attention for its high emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) reported in previous studies. These studies focused on the estimation of total PCDD/F and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) emissions from secondary copper smelters. However, large variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions reported in these studies were not analyzed and discussed further. In this study, stack gas samples at different smelting stages (feeding-fusion, oxidation and deoxidization) were collected from four plants to investigate variations in PCDD/F and PCB emissions and characteristics during the secondary copper smelting process. The results indicate that PCDD/F emissions occur mainly at the feeding-fusion stage and these emissions contribute to 54-88% of the total emissions from the secondary copper smelting process. The variation in feed material and operating conditions at different smelting stages leads to the variation in PCDD/F emissions during the secondary copper smelting process. The total PCDD/F and PCB discharge (stack gas emission+fly ash discharge) is consistent with the copper scrap content in the raw material in the secondary copper smelters investigated. On a production basis of 1 ton copper, the total PCDD/F and dl-PCB discharge was 102, 24.8 and 5.88 μg TEQ t(-1) for the three plants that contained 100%, 30% and 0% copper scrap in their raw material feed, respectively.

  13. [Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in newsprints and copy papers by HRGC/HRMS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Yang, Zhijun; Chen, Jiping; Wu, Wenzhong; Liang, Xinmiao; Lu, Peizhang

    2004-07-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in newsprints and copy papers which included blank and printed paper samples were determined by isotope dilution and high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). All of the paper samples collected at random were extracted with organic solvents and the extracts were cleaned up successively by three different chromatographic columns. The results indicated that the total concentrations of PCDD/ Fs in newsprints were higher than those in copy papers, but the total toxicity equivalent (TEQ) values of newsprint samples were lower than those in copy paper samples. In addition, for both papers, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in printed papers were higher than the blank papers. Moreover, the patterns of PCDD/Fs in newsprint samples and copy paper samples were different. The total international TEQ values of PCDD/Fs in newsprints and printed newsprints were 0.48 ng/kg and 0.61 ng/kg, respectively. Moreover, the total TEQ values of PCDD/Fs in copy paper and printed copy paper samples were 0.74 ng/kg and 0.79 ng/kg, respectively. The recoveries of 13C labeled 2, 3 ,7, 8-substituted PCDD/Fs spiked before extraction into all paper samples were between 49.82% and 131.34%.

  14. Selective pressurized liquid extraction for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil.

    PubMed

    Klees, Marcel; Bogatzki, Corinna; Hiester, Ernst

    2016-10-14

    During this study a high throughout selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil. To that end, extraction rates of PCBs from soil utilizing different extraction solvents and different extraction temperatures were investigated whereas extraction rates were comparable for toluene, n-hexane and dichloromethane (extraction conditions for all utilized solvents: 33mL PLE extraction cell, extraction temperature: 110°C, static extraction time: 5min, flush volume: 60%, purge 90s). Ratios of native PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs congener concentrations after Soxhlet and selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) showed that SPLE is an alternative sample preparation step for the simultaneous determination of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in soil. Additional clean-up steps for the separation of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs utilizing alumina were performed in order to avoid interferences between the component classes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Levels and spatial distribution of gaseous polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the air over the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qilu; Xu, Yue; Li, Jun; Pan, Xiaohui; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Gan

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring marine persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is important because oceans play a significant role in the cycling of POPs. The South China Sea (SCS) is surrounded by developing countries in Southeast Asia which are centers of e-waste recycling and the ship dismantling industry. In this study, shipboard air samples collected over the SCS between September 6 and 22, 2005 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The levels of ∑12PCBs ranged from 32.3 to 167 pg m-3, with a mean value of 98.4 ± 36.0 pg m-3. Tetra-CBs were the predominant congeners. The concentrations of ∑18PCNs ranged from N.D. to 26.0 pg m-3, with a mean value of 10.5 ± 7.16 pg m-3, and tri-CNs were predominant. The gaseous concentrations of PCBs and PCNs over the SCS were consistent with those over other seas and oceans. Compared with previous studies, it was found that the concentrations of PCBs exhibited an obviously declining trend. The measured PCB and PCN concentrations in the atmosphere over the SCS were influenced by their proximity to source regions and air mass origins. The highest gaseous PCB and PCN concentrations were found at sampling sites adjacent to the continental South China. E-waste recycling, ship dismantling and combustion in South China and some Southeast Asian countries might contribute PCBs and PCNs to the atmosphere of the SCS.

  16. Acute non-cancer mortality excess after polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans mixed exposure from contaminated rice oil: Yusho.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide

    2011-08-15

    In Japan in 1968, rice-oil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans caused severe food poisoning, termed "Yusho" (oil disease). Several previous studies attempted to evaluate the effects targeting officially-certified Yusho patients. However, these studies have several limitations such as the left-truncated nature of the registry or residual confounding arising from the referent population selection. We thus conducted an area-based standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) study using vital statistics. A severely affected area (Tamanoura area) was adopted as the exposure group, with a reference population from Nagasaki prefecture in Kyushu, which included the Tamanoura. A large number of residents in Tamanoura were exposed to the rice-oil (28% of all the certified cases as of 2009). We estimated SMRs of non-cancer and cancer diseases for the years 1968-2002. Shortly after the exposure, SMRs of all causes, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, pneumonia/bronchitis, and bronchus/lung cancer were elevated. In particular, SMRs of heart disease were 1.97 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.09-3.56] in 1968, 2.05 (95% CI: 1.16-3.60) in 1969, and 1.89 (95% CI: 1.05-3.41) in 1975. However, we did not observe clear increase in SMRs more than 10 years after the exposure. This study provides further evidence in Yusho, especially on acute effects on non-cancer mortality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in soil around a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Li, Haifeng; Tian, Zhenyu; Xie, Huiting; Li, Changliang

    2013-10-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are usually considered to be important sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). To examine the influence of PCDD/Fs emissions from a MSWI on the surrounding environment, 21 soil samples were collected from various sampling sites distributed at distances of 300-1,700 m away from the stack of a MSWI. International Toxic Equivalent (I-TEQ) concentrations ranged from 0.47 to 2.07 pg I-TEQ g(-1), with average and median concentrations of 1.08 and 1.05 pg I-TEQ g(-1), respectively. Comparison of the results presented herein with other worldwide studies suggested that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in the ambient soil were relatively low, indicating a limited impact on the surrounding environment. The emission concentrations from the incinerator were the critical factor in generating an environmental impact on the surrounding environment. An exponential function was developed, indicating a slight decline in TEQs of PCDD/Fs with increasing distance from the MSWI stack. The ordinary kriging interpolation technique was selected to create a contour map, which intuitively showed that a limited surrounding area (≤1,000 m from the stack) was obviously influenced by the MSWI.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyl congeners as markers of toxic equivalents of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in breast milk.

    PubMed

    Glynn, A W; Atuma, S; Aune, M; Darnerud, P O; Cnattingius, S

    2001-07-01

    In breast milk, concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are higher than those of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), making PCB analyses less time-consuming and expensive. We searched for PCB "markers" of PCDD/DF concentrations, by studying associations between concentrations of PCB and PCDD/DFs (expressed as toxic equivalents, TEQs) in breast milk from 27 women (primiparas, 22-35 years). These women donated breast milk in 1996-1999 together with 183 other primiparas from Uppsala County, Sweden. Regression analyses showed that both dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like penta- to hepta-chlorinated PCBs could be used as markers of TEQ concentrations in this group of women, in some cases after age adjustment of the regressions. The strong positive association between concentrations of dioxin-like PCB/DD/DFs and non-dioxin-like PCBs will in future epidemiological studies make it difficult to separate Ah receptor-dependent effects from non-Ah receptor-dependent effects. With the use of regression equations and concentrations in breast milk samples collected in 1994, TEQ concentrations were estimated in the 1994 samples. Comparisons between estimated and measured concentrations indicated that associations between concentrations of marker substances and TEQs should be determined separately within each study population, in order to obtain reliable TEQ exposure assessments from PCB markers.

  19. Crystal structure of 2,2′′-bis­(2,7-di­chloro-9-hy­droxy-9H-fluoren-9-yl)-1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl tri­ethyl­amine trisolvate

    PubMed Central

    Klien, Henrik; Seichter, Wilhelm; Weber, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    In the title solvate, C44H26Cl4O2·3C6H15N, the asymmetric part of the unit cell comprises two halves of the diol mol­ecules, 2,2′′-bis­(2,7-di­chloro-9-hy­droxy-9H-fluoren-9-yl)-1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl, and three mol­ecules of tri­ethyl­amine, i. e. the diol mol­ecules are located on crystallographic symmetry centres. Two of the solvent mol­ecules are disordered over two positions [occupancy ratios of 0.567 (3):0.433 (3) and 0.503 (3):0.497 (3)]. In the diol mol­ecules, the outer rings of the 1,1′:4′,1′′-terphenyl elements are twisted with reference to their central arene ring and the mean planes of the fluorenyl moieties are inclined with respect to the terphenyl ring to which they are connected, the latter making dihedral angles of 82.05 (8) and 82.28 (8)°. The presence of two 9-fluoren-9-ol units attached at positions 2 and 2′′ of the terphenyl moiety induces a ‘folded’ geometry which is stabilized by intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π–π stacking inter­actions, the latter formed between the fluorenyl units and the central ring of the terphenyl unit [centroid–centroid distances = 3.559 (1) and 3.562 (1) Å]. The crystal is composed of 1:2 complex units, in which the solvent mol­ecules are associated with the diol mol­ecules via O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, while the remaining solvent mol­ecule is linked to the host by a C—H⋯N hydrogen bond. The given pattern of inter­molecular inter­actions results in formation of chain structures extending along [010]. PMID:26870400

  20. Determination of acute toxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls to photobactrium phosphoreum

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.; Xu, X.; He, Y.

    1997-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners. PCBs were discovered before the turn of the century and their usefulness for industry, because of their physical properties, was recognized early. The distribution of PCBs in the environment was not noticed until Jensen and his colleagues found PCBs in wildlife samples. Since then, investigations in many parts of the world have revealed the widespread distribution of PCBs in environmental samples and PCVs are persistent and accumulate in food webs. Thus, determination of toxicities of commercial PCB mixtures and PCB congeners are required. Toxicity tests using luminous bacteria have shown high correlation to traditional bioassays. This study compared the EC50 values of the commercial mixtures, PCB3 and PCB5, with those of Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  1. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Sorption and Availability in Field-Contaminated Sediments†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Traditional and new relationships of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) distribution among the solid phases, the free aqueous phase, and biolipids are comprehensively reviewed using seven well-characterized freshwater and marine sediments polluted with PCBs. The traditional relationship relating free aqueous concentration and biolipid concentration to sediment total organic carbon, compound octanol−water partitioning coefficient, and solid-phase contaminant concentration overestimates measured free aqueous concentrations and biolipid concentrations by mean factors of 8 and 33, respectively. By contrast, relationships based on measured free aqueous phase concentrations or the PCB mass fraction desorbed from sediment provide reasonable predictions of biolipid concentrations. Solid-phase concentration-based predictions perform better when sorption to amorphous organic matter and black carbon (BC) is distinguished. Contrary to previously published relationships, BC sorption appears to be linear for free aqueous PCB-congener concentrations in the picogram to microgram per liter range. PMID:19961220

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyls as Probes of Biogeochemical Processes in Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzgerald, S.A.; Steuer, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    A field study was conducted to investigate the use of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) congener and homolog assemblages as tracers of biogeochemical processes in the Milwaukee and Manitowoc Rivers in southeastern Wisconsin from 1993 to 1995. PCB congeners in the dissolved and suspended particle phases, along with various algal indicators (algal carbon and pigments), were quantitated in the water seasonally. In addition, PCB congener assemblages were determined seasonally in surficial bed sediments. Biogeochemical processes investigated included: determination of the source of suspended particles and bottom sediments by comparison with known Aroclor mixtures, water-solid partitioning, and algal uptake of PCBs. Seasonal differences among the PCB assemblages were observed mainly in the dissolved phase, somewhat less in the suspended particulate phase, and not at all in the bed sediments.

  3. Integration of sample analysis method (SAM) for polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Monagle, M.; Johnson, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A completely integrated Sample Analysis Method (SAM) has been tested as part of the Contaminant Analysis Automation program. The SAM system was tested for polychlorinated biphenyl samples using five Standard Laboratory Modules{trademark}: two Soxtec{trademark} modules, a high volume concentrator module, a generic materials handling module, and the gas chromatographic module. With over 300 samples completed within the first phase of the validation, recovery and precision data were comparable to manual methods. Based on experience derived from the first evaluation of the automated system, efforts are underway to improve sample recoveries and integrate a sample cleanup procedure. In addition, initial work in automating the extraction of semivolatile samples using this system will also be discussed.

  4. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on development and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Faroon, O M; Keith, S; Jones, D; de Rosa, C

    2001-04-01

    As part of its mandate, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) prepares toxicological profiles on hazardous chemicals found at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) sites that have the greatest public health impact. These profiles comprehensively summarize toxicological and environmental information. This article, which constitutes the release of an important section of the Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (ATSDR 2000) into the scientific literature, focuses on the developmental and reproductive effects of this group of synthetic organic chemicals (PCBs) in humans and animals. Information on other health effects, toxicokinetics, mechanisms of toxicity, biomarkers, interactions, chemical and physical properties, potential for human exposure, and regulations and advisories is detailed in the profile. Interested readers are encouraged to consult the original toxicological profile for more information. Profiles can be requested from ATSDR's Information Center by telephone (1-888-42-ATSDR [1-888-422-8737] or E-mail: (atsdric@cdc.gov).

  5. Developmental neurotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Tilson, H.A.; Harry, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are stable, lipophilic industrial compounds that are present in residue levels in human tissue, wildlife and freshwater sediment. They are toxic and are known to pass the placenta and intoxicate the fetus. Two large outbreaks of poisoning have occurred in Asia and women pregnant at or after the exposures had children who were developmentally impaired. Laboratory experiments in rhesus monkeys and rodents designed to assess neural or developmental neurotoxic effects show altered activity levels, impaired learning, and delayed ontogeny of reflexes. Children exposed transplacentally to PCBs in North America have been reported to display hypotonia and hyporeflexia at birth, delay in psychomotor development at 6 and 12 months of age and poorer visual recognition at 7 months. PCBs appear to be developmental neurotoxicants in both humans and animals and may pose a significant health risk, particularly to pregnant women and their offspring.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plastics ingested by seabirds.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of plastic objects in the digestive tract was assessed in eight species of Procellariiformes collected in southern Brazil and the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the ingested plastics pellets and plastic fragments was evaluated. PCBs were detected in plastic pellets (491 ng g(-1)) and plastic fragments (243-418 ng g(-1)). Among the OCPs, p,p'-DDE had the highest concentrations, ranging from 68.0 to 99.0 ng g(-1). The occurrence of organic pollutants in post-consumer plastics supports the fact that plastics are an important source carrying persistent organic pollutants in the marine environment. Although transfer through the food chain may be the main source of exposure to POPs to seabirds, plastics could be an additional source for the organisms which ingest them, like Procellariiformes which are the seabirds most affected by plastic pollution. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Advances in the environmental analysis of polychlorinated naphthalenes and toxaphene.

    PubMed

    Kucklick, John R; Helm, Paul A

    2006-10-01

    Recent advances in the analysis of the chlorinated environmental pollutants polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and toxaphene are highlighted in this review. Method improvements have been realized for PCNs over the past decade in isomer-specific quantification, peak resolution, and the availability of mass-labeled standards. Toxaphene method advancements include the application of new capillary gas chromatographic (GC) stationary phases, mass spectrometry (MS), especially ion trap MS, and the availability of Standard Reference Materials that are value-assigned for total toxaphene and selected congener concentrations. An area of promise for the separation of complex mixtures such as PCNs and toxaphene is the development of multidimensional GC techniques. The need for continued advancements and efficiencies in the analysis of contaminants such as PCNs and toxaphene remains as monitoring requirements for these compound classes are established under international agreements.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the Great Lakes: 1990`s concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Bloem, T.B.; Stanko, T.A.; Blankenbaker, R.K.; Higgins, J.H.; De Vault, D.S.; Anderson, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water column of the Laurentian Great Lakes have declined over the last decade. The measurement of current concentrations of these hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCS) requires the sampling of large sample volumes, typically 100--400 liters. This paper will present results from the water column HOC trend program, begun by GLNPO in 1991. Water samples were filtered with a 0.7{mu}M glass fiber filter, and the filtrate was collected and extracted using the Goulden Large Sample Extractor (GLSE). PCBs were extracted from the filters with Soxhlet extraction, and the resulting operationally-defined particulate and dissolved phases were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Results indicate concentrations in the 100s of picograms/liter for total PCBs. Spatial differences within and between Lakes, and temporal differences will be presented.

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyl transport in the Hudson River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, John T.; Troutman, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) have been entering the Hudson River estuary since 1951. Concentration and loading of PCB 's in the river below Waterford, N.Y., are controlled at present by resuspension of sediments containing these substances; therefore , until the amount of PCB 's in the sediments is significantly lowered, reduction of point-source PCB discharge from the present rate of 0.4 kilograms per day will produce no more than a 10% reduction in loading to the river. Potential concentrations of PCB 's in solution and suspension in the river can be predicted by a simple model for mixing and dilution. From a known range of PCB influent rates, total PCB loading to the Hudson River from above Waterford is shown to be between 2,000 and 12,000 kilograms per year. (USGS)

  10. Column chromatography separation of polychlorinated biphenyls from dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and methabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Needham, L.L.; Smrek, A.L.; Head, S.L.; Burse, V.W.; Liddle, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    Gas chromatographic determinations of organochlorine insectides or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in biological material are often complicated by their simultaneous presence in the eluates from the column chromatography steps. A gas chromatography/electron capture detector procedure to analyze serum for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) in the presence of the ortho, para and para, para isomers of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) was devised. The use of silver nitrate on silica gel column to separate PCBs from DDT and metabolites are described. Bovine serum was analyzed for DDt, DDE, and DDD. 500 individuals in an Alabama community were studied, the highest concentrations in (ppB) for PCB was 155. The method described yield high recoveries of PCBs, with no interference from chlorinated hydrocarbons normally found in human serum. 2 figures, 2 tables. (DP)

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyl partitioning and bioaccumulation in Green Bay, Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Endicott, D.; Griesmer, D.; Kreis, R.; Mackelburg, L.

    1994-12-31

    The 1989--1990 Green Bay Mass Balance Study generated an extensive data set for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in water, sediment and biological matrices. The analytes included several mono-ortho substituted PCB congeners. From these data, ratios between dissolved, particulate, and biotic concentrations in the water column and sediment have been calculated. These ratios provide a basis for evaluating the distribution of hydrophobic organic chemicals in the aquatic ecosystem. The Mass Balance Study also supported development of mathematical models of PCB transport, fate, and food chain bioaccumulation in Green Bay. The models provide significant additional insight as to processes affecting the observed PCB distribution, including spatial-temporal variability, organic carbon sorbent dynamics, sediment-water column disequilibria, and kinetics of bioaccumulation.

  12. Cleaning Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) Contaminated Garden Soil by Phytoremediation

    PubMed Central

    Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2013-01-01

    A poplar planted system resulted in the complete removal of at least 19 of the 29 potential polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners detected in trace amounts (37.9 ng g-1 in total) in a commercial garden soil, while the unplanted soil only had 2 congeners completely removed after 96 days. In addition, the most recalcitrant congener, PCB 52, only decreased by 0.1% in the unplanted reactors while declining by 22.3% in the planted system. There was also greater removal of a PCB 77 spike in the planted system when compared to the unplanted system, 17.2% in the planted system versus 2.8% in the unplanted system. The results suggest that phytoremediation may be an effective tool in cleaning commercially available garden soils that are lightly contaminated with PCBs. PMID:24409084

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyl accumulation in tree bark and wood growth rings

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith, M.L.; Hites, R.A.

    1987-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were found in the bark of black walnut and tulip poplar trees growing near a PCB-contaminated landfill. PCBs were also found in the bark of white oak trees growing 14 km away from the landfill. The concentration of individual congeners in the bark averaged 18 ppb at the landfill and 0.5 ppb at the other site. The PCB congeners were accumulated into the bark in proportion to their lipophilicity (as measured by octanol-water partition coefficients). The authors findings suggest that tree bark could be used for biomonitoring of lipophilic organic pollutants in the atmosphere. There is little evidence that PCBs are present in the wood of trees. The signal to blank ratios are always less than 3, and the relative concentrations between 20-year time intervals do not show trends that correlate with the known inputs of PCBs in Bloomington, IN. 2 tables.

  14. Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment: sources, fate, and toxicities.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are produced in the environment by the oxidation of PCBs through a variety of mechanisms, including metabolic transformation in living organisms and abiotic reactions with hydroxyl radicals. As a consequence, OH-PCBs have been detected in a wide range of environmental samples, including animal tissues, water, and sediments. OH-PCBs have recently raised serious environmental concerns because they exert a variety of toxic effects at lower doses than the parent PCBs and they are disruptors of the endocrine system. Although evidence about the widespread dispersion of OH-PCBs in various compartments of the ecosystem has accumulated, little is currently known about their biodegradation and behavior in the environment. OH-PCBs are, today, increasingly considered as a new class of environmental contaminants that possess specific chemical, physical, and biological properties not shared with the parent PCBs. This article reviews recent findings regarding the sources, fate, and toxicities of OH-PCBs in the environment.

  15. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as products of incomplete combustion from incinerators. PCBs were used widely as industrial chemicals, particularly as additives in electrical transformer cooling oil. Growing evidence of PCBs' role as a persistent...

  16. Activation of AhR-mediated toxicity pathway by emerging pollutants polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are a group of environmental pollutants for which limited toxicological information is available. This study tested the hypothesis that PCDPSs could activate the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity pathways. Eight...

  17. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally on...

  18. EMISSIONS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AS PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as products of incomplete combustion from incinerators. PCBs were used widely as industrial chemicals, particularly as additives in electrical transformer cooling oil. Growing evidence of PCBs' role as a persistent...

  19. DECHLORINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENT SLURRIES BY PALLADIUM MODIFIED ZEROVALENT IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  20. COMPARING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most thermally stable organic chemicals known. This characteristic has historically made them useful in a wide array of applications including use in electrical transformers and capacitors, varnishes, waxes, synthetic resins, epoxy ...

  1. Activation of AhR-mediated toxicity pathway by emerging pollutants polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are a group of environmental pollutants for which limited toxicological information is available. This study tested the hypothesis that PCDPSs could activate the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity pathways. Eight...

  2. COMPARING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most thermally stable organic chemicals known. This characteristic has historically made them useful in a wide array of applications including use in electrical transformers and capacitors, varnishes, waxes, synthetic resins, epoxy ...

  3. ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS IN AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonr...

  4. DECHLORINATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SEDIMENT SLURRIES BY PALLADIUM MODIFIED ZEROVALENT IRON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of international concern because of global distribution, persistence, and toxicity. Removal of these compounds from the environment presents a very tough challenge because they are highly hydro...

  5. ONTOGENETIC ALTERATIONS IN MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF DENDRITIC GROWTH FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report showing both molecular and structural changes in brain following developmental exposure to a neurotoxicant. It is known that perinatal exposure to a neurotoxicant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is associated with decreased IQ scores, impaired learnin...

  6. ONTOGENETIC ALTERATIONS IN MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL CORRELATES OF DENDRITIC GROWTH FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report showing both molecular and structural changes in brain following developmental exposure to a neurotoxicant. It is known that perinatal exposure to a neurotoxicant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), is associated with decreased IQ scores, impaired learnin...

  7. Notifications Dated October 2, 2014 Submitted by We Energies to Dispose of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Remediation Waste

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Disposal Notifications Dated October 2, 2014 for We Energies and the Utility Solid Waste Group Members’ Risk-Based Approvals to Dispose of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Remediation Waste at the Waste Management Disposal Sites in Menomonee Falls and Franklin, WI

  8. Tenax-GC Extraction Technique for Residual Polychlorinated Biphenyl and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Analysis in Biodegradation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Shiaris, M. P.; Sherrill, T. W.; Sayler, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid Tenax-GC extraction technique has been evaluated for use in conjunction with aqueous biodegradation assays for polyaromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. The method was quantitatively efficient and reproducible for phenanthrene, but variable and not quantitative for Aroclor 1254 (polychlorinated biphenyls). Aqueous sample volumes and varying concentrations of organic matter influenced polychlorinated biphenyl and polyaromatic hydrocarbon extraction efficiency. Phenanthrene recovery was decreased by soil extract but unaffected by spent bacteriological culture medium. Both types of organic matter caused significant reduction of Aroclor 1254 recovery. Polyaromatic hydrocarbon and polychlorinated biphenyl biodegradation assays, performed with reservoir samples, supported the laboratory evaluation. The study demonstrated the utility of the Tenax-GC extraction technique for phenanthrene analysis in biodegradation assessment; however, Tenax-GC extraction was not appropriate for Aroclor 1254 biodegradation studies. PMID:16345486

  9. ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS IN AQUATIC AND RIPARIAN BIOTA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The enantiomeric composition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers was measured in river and riparian biota (fish, bivalves, crayfish, water snakes, barn swallows) from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonr...

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning: correlation of sensory and motor nerve conduction, neurologic symptoms, and blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, quaterphenyls, and dibenzofurans

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, R.C.; Tang, S.Y.; Miyata, H.; Kashimoto, T.; Chang, Y.C.; Chang, K.J.; Tung, T.C.

    1985-08-01

    In 1979 in Taiwan, more than 2000 people were poisoned with rice cooking oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). One hundred ten patients were studied within one year of the exposure. The blood PCB levels were 39.3 +/- 16.6 ppb. The blood levels of the PCB derivatives, polychlorinated quaterphenyls (PCQ) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), were 8.6 +/- 4.8 and 0.076 +/- 0.038 ppb, respectively. Both the sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities (NCV) of the patients were significantly lower than the control. Abnormal slowing of sensory NCV was found in 43.6% and abnormal slowing of motor NCV was seen in 21.8%. Patients who had higher PCQ blood levels has significantly slower median nerve sensory NCV than those with lower PCQ levels. Patients with higher PCB blood levels had significantly slower peroneal nerve motor NCV than those with lower PCB levels.

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaskan Natives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    1-0490 TITLE: Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaskan Natives PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0490 Control Study in Alaskan Natives 5b. GRANT NUMBER...to pol ychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) residues, organochlorine pesticides and methylmercury with PD. The hy pothesis is that increased exposure to t

  12. Total suspended particulate (TSP), polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) emissions from medical waste incinerators in Antioquia, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hoyos, A; Cobo, M; Aristizábal, B; Córdoba, F; Montes de Correa, C

    2008-08-01

    Results of a preliminary survey of particulate and dioxin emissions in combustion gases from hospital waste incinerators in Antioquia-Colombia are presented. Base line data of total suspended particulate (TSP) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/PCDF) emissions in incinerators from health care institutions in Antioquia-Colombia will be used to improve the management of medical waste in the local context. All monitored incinerators are batch operated. TSP exceeds 80 mg Nm(-3) in 8 out of 12 incinerators. Dioxin emissions are in the range from about 7 to 700 I-TEQ (ng Nm(-3)). Such a significant amount of dioxin emissions did correlate with entrained particulate matter, mainly as a consequence of poor control of operation parameters. Several suggestions are made to improve medical waste management practices in Colombia.

  13. Serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans among people eating contaminated home-produced eggs and beef.

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, L R; Harnly, M; Flattery, J; Patterson, D G; Needham, L L

    2000-01-01

    We compared serum polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) among residents of two homes to levels among age- and sex-matched comparison subjects. The residents of the two homes consumed contaminated eggs and beef from animals raised at the homes. The animals had greater soil contact than those raised with conventional commercial husbandry practices. The comparison subjects were from a similar rural area, but did not consume home-produced beef and eggs. Serum levels of 2,3,7, 8-substituted tetra-, penta-, and hexaCDDs and penta-, hexa-, and heptaCDFs were increased between 2- and 6-fold in residents from one home; contaminated eggs and beef were consumed by residents for 2-15 years. Elevations were less for those in the other index home, where only home-produced eggs were consumed for 2 years; a 3-fold elevation of 1,2,3,7,8,9-hexaCDD as compared to controls was most apparent. Very strong bivariate correlations among all of the 2,3,7, 8 penta- and hexaCDDs/CDFs were observed. The elevations observed verify that PCDD/PCDF-contaminated food contributed to the body burden of these compounds. The blood levels among the highest exposed participants are generally higher than those observed in other studies of U.S. contaminated-fish consumers and higher than average adipose tissue levels observed in U.S. urban populations. There are sufficient animal toxicologic and human epidemiologic data to recommend that exposures be reduced. In the study area, pentachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol incineration sources have been identified, and the animal contamination and blood elevations probably reflect these sources. Soil reference values and site-specific risk assessments should include estimates of exposures to contamination in home-produced animal products. Such estimates can be verified with limited PCDD/PCDF sampling of animals and humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10620519

  14. Emissions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from the open burning of household waste in barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.M.; Lutes, C.C.; Abbott, J.A.; Aldous, K.M.

    2000-02-01

    Backyard burning of household waste in barrels is a common waste disposal practice for which pollutant emissions have not been well characterized. This study measured the emissions of several pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), from burning mixtures designed to simulate waste generated by a recycling and a nonrecycling family in a 208-L (55-gal) burn barrel at the EPA's Open Burning Test Facility. This paper focuses on the PCDD/PCDF emissions and discusses the factors influencing PCDD/PCDF formation for different test burns. Four test burns were made in which the amount of waste placed in the barrel varied from 6.4 to 13.6 kg and the amount actually burned varied from 46.6% to 68.1%. Emissions of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 0.0046 and 0.48 mg/kg of waste burned. Emissions are also presented in terms of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents. Emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs appear to correlate with both copper and hydrochloric acid emissions. The results of this study indicate that backyard burning emits more PCDDs/PCDFs on a mass of refuse burned basis than various types of municipal waste combustors (MWCs). Comparison of burn barrel emissions to emissions from a hypothetical modern MWC equipped with high-efficiency flue gas cleaning technology indicates that about 2--40 households burning their trash daily in barrels can produce average PCDD/PCDF emissions comparable to a 182,000 kg/day (200 ton/day) MWC facility. This study provides important data on a potentially significant source of emissions of PCDDs/PCDFs.

  15. Occurrence of polychlorinated naphthalenes, polychlorinated biphenyls and short-chain chlorinated paraffins in marine sediments from Barcelona (Spain).

    PubMed

    Castells, P; Parera, J; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2008-02-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analysed in marine sediment samples collected from the coastal area of Barcelona (Spain) and near of a submarine emissary coming from a waste water treatment plant located at the mouth of the Besòs River (Barcelona). An integrated sample treatment based on Soxhlet extraction followed by a simple clean-up with Florisil and graphitized carbon cartridge was employed. Gas chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in electron capture negative ionization mode, were used for PCN and SCCP determinations, respectively, while for PCB analysis gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) was used. The method developed provided low limits of detection (0.001-0.003 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) for PCNs, 1.8 ng g(-1) for SCCPs and 0.006-0.014 ng g(-1)dw for PCBs) and good run-to-run precisions (lower than RSD 8%) for the analysis of sediment samples. Concentration levels ranging from 0.17 to 3.27 ng g(-1)dw for PCNs, between 0.21 and 1.17 microg g(-1)dw for SCCPs, and from 2.33 to 44.00 ng g(-1) (dw) for PCBs, were found in the coastal sediments, while for samples collected near to the submarine emissary higher levels (from 2.02 to 6.56 ng g(-1)dw for PCNs, between 1.25 and 2.09 microg g(-1)dw for SCCPs and from 22.34 to 37.74 ng g(-1)dw for PCBs) were obtained. The results obtained provide new data about the occurrence of PCN and SCCP in the coastal area of Barcelona.

  16. Exposure of northern leopard frogs in the Green Bay ecosystem to polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans is measured by direct chemistry but not hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.W.; Karasov, W.H.; Patnode, K.A.; Jefcoate, C.R.

    1999-10-01

    The authors measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in northern leopard frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem and explored the catalytic activity of hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenase (P450 enzyme) as a biomarker for exposure to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. The two hypotheses tested were PCH concentrations in northern leopard frogs would be positively correlated with sediment polychlorinated hydrocarbon (PCH) levels in wetland habitats along a contamination gradient and hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity of northern leopard frogs, which is presumably mediated by aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), would be positively correlated with PCH concentrations in frog carcasses from different collection sites. In 1994 and 1995, frogs from seven sites along the lower Fox River and Green Bay, USA, were assayed for hepatic EROD activities and whole carcass concentrations of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Tissue total PCB concentrations ranging from 3 to 154 ng/g were significantly correlated with sediment PCB levels. Only one PCDD and two PCDFs at concentrations of 6 to 8 pg/g were found in the frogs collected with frog body weight and was similar among sites except for Peter's Marsh. No significant correlation was found between EROD activity and carcass PCB concentration. This result was consistent with the fact that the frogs collected from the Green Bay ecosystem had relatively low PCB concentrations compared with what was required for induction in the laboratory.

  17. [Synthesis and luminiescence of Eu(III) complex based on 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4'-m-terphenyl)-1, 3-butanedione and 1,10-phenanthroline].

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng-Gui; Lin, Cheng-You; Wang, Hui-Hui; He, Pei; Gong, Meng-Lian

    2010-03-01

    A new europium (III) complex, EuL3 phen, [HL = 4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(4'-m-terphenyl)-1,3-butanedione, phen = 1, 10-phenanthroline] was synthesized. Its structure was characterized by elemental analysis, IR and FAB-MS. The complex exhibits strongly red emission due to the 5D0-7F(J) (J = 0-4) transitions of Eu3+ ions under irradiation of UV or 395 nm emission light of InGaN chip. The strongest emission peak is located at 613 nm. The luminescence quantum yield is 13%. The lifetime of the complex is 470 micros. The decay curve can be fit with a single exponential. The thermogravimetric analyses curve for the complex shows that the complex is stable up to 220 degrees C, which meets the requirement of fabrication of LED device. A red luminescent LED was successfully fabricated by coating complex EuL3 phen onto 395 nm emitting InGaN chip. The mass ratio of complex to the silicone is related to the chromaticity coordinates and efficiency of fabricated LED. When the mass ratio of complex to the silicone is 1 : 25, the chromaticity coordinates of the fabricated LED with the europium complex are x = 0.64 and y = 0.35 and the efficiency achieves 0.89 lm x W(-1). The results indicate that the complex may act as a potential red component in the fabrication of white LEDs.

  18. FT-IR, molecular structure, HOMO-LUMO, MEP, NBO analysis and first order hyperpolarizability of Methyl 4,4″-difluoro-5";-methoxy-1,1";:3";,1″-terphenyl-4";-carboxylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheena Mary, Y.; Yohannan Panicker, C.; Narayana, B.; Samshuddin, S.; Sarojini, B. K.; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2014-12-01

    Methyl 4,4″-difluoro-5";-methoxy-1,1";:3";,1″-terphenyl-4";-carboxylate was prepared by the aromatization of a cyclohexenone derivative, Methyl 4,6-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-2-oxocyclohex-3-ene-1-carboxylate using iodine and methanol at reflux conditions. The structure of the compound was confirmed by IR and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. FT-IR spectrum was recorded and analyzed. The crystal structure is also described. The vibrational wavenumbers are calculated using HF and DFT methods and are assigned with the help of potential energy distribution. The geometrical parameters of the title compound obtained from XRD studies are in agreement with the calculated (DFT) values. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. According to the MEP analysis, negative region (red) is mainly over the carbonyl group showing large activity. The calculated hyperpolarizability of the title compound is greater than that of the standard NLO material urea and the title compound is an attractive object for future studies of nonlinear optical properties.

  19. Optimization of the Finnigan MAT 5100 Capillary Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer for the Analysis of Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    FINNIGAN MAT 5100 CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPH-MASS SPECTROMETER FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS J.A. Hiltz - J. Power ,¢., DJ : .,:.JAN 1 4...CAPILLARY GAS CHROMATOGRAPH-MASS SPECTROMETER FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS J.A. Hiltz - J.J. Power November 1986 Approved by B.F. Peters A...INTRODUCTION The use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as dielectric fluids in electrical transformers and capacitors has been commomplace over the

  20. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in street dust samples.

    PubMed

    Klees, Marcel; Hiester, Ernst; Bruckmann, Peter; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2013-07-26

    Owing to massive pollution with polychlorinated biphenyls in the harbour area of Dortmund (Germany), several dust samples were taken from surfaces at industrial sites and analyzed by the North-Rhine Westphalian State Agency for Nature, Environment, and Consumer Protection (LANUV NRW). This report describes and validates a rapid approach to screening for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in street dust. Samples were collected by using a natural bristle brush and stainless steel scoops. Mass recovery of fine-particle sea sand (a dust surrogate) on asphalt and concrete surfaces was used as a criterion for the effectiveness of sampling. Better recoveries of sea sand were achieved on concrete than on asphalt surfaces. Furthermore, temperature optimization for a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method used to extract PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs) from street dust samples was developed and compared with Soxhlet extraction for the analysis of PCBs in real street dust samples. Toluene was used as the extraction solvent in both cases. During this study, a combination of toluene and PLE achieved better extraction efficiencies than Soxhlet extraction. Finally, the performance of the PLE method was evaluated by analysing NIST Standard Reference Material 1649a for PCB and PCDD/F concentrations. This demonstrated that the accuracy of the PLE method for the determination of both substance classes was satisfactory. In addition, concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in street dust samples from industrial sites are reported.

  1. Removal of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans by three coagulants in simulated coagulation processes for drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Peng, Ping'an; Zhang, Sukun; Man, Ren; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2009-02-15

    Surface water from Guangzhou to which standard polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were added was treated by coagulation with ferric chloride (FC), polyaluminium chloride (PAC), and aluminium sulfate (AS) at optimum removal dosages for nature organic matter (NOM) to assess the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) removal efficiencies. PCDD/Fs in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and treated water (TW) after coagulation were analysed. Low residual levels of PCDD/Fs were found in treated water after coagulation: 0.8% for FC, 0.9% for PAC, and 3.1% for AS. The removal efficiency calculated using these results was >99% for FC and PAC and 97-98% for AS. Most PCDD/Fs congeners could be removed by the three coagulation processes; the removal efficiency of FC and PAC was similar, and slightly higher than that of AS. The results also demonstrate that coagulation with FC preferentially removed tetra- and penta-substituted PCDD/Fs from raw water.

  2. Open dumping site in Asian developing countries: a potential source of polychlorinated dibenz-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung Minh; Tu, Binh Minh; Watanabe, Mafumi; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Monirith, In; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Sakai, Shinichi; Subramanian, Annamalai; Sasikumar, Karuppian; Pham, Hung Viet; Bui, Cach Tuyen; Tana, Touch S; Prudente, Maricar S

    2003-04-15

    Open landfill dumping areas for municipal wastes in Asian developing countries have recently received particular attention with regard to environmental pollution problems. Because of the uncontrolled burning of solid wastes, elevated contamination by various toxic chemicals including dioxins and related compounds in these dumping sites has been anticipated. In this study, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in soils from dumping sites in the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam. Residue concentrations of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in dumping site soils were apparently greater than those in soils collected in agricultural or urban areas far from dumping sites, suggesting that dumping sites are potential sources of PCDD/Fs and related compounds. Observed PCDD/F concentrations in soils from dumping sites in the Philippines and Cambodia were comparable or higher than those reported for dioxin-contaminated locations in the world (e.g., near the municipal waste incinerators and open landfill dumping sites). Homologue profiles of PCDD/Fs in dumping site soils from the Philippines and, to a lesser extent, from Cambodia and India reflected patterns of samples representing typical emissions, while profiles of agricultural or urban soils were similar to those of typical environmental sinks. This result suggests recent formation of PCDD/Fs in dumping site areas and that open dumping sites are a potential source of dioxins in Asian developing countries. Uncontrolled combustions of solid wastes by waste pickers, generation of methane gas, and low-temperature burning can be major factors for the formation of dioxins in dumping sites. Elevated fluxes of PCDD/Fs to soils in dumping sites were encountered in the Philippines, Cambodia, India, and Vietnam-Hanoi, and these levels were higher than those reported for other countries. Considerable loading rates

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom sediments: identification of sources.

    PubMed

    Wolska, Lidia; Mechlińska, Agata; Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can enter the environment from various sources. They are synthetic chemicals and as such are present in the environment mainly as mixtures containing various amounts of PCB congeners. It is therefore difficult to pinpoint the source of PCB emissions into the environment and the pathways along which they migrate there. The situation is different where locating the emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is concerned. There is much information in the literature on the molecular markers that can be used to identify the sources of PAH emissions into the environment. Environmental samples like soil or bottom sediments are usually analysed for their contents of both groups of compounds. Therefore, with data on the origins of PAHs to hand, and seeking and comparing mutual correlations, one can attempt to define the probable sources of emission of PCBs. The purpose of this work was to identify the probable PCBs emission sources in bottom sediments using available data, that is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diagnostic ratios. The numerical ratios of pairs of compounds such as fluoranthene/pyrene, phenanthrene/anthracene, fluoranthene/(fluoranthene+pyrene) and chrysene/benzo[a]anthracene are generally used as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources.

  4. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated biphenyls from multiple industrial thermal processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Cai, Mingwei; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Du, Bing; Dong, Shujun; Hu, Jicheng; Xiao, Ke

    2013-03-01

    In this study, field measurements were conducted to estimate and characterize the atmospheric emission levels and profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from multiple industrial thermal processes. The emission levels and profiles of PCBs from five types of thermal processes at twenty-three plants were studied and compared with eight processes reported in our previous studies. Correlation analysis was preformed to identify a marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. A significant correlation was observed between congener CB-118 and ΣPCB (R(2)=0.65 and p<0.01), which suggests that CB-118 is a good marker congener for emission of ΣPCB. The profiles of PCBs emitted from the thirteen thermal processes were compared, and this information could be used for studying source-receptor relationships and identifying the specific sources of PCBs. To prioritize the sources for control, the concentrations of PCBs from thirteen industrial thermal sources were compared. The PCB concentrations from secondary zinc smelting and thermal wire reclamation were about one to three order magnitude higher than those of other sources, which suggests that these two sources be given priority in PCB source control. Finally, the atmospheric emission factors of PCBs from the thirteen industrial sources were summarized, and these data will be useful for developing an integrated emission inventory of PCBs.

  5. An Efficient Approach to Sulfate Metabolites of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueshu; Parkin, Sean; Duffel, Michael W.; Robertson, Larry W.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a major class of persistent organic pollutants, are metabolized to hydroxylated PCBs. Several hydroxylated PCBs are substrates of cytosolic phase II enzymes, such as phenol and hydroxysteroid (alcohol) sulfotransferases; however, the corresponding sulfation products have not been isolated and characterized. Here we describe a straightforward synthesis of a series of ten PCB sulfate monoesters from the corresponding hydroxylated PCBs. The hydroxylated PCBs were synthesized by coupling chlorinated benzene boronic acids with appropriate brominated (chloro-)anisoles, followed by demethylation with boron tribromide. The hydroxylated PCBs were sulfated with 2,2,2-trichloroethyl chlorosulfate using DMAP as base. Deprotection with zinc powder/ammonium formate yielded the ammonium salts of the desired PCB sulfate monoesters in good yields when the sulfated phenyl ring contained no or one chlorine substituent. However, no PCB sulfate monoesters were isolated when two chlorines were present ortho to the sulfated hydroxyl group. To aid with future quantitative structure activity relationship studies, the structures of two 2,2,2-trichloroethyl-protected PCB sulfates were verified by X-ray diffraction. PMID:19345419

  6. Hydroxylated Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Environment: Sources, Fate, and Toxicities

    PubMed Central

    Tehrani, Rouzbeh; Van Aken, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) are produced in the environment by the oxidation of PCBs through a variety of mechanisms, including metabolic transformation in living organisms and abiotic reactions with hydroxyl radicals. As a consequence, OH-PCBs have been detected in a wide range of environmental samples, including animal tissues, water, and sediments. OH-PCBs have recently raised serious environmental concerns because they exert a variety of toxic effects at lower doses than the parent PCBs and they are disruptors of the endocrine system. Although evidence has accumulated about the widespread dispersion of OH-PCBs in various compartments of the ecosystem, little is currently known about their biodegradation and behavior in the environment. OH-PCBs are today increasingly considered as a new class of environmental contaminants that possess specific chemical, physical, and biological properties not shared with the parent PCBs. This article reviews recent findings regarding the sources, fate, and toxicities of OH-PCBs in the environment. PMID:23636595

  7. Reproduction success of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Fernie, K J; Smits, J E; Bortolotti, G R; Bird, D M

    2001-04-01

    While reproduction of wild birds is adversely affected by multiple environmental contaminants, we determined that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) alone alter reproduction. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius), fed PCB-spiked (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) food (7 mg/kg body weight/d) prior to and during the first breeding season only (100 d) laid eggs with environmentally relevant levels of total PCBs (34.0 microg/g whole egg wet wt vs 0 microg/g for controls). Reproduction changed during, not after, PCB exposure in this two-year study. The PCB-exposed pairs laid smaller clutches later in the season and laid more totally infertile clutches. Hatching success was reduced in PCB-exposed pairs, and 50% of PCB nestlings died within 3 d of hatching. Nearly 60% of PCB-exposed pairs with hatchlings failed to produce fledglings. Higher levels of total PCB residues and congeners were associated with later clutch initiation and fewer fertile eggs, hatchlings, and fledglings. We suggest that nonpersistent PCB congeners have a greater influence on reproduction than do persistent congeners.

  8. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M. . E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  9. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in California sea lions.

    PubMed

    Kannan, K; Kajiwara, N; Le Boeuf, B J; Tanabe, S

    2004-10-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDTs, chlordanes, HCHs, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, tris(4-chlorophenyl)methane (TCPMe), and tris(4-chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH) were measured in the blubber of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) collected in 2000. DDTs were the most predominant contaminants, followed by PCBs, chlordanes, TCPMe, HCHs, TCPMOH, dieldrin, and heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs varied from a few microg/g to several hundreds of microg/g on a lipid weight basis. Concentrations of DDTs have declined by an order of magnitude over the last three decades in California sea lions; nevertheless, the measured concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in California sea lions are still some of the highest values reported for marine mammals in recent years. Concentrations of organochlorines were highly correlated with one another. Concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in the blubber of gray whale, humpback whale, northern elephant seal, and harbor seal, and in the adipose fat of sea otter, were lower than the levels found in California sea lions, and were in the range of a few to several microg/g on a lipid weight basis.

  10. Environmental determinants of polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in residential carpet dust

    PubMed Central

    DellaValle, Curt T.; Wheeler, David C.; Deziel, Nicole C.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Cerhan, James R.; Cozen, Wendy; Severson, Richard K.; Flory, Abigail R.; Locke, Sarah J.; Colt, Joanne S.; Hartge, Patricia; Ward, Mary H.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), banned in the United Sates in the late 1970s, are still found in indoor and outdoor environments. Little is known about the determinants of PCB levels in homes. We measured concentrations of 5 PCB congeners (105, 138, 153, 170, 180) in carpet dust collected between 1998–2000 from 1,187 homes in four sites: Detroit, Iowa, Los Angeles, and Seattle. Home characteristics, occupational history, and demographic information were obtained by interview. We used a geographic information system to geocode addresses and determine distances to the nearest major road, freight route, and railroad, percentage of developed land, number of industrial facilities within 2 km of residences, and population density. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between the covariates of interest and the odds of PCB detection in each site separately. Total PCBs levels (all congeners < maximum practical quantitation limit [MPQL] vs. at least one congener ≥ MPQL to < median concentration vs. at least one congener >median concentration) were positively associated with either percentage of developed land (ORrange: 1.01-1.04 for each percentage increase) or population density (OR: 1.08 for every 1,000/mi2) in each site. The number of industrial facilities within 2 km of a home was associated with PCB concentrations; however, facility type and the direction of the association varied by site. Our findings suggest that outdoor sources of PCBs may be significant determinants of indoor concentrations. PMID:23952055

  11. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Wu, Longhua; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Liu, Ling; Teng, Ying; Sun, Xianghui; Pan, Cheng; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A pot experiment and afield trial were conducted to study the remediation of an aged field soil contaminated with cadmium, copper and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (7.67 +/- 0.51 mg kg(-1) Cd, 369 +/- 1 mg kg(-1) Cu in pot experiment; 8.46 +/- 0.31 mg kg(-1) Cd, 468 +/- 7 mg kg(-1) Cu, 323 +/- 12 microg kg(-1) PCBs for field experiment) under different cropping patterns. In the pot experiment Sedum plumbizincicola showed pronounced Cd phytoextraction. After two periods (14 months) of cropping the Cd removal rates in these two treatments were 52.2 +/- 12.0 and 56.1 +/- 9.1%, respectively. Total soil PCBs in unplanted control pots decreased from 323 +/- 11 to 49.3 +/- 6.6 microg kg(-1), but with no significant difference between treatments. The field microcosm experiment intercropping of three plant species reduced the yield of S. plumbizincicola, with a consequent decrease in soil Cd removal. S. plumbizincicola intercropped with E. splendens had the highest shoot Cd uptake (18.5 +/- 1.8 mg pot(-1)) after 6 months planting followed by intercropping with M. sativa (15.9 +/- 1.9 mg pot(-1)). Liming with S. plumbizincicola intercropped with M. sativa significantly promoted soil PCB degradation by 25.2%. Thus, adjustment of soil pH to 5.56 combined with intercropping with S. plumbizincicola and M. sativagave high removal rates of Cd, Cu, and PCBs.

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A.; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A.

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt. PMID:26798844

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  14. Fungal laccase-catalyzed degradation of hydroxy polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Keum, Young Soo; Li, Qing X

    2004-07-01

    Hydroxy polychlorinated biphenyls (hydroxy PCBs) are toxic metabolites of PCBs. Their toxicity such as strong endocrine disruption demands effective remediation methods. Laccases from Trametes versicolor and Pleurotus ostreatus were tested to degrade hydroxy PCBs. Optimum pHs for both enzymes were around 4.0. Laccase from T. versicolor degrades hydroxy PCBs more rapidly than that from P. ostreatus. The enzymatic activities remained little changes in up to 10% organic solvents, but decreased rapidly in more than 10% acetone, acetonitrile or DMSO. Degradation rate constants decreased with increase of chlorination and no degradation was observed with tetra-, penta- and hexa-chloro hydroxy PCBs in non-mediated reactions. However, the tetra- to hexa-chloro hydroxy PCBs were degraded by laccase from T. versicolor in the presence of the mediator 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxy radical. The other mediators, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulfonic acid) diammonium salt and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and humic acid, also enhanced degradation of all the hydroxy PCBs except 4-hydroxy-2',3,3',4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl. The results showed that 3-hydroxy biphenyl was more resistant to laccase degradation than 2- or 4-hydroxy analogues. Significant linear-correlations (coefficient of determination, r2 = 0.9097 and 0.8186 for laccases from P. ostreatus and T. versicolor, respectively) were found between the ionization potentials and the removal rate constants of hydroxy PCBs.

  15. The inducing properties of polychlorinated biphenyls on hepatic monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Alvares, A P; Kappas, A

    1977-11-01

    The polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) represent a newly recognized and widely distributed category of environmental pollutants whose biologic impact on animals and man may be both substantial and highly detrimental. The pharmacologic effects of these agents on enzymes in the liver which metabolize drugs and other foreign compounds, such as carcinogens, are powerful and long lasting. PCBs mimic the effects produced on these enzymes by drugs, such as phenobarbital, and carcinogens, such as 3-methylcholanthrene. They are potent inducers of cytochromes P-45O and P-448 and associated enzymic activities. Further, these chemicals can cross the placental barrier and be transmitted through maternal milk to the newborn infant causing marked increases in drug biotransformation enzymes in the fetus and the neonate. Studies with the use of microscope immersion oils containing PCBs show that application of minute amounts of these oils to the skin of experimental animals results in a marked induction of the drug-and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes. These findings suggest that even trivial skin exposure to chemicals, such as PCBs, can have significant and perhaps harmful biologic effects in man.

  16. Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyl Transport, Metabolism and Distribution - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Harrad, Stuart J.; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lee, Cindy M.; Lu, Zhe; Wong, Charles S.

    2009-01-01

    Chirality can be exploited to gain insight into enantioselective fate processes that may otherwise remain undetected because only biological, but not physical and chemical transport and transformation processes in an achiral environment will change enantiomer compositions. This review provides an in-depth overview of the application of chirality to the study of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), an important group of legacy pollutants. Like other chiral compounds, individual PCB enantiomers may interact enantioselectively (or enantiospecifically) with chiral macromolecules, such as cytochrome P-450 enzymes or ryanodine receptors, leading to differences in their toxicological effects and the enantioselective formation of chiral biotransformation products. Species and congener-specific enantiomer enrichment has been demonstrated in environmental compartments, wildlife and mammals, including humans, typically due to a complex combination of biotransformation processes and uptake via the diet by passive diffusion. Changes in the enantiomer composition of chiral PCBs in the environment have been used to understand complex aerobic and anaerobic microbial transformation pathways, to delineate and quantify PCB sources and transport in the environment, to gain insight into the biotransformation of PCBs in aquatic food webs, and to investigate the enantioselective disposition of PCBs and their methylsulfonyl PCBs metabolites in rodents. Overall, changes in chiral signatures are powerful, but currently underutilized tools for studies of environmental and biological processes of PCBs. PMID:20384371

  17. Source apportionment of polychlorinated biphenyls in the tidal Delaware River.

    PubMed

    Du, Songyan; Belton, Thomas J; Rodenburg, Lisa A

    2008-06-01

    The Delaware River, similar to many surface water bodies throughout the United States, is impaired due to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations that exceed the federal water quality standard. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) for PCBs in the Delaware was promulgated in 2003 after construction of a detailed water quality model that relied upon estimated PCB loadings from sources such as wastewater treatment plant effluents, contaminated sites, and tributaries. The purpose of this project was to corroborate this loading estimate by analyzing ambient water column data on PCB concentrations in the Delaware River via positive matrix factorization (PMF) in order to identify covarying congener patterns that are, in theory, associated with sources. The PMF program identified six factors (covarying congener patterns) that appear to be associated with sources, such as sediment resuspension, contaminated sites, and wastewater effluents and combined sewer overflows (CSOs). PCB 11 was found to be a useful tracer for CSO/ wastewater inputs despite the fact that no known dye manufacturers exist in the watershed. This analysis generally corroborates the PCB loading estimate used in the water quality model.

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their interaction with the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, K.S.; Korte, N.E.

    1994-05-01

    This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Disrupt Hepatic Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Josiah E; Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K Cameron; Clair, Heather B; Clark, Barbara J; Ceresa, Brian P; Prough, Russell A; Cave, Matthew C

    2016-07-26

    1. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that disrupt hepatic xenobiotic and intermediary metabolism, leading to metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). 2. Since phenobarbital indirectly activates Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR) by antagonizing growth factor binding to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), we hypothesised that PCBs may also diminish EGFR signaling. 3. The effects of the PCB mixture Aroclor 1260 on the protein phosphorylation cascade triggered by EGFR activation were determined in murine (in vitro and in vivo) and human models (in vitro). EGFR tyrosine residue phosphorylation was decreased by PCBs in all models tested. 4. The IC50 values for Aroclor 1260 concentrations that decreased Y1173 phosphorylation of EGFR were similar in murine AML-12 and human HepG2 cells (∼2-4 μg/mL). Both dioxin and non-dioxin-like PCB congeners decreased EGFR phosphorylation in cell culture. 5. PCB treatment reduced phosphorylation of downstream EGFR effectors including Akt and mTOR, as well as other phosphoprotein targets including STAT3 and c-RAF in vivo. 6. PCBs diminish EGFR signaling in human and murine hepatocyte models and may dysregulate critical phosphoprotein regulators of energy metabolism and nutrition, providing a new mechanism of action in environmental diseases.

  20. Characterisation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Coastal Inland Seawater, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Nsikak U.; Fred-Ahmadu, Omowunmi H.; Adedapo, Adebusayo E.; Anake, Winifred U.

    2017-05-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in samples of surface seawater collected from five (5) different locations along the coastline of a tropical lagoon. The surface water samples were analysed using gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) with fifteen (15) PCB congeners detected across the studied area. The chlorobiphenyls levels are in the order Ebute Ero > Oko Baba > Ijora > Lagos Island > Unilag lagoon front with levels 107.89, 53.15, 34.90, 27.78, and 2.15 mg/L, respectively. The enhanced average concentration of PCBs at the Ebute Ero site is due to the predominance of PCB-180 and PCB-185. A negative correlation was found between the total PCB concentration and the level of dissolved oxygen. Although, the results indicated fairly high levels of PCBs, the anthropogenic contributions from industrial releases and domestic activities may be largely associated with the detected concentrations of the di-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octa-chlorobiphenyls.

  1. Reliability of the determinations of polychlorinated contaminants (biphenyls, dioxins, furans)

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, W.; Albert, R.

    1996-05-01

    Precision performance parameters from results of 34 interlaboratory performance studies of polychlorinated aromatic ring compounds (biphenyls, dioxins, and furans) (PCCs) have been recalculated by using the Internation Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry-1987 harmonized protocol. Most studies of 1052 test samples, 56 analytes, 19 matrixes, and 2 types of detectors (electron capture and mass spectrometers) provide among-laboratories relative standard deviations (RSD{sub R}s), that are considerably better than those predicted form the Horwitz equation at fractional concentrations of 10{sup {minus}6} down to 10{sup {minus}15}. The explanation suggested is that supplying common reference calibration solutions, as was done in many of these studies, does not reflect realistic operating conditions. Furthermore, the ability to repeat, discuss, and reassess aberrant reported values results in underestimating the true RSD{sub R}. The commonly reported problems of preparation of standard calibrating solutions, instability of the detections system, and failure to follow quality control instructions and good laboratory practices may be important sources of inter-laboratory variability in PCC determinations. 55 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oils from Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Tae Seung

    2006-10-11

    Using Korean waste official method, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed from 33 transformer oils collected under National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) in Republic of Korea (ROK) and their emission rate in Korea was estimated. Practical quantification limits analyzed by this method were in the ranges of 0.02 and 0.05 mg L(-1), and recovery of samples was in the ranges of 77-97%. The analytical results showed that PCBs in the transformer oils were identified as Aroclor 1242, 1254 or 1260. Twenty-nine samples were determined to contain PCBs of >0.05 mg L(-1) and among these samples, nine samples contained to have >2 mg kg(-1) which is limit of Waste Control Act (WCA) with regard to PCBs in transformer oil from Korea. The concentrations of PCBs in transformer oils were between N.D. (not detected) and 48.33 mg kg(-1). PCBs concentrations did not exceed 50 mg kg(-1) which is generally accepted limit for the definition of waste in POPs Guideline of Basel Convention.

  3. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among welders in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Lankatilake, Kantha; Samaranayake, Dulani; Piyathunga, Kasun

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants with the ability to cause adverse impacts on human health and the environment. This study describes the indiscriminate use of PCB-contaminated transformer oil as a coolant in informal welding shops in Kalutara, Sri Lanka. Sixty-three welders, one each from a convenience sample of 63 welding workshops participated in the study. We administered a questionnaire and observed work practices. Sixty-two (98%) workplaces used transformer oil as the coolant in the welding equipment, 60 (95%) claiming that it was the only one available. Sixty-two (98%) did not use any protective measures when refilling coolant oil, while none of them safely disposed of the empty coolant oil containers. Only four (6%) were aware of the possible health effects of PCB-contaminated coolant oil. Health and safety measures in the work places studied were very poor. Coolant oil samples from a sub-sample of 30 welding workshops were tested for PCBs; 19 (63%) were positive. PCB-contaminated coolant oil is widely used by the welders in Kalutara without adequate precautions or safety measures.

  4. Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Choi, Hye-Min; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kang, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae-Duck; Kim, Jaehoon

    2009-12-01

    Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oils was carried out in a fixed bed reactor using a 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) catalyst. Reaction temperatures ranging 150-300 degrees C, PCBs concentrations ranging 50-200 ppm, and reaction times ranging 1-8 h were tested. At a higher reaction temperature or at a lower PCBs concentration, catalytic activity was higher and complete dechlorination of PCBs resulted even at long reaction time. Catalyst regeneration using hexane and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was effective to restore the catalytic activity. Fresh, spent and regenerated catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. XRD analysis revealed growth of Ni crystallite size of the spent and the regenerated catalysts. XPS analysis showed that a considerable amount of chlorine and carbon species were deposited on the surface of the spent catalyst, which may play a role in the catalysts deactivation.

  5. Thyroid function in Yusho patients exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)

    SciTech Connect

    Murai, K.; Okamura, K.; Tsuji, H.; Kajiwara, E.; Watanabe, H.; Akagi, K.; Fujishima, M.

    1987-12-01

    Thyroid function was investigated in 123 Yusho patients who were exposed to toxic levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 16 years ago. In Yusho patients, compared with the patients without evidence of Yusho or normal controls, the serum triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) and thyroxine (T/sub 4/) levels were significantly higher, while thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels measured by sensitive assay were normal. There was no difference in serum levels of albumin, alkaline phosphatase, total cholesterol, and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) between the two groups and the prevalence of positive antithyroid autoantibodies was almost the same, suggesting that hyperthyroxinemia in Yusho patients was not due to increased TBG binding or abnormal autoimmune mechanism. Serum free T/sub 4/ levels, however, were not elevated, although T/sub 4//TBG ratio was significantly higher. The thyroid hormone levels were higher than normal value in 4 of 123 Yusho patients but only 1 case had clinical symptoms such as excessive perspiration. Despite higher serum PCBs in Yusho patients, there was no correlation between PCB levels and levels of T/sub 3/, T/sub 4/, or TSH. The present results suggest hyperthyroxinemia without obvious clinical symptoms in Yusho patients long after exposure to PCBs.

  6. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

  7. Neutrophhil function after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ganey, P.E.; Denison, M.; Roth, R.A.; Robinson, J.P. )

    1993-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to be immunotoxic, yet the effects on neutrophil (PMN) function are not well characterized. We incubated PMNs isolated from rat peritoneum with a mixture of PCB congeners, Aroclor 1242, in the absence or presence of either phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) to stimulate generation of supoxide anion (O[sub 2]) or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) to induce degranulation (measured as release of [beta]-glucuronidase). Aroclor 1242 alone stimulated O[sub 2] production at a concentration of 10 [mu]g/ml. Significant cytotoxicity was not observed under these conditions. This concentration of Aroclor 1242 also increased O[sub 2] generation in PMNs activated with 20 ng PMA/ml. In the presence of a concentration of PMA (2 ng/ml) that by itself did not stimulate production of O[sub 2], 1 [mu]g Aroclor 1242/ml caused significant generation of O[sub 2], indicating synergy between Aroclor 1242 and PMA. Aroclor 1242 caused release of [beta]-glucuronidase from quiescent PMNs; however, in PMNs stimulated with fMLP to undergo degranulation, Aroclor 1242 inhibited release of [beta]-glucuronidase.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in blue crabs from South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, J.M.; Mathews, T.D.

    1987-11-01

    Blue crabs are important members of the estuarine food web due to their numbers and their multiple roles as scavengers, predators and prey. Because of their omnivorous feeding characteristics, wide distribution an close association with bottom sediments, the potential exists for blue crabs to bioaccumulate pollutants residing in those sediments as has been shown for fiddler crabs. It follows that human health risk upon consumption of such crabs and biomagnification through the food web become primary concerns. During the spring of 1985, commercial crab fishermen in Beaufort County, South Carolina contacted the South Carolina Wildlife and Marine Resources Department (SCWMRD) concerning their perceptions of significantly declining catch rates in the Campbell Creek-Whale Branch area. Using knowledge of previously documented elevated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) levels in the sediments of the upper portion of Campbell Creek, the SCWMRD initiated analysis of crab tissue from the area to ascertain the body burdens of PCBs. Initial screening results indicated potentially significant levels of PCBs in blue crabs at which time, SCWMRD contacted the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) for more intensive study and definition of the situation. The work reported here was conducted between June and October 1985.

  9. A comprehensive approach to actual polychlorinated biphenyls environmental contamination.

    PubMed

    Risso, F; Magherini, A; Ottonelli, M; Magi, E; Lottici, S; Maggiolo, S; Garbarino, M; Narizzano, R

    2016-05-01

    Worldwide polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution is due to complex mixtures with high number of congeners, making the determination of total PCBs in the environment an open challenge. Because the bulk of PCBs production was made of Aroclor mixtures, this analysis is usually faced by the empirical mixture identification via visual inspection of the chromatogram. However, the identification reliability is questionable, as patterns in real samples are strongly affected by the frequent occurrence of more than one mixture. Our approach is based on the determination of a limited number of congeners chosen to enable objective criteria for Aroclor identification, summing up the advantages of congener-specific analysis with the ones of total PCBs determination. A quantitative relationship is established between congeners and any single mixture, or mixtures combination, leading to the identification of the actual contamination composition. The approach, due to its generality, allows the use of different sets of congeners and any technical mixture, including the non-Aroclor ones. The results confirm that PCB environmental pollution in northern Italy is based on Aroclor. Our methodology represents an important tool to understand the source and fate of the PCBs contamination.

  10. Toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on cardiac development in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Xuejie; Zhu, Jingai; Zhu, Shasha; Hu, Xiaoshan; Zhu, Chun; Guo, Xirong; Yu, Zhangbin; Han, Shuping

    2014-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants that may pose significant health-risks to various organisms including humans. Although the mixed PCB Aroclor 1254 is widespread in the environment, its potential toxic effect on heart development and the mechanism underlying its developmental toxicity have not been previously studied. Here, we used the zebrafish as a toxicogenomic model to examine the effects of Aroclor 1254 on heart development. We found that PCB exposure during zebrafish development induced heart abnormalities including pericardial edema and cardiac looping defects. Further malformations of the zebrafish embryo were observed and death of the larvae occurred in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Our mechanistic studies revealed that abnormalities in the arylhydrocarbon receptor, Wnt and retinoic acid signaling pathways may underlie the effects of PCBs on zebrafish heart development. Interestingly, co-administration of Aroclor 1254 and diethylaminobenzaldehyde, an inhibitor of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase, partially rescued the toxic effects of PCBs on zebrafish heart development. In conclusion, PCBs can induce developmental defects in the zebrafish heart, which may be mediated by abnormal RA signaling.

  11. Health effects of low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Stark, A D; Costas, K; Chang, H G; Vallet, H L

    1986-10-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill resulting from a transformer explosion in Syracuse, New York, with no subsequent fire, provided an opportunity for the examination of the effects of low-level PCB exposure without the confounding presence of furans and dioxins. The incident provided 52 individuals exposed to PCB among building personnel, police, firemen, and public utility employees. Sixty-eight nonexposed were matched to the exposed group by sex, age, employer, and job description. Data were collected on the exposed relative to their activities at the spill site, their location, possible routes of exposure, duration of exposure, and subsequent health effects. Exposed and nonexposed were interviewed for past medical history and relevant symptoms. Blood chemistries were studied inclusive of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, CBC, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as a fasting blood PCB level measurement. Six weeks after the spill, exposed and nonexposed were reinterviewed and had their blood work repeated except for the CBC and PCB levels. Exposed and nonexposed laboratory results were unremarkable. Some transient skin irritation believed to be associated with PCBs was noted. There were significant PCBs in blood level trends for occupation, age, duration of exposure, and level of alcohol consumption. Triglyceride level was highly correlated with PCB level. This relationship held when age and alcohol consumption were controlled for.

  12. Elimination half-lives of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in children.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Barr, Dana B; Needham, Larry L; Weihe, Pal; Heinzow, Birger

    2008-09-15

    The elimination kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans is difficult to assess in observational studies, because PCB exposure is never completely abolished. In a community with high dietary PCB exposures from whale blubber, we examined two groups of children with increased body burdens from breast-feeding. Follow-up was from ages 4.5 to 7.5 years (99 subjects) and 7 to 14 years (101 subjects). The calculations were performed by the use of structural equation models, with adjustment for body weight and dietary blubber intake as the main source of postnatal exposure. As a likely result of background exposures, apparent elimination half-lives were unexpectedly long when based on results from all cohort members. Subjects with exposures above the median and in the highest quartile showed half-lives of about 3-4 years for CB-138 and 4.5-5.5 years for CB-105 and CB-118; 6.5-7.5 years for CB-156, CB-170, and CB-187; and 7-9 years for CB-153 and CB-180. The longest half-lives correspond to elimination of the parent PCB solely with a daily fat excretion rate of 1-2 g, whereas shorter half-lives assume metabolic break-down.

  13. Accumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls from floodplain soils by passerine birds.

    PubMed

    Neigh, Arianne M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Bradley, Patrick W; Kay, Denise P; Jones, Paul D; Holem, Ryan R; Blankenship, Alan L; Strause, Karl D; Newsted, John L; Giesy, John P

    2006-06-01

    Eggs, nestlings, and adults of the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) and house wren (Troglodytes aedon) were collected at a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated site and a reference location on the Kalamazoo River (MI, USA). Eggs and nestlings of eastern bluebirds at the more contaminated location contained concentrations of 8.3 and 1.3 mg/kg, respectively, of total PCBs and 77 and 6.3 ng/kg, respectively, of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs). Eggs, nestlings, and adults of house wrens from the contaminated location contained 6.3, 0.77, and 3.2 mg/kg, respectively, of PCBs and 400, 63, and 110 ng/kg, respectively, of TEQs. Concentrations of total PCBs and TEQs in tissues at the more contaminated location were significantly greater than concentrations in tissues at the reference site for all tissue types of both species. Exposures of the two species studied were different, which suggests that terrestrial-based insectivorous passerine species, foraging in the same area, may have differential exposure to PCBs depending on specific foraging techniques and the insect orders that are targeted. Despite the greater accumulation of PCBs at the more contaminated location, the risk of exposure to PCBs did not exceed the threshold for adverse effects at either location.

  14. Chiral Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Absorption, Metabolism and Excretion – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Seventy eight out of the 209 possible polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners are chiral, nineteen of which exist under ambient conditions as stable rotational isomers that are non-superimposable mirror images of each other. These congeners (C-PCBs) represent up to 6% by weight of technical PCB mixtures and undergo considerable atropisomeric enrichment in wildlife, laboratory animals and humans. The objective of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of the processes involved in the absorption, metabolism and excretion of C-PCBs and their metabolites in laboratory animals and humans. C-PCBs are absorbed and excreted by passive diffusion, a process that, like other physicochemical processes, is inherently not atropselective. In mammals, metabolism by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes represents a major route of elimination for many C-PCBs. In vitro studies demonstrate that C-PCBs with a 2,3,6-trichlorosubstituion pattern in one phenyl ring are readily oxidized to hydroxylated PCB metabolites (HO-PCBs) by P450 enzymes, such as rat CYP2B1, human CYP2B6 and dog CYP2B11. The oxidation of C-PCBs is atropselective, thus resulting in a species and congener-dependent atropisomeric enrichment of C-PCBs and their metabolites. This atropisomeric enrichment of C-PCBs and their metabolites likely plays a poorly understood role in the atropselective toxicity of C-PCBs and, therefore, warrants further investigation. PMID:25651810

  15. Modeling polychlorinated biphenyl sorption isotherms for soot and coal.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, A P K; Koelmans, A A; Jonker, M T O

    2010-08-01

    Sorption isotherms (pg-ng/L) were measured for 11 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of varying molecular planarity from aqueous solution to two carbonaceous geosorbents, anthracite coal and traffic soot. All isotherms were reasonably log-log-linear, but smooth for traffic soot and staircase-shaped for coal, to which sorption was stronger and more nonlinear. The isotherms were modeled using seven sorption models, including Freundlich, (dual) Langmuir, and Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes (PDM). PDM provided the best combination of reliability and mechanistically-interpretable parameters. The PDM normalizing factor Z appeared to correlate negatively with sorbate molecular volume, dependent on the degree of molecular planarity. The modeling results supported the hypothesis that maximum adsorption capacities (Q(max)) correlate positively with the sorbent's specific surface area. Q(max) did not decrease with increasing sorbate molecular size, and adsorption affinities clearly differed between the sorbents. Sorption was consistently stronger but not less linear for planar than for nonplanar PCBs, suggesting surface rather than pore sorption. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mortality of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls--an update

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.P.

    1987-11-01

    A retrospective cohort mortality study of workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in two plants manufacturing electrical capacitors was reported in 1981. The study was conducted primarily to examine the risk of cancer mortality associated with exposure to PCBs. Based on animal data, liver cancer was the disease of most interest. Due to the small number of deaths and a relatively short observation period, the study was considered inconclusive. This study has been updated by adding 7 yr of observation. The number of deaths in the study cohort has increased from 163 to 295. Mortality from all causes was found to be lower than expected (295 observed vs. 318 expected deaths) as well as mortality from all cancers (62 observed vs. 80 expected deaths). A statistically significant excess in deaths was observed in the disease category that includes cancer of the liver (primary and unspecified), gall bladder, and biliary tract (5 observed vs. 1.9 expected; p less than .05). Most of this excess was observed in women employed in one plant. Due to the small number of deaths and the variability of specific cause of death within this category, it remains difficult to interpret these findings in regard to PCB exposure.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls as initiators in liver carcinogenesis: resistant hepatocyte model.

    PubMed

    Espandiari, Parvaneh; Glauert, Howard P; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lee, Eun Y; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Robertson, Larry W

    2003-01-01

    A modified Solt-Farber protocol was established to investigate the potential initiating activity of lower chlorinated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in rat liver. Two different studies were conducted in male Fisher 344 rats. PCBs investigated were PCB3, PCB12, PCB38, and PCB77 in study 1 and PCB15, PCB52, PCB77, and the combination of PCB52 and PCB77 in study 2. Rats were subjected to partial hepatectomy followed by a single dose of the suspected initiating agent, diethylnitrosamine, or vehicle. Two weeks later all groups received selection treatment consisting of three daily doses of 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and then a single dose of carbon tetrachloride, followed by three additional daily treatments of 2-AAF via gavage. Rats were killed 2 weeks after the last treatment of 2-AAF, and the number and volume of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT)-positive foci were determined. Among the PCBs tested, PCB3, PCB15, PCB52, and PCB77 significantly increased the number of GGT-positive foci per cm(3) of liver and per liver. Only PCB3 and PCB15 increased the volume fraction of GGT-positive foci. Histopathologic analysis of hematoxylin- and eosin-stained liver sections showed that rats with significantly increased GGT-positive foci also had extensive cellular alteration. This effect was not seen in nonselection groups. We conclude that, under the conditions and time courses of these experiments, several PCBs have initiating activity in male Fischer 344 rats.

  18. Biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls through a riverine food web

    SciTech Connect

    Zaranko, D.T.; Kaushik, N.K.; Griffiths, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    From 1989 to 1993, biota collected from Pottersburg Creek, London, ON, Canada were analyzed for total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and lipids. Data were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with lipid as the covariate, to investigate station, time, and trophic effects on PCB accumulation in aquatic organisms. All three variables were highly significant. PCB concentrations in biota decreased along the length of the creek away from the point source. PCB concentrations in biota collected in July 1993 were not significantly different from concentrations in biota collected in July 1990, suggesting that sources into the creek have not been alleviated. The relationship between PCBs and lipid for biota from Pottersburg Creek suggests that organisms accumulate PCBs relative to their position in the food web. Fish and leeches occupying the top of the food web accumulated more PCBs than organisms occupying a lower trophic position (crayfish and oligochaetes/chironomids), indicating that biomagnification through trophic transfer (i.e., the uptake of a chemical through ingestion) is the primary mechanism governing contaminant levels in biota and not bioconcentration (i.e, the uptake of a chemical from water).

  19. Health effects of low-level exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, A.D.; Costas, K.; Chang, H.G.; Vallet, H.L.

    1986-10-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) spill resulting from a transformer explosion in Syracuse, New York, with no subsequent fire, provided an opportunity for the examination of the effects of low-level PCB exposure without the confounding presence of furans and dioxins. The incident provided 52 individuals exposed to PCB among building personnel, police, firemen, and public utility employees. Sixty-eight nonexposed were matched to the exposed group by sex, age, employer, and job description. Data were collected on the exposed relative to their activities at the spill site, their location, possible routes of exposure duration of exposure, and subsequent health effects. Exposed and nonexposed were interviewed for past medical history and relevant symptoms. Blood chemistries were studied inclusive of SGOT, SGPT, total protein, CBC, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, as well as a fasting blood PCB level measurement. Six weeks after the spill, exposed and nonexposed were re-interviewed and had their blood work repeated except for the CBC and PCB levels. Exposed and nonexposed laboratory results were unremarkable. Some transient skin irritation believed to be associated with PCBs was noted. There were significant PCBs in blood level trends for occupation, age, duration of exposure, and level of alcohol consumption. Triglyceride level was highly correlated with PCB level. This relationship held when age and alcohol consumption were controlled for.

  20. Inhalation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) Produces Hyperactivity in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John P; Berger, David F; Hunt, Anne; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious behavioral syndrome seen in children, and more common in males than females. There is increasing evidence that prenatal and/or early life exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POP) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) is associated with increased risk of ADHD occurrence. While PCB exposure is usually attributed to ingestion of contaminated food, recent reports of elevated PCB concentrations in indoor air, especially in schools, raised concern regarding inhalation as an important route of exposure to PCB with consequent effects on neurobehavior. The effects of exposure to air contaminated with Aroclor 1248 or contaminated sediment (SED) from the St. Lawrence River were examined on operant behavior of male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Data showed that relative to controls, vapor-phase inhalation of PCB, whether from blowing air over Aroclor 1248 or from blowing air over sediment contaminated with PCB, resulted in hyperactivity and impatience in rats, more pronounced in males than females. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that inhalation of PCB may contribute to behavioral abnormalities in children.

  1. Sex effect on polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in fish: a synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in fish primarily via food intake, and therefore, PCBs serve as a chemical tracer for food consumption. Sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish have been attributed to the following three mechanisms: (i) females losing a substantial portion of their PCB body burden during spawning and consequently their PCB concentration is considerably reduced immediately after spawning; (ii) sex differences in habitat utilization leading to sex differences in the PCB concentrations of the prey; and (iii) sex differences in gross growth efficiency, which is defined as growth divided by the amount of food consumption needed to achieve that growth. Based on my analyses and synthesis, mechanisms (i) and (ii) operate in relatively few fish populations, but can lead to mature males having PCB concentrations two to three times higher than mature female PCB concentrations. In contrast, mechanism (iii) operates in all fish populations, but typically, mechanism (iii) results in relatively modest sex differences, with mature males only between 15 and 35% higher in PCB concentration than mature females. In summary, the study of sex differences in PCB concentrations of fish has led to insights into fish behaviour and fish physiology.

  2. A reassessment of the nomenclature of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Maervoet, Johan; Covaci, Adrian; Schepens, Paul; Sandau, Courtney D; Letcher, Robert J

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a widespread class of persistent organic chemicals that accumulate in the environment and humans and are associated with a broad spectrum of health effects. PCB biotransformation has been shown to lead to two classes of PCB metabolites that are present as contaminant residues in the tissues of selected biota: hydroxylated (HO) and methyl sulfone (MeSO2) PCBs. Although these two types of metabolites are related structures, different rules for abbreviation of both classes have emerged. It is important that a standardized nomenclature for the notation of PCB metabolites be universally agreed upon. We suggest that the full chemical name of the PCB metabolite and a shorthand notation should be adopted using the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's chemical name/original Ballschmiter and Zell number of the parent congener, followed by the assignment of the phenyl ring position number of the MeSO2- or HO-substituent. This nomenclature provides a clear, unequivocal set of rules in naming and abbreviating the PCB metabolite structure. Furthermore, this unified PCB metabolite nomenclature approach can be extended to the naming and abbreviation of potential metabolites of structurally analogous contaminants such as HO-polybrominated biphenyls and HO-polybrominated diphenyl ethers. PMID:14998742

  3. Elimination Half-lives of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Congeners in Children

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Philippe; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Barr, Dana B.; Needham, Larry L.; Weihe, Pal; Heinzow, Birger

    2008-01-01

    The elimination kinetics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in humans is difficult to assess in observational studies, because PCB exposure is never completely abolished. In a community with high dietary PCB exposures from whale blubber, we examined two groups of children with increased body burdens from breast-feeding. Follow-up was from ages 4.5 years to 7.5 years (99 subjects) and 7 to 14 years (101 subjects). The calculations were performed by the use of structural equation models, with adjustment for body weight and dietary blubber intake as the main source of postnatal exposure. As a likely result of background exposures, apparent elimination half-lives were unexpectedly long when based on results from all cohort members. Subjects with exposures above the median and in the highest quartile showed half-lives of about 3-4 years for CB-138, and 4.5-5.5 years for CB-105 and CB-118; 6.5-7.5 years for CB-156, CB-170, and CB-187; and 7-9 years for CB-153 and CB-180. The longest half-lives correspond to elimination of the parent PCB solely with a daily fat excretion rate of 1-2 g, while shorter half-lives assume metabolic break-down. PMID:18853821

  4. Atmospheric emission of polychlorinated naphthalenes from iron ore sintering processes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Nie, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Li, Cheng; Hu, Jicheng

    2012-10-01

    Iron ore sintering processes constitute significant sources of dioxins, and studies have confirmed a close correlation between polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and dioxin formation. Thus, iron ore sintering processes are thought to be a potential source of PCNs, although intensive investigations on PCN emissions from sintering processes have not been carried out. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to qualify and quantify PCN emissions from nine sintering plants operating on different industrial scales. PCN concentrations ranged from 3 to 983 ng m(-3) (0.4-23.3 pg TEQ(PCN) m(-3)) and emission factors ranged from 14 to 1749 μg t(-1) (0.5-41.5 ng TEQ(PCN) t(-1)), with a geometric mean of 84 μg t(-1) (2.1 ng TEQ(PCN) t(-1)). The estimated annual emission of PCNs from sintering processes in China was 1390 mg TEQ(PCN). These figures will assist in the development of a PCN emissions inventory. Regarding emission characteristics, PCNs mainly comprised low-chlorinated homologs. The ratios of several characteristic PCN congeners were also measured and compared with those from other sources. Taken together, these results may provide useful information for identifying the sources of PCNs produced by iron ore sintering processes.

  5. Chronic oral exposure of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to a polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254): pathological effects.

    PubMed Central

    Nestel, H; Budd, J

    1975-01-01

    Groups of eight rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were fed rations containing 0 ppm, 1 ppm, 10 ppm and 100 ppm of the polychlorinated biphenyl, Aroclor 1254, over a period of up to 330 days. Growth rates were unaffected by these levels. Pathological changes were found in the kidneys of 13 fish on the polychlorinated biphenyl ration. Foci of nephrosis with cellular or granular cast formation were seen. The greatest number of cases occured in fish at the 10 ppm concentration. An increase in the number of hepatocytes per unit area was related to the greater concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls in the diet. A reduction in the amount of white pulp in the spleen was observed in 23 of 27 fish on the 10 ppm and 100 ppm diets. The fish with nephrosis had reduced splenic white pulp and lowered white cell counts. Fish fed the 1 ppm and 10 ppm levels had mean tissue residues of 1.4 and 2.3 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl respectively. Fish on the 100 ppm ration had a mean value of 80.1 ppm polychlorinated biphenyl content. Images Fig. 1. PMID:804980

  6. Factors influencing combined exposure to three indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in an adult cohort from Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Arrebola, J P; Mutch, E; Cuellar, M; Quevedo, M; Claure, E; Mejía, L M; Fernández-Rodríguez, M; Freire, C; Olea, N; Mercado, L A

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are persistent organic pollutants that have been used for decades in several industrial applications. Although production of polychlorinated biphenyls was restricted from the 1970s in most countries, substantial amounts remain in old equipment and buildings and they have been detected in various environmental and biological matrices. The main objective of this study was to analyze predictors of the combined exposure to three non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (congeners 138, 153 and 180) in serum and adipose tissue from an adult cohort (n=112) living in the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra (Bolivia) and surrounding towns/villages. A second aim was to identify modifiers that might influence the statistical associations found, using crude, partially-adjusted, and global multiple linear regression models. Main predictors of serum concentrations were occupation and fatty food consumption, while those for adipose tissue concentrations included age, smoking habit, fatty food consumption, and residence. The differences between the two matrices might be derived from their biological meaning, given that adipose tissue concentrations are an indicator of chronic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls while serum levels are a good predictor of ongoing exposure and the mobilization of polychlorinated biphenyls stored in fatty tissues. Body mass index was found to be an important modifier of these associations.

  7. (E)-3-(2-Chloro­phen­yl)-1-(4,4′′-difluoro-5′-meth­oxy-1,1′:3′,1′′-terphenyl-4′-yl)prop-2-en-1-one

    PubMed Central

    Samshuddin, S.; Narayana, Badiadka; Yathirajan, Hemmige S.; Betz, Richard; Gerber, Thomas; Hosten, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C28H19ClF2O2, is a polysubstituted terphenyl derivative bearing a Michael system in which the C=C double bond has an E conformation. In the crystal, C—H⋯Cl and C—H⋯O contacts connect the mol­ecules into layers lying perpendicular to the a axis. The shortest inter­centroid distance between symmetry-related 4-fluoro­phenyl groups is 3.7547 (16) Å. PMID:22590402

  8. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  9. Patterns and dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in food products in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingyun; Ding, Gangdou; Zhou, Zhiguang; Liu, Xun; Wang, Yixiao; Xie, Heidi Qunhui; Xu, Tuan; Wang, Pu; Zhao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The health risk of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) to human being should be assessed regularly. To evaluate the contamination levels in various food products in the Chinese market and to assess the dietary exposure of the Chinese population, 11 varieties of food groups totaling 634 samples including beef and mutton, chicken and duck, pork, fish and seafood, milk and dairy products were evaluated. The average concentrations of PCDD/Fs in all groups ranged from 0.291 to 8.468pg/g whole weight (w.w.). The average toxic equivalency concentrations were from 0.012pg TEQ/g w.w. for cereal to 0.367pg TEQ/g fat for marine oil. OCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF were the dominant congeners in foodstuffs. The dietary estimated mean intake for the Chinese rural and urban populations were 0.656 and 0.514pg TEQ/kg body weight/day, respectively, however, the cereal group exposure were higher to the estimate daily intake and contributed 81% for rural and 48% for urban population, followed by fish and seafood which contributed 4% and 16% to the estimate daily intake. The estimated dietary intakes were compared with the toxicological reference values and showed that both rural and urban populations were well below those values. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. EFFECT OF COFIRING COAL ON FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS DURING WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of cofiring coal with municipal waste on formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was examined by cofiring minor amounts (<7% by wt) of high (3.4% by wt) or low (0.7% by wt) sulfur (S) coal in a municipal waste co...

  11. EFFECTS OF COMBUSTION PARAMETERS ON POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN HOMOLOGUE PROFILES FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE AND COAL CO-COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variation in polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD and PCDF) homologue profiles from a pilot scale (0.6 MWt, 2x106 Btu/hr), co-fired-fuel [densified refuse derived fuel (dRDF) and high-sulfur Illinois coal] combustion system was used to provide i...

  12. Contrastive analysis of the Raman spectra of polychlorinated benzene: hexachlorobenzene and benzene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xian; Zhou, Qin; Huang, Yu; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    Detection of persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated benzene in environment in trace amounts is challenging, but important. It is more difficult to distinguish homologues and isomers of organic pollutantd when present in trace amounts because of their similar physical and chemical properties. In this work we simulate the Raman spectra of hexachlorobenzene and benzene, and figure out the vibration mode of each main peak. The effect on the Raman spectrum of changing substituents from H to Cl is analyzed to reveal the relations between the Raman spectra of homologues and isomers of polychlorinated benzene, which should be helpful for distinguishing one kind of polychlorinated benzene from its homologues and isomers by surface enhanced Raman scattering.

  13. Contrastive Analysis of the Raman Spectra of Polychlorinated Benzene: Hexachlorobenzene and Benzene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian; Zhou, Qin; Huang, Yu; Li, Zhengcao; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2011-01-01

    Detection of persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated benzene in environment in trace amounts is challenging, but important. It is more difficult to distinguish homologues and isomers of organic pollutantd when present in trace amounts because of their similar physical and chemical properties. In this work we simulate the Raman spectra of hexachlorobenzene and benzene, and figure out the vibration mode of each main peak. The effect on the Raman spectrum of changing substituents from H to Cl is analyzed to reveal the relations between the Raman spectra of homologues and isomers of polychlorinated benzene, which should be helpful for distinguishing one kind of polychlorinated benzene from its homologues and isomers by surface enhanced Raman scattering. PMID:22247678

  14. Phytoremediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: New Trends and Promises

    PubMed Central

    Van Aken, Benoit; Correa, Paola A.; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2011-01-01

    Transgenic plants and associated bacteria constitute a new generation of genetically modified organisms for efficient and environmental-friendly treatment of soil and water contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This review focuses on recent advances in phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs, including the development of transgenic plants and associated bacteria. Phytoremediation, or the use of higher plants for rehabilitation of soil and groundwater, is a promising strategy for cost-effective treatment of sites contaminated by toxic compounds, including toxic PCBs. Plants can help mitigate environmental pollution by PCBs through a range of mechanisms: besides uptake from soil (phytoextraction), plants are capable of enzymatic transformation of PCBs (phytotransformation); by releasing a variety of secondary metabolites, plants also enhance the microbial activity in the root zone, improving biodegradation of PCBs (rhizoremediation). However, because of their hydrophobicity and chemical stability, PCBs are only slowly taken up and degraded by plants and associated bacteria, resulting in incomplete treatment and potential release of toxic metabolites into the environment. Moreover, naturally occurring plant-associated bacteria may not possess the enzymatic machinery necessary for PCB degradation. In order to overcome these limitations, bacterial genes involved in the metabolism of PCBs, such as biphenyl dioxygenases, have been introduced into higher plants, following a strategy similar to the development of transgenic crops. Similarly, bacteria have then been genetically modified that exhibit improved biodegradation capabilities and are able to maintain stable relationships with plants. Transgenic plants and associated bacteria bring hope for a broader and more efficient application of phytoremediation for the treatment of PCBs. PMID:20384372

  15. Worker exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in elastic polysulphide sealant renovation.

    PubMed

    Kontsas, Helena; Pekari, Kaija; Riala, Riitta; Bäck, Beatrice; Rantio, Tiina; Priha, Eero

    2004-01-01

    Worker exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in renovation of prefabricated houses was assessed by biological monitoring of 24 PCB congeners including the 10 most abundant PCBs in elastic polysulphide sealants. Serum samples from 22 exposed and 21 non-exposed men were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionization. Total PCB concentration of 24 PCB congeners in workers' serum varied between 0.6 and 17.8 microg/l (mean 3.9 microg/l, median 1.9 microg/l). The Finnish upper reference limit for occupationally non-exposed persons (3 microg/l) was exceeded in the serum samples of 10 workers. Concentrations for non-exposed persons were 0.3-3.0 microg/l (mean 1.7 microg/l, median 1.5 microg/l). The concentration for the sum of the 10 most abundant PCB congeners in elastic polysulphide sealants in serum samples taken in autumn after the renovation season was 2-10 times higher than in samples from the same workers (n=5) taken in the previous spring. The concentrations of PCB congeners PCB 28, 52, 77, 101, 138, 153 and 180 in hygienic samples taken from the breathing zone of the workers were low, ranging from not detected to 3.1 microg/m3. The concentrations of PCB 28 and 52 in sera were positively correlated with the concentrations in air samples taken from the breathing zone of six workers (r=0.70 and 0.80).

  16. A compromised liver alters polychlorinated biphenyl-mediated toxicity.

    PubMed

    Wahlang, Banrida; Perkins, Jordan T; Petriello, Michael C; Hoffman, Jessie B; Stromberg, Arnold J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2017-02-02

    Exposure to environmental toxicants namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is correlated with multiple health disorders including liver and cardiovascular diseases. The liver is important for both xenobiotic and endobiotic metabolism. However, the responses of an injured liver to subsequent environmental insults has not been investigated. The current study aims to evaluate the role of a compromised liver in PCB-induced toxicity and define the implications on overall body homeostasis. Male C57Bl/6 mice were fed either an amino acid control diet (CD) or a methionine-choline deficient diet (MCD) during the 12-week study. Mice were subsequently exposed to either PCB126 (4.9mg/kg) or the PCB mixture, Arcolor1260 (20mg/kg) and analyzed for inflammatory, calorimetry and metabolic parameters. Consistent with the literature, MCD diet-fed mice demonstrated steatosis, indicative of a compromised liver. Mice fed the MCD-diet and subsequently exposed to PCB126 showed observable wasting syndrome leading to mortality. PCB126 and Aroclor1260 exposure worsened hepatic fibrosis exhibited by the MCD groups. Interestingly, PCB126 but not Aroclor1260 induced steatosis and inflammation in CD-fed mice. Mice with liver injury and subsequently exposed to PCBs also manifested metabolic disturbances due to alterations in hepatic gene expression. Furthermore, PCB exposure in MCD-fed mice led to extra-hepatic toxicity such as upregulated circulating inflammatory biomarkers, implicating endothelial cell dysfunction. Taken together, these results indicate that environmental pollution can exacerbate toxicity caused by diet-induced liver injury which may be partially due to dysfunctional energy homeostasis. This is relevant to PCB-exposed human cohorts who suffer from alcohol or diet-induced fatty liver diseases.

  17. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden. PMID:27005643

  18. Attenuation of polychlorinated biphenyl sorption to charcoal by humic acids.

    PubMed

    Koelmans, Albert A; Meulman, Brendo; Meijer, Thijs; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2009-02-01

    Strong sorption to black carbon may limit the environmental risks of organic pollutants, but interactions with cosorbing humic acid (HA) may interfere. We studied the attenuative effect of HA additions on the sorption of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to a charcoal. "Intrinsic" sorption to HA-amended charcoal was calculated by subtracting the sorption contribution of HA from the total sorption to charcoal and HA. Association of PCBs with HA was proportional to hydrophobicity. However, the planar PCBs 77 and 126 had an additional 2-4 times stronger association than expected from hydrophobicity alone. Sorption isotherms for the raw charcoal fitted slightly better to a three-parameter Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model than to a two-parameter Langmuir model. Preloading the charcoal with 1-75 mg of HA/g of charcoal increasingly attenuated sorption to charcoal with up to a factor of 10. The resultant isotherms could be described adequately with the Freundlich model. Isotherm nonlinearity increased with HA loading, suggesting increased sorption competition between HA and PCBs. Attenuation was negligible in the PCB picogram per liter to nanogram per liter range and increased at higher PCB concentrations, which points to saturation of binding sites on the charcoal. Attenuation was highest for planar congeners, which suggests an additional site blockage mechanism. These variations due to HA loading and PCB concentration can explain the variability in attenuation reported in earlier work and imply that the use of constant "attenuation factors" to adjust sorption coefficients determined for pure carbonaceous materials in order to apply them to field situations may not be warranted.

  19. Plasma Polychlorinated Biphenyl Concentrations and Immune Function in Postmenopausal Women☆

    PubMed Central

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjodin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; McTiernan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 μg/mL PHA-TLP per 50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. PMID:24721136

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls in Spanish adults: Determinants of serum concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Agudo, Antonio; Goni, Fernando; Etxeandia, Arsenio; Vives, Asuncion; Millan, Esmeralda; Lopez, Raul; Amiano, Pilar; Ardanaz, Eva; Barricarte, Aurelio; Dolores Chirlaque, M.; Dorronsoro, Miren; Jakszyn, Paula; Larranaga, Nerea; Martinez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodriguez, Laudina; and others

    2009-07-15

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent compounds that may pose an environmental hazard to humans, food being the main source of exposure for the general population. Objective: To measure the serum concentrations of the main PCBs in subjects from the general population in Spain, and to assess potential determinants of such concentrations. Methods: Serum was obtained from blood samples of 953 subjects aged 35-64 years, residents in five Spanish regions (three from the North and two from the South), randomly selected from the EPIC-Spain cohort. Blood collection took place during 1992-1996 and four PCB congeners (118, 138, 153 and 180) were determined by means of gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD). Results: The concentration of total PCBs was 459 ng/g lipids (or 3.1 {mu}g/l); the corresponding figures for PCB 153 were 186 ng/g lipids and 1.25 {mu}g/l. Men had higher values than women, PCB levels increased with age, and serum concentration of PCBs was higher in northern regions. Body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to PCB concentrations, and fish intake was the dietary factor showing the greatest association with serum PCBs. The pattern described was similar for each congener separately. Conclusions: We found concentrations similar to those reported in European countries where blood collection was carried during the same period. Regional differences within Spain are not fully explained by anthropometric or dietary factors. The inverse association with BMI suggests that in the mid-1990s there was still ongoing or recent exposure to PCBs in Spain.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls: New evidence from the last decade

    PubMed Central

    Faroon, Obaid; Ruiz, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Millions of pounds of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds have been produced in multiple countries for industrial applications over the last several decades. PCB exposure induces various adverse health effects in animals and humans. Environmental and occupational exposures to PCBs have been associated with liver, kidney, endocrine, and neurodevelopmental adverse effects. We have collected and reviewed animal and human data cited in the U.S. National Library of Medicine from 2000–2010. In brief, our review shows new evidence that demonstrates: In animal studies, exposure to one of the PCBs, A1221, induces a significant alteration of serum luteinizing hormone. The effects were more profound in the F2 generation, particularly with respect to fluctuations in hormones and reproductive tract tissues across the estrous cycle. Morphological analyses of brain tissue from rats exposed to A1254 confirmed earlier work that showed the relative size of the intra- and infra-pyramidal (II-P) mossy fibers was smaller than in controls, and reduction in growth was selective for the II-P mossy fibers. PCB exposure increased anogenital distance and prostate size but decreased epididymal weight, epididymal sperm count, and motile epididymal sperm count. No effects were observed on testicular weight or size. The epidemiological data showed an association between diabetes mellitus prevalence and elevated concentrations of PCB-153. Additionally, prenatal PCB exposure studies were associated with a smaller thymic index at birth and could adversely affect immune responses to childhood vaccinations and resistance to respiratory infections. PCB exposure was also reported to adversely affect enamel development in children in a dose-dependent manner. Because PCBs and their metabolites are potential health hazards, understanding the risk factors associated with individual PCBs, PCB mixtures, and PCB metabolites is important. PCB exposures of vulnerable populations (pregnant women, fetuses

  2. Human Receptor Activation by Aroclor 1260, a Polychlorinated Biphenyl Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Wahlang, Banrida; Falkner, K. Cameron; Clair, Heather B.; Al-Eryani, Laila; Prough, Russell A.; States, J. Christopher; Coslo, Denise M.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Cave, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental toxicants, present in 100% of U.S. adults and dose-dependently associated with obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). PCBs are predicted to interact with receptors previously implicated in xenobiotic/energy metabolism and NAFLD. These receptors include the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), liver-X-receptor (LXRα), and farnesoid-X-receptor (FXR). This study evaluates Aroclor 1260, a PCB mixture with congener composition mimicking that of human adipose tissue, and selected congeners, as potential ligands for these receptors utilizing human hepatoma-derived (HepG2) and primate-derived (COS-1) cell lines, and primary human hepatocytes. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) activated AhR, and PCB 126, a minor component, was a potent inducer. Aroclor 1260 activated PXR in a simple concentration-dependent manner at concentrations ≥10 μg/ml. Among the congeners tested, PCBs 138, 149, 151, 174, 183, 187, and 196 activated PXR. Aroclor 1260 activated CAR2 and CAR3 variants at lower concentrations and antagonize CAR2 activation by the CAR agonist, CITCO, at higher concentrations (≥20 μg/ml). Additionally, Aroclor 1260 induced CYP2B6 in primary hepatocytes. At subtoxic doses, Aroclor 1260 did not activate LXR or FXR and had no effect on LXR- or FXR-dependent induction by the agonists T0901317 or GW4064, respectively. Aroclor 1260 (20 μg/ml) suppressed PPARα activation by the agonist nafenopin, although none of the congeners tested demonstrated significant inhibition. The results suggest that Aroclor 1260 is a human AhR, PXR and CAR3 agonist, a mixed agonist/antagonist for CAR2, and an antagonist for human PPARα. PMID:24812009

  3. Lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic injury is enhanced by polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A P; Schultze, A E; Holdan, W L; Buchweitz, J P; Roth, R A; Ganey, P E

    1996-01-01

    After intravenous administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rats, polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) rapidly accumulate in the liver, and midzonal hepatic necrosis is prominent by 6 hr. PMNs are required for the development of hepatic injury in rats. Certain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can activate PMNs, resulting in production of superoxide anion (O2-.) and release of cytolytic factors from granules. This raises the possibility that PCB exposure might enhance PMN-mediated tissue injury, such as LPS-induced hepatotoxicity. We treated female Sprague-Dawley rats with a minimally toxic dose of LPS in saline (2 mg/kg, intravenous) and 90 min later exposed them to Aroclor 1248 (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), a mixture of PCBs. The animals were killed 6 hr after LPS administration, and hepatic injury was assessed. Neither LPS nor Aroclor 1248 alone produced liver injury. Co-treatment with LPS and Aroclor 1248 resulted in pronounced liver injury as demonstrated from increased activities of alanine aminotransferase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in plasma. Histological evaluation indicated increased severity of hepatic necrosis in rats receiving both LPS and Aroclor 1248. Hepatic accumulation of PMNs, normally observed after LPS, was not altered by co-exposure to PCBs. Aroclor 1248 stimulated rat PMNs in vitro to produce O2-. and to degranulate. In addition, PMN-mediated cytotoxicity to isolated rat hepatocytes in culture was increased upon addition of Aroclor 1248. PCBs activate PMNs in vitro and increase PMN-dependent hepatocellular damage in vitro and after LPS treatment in vivo. PCBs may act in vivo as an additional inflammatory stimulus to activate PMNs to become cytotoxic, resulting in increased tissue injury. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8793352

  4. Pan-arctic river fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2011-10-01

    Observations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) concentrations in fluvial surface sediments near the mouths of the six Great Arctic Rivers (GARs; Ob, Yenisey, Lena, Indigirka, Kolyma, and Mackenzie) were combined with annual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) loadings and hydraulic discharge to estimate the pan-Arctic river flux of PCBs. The highest total-phase fluxes of ∑(13)PCB were found for the Ob River, with 184 kg/yr and the smallest for the Indigirka River with 3.9 kg/yr. Consistent with a continent-scale trend among the Eurasian GARs of increasing POC concentrations eastward, which is extending to the North American Mackenzie River, a general shift in the estimated PCB partitioning from dissolved to particle-associated flux was found toward the east. Pentachlorinated and hexachlorinated PCBs constituted the majority (>70%) of the total PCB fluxes in the Eurasian Rivers. In contrast, trichlorinated and tetrachlorinated congeners were the most abundant in the Mackenzie (≈ 75%). The total ∑(13)PCB fluxes from the pan-Arctic rivers are here estimated to be ∼0.4 tonne/yr. This is geochemically consistent with the inventory of total PCBs in the Polar Mixed Layer of the entire Arctic Ocean (0.39 tonne) and about a factor 2 less than two new estimates of the PCB settling export to Arctic subsurface waters. Hence, the yearly Great Arctic River PCB fluxes only represent 0.001% of the historical PCB emission into the global environment. To our knowledge, this is the first estimate of circum-Arctic river flux of any organic pollutant based on a comprehensive investigation of the pollutants in several rivers and it contributes toward a more complete understanding of large-scale contaminant cycling in the Arctic.

  5. Striped bass stocks and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Sloan, Ronald J.; O'Brien, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Harvest restrictions on striped bass Morone saxatilis fisheries in Atlantic coastal states were relaxed in 1990, but consistent, coastwide regulations of the harvest have been difficult to implement because of the mixed-stock nature of the fisheries and the recognized contamination of Hudson River fish by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). We examined PCB concentrations and stock of origin of coastal striped bass to better understand the effects of these two factors on the composition of the harvest. The probability of observing differences in PCB concentration among fish from the Hudson River stock and the 'southern' group (Chesapeake Bay and Roanoke River stocks combined) was investigated with the logit model (a linear model for analysis of categorical data). Although total PCB concentrations were highly variable among fish from the two groups, striped bass classified as Hudson River stock had a significantly greater probability of having PCB concentrations equal to or greater than 2.00 mg/kg than did fish belonging to the southern group for all age- and size-classes examined. There was a significantly greater probability of observing total PCB concentrations equal to or exceeding 2.00 mg/kg in fish that were 5, 6, and 7 or more years old, and this probability increased linearly with age. We observed similar results when we examined the effect of size on total PCB concentration. The minimum-size limit estimated to permit escapement of fish to sustain stock production is 610 mm total length. Unless total PCB concentrations decrease in striped bass, it is likely that many harvestable fish will have concentrations that exceed the tolerance limit set by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  6. Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls alters social behaviors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jolous-Jamshidi, Banafsheh; Cromwell, Howard C.; McFarland, Ashley M.; Meserve, Lee A.

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) leads to significant alterations of neural and hormonal systems. These alterations have been shown to impair motor and sensory development. Less is known about the influence of PCB exposure on developing emotional and motivational systems involved in social interactions and social learning. The present study examined the impact of perinatal PCB exposure (mixture of congeners 47 and 77) on social recognition in juvenile animals, conspecific-directed investigation in adults and on neural and hormonal systems involved in social functions. We used a standard habituation–dishabituation paradigm to evaluate juvenile recognition and a social port paradigm to monitor adult social investigation. Areal measures of the periventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus were obtained to provide correlations with related hormone and brain systems. PCB exposed rats were significantly impaired in social recognition as indicated by persistent conspecific-directed exploration by juvenile animals regardless of social experience. As adults, PCB exposure led to a dampening of the isolation-induced enhancement of social investigation. There was not a concomitant alteration of social investigation in pair-housed PCB exposed animals at this stage of development. Interestingly, PVN area was significantly decreased in juvenile animals exposed to PCB during the perinatal period. Shifts in hypothalamic regulation of hormones involved in social behavior and stress could be involved in the behavioral changes observed. Overall, the results suggest that PCB exposure impairs context or experience-dependent modulation of social approach and investigation. These types of social-context deficits are similar to behavioral deficits observed in social disorders such as autism and other pervasive developmental disorders. PMID:20813172

  7. Immunotoxicity Monitoring in a Population Exposed to Polychlorinated Biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Haase, Hajo; Fahlenkamp, Astrid; Schettgen, Thomas; Esser, Andre; Gube, Monika; Ziegler, Patrick; Kraus, Thomas; Rink, Lothar

    2016-03-08

    The relationship between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) burden and several indicators of immune function was investigated as part of the HELPcB (Health Effects in High-Level Exposure to PCB) program, offering bio-monitoring to workers, relatives, and neighbors exposed to PCBs by a German transformers and capacitors recycling company. The present retrospective observational study evaluates the correlation of plasma levels of total PCBs, five indicator congeners (28, 101, 138, 153, 180), and seven dioxin-like congeners (105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, 189) with several parameters of immune function. The cross-sectional study was performed immediately after the end of exposure (258 subjects), and one (218 subjects), and two (177 subjects) years later. At the first time point, measurements showed significant positive correlation between congeners with low to medium chlorination and the relative proportion of CD19 positive B-cells among lymphocytes, as well as a negative correlation of PCB114 with serum IgM, and of PCB 28 with suppressor T-cell and NK-cell numbers. Congeners with a high degree of chlorination, in particular PCB157 and 189, were positively associated with expression of the activation marker CD25 on T-cells in the cohort of the second time point. No associations between PCB levels and IFN-y production by T-cells and killing by NK-cells were found. In conclusion, there were several effects on the cellular composition of adaptive immunity, affecting both T- and B-cells. However, the values were not generally outside the reference ranges for healthy adult individuals and did not indicate overt functional immunodeficiency, even in subjects with the uppermost PCB burden.

  8. Congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls in cetaceans from Taiwan waters.

    PubMed

    Chou, C C; Chen, Y N; Li, C S

    2004-11-01

    During 2000 to 2001, a total of 73 blubber samples from 13 species of stranded or accidentally captured cetaceans were collected from Taiwan coastal waters for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analysis. After homogenization, saponification, liquid-liquid extraction, and silica-gel solid-phase extraction, PCB concentrations were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total concentrations of 19 PCB congeners (SigmaPCBs) were between 0.23 microg/g lipid weight of Risso's dolphin to 33.73 microg/g lipid weight of rough-toothed dolphin. Pentachlorobiphenyls, hexachlorobiphenyls and heptachlorobiphenyls were the predominant PCB congeners species. PCB153 was the most abundant congener in all samples. The PCB153/SigmaPCBs consistently comprised between 20% to 30% of all congeners. The toxicity measured as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs) were from 2.7 pg/g lipid weight of finless porpoise to 2,900 pg/g lipid weight of rough-toothed dolphin. PCB 118, a mono-ortho congener, was the largest contributor to TEQs. PCB concentrations and TEQs were higher in mature male than in immature male animals but were inconsistent in female animals because of a possible transferring of PCBs from maternal cetaceans to their offsprings during gestation and lactation. Stranded cetaceans had significantly higher PCB levels than by-catch cetaceans because of their higher lipid consumption during starvation or illness. From the collected samples, we also found that cetaceans from Taiwan waters had relatively lower PCB concentrations and TEQs than those from high-latitude areas.

  9. Formation and stability of polychlorinated biphenyl Pickering emulsions.

    PubMed

    Roy-Perreault, Andréanne; Kueper, Bernard H; Rawson, Jim

    2005-03-01

    An emulsion stabilized by colloidal suspensions of finely divided solids is known as a Pickering emulsion. The potential for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to form Pickering emulsions ex situ when in contact with powdered solids, such as clays and metal oxides, is investigated here. Bentonite, iron oxide and magnesium oxide dispersions proved to be robust Pickering emulsion stabilizers, whereas manganese oxide dispersions were not. Batch experiments revealed that emulsions can be formed using a moderately low energy input and can be stabilized with solid concentrations as low as 0.5 wt.%. For the base conditions (volumetric oil fraction (phi(oil))=30 vol.%; solid concentration (chi)=2 wt.%), the formed emulsions were indefinitely stable and the initial average droplet diameters varied from 80 to 258 mum, depending on the solid used in the colloidal dispersion. The average droplet size varied at early time, but for most conditions stabilized to a steady-state value 1 week after preparation. The effect of Ostwald ripening was limited. At greater than 0.5 wt.% concentration, the efficiency of the solid dispersion as a stabilizer was dependant on the volumetric oil fraction but not on the solid concentration. Generally, systems with volumetric oil fractions outside of the 20-70 vol.% range were unstable. The emulsions' droplet stability, average droplet size and size distribution were observed to vary as a function of the amount of energy provided to the system, the volumetric oil fraction, and the concentration of the solid in the aqueous dispersion. It is hypothesized that drilling through fractured rock in the immediate vicinity of dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) PCBs may provide both the energy and solid material necessary to form Pickering emulsions.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the atmosphere of southern Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, J.E. ); Wania, F. ); Lei, Y.D. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry)

    1999-07-15

    Atmospheric concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC No. 101, 105, 118, 138/163, 153, 156, 180) were measured every week from 1992 to 1995 in Lista, a coastal station in Southern Norway. This data set of 200 samples was analyzed with respect to the influence of time, temperature, air mass origin, and wind speed on both the absolute level and the relative congeneric composition of the PCBs. The geometric mean concentration of the sum of the seven PCB congeners was 114 pg[center dot]m[sup [minus]3], which is in the range observed at urban locations in Europe during the early 1990s. No obvious concentration decrease could be observed during the 4 years. PCB concentrations showed a clear seasonal fluctuation with higher levels during the summer. The temperature dependence of the air concentrations of individual congeners increased with the number of chlorine atoms per molecule resulting in an increase in the relative importance of the higher chlorinated congeners during warm periods. Air arriving in Southern Norway from southwesterly directions had slightly higher concentrations than air coming from the North, whereas the relative composition of the PCB congeners was not influenced by air mass origin. At higher wind speed the concentrations of PCBs decreased. Episodes of conspicuously elevated PCB concentrations neither were associated with a particular air mass origin nor had an unusual congeneric composition. The data analysis suggests that whereas regional air transport from central Europe contributes to the occurrence of PCBs in Lista, a large fraction of the PCBs stems likely from local sources.

  11. Dietary uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carline, Robert F.; Barry, Patrick M.; Ketola, H. George

    2004-01-01

    The presence of detectable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially produced fish feed has raised a concern about the degree of biomagnification of these contaminants in hatchery-reared trout. Our objectives were to (1) define the relationship between concentrations of PCBs in fish feed and in fish tissue and (2) estimate the relative contributions of feed and hatchery supply water to PCB concentrations in fish. We conducted a 6-month feeding trial with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed commercial diets with four concentrations of PCBs: a low-PCB diet (69 ng/g); a typical commercial diet (126 ng/g); and the typical diet spiked with PCBs at two levels (220 and 280 ng/g). The concentrations of PCBs in fillets after 1 month were commensurate with those in the feeds and remained relatively stable for the next 5 months; mean PCB concentrations in fillets ranged from 54 to 94 ng/g. Low levels of PCBs were detected in the hatchery supply water. We used the concentrations of PCBs in the feeds, absorption rates of PCBs, and two different rates of PCB depuration to estimate the potential uptake of PCBs from supply water. When we used a low depuration rate (half-life = 219 d), the computed body burdens of PCBs could be entirely attributed to the feeds. When a high depuration rate (half-life = 66 d) was used, some uptake of PCBs from the supply water was likely, but most of the total body burden originated from the feeds. We concluded that rainbow trout fed a diet with 126 ng/g PCBs would have a PCB concentration of about 60 ng/g in their fillets, which is high enough to warrant issuance of a consumption advisory (no more than one meal of fish per week) under a protocol adopted by some Great Lakes states.

  12. Ecotoxicology of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish--a critical review.

    PubMed

    Henry, T B

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread persistent anthropogenic contaminants that can accumulate in tissues of fish. The toxicity of PCBs and their transformation products has been investigated for nearly 50 years, but there is a lack of consensus regarding the effects of these environmental contaminants on wild fish populations. The objective of this review is to critically examine these investigations and evaluate publicly available databases for evidence of effects of PCBs in wild fish. Biological activity of PCBs is limited to a small proportion of PCB congeners [e.g., dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs)] and occurs at concentrations that are typically orders of magnitude higher than PCB levels detected in wild fish. Induction of biomarkers consistent with PCB exposure (e.g., induction of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase system) has been evaluated frequently and shown to be induced in fish from some environments, but there does not appear to be consistent reports of damage (i.e., biomarkers of effect) to biomolecules (i.e., oxidative injury) in these fish. Numerous investigations of endocrine system dysfunction or effects on other organ systems have been conducted in wild fish, but collectively there is no consistent evidence of PCB effects on these systems in wild fish. Early life stage toxicity of DL-PCBs does not appear to occur at concentrations reported in wild fish embryos, and results do not support an association between PCBs and decreased survival of early life stages of wild fish. Overall, there appears to be little evidence that PCBs have had any widespread effect on the health or survival of wild fish.

  13. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls by iron and its oxides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yifei; Liu, Xiaoyuan; Kainuma, Masashi; Wang, Wei; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo

    2015-10-01

    The decomposition efficiency of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was determined using elemental iron (Fe) and three iron (hydr)oxides, i.e., α-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, and α-FeOOH, as catalysts. The experiments were performed using four distinct PCB congeners (PCB-209, PCB-153, and the coplanar PCB-167 and PCB-77) at temperatures ranging from 180 °C to 380 °C and under an inert, oxidizing or reducing atmosphere composed of N2, N2+O2, or N2+H2. From these three options N2 showed to provide the best reaction atmosphere. Among the iron compounds tested, Fe3O4 showed the highest activity for decomposing PCBs. The decomposition efficiencies of PCB-209, PCB-167, PCB-153, and PCB-77 by Fe3O4 in an N2 atmosphere at 230 °C were 88.5%, 82.5%, 69.9%, and 66.4%, respectively. Other inorganic chlorine (Cl) products which were measured by the amount of inorganic Cl ions represented 82.5% and 76.1% of the reaction products, showing that ring cleavage of PCBs was the main elimination process. Moreover, the dechlorination did not require a particular hydrogen donor. We used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to analyze the elemental distribution at the catalyst's surface. The O/Fe ratio influenced upon the decomposition efficiency of PCBs: the lower this ratio, the higher the decomposition efficiency. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra showed that α-Fe2O3 effectively worked as a catalyst, while Fe3O4 and α-FeOOH were consumed as reactants, as their final state is different from their initial state. Finally, a decomposition pathway was postulated in which the Cl atoms in ortho-positions were more difficult to eliminate than those in the para- or meta-positions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls to infants from their mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, H.; Ota, H.

    1980-03-01

    Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which are environmental pollutants, to infants from their mothers was investigated from 1974 to 1977. The following samples were collected and analyzed for PCBs using a gas chromatographic determination: (a) maternal blood at 8 and 4 months prepartum, delivery, and 1, 3, 5, and 7 months postpartum; (b) cord blood at delivery; (c) human milk at 1, 3, 5, and 7 months postpartum; and (d) newborn infant blood at 3 months, 1, 2, and 3 yr after birth. The PCB levels in maternal blood gradually elevated with the progress of gestation and then decreased, reaching a general population level at 5 months postpartum. The PCB level in maternal blood at delivery was significantly higher than that in the cord blood. The mean values of PCB levels in human milk at 3 months postpartum-both the whole and fat basis-showed some differences in each sampling time period, however, those values were generally obtained within the normal range of ordinary Japanese lactating women. When the cord blood at delivery was considered as newborn infant blood at birth, the PCB levels in the blood of breast-fed infants rose markedly with ingestion of human milk, exceeding the level in the blood of their mothers at 3 months postpartum, and tended to increase until 1 yr of age, and then gradually decreased at 2 and 3 yr of age. However, the PCB levels in the blood of bottle-fed infants remained at a low concentration level during the same period. In this survey, the concentration of PCBs in the blood of two newborn infants who received their mothers' milk for a longer period of time than the other infants, continued to increase exponentially, finally reaching about a four-fold value of their mothers. These results suggest that the quantity of PCBs transferred to infants from their mothers via lactation was much greater than that transferred placentally.

  15. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  16. Association between polychlorinated biphenyls and Parkinson’s disease neuropathology

    PubMed Central

    Hatcher-Martin, Jaime M.; Gearing, Marla; Steenland, Kyle; Levey, Allan I.; Miller, Gary W.; Pennell, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals primarily used as coolants and insulators in electrical equipment. Although banned for several decades, PCBs continue to exist in the environment because of their long half-life, continued presence in items produced before the ban, and poor disposal practices. Epidemiological and experimental studies have identified exposure to PCBs as a potential risk factor for Parkinson’s disease, perhaps more so in females. The objective of this work was to examine the association between PCB levels in post-mortem human brain tissue and the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, as well as the degree of nigral depigmentation. We also sought to determine if this association was more significant when patients were stratified by sex. Post-mortem brain samples from control patients and those diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease were obtained from the Emory University Brain Bank and from the Nun Study. Concentrations of eight prevalent PCB congeners were extracted from post-mortem brain tissue and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were significantly elevated in the brains of Parkinson’s disease patients. When stratified by sex, the female Parkinson’s disease group demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of total PCBs and specifically congeners 138, 153, and 180 compared to controls, whereas PCB concentrations in males were not significantly different between control and Parkinson’s disease groups. In a separate population of women (Nun Study) who had no clinical signs or symptoms of PD, elevated concentrations total PCB and congeners 138, 153 and 180 were also observed in post-mortem brain tissue exhibiting moderate nigral depigmentation compared to subjects with mild or no depigmentation. These quantitative data demonstrate an association between brain PCB levels and Parkinson’s disease-related pathology. Furthermore, these data support epidemiological and

  17. Non–Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Risk of Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Trabert, Britton; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Peters, Ulrike; Scholes, Delia; Barr, Dana B.; Holt, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Endometriosis, a gynecologic disorder affecting 8–10% of reproductive-age women in the United States, is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus and is linked to pelvic pain and infertility. Environmental contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are hypothesized to contribute to endometriosis risk through effects on steroid hormones. Objective We evaluated serum concentrations of certain noncoplanar PCBs, which have no or only weak dioxin-like properties, as risk factors for endometriosis. Methods In a case–control study of Group Health enrollees in western Washington State, 20 PCB congeners were measured in serum from surgically confirmed endometriosis cases that were newly diagnosed between 1996 and 2001 (n = 251) and from female controls matched for age and reference year (n = 538). Results Summed and estrogenic PCB concentrations were not associated with endometriosis risk [summed: odds ratio (OR) = 1.3; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8–2.2; estrogenic: OR = 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8–1.4]. Although several congener-specific ORs were statistically above or below the null (PCB 170: third quartile vs. lowest: OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3–0.9; PCB 196: third quartile vs. lowest: OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2–0.7; PCB 201: second vs. lowest: OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3–0.8; third quartile vs. lowest: OR = 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2–0.7), there were no overall consistent patterns of endometriosis risk. Conclusions Taken in context with other North American studies, our findings suggest that noncoplanar PCB concentrations consistent within the range of exposure currently observed in western Washington State do not contribute meaningfully to endometriosis risk. PMID:20423815

  18. Atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) at Umm-Al-Aish oil field-Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Guijarro, Karell; Ramadan, Ashraf; Gevao, Bondi

    2017-02-01

    A sampling campaign was carried out to assess the impact of the oil field activities on the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in ambient air at Umm Al-Aish oil field in northern Kuwait. Sixteen samples were collected from March 2014 to January 2015. The concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs were relatively high (33.6-586 fg I-TEQ/m(3); median: 94.7 fg I-TEQ/m(3); 31.2 to 516 fg WHO-TEQ2005/m(3); median: 83.7 fg WHO-TEQ2005/m(3)) compared to those of dl-PCBs (3.9-36.8 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3); median 9.9 WHO-TEQ2005/m(3)). A unique PCDD/F profile that was not previously reported was found. Further investigations should be conducted to establish whether the dioxin profile found in this study is specific for the desulfurization facility located in the study area or from oil flaring in the oil fields located upstream of the study area. The findings suggest that the oil field activities have a significant impact on the PCDD/F concentration in ambient air but a low or negligible influence on dl-PCBs' levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, and polychlorinated naphthalenes in the environment surrounding secondary copper and aluminum metallurgical facilities in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Wenbin; Nie, Zhiqiang; Li, Changliang; Liu, Guorui; Xiao, Ke

    2014-10-01

    Unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) were determined in ambient air from around five secondary non-ferrous metal processing plants in China, to investigate the potential impacts of the emissions of these plants on their surrounding environments. The target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). The PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and PCN concentrations in the ambient air downwind of the plants were 4.70-178, 8.23-7520 and 152-4190 pg/m(3), respectively, and the concentrations upwind of the plants were lower. Clear correlations were found between ambient air and stack gas concentrations of the PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs, and PCNs among the five plants, respectively. Furthermore, the UP-POPs homolog and congener patterns in the ambient air were similar to the patterns in the stack gas samples. These results indicate that UP-POPs emissions from the plants investigated have obvious impacts on the environments surrounding the plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Utilization of mixed ligands to construct diverse Ni(II)-coordination polymers based on terphenyl-2,2‧,4,4‧-tetracarboxylic acid and varied N-donor co-ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Xia, Liang; Wu, Xue-Qian; Wang, Jian-Fang; Dong, Wen-Wen; Wu, Ya-Pan

    2016-06-01

    Three new coordination polymers, namely, {[Ni(H2L)(bix)(H2O)2]·2h2O}n (1), {[Ni(HL)(Hdpa)(H2O)2]·H2O}n (2), {[Ni(L)0.5(bpp)(H2O)]·H2O}n (3) (H4L=terphenyl-2,2‧,4,4‧-tetracarboxylic acid; bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene; dpa =4,4‧-dipyridylamine; bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), based on rigid H4L ligand and different N-donor co-ligands, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1 features a 3D 4-connected 66-dia-type framework with H4L ligand adopts a μ2-bridging mode with two symmetry-related carboxylate groups in μ1-η1:η0 monodentate mode. Compound 2 displays a 1D [Ni(HL)(Hdpa)]n ribbon chains motif, in which the H4L ligand adopts a μ2-bridging mode with two carboxylate groups in μ1-η1:η1 and μ1-η1:η0 monodentate modes, while 3 possesses a (4,4)-connected 3D frameworks with bbf topology, with H4L ligand displays a μ4-bridging coordination mode. The H4L ligand displays not only different deprotonated forms but also diverse coordination modes and conformations. The structural diversities among 1-3 have been carefully discussed, and the roles of N-donor co-ligands in the self-assembly of coordination polymers have been well documented.

  1. Face Recognition via Ensemble SIFT Matching of Uncorrelated Hyperspectral Bands and Spectral PCTs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Pan et al. (2003), and Luo et al. (2007). Although it has been shown by Luo et al. (2007) that an implementation of SIFT does not work well under...section, we will expose the reader to some of the work that has already been done in this area which includes using eigenfaces for recognition by Turk...1997), and recent works in performing face recognition using hyperspectral images by Pan et al. (2003, 2005). 2.2.1. Eigenfaces Turk and Pentland

  2. Dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzo-furans) in traditional clay products used during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Reeuwijk, Noortje M; Talidda, Antonia; Malisch, Rainer; Kotz, Alexander; Tritscher, Angelika; Fiedler, Heidelore; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Kooijman, Martin; Wienk, Koen J H; Traag, Wim A; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P

    2013-02-01

    Geophagy, the practice of consuming clay or soil, is encountered among pregnant women in Africa, Eastern Asia and Latin America, but also in Western societies. However, certain types of clay are known to contain high concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). The aim of this study was to determine the PCDD/F contents of orally consumed clays purchased from Dutch and African markets. Congener patterns were compared with those of pooled human milk samples collected in eight African countries, to investigate a possible relationship with clay consumption. From the Dutch market thirteen clay products were examined, seven of African and six of Suriname origin. From seven African countries, twenty clay products were collected. All 33 clay products were screened with a cell-based bioassay and those showing a high response were analyzed by GC/HRMS. High PCDD/F concentrations were measured in three clay products from the Dutch market, ranging from 66 to 103 pg TEQ g(-1), whereas clay products from African countries were from 24 to 75 pg TEQ g(-1). Patterns and relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs in human milk samples from the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Côte d'Ivoire suggest a relationship with the consumption of contaminated clay. Frequent use of PCDD/F contaminated clay products during pregnancy may result in increased exposure of the mother and subsequently the developing fetus and new-born child. The use of these contaminated clays during pregnancy should be carefully considered or even discouraged. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Disposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in two Norwegian epibenthic marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Ruus, Anders; Berge, John Arthur; Bergstad, Odd Aksel; Knutsen, Jan Atle; Hylland, Ketil

    2006-03-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are a group of halogenated hydrocarbons, comprising 210 different, theoretically possible congeners. They are relatively hydrophobic and persistent to biodegradation, thereby rendering them subject to bioaccumulation. This study was conducted in Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord in the Grenland fjord system, Norway, heavily polluted by PCDD/PCDF discharges from the 16,600,859 magnesium production at Herøya from 1951 to 2001. Pooled samples of surface-sediments and the following organisms were collected for the Frierfjord and Eidangerfjord study areas: common shrimp (Crangon crangon), polychaetes (mainly Nereis diversicolor), shore crab (Carcinus maenas), cod (Gadus morhua), flounder (Platichthys flesus), trout (Salmo trutta), herring (Clupea harengus), benthic amphipods and zooplankton. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs were quantified in pooled samples for all species. The relative abundances of stable isotopes of nitrogen (delta(15)N) were evaluated in the organisms as a measure of chemically-derived trophic level. Contrary to earlier studies on other persistent organochlorines, it was found that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs declined with increasing trophic level. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) also showed differences between species in the pattern of PCDD/Fs. Higher chlorinated congeners constituted lower percentages of the PCDD/F-concentrations higher in the food chain as compared to lower trophic levels. In general, congener patterns did not differ between fjords. Infauna (polychaetes) and zooplankton had congener patterns most similar to the pollution source. The results indicate lower accumulation of higher chlorinated congeners in species at higher trophic levels (fish), presumably due to low membrane permeability (high molecular size) and possibly slow transport through intestinal aqueous phases because of low aqueous solubility.

  4. Exposure to a Mixture of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans Resulted in a Prolonged Time to Pregnancy in Women

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chiu-Yueh; Wang, Ying-Jan; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq; Guo, Yueliang Leon

    2008-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) may affect the female reproductive system in animals and humans. In 1978–1979, a mass poisoning occurred in central Taiwan due to PCB/PCDF-contaminated cooking oil; this incident was called Yucheng (“oil disease” in Chinese). Objective The purpose of our study was to determine whether PCB/PCDF exposure affected fertility in exposed women. Methods After the event, we followed the exposed individuals and a reference group who were sex-, age-, and community-matched. In 2003, we obtained fertility histories from Yucheng and reference women by telephone interview. We used Kaplan–Meier survival curves and multivariable Cox regression to compare time to pregnancy (TTP) between Yucheng and reference women, and we performed multiple logistic regression to determine whether PCB/PCDF exposure caused infertility. Results In total, 412 women responded, with a median TTP of 4 months in Yucheng women and 3 months in reference women (p = 0.019). After adjusting for confounders by Cox regression, we found a fecundability ratio of 0.90 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80–1.00] for Yucheng women. Among the 408 women who had noncontraceptive sexual activity for > 12 months, 19.7% of Yucheng women and 9.7% of reference women did not become pregnant (i.e., they were infertile). After we adjusted for confounders by logistic regression, the infertility odds ratio was 2.34 (95% CI, 1.23–4.59) for Yucheng women compared with the reference group. Conclusions We found prolonged TTP and reduced fertility among women previously exposed to PCBs/PCDFs. Because of the limited sample size and the relatively small decrease in the fertility rate, these effects require cautious interpretation and further investigation for confirmation. PMID:18470317

  5. Isolation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from a complex organic mixture by two-step liquid chromatographic fractionation for quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, H.Y.; Shore, D.L.; Karasek, F.W.

    1984-11-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) are present with several hundred organic compounds in raw fly ash extract. A first-step normal-phase semipreparative high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation with a three-solvent gradient elution program separates PCDD and PCDF into a single fraction with about 100 other components. The PCDD and PCDF in this fraction are further isolated from the accompanying compounds by a second-step HPLC fractionation using a reverse-phase semipreparative column and a two-solvent gradient elution program. The distribution of PCDD and PCDF into five subfractions facilitates isomer identification and their quantitation. The separation of PCDD and PCDF by this procedure shows high recovery and good reproducibility.

  6. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in fillets of farmed Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii).

    PubMed

    Phua, Samuel T G; Ashman, Peter J; Daughtry, Ben J

    2008-10-01

    Southern Bluefin Tuna (SBT) (Thunnus maccoyii) is the only farmed tuna species in the southern hemisphere, with production centred offshore of Port Lincoln, South Australia. SBT farming is a quota-based fishery where farmers fatten wild-caught stock for subsequent sale as fresh-chilled or frozen product, mainly to Japanese markets. Fillets from wild-caught and farmed SBT were analysed and the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are reported for the first time. Time of farming was separated into two periods: a typical farming period of approximately five months and an experimental scenario that involved holding (farming) these fish for an additional 12 months. WHO-PCB and WHO-PCDD/F TEQ concentrations in fillets on a fresh weight basis at the same times and over the same periods were, 0.67-1.18pg-TEQg(-1) and 0.16-0.29pg-TEQg(-1), respectively. All WHO-PCB congeners, and only three WHO-PCDD/F congeners, were found to biomagnify during farming, after blank correction. Caution should be exercised when extrapolating these results to SBT farming as a whole because of the use of varying husbandry and feeding practices employed by different companies.

  7. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters.

  8. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in food and feed in Latvia in 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Zacs, D; Bartkevics, V

    2014-01-01

    During 2009-2011 a monitoring programme for 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) was conducted in the Latvian food and feed market. Using ISO 17025-accredited analytical methodology, investigation of 121 food (milk, dairy products, meat, eggs, fish, fish products) and 66 feed samples (fish meal and oil, compound and mineral feed, vegetable and animal fats) was performed. Most samples showed contamination below the European Commission (EC) Regulation No. 1881/2006 and Commission Directive 2006/13/EC limits. Average total toxicological equivalent (total-TEQ(1998)) concentrations within the food sample groups, except fish and fish products, ranged between 0.41 and 15.1 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fat. Fish and fish products showed contamination levels from 0.18 to 46.0 pg total-TEQ(1998) g(-1) fresh weight (f.w.). Fifty-seven per cent of cod liver samples were non-compliant. The most contaminated feed samples were fish meal and fish oil. A comparison with WHO-TEF(2005) data is given.

  9. Lactational transfer of mercury and polychlorinated biphenyls in polar bears.

    PubMed

    Knott, Katrina K; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; O'Hara, Todd M

    2012-07-01

    We examined concentrations of total mercury (tHg, inorganic and methylated forms) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood and milk from free-ranging Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears (Ursus maritimus) to assess maternal transfer of contaminants during lactation and the potential health risk to nursing young. Concentrations of contaminants in the blood of dependent and juvenile animals (ages 1-5 years) ranged from 35.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww for tHg and 13.9 to 52.2 μg kg(-1) ww (3255.81-11067.79 μg kg(-1) lw) for ΣPCB(7)s, similar to those of adult females, but greater than adult males. Contaminant concentrations in milk ranged from 5.7 to 71.8 μg tHg kg(-1)ww and 160 to 690 μg ΣPCB(11)s kg(-1) ww (547-5190 μg kg(-1) lw). The daily intake levels for tHg by milk consumption estimated for dependent young were below the tolerable daily intake level (TDIL) of tHg established for adult humans. Although the daily intake levels of PCBs through milk consumption for cubs of the year exceeded the TDIL thresholds, calculated dioxin equivalents for PCBs in milk were below adverse physiological thresholds for aquatic mammals. Relatively high concentrations of non-dioxin like PCBs in polar bear milk and blood could impact endocrine function of Southern Beaufort-Chukchi Sea polar bears, but this is uncertain. Transfer of contaminants during mid to late lactation likely limits bioaccumulation of dietary contaminants in female polar bears during spring. As polar bears respond to changes in their arctic sea ice habitat, the adverse health impacts associated with nutritional stress may be exacerbated by tHg and PCBs exposure, especially in ecologically and toxicologically sensitive polar bear cohorts such as reproductive females and young. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent; and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in plasma of older Canadians.

    PubMed

    Medehouenou, Thierry Comlan Marc; Ayotte, Pierre; Carmichael, Pierre-Hugues; Kröger, Edeltraut; Verreault, René; Lindsay, Joan; Dewailly, Éric; Tyas, Suzanne L; Bureau, Alexandre; Laurin, Danielle

    2011-11-01

    No nationwide study has ever measured polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine pesticide (OCP) body burden in Canadians aged 65 years and over. The objective of this study was to determine plasma concentrations of PCB congeners and OCPs in participants from a sub-cohort of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging and to examine the effects of socio-demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle characteristics on selected organochlorine concentrations. Archived plasma samples collected from 2023 subjects were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using negative chemical ionization for 15 PCB congeners and 11 OCPs. Descriptive statistics were used to report PCB congeners and OCP plasma concentrations. Multivariate models were used to study whether age at blood collection, sex, education, body mass index, rural residence, geographic region, smoking status and alcohol intake influences PCB 153, the most abundant congener, and the major OCP (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane, hexachlorobenzene, trans-nonachlor, p,p'-DDE) plasma concentrations. Statistical analyses were restricted to 1979 subjects and 17 organochlorine compounds for which at least 50% of the samples had concentrations above the limit of detection. Of these, 775 were men (mean age: 82.2 years) and 1204 were women (mean age: 84.6 years). The median concentrations (ng/g lipid) of PCB 153 in the plasma of men and women were 70.9 and 75.4, respectively. The levels of the sum of PCBs and the sum of dioxin-like PCBs were 276 and 31.3 for men, and 300 and 45.5 for women, respectively. The median concentrations (ng/g lipid) of p,p'-DDE, the most abundant OCP, were 565 for men and 828 for women. All compounds were positively and significantly intercorrelated (rs=0.39-0.99; p<0.001). Except for trans-nonachlor, the multivariate models revealed that age and male sex were the determining characteristics that showed, respectively, strongly positive and negative associations with selected organochlorine

  12. Cancer mortality among electric utility workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed Central

    Loomis, D; Browning, S R; Schenck, A P; Gregory, E; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether excess mortality from cancer, malignant melanoma of the skin, and cancers of the brain and liver in particular, is associated with long term occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). METHODS: An epidemiological study of mortality was conducted among 138,905 men employed for at least six months between 1950 and 1986 at five electrical power companies in the United States. Exposures were assessed by panels composed of workers, hygienists, and managers at each company, who considered tasks performed by workers in 28 job categories and estimated weekly exposures in hours for each job. Poisson regression was used to examine mortality in relation to exposure to electrical insulating fluids containing PCBs, controlling for demographic and occupational factors. RESULTS: Neither all cause nor total cancer mortality was related to cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids. Mortality from malignant melanoma increased with exposure; rate ratios (RRs) relative to unexposed men for melanoma were 1.23 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.56 to 2.52), 1.71 (0.68 to 4.28) and 1.93 (0.52 to 7.14) for men with < 2000, > 2000-10,000, and > 10,000 hours of cumulative exposure to PCB insulating fluids, respectively, without consideration of latency. Lagging exposure by 20 years yielded RRs of 1.29 (0.76 to 2.18), 2.56 (1.09 to 5.97), and 4.81 (1.49 to 15.50) for the same exposure levels. Mortality from brain cancer was modestly increased among men with < 2000 hours (RR 1.61, 95% CI 0.86 to 3.01) and > 2000-10,000 hours exposure (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.95), but there were no deaths from brain cancer among the most highly exposed men. A lag of five years yielded slightly increased RRs. Mortality from liver cancer was not associated with exposure to PCB insulating fluids. CONCLUSIONS: This study was larger and provided more detailed information on exposure than past investigations of workers exposed to PCBs. The results suggest that PCBs

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their association with survival following breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Parada, Humberto; Wolff, Mary S.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Eng, Sybil M.; Khankari, Nikhil K.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Gammon, Marilie D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are hypothesized to influence breast carcinogenesis due to their persistence and potential to induce estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects. Whether PCBs influence survival following breast cancer is unknown. Methods A population-based cohort of women diagnosed with first primary invasive or in situ breast cancer in 1996–1997 and with blood-measured PCBs (n=627) collected shortly after diagnosis was followed for vital status through 2011. After 5 and 15 years we identified 54 and 187 deaths, respectively, of which 36 and 74 were breast cancer-related. Using Cox regression, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality for baseline PCB concentrations, individually and as estrogenic (ΣGroup 1B: PCB101, PCB174, PCB177, PCB187, PCB199), anti-estrogenic (ΣGroup 2A: PCB66, PCB74, PCB105, PCB118; Σ2B: PCB138, PCB170), and cytochrome P450 enzyme-inducing (ΣGroup 3: PCB99, PCB153, PCB180, PCB183, PCB203) groups. Results The highest PCB174 tertile was associated with an increase in all-cause (HR=2.22, 95%CI: 1.14–4.30) and breast cancer-specific (HR=3.15, 95%CI: 1.23–8.09) mortality within 5 years of diagnosis and remained associated with breast cancer-specific mortality (HR=1.88, 95%CI: 1.05–3.36) at 15 years. At 5 years, the highest tertile of PCB177 was positively associated with all-cause mortality (HR=2.12, 95%CI: 1.05–4.30). At 15 years, the highest tertiles of ΣGroup 2A congeners and PCB118 were inversely associated with all-cause mortality (HR=0.60, 95%CI: 0.39–0.83; HR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.43–0.92, respectively). Conclusions In this first US study of PCBs and breast cancer survival, PCBs were associated with mortality in biologically plausible directions. The investigation of other, structurally similar, chemicals may be warranted. PMID:26798968

  14. EFFECTS OF DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO THE POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENER 153 ON AUDITORY AND MOTOR FUNCTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are pervasive environmental contaminants that have been shown to detrimentally affect somatic and behavioral endpoints. In the present study, primiparous Long-Evans rats were exposed to 0, 1, 5, 20 or 60mg/kg/day PCB153 via oral gavage from Gesta...

  15. KEY PARAMETERS FOR DE NOVO FORMATION OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    De novo formation of polychlorinated- dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs and PCDFs) was investigated in an Entrained Flow Reactor (EFR) to simulate combustion conditions. The parameters investigated were carbon content and nature in fly ash; type of gas- phase environment...

  16. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments.

    PubMed Central

    Tiernan, T O; Taylor, M L; Garrett, J H; VanNess, G F; Solch, J G; Wagel, D J; Ferguson, G L; Schecter, A

    1985-01-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed. PMID:3921357

  17. ORIGIN OF CARBON IN POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FORMED DURING SOOTING COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an investigation on the importance of solid- and gas-phase carbon precursors for the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during sooting combustion. Experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor (EFR)...

  18. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments

    SciTech Connect

    Tiernan, T.O.; Taylor, M.L.; Garrett, J.H.; VanNess, G.F.; Solch, J.G.; Wagel, D.J.; Ferguson, G.L.; Schecter, A.

    1985-02-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed.

  19. Sources and fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, dibenzofurans and related compounds in human environments.

    PubMed

    Tiernan, T O; Taylor, M L; Garrett, J H; VanNess, G F; Solch, J G; Wagel, D J; Ferguson, G L; Schecter, A

    1985-02-01

    Several of the major incidents resulting in potential human exposures to polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and/or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and related compounds which have occurred in the U.S. in recent periods have resulted from improper disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. Prominent examples of such environmental contamination episodes are the Love Canal, into which ton quantities of chlorinated organic compounds containing substantial concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were deposited; numerous sites in the State of Missouri which were contaminated by the dumping of chlorinated organic wastes containing various PCDDs and possibly PCDFs, and PCBs; and the environs of a 2,4-D/2,4,5-T manufacturing plant site in Arkansas, which were contaminated with PCDDs. Environmental assessments of such sites have revealed extensive contamination of soils, waterways, fish and other biological species with these toxic compounds, which in turn could lead to human exposures. Other recently identified sources of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in human environments include stack effluents from municipal refuse incineration, and fires and explosions involving electrical devices containing PCBs and polychlorinated benzenes. Data obtained in assessments of such incidents are presented, and the implications of these findings with respect to the distribution and persistence of PCDDs, PCDFs and related chemicals in the environment and possible effects on humans are discussed.

  20. MONITORING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) BIODEGRADATION USING CONTINUOUS-FLOW ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some cases can be removed from the environment by biodegradation. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes have been determined in previous research to be capable of degrading PCBs. During the aerobic and anaerobic d...

  1. MONITORING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) BIODEGRADATION USING CONTINUOUS-FLOW ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some cases can be removed from the environment by biodegradation. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes have been determined in previous research to be capable of degrading PCBs. During the aerobic and anaerobic d...

  2. Immunological disorders associated with polychlorinated biphenyls and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noguchi, G.E.; Leatherland, J.F.; Woo, P.T.K.

    1998-01-01

    This review characterizes immunological disorders in fish associated with the widespread environmental contaminants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and related halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs). Special attention is devoted to comparing the sensitivity of fish species, identifying sensitive immunological endpoints and postulating mechanisms of action.

  3. Development of Methods for Sampling and Analysis of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes in Ambient Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mitchell D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The procedure and sampler described permits detection of less than 50pg of one polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) isomer. The method uses gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PCNs are collected on a glass fiber filter and two polyurethane foam plugs and extracted with toluene at 25 degrees Celsius. (BB)

  4. Treatment Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls In Two Surface Soils Using Catalyzed H2O2 Propagations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two surface soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) collected from Superfund sites in the New England region of the United States, Fletcher Paints and Merrimack Industrial Metals, were evaluated for field treatment at the bench level using catalyzed H2...

  5. Development of Methods for Sampling and Analysis of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes in Ambient Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mitchell D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The procedure and sampler described permits detection of less than 50pg of one polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) isomer. The method uses gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PCNs are collected on a glass fiber filter and two polyurethane foam plugs and extracted with toluene at 25 degrees Celsius. (BB)

  6. GAS-PHASE OXIDATION PRODUCTS OF BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently measured the gas-phase reaction rate constants of
    polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with the hydroxyl radical (OH) and concluded
    that OH reactions are the primary removal pathway of PCBs from the atmosphere.
    With the reaction system previousl...

  7. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on [Potential of viable but non-culturable bacteria in polychlorinated biphenyls degradation--a review].

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaomei; Ding, Linxian; Shen, Chaofeng

    2013-09-04

    The state of "viable but non-culturable" (VBNC) is a survival strategy adopted by microorganisms when exposed to environmental stress. With the increasingly serious problem of xenobiotics pollution, enhanced microbial processes that exploit the potential of microbes to remediate polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated environments have been developed. Microorganisms represent a significant advance with respect to the transformation and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment. It is of great importance to study the potential function of VBNC bacteria in polluted environment. In this paper, current research status of VBNC bacteria is summarized, and resuscitation of VBNC bacteria to potentially stimulate microbial degradation of pollutants is discussed in detail. Furthermore, we put forward a novel approach to explore the potential of VBNC bacteria for polychlorinated biphenyls degradation using resuscitation promoting factor (Rpf) of Micrococcus luteus. The novel efficient method is helpful for excavating and obtaining highly desirable polychlorinated biphenyls degrading microorganisms. Moreover, the prospect of VBNC bacteria to other environmental remediation fields, such as flocculation and nitrification deodorant, is addressed.

  8. Treatment Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls In Two Surface Soils Using Catalyzed H2O2 Propagations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two surface soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) collected from Superfund sites in the New England region of the United States, Fletcher Paints and Merrimack Industrial Metals, were evaluated for field treatment at the bench level using catalyzed H2...

  9. ORIGIN OF CARBON IN POLYCHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS FORMED DURING SOOTING COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses results of an investigation on the importance of solid- and gas-phase carbon precursors for the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) during sooting combustion. Experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor (EFR)...

  10. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1242) on the ultrastructure of certain planktonic algae

    SciTech Connect

    Mahanty, H.K.; Fineran, B.A.; Gresshoff, P.M.

    1983-03-01

    Species of freshwater algae sensitive and resistant to polychlorinated biphenyls were examined by transmission electron microscopy after treatment. In all treated sensitive species, disruption of internal chloroplast membranes and failure of cytokinesis were the major changes observed. All control and resistant species showed well-preserved internal structures and regular cytokinesis.

  11. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  12. Evaluating Health Risks from Inhaled Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Research Needs for Addressing Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in some U.S. schools are one or more orders of magnitude higher than background levels. In response to this, efforts have been made to assess the potential health risk posed by inhaled PCBs. These efforts are hindered by un...

  13. POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURES (AROCLORS) INHIBIT LPS-INDUCED MURINE SPLENOCYTE PROLIFERATION IN VITRO. (R826687)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The immune system is believed to be a sensitive indicator for adverse polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced health effects. Four commercial PCB mixtures (Aroclors) or six individual PCB congeners were evaluated for their effect on splenocyte viability and lip...

  14. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil and Sediment by Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction with Immunochemical Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    A selective liquid pressurized extraction (SPLE) method was developed as a streamlined sample preparation/cleanup procedure for determining Aroclors and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and sediment matrices. The SPLE method was coupled with an enzyme-linked imm...

  15. Evaluating Health Risks from Inhaled Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Research Needs for Addressing Uncertainty

    EPA Science Inventory

    Indoor air polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in some U.S. schools are one or more orders of magnitude higher than background levels. In response to this, efforts have been made to assess the potential health risk posed by inhaled PCBs. These efforts are hindered by un...

  16. Plasma-chemical technology of treatment of halogen-containing waste including polychlorinated biphenyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusarov, E. E.; Malkov, Yu. P.; Stepanov, S. G.; Troshchinenko, G. A.; Zasypkin, I. M.

    2010-12-01

    We consider the developed plasma-chemical technology of halogen-containing substances treatment. The paper contains the experimental plant schematic and the positive results obtained after the treatment of tetrafluoromethane, ozone-damaging freon 12, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), the waste containing fluoride and chloride organics. The technology is proposed for industrial application.

  17. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil and Sediment by Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction with Immunochemical Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    A selective liquid pressurized extraction (SPLE) method was developed as a streamlined sample preparation/cleanup procedure for determining Aroclors and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and sediment matrices. The SPLE method was coupled with an enzyme-linked imm...

  18. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Fish Tissue in U.S. Fresh Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    As of 2015 the U.S. EPA has conducted probabilistic, nationally-representative assessments of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue in U.S. lakes (2000-2003), twice in rivers 5th order and greater (2008-2009 and 2013-2014) as part of National Rivers and Streams Assessme...

  19. ANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 25 % of pesticides and other toxic organic pollutants are chiral, as are 19 of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers (PCB enantiomers are called atropisomers). The enantiomers of a chiral compound...

  1. GAS-PHASE OXIDATION PRODUCTS OF BIPHENYL AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our laboratory recently measured the gas-phase reaction rate constants of
    polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with the hydroxyl radical (OH) and concluded
    that OH reactions are the primary removal pathway of PCBs from the atmosphere.
    With the reaction system previousl...

  2. ANALYSIS OF CHIRAL PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONGENERS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 25 % of pesticides and other toxic organic pollutants are chiral, as are 19 of the 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners; that is, they exist as two mirror image species called enantiomers (PCB enantiomers are called atropisomers). The enantiomers of a chiral compound...

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Fish Tissue in U.S. Fresh Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    As of 2015 the U.S. EPA has conducted probabilistic, nationally-representative assessments of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue in U.S. lakes (2000-2003), twice in rivers 5th order and greater (2008-2009 and 2013-2014) as part of National Rivers and Streams Assessme...

  4. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Degrader Rhodococcus sp. WB1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Man; Shen, Alin

    2016-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. WB1 is a polychlorinated biphenyl degrader which was isolated from contaminated soil in Zhejiang, China. Here, we present the complete genome sequence. The analysis of this genome indicated that a biphenyl-degrading gene cluster and several xenobiotic metabolism pathways are harbored. PMID:27738025

  6. ENANTIOMERIC COMPOSITION OF CHIRAL POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL ATROPISOMERS IN AQUATIC BED SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enantiomeric ratios (ERs) for eight polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers were measured in aquatic sediment from selected sites throughout the United States by using chiral gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Nonracemic ERs for PCBs 91, 95, 132, 136, 149, 174, and 176 wer...

  7. Chemometric comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl residues and toxicologically active polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the eggs of Forster's Terns (Sterna fosteri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Ted R.; Stalling, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The separation and characterization of complex mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is approached from the perspective of a problem in chemometrics. A technique for quantitative determination of PCB congeners is described as well as an enrichment technique designed to isolate only those congener residues which induce mixed aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase enzyme activity. A congener-specific procedure is utilized for the determination of PCBs in whichn-alkyl trichloroacetates are used as retention index marker compounds. Retention indices are reproducible in the range of ±0.05 to ±0.7 depending on the specific congener. A laboratory data base system developed to aid in the editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatography was employed to quantitate chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in VAX-DSM (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the VAX-DEC (Digital Equipment Corp.) family of computers.In the chemometric evaluation of these complex chromatographic profiles, data are viewed from a single analysis as a point in multi-dimensional space. Principal Components Analysis was used to obtain a representation of the data in a lower dimensional space. Two-and three-dimensional proections based on sample scores from the principal components models were used to visualize the behavior of Aroclor® mixtures. These models can be used to determine if new sample profiles may be represented by Aroclor profiles. Concentrations of individual congeners of a given chlorine substitution may be summed to form homologue concentration. However, the use of homologue concentrations in classification studies with environmental samples can lead to erroneous conclusions about sample similarity. Chemometric applications are discussed for evaluation of Aroclor mixture analysis and compositional description of environmental residues of PCBs in eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna fosteri) collected from colonies near Lake Poygan

  8. Mortality after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans: a meta-analysis of two highly exposed cohorts.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Chieh; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Furue, Masutaka; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito; Uchi, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Guo, Yue Leon

    2015-09-15

    Both Yucheng and Yusho were events of accidental exposure to highly doses of polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans in Asian people. Mortality experiences caused by various diseases were reported in both cohorts with similar and dissimilar findings. We thus conducted a meta-analysis of two cohorts to reevaluate the effects of PCBs and PCDFs on major causes of mortalities. Two recently updated Yucheng and Yusho mortality studies were included. For selected diseases, standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model only when heterogeneity (I(2)  > 50% and/or p value <0.10 by the Q test) was not found. A total of 1,803 Yucheng subjects (male, N = 830; female, N = 973) with 48,751 person-years of follow-up and 1,664 Yusho subjects (male, N = 860; female, N = 804) with 50,773 person-years are included. An increase in all-cause mortality (pooled SMR=1.2, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3, I(2)  = 0.0%), all cancers (pooled SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6, I(2)  = 0.0%), lung cancer (pooled SMR=1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.3, I(2) =0.0%), heart disease (pooled SMR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.0-1.7, I(2)  = 43.4%) and hepatic disease (pooled SMR=1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8, I(2)  = 0.0%) were found in pooled males. Significant elevation from liver cancer was found in pooled females (pooled SMR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.1-3.6, I(2)  = 0.0%). This meta-analysis of Yucheng and Yusho cohorts showed similar elevation from all cancer, lung cancer, heart disease and hepatic disease mortalities in exposed men. Furthermore, a new finding of elevated liver cancer mortality in exposed women was identified.

  9. Survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls in US meat and poultry, 2012-13: toxic equivalency levels, patterns, temporal trends and implications.

    PubMed

    Lupton, Sara J; O'Keefe, Margaret; Muñiz-Ortiz, Jorge G; Clinch, Nelson; Basu, Pat

    2017-07-11

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs) every 5 years. Fat samples for each slaughter class were collected from US federally licensed slaughter facilities. The samples were processed and analysed for 17 PCDD/Fs and three no-PCBs. The sum of PCDD, PCDF and no-PCB toxic equivalencies (sum-TEQ) calculated using 2005 toxic-equivalency factors for all slaughter classes ranged from non-detect (n.d.) to 6.47 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid. The median sum-TEQs, when n.d. = 0.5 LOD, for beef, pork, chicken and turkey were 0.66, 0.12, 0.13 and 0.34 pg TEQ g(-1) lipid respectively. A comparison of the current survey with the previous three surveys shows a declining trend, with decreasing differences between medians; differences between the median sum-TEQs from 2007-08 and 2012-13 were -10%, -29%, -33% and -25% for beef, pork, chicken and turkey respectively. Several beef samples underwent further characterisation and congener patterns from these beef samples suggested pentachlorophenol treated wood as the likely exposure source. US consumer exposure to these compounds is relatively low and no slaughter class contributed more than 26% to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) chronic oral reference dose of 0.7 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1).

  10. Utilization of mixed ligands to construct diverse Ni(II)-coordination polymers based on terphenyl-2,2′,4,4′-tetracarboxylic acid and varied N-donor co-ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Xia, Liang; Wu, Xue-Qian; Wang, Jian-Fang; Dong, Wen-Wen; Wu, Ya-Pan

    2016-06-15

    Three new coordination polymers, namely, {[Ni(H_2L)(bix)(H_2O)_2]·2h_2O}{sub n} (1), {[Ni(HL)(Hdpa)(H_2O)_2]·H_2O}{sub n} (2), {[Ni(L)_0_._5(bpp)(H_2O)]·H_2O}{sub n} (3) (H{sub 4}L=terphenyl-2,2′,4,4′-tetracarboxylic acid; bix=1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene; dpa =4,4′-dipyridylamine; bpp=1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane), based on rigid H{sub 4}L ligand and different N-donor co-ligands, have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Compound 1 features a 3D 4-connected 6{sup 6}-dia-type framework with H{sub 4}L ligand adopts a μ{sub 2}-bridging mode with two symmetry-related carboxylate groups in μ{sub 1}-η{sup 1}:η{sup 0} monodentate mode. Compound 2 displays a 1D [Ni(HL)(Hdpa)]{sub n} ribbon chains motif, in which the H{sub 4}L ligand adopts a μ{sub 2}-bridging mode with two carboxylate groups in μ{sub 1}-η{sup 1}:η{sup 1} and μ{sub 1}-η{sup 1}:η{sup 0} monodentate modes, while 3 possesses a (4,4)-connected 3D frameworks with bbf topology, with H{sub 4}L ligand displays a μ{sub 4}-bridging coordination mode. The H{sub 4}L ligand displays not only different deprotonated forms but also diverse coordination modes and conformations. The structural diversities among 1–3 have been carefully discussed, and the roles of N-donor co-ligands in the self-assembly of coordination polymers have been well documented. - Graphical abstract: Three nickel coordination polymers with different architectures based on mixed ligand system were synthesized and structurally characterized. Topology analyses indicate that 1 shows the 4-connected 6{sup 6}-dia net, 1D ribbon chains for 2 and 3D (4,4)-connected bbf network for 3. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Three Ni-based coordination polymers with distinct features have been prepared. • Compound 1 features a 3D 4-connected 66-dia-type framework, 2 displays a 1D [Ni(HL)(Hdpa)]{sub n} ribbon chains motif, while 3 possesses a (4,4)-connected 3D frameworks with bbf topology. • The “mixed ligand assembled

  11. The occurrence and significance of polychlorinated biphenyls in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dustman, E.H.; Stickel, L.F.; Blus, L.J.; Reichel, W.L.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.

    1971-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls constitute a group of chlorine-bearing compounds of industrial origin that have permeated the natural environment throughout the world. Their chemical structure resembles that of some of the organochlorine pesticides. They are troublesome interferences in gas chromatographic analysis of these pesticides. Although methods have been developed to overcome analytical problems, measurements of quantity still are only approximate. Special studies in the United States, Netherlands, and Great Britain have traced PCB's to industrial effluent, but other possible sources have not been followed. Their use in paints, cartons, and insulating fluids suggests that environmental pollution may be from many different sources. PCB's are present in fish and wildlife in many countries of the world. Quantities are higher in animals living near industrial areas. PCB's build up in biological food chains with increases of tens to thousands of times from lower to higher organisms. Experimental studies have shown that PCB's have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCB's containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCB's of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity Aroclor 1242. Statistical evaluations of the role that different chemicals may play in thinning of eggshells of brown pelicans show that DDE residues correlate better with shell thinning than do residues of dieldrin or PCB's. Studies of the effects of PCB's in the environment are as yet insufficient for well-rounded conclusions. The evidence available

  12. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  13. Evaluating Chemical Reactivity And Mechanical Stability Of Nano Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On Dechlorination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of contaminated sites with hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remains a scientific and technical challenge. The high stability, low aqueous solubility, and high organic affinity of PCBs make them difficult to treat. Many physical,...

  14. ACCUMULATION OF THE PERSISTENT ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANTS METHYLMERCURY OR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN IN VITRO MODELS OF RAT NEURONAL TISSUE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (CH3Hg+) are known toxicants which persist in the environment and accumulate in tissue. Studies to identify mechanisms of action associated with these toxicants have largely been conducted in vitro, and dosimetry comparisons acro...

  15. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  16. ACCUMULATION OF THE PERSISTENT ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICANTS METHYLMERCURY OR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN IN VITRO MODELS OF RAT NEURONAL TISSUE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and methylmercury (CH3Hg+) are known toxicants which persist in the environment and accumulate in tissue. Studies to identify mechanisms of action associated with these toxicants have largely been conducted in vitro, and dosimetry comparisons acro...

  17. Evaluating Chemical Reactivity And Mechanical Stability Of Nano Palladized Iron Embedded In Activated Carbon On Dechlorination Of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    EPA Science Inventory

    Remediation of contaminated sites with hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remains a scientific and technical challenge. The high stability, low aqueous solubility, and high organic affinity of PCBs make them difficult to treat. Many physical,...

  18. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  19. Data on sediment quality and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls from the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality in the lower Neponset River, which is a tributary to Boston Harbor. Grab and core samples of sediment were tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Physical properties of sediment samples, including grain size, were also measured. Selected sediment-core samples were tested for reactive sulfides and metals by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, which are sediment-disposal-related tests. Water quality, with respect to polychlorinated biphenyl contamination, was determined by testing samples collected by PISCES passive-water-column samplers for polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls were calculated by congener and by Aroclor.

  20. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins and other chlorinated contaminants in cow milk from various locations in Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Rappe, C.; Nygren, M.; Lindstroem, G.; Buser, H.R.; Blaser, O.; Wuethrich, C.

    1987-10-01

    Six samples of cow milk from various locations in Switzerland were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-furans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and other chlorinated contaminants. Sub parts per trillion levels of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDFs and PCDDs were found in all samples. The levels were higher in samples collected in the vicinity of incinerators. Non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were not found in the milk samples.

  2. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in aquatic animals from an e-waste dismantling area in East China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chaofei; Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Chen, Zhaojing; Li, Wenjuan; Ssebugere, Patrick; Zhang, Qinghua; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-03-01

    Eight aquatic biota species were collected from an e-waste dismantling area in East China to investigate bioconcentration and trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The mean concentrations of PCBs varied widely from 6.01 × 10(4) to 2.27 × 10(6) pg per g dry weight (dw). The ∑25PCB concentrations in eels were significantly higher than those in other species. The levels of PCDD/Fs changed from 8.13 pg per g dw in toads to 617 pg per g dw in stone snails. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQs) ranged from 2.57 to 2352 pg WHO-TEQ per g dw with a geometric mean value of 64.7 pg WHO-TEQ per g dw, which greatly exceeded the maximum levels of 4 pg per g ww set by the European Commission. The log-transferred bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 25 PCB congeners ranged from 1.0 to 6.6, with the highest value for CB-205 in crucian carp and the lowest value for CB-11 in frog. A parabolic correlation was observed between log BCF and log Kow (R(2) = 0.53, p < 0.001), where the maximum value occurred at a log Kow of approximately 7. A similar correlation was also found in the plot of log BCF against the number of chlorine atoms of PCBs (R(2) = 0.57, p < 0.001), indicating that medium-halogenated congeners of PCBs are more easily accumulated by aquatic biota species. There were no significant correlations between the log-transferred concentrations and trophic levels of aquatic species, suggesting that trophic magnification for PCBs and PCDD/Fs was not observed in this study.

  3. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Augspurger, T P; Echols, K R; Peterman, P H; May, T W; Orazio, C E; Tillitt, D E; Di Giulio, R T

    2008-11-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.04 microg/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 microg/g (geometric mean, 0.02 mug/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination.

  4. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their trends in Canadian human milk from 1992 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Ryan, John Jake; Rawn, Dorothea F K

    2014-05-01

    More than 300 samples of human milk were collected from individuals residing in various regions across Canada in the years 1992 to 2005. The milks were taken from the main populated areas east to west in southern Canada as well as from the region of Nunavik in northern Quebec and analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The concentrations, expressed in ng kg(-1) milk lipid, show an overall decrease of virtually all compounds examined including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), World Health Organization 2005 toxic equivalents (WHO2005-TEQ) PCDD/PCDFs, WHO2005-TEQ dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs), and total PCBs. Median values of 2,3,7,8-TCDD changed from about 1.5 ng kg(-1) milk lipid in 1992 to 0.8 ng kg(-1) in 2005 while the median WHO2005-TEQ PCDD/F fell from about 14-7 ng kg(-1) milk lipid in the same period. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in samples from Nunavik, which is in Arctic Quebec, were higher than those observed in milk from southern Quebec although this difference was not large. Over two time periods, milk samples from Hamilton, Ontario showed slightly higher levels of PCBs than Austin, Texas, USA--a North American city of similar size and development but with more than twice the PBDE exposure. When compared with earlier human milk data going back to the early 1980s, this large data set shows a steady decline of human exposure to POPs in Canada by a factor of about four times. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [The human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in residents' human breast milk from Beijing in 2007].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Yin-ping; Li, Jing-guang; Zhao, Yun-feng; Wu, Yong-ning

    2013-06-01

    To investigate contamination levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in human breast milk from Beijing residents, and evaluate the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs of general population. A total of 110 human milk samples were collected from 11 regions in Beijing in 2007. After 11 pooled samples were made, concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in breast milk pooled samples were measured by a high resolution gas chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (HRCG-HRMS) with isotope dilution. For congeners of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human breast milk from Beijing, the highest content of congeners was octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-118, and PCB-105 with the median of 20.6 pg/g fat, 4.07 ng/g fat and 1.63 ng/g fat, respectively. The concentration median of total dioxins in 11 pooled human milk samples from Beijing was 7.4 pg TEQ/g fat. The highest was 13.5 pg TEQ/g fat from Tongzhou, and the lowest was 4.3 pg TEQ/g fat from Pinggu. The contamination level of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human milk from Beijing is relatively low. However, with the rapid industrialization in China, the human body burden of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs will be likely to rise. Thus, further studies should be conducted to continuously monitor the trend of contamination level.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in rice straw smoke and their origins in Japan.

    PubMed

    Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Hosono, Shigeo; Kawamura, Kiyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) contained in the smoke generated from rice straw burning in post-harvest paddy fields in Japan were analyzed to determine their congener profiles. Both the apportionment of toxic equivalent (TEQ) by using indicative congeners and the comparison of the homolog profiles showed that the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in the rice-straw smoke were greatly influenced by those present as impurities in pentachlorophenol (PCP) and chlornitrofen (CNP, 4-nitrophenyl-2,4,6-trichlorophenyl ether) formulations that had been widely used as herbicides in paddy fields in Japan. Further, in order to investigate the effects of paddy-field soil on the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs present in rice-straw smoke, PCDD/PCDF/DL-PCB homolog profiles of rice straw, rice-straw smoke and paddy-field soil were compared. Rice-straw smoke was generated by burning rice straw on a stainless-steel tray in a laboratory. The results suggested that the herbicides-originated PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs and the atmospheric PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs contributed predominantly to the presence of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs in the rice-straw smoke while the contribution of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs formed during rice straw burning was relatively minimal. The major sources of the PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs found in the rice-straw smoke were attributed primarily to the paddy-field soil adhered to the rice straw surface and secondarily to the air taken by the rice straw. The principal component analysis supported these conclusions. It is concluded that rice straw burning at paddy fields acts as a driving force in the transfer of PCDDs/PCDFs/DL-PCBs from paddy-field soil to the atmosphere. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments and mussels at three sites in the lower Great Lakes, North America.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Christopher H; Howell, E Todd; Kolic, Terry M; Reiner, Eric J

    2002-09-01

    Levels of contaminants including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho-substituted and mono-ortho-substituted dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (DLPCBs) were determined in sediments and freshwater mussels (Dreissena spp. and Elliptio complanata) at three sites in the lower Great Lakes (North America). Impacts of mussel colonization on sediment quality were investigated by comparing contaminant levels in colonized sediment with levels in sediment in the same area that was not colonized, but exposed to similar environmental conditions. Significant impacts on contaminant levels of colonized sediment, compared to noncolonized sediment, were observed at two sites exhibiting high mussel population densities (Fort Erie, eastern Lake Erie, ON, Canada, 2.2 kg/m2 dry wt biomass, and Port Dalhousie, western Lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada, 6.1 kg/m2 dry wt biomass); these differences were not observed at a site with lower mussel densities (Bay of Quinte, eastern Lake Ontario, Ontario, Canada, 0.7 kg/m2). Total organic carbon and contaminant concentrations were statistically significantly greater in colonized sediment, compared to noncolonized sediment, at the two impacted sites. Areal estimates of PCDD/PCDF and DLPCB toxicity equivalents (TEQs) in mussel biomass at the three sites averaged 0.16% and 3.3%, respectively, of the TEQs in the top 3 cm of sediment, indicating that the sediments were the primary sink for contaminants. The observed differences between colonized and noncolonized sediment suggest that Dreissena are capable of influencing the chemical properties of sediment they colonize.

  8. Accumulation of environmental contaminants in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs, with emphasis on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, T.P.; Echols, K.R.; Peterman, P.H.; May, T.W.; Orazio, C.E.; Tillitt, D.E.; Di Giulio, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    We measured polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, and mercury in wood duck (Aix sponsa) eggs collected near a North Carolina (USA) bleached kraft paper mill. Samples were taken a decade after the mill stopped using molecular chlorine. Using avian toxic equivalency factors, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ) concentrations were 1-30 pg/g fresh wet weight in eggs (n = 48) collected near the mill in 2002-2005 and were significantly higher than those from a reference site (<1 pg/g) 25 km away. Geometric mean wood duck egg TEQs (6 pg/g) were one-fifth those measured at this site prior to the cessation of molecular chlorine bleaching. Concentrations of mercury in wood duck eggs from nests of the Roanoke River sites ranged from 0.01 to 0.14 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.04 ??g/g) and were significantly higher than those from the reference site, where concentrations did not exceed 0.04 ??g/g (geometric mean, 0.02 ??g/g). All concentrations were lower than those associated with adverse effects in birds. The congener profiles, lack of contamination in reference site eggs, and decline in contaminant concentrations after process changes at the mill provide strong evidence that mill discharges influenced contamination of local wood duck eggs. Collectively, the results indicate that the wood duck is an effective sentinel of the spatial and temporal extent of PCDD, PCDF, and mercury contamination. ?? 2008 US Government.

  9. Food contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins in Belgium. Effects on the body burden.

    PubMed

    Van Larebeke, N; Covaci, A; Schepens, P; Hens, L

    2002-11-01

    The core paper of this debate shows that persistent organic pollutant residues of the 12 chemicals targeted for a phase out under the Stockholm Convention are present in almost all categories of food in the US food supply. For dioxins, the study does not use measured data, but is based upon potential dioxin residues in selected food items. Polychlorinated biphenyls are not included in the study. In this paper we discuss selected data of polychlorinated biphenyl and dioxin concentrations in Belgian food. Some of these exposures are chronic, others are attributable to incidents. Both result in high body burdens in Belgium. The paper also compares the current concentrations in food with the recent standards launched by the EU for dioxins in food, and discusses whether these values adequately protect European citizens.

  10. Assessment of exposure risk of polychlorinated biphenyls to interior least terns (Sterna antillarum).

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Brian C; Caldwell, Colleen A

    2008-03-01

    Risk of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and effects were assessed for a colony of federally endangered interior least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting on the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NM, USA). The colony feeds from an area on the Refuge (Hunter Marsh/Oxbow Complex) wherein fish with elevated concentrations of total PCBs have been documented. Concentrations of total PCBs in whole fish averaged 0.94 mg/kg with a maximum concentration of 2.77 mg/kg, wet weight. Estimated daily PCB intake rates by adult birds throughout their 180-d breeding season ranged from <0.01 mg/kg/d to 0.98 mg/ kg/d, yielding hazard quotients that ranged from 0.01 to 21.68. Polychlorinated biphenyls pose a moderate risk to the colony of interior least terns that breed at the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, but the exposure rate is not likely to threaten their overall breeding success.

  11. Release of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans by setting off fireworks.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, O; Wichmann, H; Lorenz, W

    1999-09-01

    Selected pyrotechnic articles were set off under laboratory conditions. Residues and vapors of smoke as well as unburnt charges were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) and their precursors chlorinated benzenes and phenols. The contamination of the selected products with these organic xenobiotics proved to be very variable. Remains of fireworks contained octachlorinated dioxins and furans up to 142 ng I-TEQ/kg as well as hexachlorobenzene in the range of 0.05 to 1,400 mg/kg. The deflagration of detonating compositions usually resulted in a dispersion of contaminants, whereas continuously burning flare compositions partially led to a thermal decomposition of organic pollutants. A significant rate of formation of polychlorinated dioxins and furans was observed when setting off blue-lightning rockets and fountains. Further investigations revealed that even high temperatures during the deflagration of black powder charges could not suppress the formation of PCDD/F from appropriate precursors.

  12. Accumulation of polychlorinated organic contaminants from sediment by three benthic marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Rubinstein, N.I.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Bowen, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to measure the accumulation of selected polychlorinated compounds by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment. Sandworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta), and grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sediment collected from the Passaic River, New Jersey. All three species accumulated 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the sediment. In addition, a recently identified sulfur containing analog of tetrachlorinated dibenzofurans. The objectives of the study were to determine the relative bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and selected PCB congeners from bottom sediments as well as to examine the relationship between contaminant concentrations in sediments and biota.

  13. Semiquantitative determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in tissue samples by thin layer chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulhern, B.M.; Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Belisle, A.A.

    1971-01-01

    A method is described for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in tissue samples. Cleanup by hexane-aceto-nitrile partitioning and Florisil column chromatography are performed on samples before oxidative treatment to convert DDE to DCBP. PCB components are then determined semi-quantitatively by TLC. No prior separation of PCB from chlorinated pesticides is required. The lower limit of sensitivity is 0.2 ?g.

  14. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  15. Contamination of the food chain by polychlorinated biphenyls from a broken transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Drotman, D.P.; Baxter, P.J.; Liddle, J.A.; Brokopp, C.D.; Skinner, M.D.

    1983-03-01

    In 1979, widespread distribution of chicken and egg food products and grease contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) occurred across the United States and as far away as Canada and Japan. The contamination was traced to an accidental leakage of PCBs from a transformer stored in a hog slaughtering plant in Montana. Breast milk analyses showed the PCB absorption had occurred among egg consumers. The episode illustrates the need for heightened vigilance over the fate of PCBs still in use.

  16. Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Organochlorines & PD Risk: A Case Control Study in Alaska 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0490 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...biphenyl (PCBs) residues, organochlorine pesticides and methylmercury with PD. The hypothesis is that increased exposure to these compounds will be...Parkinson’s disease, polychlorinated biphenyl, organochlorine pesticides, methylmercury, Alaska natives, neurodegeneration 16. SECURITY

  17. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxins during combustion, electrical equipment fires and PCB incineration.

    PubMed Central

    Hutzinger, O; Choudhry, G G; Chittim, B G; Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are likely formed by thermal synthesis of a variety of primary precursors. Highest levels of these compounds are expected, however, when the starting material requires only one or two reaction steps for their formation, as is the case with chlorophenols, chlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Laboratory pyrolyses have indeed shown that PCBs give significant yields of PCDFs, and chlorobenzenes give both PCDFs and PCDDs. In addition, a variety of other chloroaromatic compounds are formed. From these experiments and from accidents involving PCB fires, it is known that PCDFs are the most important toxic compounds associated with PCBs. Most commercial PCBs contain PCDFs in the low ppm range. PCDF concentration does not increase during normal operation in electrical equipment. Accidents (fires and explosions) involving PCBs can give PCDF levels in soot of up to 1000 ppm and higher. Effective thermal destruction of PCB is possible in modern incineration units, provided high temperatures, excess air and sufficient residence times are used. Exact figures for minimum temperature and residence time cannot be given, since feedstock and incinerator construction greatly influence destruction efficiency. Effluents from EPA-licensed incinerators used for PCB destruction contain only very low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:3928357

  18. Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in shark livers from the north-western African Atlantic ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, R.; Fernandez, M.A.; Hernandez, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls have been widely used by industry throughout the world since 1930. Although their use has been banned in many countries since the late 1970s, they still represent an important class of priority pollutants due to their persistence. Most open uses of these chemicals have been severely curtailed in industrialized nations, but a considerable fraction of past productions is probably still cycling in the ecosphere. In recent years, attention has been focused on the toxicity of PCBs, especially of those congeners showing similar toxicity as the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). It has been shown that PCB congeners` toxicity largely depends on the chlorine substitution pattern. The most toxic PCB cogeners are those with two para chlorines, at least two meta chlorines and 0-2 ortho chlorines. These so-called {open_quotes}coplanar{close_quotes} (non- mono- and di-ortho) PCB cogeners are able to obtain planar conformation. Recently, toxic equivalence factors have been assigned to coplanar PCBs. Thus determination of individual PCB cogeners is important for evaluating the toxic potentials of PCB residues in, for example, wildlife. This paper presents preliminary results of a study looking at levels of PCB congeners, including coplanar ones, in the liver of six shark species, collected in the North African Atlantic Ocean. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Contamination of free-range chicken eggs with dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Schoeters, Greet; Hoogenboom, Ron

    2006-10-01

    Dioxins and dioxin-like (DL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) are persistent organic pollutants that enter the body mainly by food intake. A small margin exists between current exposure levels in the human population and the levels causing biological effects. Therefore, stringent control of concentrations of these contaminants in food and feed is needed. Eggs from free-range chicken are increasingly becoming an important part of the diet. These eggs have a higher risk of being contaminated with increased levels of dioxins and DL-PCB than barn or cage eggs. Ingestion of soil particles from environmentally contaminated areas may contribute to elevated dioxin levels in free-range chicken eggs. Available data show that current soil levels of dioxins and DL-PCB in residential and agricultural areas in Europe often appear to be too high to produce free-range eggs with dioxin levels below the current limit values in the EU. On the other hand, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans concentrations in eggs from free-range chicken are not necessarily above the limit values. Contamination levels in soil should be kept low and should be controlled in areas with free foraging chicken although all modifying factors that influence uptake of dioxins and PCB from the environment and transfer into eggs are yet not well understood.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki).

    PubMed

    Alava, Juan J; Ikonomou, Michael G; Ross, Peter S; Costa, Daniel; Salazar, Sandie; Aurioles-gamboa, David; Gobas, Frank A P C

    2009-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in muscle-blubber biopsy samples from 21 Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki) pups that were live captured in the Galapagos Islands (Ecuador) using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Only traces of PBDEs were detected in one male pup, whereas PCDDs and PCDFs were not detected in any sample. The total concentration of PCBs (ΣPCB) in the pups averaged 104 μg/kg lipid (range, 49-384 μg/kg). No statistically significant differences in ΣPCB were observed among the four study sites in the Galapagos Islands. Concentrations of PCB congeners in Galapagos sea lion pups were dominated by low-molecular-weight congeners. These results suggest that global transport is the main source for PCBs in Galapagos sea lions. The ΣPCB levels were below immunotoxic and endocrine-disruption thresholds in pinnipeds, suggesting a limited risk of adverse health effects. The present study indicates that Galapagos sea lions can serve as a useful sentinel of pollutants with a long-range transport capacity and that Galapagos Islands are not exempt from the threats of global pollutants despite its remote locale.

  1. Regional impact of exposure to a polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dibenzofuran mixture from contaminated rice oil on stillbirth rate and secondary sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Tokinobu, Akiko; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Tsuda, Toshihide

    2013-09-01

    Yusho disease, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) mixed poisoning caused by contaminated rice oil, occurred in Japan in 1968. The evidence on reproductive outcome is limited. We therefore evaluated the regional impact of the exposure to the PCB and PCDF mixture on stillbirth rate and secondary sex ratio among the residents in two severely affected areas. We selected the regionally-affected towns of Tamanoura (n=4390 in 1970) and Naru (n=6569) in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, for study. We obtained data on stillbirths (spontaneous/artificial) and live-born births (total/male/female) from 1958 to 1994. For a decade and a half after the exposure, an increase in the rate of spontaneous stillbirths coincided with a decrease in the male sex ratio. Compared with the years 1958-1967, the ratios for spontaneous stillbirth rates were 2.16 (95% confidence interval: 1.58 to 2.97) for 1968-1977 and 1.80 (95% confidence interval: 1.25 to 2.60) for 1978-1987. The sex ratio (male proportion) was 0.483 (95% confidence interval: 0.457 to 0.508) in the first 10years after exposure. Exposure to a mixture of PCBs and PCDFs affected stillbirth and sex ratio for a decade and a half after the exposure.

  2. Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polychlorinated Dioxins-Furans in Lake Trout and Whitefish Composite Samples from Commercial Fisheries in Lakes Erie, Huron, and Superior.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Dowd, Michael; Scuby, Matthew J S; Pantazopoulos, Peter P; Feeley, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; sum of 36 congeners) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs; sum of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners) were measured in 93 composite samples prepared from individual lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) samples collected from Lake Erie, Lake Huron, and Lake Superior. All samples had detectable concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs; maximum PCB concentrations in both trout (750 ng g(-1) whole weight [ww]) and whitefish (210 ng g(-1) ww) were found in composites from fish collected from Lake Huron. The maximum toxic equivalent concentration was found in a lake trout composite sample from Lake Huron (53 pg g(-1) ww). PCB and PCDD/F congener profiles were comparable to patterns observed in fishes collected from other regions of Canada, although concentrations were above those found in other regions. A positive correlation was found between PCB concentrations determined using the historical Aroclor equivalency method and those determined using the sum of the congeners measured (r(2) = 0.871; Spearman correlation r = 0.917) or using the six indicator PCB congeners (28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180; r(2) = 0.850; Spearman correlation r = 0.935). PCBs were the dominant contributor to the overall toxic equivalent concentrations in the fish composite samples tested. These findings provide insight into PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in two commercially important fish species over a discrete time period.

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in fish, seafood products and fish oil in Spain.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Lucía; Martínez, Aníbal; Ferreira, Martiña; Vieites, Juan; Cabado, Ana

    2013-01-01

    A total of 84 samples of wild and farmed fish, cephalopods and fish oils for animal feeding, traded in Spain, were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in 2009-2012, by gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). The method was optimised for screening at moderate costs, allowing PCDD/Fs determination at 1 pg World Health Organization-toxic equivalent quantities (WHO-TEQ) g⁻¹ wet weight (w w) and dl-PCBs at 0.02 pg WHO-TEQ g⁻¹ w w. Concentrations in fish and cephalopods ranged from values below the limit of detection to 1.7 pg g⁻¹ WHO-TEQ sum PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, considered as safe with regard to EU legislation. Higher levels were found in cod livers (5.4-54.2) and fish oils (3.3-30.7), with one noncompliant sample in each group.

  4. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and wild moose (Alces alces) meat in Finland.

    PubMed

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Hallikainen, Anja; Kiviranta, Hannu; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2009-05-01

    Semi-domesticated reindeer and wild moose meat samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Both calves and adults were studied. Individual reindeer and moose meat samples and pooled reindeer calf meat samples were collected from the northern, the middle, and the southern reindeer herding regions in Finland. Samples represented the edible parts of carcasses. In individual samples of reindeer the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was on average 3.2pgg(-1) in calves and 2.3pgg(-1) in adults. In moose calves the fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration (1.9pgg(-1)) was lower than in reindeer calves. WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration in the adult moose samples was equal as in the adult reindeer samples. The mean fat based WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ concentration was highest in reindeer calf samples from the middle region. These samples contained also the highest content of fat. Individual samples of reindeer contained on average more WHO-PCB-TEQ than WHO-PCDD/F-TEQ, while the opposite was true for moose samples, and also samples of adult reindeer from the southern area. The contributions of PCDD/Fs and PCBs to the total TEQ were similar in the reindeer calves' pooled samples which were collected from more western regions than individual samples.

  5. Estimated dietary intake and risk assessment of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from fish consumption in the Korean general population.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-su; Kim, Jongchul; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Kang, Young-Woon; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in samples from various fish species available at food markets in nine Korean cities. The estimated dietary intake of these chemicals was calculated from the raw concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in each sample and from the food consumption of the Korean general population, and a comparison was made with the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI). The average daily dietary exposure and the 95th percentile of intake of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 0.21 and 0.49 pg WHO05-toxic equivalents (TEQ) kg(-1) body weight d(-1) representing 5.27% and 12.26%, respectively, of the Korean tolerable daily intake (TDI). We applied the monthly fish consumption limits to the evaluation of improved risk assessment and concluded that unlimited consumption of most fish species does not contribute to the elevated cancer risk. This investigation was the first such large-scale study in Korea, and incorporated 37 species, including a species of whale, and 480 samples. The major aims of this study were to demonstrate the health risks associated with fish intake and to ensure food safety through total analysis of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk from Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Ding, Gangqiang; Wu, Yongning; Pan, Guoshao; Zhou, Xiaoping; Han, Jianlong; Li, Jingguang; Wen, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    Breast milk samples (n=74) from the general maternal population of Zhejiang province were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Samples were divided into urban and rural groups. Mean ∑PCDD/F, ∑PCB and ∑PBDE concentrations were 71.4±40.8, 42774±27841 and 2679±944 pg g(-1) lipid in the urban group and 38.6±38.1, 26546±11375 and 2731±1093 pg g(-1) lipid in the rural group, respectively. WHO-TEQ concentrations for dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs were 2.66±1.43 and 3.90±2.60 pg g(-1) lipid in the urban group and 1.83±0.93 and 2.27±1.55 pg g(-1) lipid in the rural group, respectively. Congener profiles for these pollutants were compared between human samples (adipose tissue and breast milk) and foodstuffs (seafood, hen eggs, and freshwater fish). Similar PCB and PCDD/F congener patterns were observed, suggesting that dietary intake is a significant source for human exposure to PCBs and PCDD/Fs. However, much lower PBDE congener levels were detected in breast milk than in foodstuffs, which implies that pathways other than dietary intake may also account for human exposure to PBDEs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Increase of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk from China in 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yin, Shuaixing; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2016-11-01

    A national survey was conducted to determine polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from 16 provinces in China to assess current exposure and temporal trends in China. The arithmetic mean concentration of total TEQ (PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs) in 2011 is 6.7pgTEQg(-1) lipid with a range of 2.9-15.4pgTEQg(-1) lipid in 2011. Levels have been compared to data obtained during a previous national study conducted in 2007. The mean of PCDD/Fs has increased about 32.6% and 99.9% for total TEQ concentration (3.7pgTEQg(-1) lipid in 2007 vs 4.9pgTEQg(-1) lipid in 2011) and mass concentration (66.7pgg(-1) lipid in 2007 vs 133.3pgg(-1) lipid in 2011) during the period of 2007-2011, respectively. Continuous surveillance on PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in human milk is critical to evaluate the human health effect and environment impact in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Coexposure of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in free-range hens and implications derived from congener profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chingju; Hsu, Jing-Fang; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-02-29

    The consumption of free-range eggs is becoming more popular worldwide. We analyzed the levels of 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and their congener profiles from 6 free-range and 12 caged egg samples. The mean levels of dl-PCBs in the free-range samples were 5.4 times higher than those in caged eggs. All egg samples exhibited at least two characteristic dl-PCB congener patterns, which reflected distinctive contamination sources. Additionally, for the first time, we demonstrated that the dl-PCB levels in the free-range eggs were highly correlated with elevated levels of 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) (r = 0.986; p < 0.001), indicating a coexposure scenario in free-range hens. Cluster analysis of congener patterns implied that this coexposure scenario could be attributed to distinct dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources. This congener profile information provides insights from a different perspective for further identifying potential dl-PCB and PCDD/F sources in the polluted free-range eggs.

  9. Assessment of dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from the Chinese Total Diet Study in 2011.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Yin, Shuaixing; Wang, Xiangyong; Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yunfeng; Li, Xiaowei; Shen, Haitao; Wu, Yongning

    2015-10-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were measured in food samples from the fifth Chinese Total Diet Study (TDS) performed in 2011. A total of 152 composite samples from various food groups were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC-HRMS). The dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were subsequently estimated for the adult from various regions in China. The mean dietary intake of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was 20.1 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) (WHO-TEF of 1998) within a range of 4.2 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) to 53.7 pg TEQ kg(-1) bw month(-1) which were all much lower than the provisional tolerable monthly intake (PTMI) established by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). By comparing with results from previous Chinese TDS, a decline of the average dietary intake was observed from 2000 to 2011, but a notable elevation was observed in some regions partly stem from increasing contamination levels in certain foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in fires of arsenic-free treated wood: role of organic preservatives.

    PubMed

    Tame, Nigel W; Dlugogorski, Bogdan Z; Kennedy, Eric M

    2007-09-15

    This article demonstrates that biocidal organochlorines such as tebuconazole and permethrin, employed in formulations of wood preservatives, produce significant quantities of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) when subjected to thermal decomposition under oxidative conditions. Both tebuconazole and permethrin form PCDD/F during gas-phase oxidation, but much greater yields occurred in the presence of surrogate ash corresponding to wood treated with copper-based fungicides. The significant yields have implications for the increased toxicity of PCDD/F emissions during fires of wood impregnated by combination of organic and copper-based preservatives. The oxidative pyrolysis of tebuconazole and permethrin over simulated wood ash generated amounts of PCDD/F exceeding those of untreated wood by 3 orders of magnitude. We obtained yields of 1000 ng WHO97-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 5500 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin when reacting the organochlorines in an oxidizing atmosphere over surrogate wood ash. Gas-phase oxidation also produce measurable quantities of PCDD/F, corresponding to 1 ng WH097-TEQ/g tebuconazole and 36 ng WHO97-TEQ/g permethrin. In the case of tebuconazole, the present measurements correlate well with those obtained from oxidative pyrolysis of CBA-treated wood in the cone calorimeter. It appears that permethrin and tebuconazole provide phenyl and diphenyl precursors to formation of PCDD/F and both constitute a source of chlorine upon fragmentation.

  11. A preliminary investigation on emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls from coke plants in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Ba, Te; Liu, Wenbin; Guo, Li

    2009-05-01

    Thermal related processes are widely recognized as the main sources of formation and emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). It is well known that, carbonization of coal in coke production involves many thermal reactions at high-temperature. However, there are still no strong evidences to identify coking processes as source of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. In this study, coke production was qualified and quantified for emission of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in some typical coke plants in China. In the preliminary investigation, stack gases from three typical coke plants were collected, and dl-PCBs and 2378-substituted PCDD/Fs were analyzed by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS technique. The total toxic equivalents of dl-PCBs and PCDD/Fs were in the range of 1.6-1785.4pg WHO-TEQNm(-3). For dl-PCBs, the most abundant congener was CB-118, and the most dominant contributor to total WHO-TEQ of dl-PCBs was CB-126. With regard to PCDD/Fs, four congeners comprised of OCDD, 1234678-HpCDD, 1234678-HpCDF and OCDF were the predominant species in stack gases. Further investigation on the emission of dioxins from coking industry is still in process.

  12. Impacts of cooking technique on polychlorinated biphenyl and polychlorinated dioxins/furan concentrations in fish and fish products with intake estimates.

    PubMed

    Rawn, Dorothea F K; Breakell, Kenneth; Verigin, Victor; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Del Gobbo, Liana; Diamond, Miriam; Vanderlinden, Loren; Sit, Daniel

    2013-01-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) concentrations were determined in composites of 18 different fish products and were prepared as raw, baked, boiled, and fried. ∑PCB concentrations were found to range from 0.12 ng·g(-1) whole weight (ww) in raw octopus to 33 ng·g(-1) ww in baked mackerel. Boiled monkfish was found to have the lowest ∑PCDD/F concentrations (0.41 pg·g(-1) ww), while maximum concentrations were observed in fried catfish (59 pg·g(-1) ww). PCB and PCDD/F concentrations in fish were generally reduced during cooking, although differences were small. The average PCB reduction in finfish was 7.9%, while an increase in PCB mass was observed in non-finfish (2.9%). PCDD/F losses, on average, were observed in both the finfish (3.6%) and non-finfish products (25%). Maximum ∑PCB, ∑PCDD/F, and TEQ(PCDD/F+DL-PCB) (toxic equivalency) intakes, based on 150 g serving size, were determined to be 3300 ng (mackerel), 6600 pg (catfish), and 270 pg (catfish), respectively. PCB and PCDD/F changes associated with cooking generally were small (<15%), although larger mean differences (∼40%) were observed in some fish products (e.g., catfish).

  13. Exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through the consumption of prepared meals in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Stefania P; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Dellatte, Elena; Corrado, Federica; Esposito, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Diet is a relevant source of exposure to environmental pollutants. Dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by the Italian population was assessed through a duplicate diet study on prepared meals. Baby food composite representative of the diet of toddlers aged 9-12 months and school canteen servings from four towns in Italy representing the diet of children aged 4-9 years were collected on a 5-day basis. Similarly, 5-day lunches from an office canteen, 7-day lunches from a hotel-school, three fast food meals, and eight duplicate 1-day meals of individuals (one vegetarian) were selected to represent the diet of adults aged above 18 years. Servings from each diet were then pooled to form a composite and analysed. Dietary intake was estimated from the resulting contaminant levels in composites combined with age-related food consumption data from national survey. The mean upper bound (UB) intakes for cumulative PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs were 0.67, 0.63-0.92, and 0.27-0.63 pg WHO2005-TE kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for toddlers, children and adults, respectively. BDE-47 (UB) ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) estimates were 2.75 in toddlers, 0.08-0.16 in children and 0.03-0.09 in adults. Similarly, for BDE-99 higher UB intakes (ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) resulted in toddlers (1.26), than those in children (0.06-0.08) and adults (0.03-0.10), respectively. The above estimates fall below the tolerable weekly intake (TWI) (14 WHO2005-TE kg(-1) bw day(-1)) established by the European Union Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) for PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs. The margin of exposure (MOE = 3) of toddlers to BDE-99 clearly indicates this age group as target for a risk-oriented approach. This study is proposed as a first cost-effective screening in PCDD, PCDF, DL-PCB and PBDE intake assessment, with a focus also on time trends.

  14. Suppressive effect of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls transfer from feed to eggs of laying hens by activated carbon as feed additive.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Katsuhisa; Iwakiri, Ryoji; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Tanimura, Nobuhiko

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the suppressive effect of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) transfer from the feed to the eggs of laying hens by using activated carbon as a feed additive. Four groups of six hens (White Leghorn egg-layers; age, 11weeks) were housed as two control groups and two exposure groups for a period of 20weeks. Two control groups were fed with either the basal feed "Control" or basal feed additing activated carbon "Control+C". Another two exposure groups were fed with feed contaminated (about 6ng TEQ kg(-1) feed) by standard solutions of PCDDs/PCDFs and DL-PCBs "Exposure" alone and contaminated feed adding activated carbon "Exposure+C". There was no significant effect on each groups for the growth rate, biochemical blood components, and egg production: these were around the standard levels for poultry in general. Moreover the results in this study showed the availability of activated carbon as a feed additive owing to the reduction in the risk of food pollution by PCDDs/PCDFs and DL-PCBs. The concentration in the eggs of the Exposure group gradually increased following the start of egg-laying but reached a steady state after about 1month. In contrast, the concentration for the Exposure+C group was stationary and below the maximum EU level (6pgTEQg(-1)fat). In comparison to the Exposure group, the Exposure+C group showed a significant decline in the percentage of bioaccumulation into the egg. This reduction due to activated carbon was also observed in the muscle and abdominal fat. The reductions were compound- and congener-dependent for DL-PCBs as follows: PCDDs/PCDFs, non-ortho-PCBs, and mono-ortho-PCBs were more than 90%, 80%, and 50%, respectively, irrespective of the type of tissues. Fat soluble vitamin concentrations in the eggs of the Exposure+C group showed lower trends than the Exposure group. The γ-tocopherol and

  15. A survey of dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls from food during 2000-2002 in Osaka City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Tadashi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Ogaki, Sumiko

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the dietary intake of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like PCBs), collectively referred as dioxins, were conducted using the total diet study (TDS) method with food purchased in Osaka City, Japan during 2000-2002. The daily intake of dioxin-TEQ (toxic equivalent) from food per adult person was estimated respectively as 104.24 pg TEQ/person/day in 2000, 72.73 pg TEQ/person/day in 2001, and 87.28 pg TEQ/person/day in 2002, corresponding to 2.08, 1.45, and 1.74 pg TEQ/kg body weight (bw)/day for an adult weighing 50 kg. The highest contribution ratio to the total intake of dioxin-TEQ was from fish and shellfish (group 10) in each year, accounting for 77-92%. The next highest contributor was meat and eggs (groups 11-A and 11-B). An annual decrease of the intake of dioxin-TEQ was not observed clearly. Otherwise, the dietary intake of non-2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs were estimated together. The intake of 1,3,6,8-TeCDD came mostly from intake of fish and shellfish (group 10), green vegetable (group 7), and the other vegetables, including mushrooms and seaweed (group 8). In addition, the intake of 1,3,6,8-TeCDF, which reportedly antagonizes 2,3,7,8-TeCDD-mediated aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) induction activities, was an insufficient amount to suppress 2,3,7,8-TeCDD-mediated activities. Furthermore, we discussed different TEQ compositions of PCDDs/PCDFs to dioxin-like PCBs from food intake and in human samples and inferred that the difference was caused by low bioaccumulation properties of 3,3',4,4',5-PeCB (PCB 126). © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

  16. Sediment quality and polychlorinated biphenyls in the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, and implications for urban river restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to restore fish passage, habitat, and recreational use of the Neponset River, a tributary to Boston Harbor, Massachusetts, have raised concerns about the sediment, water, and biota quality of the river. Consequently, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality, with a specific focus on polychlorinated biphenyls, in the Neponset River. Sediment samples were collected throughout the Neponset River and tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Although enriched compared to background concentrations, sediment quality in the Neponset River was generally better than that of other urban rivers in the United States, except with respect to one constituent, polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of lead, some polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in the sediment may be toxic to aquatic organisms and may pose a risk to human health. The sediment quality also fails to meet the minimum requirements set by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for lined landfill disposal. The locations of the source(s) of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River were determined by means of congener analysis from PISCES passive water-column samplers. The PISCES data indicate a sharp increase in polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and a substantial shift in congener pattern downstream of one PISCES sampling location near Fairmont Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts. This result indicates that the area upstream of this sampling location may be the location of a historical source of polychlorinated biphenyls to the Neponset River. The present (2003) source to the water column may likely be PCB contaminated sediment.

  17. Polychlorinated dioxins, furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in egg and egg products in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Olanca, Burcu; Cakirogullari, Gul Celik; Ucar, Yunus; Kirisik, Dursun; Kilic, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and indicator PCBs (ind-PCBs) in eggs from cage hens without soil contact, pasteurized egg samples and imported egg yolk powder samples in Turkey. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs in eggs and pasteurized egg samples are in the range of 0.247-1.527 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.282-1.762 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 202-1,235 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. For egg yolk powder samples, concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are in the range of 0.122-0.494 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 0.214-0.640 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 217-1,498 pg g(-1) fat, respectively. All results for PCDD/Fs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs, and ind-PCBs are below the values of 2.5 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat, 5.0 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)g(-1) fat and 40 ng g(-1) fat imposed in Turkish Regulation for eggs and egg products, respectively. In all samples 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and PCB126 are the most prominent congeners. Mean estimated daily exposure to PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs for Turkish population from egg is 0.011 pg WHO-TEQ(2005)d(-1)kg body weight (bw)(-1). Although the exposure levels are below the TDI of 2 pg WHO-TEQ(1998)kg bw(-1), the results were based only on consumption of egg. In order to estimate total dietary intake for Turkish population, various food items should be investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment and mussel samples from Kentucky Lake, USA.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Bommanna G; Kumar, Kurunthachalam Senthil; Masunaga, Shigeki; Sajwan, Kenneth S

    2008-01-01

    Sediment and mussel tissues from the Kentucky Dam Tailwater (KDTW) and Ledbetter Embayment (LE) of Kentucky Lake, Kentucky, USA, were analyzed to examine the presence of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and non-, mono-, and di-ortho-chlorine-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls. Concentrations of target compounds varied with locations and sample matrices. In general, KDTW sediment samples contained slightly higher amounts of PCDD/DFs (average: 1100, range: 120-2400) than the LE sediments (average: 920, range: 580-1300) on a pg/g dry wt (dw) basis. Dioxin-like PCBs in KDTW were (average: 550, range: 70-2,000) higher than in LE (average: 320, range: 44-1000) on a ng/g dw basis. In contrast, mussel tissues had greater concentrations of PCDD/DFs in LE (average: 6500, range: 2200-13,000) than in KDTW (average: 3500, range: 2500-4800). Dioxin-like PCBs were slightly higher in KDTW (average: 76, range: 18-100) than in LE (average: 49, range: 24-96) on a ng/g fat wt basis. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were calculated using tissue concentrations and sediment concentrations based on dry weight. PCDD/DFs BSAF was in the range of 0.21-25 in LE and 0.093-13 in KDTW. 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF in LE and 2,3,7,8-TCDF in KDTW had a greater BSAF, while BSAF for dioxin-like PCBs ranged from 0.84 to 13 in LE and from 2.3 to 12 in KDTW in which PCB-169 had the greatest BSAF in LE and PCB-167 in KDTW. Toxic equivalency (TEQ) was greatest in mussel from LE (mean: 193 pgTEQ/g fat wt) followed by mussel from KDTW (32 pgTEQ/g fat wt), sediment in KDTW (13 pgTEQ/g dry wt), and sediment in LE (7.6 pgTEQ/g dry wt). In general, PCDD/DF had a greater contribution to toxicity in mussels, while dioxin-like PCBs had a greater contribution to toxicity in sediment at both locations.

  19. 40 CFR 704.45 - Chlorinated terphenyl.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (a)(5)(ii) of this section. (ii) Second standard. A manufacturer of an existing chemical substance is... ACT REPORTING AND RECORDKEEPING REQUIREMENTS Chemical-Specific Reporting and Recordkeeping Rules § 704... degrees. (5) Small manufacturer means a manufacturer (importers are defined as manufacturers under TSCA...

  20. Separation and enrichment of six indicator polychlorinated biphenyls from real waters using a novel magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube composite absorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiabin; Gan, Ning; Pan, Muyun; Lin, Saichai; Cao, Yuting; Wu, Dazhen; Long, Nengbing

    2015-03-01

    A novel and effective magnetic multiwalled carbon nanotube composite for the separation and enrichment of polychlorinated biphenyls was developed. Fe3 O4 @SiO2 core-shell structured nanoparticles were first synthesized, then the poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) was laid on its surface to prepare the polyanionic magnetic nanoparticles. The above materials were then grafted with polycationic multiwalled carbon nanotubes, which were modified by polydiallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride through the layer-by-layer self-assembly approach. Its performance was tested by magnetic solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the determination of six kinds of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples. Under optimal conditions, the spiked recoveries of several real samples for six kinds of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB138, PCB153, PCB180) were in the range of 73.4-99.5% with relative standard deviations varying from 1.5 to 8.4%. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for six kinds of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls were between 0.018 and 0.039 ng/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to analyze polychlorinated biphenyls in real water samples. Satisfactory results were obtained using the effective magnetic absorbent.

  1. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Liu, Lidan; Li, Cheng; Zhou, Xin; Xia, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic environmental pollutants that are often found in sediments. The Yangtze and Yellow rivers in China are two of the largest rivers in Asia and are therefore important aquatic ecosystems; however, few studies have investigated the PCDD/F and PCB content in the sediments of these rivers. Accordingly, this study was conducted to generate baseline data for future environmental risk assessments. In the present study, 26 surface sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow and Yangtze rivers were analyzed for PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl) PCBs by high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yellow River were 2.1-19.8, 1.11-9.9, and 0.08-0.57 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. The ranges of PCDD/F, dl-PCB, and WHO-TEQ content in sediments from the Yangtze River were 6.1-84.9, 1.8-24.1, and 0.13-0.29 pg/g (dry weight), respectively. Total organic carbon and dl-PCB contents in the Yellow River were significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient, r = 0.64, P < 0.05). It is well known that total organic carbon plays a role in the transport and redistribution of dl-PCB. Principal component analysis indicated that PCDD/Fs may arise from pentachlorophenol, sodium pentachlorophenate, and atmospheric deposition, while dl-PCBs likely originate from burning of coal and wood for domestic heating. The dioxin levels in the river sediments examined in this study were relatively low. These findings advance our knowledge regarding eco-toxicity and provide useful information regarding contamination sources.

  2. Relationship of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran levels to stable-nitrogen isotope abundance in marine birds and mammals in coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, W.M.; Sydeman, W.J.; Hobson, K.A.; Bergqvist, P.A.

    1997-05-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in common murre (Uria aalge), Brandt`s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and pigeon guillemot (Cepphus columba) eggs, and Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) blubber collected from the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary in 1993. In addition, the samples were analyzed for stable-nitrogen isotopes ({delta}{sup 15}N). Of the PCDDs and PCDFs, the 2,3,7,8-TCDD (TCDD) and 2,3,7,8-TCDF (TCDF) congeners were the most prominent in the birds. The levels of TCDD in the eggs ranged from 0.2 to 6.6 ng/wet kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant, respectively. The TCDF ranged from 0.30 to 2.25 ng/kg in the pigeon guillemot and Brandt`s cormorant eggs, respectively. Other prominent PCDD and PCDF congeners detected in all bird species were 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD. In the Steller sea lion the most prominent congeners were 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD at 3.2 ng/kg, 2,3,7,8-TCDD at 2.9 ng/kg, OCDF at 2.2 ng/kg, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD at 1.92 ng/kg, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF at 1.3 ng/kg. Stable-nitrogen values ranged from 16.9% in the pigeon guillemot and rhinoceros auklet to 19.8% in the Steller sea lion.

  3. Spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls around a municipal solid waste incinerator, determined using polyurethane foam passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lirong; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Lidan; Li, Changliang; Wang, Yiwen

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-six ambient air samples were collected around a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) in the summer and winter using polyurethane foam passive air samplers, and analyzed to assess the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Three stack gas samples were also collected and analyzed to determine PCDD/F (971 pg m(-3) in average) and PCB (2,671 pg m(-3) in average) emissions from the MSWI and to help identify the sources of the pollutants in the ambient air. The total PCDD/F concentrations in the ambient air samples were lower in the summer (472-1,223 fg m(-3)) than the winter (561-3913 fg m(-3)). In contrast, the atmospheric total PCB concentrations were higher in the summer (716-4,902 fg m(-3)) than the winter (489-2,298 fg m(-3)). Principal component analysis showed that, besides emissions from the MSWI, the domestic burning of coal and wood also contributed to the presence of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air. The PCDD/F and PCB spatial distributions were analyzed using ordinary Kriging Interpolation and limited effect was found to be caused by emissions from the MSWI. Higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations were observed downwind of the MSWI than in the other directions, but the highest concentrations were not to be found in the direction with the greatest wind frequency which might be caused by emissions from domestic coal and wood burning. We used a systemic method including sampling and data analysis method which can provide pioneering information for characterizing risks and assessing uncertainty of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the ambient air around MSWIs in China.

  4. Factors influencing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions and control in major industrial sectors: case evidence from Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Lu, Yonglong; He, Guizhen; Mol, Arthur P J; Wang, Tieyu; Gosens, Jorrit; Ni, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Analyzing determinants that influence polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) emissions is helpful for decision-makers to find effective and efficient ways to mitigate PCDD/F emissions. The PCDD/F emissions and the contributions of the scale effect, structure effect and technology effect to emissions from eight main industrial sectors in 2006, 2008 and 2010 in Shandong Province, were calculated in this article. Total PCDD/F emissions in Shandong increased by 52.8% in 2008 (614.1g I-TEQ) and 49.7% in 2010 (601.8 g I-TEQ) based on 2006 (401.9 g I-TEQ). According to the decomposition method, the largest influencing factor on PCDD/F emission changes was the composition effect (contributed 43.4% in 2008 and 120.6% in 2010 based on 2006), which was also an emission-increasing factor. In this case, the present industrial restructuring policy should be adjusted to control the proportion of production capacities with high emission factors, such as iron ore sintering and steel making and the secondary non-ferrous metal sector. The scale effect increased the emissions in 2008 (contributed 21.9%) and decreased the emissions in 2010 (contributed -28.0%). However, as a source control measure, the excess capacity control policy indeed had a significant role in emission reduction. The main reason for the technology effect (contributed 34.7% in 2008 and 7.4% in 2010 based on 2006) having an emission-increasing role was the weakness in implementing policies for restricting industries with outdated facilities. Some specific suggestions were proposed on PCDD/F reduction for local administrators at the end.

  5. Cancer and non-cancer excess mortality resulting from mixed exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans from contaminated rice oil: "Yusho".

    PubMed

    Kashima, Saori; Yorifuji, Takashi; Tsuda, Toshihide; Eboshida, Akira

    2015-05-01

    In 1968, rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans caused a severe outbreak of food poisoning in Japan and was termed locally as "Yusho" (oil disease). In our previous study, we found that area-based standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of some diseases were elevated shortly after the incident. This previous study, however, was unable to determine whether these elevated SMRs were a result of other area-specific factors. To overcome this limitation, we obtained mortality data from the 5 years before the incident and conducted an area-based study using vital statistics records dating from 1963 to 2002. The population of Nagasaki Prefecture was set as the reference population for calculating SMRs. We also included data on cause-specific mortality attributable to cancer and expanded the population to encompass two severely exposed areas where contaminated rice oil was distributed (namely Tamanoura and Naru). We also calculated SMRs in the remainder of the Shimo-Goto region, excluding the exposed area, which was used as a comparison area. Even after considering the time trends in mortality before the incident, mortality due to diabetes mellitus and heart disease, as well as all-cause mortality, was found to be elevated shortly afterward. Additionally, mortalities due to uterine cancer in Tamanoura and leukemia were also elevated at 30-34 and 10-59 years after the event in both exposed areas, respectively. SMRs for leukemia in Tamanoura were as high as 3.0 (95% confidence interval 1.4-6.2) and 2.4 (1.2-4.8) 10-19 years later. In this period, SMRs for leukemia in the comparison area were not elevated. Further epidemiological studies are needed regarding this rice-oil, "Yusho" outbreak, especially with regard to cancer and non-cancer mortality.

  6. Evidence for dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans in wastewater collection systems in the New York metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Lisa A; Du, Songyan; Lui, Hui; Guo, Jia; Oseagulu, Nicole; Fennell, Donna E

    2012-06-19

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) are persistent organic pollutants targeted by the Stockholm Convention. Both contain aromatic chlorines and are subject to microbial dechlorination. Dechlorination of PCBs in sewers in the Delaware River basin was recently reported. In this work, two data sets on concentrations of PCBs and PCBs+PCDD/Fs in wastewater treatment plant influents and effluents were analyzed to look for evidence that these compounds undergo dechlorination in the sewers of the New York/New Jersey Harbor area. The two data sets come from the Contamination Assessment and Reduction Project (CARP) and were analyzed via Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Analysis of the data set containing only PCB concentrations suggests that PCBs are dechlorinated in the sewers of the NY/NJ Harbor via the same pathways observed in the sewers of the Delaware River basin and that advanced dechlorination of PCB mixtures is more likely to occur in combined sewers vs separate sanitary sewers. When the combined data set of PCBs+PCDD/Fs was analyzed, the factor containing PCB dechlorination products also contained high proportions of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HpCDD), a known product of the dechlorination of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and other known dechlorination products of PCDD/Fs. Despite being the most abundant PCDD/F congener in all of the samples in the database, OCDD was a minor component in the dechlorination factor. This provides the first evidence that PCDD/Fs may be dechlorinated in sewers.

  7. Assessing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in air across Latin American countries using polyurethane foam disk passive air samplers.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Harner, Tom; Fillmann, Gilberto; Ahrens, Lutz; Altamirano, Jorgelina C; Aristizábal, Beatriz; Bastos, Wanderley; Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Cortés, Johana; Fentanes, Oscar; Gusev, Alexey; Hernandez, Maricruz; Ibarra, Martín Villa; Lana, Nerina B; Lee, Sum Chi; Martínez, Ana Patricia; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Puerta, Andrea Padilla; Segovia, Federico; Siu, May; Tominaga, Maria Yumiko

    2015-03-17

    A passive air sampling network has been established to investigate polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) sites and six additional sites in the Group of Latin American and Caribbean Countries (GRULAC) region. The air sampling network covers background, agricultural, rural, and urban sites. Samples have been collected over four consecutive periods of 6 months, which started in January 2011 [period 1 (January to June 2011), period 2 (July to December 2011), period 3 (January to June 2012), and period 4 (July 2012 to January 2013)]. Results show that (i) the GAPS passive samplers (PUF disk type) and analytical methodology are adequate for measuring PCDD/F burdens in air and (ii) PCDD/F concentrations in air across the GRULAC region are widely variable by almost 2 orders of magnitude. The highest concentrations in air of Σ4-8PCDD/Fs were found at the urban site São Luis (Brazil, UR) (i.e., 2560 fg/m3) followed by the sites in São Paulo (Brazil, UR), Mendoza (Argentina, RU), and Sonora (Mexico, AG) with values of 1690, 1660, and 1610 fg/m3, respectively. Very low concentrations of PCDD/Fs in air were observed at the background site Tapanti (Costa Rica, BA), 10.8 fg/m3. This variability is attributed to differences in site characteristics and potential local/regional sources as well as meteorological influences. The measurements of PCDD/Fs in air agree well with model-predicted concentrations performed using the Global EMEP Multimedia Modeling System (GLEMOS) and emission scenario constructed on the basis of the UNEP Stockholm Convention inventory of dioxin and furan emissions.

  8. Determinants of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in house dust samples from four areas of the United States

    PubMed Central

    NC, Deziel; Nuckols; JS, Colt; AJ, De Roos; A, Pronk; C, Gourley; RK, Severson; W, Cozen; Cerhan; P, Hartge; MH, Ward

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in dust in U.S. homes are not well characterized. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of PCDD/F in house dust and residential proximity to known sources, including industrial facilities and traffic. Samples from vacuum bag dust from homes of 40 residents of Detroit, Los Angeles, Seattle, or Iowa who participated in a population-based case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma conducted in 1998–2000 were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry for 7 PCDD and 10 PCDF congeners considered toxic by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Locations of 10 types of PCDD/F-emitting facilities were obtained from the EPA; however only 4 types were located near study homes (non-hazardous waste cement kilns, coal-fired power plants, sewage sludge incinerators, and medical waste incinerators). Relationships between concentrations of each PCDD/F and proximity to industrial facilities, freight routes, and major roads were evaluated using separate multivariate regression models for each congener. The median (inter-quartile range [IQR]) toxic equivalence (TEQ) concentration of these congeners in the house dust was 20.3 pg/g (IQR=14.3, 32.7). Homes within 3 or 5 km of a cement kiln had 2 to 9-fold higher concentrations of 5 PCDD and 5 PCDF (p<0.1 in each model). Proximity to freight routes and major roads was associated with elevated concentrations of 1 PCDD and 8 PCDF. Higher concentrations of certain PCDD/F in homes near cement kilns, freight routes, and major roads suggest these outdoor sources are contributing to indoor environmental exposures. Further study of the contribution of these sources and other facility types to total PCDD/F exposure in a larger number of homes is warranted. PMID:22832089

  9. Long-term daily intake estimates of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenylethers from food in Finnish children: risk assessment implications.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Sinkko, Harri; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Virtanen, Suvi M; Hallikainen, Anja; Leino, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, Olli; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2012-01-01

    Food is contaminated by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) worldwide. Previous data show elevated intakes in children. We determined intakes of POPs in Finnish children. Because no children-specific safe limit values exist, we used tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) set for adults by international expert bodies to examine the proportion of the study population that exceed those limits. We utilised dietary monitoring data with food consumption of Finnish boys and girls aged 1-6 years, measured the contaminant concentrations in all the main food items and calculated age-specific contaminant sum and congener-specific long-term daily intake levels. Our food intake and contaminant data correspond to years 2002-2005. The long-term upper-bound dioxin intakes ranged between 0.1 and 12.8 pg WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ/kg bw/d (min and max). An immediate TDI for WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQs of 4.0 pg/kg bw/d were exceeded by 2.5%-7.5% of the children. PBDE long-term upper-bound intake was between 0.1 and 5.8 ng/kg bw/d (min and max). Congener-specific analyses indicated a typical Finnish adult exposure pattern of the children to PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs. The highest POP intakes were observed in children aged 3 years. Long-term daily PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE intakes among Finnish children varied greatly between individuals and ages. In each age group of the study population, there was a proportion of children with their WHO(PCDD/F-PCB)-TEQ intake exceeding considered safe limits set for adults. Based on the exposure profile reported herein, children should be clearly considered as a specific sub-population in food-mediated contaminant risk assessment.

  10. Temporal trends in dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus).

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Hedman, Jenny E; Nyberg, Elisabeth; Haglund, Peter; Cousins, Ian T; Wiberg, Karin; Bignert, Anders

    2013-08-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCBs) concentrations in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) have been relatively stable since the mid to late 1990s. It is unclear why concentrations in Baltic herring are not following the observed decreases in other environmental matrices. Here, changes in long-term temporal trends in Baltic herring were examined. A number of biological variables were examined alongside the temporal trends to investigate whether fish biology e.g., growth (length, weight, age), lipid content, reproductive phase or fishing date may provide an explanation for the temporal trends observed. Significant (p<0.05) decreasing trends were observed for PCDD/F toxic equivalents (TEQPCDD/F) at three of the four sites (lipid weight (lw) and wet weight (ww), Swedish west coast lw only); however, other TEQ values e.g., TEQPCDD, TEQPCDF, TEQdl-PCB, TEQPCDD/F+dl-PCB were inconsistent, decreasing at some sites but not others. In the most recent 10 years of data, fewer significant decreases were seen overall. Over the examined time period, significant decreases (Bothnian Bay, p<0.01, southern Baltic Proper, p<0.02) and increases (Swedish west coast, p<0.02) in lipid content, growth dilution or lack thereof, and significant changes in age were observed. However herring were not randomly selected which biases this result. Continual efforts to decrease PCDD/F and dl-PCB emissions and to locate/reduce hotspots are necessary, while bearing in mind that herring biology may be impeding faster decreases of these chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in placentas from the Spanish INMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Mariana F; Parera, Jordi; Arrebola, Juan P; Marina, Loreto Santa; Vrijheid, Martine; Llop, Sabrina; Abalos, Manoli; Tardon, Adonina; Castaño, Argelia; Abad, Esteban; Olea, Nicolas

    2012-12-15

    Because fetuses are considered significantly more sensitive to various environment toxicants, there is a need for continuous biomonitoring of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs (DL-PCBs) to assess their impact on this susceptible population. The aim of this study was to assess the concentration of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in placenta samples from women participating in the Spanish Environment and Childhood (INMA) birth cohort study and to evaluate whether maternal and child characteristics predict placenta concentrations of these pollutants. The presence of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs was investigated in 50 placenta samples selected at random in the recruitment period 2000-2008. Multivariable regression models were constructed. Mothers had a mean age at delivery of 30.7 years (18.0-38.0 years), pre-pregnancy BMI of 23.3 kg/m² (18.0-40.2 kg/m²), and 31% were smokers. Median total concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs were 6.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid and 2.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid, respectively. In comparison to the few previous studies in placenta, total TEQ levels were among the lowest recorded in comparable general populations. The congener distribution pattern and the frequencies and concentrations of PCDD/F and DL-PCB congeners were similar to previous reports in placenta. PCDD/F and DL-PCB exposure was related to the age of the mother and the year of the delivery. Although placental concentrations cannot be considered wholly appropriate predictors for evaluating fetal exposure to these contaminants, they can provide a good indication of both maternal and infant prenatal and postnatal exposure and can be used as a proxy for fetal exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.).

    PubMed

    Suutari, Anniina; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Kiviranta, Hannu; Verta, Matti; Korhonen, Markku; Nieminen, Mauri; Laaksonen, Sauli

    2011-02-01

    To explore the concentrations and dynamics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) the reindeer milk and tissue samples were collected from the sub-arctic northern Finland. Reindeer milk's PCB sum (1.20 ng g(-1) wet weight) and PCDD/F sum (0.70 pg g(-1) ww) in autumn were higher than in summer (PCBs 0.50 ng g(-1) ww and PCDD/Fs 0.20 pg g(-1) ww). The mean fat content in autumn milk (26%) was significantly higher than in summer (10%). Concentrations in reindeer milk were generally far below 50% of that in adult reindeer body burden. However, the bioaccumulation factors were multiple in milk/reindeer calf ratio and that aroused the question of other important exposure routes than lactation. The muscle and liver of reindeer calves had higher PCDD/F and PCB concentrations than adult animals that possibly indicate the significance of transfer of these compounds from dam to calf through lactation and placenta. However, PBDE concentrations were higher in adult reindeer, especially in liver. In addition, reindeer liver seems to have a special feature to collect highly toxic PCDD/Fs, although the PCB sum concentrations (range from 0.33 to 1.69 ng g(-1) wet weight) were clearly higher than the sums of PCDD/Fs (range from 3.78 to 39.2 pg g(-1) ww). Stillborn reindeer calves represented individuals who had got their PCDD/F, PCB and PBDE load only via the placenta. Concentrations in muscle and brown adipose tissue samples did not indicate dependency on fat content. Obviously effective placental transfer of PCBs and PBDEs from reindeer dam to foetus was seen in this study. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ON [3H]ARACHIDONIC ACID RELEASE IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are widely used as flame-retardants, have been increasing in the past 20-30 years while the presence of other structurally related persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-d...

  14. DETERMINATION OF THE VAPOR PRESSURES OF SELECT POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS AT 75–275°C

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor pressures were determined for several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at 75–275°C, extending the available literature data to more relevant temperature regions and providing the first experimental data for 2,3,7...

  15. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHERS AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ON [3H]ARACHIDONIC ACID RELEASE IN RAT CEREBELLAR GRANULE NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are widely used as flame-retardants, have been increasing in the past 20-30 years while the presence of other structurally related persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-d...

  16. Passive Sampling Provides Evidence for Neward Bay as a Source of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Furans to the New York/New Jersey, USA, Atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freely dissolved and gas phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in the water column and atmosphere at five locations within Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) from May 2008 to August 2009 with polyethylene (PE) passive ...

  17. Passive Sampling Provides Evidence for Neward Bay as a Source of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Furans to the New York/New Jersey, USA, Atmosphere

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freely dissolved and gas phase polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were measured in the water column and atmosphere at five locations within Newark Bay (New Jersey, USA) from May 2008 to August 2009 with polyethylene (PE) passive ...

  18. DETERMINATION OF THE VAPOR PRESSURES OF SELECT POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS AT 75–275°C

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor pressures were determined for several polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) at 75–275°C, extending the available literature data to more relevant temperature regions and providing the first experimental data for 2,3,7...

  19. RELATIVE POTENCY VALUES FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN, DIBENZOFURAN AND BIPHENYL CONGENERS TO INDUCE CYTOCHROME P4501A MRNA IN A ZEBRAFISH LIVER CELL LINE (ZF-L)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYPIA) mRNA by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners was measured in a zebrafish liver cell line (ZF-L). ZF-L cells were far less sensitive to PCDD, PCDF and PCB cong...

  20. Assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury levels in soil and biological samples from San Felipe, Nuevo Mercurio, Zacatecas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Costilla-Salazar, Rogelio; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Rocha-Amador, Diana; Gaspar-Ramírez, Octavio; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván Nelinho

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury in soil, and to assess exposure level to both contaminants in children living in San Felipe, Nuevo Mercurio, Zacatecas, Mexico. We found soil levels of total polychlorinated biphenyls ranging from non detectable (nd) to 190 μg/kg. Mercury soil levels ranged from 8.9 to 10215.0 mg/kg. Exposure levels of total polychlorinated biphenyls assessed in blood and urinary mercury in children living in the studied community were 1,600 ± 8,800 ng/g lipid and 4.2 ± 7.1 μg/g creatinine, respectively.

  1. Formation, occurrence and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzofurans, dioxins and related compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Buser, H R

    1985-01-01

    In several accidents (fires, explosions) involving electrical systems containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or benzenes (PCBZs), the formation of polychlorinated tricyclic aromatic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and biphenylenes (PCBPs) was observed. These findings were not surprising in light of our previous studies on the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs from the thermolysis (500-750 degrees C in presence of air) of PCBs or PCBZs. In these experiments we identified three main and a fourth minor reaction pathway leading to PCDFs from PCBs. The three main reactions involved the loss of ortho-Cl2, and the losses of ortho-HCl with and without a 2,3-chlorine shift. The fourth, minor reaction route found with some PCBs, involved the loss of ortho-H2. These reaction pathways were intramolecular cyclizations via oxidation to phenolic compounds. Thermolysis of commercial PCBs (Aroclor 1254 and 1260) yielded the same PCDF isomers as expected from the main PCB components via these four reaction pathways; the isomers formed included the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted tetra-, penta- and hexa-CDFs. Thermolysis of PCBZs involved complex condensation reactions with multiple rearrangements leading to PCDFs as well as PCDDs. Again oxidation to phenolic products was involved but the reaction routes are not yet fully elucidated. The results of samples from transformer and capacitor accident sites showed very complex PCDF mixtures with 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers as main components and originating from the PCBs in the transformer liquid. The unusual presence of PCDDs in samples from the Binghamton accident originates from PCBZs present in transformer fluid of that specific installation, thus confirming our previous thermolysis findings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3928352

  2. [Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food and cancer risk: recent advances].

    PubMed

    Roveda, Anna Maria; Veronesi, Licia; Zoni, Roberta; Colucci, Maria Eugenia; Sansebastiano, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls are synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds whose commercial production started in the thirties and that have been widely used in the electro-technical industry. Although their production was stopped over 25 years ago, the Stockholm Convention included these compounds among the list of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). In fact, humans continue to be exposed to the toxic effects of PCBs because of their resistance to chemical and biological decomposition, their capacity of bio-accumulation and their long half-life. Studies performed so far have pointed out a possible association between exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and increased risk of developing some types of cancer (breast, prostate, testicular, ovarian and uterine cancers); it has also been suggested that these compounds may act as disruptive endocrine and cause infertility as well as other hormone-regulated disorders. PCBs accumulate in organisms through the food chain, and food is therefore the main exposure source for humans: it accounts for over 90% of exposure, the highest concentrations being found in fish (such as salmon and shellfish), dairy products (especially milk and butter) and animal fat. Moreover, waste-heaps, illegal disposal of oil waste and combustion of certain waste products in incineration plants represent sources of environmental pollution. The highest levels of PCBs in the environment were found in the early 1970s; since then concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls have gradually decreased in all environmental components (water, air, earth and sediments), in fish, in other food products and lastly also in humans, thus suggesting that the associated risks have also likewise diminished.

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyls-containing electrical insulating oil contaminated soil treatment with calcium and magnesium peroxides.

    PubMed

    Goi, Anna; Viisimaa, Marika; Trapido, Marina; Munter, Rein

    2011-02-01

    Calcium and magnesium peroxides were applied for the treatment of soil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls-containing electrical insulating oil (Aroclor 1016). The removal of PCB-containing electrical insulating oil was achieved with the addition of either calcium peroxide or magnesium peroxide alone and dependent on dosages of the chemical. A 21-d treatment of 60% watered soil with the moderate addition (chemical/oil weight ratio of 0.005/1) of either calcium peroxide or magnesium peroxide resulted in nearly complete (96 ± 2%) oil removal, unsubstantial increase in soil pH and almost no changes in oxygen consumption and dehydrogenase activity, making it suitable for the soil decontamination.

  4. Laboratory data base for isomer-specific determination of polychlorinated biphenyls

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, T.R.; Campbell, R.D.; Stalling, D.L.; Little, R.L.; Petty, J.D.; Hogan, J.W.; Kaiser, E.M.

    1984-07-01

    A computer-assisted technique for quantitative determination of polychlorinated biphenyl isomers is described. PCB isomers were identified by use of a retention index system with n-alkyl trichloroacetates as retention index marker compounds. A laboratory data base system was developed to aid in editing and quantitation of data generated from capillary gas chromatographic data. Data base management was provided by computer programs written in DSM-11 (Digital Standard MUMPS) for the PDP-11 family of computers. 13 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyls in plant foliage: translocation or volatilization from contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Bacci, E.; Gaggi, C.

    1985-11-01

    Physical properties such as water solubility, vapor pressure, and Henry's law constant suggest that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) can easily reach the troposphere as vapor. The potential of plant foliar tissues to take up PCB's as vapor has probably been underrated in some of the previous works. Nevertheless recently it was reported that the level of PCB's found in the foliage is mainly due to vapor transport from the soil, rather than to translocation through the plant. This research has been planned to assess the influence of translocation on the concentration of PCB's in the foliage of different plant species.

  6. Heavy metal, polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide residues in marine organisms: risk evaluation for consumers.

    PubMed

    Marcotrigiano, G O; Storelli, M M

    2003-09-01

    This survey provides information on the levels of heavy metal, polychlorinated biphenyl and organochlorine pesticide residues in marine organisms to ascertain whether these concentrations exceeded the prescribed legal limits. In order to assess the potential human health impact, the weekly intake was estimated. Most of the organisms analysed showed higher levels of mercury than the maximum permissible limit, while cadmium and lead were below the proposed permissible limits in all samples. The estimated intake was far above the established Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake for all metals, except for total mercury.

  7. Whole-Cell Fluorescent Biosensors for Bioavailability and Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuemei; Germaine, Kieran J.; Ryan, David; Dowling, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Whole-cell microbial biosensors are one of the newest molecular tools used in environmental monitoring. Such biosensors are constructed through fusing a reporter gene such as lux, gfp or lacZ, to a responsive promoter. There have been many reports of the applications of biosensors, particularly their use in assaying pollutant toxicity and bioavailability. This paper reviews the basic concepts behind the construction of whole-cell microbial biosensors for pollutant monitoring, and describes the applications of two such biosensors for detecting the bioavailability and biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs). PMID:22205873

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in Mussel and other mollusc from Da Chen Island, East China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.G.; Xi, Z.Q.; Xu, X.B

    1995-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most persistent and toxic pollutants in environment. Determination of these contaminants in fish, shellfish and other mollusc is very important, not only because these aquatics are important food for mankind, but also because they can bioconcentrate contaminants preferentially in their adipose tissue, and serve as biomarker of the aquatic pollution. Mussels and oysters have been widely used to monitor the pollution in the coastal environment. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations and the main source of PCBs in mussels and other mollusca from the coastal areas of East China Sea. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Selective and Serial Suzuki–Miyaura Reactions of Polychlorinated Aromatics with Alkyl Pinacol Boronic Esters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Among cross-coupling reactions, the Suzuki–Miyaura transformation stands out because of its practical advantages, including the commercial availability and low toxicity of the required reagents, mild reaction conditions, and functional group compatibility. Nevertheless, few conditions can be used to cross-couple alkyl boronic acids or esters with aryl halides, especially 2-pyridyl halides. Herein, we describe two novel Suzuki–Miyaura protocols that enable selective conversion of polychlorinated aromatics, with a focus on reactions to convert 2,6-dichloropyridines to 2-chloro-6-alkylpyridines or 2-aryl-6-alkylpyridines. PMID:27537216

  10. Organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in human milk from Rome (Italy) and surroundings

    SciTech Connect

    Dommarco, R.; Muccio, A.D.; Camoni, I.; Gigli, B.

    1987-12-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk have been the subject of many studies. Surveys carried out in Italy are all eight years old with the exception of the latest work. Because of recent improvements in analytical methodology, the authors believe an up-to-date study would provide additional information. Thus, this paper presents a survey of the levels of human milk contamination, in Rome and surroundings, by organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. This survey is a part of a larger monitoring program covering also geographical areas outside of Rome.

  11. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1971-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cromartie, E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Thirty-seven bald eagles found sick or dead in 18 States during 1971-72 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's). DDE and PCB's were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; 30 carcasses contained DDD and 28 contained dieldrin. Four eagles contained possibly lethal levels of dieldrin and nine eagles had been poisoned by thallium. Autopsies revealed that illegal shooting was the most common cause of mortality. Since 1964 when data were first collected, 8 of the 17 eagles obtained from Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, and Florida possibly died from dieldrin poisoning; all four specimens from Maryland and Virginia were from the Chesapeake Bay Tidewater area.

  12. Residues of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls and autopsy data for bald eagles, 1973-74

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, R.M.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Belisle, A.A.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Swineford, D.M.

    1977-01-01

    Thirty-nine bald eagles found sick or dead in 13 States during 1969 and 1970 were analyzed for pesticide residues. Residues of DDE, dieldrin, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and mercury were detected in all bald eagle carcasses; DDD residues were detected in 38; DDT, heptachlor epoxide, and dichlorobenzophenone (DCBP) were detected less frequently. Six eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin in the brain, and one contained a lethal concentration of DDE (385 ppm) in the brain together with 235 ppm of PCB's. Autopsy revealed that 18 bald eagles were illegally shot; other causes of death were impact injuries, electrocution, emaciation, and infectious diseases.

  13. Management of the Polychlorinated Biphenyl Inventory in the Double Shell Tank (DST) System

    SciTech Connect

    LECHELT, J.A.

    2000-08-09

    This document presents the significant management features for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes in the double-shell tank (DST) system, discussed in Sections 2.0 through 4.0. Section 2.0 delineates the decision limits for acceptance of PCB wastes into and within the DST system. Section 3.0 briefly discusses the process for obtaining a baseline PCB inventory. The PCB inventory tracking system for waste transfers into and within the DST system is described in Section 4.0. The implementation of this PCB management plan is described in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 names the organizations responsible for implementation of the plans elements.

  14. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides and butlyns in southern sea otters and their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kannan, K.; Kajiwara, N.; Watanabe, M. E.; Nakata, H.; Thomas, N.J.; Stephenson, M.; Jessup, David A.; Tanabe, S.

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,pa??-DDE], p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,pa??-DDD], and p,pa??-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  15. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from their food

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, C.P.; O'Connor, D.V.; Rediske, R.R.; O'Keefe, J. P.; Pothoven, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) were fed rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in four laboratory tanks over a 133-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, 10 to 14 of the fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 40 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 15 lake whitefish remaining in each of the four tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the rainbow smelt fed to the lake whitefish. Each lake whitefish was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake whitefish during the experiment was tracked. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (??) from the rainbow smelt to the lake whitefish in each of the four tanks was calculated for each of the 40 PCB congeners. Results showed that ?? decreased exponentially as log KOW for the congeners increased from 6 to 8. Further, ?? averaged 0.70 for the tetrachloro congeners but averaged only 0.45 for the higher chlorinated congeners. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  16. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; David, Solomon R.; Rediske, Richard R.; O’Keefe, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However,γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as logKOW increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ.

  17. Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides. Preparation of model compounds, chromatography, mass spectrometry, NMR, and environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkkonen, S.; Kolehmainen, E.; Laihia, K.; Koistinen, J.; Rantio, T.

    1993-07-01

    Some polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides were prepared by chlorination of diphenyl sulfide with sulfuryl chloride and by Friedel-Crafts-type reaction from 1,2-dichlorobenzene and sulfur. Individual isomers from the reaction mixtures were isolated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Mass spectra show the degree of chlorination of different compounds, and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra verify their structures. Three trichloro isomers were shown to be 2,2{prime}, 4-, 2,4,4{prime}, and 2,4{prime},6-trichlorodiphenyl sulfides and two symmetric tetrachloro isomers bis(2,4-dichlorophenyl) and bis(3,4-dichlorophenyl) sulfides. Chlorine-induced {sup 13}C NMR substituent chemical shifts (SCS) have been calculated and compared with the experimental ones in the case of bis(2,4-dichlorophenyl) sulfide. Four stack gases from a waste incinerator and six pulp mill effluents from two bleaching plants were screened for the polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides. Trichlorodiphenyl sulfides were found from five pulp mill effluent samples and tri- and tetrachlorodiphenyl sulfides from two stack gas samples. 24 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, organochlorine pesticides, and butyltins in southern sea otters and their prey.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Watanabe, Mafumi; Nakata, Haruhiko; Thomas, Nancy J; Stephenson, Mark; Jessup, David A; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and butyltins were measured in sea otters and selected prey species (invertebrates) collected from the California (USA) coast. Polychlorinated biphenyls, DDTs (sum of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [p,p'-DDE], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [p,p'-DDD], and p,p'-DDT), and butyltins were the major contaminants found in sea otters and their prey. Lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs and DDT in sea otter livers were 60- and 240-fold greater than those found in the prey. Great biomagnification of PCBs and DDT in sea otters is suggested to result from their high per-capita intake of diet compared with those of other marine mammals. Profiles of PCB congeners in sea otters and prey species suggest a great capacity of sea otters to biotransform lower-chlorinated congeners. Sea otters seem to possess a greater ability than cetaceans to metabolize PCBs. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs in sea otters and certain prey species were at or above the theoretical threshold for toxic effects.

  19. Assessment of exposure risk of polychlorinated biphenyls to interior least terns (Sterna antillarum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanchez, B.C.; Caldwell, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Risk of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and effects were assessed for a colony of federally endangered interior least terns (Sterna antillarum) nesting on the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NM, USA). The colony feeds from an area on the Refuge (Hunter Marsh/Oxbow Complex) wherein fish with elevated concentrations of total PCBs have been documented. Concentrations of total PCBs in whole fish averaged 0.94 mg/kg with a maximum concentration of 2.77 mg/kg, wet weight. Estimated daily PCB intake rates by adult birds throughout their 180-d breeding season ranged from <0.01 mg/kg/d to 0.98 mg/kg/d, yielding hazard quotients that ranged from 0.01 to 21.68. Polychlorinated biphenyls pose a moderate risk to the colony of interior least terns that breed at the Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge, but the exposure rate is not likely to threaten their overall breeding success. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  20. Loading capacity and chromatographic behavior of a porous graphitic carbon column for polychlorinated biphenyls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, K.R.; Gale, R.W.; Feltz, K.; O'Laughlin, J.; Tillitt, D.E.; Schwartz, T.R.

    1998-01-01

    A porous graphitic carbon column (Hypercarb) was used for the fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into classes of 2-4 ortho chlorines, 1 ortho chlorine and 0 ortho chlorine congeners. A method was developed that combined the fractionation of PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in a variety of biotic environmental samples. Many of these samples have high concentrations of PCBs which cause fractionation problems as adsorption sites on the graphitic surface are occupied. The loading capacity of the column for PCBs was determined by injecting up to 1 mg of total PCBs and monitoring changes in chromatographic behavior of tetra-/di-ortho, mono-ortho and non-ortho substituted PCBs. Effective loading capacities were 1 mg for tetra-/di-ortho PCBs, but only 3–5 μg for non-ortho PCBs and about 2 μg for mono-ortho PCBs. Loading capacity of the PGC column for environmental fish and avian egg samples was determined to depend on the mono-ortho and non-ortho PCB levels found in these samples.

  1. Dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls, dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on fly ash.

    PubMed

    Stach, J; Pekárek, V; Grabic, R; Lojkásek, M; Pacáková, V

    2000-12-01

    Dechlorination of commercial mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF) on extracted and non-extracted fly ash obtained from municipal waste incinerator (MWI) was studied in closed systems under nitrogen atmosphere at temperatures of 260 degrees C and 340 degrees C. Decomposition results (given as the difference between PCB or PCDD/F molar amounts before and after the experiment (in %) due predominantly to dechlorination reactions) and detoxification data (expressed similarly but related to toxic PCB and PCDD/F congeners only and given in I-TEQ units) are reported. Detoxification of Delor 105/80T at 260 degrees C and 340 degrees C at a loading of 0.65 wt%, was 99.48% and 100%, respectively. The decomposition of Delor 103 at 340 degrees C and for the loading of 0.75 wt%, corresponded to 99.99%. The detoxification capability of PCDD/Fs on extracted and non-extracted fly ash for loading of 130 and 264 ng/0.4 g of fly ash at 340 degrees C made 96 and 98%, respectively.

  2. Identification and preliminary evaluation of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from hot dip galvanizing plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guorui; Lv, Pu; Jiang, Xiaoxu; Nie, Zhiqiang; Liu, Wenbin; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Hot dip galvanizing (HDG) processes are sources of polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Close correlations have been found between the concentration of PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) that are produced and released during industrial thermal processes. We speculated, therefore, that HDG plants are potential PCN sources. In this preliminary study, PCNs were analyzed in solid residues, ash and precipitate from three HDG plants of different sizes. The total PCN concentrations (∑2-8PCNs) in the residue samples ranged from 60.3 to 226pgg(-1). The PCN emission factors for the combined ash and precipitate residues from the HDG plants ranged from 75 to 178ngt(-1) for the dichlorinated and octachlorinated naphthalenes. The preliminary results suggested that the HDG industry might not currently be a significant source of PCN emissions. The trichloronaphthalenes were the dominant homologs followed by the dichloronaphthalenes and the tetrachloronaphthalenes. The PCN congeners CN37/33/34, CN52/60, CN66/67, and CN73 dominated the tetrachlorinated, pentachlorinated, hexachlorinated, and heptachlorinated naphthalene homologs, respectively. The PCNs emitted from the HDG plants had similar homolog distributions and congener profiles to the PCNs emitted from combustion plants and other metallurgical processes. The identification and preliminary evaluation of PCN emissions from HDG plants presented here will help in the prioritization of measures for controlling PCN emissions from industrial sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream.

    PubMed

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Conifers are often used as an air passive sampler, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the authors used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The present study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former capacitor plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010 and winter and spring 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in the collected leaves, suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990 pg m(-3) , 2850 pg m(-3) , and 931 pg m(-3) in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former industrial source. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra-CBs and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene passive samplers deployed in the water column, suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2192-2198. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans increased abnormal sperm morphology without alterations in aneuploidy: The Yucheng study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ping-Chi; Li, Ming-Chieh; Lee, Yeu-Chin; Kuo, Pao-Lin; Guo, Yueliang Leon

    2016-12-01

    In 1979, more than 2000 persons ingested rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzofurans; this event was called the "Yucheng accident." An increased percentage of oligospermia, reduced ability of sperm to penetrate oocytes, and reduced percentage of male offspring were reported in Yucheng men. This study examined whether the sperm sex ratio and chromosome aneuploidy are responsible for our observed findings in Yucheng men. In 1999-2000, Yucheng men and their neighborhood referents aged 37-50 years were recruited for physical examination, followed by semen analysis. The semen samples were analyzed for chromosomal aneuploidy through fluorescent in situ hybridization according to an established procedure in our laboratory. A total of 50 Yucheng men and 34 neighborhood referents volunteered to participate in the study. Although abnormal morphology was mildly increased, no differences were observed in sperm percentages, with normal numbers of chromosomes X, Y, and 8 in the two groups. The percentage of sperm with aneuploidy of the sex chromosomes or chromosome 8 and of that with diploidy did not vary between both groups. The normal X/Y sperm ratio was not different between the groups. However, among Yucheng men, 8% had a normal X/Y sperm ratio of >1.4, and no neighborhood referent showed such an elevated X/Y ratio. Chromosomal aneuploidy was not elevated in Yucheng men. The mechanisms underlying the reduced sperm capability of oocyte penetration and changed offspring sex ratio in Yucheng men remain undetermined.

  5. Adsorption of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans on activated carbon from hexane.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xu-Jian; Buekens, Alfons; Li, Xiao-Dong; Ni, Ming-Jiang; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2016-02-01

    Activated carbon is widely used to abate dioxins and dioxin-like compounds from flue gas. Comparing commercial samples regarding their potential to adsorb dioxins may proceed by using test columns, yet it takes many measurements to characterise the retention and breakthrough of dioxins. In this study, commercial activated carbon samples are evaluated during tests to remove trace amounts of dioxins dissolved in n-hexane. The solution was prepared from fly ash collected from a municipal solid waste incinerator. The key variables selected were the concentration of dioxins in n-hexane and the dosage of activated carbon. Both polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) showed very high removal efficiencies (94.7%-98.0% for PCDDs and 99.7%-99.8% for PCDFs). The presence of a large excess of n-hexane solvent had little effect on the removal efficiency of PCDD/Fs. The adsorbed PCDD/Fs showed a linear correlation (R(2) > 0.98) with the initial concentrations. Comparative analysis of adsorption isotherms showed that a linear Henry isotherm fitted better the experimental data (R(2) = 0.99 both for PCDDs and PCDFs) than the more usual Freundlich isotherm (R(2) = 0.88 for PCDDs and 0.77 for PCDFs). Finally, the results of fingerprint analysis indicated that dioxin fingerprint (weight proportion of different congeners) on activated carbon after adsorption did not change from that in hexane.

  6. Accumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in livers of young sheep.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Stark, Marie Luise; Spolders, Markus; Zeilmaker, Marco J; Traag, Wim A; Ten Dam, Guillaume; Schafft, Helmut A

    2015-03-01

    A major part of sheep livers contains levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) above the former but to some extent also the new maximum levels (MLs) in the EU. In order to investigate the relationship between the intake of these contaminants and their accumulation in livers, kidney fat and meat, young blackhead sheep were fed with grass pellets containing PCDD/Fs at 2.5 times the maximum level. Levels of PCDD/Fs in livers were already quite high at the start of the exposure but increased 3-fold within 56d, exceeding the new product based MLs. Levels in meat and fat also increased but did not exceed the MLs. Although less elevated in the grass, both dl- and ndl-PCB levels also increased in liver and fat. Their kinetics in the tissues was less clear, potentially caused by increased levels in the straw given to the sheep during the whole experimental period. There was a clear difference in the behavior of the various congeners, the PCDFs and especially the higher chlorinated PCDFs and PCDDs showing a higher accumulation in the liver. In the case of the PCBs, this was particularly true for PCB 126. When switched to clean grass after 56d, the levels in livers and other tissues decreased to about the levels in the control sheep within 56d. This offers a potential solution for decreasing the intake of consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollutants make rheumatic diseases worse: Facts on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exposure and rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Abella, Vanessa; Pérez, Tamara; Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Pirozzi, Claudio; Pino, Jesús; Lago, Francisca; González-Gay, Miguel Ángel; Mera, Antonio; Gómez, Rodolfo; Gualillo, Oreste

    2016-07-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants that bioaccumulate in adipose tissue, disturbing its metabolism and the balance of adipokines, related to obesity. The altering secretion pattern of adipokines from the adipose tissue and the increasing mechanical load in weight-bearing joints presented in obesity condition, are risk factors for osteoarthritis development. The most prevalent rheumatic diseases, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, are chronic conditions that target the whole joints, leading to increasing disability and health care cost. The goal of this focused review is to summarize the current knowledge on the role of PCBs in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis. A PubMed search was managed using keywords as "rheumatic diseases", "polychlorinated biphenyls", "obesity" and "endocrine disruption". The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis has been reported to be increased especially in urban areas in industrialized countries, emphasizing the importance of environment in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases. Analysis of two cohorts exposed to PCBs food contamination showed high incidence of arthritis. In addition, PCBs in serum correlated positively with the prevalence of self-reported arthritis. Few studies support the hypothesis that osteoarthritis development could be related to PCBs induction of chondrocytes apoptosis. Evidences have emerged for a relationship between PCBs and development of several types of arthritis. Further research is encouraged to determine the correlation between PCBs exposure and the development of rheumatic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Surveillance of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food commercialized in Barcelona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Fontcuberta, M; Arqués, J F; Villalbí, J R; Martínez, M; Serrahima, E; Centrich, F; Ábalos, M; Abad, E; Duran, J; Casas, C

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the potential use of seven congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs-7) as indicator compounds for the presence of dioxins and PCBs in food samples, as part of the routine surveillance programme of a public health agency. Samples of 24 foodstuffs with high fat content were collected (ten fresh fish, six dairy products, five meat and three eggs). Duplicate analyses were performed. A research laboratory tested samples for seven polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), ten dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and twelve dioxin-like PCBs, with limits of detection in the range of ng kg(-1) (ppt). The public health services official control laboratory tested samples for PCBs-7, with a limit of quantification of 5 µg kg(-1) (ppb). The research laboratory detected the presence of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in all samples; fish samples had the highest levels (0.04-10.3 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)). The public health service official control laboratory detected PCBs-7 only in five samples, which were all fish. Comparing the results in the two laboratories there seems to be an association between the detection of PCB-7 and the presence of higher levels of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs. The use of PCB-7 as an indicator compound may be a practical surveillance strategy for those foodstuffs with higher concentrations of dioxin-like congeners.

  9. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and hexachlorobenzene, semen quality and testicular cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Paoli, D; Giannandrea, F; Gallo, M; Turci, R; Cattaruzza, M S; Lombardo, F; Lenzi, A; Gandini, L

    2015-07-01

    We carried out a case-control study to investigate the possible role of occupational and environmental exposure to endocrine disruptors in the onset of testicular cancer (TC). We evaluated 125 TC patients and 103 controls. Seminal fluid examination and organochlorine analysis were performed in all subjects. Cases and controls were also interviewed using a structured questionnaire to collect demographic information, residence, andrological medical history and dietary information. We found that a higher level of reproductive tract birth defects was associated with a higher risk of TC. With regard to diet, cases reported a higher consumption of milk and dairy products than controls. Overall, there was a statistically significant increase in TC risk in cases with detectable values of total polychlorinated organic compounds against controls (14.4 vs. 1.0 %; p < 0.001). TC patients with detectable levels of organochlorines had lower mean semen parameters than those with undetectable levels, although this difference was not statistically significant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer recently included dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Group 1 of known human carcinogens. Our study confirmed and identified various risk factors for testicular cancer: cryptorchidism, consumption of milk and dairy products, parents' occupation and serum concentration of hexachlorobenzene and PCBs and, for the first time, we showed the correlation between semen quality and the serum concentration of these pollutants.

  10. The environmental behaviour of polychlorinated phenols and its relevance to cork forest ecosystems: a review.

    PubMed

    McLellan, Iain; Carvalho, Mariana; Silva Pereira, Cristina; Hursthouse, Andrew; Morrison, Calum; Tatner, Paul; Martins, Isabel; San Romão, M Vitória; Leitão, Maria

    2007-10-01

    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) has been used as a herbicide, biocide and preservative worldwide since the 1930s and as a result, extensive and prolonged contamination exists. The environmental impact increases when its many degradation products are taken into consideration. A number of chloroanisols and their related chlorophenols have been found in cork slabs collected from Portuguese oak tree forests before stopper manufacturing, and contamination by PCP and polychlorinated anisole (PCA) has been detected in Canadian forests. It is suggested that the use of polychlorinated phenols, in particular PCP, is thought to be a cause of the cork taint problem in wine, a major socio-economic impact not only for industry but on sensitive and highly biodiverse ecosystems. It also highlights particular issues relating to the regional regulation of potentially toxic chemicals and global economics world wide. To fully understand the impact of contamination sources, the mechanisms responsible for the fate and transport of PCP and its degradation products and assessment of their environmental behaviour is required. This review looks at the current state of knowledge of soil sorption, fate and bioavailability and identifies the challenges of degradation product identification and the contradictory evidence from field and laboratory observations. The need for a systematic evaluation of PCP contamination in relation to cork forest ecosystems and transfer of PCP between trophic levels is emphasised by discrepancies in bioaccumulation and toxicity. This is essential to enable long term management of not only transboundary contaminants, but also the sustainable management of socially and economically important forest ecosystems.

  11. Net trophic transfer efficiencies of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from its prey.

    PubMed

    Madenjian, Charles P; David, Solomon R; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P

    2012-12-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were fed bloater (Coregonus hoyi) in eight laboratory tanks over a 135-d experiment. At the start of the experiment, four to nine fish in each tank were sacrificed, and the concentrations of 75 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners within these fish were determined. Polychlorinated biphenyl congener concentrations were also determined in the 10 lake trout remaining in each of the eight tanks at the end of the experiment as well as in the bloater fed to the lake trout. Each lake trout was weighed at the start and the end of the experiment, and the amount of food eaten by the lake trout was recorded. Using these measurements, net trophic transfer efficiency (γ) from the bloater to the lake trout in each of the eight tanks was calculated for each of the 75 congeners. Results showed that γ did not vary significantly with the degree of chlorination of the PCB congeners, and γ averaged 0.66 across all congeners. However, γ did show a slight, but significant, decrease as log K(OW) increased from 6.0 to 8.2. Activity level of the lake trout did not have a significant effect on γ. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  12. Measurement of octanol-air partition coefficients for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated naphthalenes

    SciTech Connect

    Harner, T.; Bidleman, T.F. |

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of the octanol-air partition coefficient, K{sub OA}, are reported for 4 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 24 polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) as a function of temperature over the range (0 to 50) C. Results for PAHs are within a factor of 1.5 to 2 of values calculated as the ratio of the octanol-water and air-water partition coefficients. The enthalpies of transfer from octanol to air, {Delta}{sub O}{sup A}H, for fluorene, phananthrene and pyrene are (82.9, 75.5, and 76.3) kJ/mol, respectively. Except for fluorene, these are within the range of reported values of the enthalpy of vaporization, {Delta}{sub vap}H. There is also good agreement between {Delta}{sub O}{sup A}H and the temperature coefficient for vegetation-atmosphere partitioning (Q{sub D}). Correlations of log K{sub OA} against log vapor pressure (p{sup 0}) are compared with previous results for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Values of log K{sub OA} for PCNs show a stepwise change and increase by more than 3 orders of magnitude from the 2-Cl to 6-Cl homologue groups.

  13. Dermatological findings in capacitor manufacturing workers exposed to dielectric fluids containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Fischbein, A.; Wolff, M.S.; Bernstein, J.; Selikoff, I.J.; Thornton, J.

    1982-03-01

    Significant occupational exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may occur in the manufacturing of capacitors and transformers, in which PCBs are used as electrical insulators. Reports of adverse health effects resulting from PCB exposure have come primarily from an incident resulting from the accidental ingestion of contaminated rice oil in Japan in 1968 (''Yusho''). Dermatological findings were prominent features and included pigmentation disturbances and chloracne. To evaluate the dermatological effects of long-term occupational exposure to PCBs, a cross-section clinical survey was conducted of 326 capacitor manufacturing workers. A high prevalence (37%) of dermatological abnormalities was found, but typical PCB-associated signs, such as chloracne, were less frequent than among patients with ''Yusho,'' despite high concentrations of plasma PCB. An association between dermatological signs and plasma levels of higher homologues of PCBs was suggested, but contaminants which have been reported to be present in commercial PCB mixtures (polychlorinated dibenzofurans) should be considered an etiologic factor or co-factor in the development of ''PCB-associated'' dermatological findings.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls in eggs and chlorioallantoic membranes of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from coastal South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Wood, P.D.; O`Quinn, M.

    1997-07-01

    Assessing chemical exposure in threatened or endangered wildlife species presents unique analytical problems. Chorioallantoic membranes (CAMs) have been proposed as surrogate tissues for evaluation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure in oviparous species. Research was undertaken to determine the extent of PCB accumulation in alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) at sites along the coast of South Carolina and to evaluate the utility of CAMs as surrogate tissues for determining PCB concentrations in whole alligator eggs. Polychlorinated biphenyls were found in eggs and CAMs of alligators from both sites examined. Concentrations of PCBs were higher in CAMs (p = 0.02) and eggs (p = 0.001) from sites known to contain chlorinated hydrocarbons than from more pristine sites. Total PCBs partitioned predictably (r{sup 2} > 0.59; p < 0.02) between egg and CAM tissues indicating the utility of CAMs to serve as surrogate tissues when comparing total PCB concentrations in whole eggs. Tetrachloro through octachloro biphenyl homologues and total PCBs in CAMs from reference areas were correlated with concentrations of these homologues in eggs. At contaminated sites, total PCB concentrations in CAMs were correlated with total PCB concentrations in eggs.

  15. Hydroxylated and methylsulfonyl polychlorinated biphenyl metabolites in albatrosses from Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson-Wehler, E.; Bergman, A.; Athanasiadou, M.

    1998-08-01

    Concentrations of hydroxylated metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (OH-PCBs) and methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs (MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs) were determined in plasma and liver of albatrosses collected from the Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. The mean total concentrations of OH-PCBs in plasma of Laysan albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis) and black-footed albatrosses (Diomedea nigripes) were 11.5 and 27.1 ng/g wet weight, respectively. Total concentrations of OH-PCBs were only one- to fivefold less than those of total PCBs. 4-hydroxy-2,2{prime},3,4{prime},5,5{prime},6-heptachlorinated biphenyl and 4-hydroxy-2,2{prime},3,4{prime},5,5{prime}-hexachlorinated biphenyl were the predominant polychlorinated biphenylols, constituting 70 to 90% of the total OH-PCBs. Concentrations of MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs in liver were between 10.6 and 77 ng/g, lipid weight, approximately 250 times less than those of total PCBs. The MeSO{sub 2}-PCBs congeners retained in the liver were dominated by those having the methylsulfonyl group in the 3-position.

  16. Quercetin ameliorates polychlorinated biphenyls-induced testicular DNA damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lovato, F L; de Oliveira, C R; Adedara, I A; Barbisan, F; Moreira, K L S; Dalberto, M; da Rocha, M I U M; Marroni, N P; da Cruz, I B; Costabeber, I B

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of environmental contaminants widely reported to cause gonadal toxicity in both humans and animals. This study investigated the amelioratory role of quercetin in PCBs-induced DNA damage in male Wistar rats. Polychlorinated biphenyls were administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 2 mg kg(-1) alone or in combination with quercetin (orally) at 50 mg kg(-1) for 25 days. Quercetin modulation of PCBs-induced gonadal toxicity was evaluated using selected oxidative stress indices, comet assay, measurement of DNA concentration and histology of the testes. Administration of PCBs alone caused a significant (P < 0.05) depletion in the total thiol level in testes of treated rats. Conversely, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production were markedly elevated in testes of PCBs-treated rats compared with control. Further, PCBs exposure produced statistically significant increases in DNA tail migration, degraded double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) concentration and histological alterations of testes of the treated rats compared to control. Quercetin cotreatment significantly improved the testicular antioxidant status, decreased DNA fragmentation and restored the testicular histology, thus demonstrating the protective effect of quercetin in PCBs-treated rats.

  17. Does long term residency near industry have an impact on the body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in older women?

    PubMed

    Pless-Mulloli, T; Edwards, R; Howel, D; Wood, R; Paepke, O; Herrmann, T

    2005-12-01

    For the retrospective study of environment and health linkages biomarkers of exposure are required. Polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins and furans (PCDD/F) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been useful markers in some settings. This is the first study of PCDD/F body burden in a population based sample from the UK. The authors aimed to investigate whether long term residents close to a heavy chemical industrial complex (Teesside, UK) had a higher body burden and distinct pattern of PCDD/F and PCBs. We measured current levels of PCDD/F and PCBs in a population based sample of older women (mean 64 years, range 42-79 years). Forty women were recruited, 20 living near (zone A: 0.1-2.7 km) and 20 distant (zone C: 5-40 km) from industry during 2000-03. The authors ascertained occupational exposure to lung carcinogens, residential history, consumption of local produce, breast feeding, diet, and height and weight. The mean body burden measured on lipid basis in ng/kg for the whole sample was: WHO-TEQ (PCDD/Fs): 29.9, 2378TCDD: 4.0, PCB 118:16200, PCB156: 13100. Body burdens were similar to others reported from industrialised countries, except that mean 2378TCDD was slightly higher. Mean ages, body mass index, and lifelong dietary patterns were similar in both zones. The authors found no significant difference in mean body burden levels between zones A and C before or after adjustment for covariates. All congener patterns were consistent with an urban background pattern, and there was no significant difference between congener compositions in the two zones. The TCDD body burden increased with age with accelerated increments above age 70. Long term residency near heavy and chemical industry did not have an effect on women's body burden of PCDD/Fs and PCBs on Teesside, UK. The body burden of PCDD/F and PCBs was not a suitable biomarker for chronic, non-occupational exposure to industrial air pollution.

  18. The bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in cooked plant and animal origin foods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Starr, James; Han, Jianlong; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Dasheng; Guan, Rongfa; Xu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jingguang; Li, Weiwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Wu, Yongning

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we compared the effect of boiling and frying food preparation methods in determining the bioaccessibility of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs) in rice, cabbage, milk powder, eggs, beef, and fresh water fish. We then used these data to calculate a toxic equivalent (TEQ) for risk assessment and compared it to published values that did not account for bioaccessibility. When the foods were prepared by boiling, the mean bioaccessibility (%) in rice (PCBs: 16.5±1.0, PCDD/Fs: 4.9±0.3) and cabbage (PCBs: 4.2±0.9, PCDD/Fs: 1.9±0.7) were lower than in animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 49.0±3.3, PCDD/Fs: 7.8±0.9; egg, PCBs: 29.7±3.1, PCDD/Fs: 8.6±1.3; fish, PCBs: 26.9±2.5, PCDD/Fs: 7.9±1.3; milk powder, PCBs: 72.3±1.6, PCDD/Fs: 28.4±1.2). When fried in cooking oil, the bioaccessibilities of all analytes in all foods increased, but the increase in plant based foods (rice, PCBs: 3.4×, PCDD/Fs: 3.6×; cabbage, PCBs: 10.3×, PCDD/Fs: 7.9×) was greater than that of animal origin foods (beef, PCBs: 1.6×, PCDD/Fs: 3.4×; egg, PCBs: 2.1×, PCDD/Fs: 1.8×; fish, PCBs: 2.8, PCDD/Fs: 3.2×). Comparison of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility in rice and cabbage showed that bioaccessibility was greater in the low fat, high carbohydrate/protein content food (rice) than in the low carbohydrate/protein, low fat content food (cabbage), regardless of the method used to prepare the food. Adjusting for bioaccessibility reduced the gross estimated daily intake (EDI) of 112pgWHO-TEQ/day, by 88% and 63% respectively for foods prepared by boiling and frying. Our results indicate that: 1) The method used for cooking is an important determinant of PCBs/PCDD/Fs bioaccessibility, especially for plant origin foods, 2) there might be a joint fat, carbohydrate and protein effect that influences the bioaccessibilities of PCBs/PCDD/Fs in foods, and 3) use of bioaccessibility estimates would reduce the uncertainty in TEQ calculations

  19. Comparison of industrial emissions and carpet dust concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in a multi-center U.S. study.

    PubMed

    Deziel, Nicole C; Nuckols, John R; Jones, Rena R; Graubard, Barry I; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Pronk, Anjoeka; Gourley, Chris; Colt, Joanne S; Ward, Mary H

    2017-02-15

    Proximity to facilities emitting polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) has been associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). There is limited information about whether proximity to industrial sources leads to indoor PCDD/F contamination of homes. We measured carpet dust concentrations (pg/g) of 17 toxic PCDD/F congeners and calculated their toxic equivalence (TEQ) in 100 homes in a population-based case-control study of NHL in Detroit, Los Angeles, Seattle, and Iowa (1998-2000). We took global positioning system readings at residences and obtained coordinates and PCDD/F emissions (ng TEQ/yr) from an Environmental Protection Agency database for 6 facility types: coal-fired electricity generating plants, cement kilns burning non-hazardous waste, hazardous waste incinerators, medical waste incinerators, municipal solid waste incinerators, and sewage sludge incinerators. For each residence, we computed an inverse distance-squared weighted average emission index (AEI [pg TEQ/km(2)/yr]) for all facilities within 5km from 1983 to 2000. We also computed AEIs for each of the 6 facility types. We evaluated relationships between PCDD/F dust concentrations and the all-facility AEI or categories of facility-type AEIs using multivariable linear regression, adjusting for study center, demographics, and home characteristics. A doubling of the all-facility AEI was associated with a 4-8% increase in PCDD/F dust concentrations of 7 of 17 PCDD/F congeners and the TEQ (p-value<0.1). We also observed positive associations between PCDD/F dust concentrations and facility-type AEIs (highest vs. lowest exposure category) for municipal solid waste incinerators (9 PCDD/F, TEQ), and medical waste incinerators (7 PCDD/F, TEQ) (p<0.1). Our results from diverse geographical areas suggest that industrial PCDD/F emission sources contribute to residential PCDD/F dust concentrations. Our emissions index could be improved by incorporating local

  20. The use of the DR CALUX bioassay and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls for screening of elevated levels of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in eel.

    PubMed

    Hoogenboom, Ron; Bovee, Toine; Traag, Win; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald; Baumann, Bert; Portier, Liza; van de Weg, Guido; de Vries, Jaap

    2006-10-01

    The DR CALUX bioassay is a very suitable screening method for dioxins and dioxin-like-PCBs in feed and food. This was, e. g. demonstrated in a survey in the Netherlands to control the dioxin levels in eel. The DR CALUX assay, but also indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were evaluated as a screening method. Based on the limit for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) [at that time 8 pg toxic equivalents (TEQ)/g eel], and the relation between PCDD/F and dioxin-like-PCB, a decision limit of 30 pg TEQ/g eel was used for screening of 153 field samples. Suspected samples (21) and part of the higher contaminated negative samples (35) were analyzed by GC/MS for dioxins, non-ortho, mono-ortho and indicator PCB, revealing 13 samples exceeding the action limit of 30 pg TEQ/g eel. Only one sample slightly exceeded the dioxin level of 8 pg TEQ/g eel. The relatively low sensitivity for mono-ortho PCB was overcome by the use of reference samples, as shown by the correlation of 0.93 between GC/MS and CALUX determined total TEQ levels. The present data show that the DR CALUX assay can be used for screening of total TEQ levels in eel. The use for dioxins only requires a safe, and therefore relatively low, decision limit. The indicator PCB also showed a good correlation with total TEQ levels, mainly due to the large contribution of the mono-ortho PCB at higher concentrations. The relation with dioxins was very poor and as such indicator PCB seem less suitable than the DR CALUX assay for screening for dioxins only. The present study clearly shows that part of the wild eel samples contains high total TEQ levels and will exceed the future European Union limit of 12 pg TEQ/g eel for dioxins and dioxin-like PCB. Especially at high TEQ levels, dioxin-like PCB contribute most to the total TEQ. In practice, wild eel presents only a minor part of the eel consumed.

  1. Discrimination of aerial deposition sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and polychlorinated dibenzofuran downwind from a pulp mill near Ketchikan, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Peek, Daniel C; Butcher, Matthew K; Shields, Walter J; Yost, Lisa J; Maloy, John A

    2002-04-15

    Drinking water is supplied by individual roof-catchment systems for homes and businesses near a dissolving sulfite pulp mill (now closed) located just north of Ketchikan in southeast Alaska. This study was conducted to determine if polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) found in the sediments of the roof-catchment cisterns resulted from historical deposition of stack emissions from the pulp mill's multi-fuel power boilers. Fly ash from the power boilers had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 3.08 x 10(5)-3.10 x 10(6) ng/kg, which resulted from combustion of bleach plant wastewater sludge and saltwater-soaked wood waste. Cistern sediments had maximum total PCDD/F concentrations of 7.71 x 10(4) ng/kg. Potential sources of PCDDs/Fs in the cistern sediments were considered to be automobile exhaust, heating oil combustion, and private trash burning as well as pulp mill boiler emissions. Discriminant analysis was used to analyze differences between profiles of tetra through octa homologue classes of PCDDs/ Fs (defined as proportional contributions to total concentration) from different source terms. Homologue profiles of potential sources from Ketchikan included in this analysis were fly ash collected from the mill's power boilers and soils collected from background areas (areas with similar PCDD/F sources as the residences [e.g., auto exhaust and burn barrels] near the mill but beyond the zone of aerial deposition of emissions from the mill). Profiles for emissions from automobile exhaust, fertilizers, oil heating, residential trash burning, and residential wood heating were also included in the source "training" data set (for the discriminant analysis) using data from published literature. The classification rules developed from the discriminant analysis were applied to the following test media sampled at Ketchikan: roof-catchment cistern sediments and soils collected from areas in the vicinity of the mill's power boilers (i

  2. Determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworm (Eisenia fetida) using a QuEChERS-based method and gas chromatography with tandem MS.

    PubMed

    He, Zeying; Wang, Lu; Peng, Yi; Luo, Ming; Wang, Wenwen; Liu, Xiaowei

    2015-11-01

    Soil and earthworms are important objects in soil pollution assessment and environmental behavior and toxicity study for polychlorinated biphenyls. Accelerated solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction are generally required for the extraction and clean-up of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworm, which are tedious and time-consuming. In this work, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) procedure combined with gas chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was developed for the determination of 20 selected polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in soil and earthworm. Different extraction times, solvents, and clean-up adsorbents were compared and optimized. The average recoveries from spiked soils ranged between 70 and 120% with satisfactory relative standard deviations for all the polychlorinated biphenyls. In earthworm, the recoveries of polychlorinated biphenyls 180, 183, and 189 were relatively low (< 70% in some spiking levels) compared to that of the other polychlorinated biphenyls. The limits of quantification were in the range of 0.01-0.05 ng/g. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of 66 agricultural soils. To our knowledge, a combined method based on QuEChERS for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in soil and earthworms has not been published before. The procedure proved to be simple, sensitive, efficient, and environmentally friendly.

  3. Laboratory study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination and mitigation in buildings; Part 1. Emissions from selected primary sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 organic compounds, known as congeners, with the chemical formula of C12H1O-xClx, where x is the number of chlorine atoms in the range of 1 to 10. Different mixtures of these congeners were sold under many brands and trade names ...

  4. Population-level ecological risk assessment of planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) around Tokyo Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mariko; Masunaga, Shigeki; Nakanishi, Junko

    2003-10-01

    Assessment of population-level ecological risk posed by planar polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons (p-PCAHs; including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxintike polychlorinated biphenyls) in sediment of Tokyo Bay (Japan) and rivers via fish ingestion to the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) population was conducted by means of a probabilistic approach. Population decline risk was used as an indicator of population-level effects and compared with other indicators of effects. The increment of egg mortality risk posed by current p-PCAH levels was estimated to be 11.7%. This risk was interpreted in terms of both the increase of the risk of population decline in a 10-year period on a recently abundant cormorant population, and the reduction in population growth rate (r). Population decline risks of 20% and below were estimated to be 16% for the reference population and 32% for the exposed population, whereas the reduction in r was estimated to be 10%. The risk expressed in terms of population viability is a more susceptible measure and a more easily understandable indicator than both egg mortality risk as an individual-level risk and the reduction in r. Translating the effects due to pollutants into the risk on population viability will make ecological risk assessment more conductive to risk management.

  5. Formation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls on Secondary Copper Production Fly Ash: Mechanistic Aspects and Correlation to Other Persistent Organic Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoxu; Liu, Guorui; Wang, Mei; Zheng, Minghui

    2015-01-01

    Emission of unintentionally formed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from industrial thermal processes is a global issue. Because the production and use of technical PCB mixtures has been banned, industrial thermal processes have become increasingly important sources of PCBs. Among these processes, secondary copper smelting is an important PCB source in China. In the present study, the potential for fly ash-mediated formation of PCBs in the secondary copper industry, and the mechanisms involved, were studied in laboratory thermochemical experiments. The total PCB concentrations were 37–70 times higher than the initial concentrations. Thermochemical reactions on the fly ash amplified the potential toxic equivalents of PCBs. The formation of PCBs over time and the effect of temperature were investigated. Based on analyses of PCB homologue profiles with different reaction conditions, a chlorination mechanism was proposed for forming PCBs in addition to a de novo synthesis mechanism. The chlorination pathway was supported by close correlations between each pair of adjacent homologue groups. Formation of PCBs and multiple persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated naphthalenes, occurred during the tests, indicating that these compounds may share similar formation mechanisms. PMID:26374495

  6. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: GAS-PHASE HYDROXYL RADICAL REACTIONS AND RELATED ATMOSPHERIC REMOVAL. (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH) are
    expected to be an important removal pathway of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans
    (PCDD/F)
    in the atmosphere. Our laboratory recently developed
    a system to measure the rate constants of ...

  7. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  8. POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS: GAS-PHASE HYDROXYL RADICAL REACTIONS AND RELATED ATMOSPHERIC REMOVAL. (R825377)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gas-phase reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH) are
    expected to be an important removal pathway of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans
    (PCDD/F)
    in the atmosphere. Our laboratory recently developed
    a system to measure the rate constants of ...

  9. AN EVALUATION OF THREE EMPIRICAL AIR-TO-LEAF MODELS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three empirical air-to-leaf models for estimating grass concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (abbreviated dioxins and furans) from air concentrations of these compounds are described and tested against two field data sets. All are empirical in th...

  10. Laboratory study of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination and mitigation in buildings; Part 1. Emissions from selected primary sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 organic compounds, known as congeners, with the chemical formula of C12H1O-xClx, where x is the number of chlorine atoms in the range of 1 to 10. Different mixtures of these congeners were sold under many brands and trade names ...

  11. USE OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF SOIL FROM A SITE CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction tehnology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The ear...

  12. USE OF PLANT AND EARTHWORM BIOASSAYS TO EVALUATE REMEDIATION OF SOIL FROM A SITE CONTAMINATED WITH POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The ...

  13. AN EVALUATION OF THREE EMPIRICAL AIR-TO-LEAF MODELS FOR POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS AND DIBENZOFURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three empirical air-to-leaf models for estimating grass concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (abbreviated dioxins and furans) from air concentrations of these compounds are described and tested against two field data sets. All are empirical in th...

  14. A SIMPLE AND FAST EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SMALL VOLUMES OF AVIAN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using 8 M urea to desorb and extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from avian serum for analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The analytes were ...

  15. Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dibenzofurans, and Biphenyls in Southern Mississippi Catfish and Estimation of Potential.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish consumption has been classified as one of the primary pathways of exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we evaluated tissue levels of the 17 laterally-substituted PCDD/Fs, 12 dioxin-like PCBs, and 97 non-...

  16. A SIMPLE AND FAST EXTRACTION METHOD FOR ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS IN SMALL VOLUMES OF AVIAN SERUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed using 8 M urea to desorb and extract organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from avian serum for analysis by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The analytes were ...

  17. EVIDENCE THAT CA2+ SIGNALING AND TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR (CREB) ACTIVITIES STIMULATED BY POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS ARE LOCALIZED TO DEVELOPING NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using a mixed culture of neonatal cortical cells, we have demonstrated that the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture Aroclor 1254 (A1254) induces complex Ca2+i signals involving multiple receptors/channels (Inglefield and Shafer, J.Pharm.Exp.Ther. 295:105) and also activates/ p...

  18. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls: Occurrence in sediments and soils. (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning field and laboratory analyses of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments and soils. Topics include site studies; chemical analyses of adsorption-desorption processes; decomposition in soils, including biodegradation; and bioaccumulation. Detection methods and instrumention, and the impact of dredging in contaminated areas are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)