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Sample records for polydimethylsiloxane microchips coated

  1. Self-assembled epoxy-modified polymer coating on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip for EOF inhibition and biopolymers separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dapeng; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2007-11-01

    A straightforward approach to generate a stable and protein-resistant poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surface using self-assembled hydrophilic polymers is demonstrated in this work. Epoxy-modified polymers were directly adsorbed from aqueous solution onto plasma oxidized PDMS based on H-bond interaction, and epoxies of polymer and silanols on oxidized PDMS surface were crosslinked by heating at 110 degrees C. The coating process could be completed within half hour. Poly(dimethylacrylamide-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (PDMA-co-GMA), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)-g-glycidyl methacrylate (PVP-g-GMA) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-glycidyl methacrylate (PVA-g-GMA) (D. P. Wu, B. X. Zhao, Z. P. Dai, J. H. Qin and B. C. Lin, Lab Chip, 2006, 6, 942) were employed as examples here. Unlike PDMA, PVP, and PVA themselves, these epoxy-modified hydrophilic polymers could be directly used as static surface coatings on oxidized PDMS, and inhibited electroosmotic flow (EOF) within pH 3-11. It was also found that hard baking of PDMS at 150 degrees C for 24 hours before surface coating could greatly retard surface hydrophobicity recovery after oxygen plasma exposure, which strengthened epoxy-modified polymer coatings on oxidized PDMS surface, and resulted in EOF less than 0.2 x 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (pH 9.0) within two weeks. On epoxy-modified polymer coated PDMS microchips, basic proteins, peptides and DNA fragments could be separated satisfactorily, in which more than 2 x 10(4) plates per 2 cm and less than 3% RSD (>8 runs) for migration time were obtained for lysozyme. PMID:17960276

  2. One-step preparation and application of mussel-inspired poly(norepinephrine)-coated polydimethylsiloxane microchip for separation of chiral compounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Liang, Ru-Ping; Wu, Lu-Lu; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, using the self-polymerization of norepinephrine (NE) and its favorable film-forming property, a simple and green preparation approach was developed to modify a PDMS channel for enantioseparation of chiral compounds. After the PDMS microchip was filled with NE solution, poly(norepinephrine) (PNE) film was gradually formed and deposited on the inner wall of microchannel as permanent coating via the oxidation of NE by the oxygen dissolved in the solution. Due to possessing plentiful catechol and amine functional groups, the PNE-coated PDMS microchip exhibited much better wettability, more stable and suppressed EOF, and less nonspecific adsorption. The water contact angle and EOF of PNE-coated PDMS substrate were measured to be 13° and 1.68 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , compared to those of 108° and 2.24 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from the untreated one, respectively. Different kinds of chiral compounds, such as amino acid enantiomer, drug enantiomer, and peptide enantiomer were efficiently separated utilizing a separation length of 37 mm coupled with in-column amperometric detection on the PNE-coated PDMS microchips. This facile mussel-inspired PNE-based microchip system exhibited strong recognition ability, high-performance, admirable reproducibility, and stability, which may have potential use in the complex biological analysis. PMID:26970233

  3. Capillary electrochromatography and preconcentration of neutral compounds on poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips.

    PubMed

    Ro, Kyung Won; Chang, Woo-Jin; Kim, Ho; Koo, Yoon-Mo; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2003-09-01

    Capillary electrochromatography (CEC) and preconcentration of neutral compounds have been realized on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips. The channels are coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers to avoid absorption of hydrophobic analytes into PDMS. The structures of a microchip include an injector and a bead chamber with integrated frits, where the particles of the stationary phase are completely retained. Dimensions of the frit structures are 25 micro mx20 micro m, and the space between the structures is 3 micro m. A neutral compound, BODIPY, that is strongly absorbed into native PDMS, is successfully and selectively retained on octadecylsilane-coated silica beads in the bead chamber with a concentration enhancement of up to 100 times and eluted with elution buffer solution containing 70% acetonitrile. Preconcentrations and CEC separations of coumarins have been conducted with the same device and achieved complete separations in less than 50 s. PMID:14518053

  4. Sensitive detection of influenza viruses with Europium nanoparticles on an epoxy silica sol-gel functionalized polycarbonate-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid microchip.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jikun; Zhao, Jiangqin; Petrochenko, Peter; Zheng, Jiwen; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-12-15

    In an effort to develop new tools for diagnosing influenza in resource-limited settings, we fabricated a polycarbonate (PC)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid microchip using a simple epoxy silica sol-gel coating/bonding method and employed it in sensitive detection of influenza virus with Europium nanoparticles (EuNPs). The incorporation of sol-gel material in device fabrication provided functionalized channel surfaces ready for covalent immobilization of primary antibodies and a strong bonding between PDMS substrates and PC supports without increasing background fluorescence. In microchip EuNP immunoassay (µENIA) of inactivated influenza viruses, replacing native PDMS microchips with hybrid microchips allowed the achievement of a 6-fold increase in signal-to-background ratio, a 12-fold and a 6-fold decreases in limit-of-detection (LOD) in influenza A and B tests respectively. Using influenza A samples with known titers, the LOD of influenza µENIA on hybrid microchips was determined to be ~10(4) TCID50 titer/mL and 10(3)-10(4) EID50 titer/mL. A comparison test indicated that the sensitivity of influenza µENIA enhanced using the hybrid microchips even surpassed that of a commercial laboratory influenza ELISA test. In addition to the sensitivity improvement, assay variation was clearly reduced when hybrid microchips instead of native PDMS microchips were used in the µENIA tests. Finally, infectious reference viruses and nasopharyngeal swab patient specimens were successfully tested using μENIA on hybrid microchip platforms, demonstrating the potential of this unique microchip nanoparticle assay in clinical diagnosis of influenza. Meanwhile, the tests showed the necessity of using nucleic acid confirmatory tests to clarify ambiguous test results obtained from prototype or developed point-of-care testing devices for influenza diagnosis.

  5. Sensitive detection of influenza viruses with Europium nanoparticles on an epoxy silica sol-gel functionalized polycarbonate-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid microchip.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jikun; Zhao, Jiangqin; Petrochenko, Peter; Zheng, Jiwen; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-12-15

    In an effort to develop new tools for diagnosing influenza in resource-limited settings, we fabricated a polycarbonate (PC)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid microchip using a simple epoxy silica sol-gel coating/bonding method and employed it in sensitive detection of influenza virus with Europium nanoparticles (EuNPs). The incorporation of sol-gel material in device fabrication provided functionalized channel surfaces ready for covalent immobilization of primary antibodies and a strong bonding between PDMS substrates and PC supports without increasing background fluorescence. In microchip EuNP immunoassay (µENIA) of inactivated influenza viruses, replacing native PDMS microchips with hybrid microchips allowed the achievement of a 6-fold increase in signal-to-background ratio, a 12-fold and a 6-fold decreases in limit-of-detection (LOD) in influenza A and B tests respectively. Using influenza A samples with known titers, the LOD of influenza µENIA on hybrid microchips was determined to be ~10(4) TCID50 titer/mL and 10(3)-10(4) EID50 titer/mL. A comparison test indicated that the sensitivity of influenza µENIA enhanced using the hybrid microchips even surpassed that of a commercial laboratory influenza ELISA test. In addition to the sensitivity improvement, assay variation was clearly reduced when hybrid microchips instead of native PDMS microchips were used in the µENIA tests. Finally, infectious reference viruses and nasopharyngeal swab patient specimens were successfully tested using μENIA on hybrid microchip platforms, demonstrating the potential of this unique microchip nanoparticle assay in clinical diagnosis of influenza. Meanwhile, the tests showed the necessity of using nucleic acid confirmatory tests to clarify ambiguous test results obtained from prototype or developed point-of-care testing devices for influenza diagnosis. PMID:27362253

  6. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip for precolumn reaction and micellar electrokinetic chromatography of biogenic amines.

    PubMed

    Ro, Kyung Won; Lim, Kwanseop; Kim, Ho; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2002-04-01

    We have demonstrated that precolumn derivatization and capillary electrophoresis separation on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip can be realized as efficient as those on glass microchips. In an optimized condition of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), using 25 mM sodium borate buffer (pH 10.0) with 25 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and 5% v/v methanol, the electroosmotic flow in an oxidized PDMS microchip is stabilized within 3% for days. By employing a fluorometric derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) in an optimally designed reaction chamber, four most important biogenic amines occurring in foods, histamine, tyramine, putrescine, and tryptamine, are quantitatively determined in less than 1 min at the levels applicable to real samples. The migration behaviors of anionic OPA-derivatized biogenic amines under the MEKC conditions are analyzed, and it has been found that under our separation conditions, the electrophoretic mobility of the SDS micelles is significantly greater than those of the anions in the aqueous phase. The channel manifold in a PDMS substrate is fabricated using replica molding against a thick photoresist, SU-8, pattern generated by photolithography. The plate with the microchannel pattern is strongly, irreversibly bonded to another PDMS plate by using a new bonding technique, which employs surface oxidation by corona discharge generated from a cheap, handy source, Tesla coil.

  7. Integrated hybrid polystyrene-polydimethylsiloxane device for monitoring cellular release with microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alicia S.; Mehl, Benjamin T.; Martin, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a polystyrene (PS)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid device was developed to enable the integration of cell culture with analysis by microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection. It is shown that this approach combines the fundamental advantages of PDMS devices (the ability to integrate pumps and valves) and PS devices (the ability to permanently embed fluidic tubing and electrodes). The embedded fused-silica capillary enables high temporal resolution measurements from off-chip cell culture dishes and the embedded electrodes provide close to real-time analysis of small molecule neurotransmitters. A novel surface treatment for improved (reversible) adhesion between PS and PDMS is described using a chlorotrimethylsilane stamping method. It is demonstrated that a Pd decoupler is efficient at handling the high current (and cathodic hydrogen production) resulting from use of high ionic strength buffers needed for cellular analysis; thus allowing an electrophoretic separation and in-channel detection. The separation of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in highly conductive biological buffers was optimized using a mixed surfactant system. This PS-PDMS hybrid device integrates multiple processes including continuous sampling from a cell culture dish, on-chip pump and valving technologies, microchip electrophoresis, and electrochemical detection to monitor neurotransmitter release from PC 12 cells. PMID:25663849

  8. Ultrasensitive Nanoelectrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry using Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microchips with Monolithically Integrated Emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-09-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is the most widely used substrate for microfluidic devices as it enables facile fabrication and has other distinctive properties. However, for applications involving highly sensitive nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) detection, the use of PDMS microdevices has been hindered by the leaching of uncross-linked oligomers and other contaminants from the substrate that yields a large background of chemical noise in the mass spectra. A more general challenge is that microfluidic devices containing integrated electrospray emitters are frequently unable to operate stably in the nanoflow regime where the best sensitivity is achieved. In this report, we extracted the contaminants from PDMS substrates using a series of solvents, eliminating the background observed when untreated PDMS microchips are used for nanoESI-MS. Optimization of the integrated emitter geometry enabled stable operation at flow rates as low as 10 nL/min. Peptide concentrations of 1 nM were readily detected, representing ~170 zmol of consumed analyte, and an extrapolated detection limit of ~40 zmol; these are the lowest mass and concentration detection limits reported to date for a microchip having an integrated electrospray emitter.

  9. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip-based immunoassay with multiple reaction zones: Toward on-chip multiplex detection platform

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhaohui; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-09-20

    In this work, a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip-based immuno-sensing platform with integrated pneumatic micro valves is described. The microchip was fabricated with multiple layer soft lithography technology. By controlling the activation status of corresponding valves, reagent flows in the microchannel network can be well manipulated so that immuno-reactions only take place at designated reaction zones (DRZs). Four DRZs are included in the prototype microchip. Since these DRZs are all isolated from each other by micro valves, cross contamination is prevented. Using the inner surface of the all-PDMS microchannel as immunoassay substrate, on-chip sandwich format solid phase immunoassay was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this immuno-sensing platform. Mouse IgG and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were used as the model analyte and the signal reporter respectively. Only 10 ul sample is needed for the assay and low detection limit of 5 ng/ml (≈33 pM) was achieved though low-cost polyclonal antibodies were used in our experiment for feasibility study only. The encouraging results from mouse IgG immunoassay proved the feasibility of our microchip design. With slight modification of the assay protocol, the same chip design can be used for multi-target detection and can provide a simple, cost-effective and integrated microchip solution for multiplex immunoassay applications.

  10. Electrophoretic separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips using a mixture of ionic and zwitterionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qian; Noblitt, Scott D; Henry, Charles S

    2012-01-01

    The use of mixtures of ionic and zwitterionic surfactants in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips is reported. The effect of surfactant concentration on electroosmotic flow (EOF) was studied for a single anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a single zwitterionic surfactant (N-tetradecylammonium-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate, TDAPS), and a mixed SDS/TDAPS surfactant system. SDS increased the EOF as reported previously while TDAPS showed an initial increase in EOF followed by a reduction at higher concentrations. When TDAPS was added to a solution containing SDS, the EOF decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. The EOF for all three surfactant systems followed expected pH trends, with increasing EOF at higher pH. The mixed surfactant system allowed tuning of the EOF across a range of pH and concentration conditions. After establishing the EOF behavior, the adsorption/desorption kinetics were measured and showed a slower adsorption/desorption rate for TDAPS than SDS. Finally, the separation and electrochemical detection of model catecholamines in buffer and reduced glutathione in red blood cell lysate using the mixed surfactant system were explored. The mixed surfactant system provided shorter analysis times and/or improved resolution when compared to the single surfactant systems. PMID:22222982

  11. Electrophoretic separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips using a mixture of ionic and zwitterionic surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Qian; Noblitt, Scott D.; Henry, Charles S.

    2012-01-01

    The use of mixtures of ionic and zwitterionic surfactants in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips is reported. The effect of surfactant concentration on EOF was studied for a single anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a single zwitterionic surfactant (N-tetradecylammonium-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate, TDAPS), and a mixed SDS/TDAPS surfactant system. SDS increased the EOF as reported previously while TDAPS showed an initial increase in EOF followed by a reduction at higher concentrations. When TDAPS was added to a solution containing SDS, the EOF decreased in a concentration dependent manner. The EOF for all three surfactant systems followed expected pH trends, with increasing EOF at higher pH. The mixed surfactant system allowed tuning of the EOF across a range of pH and concentration conditions. After establishing the EOF behavior, the adsorption/desorption kinetics were measured and showed a slower adsorption/desorption rate for TDAPS than SDS. Finally, the separation and electrochemical detection of model catecholamines in buffer and reduced glutathione (GSH) in red blood cell lysate using the mixed surfactant system were explored. The mixed surfactant system provided shorter analysis times and/or improved resolution when compared to the single surfactant systems. PMID:22222982

  12. Direct inkjet printing of micro-scale silver electrodes on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Ren, X.; Kim, J. W.; Noh, H.

    2014-11-01

    Recently, direct inkjet printing of conductive solutions has received much attention in the microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip community because of its low-cost and mask-free deposition of electrodes on various substrates. However, the investigation of micro-scale direct inkjet printing on the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate has not been completed. Here we present a direct inkjet printing technique to produce narrow (40-90 µm) silver microelectrodes on PDMS. Extensive experimental characterization studies on the pattern uniformity and electrical properties of the printed silver lines are presented. The effect of major printing parameters such as drop spacing, sintering temperature and duration, platen temperature, and nozzle temperature have been thoroughly investigated. We also investigated multiple layer printing as well as the effects of thermal expansion and mechanical bending. In order to demonstrate the utility of the inkjet-printed silver microelectrode, we fabricated both quadruple and castellated electrodes, and conducted dielectrophoretic manipulation of microbeads. The results clearly show that the printed silver electrodes can be used for electrokinetic applications in PDMS microchip devices. We believe that the direct inkjet printing of silver ink on PDMS presented here can provide a very convenient way of creating microelectrodes on PDMS devices for a variety of applications in the MEMS, microfluidics, and lab-on-a-chip communities.

  13. Electrophoretic separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips using a mixture of ionic and zwitterionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qian; Noblitt, Scott D; Henry, Charles S

    2012-01-01

    The use of mixtures of ionic and zwitterionic surfactants in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips is reported. The effect of surfactant concentration on electroosmotic flow (EOF) was studied for a single anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a single zwitterionic surfactant (N-tetradecylammonium-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate, TDAPS), and a mixed SDS/TDAPS surfactant system. SDS increased the EOF as reported previously while TDAPS showed an initial increase in EOF followed by a reduction at higher concentrations. When TDAPS was added to a solution containing SDS, the EOF decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. The EOF for all three surfactant systems followed expected pH trends, with increasing EOF at higher pH. The mixed surfactant system allowed tuning of the EOF across a range of pH and concentration conditions. After establishing the EOF behavior, the adsorption/desorption kinetics were measured and showed a slower adsorption/desorption rate for TDAPS than SDS. Finally, the separation and electrochemical detection of model catecholamines in buffer and reduced glutathione in red blood cell lysate using the mixed surfactant system were explored. The mixed surfactant system provided shorter analysis times and/or improved resolution when compared to the single surfactant systems.

  14. Comparing polyelectrolyte multilayer - coated poly(methylmethacrylate) microfluidic devices and glass microchips for electrophoretic separations

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Christa A.; Shim, Joon Sub; Ahn, Chong; Limbach, Patrick A.; Halsall, H. Brian

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing drive in microfluidics to transfer microchip systems from the more expensive glass microchips to cheaper polymer microchips. Here, we investigate using polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) as a coating system for poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) microchips to improve their functionality. The multilayer system was prepared by layer-on-layer depositon of poly (diallydimethylammonium) chloride (PDAD) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Practical aspects of coating PMMA microchips were explored. The multilayer buildup process was monitored using EOF measurements, and the stability of the PEM was investigated. The performance of the PEM-PMMA microchip was compared to those of a standard glass microchip and a PEM-glass microchip in terms of electroosmotic flow and separating two fluorescent dyes. Several key findings in the development of the multilayer coating procedure for PMMA chips are also presented. It was found that, with careful preparation, a PEM-PMMA microchip can be prepared that has properties comparable - and in some cases superior - to those of a standard glass microchip. PMID:20013912

  15. Comparing polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated PMMA microfluidic devices and glass microchips for electrophoretic separations.

    PubMed

    Currie, Christa A; Shim, Joon Sub; Lee, Se Hwan; Ahn, Chong; Limbach, Patrick A; Halsall, H Brian; Heineman, William R

    2009-12-01

    There is a continuing drive in microfluidics to transfer microchip systems from the more expensive glass microchips to cheaper polymer microchips. Here, we investigate using polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) as a coating system for PMMA microchips to improve their functionality. The multilayer system was prepared by layer-to-layer deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride and polystyrene sulfonate. Practical aspects of coating PMMA microchips were explored. The multilayer buildup process was monitored using EOF measurements, and the stability of the PEM was investigated. The performance of the PEM-PMMA microchip was compared with those of a standard glass microchip and a PEM-glass microchip in terms of EOF and separating two fluorescent dyes. Several key findings in the development of the multilayer coating procedure for PMMA chips are also presented. It was found that, with careful preparation, a PEM-PMMA microchip can be prepared that has properties comparable--and in some cases superior--to those of a standard glass microchip.

  16. Poly(methyl methacrylate) CE microchips replicated from poly(dimethylsiloxane) templates for the determination of cations.

    PubMed

    Qu, Song; Chen, Xiaohong; Chen, Di; Yang, Penyuan; Chen, Gang

    2006-12-01

    A novel method for the rapid fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic chips using poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) templates has been demonstrated. The PDMS molds were fabricated by soft lithography. The dense prepolymerized solution of methyl methacrylate containing thermal and UV initiators was allowed to polymerized between a PDMS template and a piece of a 1 mm thick commercial PMMA plate under a UV lamp. The images of microchannels on the PDMS template were precisely replicated into the synthesized PMMA substrates during the UV-initiated polymerization of the prepolymerized solution on the surface of the PMMA plate at room temperature. The polymerization could be completed within 10 min under ambient temperature. The chips were subsequently assembled by thermal bonding of the channel plate and the cover sheet. The new fabrication method obviates the need for specialized replication equipment and reduces the complexity of prototyping and manufacturing. Nearly 20 PMMA chips were replicated using a single PDMS mold. The attractive performance of the new microfluidic chips has been demonstrated by separating and detecting cations in connection with contactless conductivity detection. The fabricated PMMA microchip has also been successfully employed for the determination of potassium and sodium in environmental and biological samples.

  17. Electrophoretic separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips using mixtures of ionic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qian; Noblitt, Scott D; Henry, Charles S

    2012-09-01

    The use of surfactant mixtures to affect both EOF and separation selectivity in electrophoresis with PDMS substrates is reported, and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection is introduced for EOF measurement on PDMS microchips. First, the EOF was measured for two nonionic surfactants (Tween 20 and Triton X-100), mixed ionic/nonionic surfactant systems (SDS/Tween 20 and SDS/Triton X-100), and finally for the first time, mixed zwitterionic/nonionic surfactant systems (TDAPS/Tween 20 and TDAPS/Triton X-100). EOF for the nonionic surfactants decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. The addition of SDS or TDAPS to a nonionic surfactant increased EOF. After establishing the EOF behavior, the separation of model catecholamines was explored to show the impact on separations. Similar analyte resolution with greater peak heights was achieved with mixed surfactant systems containing Tween 20 and TDAPS relative to the single surfactant system. Finally, the detection of catecholamine release from PC12 cells by stimulation with 80 mM K(+) was performed to demonstrate the usefulness of mixed surfactant systems to provide resolution of biological compounds in complex samples.

  18. Physisorbed surface coatings for poly(dimethylsiloxane) and quartz microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Viefhues, M.; Manchanda, S.; Chao, T.-C.; Anselmetti, D.; Regtmeier, J.; Ros, A.

    2011-01-01

    Surface modifications of microfluidic devices are of essential importance for successful bioanalytical applications. Here, we investigate three different coatings for quartz and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces. We employed a triblock copolymer with trade name F108, poly (l-lysine)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-PEG), as well as the hybrid coating n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside and methyl cellulose (DDM/MC). The impact of these coatings was characterized by measuring the electroosmotic flow (EOF), contact angle, and prevention of protein adsorption. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of static coatings, i.e., the incubation with the coating agent prior to measurements, and dynamic coatings, where the coating agent was present during the measurement. We found that all coatings on PDMS as well as quartz reduced EOF, increased reproducibility of EOF, reduced protein adsorption, and improved the wettability of the surfaces. Among the coating strategies tested, the dynamic coatings with DDM/MC and F108 demonstrated maximal reduction of EOF and protein adsorption and simultaneously best long-term stability concerning EOF. For PLL-PEG, a reversal in the EOF direction was observed. Interestingly, the static surface coating strategy with F108 proved to be as effective to prevent protein adsorption as dynamic coating with this block copolymer. These findings will allow optimized parameter choices for coating strategies on PDMS and quartz microfluidic devices in which control of EOF and reduced biofouling are indispensable. PMID:21847528

  19. Formation of lipid bilayer membrane in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip integrated with a stacked polycarbonate membrane support and an on-site nanoinjector

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Wei; Ban, Changill; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new and facile approach for the formation of pore-spanning bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) within a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device. Commercially, readily available polycarbonate (PC) membranes are employed for the support of BLMs. PC sheets with 5 μm, 2 μm, and 0.4 μm pore diameters, respectively, are thermally bonded into a multilayer-stack, reducing the pore density of 0.4 μm-pore PC by a factor of 200. The BLMs on this support are considerably stable (a mean lifetime: 17 h). This multilayer-stack PC (MSPC) membrane is integrated into the PDMS chip by an epoxy bonding method developed to secure durable bonding under the use of organic solvents. The microchip has a special channel for guiding a micropipette in the proximity of the MSPC support. With this on-site injection technique, tens to hundreds of nanoliters of solutions can be directly dispensed to the support. Incorporating gramicidin ion channels into BLMs on the MSPC support has confirmed the formation of single BLMs, which is based on the observation from current signals of 20 pS conductance that is typical to single channel opening. Based on the bilayer capacitance (1.4 pF), about 15% of through pores across the MSPC membrane are estimated to be covered with BLMs. PMID:26015832

  20. Hydrogel-based protein and oligonucleotide microchips on metal-coated surfaces: enhancement of fluorescence and optimization of immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zubtsova, Zh I; Zubtsov, D A; Savvateeva, E N; Stomakhin, A A; Chechetkin, V R; Zasedatelev, A S; Rubina, A Yu

    2009-10-26

    Manufacturing of hydrogel-based microchips on metal-coated substrates significantly enhances fluorescent signals upon binding of labeled target molecules. This observation holds true for both oligonucleotide and protein microchips. When Cy5 is used as fluorophore, this enhancement is 8-10-fold in hemispherical gel elements and 4-5-fold in flattened gel pads, as compared with similar microchips manufactured on uncoated glass slides. The effect also depends on the hydrophobicity of metal-coated substrate and on the presence of a layer of liquid over the gel pads. The extent of enhancement is insensitive to the nature of formed complexes and immobilized probes and remains linear within a wide range of fluorescence intensities. Manufacturing of gel-based protein microarrays on metal-coated substrates improves their sensitivity using the same incubation time for immunoassay. Sandwich immunoassay using these microchips allows shortening the incubation time without loss of sensitivity. Unlike microchips with probes immobilized directly on a surface, for which the plasmon mechanism is considered responsible for metal-enhanced fluorescence, the enhancement effect observed using hydrogel-based microchips on metal-coated substrates might be explained within the framework of geometric optics.

  1. Surface studies on superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane-silica nanocomposite coating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Bharathibai J.; Dinesh Kumar, V.; Anandan, C.

    2012-11-01

    Superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-silica nanocomposite double layer coating was fabricated by applying a thin layer of low surface energy fluoroalkyl silane (FAS) as topcoat. The coatings exhibited WCA of 158-160° and stable oleophobic property with oil CA of 79°. The surface morphology was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and surface chemical composition was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometery (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FESEM images of the coatings showed micro-nano binary structure. The improved oleophobicity was attributed to the combined effect of low surface energy of FAS and roughness created by the random distribution of silica aggregates. This is a facile, cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces on larger area of various substrates.

  2. A 3D porous polymer monolith-based platform integrated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips for immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Kang, Qin-Shu; Shen, Xiao-Fan; Hu, Na-Na; Hu, Meng-Jia; Liao, Hui; Wang, Han-Zhong; He, Zhi-Ke; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2013-05-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the immunocapture and on-line fluorescence immunoassay of protein and virus based on porous polymer monoliths (PPM) in microfluidic devices. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(GMA-co-EGDMA)] monoliths were successfully synthesized in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels by in situ UV-initiated free radical polymerization. After surface modification, PPM provides a high-surface area and specific affinity 3D substrate for immunoassays. Combining with well controlled microfluidic devices, the direct immunoassay of IgG and sandwich immunoassay of inactivated H1N1 influenza virus using 5 μL sample has been accomplished, with detection limits of 4 ng mL(-1) and less than 10 pg mL(-1), respectively. The enhanced detection sensitivity is due to both high surface area of PPM and flow-through design. The detection time was obviously decreased mainly due to the shortened diffusion distance and improved convective mass transfer inside the monolith, which accelerates the reaction kinetics between antigen and antibody. This work provides a novel microfluidic immunoassay platform with high efficiency thereby enabling fast and sensitive immunoassay.

  3. Accurate measurement of the sticking time and sticking probability of Rb atoms on a polydimethylsiloxane coating

    SciTech Connect

    Atutov, S. N. Plekhanov, A. I.

    2015-01-15

    We present the results of a systematic study of Knudsen’s flow of Rb atoms in cylindrical capillary cells coated with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) compound. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the characterization of the coating in terms of the sticking probability and sticking time of Rb on the two types of coating of high and medium viscosities. We report the measurement of the sticking probability of a Rb atom to the coating equal to 4.3 × 10{sup −5}, which corresponds to the number of bounces 2.3 × 10{sup 4} at room temperature. These parameters are the same for the two kinds of PDMS used. We find that at room temperature, the respective sticking times for high-viscosity and medium-viscosity PDMS are 22 ± 3 μs and 49 ± 6 μs. These sticking times are about million times larger than the sticking time derived from the surface Rb atom adsorption energy and temperature of the coating. A tentative explanation of this surprising result is proposed based on the bulk diffusion of the atoms that collide with the surface and penetrate inside the coating. The results can be important in many resonance cell experiments, such as the efficient magnetooptical trapping of rare elements or radioactive isotopes and in experiments on the light-induced drift effect.

  4. Fabrication of robust hydrogel coatings on polydimethylsiloxane substrates using micropillar anchor structures with chemical surface modification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbin; Bian, Chao; Jackson, John K; Khademolhosseini, Farzad; Burt, Helen M; Chiao, Mu

    2014-06-25

    A durable hydrophilic and protein-resistant surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based devices is desirable in many biomedical applications such as implantable and microfluidic devices. This paper describes a stable antifouling hydrogel coating on PDMS surfaces. The coating method combines chemical modification and surface microstructure fabrication of PDMS substrates. Three-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylates containing C═C groups were used to modify PDMS surfaces with micropillar array structures fabricated by a replica molding method. The micropillar structures increase the surface area of PDMS surfaces, which facilitates secure bonding with a hydrogel coating compared to flat PMDS surfaces. The adhesion properties of the hydrogel coating on PDMS substrates were characterized using bending, stretching and water immersion tests. Long-term hydrophilic stability (maintaining a contact angle of 55° for a month) and a low protein adsorption property (35 ng/cm(2) of adsorbed BSA-FITC) of the hydrogel coated PDMS were demonstrated. This coating method is suitable for PDMS modification with most crosslinkable polymers containing C═C groups, which can be useful for improving the anti-biofouling performance of PDMS-based biomedical microdevices.

  5. Neutral polymers as coatings for high resolution electrophoretic separation of Aβ peptides on glass microchips.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Kiarach; Verpillot, Romain; Chiari, Marcella; Pallandre, Antoine; Taverna, Myriam

    2014-12-21

    This study reports a comparison of the performances of two neutral polymers, poly ethylene-oxide (PEO) and poly(dimethylacrylamide-co-allyl glycidyl ether) (EpDMA), in glass microchips to achieve zone electrophoresis separation of several truncated forms of beta amyloid (Aβ) peptides, sharing very similar structures. The peptides were derivatized by FluoProbes 488 NHS to allow their fluorescence detection. Two protocols based either on PEO or EpDMA led to good pH stabilities in addition to a significant reduction of the electroosmotic flow. These two polymer coatings allowed repeatable analyses and high resolution for the simultaneous analysis of three Aβ peptides, Aβ 1-38, Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42, considered as potential biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. A recovery study showed that EpDMA was superior in reducing the adsorption of the Aβ peptides on the coated inner wall. Finally, the separation method relying on the EpDMA coated microchips was validated as linear using a calibration curve and the LOD was estimated to be close to 200 nM. Despite very short migration distances, different N-terminal or C-terminal truncated Aβ peptides, corresponding to promising biomarker combinations for the future diagnostic, were fully resolved. The method was successfully applied to detect these peptides in spiked cerebrospinal fluid and has provided a first achievement towards the development of a microsystem that would integrate preconcentration and separation steps.

  6. Niobium oxide-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid composite coatings for tuning primary fibroblast functions.

    PubMed

    Young, Matthew D; Tran, Nhiem; Tran, Phong A; Jarrell, John D; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Chistopher T

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates the potential of niobium oxide-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites for tuning cellular response of fibroblasts, a key cell type of soft tissue/implant interfaces. In this study, various hybrid coatings of niobium oxide and PDMS with different niobium oxide concentrations were synthesized and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and contact angle goniometry. The coatings were then applied to 96-well plates, on which primary fibroblasts were seeded. Fibroblast viability, proliferation, and morphology were assessed after 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation using WST-1 and calcein AM assays along with fluorescent microscopy. The results showed that the prepared coatings had distinct surface features with submicron spherical composites covered in a polymeric layer. The water contact angle measurement demonstrated that the hybrid surfaces were much more hydrophobic than the original pure niobium oxide and PDMS. The combination of surface roughness and chemistry resulted in a biphasic cellular response with maximum fibroblast density on substrate with 40 wt % of niobium oxide. The results of the current study indicate that by adjusting the concentration of niobium oxide in the coating, a desirable cell response can be achieved to improve tissue/implant interfaces.

  7. Non-silicon substrate bonding mediated by poly(dimethylsiloxane) interfacial coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hainan; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce a simple and robust strategy for bonding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with various thermoplastic substrates to fabricate a thermoplastic-based closed microfluidic device and examine the feasibility of using the proposed method for realizing plastic-plastic bonding. The proposed bonding strategy was realized by first coating amine functionality on an oxidized thermoplastic surface. Next, the amine-functionalized surface was reacted with a monolayer of low-molecular-weight PDMS, terminated with epoxy functionality, by forming a robust amine-epoxy bond. Both the PDMS-coated thermoplastic and PDMS were then oxidized and permanently assembled at 25 °C under a pressure of 0.1 MPa for 15 min, resulting in PDMS-like surfaces on all four inner walls of the microchannel. Surface characterizations were conducted, including water contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and fluorescence measurement, to confirm the successful coating of the thin PDMS layer on the plastic surface, and the bond strength was analyzed by conducting a peel test, burst test, and leakage test. Using the proposed method, we could successfully bond various thermoplastics such as poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with PDMS without the collapse or deformation of the microchannel, and the proposed method was successfully extended to the bonding of two thermoplastics, PMMA, and PC.

  8. Disposable Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-Coated Fused Silica Optical Fibers for Sampling Pheromones of Moths

    PubMed Central

    Lievers, Rik; Groot, Astrid T.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the sex pheromone composition in female moths has been analyzed by different methods, ranging from volatile collections to gland extractions, which all have some disadvantage: volatile collections can generally only be conducted on (small) groups of females to detect the minor pheromone compounds, whereas gland extractions are destructive. Direct-contact SPME overcomes some of these disadvantages, but is expensive, the SPME fiber coating can be damaged due to repeated usage, and samples need to be analyzed relatively quickly after sampling. In this study, we assessed the suitability of cheap and disposable fused silica optical fibers coated with 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by sampling the pheromone of two noctuid moths, Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa. By rubbing the disposable PDMS fibers over the pheromone glands of females that had called for at least 15 minutes and subsequently extracting the PDMS fibers in hexane, we collected all known pheromone compounds, and we found a strong positive correlation for most pheromone compounds between the disposable PDMS fiber rubs and the corresponding gland extracts of the same females. When comparing this method to volatile collections and the corresponding gland extracts, we generally found comparable percentages between the three techniques, with some differences that likely stem from the chemical properties of the individual pheromone compounds. Hexane extraction of cheap, disposable, PDMS coated fused silica optical fibers allows for sampling large quantities of individual females in a short time, eliminates the need for immediate sample analysis, and enables to use the same sample for multiple chemical analyses. PMID:27533064

  9. Disposable Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-Coated Fused Silica Optical Fibers for Sampling Pheromones of Moths.

    PubMed

    Lievers, Rik; Groot, Astrid T

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the sex pheromone composition in female moths has been analyzed by different methods, ranging from volatile collections to gland extractions, which all have some disadvantage: volatile collections can generally only be conducted on (small) groups of females to detect the minor pheromone compounds, whereas gland extractions are destructive. Direct-contact SPME overcomes some of these disadvantages, but is expensive, the SPME fiber coating can be damaged due to repeated usage, and samples need to be analyzed relatively quickly after sampling. In this study, we assessed the suitability of cheap and disposable fused silica optical fibers coated with 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by sampling the pheromone of two noctuid moths, Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa. By rubbing the disposable PDMS fibers over the pheromone glands of females that had called for at least 15 minutes and subsequently extracting the PDMS fibers in hexane, we collected all known pheromone compounds, and we found a strong positive correlation for most pheromone compounds between the disposable PDMS fiber rubs and the corresponding gland extracts of the same females. When comparing this method to volatile collections and the corresponding gland extracts, we generally found comparable percentages between the three techniques, with some differences that likely stem from the chemical properties of the individual pheromone compounds. Hexane extraction of cheap, disposable, PDMS coated fused silica optical fibers allows for sampling large quantities of individual females in a short time, eliminates the need for immediate sample analysis, and enables to use the same sample for multiple chemical analyses. PMID:27533064

  10. Superhydro-oleophobic bio-inspired polydimethylsiloxane micropillared surface via FDTS coating/blending approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zihe; Shahsavan, Hamed; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fut K.; Zhao, Boxin

    2015-01-01

    In this work we render superhydro-oleophobic properties to the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer through bio-inspired micropillar surface and chemical modification with a fluorosilane polymer, trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane (FDTS). Two different chemical modification approaches were applied on both flat and micropillar PDMS: (1) vapor deposition of FDTS on cured PDMS surface, and (2) blending FDTS with the liquid PDMS precursor before curing. Comparative studies of the water and oil contact angles on the neat and FDTS-modified PDMS (both flat and micropillar) indicated that superhydro-oleophobicity was delivered by a combination of FDTS chemistry and micropillar geometry. FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar displayed better oleophobicity with an oil contact angle of ∼141° than FDTS-coated PDMS micropillar (∼115°). In contrast to the smooth surface of FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar, rough surface with some structure defects were found on the FDTS-coated micropillar surface caused by the vapor deposition process; the surface defects might be responsible for the observed low oleophobicity of FDTS-coated PDMS micropillar. Superhydrophobicity of FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar in terms of water contact angles was found to be independent of the quantity of FDTS. However, the oleophobicity of FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar was found to be dependent of the quantity of FDTS; with the increased weight concentration of FDTS in PDMS, the oils contact angle first increased and then leveled out at a finite concentration. FTIR and XPS were applied to analyze surface chemistry information suggesting the blended FDTS segregated from bulk PDMS and enriched at the surface to reduce surface tension so as to make surface super-oleophobic.

  11. ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane composite solid phase micro-extraction fiber coating: fabrication and extraction capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Qingtang; Zhang, Zhuomin; Chen, Guonan

    2012-01-21

    ZnO nanorod array coating is a novel kind of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating which shows good extraction capability due to the nanostructure. To prepare the composite coating is a good way to improve the extraction capability. In this paper, the ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite SPME fiber coating has been prepared and its extraction capability for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been studied by headspace sampling the typical volatile mixed standard solution of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX). Improved detection limit and good linear ranges have been achieved for this composite SPME fiber coating. Also, it is found that the composite SPME fiber coating shows good extraction selectivity to the VOCs with alkane radicals.

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of ultrananocrystalline diamond for coating of implantable retinal microchips.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xingcheng; Wang, Jian; Liu, Chao; Carlisle, John A; Mech, Brian; Greenberg, Robert; Guven, Dilek; Freda, Ricardo; Humayun, Mark S; Weiland, James; Auciello, Orlando

    2006-05-01

    In this work, ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films were evaluated for use as hermetic and bioinert coatings for a retinal microchip. These films were deposited on highly conductive Si substrates at different temperatures (from 400 to 800 degrees C), using microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition with argon-rich Ar/CH4 gas mixtures and different relative amounts of hydrogen (0-20%). Scanning electron microscopy studies showed that all the films are dense and continuous. Results of cyclic voltammetry test revealed that when there was <2% of hydrogen in the plasma, the film obtained renders the surface electrochemically inactive, with very low leakage currents ( approximately 4 x 10(-7) A/cm2 at +/-5 V). In addition, in vivo tests of the UNCD-coated Si samples were performed by implanting them in the eyes of rabbits for 4-6 months within the eye physiological environment. According to all these results, it was concluded that UNCD is a promising candidate for use as the encapsulating coatings for implantable retinal microelectronic devices.

  13. Hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating of mesoporous silica and its use as a preconcentrating agent of gas analytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Ji; Cho, Youn Kyoung; Kim, Dae Han; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Young Dok

    2014-09-01

    Mesoporous silica with mean pore size of ∼14 nm was coated by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a thermal deposition method. We showed that the inner walls of pores larger than ∼8 nm can be coated by thin layers of PDMS, and the surfaces consisting of PDMS-coated silica were superhydrophobic, with water contact angles close to 170°. We used the PDMS-coated silica as adsorbents of various gas-phase chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. PDMS-coated silica allowed molecular desorption of various CWA simulants even after exposure under highly humid conditions and, therefore, is applicable as an agent for the preconcentration of gas-phase analytes to enhance the sensitivities of various sensors. PMID:25102134

  14. High-Efficiency Capture of Individual and Cluster of Circulating Tumor Cells by a Microchip Embedded with Three-Dimensional Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shi-Bo; Xie, Min; Xu, Jia-Quan; Wang, Jing; Lv, Song-Wei; Guo, Shan; Shu, Ying; Wang, Ming; Dong, Wei-Guo; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Effective isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has great significance for cancer research but is highly challenged. Here, we developed a microchip embedded with a three-dimensional (3D) PDMS scaffold by a quadratic-sacrificing template method for high-efficiency capture of CTCs. The microchip was gifted with a 3D interconnected macroporous structure, strong toughness, and excellent flexibility and transparency, enabling fast isolation and convenient observation of CTCs. Especially, 3D scaffold chip perfectly integrates the two main strategies currently used for enhancement of cell capture efficiency. Spatially distributed 3D scaffold compels cells undergoing chaotic or vortex migration in the channel, and the spatially distributed nanorough skeleton offers ample binding sites, which synergistically and significantly improve CTCs capture efficiency. Our results showed that 1-118 CTCs/mL were identified from 14 cancer patients' blood and 5 out of these cancer patients showed 1-14 CTC clusters/mL. This work demonstrates for the first time the development of microchip with transparent interconnected 3D scaffold for isolation of CTCs and CTC clusters, which may promote in-depth analysis of CTCs. PMID:27291464

  15. Air-stable supported membranes for single-cell cytometry on PDMS microchips.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K Scott; Kang, Kyung Mo; Licata, Louise; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2010-04-01

    Protein-reinforced supported bilayer membranes (rSBMs) composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC), biotin-PE and Neutravidin were used to coat hybrid microchips composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass. Since the coatings required a freshly oxidized, hydrophilic substrate, a novel method to rapidly connect reservoirs using plasma oxidation was first developed and found to support up to 5.2 N cm(-2) (1.5 N) pull-off force. rSBMs were then assembled in the oxidized hydrophilic channels. The electroosmotic mobility (mu(eo)) of rSBM-coated channels was measured over a 3 h time to evaluate the stability of the coatings for microchip electrophoresis. rSBM-coated microchips with a simple cross-design had excellent properties for microchip separations, yielding efficiencies of up to 700,000 plates m(-1) for fluorescent dyes and peptides. The separation performance of rSBM and PC-coated channels was evaluated after repeatedly drying and rehydrating the channels. The separation efficiency of fluorescein on PC-coated devices decreased by 40% after one dehydration cycle and nearly 75% after 3 cycles. In contrast for rSBM-coated devices there was no significant change in the fluorescein efficiency until the third cycle (10% decreased efficiency). rSBM-coated channels were also markedly more stable when placed in a dehydrated state during long-term storage compared to PC-coated channels, and showed reduced chip failure and no reduction in performance for up to one month of dehydrated storage. Finally, rSBM-coated devices were used to perform single-cell cytometry. Microchips that had been dehydrated, stored two weeks, and rehydrated prior to use demonstrated similar performance to newly coated devices for the separation of fluorescein and carboxyfluorescein from single cells. Thus rSBM-coated devices were rugged withstanding electric fields, prolonged storage under dehydrated conditions, and biofouling by cellular constituents while maintaining excellent separation

  16. Stabilization of two-phase octanol/water flows inside poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchannels using polymer coatings.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, H J; Jellema, L C; Holwerda, M; Verpoorte, E

    2006-08-01

    In this paper we present our first results on the realization of stable water/octanol, two-phase flows inside poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchannels. Native PDMS microchannels were coated with high molecular weight polymers to change the surface properties of the microchannels and thus stabilize the laminar flow profile. The polymers poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene glycol), and poly(vinyl alcohol) were assessed for their quality as stabilization coatings after deposition from flowing and stationary solutions. Additionally, the influence of coating the microchannels homogeneously with a single kind of polymer or heterogeneously with two different polymers was investigated. From the experimental observations, it can be concluded that homogeneous polymer coatings with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) led to the effective stabilization of laminar water/octanol flows. Furthermore, heterogeneous coatings led to two-phase flows which had a better-defined and more stable interface over long distances (i.e., 40-mm-long microchannels). Finally, the partitioning of fuchsin dye in the coated microchannels was demonstrated, establishing the feasibility of the use of the polymer-coated PDMS microchannels for determination of logP values in laminar octanol/water flows. PMID:16773299

  17. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) thin films as biocompatible coatings for microfluidic devices : cell culture and flow studies with glial cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Sophie Louise; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Gourley, Paul Lee; McDonald, Anthony Eugene

    2004-06-01

    Oxygen plasma treatment of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) thin films produced a hydrophilic surface that was biocompatible and resistant to biofouling in microfluidic studies. Thin film coatings of PDMS were previously developed to provide protection for semiconductor-based microoptical devices from rapid degradation by biofluids. However, the hydrophobic surface of native PDMS induced rapid clogging of microfluidic channels with glial cells. To evaluate the various issues of surface hydrophobicity and chemistry on material biocompatibility, we tested both native and oxidized PDMS (ox-PDMS) coatings as well as bare silicon and hydrophobic alkane and hydrophilic oligoethylene glycol silane monolayer coated under both cell culture and microfluidic studies. For the culture studies, the observed trend was that the hydrophilic surfaces supported cell adhesion and growth, whereas the hydrophobic ones were inhibitive. However, for the fluidic studies, a glass-silicon microfluidic device coated with the hydrophilic ox-PDMS had an unperturbed flow rate over 14 min of operation, whereas the uncoated device suffered a loss in rate of 12%, and the native PDMS coating showed a loss of nearly 40%. Possible protein modification of the surfaces from the culture medium also were examined with adsorbed films of albumin, collagen, and fibrinogen to evaluate their effect on cell adhesion.

  18. Bottom-up fabrication of paper-based microchips by blade coating of cellulose microfibers on a patterned surface.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bingbing; Liu, Hong; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-12-23

    We report a method for the bottom-up fabrication of paper-based capillary microchips by the blade coating of cellulose microfibers on a patterned surface. The fabrication process is similar to the paper-making process in which an aqueous suspension of cellulose microfibers is used as the starting material and is blade-coated onto a polypropylene substrate patterned using an inkjet printer. After water evaporation, the cellulose microfibers form a porous, hydrophilic, paperlike pattern that wicks aqueous solution by capillary action. This method enables simple, fast, inexpensive fabrication of paper-based capillary channels with both width and height down to about 10 μm. When this method is used, the capillary microfluidic chip for the colorimetric detection of glucose and total protein is fabricated, and the assay requires only 0.30 μL of sample, which is 240 times smaller than for paper devices fabricated using photolithography.

  19. Stretchable Array of Highly Sensitive Pressure Sensors Consisting of Polyaniline Nanofibers and Au-Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Micropillars.

    PubMed

    Park, Heun; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; Hong, Soo Yeong; Jin, Sangwoo; Lee, Seung-Jung; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2015-10-27

    We report on the facile fabrication of a stretchable array of highly sensitive pressure sensors. The proposed pressure sensor consists of the top layer of Au-deposited polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars and the bottom layer of conductive polyaniline nanofibers on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The sensors are operated by the changes in contact resistance between Au-coated micropillars and polyaniline according to the varying pressure. The fabricated pressure sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 2.0 kPa(-1) in the pressure range below 0.22 kPa, a low detection limit of 15 Pa, a fast response time of 50 ms, and high stability over 10000 cycles of pressure loading/unloading with a low operating voltage of 1.0 V. The sensor is also capable of noninvasively detecting human-pulse waveforms from carotid and radial artery. A 5 × 5 array of the pressure sensors on the deformable substrate, which consists of PDMS islands for sensors and the mixed thin film of PDMS and Ecoflex with embedded liquid metal interconnections, shows stable sensing of pressure under biaxial stretching by 15%. The strain distribution obtained by the finite element method confirms that the maximum strain applied to the pressure sensor in the strain-suppressed region is less than 0.04% under a 15% biaxial strain of the unit module. This work demonstrates the potential application of our proposed stretchable pressure sensor array for wearable and artificial electronic skin devices. PMID:26381467

  20. Stretchable Array of Highly Sensitive Pressure Sensors Consisting of Polyaniline Nanofibers and Au-Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Micropillars.

    PubMed

    Park, Heun; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; Hong, Soo Yeong; Jin, Sangwoo; Lee, Seung-Jung; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2015-10-27

    We report on the facile fabrication of a stretchable array of highly sensitive pressure sensors. The proposed pressure sensor consists of the top layer of Au-deposited polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars and the bottom layer of conductive polyaniline nanofibers on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The sensors are operated by the changes in contact resistance between Au-coated micropillars and polyaniline according to the varying pressure. The fabricated pressure sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 2.0 kPa(-1) in the pressure range below 0.22 kPa, a low detection limit of 15 Pa, a fast response time of 50 ms, and high stability over 10000 cycles of pressure loading/unloading with a low operating voltage of 1.0 V. The sensor is also capable of noninvasively detecting human-pulse waveforms from carotid and radial artery. A 5 × 5 array of the pressure sensors on the deformable substrate, which consists of PDMS islands for sensors and the mixed thin film of PDMS and Ecoflex with embedded liquid metal interconnections, shows stable sensing of pressure under biaxial stretching by 15%. The strain distribution obtained by the finite element method confirms that the maximum strain applied to the pressure sensor in the strain-suppressed region is less than 0.04% under a 15% biaxial strain of the unit module. This work demonstrates the potential application of our proposed stretchable pressure sensor array for wearable and artificial electronic skin devices.

  1. Simple and Rapid Immobilization of Coating Polymers on Poly(dimethyl siloxane)-glass Hybrid Microchips by a Vacuum-drying Method.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Nakagawara, Syo; Nukatsuka, Isoshi; Hori, Yusuke; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Otsuka, Koji

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid vacuum-drying modification method was applied to several neutral and charged polymers to obtain coating layers for controlling electroosmotic flow (EOF) and suppressing sample adsorption on poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)-glass hybrid microchips. In the vacuum-dried poly(vinylpyrrolidone) coating, the electroosmotic mobility (μeo) was suppressed from +2.1 to +0.88 × 10(-4) cm(2)/V·s, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of μeo was improved from 10.2 to 2.5% relative to the bare microchannel. Among several neutral polymers, poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) and poly(dimethylacrylamide) coatings gave more suppressed and repeatable EOF with RSDs of less than 2.3%. The vacuum-drying method was also applicable to polyanions and polycations to provide accelerated and inversed EOF, respectively, with acceptable RSDs of less than 4.9%. In the microchip electrophoresis (MCE) analysis of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the vacuum-dried and thermally-treated PVA coating channel, an almost symmetric peak of BSA was obtained, while in the native microchannel a significantly skewed peak was observed. The results demonstrated that the vacuum-dried polymer coatings were effective to control the EOF, and reduced the surface adsorption of proteins in MCE. PMID:26561262

  2. Simple and Rapid Immobilization of Coating Polymers on Poly(dimethyl siloxane)-glass Hybrid Microchips by a Vacuum-drying Method.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Nakagawara, Syo; Nukatsuka, Isoshi; Hori, Yusuke; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Otsuka, Koji

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid vacuum-drying modification method was applied to several neutral and charged polymers to obtain coating layers for controlling electroosmotic flow (EOF) and suppressing sample adsorption on poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)-glass hybrid microchips. In the vacuum-dried poly(vinylpyrrolidone) coating, the electroosmotic mobility (μeo) was suppressed from +2.1 to +0.88 × 10(-4) cm(2)/V·s, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of μeo was improved from 10.2 to 2.5% relative to the bare microchannel. Among several neutral polymers, poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) and poly(dimethylacrylamide) coatings gave more suppressed and repeatable EOF with RSDs of less than 2.3%. The vacuum-drying method was also applicable to polyanions and polycations to provide accelerated and inversed EOF, respectively, with acceptable RSDs of less than 4.9%. In the microchip electrophoresis (MCE) analysis of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the vacuum-dried and thermally-treated PVA coating channel, an almost symmetric peak of BSA was obtained, while in the native microchannel a significantly skewed peak was observed. The results demonstrated that the vacuum-dried polymer coatings were effective to control the EOF, and reduced the surface adsorption of proteins in MCE.

  3. Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic polydimethylsiloxane-coated cotton for oil-water separation process: An evidence of the relationship between its loading capacity and oil absorption ability.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yangxin; Jiang, Peng; Ke, Qingping; Cheng, Feihuan; Zhu, Yinshengnan; Zhang, Yixiang

    2015-12-30

    Developing functional porous materials with highly efficient oil-water separation ability are of great importance due to the global scale of severe water pollution arising from oil spillage and chemical leakage. A solution immersion process was used to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated cotton, which exhibited superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties. The water contact angle of ∼ 157° and mass of ∼ 1.49 g were retained after 1000 compression cycles, indicating that the PDMS was strongly attached to the cotton fibres. The PDMS-coated cotton absorbed various oils and organic solvents with high selectivity, high absorption capacity (up to 7080 wt.%), and good recyclability (exceeding 500 cycles). Notably, the loading capacity of the PDMS-coated cotton against water exhibited a similar trend to its oil absorption capacity. These findings will further the application of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic porous materials in oil/water separation.

  4. Detection of polydimethylsiloxanes transferred from silicone-coated parchment paper to baked goods using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Andreas; Crawford, Elizabeth A; Gross, Jürgen H

    2016-04-01

    The non-stick properties of parchment papers are achieved by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coatings. During baking, PDMS can thus be extracted from the silicone-coated parchment into the baked goods. Positive-ion direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry (MS) is highly efficient for the analysis of PDMS. A DART-SVP source was coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer to detect PDMS on the contact surface of baked goods after use of silicone-coated parchment papers. DART spectra from the bottom surface of baked cookies and pizzas exhibited signals because of PDMS ions of the general formula [(C2H6SiO)n  + NH4 ](+) in the m/z 800-1900 range. PMID:27041660

  5. Detection of polydimethylsiloxanes transferred from silicone-coated parchment paper to baked goods using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Andreas; Crawford, Elizabeth A; Gross, Jürgen H

    2016-04-01

    The non-stick properties of parchment papers are achieved by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coatings. During baking, PDMS can thus be extracted from the silicone-coated parchment into the baked goods. Positive-ion direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry (MS) is highly efficient for the analysis of PDMS. A DART-SVP source was coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer to detect PDMS on the contact surface of baked goods after use of silicone-coated parchment papers. DART spectra from the bottom surface of baked cookies and pizzas exhibited signals because of PDMS ions of the general formula [(C2H6SiO)n  + NH4 ](+) in the m/z 800-1900 range.

  6. Amperometric determination of nitric oxide derived from pulmonary artery endothelial cells immobilized in a microchip channel.

    PubMed

    Spence, Dana M; Torrence, Nicholas J; Kovarik, Michelle L; Martin, R Scott

    2004-11-01

    A simple method for immobilizing a confluent layer of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (bPAECs) in microchip-based channels is described. The microchips are prepared from poly(dimethylsiloxane) and have channel dimensions that approximate resistance vessels in vivo. The reversibly sealed channels were coated with fibronectin (100 microg ml(-1)) by aspiration. The bPAECs, which were introduced in the same manner, became attached to the fibronectin coating in about 2 h. The microchip could then be resealed over a micromolded carbon ink electrode (24 microm width x 6 microm height). Coating the carbon microelectrode with a 0.05% Nafion solution selectively blocked nitrite (10 microM) from being transported to the electrode surface while nitric oxide (NO, 10 microM) was amperometrically measured. Upon stimulation with adenosine triphosphate (ATP, 100 microM) the immobilized bPAECs produced and released micromolar amounts of NO. This NO production was effectively inhibited when the immobilized cells were incubated with L-nitro-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a competitive inhibitor for nitric oxide synthase. Moreover, once the immobilized bPAECs were no longer able to produce NO, incubation with L-arginine allowed for further ATP-stimulated NO production.

  7. Stable nonpolar solvent droplet generation using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic channel coated with poly-p-xylylene for a nanoparticle growth.

    PubMed

    Lim, Heejin; Moon, SangJun

    2015-08-01

    Applications of microfluidic devices fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) have been limited to water-based analysis rather than nonpolar solvent based chemistry due to a PDMS swelling problem that occurs by the absorption of the solvents. The absorption and swelling causes PDMS channel deformation in shape, and changes the cross sectional area making it difficult to control the flow rate and concentrations of solution in PDMS microfluidic channels. We propose that poly-p-xylylene polymers (parylenes) are chemical vapors deposited on the surfaces of PDMS channels that alleviate the effect of solvents on the absorption and swelling. The parylene coated surface sustains 3 h with a small volumetric change (less than 22 % of PDMS swelling ratio). By generating an air-nonpolar solvent interface based on droplets in PDMS channel, we confirmed poly-p-xylylene coated PDMS microfluidic channels have the potential to be applicable to nanocrystal growth using nonpolar solvents. PMID:26112614

  8. Science and Technology of Bio-Inert Thin Films as Hermetic-Encapsulating Coatings for Implantable Biomedical Devices: Application to Implantable Microchip in the Eye for the Artificial Retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auciello, Orlando; Shi, Bing

    Extensive research has been devoted to the development of neuron prostheses and hybrid bionic systems to establish links between the nervous system and electronic or robotic prostheses with the main focus of restoring motor and sensory functions in blind patients. Artificial retinas, one type of neural prostheses we are currently working on, aim to restore some vision in blind patients caused by retinitis picmentosa or macular degeneration, and in the future to restore vision at the level of face recognition, if not more. Currently there is no hermetic microchip-size coating that provides a reliable, long-term (years) performance as encapsulating coating for the artificial retina Si microchip to be implanted inside the eye. This chapter focuses on the critical topics relevant to the development of a robust, long-term artificial retina device, namely the science and technology of hermetic bio-inert encapsulating coatings to protect a Si microchip implanted in the human eye from being attacked by chemicals existing in the eye's saline environment. The work discussed in this chapter is related to the development of a novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) hermetic coating, which exhibited no degradation in rabbit eyes. The material synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of these hermetic coatings are reviewed for application as encapsulating coating for the artificial retinal microchips implantable inside the human eye. Our work has shown that UNCD coatings may provide a reliable hermetic bio-inert coating technology for encapsulation of Si microchips implantable in the eye specifically and in the human body in general. Electrochemical tests of the UNCD films grown under CH4/Ar/H2 (1%) plasma exhibit the lowest leakage currents (˜7 × 10-7 A/cm2) in a saline solution simulating the eye environment. This leakage is incompatible with the functionality of the first-generation artificial retinal microchip. However, the growth of UNCD on top of the

  9. Preparation of sol-gel polyethylene glycol-polydimethylsiloxane-poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated sorptive bar for the determination of organic sulfur compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhe; Li, Xuan; Hu, Bin

    2008-08-15

    A novel headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE) using a glass bar coated with carbowax (polyethylene glycol)-polydimethylsiloxane-poly(vinyl alcohol) (CW/PDMS/PVA) prepared by sol-gel technology method was proposed for the determination of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSs) in water. After the extraction, the sorptive bar was desorbed with 60 microL of ethanol and 30 microL of the extract was analysed by large volume injection (LVI) into a gas chromatography-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD). The parameters affecting the headspace sorptive extraction of VOSs such as extraction and desorption time, extraction temperature, stirring speed, desorption solvent, headspace phase ratio, salt and pH were carefully investigated and the optimized experimental conditions were established. The limits of detection (LODs) for the studied VOSs ranged from 0.04 to 4.8 microg/L with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 4.5 to 10.2% (n=6). The reproducibility for the preparation of CW/PDMS/PVA-coated sorptive bar ranged from 3.2 to 9.2% in one batch, and from 2.8 to 18.5% in batch-to-batch, and more than 50 extractions can be achieved without apparent loss. The proposed method was compared with polydimethylsiloxane-HSSE and carboxen/PDMS-headspace-solid phase microextraction (CAR/PDMS-HS-SPME) under their optimum conditions, CW/PDMS/PVA-HSSE shows the highest adsorption capacity (larger surface area and more active sites), the highest sensitivity (about 10 times) and the best polarity matching for VOSs. PMID:18603256

  10. Polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic frameworks coated fiber for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in river and lake water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guijiang; Zang, Xiaohuan; Li, Zhi; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic frameworks (PDMS/MOFs), including PDMS/MIL-101 and PDMS/MOF-199, were immobilized onto a stainless steel wire through sol-gel technique as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The prepared fibers were used for the extraction of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Under the optimized experiment conditions, the PDMS/MIL-101 coated fiber exhibited higher extraction efficiency towards PAHs than that of PDMS/MOF-199. Several parameters affecting the extraction of PAHs by SPME with PDMS/MIL-101 fiber, including the extraction temperature, extraction time, sample volume, salt addition and desorption conditions, were investigated. The limits of detection (LODs) were less than 4.0 ng L(-1) and the linearity was observed in the range from 0.01 to 2.0 µg L(-1) with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9940 to 0.9986. The recoveries of the method for the PAHs from water samples at spiking levels of 0.05 and 0.2 µg L(-1) ranged from 78.2% to 110.3%. Single fiber repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were less than 9.3% and 13.8%, respectively.

  11. Polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic frameworks coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to gas chromatography-flame photometric detection for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuowei; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MIL-101-Cr-NH2 was synthesized via a direct hydrothermal method, and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/MIL-101-Cr-NH2 coated stir bar was prepared by sol-gel technique. Good reproducibility was obtained for the preparation of PDMS/MIL-101-Cr-NH2 coated stir bar with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 3.7 to 5.2% (n=7) in one batch, and from 5.4 to 9.2% (n=7) among different batches. With the high surface area and rich benzene ring structure of MIL-101-Cr-NH2, the prepared PDMS/MIL-101-Cr-NH2 coated stir bar presented higher extraction efficiency for target organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs, including phorate, diazinon, malathion, fenthion, quinalphos and ethion) over PDMS coated stir bar. Based on it, a new method of PDMS/MIL-101-Cr-NH2 coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupled to gas chromatography-flame photometric detection (GC-FPD) was proposed for the determination of six OPPs in environmental water samples. The operation parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of SBSE, including extraction time, stirring rate, desorption time and ionic strength, were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the limits of detection (S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.043-0.085μgL(-1) for the six target OPPs, and the linear range was 0.5-100μgL(-1) for malathion and 0.2-100μgL(-1) for other five OPPs. The RSDs of the proposed method evaluated at 1µgL(-1) for each OPP were in the range of 5.9-8.7% (intra-day, n=7) and 6.1-10.7% (inter-day, n=5), respectively. The enrichment factors were varied from 110 to 151-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 200-fold). The proposed method was applied to the analysis of OPPs in East Lake and pond water samples with recoveries in the range of 89.3-115% and 80.0-113% for the spiked East Lake and pond water samples, respectively. PMID:27260444

  12. Solid phase microextraction using new sol-gel hybrid polydimethylsiloxane-2-hydroxymethyl-18-crown-6-coated fiber for determination of organophosphorous pesticides.

    PubMed

    Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Farhani, Hadijah; Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2010-07-23

    A new sol-gel hybrid coating, polydimethylsiloxane-2-hydroxymethyl-18-crown-6 (PDMS-2OHMe18C6) was prepared in-house for use in solid phase microextraction (SPME). The three compositions produced were assessed for its extraction efficiency towards three selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) based on peak area extracted obtained from gas chromatography with electron capture detection. All three compositions showed superior extraction efficiencies compared to commercial 100 microm PDMS fiber. The composition showing best extraction performance was used to obtain optimized SPME conditions: 75 degrees C extraction temperature, 10 min extraction time, 120 rpm stirring rate, desorption time 5 min, desorption temperature 250 degrees C and 1.5% (w/v) of NaCl salt addition. The method detection limits (S/N=3) of the OPPs with the new sol-gel hybrid material ranged from 4.5 to 4.8 ng g(-1), which is well below the maximum residue limit set by Codex Alimentarius Commission and European Commission. Percentage recovery of OPPs from strawberry, green apple and grape samples with the new hybrid sol-gel SPME material ranged from 65 to 125% with good precision of the method (%RSD) ranging from 0.3 to 7.4%.

  13. Polydimethylsiloxane/covalent triazine frameworks coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for the determination of phenols in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng; He, Man; Liao, Huaping; Chen, Beibei; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Bin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs) were introduced in stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and a novel polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/CTFs stir bar coating was prepared by sol-gel technique for the sorptive extraction of eight phenols (including phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, p-chloro-m-cresol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) from environmental water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection. The prepared PDMS/CTFs coated stir bar showed good preparation reproducibility with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 3.5 to 5.7% (n=7) in one batch, and from 3.7 to 9.3% (n=7) among different batches. Several parameters affecting SBSE of eight target phenols including extraction time, stirring rate, sample pH, ionic strength, desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.08-0.30 μg/L. The linear range was 0.25-500 μg/L for 2-nitrophenol, 0.5-500 μg/L for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol as well as 2,4-dimethylphenol, and 1-500 μg/L for p-chloro-m-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol as well as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, respectively. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 4.3-9.4% (n=7, c=2 μg/L) and the enrichment factors ranged from 64.9 to 145.6 fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 200-fold). Compared with commercial PDMS coated stir bar (Gerstel) and PEG coated stir bar (Gerstel), the prepared PDMS/CTFs stir bar showed better extraction efficiency for target phenol compounds. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of phenols in environmental water samples and good relative recoveries were obtained with the spiking level at 2, 10, 50 μg/L, respectively. PMID:26961915

  14. Polydimethylsiloxane/covalent triazine frameworks coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for the determination of phenols in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng; He, Man; Liao, Huaping; Chen, Beibei; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Bin

    2016-04-01

    In this work, covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs) were introduced in stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and a novel polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/CTFs stir bar coating was prepared by sol-gel technique for the sorptive extraction of eight phenols (including phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, p-chloro-m-cresol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) from environmental water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection. The prepared PDMS/CTFs coated stir bar showed good preparation reproducibility with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 3.5 to 5.7% (n=7) in one batch, and from 3.7 to 9.3% (n=7) among different batches. Several parameters affecting SBSE of eight target phenols including extraction time, stirring rate, sample pH, ionic strength, desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.08-0.30 μg/L. The linear range was 0.25-500 μg/L for 2-nitrophenol, 0.5-500 μg/L for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol as well as 2,4-dimethylphenol, and 1-500 μg/L for p-chloro-m-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol as well as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, respectively. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 4.3-9.4% (n=7, c=2 μg/L) and the enrichment factors ranged from 64.9 to 145.6 fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 200-fold). Compared with commercial PDMS coated stir bar (Gerstel) and PEG coated stir bar (Gerstel), the prepared PDMS/CTFs stir bar showed better extraction efficiency for target phenol compounds. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of phenols in environmental water samples and good relative recoveries were obtained with the spiking level at 2, 10, 50 μg/L, respectively.

  15. Micromachining of polydimethylsiloxane induced by laser plasma EUV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, S.; Makimura, T.; Okazaki, K.; Nakamura, D.; Takahashi, A.; Okada, T.; Niino, H.; Murakami, K.

    2011-06-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is fundamental materials in the field of biotechnology. Because of its biocompatibility, microfabricated PDMS sheets are applied to micro-reactors and microchips for cell culture. Conventionally, the microstructures were fabricated by means of cast or imprint using molds, however it is difficult to fabricate the structures at high aspect ratios such as through-holes/vertical channels. The fabrication of the high-aspect structures would enable us to stack sheets to realize 3D fluidic circuits. In order to achieve the micromachining, direct photo-ablation by short wavelength light is promising. In the previous works, we investigated ablation of transparent materials such as silica glass and poly(methyl methacrylate) induced by irradiation with laser plasma EUV light. We achieved smooth and fine nanomachining. In this work, we applied our technique to PDMS micromachining. We condensed the EUV light onto PDMS surfaces at high power density up to 108 W/cm2 using a Au coated ellipsoidal mirror. We found that PDMS sheet was ablated at a rate up to 440 nm/shot. It should be emphasized that through hole with a diameter of 1 μm was fabricated in a PDMS sheet with a thickness of 4 μm. Thus we demonstrated the micromachining of PDMS sheets using laser plasma EUV light.

  16. A hydrodynamic microchip for formation of continuous cell chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Shi-Yang; Nasabi, Mahyar; Soffe, Rebecca; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco J.; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Mitchell, Arnan

    2014-05-01

    Here, we demonstrate the unique features of a hydrodynamic based microchip for creating continuous chains of model yeast cells. The system consists of a disk shaped microfluidic structure, containing narrow orifices that connect the main channel to an array of spoke channels. Negative pressure provided by a syringe pump draws fluid from the main channel through the narrow orifices. After cleaning process, a thin layer of water is left between the glass substrate and the polydimethylsiloxane microchip, enabling leakage beneath the channel walls. A mechanical clamp is used to adjust the operation of the microchip. Relaxing the clamp allows leakage of liquid beneath the walls in a controllable fashion, leading to formation of a long cell chain evenly distributed along the channel wall. The unique features of the microchip are demonstrated by creating long chains of yeast cells and model 15 μm polystyrene particles along the side wall and analysing the hydrogen peroxide induced death of patterned cells.

  17. Evaluation of microchip material and surface treatment options for IEF of allergenic milk proteins on microchips.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Martine; Shakalisava, Yuliya; Miserere, Sandrine; Peltre, Gabriel; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Descroix, Stephanie

    2009-12-01

    The use of glass and PDMS microchips has been investigated to perform rapid and efficient separation of allergenic whey proteins by IEF. To decrease EOF and to limit protein adsorption, two coating procedures have been compared. The first one consists in immobilizing hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and the second one poly(dimethylacrylamide-co-allyl glycidyl ether) (PDMA-AGE). EOF limitation has been evaluated using frontal electrophoresis of a fluorescent marker of known effective mobility. EOF velocity was decreased by a factor about 100 and 30, respectively. pH gradient formation has been evaluated for each microchip using fluorescent pI markers. It was demonstrated that as expected a coating was essential to avoid pH gradient drift. Both coatings were efficient on glass microchips, but only PDMA-AGE allowed satisfying focusing of pI markers on PDMS microchips. Fluorescent covalent and noncovalent labelings of milk proteins have been compared by IEF on slab-gels. IEF separation of three major allergenic whey proteins [beta-lactoglobulin A (pI 5.25) and B (pI 5.35) and alpha-lactalbumin (pI 4.2-4.5)] was performed in both microchips. Milk proteins were separated with better resolution and shorter analysis time than by classical CIEF. Finally, better resolutions for milk allergens separation were obtained on glass microchips.

  18. Side-by-side comparison of disposable microchips with commercial capillary cartridges for application in capillary isoelectric focusing with whole column imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Ou, Junjie; Samy, Razim; Glawdel, Tomasz; Huang, Tiemin; Ren, Carolyn L; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-10-01

    Simple-structured, well-functioned disposable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips were developed for capillary isoelectric focusing with whole column imaging detection (CIEF-WCID). Side-by-side comparison of the developed microchips with well-established commercial capillary cartridges demonstrated that the disposable microchips have comparable performance as well as advantages such as absence of lens effect and possibility of high-aspect-ratio accompanied with a dramatic reduction in cost.

  19. Acupuncture Sample Injection for Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis and Electrokinetic Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji Won; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2016-05-01

    A simple nanoliter-scale injection technique was developed for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices to form the well-defined sample plugs in microfluidic channels. Sample injection was achieved by performing acupuncture on a channel with a needle and applying external pressure to a syringe. This technique allowed us to achieve reproducible injection of a 3-nL segment into a microchannel for PDMS microchip-based capillary electrophoresis (CE). Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC) with bead packing were successfully performed by applying a single potential in the most simplified straight channel. The advantages of this acupuncture injection over the electrokinetic injection in microchip CE include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware, capability of serial injections of different sample solutions into a same microchannel, capability of injecting sample plugs into any position of a microchannel, independence on sample solutions during the loading step, and ease in making microchips due to the straight channel, etc. PMID:27056036

  20. Acoustothermal heating of polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Byung Hang; Lee, Kang Soo; Destgeer, Ghulam; Park, Jinsoo; Choung, Jin Seung; Jung, Jin Ho; Shin, Jennifer Hyunjong; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-07-01

    We report an observation of rapid (exceeding 2,000 K/s) heating of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), one of the most popular microchannel materials, under cyclic loadings at high (~MHz) frequencies. A microheater was developed based on the finding. The heating mechanism utilized vibration damping in PDMS induced by sound waves that were generated and precisely controlled using a conventional surface acoustic wave (SAW) microfluidic system. The refraction of SAW into the PDMS microchip, called the leaky SAW, takes a form of bulk wave and rapidly heats the microchannels in a volumetric manner. The penetration depths were measured to range from 210 μm to 1290 μm, enough to cover most sizes of microchannels. The energy conversion efficiency was SAW frequency-dependent and measured to be the highest at around 30 MHz. Independent actuation of each interdigital transducer (IDT) enabled independent manipulation of SAWs, permitting spatiotemporal control of temperature on the microchip. All the advantages of this microheater facilitated a two-step continuous flow polymerase chain reaction (CFPCR) to achieve the billion-fold amplification of a 134 bp DNA amplicon in less than 3 min.

  1. Acoustothermal heating of polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic system

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Byung Hang; Lee, Kang Soo; Destgeer, Ghulam; Park, Jinsoo; Choung, Jin Seung; Jung, Jin Ho; Shin, Jennifer Hyunjong; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-01-01

    We report an observation of rapid (exceeding 2,000 K/s) heating of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), one of the most popular microchannel materials, under cyclic loadings at high (~MHz) frequencies. A microheater was developed based on the finding. The heating mechanism utilized vibration damping in PDMS induced by sound waves that were generated and precisely controlled using a conventional surface acoustic wave (SAW) microfluidic system. The refraction of SAW into the PDMS microchip, called the leaky SAW, takes a form of bulk wave and rapidly heats the microchannels in a volumetric manner. The penetration depths were measured to range from 210 μm to 1290 μm, enough to cover most sizes of microchannels. The energy conversion efficiency was SAW frequency-dependent and measured to be the highest at around 30 MHz. Independent actuation of each interdigital transducer (IDT) enabled independent manipulation of SAWs, permitting spatiotemporal control of temperature on the microchip. All the advantages of this microheater facilitated a two-step continuous flow polymerase chain reaction (CFPCR) to achieve the billion-fold amplification of a 134 bp DNA amplicon in less than 3 min. PMID:26138310

  2. Preparation of polydimethylsiloxane/beta-cyclodextrin/divinylbenzene coated "dumbbell-shaped" stir bar and its application to the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles compounds in lake water and soil by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhe; Yao, Zhimin; Hu, Bin

    2009-05-01

    A "dumbbell-shaped" stir bar was proposed to prevent the friction loss of coating during the stirring process, and thus prolonged the lifetime of stir bars. The effects of the coating components, including polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and divinylbenzene (DVB) were investigated according to an orthogonal experimental design, using three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and four polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) as model analytes. Four kinds of stir bars coated with PDMS, PDMS/beta-CD, PDMS/DVB and PDMS/beta-CD/DVB were prepared and their extraction efficiencies for the target compounds were compared. It was demonstrated that PDMS/beta-CD/DVB-coated stir bar showed the best affinity to the studied compounds. The preparation reproducibility of PDMS/beta-CD/DVB-coated stir bar ranged from 3.2% to 15.2% (n = 6) in one batch, and 5.2% to 13.4% (n = 6) among batches. The "dumbbell-shaped" stir bar could be used for about 40 times, which were 10 extractions more than a normal stir bar. The prepared PDMS/beta-CD/DVB-coated "dumbbell-shaped" stir bar was used for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of PAHs and PASHs and the desorbed solution was introduced into HPLC-UV for subsequent analysis. The limits of detection of the proposed method for seven target analytes ranged from 0.007 to 0.103 microg L(-1), the relative standard deviations were in the range of 6.3-12.9% (n = 6, c = 40 microg L(-1)), and the enrichment factors were 19-86. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of seven target analytes in lake water and soil samples.

  3. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    PubMed Central

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation. PMID:27683066

  4. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  5. Controlled-release microchips.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sadhana; Nijdam, A Jasper; Sinha, Piyush M; Walczak, Robbie J; Liu, Xuewu; Cheng, Mark M-C; Ferrari, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery remains an important challenge in medicine: continuous release of therapeutic agents over extended time periods in accordance with a predetermined temporal profile; local delivery at a constant rate to the tumour microenvironment to overcome much of the systemic toxicity and to improve antitumour efficacy; improved ease of administration, and increasing patient compliance required are some of the unmet needs of the present drug delivery technology. Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release microchips with capabilities not present in the current treatment modalities. In this review, the current status and future prospects of different types of controlled-release microchips are summarised and analysed with reference to microneedle-based microchips, as well as providing an in-depth focus on microreservoir-based and nanoporous microchips.

  6. Amino modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for the determination of phenols in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cong; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2013-07-26

    In this work, amino modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane (multi-walled carbon nanotubes-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane/polydimethylsiloxane, MWCNTs-DDM/PDMS) was synthesized, and utilized as a novel coating for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of seven phenols (phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, p-choro-m-cresol and 2,4,6-trichlorphenol) in environmental water and soil samples, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The prepared MWCNTs-DDM/PDMS coated stir bar was characterized and good preparation reproducibility was obtained with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 4.7% to 11.3% (n=9) in one batch, and from 4.8% to 13.9% (n=8) among different batches. Several parameters affecting the extraction of seven target phenols by MWCNTs-DDM/PDMS-SBSE including extraction time, stirring rate, pH, ionic strength, desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.14μg/L (2-nitrophenol) to 1.76μg/L (phenol) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N=10) were found to be in the range of 0.46μg/L (2-nitrophenol) to 5.8μg/L (phenol). The linear range was 5-1000μg/L for phenol and 4-nitrophenol, 1-1000μg/L for 2-nitrophenol and 2-1000μg/L for other phenols, respectively. The RSDs of the developed method were in the range of 6.2-11.6% (n=8, c=10μg/L) and the enrichment factors were from 6.5 to 62.8-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 100-fold). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of phenols in environmental water and soil samples, and good recoveries were obtained for the spiked samples. The proposed method is simple, highly sensitive and suitable for the analysis of trace phenols in environmental samples with complex matrix.

  7. Design and Fabrication of a PDMS Microchip Based Immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Wanjun; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication process of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip for on-chip multiplex immunoassay application. The microchip consists of a PDMS microfluidic channel layer and a micro pneumatic valve control layer. By selectively pressurizing the pneumatic microvalves, immuno reagents were controlled to flow and react in certain fluidic channel sites. Cross contamination was prevented by tightly closed valves. Our design was proposed to utilize PDMS micro channel surface as the solid phase immunoassay substrate and simultaneously detect four targets antigens on chip. Experiment result shows that 20psi valve pressure is sufficient to tightly close a 200µm wide micro channel with flow rate up to 20µl/min.

  8. Control of adhesion of human induced pluripotent stem cells to plasma-patterned polydimethylsiloxane coated with vitronectin and γ-globulin.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryotaro; Hattori, Koji; Tachikawa, Saoko; Tagaya, Motohiro; Sasaki, Toru; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising source of cells for medical applications. Recently, the development of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microdevices to control the microenvironment of hiPSCs has been extensively studied. PDMS surfaces are often treated with low-pressure air plasma to facilitate protein adsorption and cell adhesion. However, undefined molecules present in the serum and extracellular matrix used to culture cells complicate the study of cell adhesion. Here, we studied the effects of vitronectin and γ-globulin on hiPSC adhesion to plasma-treated and untreated PDMS surfaces under defined culture conditions. We chose these proteins because they have opposite properties: vitronectin mediates hiPSC attachment to hydrophilic siliceous surfaces, whereas γ-globulin is adsorbed by hydrophobic surfaces and does not mediate cell adhesion. Immunostaining showed that, when applied separately, vitronectin and γ-globulin were adsorbed by both plasma-treated and untreated PDMS surfaces. In contrast, when PDMS surfaces were exposed to a mixture of the two proteins, vitronectin was preferentially adsorbed onto plasma-treated surfaces, whereas γ-globulin was adsorbed onto untreated surfaces. Human iPSCs adhered to the vitronectin-rich plasma-treated surfaces but not to the γ-globulin-rich untreated surfaces. On the basis of these results, we used perforated masks to prepare plasma-patterned PDMS substrates, which were then used to pattern hiPSCs. The patterned hiPSCs expressed undifferentiated-cell markers and did not escape from the patterned area for at least 7 days. The patterned PDMS could be stored for up to 6 days before hiPSCs were plated. We believe that our results will be useful for the development of hiPSC microdevices. PMID:24656306

  9. Sol-gel polydimethylsiloxane/poly(vinylalcohol)-coated stir bar sorptive extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in honey and their determination by large volume injection GC.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhe; Hu, Bin

    2009-01-01

    A PDMS/poly(vinylalcohol) (PDMS/PVA) film prepared through a sol-gel process was coated on stir bars for sorptive extraction, followed by liquid desorption and large volume injection-GC-flame photometric detector (LVI-GC-FPD) for the determination of five organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) (phorate, fenitrothion, malathion, parathion, and quinalphos) in honey. The preparation reproducibility of PDMS/PVA-coated stir bar ranged from 4.3 to 13.4% (n = 4) in one batch, and from 6.0 to 12.6% (n = 4) in batch to batch. And one prepared stir bar can be used for more than 50 times without apparent coating loss. The significant parameters affecting stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) were investigated and optimized. The LODs for five OPPs ranged from 0.013 (parathion) to 0.081 microg/L (phorate) with the RSDs ranging from 5.3 to 14.2% (c = 1 microg/L, n = 6). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of five OPPs in honey. PMID:19035384

  10. Silicone fouling-release coatings: effects of the molecular weight of poly(dimethylsiloxane) and tetraethyl orthosilicate on the magnitude of pseudobarnacle adhesion strength.

    PubMed

    Kaffashi, Azadeh; Jannesari, Ali; Ranjbar, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    A series of poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)/silica nanocomposites were synthesized utilizing a sol gel method. The samples were evaluated using pseudobarnacle adhesion and tensile strength tests. The effects of the molecular weight of the PDMS and the size and structure of the silica domains on biofouling release and the mechanical behavior of the PDMS/silica materials were investigated. Three different molecular weights (18,000, 49,000 and 79,000 g mol(-1)) of hydroxyl-terminated PDMS (HT-PDMS) were used to prepare the nanocomposites with three different weight ratios (1:1, 3:1 and 5:1) of HT-PDMS to tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS). TEOS served as a crosslinker to form PDMS networks and as a precursor to form silica domains. Two different variants of TEOS with regard to its degree of polymerization (n) (monomeric type: n ≈= 1 and oligomeric type: n ≈= 5) were used for in situ formation of silica particles via the sol-gel process. The mechanical properties of the composites were characterized using stress-strain isotherms. All the mechanical properties evaluated (Young's modulus, tensile strength, energy required for rupture, elongation at break) improved with increases in the molecular weight of the HT-PDMS and the silica content. The pseudobarnacle adhesion test was used to examine the fouling- release (FR) properties of coatings applied on aluminum plates. The rupture energy and tensile strength increased substantially when oligomeric TEOS was employed in the PDMS/silica composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the structure of the silica domains. It was found that the use of oligomeric TEOS in higher molecular weight PDMS samples with higher PDMS/TEOS weight ratios led to low pseudobarnacle adhesion strengths of ≈ 0.3 MPa, which is in the range of commercial FR coatings.

  11. Application of poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber sol-gel coated onto NiTi alloy electrodeposited with zirconium oxide for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in herbal infusions.

    PubMed

    Budziak, Dilma; Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

    2008-08-01

    A PDMS fiber sol-gel coated onto an NiTi alloy previously electrodeposited with zirconium oxide (named NiTi-ZrO(2)-PDMS) was applied to the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in infusions of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), and anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.). Salting-out effect, extraction time, and extraction temperature were optimized firstly by means of a full-factorial design and then using a Doehlert matrix. No salt addition and 50 min of extraction at 70 degrees C were the optimum conditions. Satisfactory LODs in the range of 2-17 ng/L, as well as good correlation coefficients (at least 0.9981) in the linear range studied, were obtained. Calibration was successfully applied using an infusion of M. recutita L. and recovery tests were performed to ensure the accuracy of the method, with values in the range of 77-120%. Comparison of the NiTi-ZrO(2)-PDMS with commercially available PDMS fibers showed that the proposed fiber has an extraction efficiency comparable to that of PDMS 30 microm for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating its potential applicability. PMID:18666186

  12. New nanostructure of polydimethylsiloxane coating as a solid-phase microextraction fiber: Application to analysis of BTEX in aquatic environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Zali, Sara; Jalali, Fahimeh; Es-Haghi, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2016-10-15

    Electrospinning technique was used to convert polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) sol-gel solution to a new nanostructure on a stainless steel wire. The surface morphology of the fiber was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It showed a diameter range of 30-60nm for PDMS nanoparticles with a homogeneous and porous surface structure. The applicability of this coating was assessed for the headspace SPME (HS-SPME) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) from water samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The important parameters affecting extraction efficiency such as extraction time and temperature, desorption conditions, agitation rate and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, LODs and LOQs of 0.3-5μgL(-1) and 1-10μgL(-1) were obtained, respectively. The method showed linearity in the broad range of 1-5000μgL(-1) with correlation coefficient of >0.99. Inter-day and intra-day precisions of the developed method ranged from 2.43% to 6.54% and from 5.24% to 13.73%, respectively. The thermal stability of the fiber was investigated on stainless steel wire. It was found to be durable at 260°C for more than 360min. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied for quantification of BTEX in real water samples. PMID:27595648

  13. PDMS-based micro PCR chip with Parylene coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young Shik; Cho, Keunchang; Lim, Sun Hee; Chung, Seok; Park, Sung-Jin; Chung, Chanil; Han, Dong-Chul; Chang, Jun Keun

    2003-09-01

    We have developed a microchip for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). PDMS has good characteristics: it is cheap, transparent, easy to fabricate and biocompatible. But in micro PCR, the porosity of PDMS causes several critical problems such as bubble formation, sample evaporation and protein adsorption. To solve those problems, we coated the micro PCR chips with Parylene film, which has low permeability to moisture and long-term stability. We investigated the influence of low thermal conductivity of PDMS and Parylene on the thermal characteristics of the PCR chips with numerical analysis. The thermal responses of micro PCR chips were compared for three materials: silicon, glass and PDMS. From the results, we identified appropriate thermal responses of the PDMS-based micro PCR chips by heating both the top and bottom sides. We could successfully amplify the angiotensin converting enzyme gene with as small a volume as 2 mul on the PDMS-based micro PCR chips without any additives.

  14. A novel polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic viscometer fabricated using microwire-molding.

    PubMed

    Zou, Misha; Cai, Shaoxi; Zhao, Zhenli; Chen, Longcong; Zhao, Yi; Fan, Xin; Chen, Sijia

    2015-10-01

    We present a new economical microfluidic viscometer to measure the viscosity of biological fluids, using sample volumes of less than 200 μl. It is fabricated using a microwire-molding technique, making it easier and cheaper to produce than existing viscometers. The viscometer is based on laminar flow inside a polydimethylsiloxane microchip. The velocity of the sample flow inside the capillary was monitored with a camera, and the movement of the liquid column was determined by a Matlab video-processing program. The device was calibrated using deionized water, which is a Newtonian fluid, at 20 °C. The viscometer provides accurate measurements of viscosity for values as small as 0.69 mPa s. The viscosity of water at different temperatures was measured, showing more than 98% agreement with the values provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Various samples including a series of glycerol solutions, phosphate-buffered saline, alcohol, and cell media were also tested, and the measured viscosities were compared with those from a traditional glass capillary viscometer. The results show good agreement between the two methods, with an average relative error of less than 1%. Furthermore, the viscosities of several cell suspensions were measured, showing a relative standard deviation of less than 1.5%. The microchip viscometer is economical and is shown to be accurate, which is very important for the simulation and control of lab-on-a-chip experiments. PMID:26520971

  15. A novel polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic viscometer fabricated using microwire-molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Misha; Cai, Shaoxi; Zhao, Zhenli; Chen, Longcong; Zhao, Yi; Fan, Xin; Chen, Sijia

    2015-10-01

    We present a new economical microfluidic viscometer to measure the viscosity of biological fluids, using sample volumes of less than 200 μl. It is fabricated using a microwire-molding technique, making it easier and cheaper to produce than existing viscometers. The viscometer is based on laminar flow inside a polydimethylsiloxane microchip. The velocity of the sample flow inside the capillary was monitored with a camera, and the movement of the liquid column was determined by a Matlab video-processing program. The device was calibrated using deionized water, which is a Newtonian fluid, at 20 °C. The viscometer provides accurate measurements of viscosity for values as small as 0.69 mPa s. The viscosity of water at different temperatures was measured, showing more than 98% agreement with the values provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Various samples including a series of glycerol solutions, phosphate-buffered saline, alcohol, and cell media were also tested, and the measured viscosities were compared with those from a traditional glass capillary viscometer. The results show good agreement between the two methods, with an average relative error of less than 1%. Furthermore, the viscosities of several cell suspensions were measured, showing a relative standard deviation of less than 1.5%. The microchip viscometer is economical and is shown to be accurate, which is very important for the simulation and control of lab-on-a-chip experiments.

  16. Serial dilution microchip for cytotoxicity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Hyunwoo; Lim, Sun Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Chung, Seok; Chung, Chanil; Han, Dong-Chul; Chang, Jun Keun

    2004-08-01

    Today's pharmaceutical industry is facing challenges resulting from the vast increases in sample numbers produced by high-throughput screening (HTS). In addition, the bottlenecks created by increased demand for cytotoxicity testing (required to assess compound safety) are becoming a serious problem. We have developed a polymer PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device that can perform a cytotoxicity test in a rapid and reproducible manner. The concept that the device includes is well adjustable to automated robots in huge HTS systems, so we can think of it as a potential dilution and delivery module. Cytotoxicity testing is all about the dilution and dispensing of a drug sample. Previously, we made a PDMS based microfluidic device which automatically and precisely diluted drugs with a buffer solution with serially increasing concentrations. This time, the serially diluted drug solution was directly delivered to 96 well plates for cytotoxicity testing. Cytotoxic paclitaxel solution with 2% RPMI 1640 has been used while carrying out cancerous cell based cytotoxicity tests. We believe that this rapid and robust use of the PDMS microchip will overcome the growing problem in cytotoxicity testing for HTS.

  17. Hydrodynamic injection with pneumatic valving for microchip electrophoresis with total analyte utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Danielson, William F.; Agrawal, Nitin; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-04-26

    A novel hydrodynamic injector that is directly controlled by a pneumatic valve has been developed for reproducible microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) devices used for evaluation comprise a separation channel, a side channel for sample introduction, and a pneumatic valve aligned at the intersection of the channels. A low pressure (≤ 3 psi) applied to the sample reservoir is sufficient to drive sample into the separation channel. The rapidly actuated pneumatic valve enables injection of discrete sample plugs as small as ~100 pL for CE separation. The injection volume can be easily controlled by adjusting the intersection geometry, the solution back pressure and the valve actuation time. Sample injection could be reliably operated at different frequencies (< 0.1 Hz to >2 Hz) with good reproducibility (peak height relative standard deviation ≤ 3.6%) and no sampling biases associated with the conventional electrokinetic injections. The separation channel was dynamically coated with a cationic polymer, and FITC-labeled amino acids were employed to evaluate the CE separation. Highly efficient (≥ 7.0 × 103 theoretical plates for the ~2.4 cm long channel) and reproducible CE separations were obtained. The demonstrated method has numerous advantages compared with the conventional techniques, including repeatable and unbiased injections, no sample waste, high duty cycle, controllable injected sample volume, and fewer electrodes with no need for voltage switching. The prospects of implementing this injection method for coupling multidimensional separations, for multiplexing CE separations and for sample-limited bioanalyses are discussed.

  18. Cost-effective neutral density filters from polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarit, Ratthasart; Chaitavon, Kosom; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2013-06-01

    A neutral density filter (ND) is one of the basic and important optical components used in optical and photographic systems for controlling intensity of light at all wavelengths. It is typically fabricated by coating appropriate thin films on glass or plastic substrates through an expensive time-consuming and power-hungry thin-film coating system. In this work, we show for the first time how very low-cost NDs can be implemented on a well-known Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material widely used in microfluidic applications. PDMS-based NDs with 10-80% transmission and a broad wavelength operation in a visible spectrum are highlighted.

  19. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography on microchips.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Otsuka, Koji

    2008-03-01

    This review highlights the methodological and instrumental developments in microchip micellar EKC (MCMEKC) from 1995. The combination of higher separation efficiencies in micellar EKC (MEKC) with high-speed separation in microchip electrophoresis (MCE) should provide high-throughput and high-performance analytical systems. The chip-based separation technique has received considerable attention due to its integration ability without any connector. This advantage allows the development of a multidimensional separation system. Several types of 2-D separation microchips are described in the review. Since complicated channel configurations can easily be fabricated on planar substrates, various sample manipulations can be carried out prior to MCMEKC separations. For example, mixing for on-chip reactions, on-line sample preconcentration, on-chip assay, etc., have been integrated on MEKC microchips. The application of on-line sample preconcentration to MCMEKC can provide not only sensitivity enhancement but also the elucidation of the preconcentration mechanism due to the visualization ability of MCE. The characteristics of these sample manipulations on MEKC microchips are presented in this review. The scope of applications in MCMEKC covers mainly biogenic compounds such as amino acids, peptides, proteins, biogenic amines, DNA, and oestrogens. This review provides a comprehensive table listing the applications in MCMEKC in relation to detection methods.

  20. Elastomeric Microchip Electrospray Emitter for Stable Cone-Jet Mode Operation in the Nanoflow Regime.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Tang, Keqi; Irimia, Daniel; Toner, Mehmet; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-05-15

    Despite widespread interest in applying lab-on-a-chip technologies to mass spectrometry (MS)-based analyses, the coupling of microfluidics to electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS remains challenging. We report a robust, integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip interface for ESI-MS using simple and widely accessible microfabrication procedures. The interface uses an auxiliary channel to provide electrical contact in the Taylor cone of the electrospray without sample loss or dilution. The electric field at the channel terminus is enhanced by two vertical cuts that cause the interface to taper to a line rather than to a point, and the formation of small Taylor cones at the channel exit ensures sub-nL post-column dead volumes. While comparable ESI-MS sensitivities were achieved using both microchip and conventional fused silica capillary emitters, stable cone-jet mode electrospray could be established over a far broader range of flow rates (from 50–1000 nL/min) and applied potentials using the microchip emitters. This special feature of the microchip emitter should minimize the fine tuning required for electrospray optimization and make the stable electrospray more resistant to external perturbations.

  1. Piezoelectric polydimethylsiloxane films for MEMS transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jhih-Jhe; Hsu, Tsung-Hsing; Yeh, Che-Nan; Tsai, Jui-Wei; Su, Yu-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated the fabrication of piezoelectric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films utilizing multilayer casting, stacking, surface coating and micro plasma discharge processes. To realize the desired electromechanical sensitivity, cellular PDMS structures with micrometer-sized voids are implanted with bipolar charges on the opposite inner surfaces. The implanted charge pairs function as dipoles, which respond promptly to diverse electromechanical stimulation. In the prototype demonstration, cellular PDMS films with various void geometries are fabricated and internally coated with a thin layer of polytetrafluoroethylene, which can help secure the implanted charges. An electric field up to 35 MV m-1 is applied across the fabricated PDMS films to ionize the air in the voids and to accelerate the resulting bipolar charges to bombard the opposite inner surfaces. The resulting charge-implanted, cellular PDMS films show a low effective elastic modulus (E) of about 500 kPa, and a piezoelectric coefficient (d33) higher than 300 pC N-1, which is more than ten times higher than those of common piezoelectric polymers (e.g. polyvinylidene fluoride). Furthermore, the piezoelectricity of the PDMS films can be tailored by adjusting the dimensions of the cellular structures. As such, the demonstrated piezoelectric PDMS films could potentially serve as flexible and sensitive electromechanical materials, and fulfill the needs of a variety of sensor and energy harvesting applications.

  2. Transverse modes in microchip lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, F.; Chardon, A.

    1996-12-01

    Two analytical sets of transverse eigenmodes are proposed for microchip lasers in one-dimensional geometry. Each set is associated with a particular pump profile. The eigenfunctions are expressed as Bessel or modified Bessel functions. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  3. Analytical Chemistry and the Microchip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Robert K.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical techniques used at various points in making microchips are described. They include: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (silicon purity); optical emission spectroscopy (quantitative thin-film composition); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (chemical changes in thin films); wet chemistry, instrumental analysis (process chemicals);…

  4. Low outgassing polydimethylsiloxane material and preparation thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, B. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A fluid polydimethylsiloxane resin having improved outgassing properties in the cured state is described. The fluid resin is obtained by pouring, to a height of up to about 2 inches a starting polydimethylsiloxane resin such as RTV-602 silicone resin and devolatilizing the starting resin at a temperature of about 125 to 150 C under a vacuum of at least 0.00001 torr.

  5. Downstream microwave ammonia plasma treatment of polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect

    Pruden, K.G.; Beaudoin, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    To control the interactions between surfaces and biological systems, it is common to attach polymers, proteins, and other species to the surfaces of interest. In this case, surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was performed by exposing PDMS films to the effluent from a microwave ammonia plasma, with a goal of creating primary amine groups on the PDMS. These amine sites were to be used as binding sites for polymer attachment. Chemical changes to the surface of the PDMS were investigated as a function of treatment time, microwave power, and PDMS temperature during plasma treatment. Functional groups resulting from this treatment were characterized using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. Plasma treatment resulted in the incorporation of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing groups, including primary amine groups. In general, increasing the treatment time, plasma power and substrate temperature increased the level of oxidation of the films, and led to the formation of imines and nitriles. PDMS samples treated at 100 W and 23 deg. C for 120 s were chosen for proof-of-concept dextran coating. Samples treated at this condition contained primary amine groups and few oxygen-containing groups. To test the viability of the primary amines for attachment of biopolymers, functionalized dextran was successfully attached to primary amine sites on the PDMS films.

  6. Infrared dielectric function of polydimethylsiloxane and selective emission behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Arvind; Czapla, Braden; Mayo, Jeff; Narayanaswamy, Arvind

    2016-08-01

    The complex refractive index of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is determined in the wavelength range between 2.5 μm and 16.7 μm. The parameters of a Drude-Lorentz oscillator model (with 15 oscillators) are extracted from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflectance measurements made on both bulk PDMS and thin films of PDMS deposited on the gold coated silicon substrates. It is shown that thin films of PDMS atop gold exhibit selective emission in the 8 μm to 13 μm atmospheric transmittance window, which demonstrates that PDMS, especially due to its ease of deposition, may be a viable material for passive radiative cooling applications.

  7. Biological cell controllable patch-clamp microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penmetsa, Siva; Nagrajan, Krithika; Gong, Zhongcheng; Mills, David; Que, Long

    2010-12-01

    A patch-clamp (PC) microchip with cell sorting and positioning functions is reported, which can avoid drawbacks of random cell selection or positioning for a PC microchip. The cell sorting and positioning are enabled by air bubble (AB) actuators. AB actuators are pneumatic actuators, in which air pressure is generated by microheaters within sealed microchambers. The sorting, positioning, and capturing of 3T3 cells by this type of microchip have been demonstrated. Using human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 as the model, experiments have been demonstrated by this microchip as a label-free technical platform for real-time monitoring of the cell viability.

  8. Microchip technology in drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Santini, J T; Richards, A C; Scheidt, R A; Cima, M J; Langer, R S

    2000-09-01

    The realization that the therapeutic efficacy of certain drugs can be affected dramatically by the way in which they are delivered has created immense interest in controlled drug delivery systems. Much previous work in drug delivery focused on achieving sustained drug release rates over time, while a more recent trend is to make devices that allow the release rate to be varied over time. Advances in microfabrication technology have made an entirely new type of drug delivery device possible. Proof-of-principle experiments have shown that silicon microchips have the ability to store and release multiple chemicals on demand. Future integration of active control electronics, such as microprocessors, remote control units, or biosensors, could lead to the development of a 'pharmacy on a chip,' ie 'smart' microchip implants or tablets that release drugs into the body automatically when needed.

  9. A controlled-release microchip.

    PubMed

    Santini, J T; Cima, M J; Langer, R

    1999-01-28

    Much previous work in methods of achieving complex drug-release patterns has focused on pulsatile release from polymeric materials in response to specific stimuli, such as electric or magnetic fields, exposure to ultrasound, light or enzymes, and changes in pH or temperature. An alternative method for achieving pulsatile release involves using microfabrication technology to develop active devices that incorporate micrometre-scale pumps, valves and flow channels to deliver liquid solutions. Here we report a solid-state silicon microchip that can provide controlled release of single or multiple chemical substances on demand. The release mechanism is based on the electrochemical dissolution of thin anode membranes covering microreservoirs filled with chemicals in solid, liquid or gel form. We have conducted proof-of-principle release studies with a prototype microchip using gold and saline solution as a model electrode material and release medium, and we have demonstrated controlled, pulsatile release of chemical substances with this device.

  10. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  11. Particle-free microchip processing

    DOEpatents

    Geller, Anthony S.; Rader, Daniel J.

    1996-01-01

    Method and apparatus for reducing particulate contamination in microchip processing are disclosed. The method and apparatus comprise means to reduce particle velocity toward the wafer before the particles can be deposited on the wafer surface. A reactor using electric fields to reduce particle velocity and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. A reactor using a porous showerhead to reduce particle velocities and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed.

  12. Particle-free microchip processing

    DOEpatents

    Geller, A.S.; Rader, D.J.

    1996-06-04

    Method and apparatus for reducing particulate contamination in microchip processing are disclosed. The method and apparatus comprise means to reduce particle velocity toward the wafer before the particles can be deposited on the wafer surface. A reactor using electric fields to reduce particle velocity and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. A reactor using a porous showerhead to reduce particle velocities and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. 5 figs.

  13. Amperometric detection of carbohydrates with a portable silicone/quartz capillary microchip by designed fracture sampling.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Chun; Li, Chen; Qiang, Wei; Lei, Jianping; Yu, Xiaodong; Ju, Huangxian

    2007-12-15

    A silicone/quartz capillary microchip (SQCM) coupled with an ultranarrow sampling fracture was for the first time constructed without any micromachining. The SQCM could be used for direct determination of carbohydrates at a detection potential of +0.8 V (vs Ag/AgCl) with a copper microdisk electrode. The ultranarrow sampling fracture could be conveniently formed on a quartz capillary, which was fixed by a frame of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The designed fracture sampling suppressed the leakage of sample, thus simplifying the power supply. Furthermore, it thinned the sample plug for enhancing the resolution. The quartz capillary reduced the adsorption of analytes on the separation channel wall compared with a general PDMS microchip, thus enhanced the separation efficiency up to 239 000 plates/m for carbohydrates. This proposed system could satisfactorily separate eight carbohydrates within 180 s with good reproducibility and sensitively detect them in the linear ranges from 1 microM to 0.5 mM for trehalose and sucrose, 2.5 microM to 0.5 mM for lactose, galactose, glucose, and mannose, and 2.5 microM to 1.5 mM for fructose and xylose with the detection limit down to 90 amol. The designed microchip was successfully applied to detect carbohydrates in a practical acacia honey sample.

  14. Microchips in Medicine: Current and Future Applications.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Fox, Henry; McGurrin, Emily; Guang, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    With the objective of improving efficacy and morbidity, device manufacturers incorporate chemicals or drugs into medical implants. Using multiple reservoirs of discrete drug doses, microchips represent a new technology capable of on-demand release of various drugs over long periods of time. Herein, we review drug delivery systems, how microchips work, recent investigations, and future applications in various fields of medicine.

  15. Microchips in Medicine: Current and Future Applications

    PubMed Central

    Eltorai, Adam E. M.; Fox, Henry; McGurrin, Emily; Guang, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    With the objective of improving efficacy and morbidity, device manufacturers incorporate chemicals or drugs into medical implants. Using multiple reservoirs of discrete drug doses, microchips represent a new technology capable of on-demand release of various drugs over long periods of time. Herein, we review drug delivery systems, how microchips work, recent investigations, and future applications in various fields of medicine. PMID:27376079

  16. Production of Microchips from Polystyrene Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Sarah Lindsey

    2009-01-01

    Currently manufactured microchips are expensive to make, require specialized equipment, and leave a large environmental footprint. To counter this, an alternative procedure that is cheaper and leaves a smaller environmental footprint should be made. The goal of this research project is to develop a process that creates microchips from polystyrene…

  17. Homogeneous agglutination assay based on micro-chip sheathless flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zengshuai; Zhang, Pan; Cheng, Yinuo; Xie, Shuai; Zhang, Shuai; Ye, Xiongying

    2015-11-01

    Homogeneous assays possess important advantages that no washing or physical separation is required, contributing to robust protocols and easy implementation which ensures potential point-of-care applications. Optimizing the detection strategy to reduce the number of reagents used and simplify the detection device is desirable. A method of homogeneous bead-agglutination assay based on micro-chip sheathless flow cytometry has been developed. The detection processes include mixing the capture-probe conjugated beads with an analyte containing sample, followed by flowing the reaction mixtures through the micro-chip sheathless flow cytometric device. The analyte concentrations were detected by counting the proportion of monomers in the reaction mixtures. Streptavidin-coated magnetic beads and biotinylated bovine serum albumin (bBSA) were used as a model system to verify the method, and detection limits of 0.15 pM and 1.5 pM for bBSA were achieved, using commercial Calibur and the developed micro-chip sheathless flow cytometric device, respectively. The setup of the micro-chip sheathless flow cytometric device is significantly simple; meanwhile, the system maintains relatively high sensitivity, which mainly benefits from the application of forward scattering to distinguish aggregates from monomers. The micro-chip sheathless flow cytometric device for bead agglutination detection provides us with a promising method for versatile immunoassays on microfluidic platforms.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of magnetite particles covered with α-trietoxysilil-polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durdureanu-Angheluta, Anamaria; Pricop, Lucia; Stoica, Iuliana; Peptu, Catalina-Anisoara; Dascalu, Andrei; Marangoci, Narcisa; Doroftei, Florica; Chiriac, Horia; Pinteala, Mariana; Simionescu, Bogdan C.

    2010-10-01

    New silicon magnetite ferrofluids were prepared by dispersing siloxane-coated magnetite particles in polydimethylsiloxane with low or high molecular weights. Ferrofluids are stable colloidal dispersions of ultra fine covered magnetite particles, which may be selected for a specific application. We demonstrated new methods of stabilizing the magnetic particles by reacting the hydroxyl groups on the surface of magnetite particles with terminal ethoxy groups of polydimethylsiloxane, followed by their dispersion in silicon fluids. The new silicon ferrofluids were tested from the morphology, magnetic properties/losses, and rheological properties point of view.

  19. Measurement of Nitrogen Mustard Degredation Products by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microchip Electrophoresis with Contactless Conductivity Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential risk of human exposure from an accidental or intentional release of CWAs into a civilian population continues to drive the need for screening and monitoring techniques for these compounds. In particular, rapid and reliable methods for detecting CWAs such as the nitr...

  20. Contact solid-phase microextraction with uncoated glass and polydimethylsiloxane-coated fibers versus solvent sampling for the determination of hydrocarbons in adhesion secretions of Madagascar hissing cockroaches Gromphadorrhina portentosa (Blattodea) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Heike; Schmitt, Christian; Betz, Oliver; Albert, Klaus; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Molecular profiles of adhesion secretions of Gromphadorrhina portentosa (Madagascar hissing cockroach, Blattodea) were investigated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with particular focus on a comprehensive analysis of linear and branched hydrocarbons. For this purpose, secretions from the tarsi (feet), possibly contributing to adhesion on smooth surfaces, and control samples taken from the tibiae (lower legs), which contain general cuticular hydrocarbons that are supposed to be not involved in the biological adhesion function, were analyzed and their molecular fingerprints compared. A major analytical difficulty in such a study constitutes the representative, spatially controlled, precise and reproducible sampling from a living insect as well as the minute quantities of insect secretions on both tarsi and tibiae. Thus, three different in vivo sampling methods were compared in terms of sampling reproducibility and extraction efficiency by replicate measurement of samples from tarsi and tibiae. While contact solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber showed higher peak intensities, a self-made uncoated glass fiber had the best repeatability in contact-SPME sampling. Chromatographic profiles of these two contact-SPME sampling methods were statistically not significantly different. Inter-individual variances were larger than potentially existing minor differences in molecular patterns of distinct sampling methods. Sampling by solvent extraction was time consuming, showed lower sensitivities and was less reproducible. In general, sampling by contact-SPME with a cheap glass fiber turned out to be a viable alternative to PDMS-SPME sampling. Hydrocarbon patterns of the tarsal adhesion secretions were qualitatively similar to those of epicuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the tibiae. However, hydrocarbons were in general less abundant in tarsal secretions than secretions from tibiae.

  1. Viability study of HL60 cells in contact with commonly used microchip materials.

    PubMed

    Wolbers, Floor; ter Braak, Paul; Le Gac, Severine; Luttge, Regina; Andersson, Helene; Vermes, Istvan; van den Berg, Albert

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a study in which different commonly used microchip materials (silicon oxide, borosilicate glass, and PDMS) were analyzed for their effect on human promyelocytic leukemic (HL60) cells. Copper-coated silicon was analyzed for its toxicity and therefore served as a positive control. With quantitative PCR, the expression of the proliferation marker Cyclin D1 and the apoptosis marker tissue transglutaminase were measured. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the distribution through the different phases of the cell cycle (propidium iodide, PI) and the apoptotic cascade (Annexin V in combination with PI). All microchip materials, with the exception of Cu, appeared to be suitable for HL60 cells, showing a ratio apoptosis/proliferation (R(ap)) comparable to materials used in conventional cell culture (polystyrene). These results were confirmed with cell cycle analysis and apoptosis studies. Precoating the microchip material surfaces with serum favor the proliferation, as demonstrated by a lower R(ap) as compared to uncoated surfaces. The Cu-coated surface appeared to be toxic for HL60 cells, showing over 90% decreased viability within 24 h. From these results, it can be concluded that the chosen protocol is suitable for selection of the cell culture material, and that the most commonly used microchip materials are compatible with HL60 culturing. PMID:17124709

  2. Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  3. Liquid phase chromatography on microchips.

    PubMed

    Kutter, Jörg P

    2012-01-20

    Over the past twenty years, the field of microfluidics has emerged providing one of the main enabling technologies to realize miniaturized chemical analysis systems, often referred to as micro-Total Analysis Systems (uTAS), or, more generally, Lab-on-a-Chip Systems (LOC) [1,2]. While microfluidics was driven forward a lot from the engineering side, especially with respect to ink jet and dispensing technology, the initial push and interest from the analytical chemistry community was through the desire to develop miniaturized sensors, detectors, and, very early on, separation systems. The initial almost explosive development of, in particular, chromatographic separation systems on microchips, has, however, slowed down in recent years. This review takes a closer, critical look at how liquid phase chromatography has been implemented in miniaturized formats over the past several years, what is important to keep in mind when developing or working with separations in a miniaturized format, and what challenges and pitfalls remain.

  4. Polydimethylsiloxane-enclosed liquid crystal lasers for lab-on-chip applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, Jürgen; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a self-organized cholesteric liquid crystal laser confined between optically clear and elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The formation of a planar helical texture in the cholesteric was supported by microsctructuring of PDMS layer surface, using the nanoembossing technique with glass substrates coated with conventional alignment layers as a template. The potential of combining miniature cholesteric laser sources and microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip applications is discussed.

  5. Capillary driven flow of polydimethylsiloxane in open rectangular microchannels.

    PubMed

    Sowers, Timothy W; Sarkar, Rohit; Eswarappa Prameela, Suhas; Izadi, Ehsan; Rajagopalan, Jagannathan

    2016-06-29

    The flow of liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, Dow Corning Sylgard 184, 10 : 1 base to cross-linker ratio) in open, rectangular silicon microchannels, with and without a coating (100 nm) of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE), was studied. Photolithographic patterning and etching of silicon wafers was used to create microchannels with a range of widths (∼5-50 μm) and depths (5-20 μm). Experimental PDMS flow rates in both PTFE-coated and uncoated channels were compared to an analytical model based on the work of Lucas and Washburn. The experimental flow rates matched the predicted flow rates reasonably well when the channel aspect ratio (width to depth), p, was less than 2. For channels with p > 2, the observed flow rates progressively lagged model predictions with increasing p. The experimental data, including zero flow rates in certain high aspect ratio PTFE-coated channels, can largely be explained by changes in the front and upper meniscus morphology of the flow as the channel aspect ratio is varied. The results strongly suggest that meniscus morphology needs to be taken into account to accurately model capillary flow in microchannels, especially those with large aspect ratios. PMID:27301750

  6. Capillary driven flow of polydimethylsiloxane in open rectangular microchannels.

    PubMed

    Sowers, Timothy W; Sarkar, Rohit; Eswarappa Prameela, Suhas; Izadi, Ehsan; Rajagopalan, Jagannathan

    2016-06-29

    The flow of liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, Dow Corning Sylgard 184, 10 : 1 base to cross-linker ratio) in open, rectangular silicon microchannels, with and without a coating (100 nm) of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE), was studied. Photolithographic patterning and etching of silicon wafers was used to create microchannels with a range of widths (∼5-50 μm) and depths (5-20 μm). Experimental PDMS flow rates in both PTFE-coated and uncoated channels were compared to an analytical model based on the work of Lucas and Washburn. The experimental flow rates matched the predicted flow rates reasonably well when the channel aspect ratio (width to depth), p, was less than 2. For channels with p > 2, the observed flow rates progressively lagged model predictions with increasing p. The experimental data, including zero flow rates in certain high aspect ratio PTFE-coated channels, can largely be explained by changes in the front and upper meniscus morphology of the flow as the channel aspect ratio is varied. The results strongly suggest that meniscus morphology needs to be taken into account to accurately model capillary flow in microchannels, especially those with large aspect ratios.

  7. Microchip-based immunomagnetic detection of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Kazunori; Huang, Yu-Yen; Lane, Nancy; Huebschman, Michael; Uhr, Jonathan W; Frenkel, Eugene P; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2011-10-21

    Screening for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood has been an object of interest for evidence of progressive disease, status of disease activity, recognition of clonal evolution of molecular changes and for possible early diagnosis of cancer. We describe a new method of microchip-based immunomagnetic CTC detection, in which the benefits of both immunomagnetic assay and the microfluidic device are combined. As the blood sample flows through the microchannel closely above arrayed magnets, cancer cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles are separated from blood flow and deposited at the bottom wall of the glass coverslip, which allows direct observation of captured cells with a fluorescence microscope. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microchannel fixed on a glass coverslip was used to screen blood samples. The thin, flat dimensions of the microchannel, combined with the sharp magnetic field gradient in the vicinity of arrayed magnets with alternate polarities, lead to an effective capture of labeled cells. Compared to the commercially available CellSearch™ system, fewer (25%) magnetic particles are required to achieve a comparable capture rate, while the screening speed (at an optimal blood flow rate of 10 mL h(-1)) is more than five times faster than those reported previously with a microchannel-based assay. For the screening experiment, blood drawn from healthy subjects into CellSave™ tubes was spiked with cultured cancer cell lines of COLO205 and SKBR3. The blood was then kept at room temperature for 48 hours before the screening, emulating the actual clinical cases of blood screening. Customized Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (Veridex Ferrofluid™) conjugated to anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies were introduced into the blood samples to label cancer cells, and the blood was then run through the microchip device to capture the labelled cells. After capture, the cells were stained with fluorescent labelled anti

  8. Low electric field DNA separation and in-channel amperometric detection by microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ghanim, Motasem Hilmi; Najimudin, Nazalan; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi; Abdullah, Mohd Zaid

    2014-06-01

    Miniaturisation of microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) is becoming an increasingly important research topic, particularly in areas related to micro total analysis systems or lab on a chip. One of the important features associated with the miniaturised MCE system is the portable power supply unit. In this work, a very low electric field MCE utilising an amperometric detection scheme was designed for use in DNA separation. The device was fabricated from a glass/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid engraved microchannel with platinum electrodes sputtered onto a glass substrate. Measurement was based on a three-electrode arrangement, and separation was achieved using a very low electric field of 12 V/cm and sample volume of 1.5 µl. The device was tested using two commercial DNA markers of different base pair sizes. The results are in agreement with conventional electrophoresis, but with improved resolution. The sensitivity consistently higher than 100 nA, and the separation time approximately 45 min, making this microchip an ideal tool for DNA analysis.

  9. Self-cleaning superhydrophobic surface based on titanium dioxide nanowires combined with polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Guo, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Pingyu

    2013-11-01

    The present work describes a simple dipping process for the preparation of superhydrophobic coatings based on titanium dioxide nanowires combined with polydimethylsiloxane. The coating surface morphology, composition and wettability were investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and contact angle measurements, respectively. Interestingly, the superhydrophobic coatings turn into a hydrophilic one after UV irradiation. It is found that the superhydrophobic surface shows almost complete wet self-cleaning of dirt particles with water droplets. Furthermore, the coating surface shows the anti-fouling performance for organic solvents, which can self-remove the organic solvents layer and recovers its superhydrophobic behavior. The advantage of the present approach is that the damaged coating can be easily repaired.

  10. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of ultrananocrystalline diamond as an encapsulation layer for implantable microchips.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Tsai, Che-Yao; Lee, Chi-Young; Lin, I-Nan

    2014-05-01

    Thin ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films were evaluated for use as hermetic and bioinert encapsulating coatings for implantable microchips, where the reaction to UNCD in vitro and in vivo tissue was investigated. Leakage current tests showed that depositing UNCD coatings, which were conformally grown in (1% H2) Ar/CH4 plasma, on microchips rendered the surface electrochemically inactive, i.e. with a very low leakage current density (2.8×10(-5)Acm(-2) at -1V and 1.9×10(-3)Acm(-2) at ±5V) ex vivo. The impact of UNCD with different surface modifications on the growth and activation of macrophages was compared to that of standard-grade polystyrene. Macrophages attached to oxygen-terminated UNCD films down-regulated their production of cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, with UNCD-coated microchips, which were implanted subcutaneously into BALB/c mice for up to 3months, the tissue reaction and capsule formation was significantly decreased compared to the medical-grade titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and bare silicon. Additionally, the leakage current density, elicited by electrochemical activity, on silicon chips encapsulated in oxygen-terminated UNCD coatings remained at the low level of 2.5×10(-3)Acm(-2) at 5V for up to 3months in vivo, which is half the level of those encapsulated in hydrogen-terminated UNCD coatings. Thus, controlling the surface properties of UNCDs makes it possible to manipulate the in vivo functionality and stability of implantable devices so as to reduce the host inflammatory response following implantation. These observations suggest that oxygen-terminated UNCDs are promising candidates for use as encapsulating coatings for implantable microelectronic devices.

  11. Recent advances in microchip electrophoresis for amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Ou, Gaozhi; Feng, Xiaojun; Du, Wei; Liu, Xin; Liu, Bi-Feng

    2013-10-01

    With the maturation of microfluidic technologies, microchip electrophoresis has been widely employed for amino acid analysis owing to its advantages of low sample consumption, reduced analysis time, high throughput, and potential for integration and automation. In this article, we review the recent progress in amino acid analysis using microchip electrophoresis during the period from 2007 to 2012. Innovations in microchip materials, surface modification, sample introduction, microchip electrophoresis, and detection methods are documented, as well as nascent applications of amino acid analysis in single-cell analysis, microdialysis sampling, food analysis, and extraterrestrial exploration. Without doubt, more applications of microchip electrophoresis in amino acid analysis may be expected soon.

  12. Recent advances in microchip electrophoresis for amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Ou, Gaozhi; Feng, Xiaojun; Du, Wei; Liu, Xin; Liu, Bi-Feng

    2013-10-01

    With the maturation of microfluidic technologies, microchip electrophoresis has been widely employed for amino acid analysis owing to its advantages of low sample consumption, reduced analysis time, high throughput, and potential for integration and automation. In this article, we review the recent progress in amino acid analysis using microchip electrophoresis during the period from 2007 to 2012. Innovations in microchip materials, surface modification, sample introduction, microchip electrophoresis, and detection methods are documented, as well as nascent applications of amino acid analysis in single-cell analysis, microdialysis sampling, food analysis, and extraterrestrial exploration. Without doubt, more applications of microchip electrophoresis in amino acid analysis may be expected soon. PMID:23436170

  13. Microchip-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat.

    PubMed

    Carminato, Antonio; Vascellari, Marta; Marchioro, Wendy; Melchiotti, Erica; Mutinelli, Franco

    2011-12-01

    A 9-year-old, neutered male cat was presented for a subcutaneous mass on the neck. After surgical removal of the mass, a pet identification microchip was found within the tumour. Histological examination of the mass revealed typical features of the feline postinjection sarcoma. The cat had never received injections at the tumour site; all routine vaccinations were administered in the hindlimbs. Few cases of sarcomas developing at the site of microchip application have been reported in animals, although the contributory role of vaccine administrations has not been ruled out. This is the first report of a microchip-associated fibrosarcoma in a cat. Adherence to American Association of Feline Practitioners vaccination guidelines, avoiding the interscapular area, enabled confirmation of the definitive aetiology of the neoplasia.

  14. Fs-laser processing of polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect

    Atanasov, Petar A. Nedyalkov, Nikolay N.; Valova, Eugenia I.; Georgieva, Zhenya S.; Armyanov, Stefan A.; Kolev, Konstantin N.; Amoruso, Salvatore; Wang, Xuan; Bruzzese, Ricardo; Sawczak, Miroslaw; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2014-07-14

    We present an experimental analysis on surface structuring of polydimethylsiloxane films with UV (263 nm) femtosecond laser pulses, in air. Laser processed areas are analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The laser-treated sample shows the formation of a randomly nanostructured surface morphology. μ-Raman spectra, carried out at both 514 and 785 nm excitation wavelengths, prior and after laser treatment allow evidencing the changes in the sample structure. The influence of the laser fluence on the surface morphology is studied. Finally, successful electro-less metallization of the laser-processed sample is achieved, even after several months from the laser-treatment contrary to previous observation with nanosecond pulses. Our findings address the effectiveness of fs-laser treatment and chemical metallization of polydimethylsiloxane films with perspective technological interest in micro-fabrication devices for MEMS and nano-electromechanical systems.

  15. Application of Microchip Electrophoresis for Clinical Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsushiro, Shouki; Kataoka, Masatoshi

    Microchip electrophoresis has recently attracted much attention in the field of nuclear acid analysis due to its high efficiency, ease of operation, low consumption of samples and reagents, and relatively low costs. In addition, the analysis has expanded to an analytical field like not only the analysis of DNA but also the analysis of RNA, the protein, the sugar chain, and the cellular function, etc. In this report, we showed that high-performance monitoring systems for human blood glucose levels and α-amylase activity in human plasma using microchip electrophoresis.

  16. Construction of microfluidic chips using polydimethylsiloxane for adhesive bonding.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongkai; Huang, Bo; Zare, Richard N

    2005-12-01

    A thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) prepolymer, which is coated on a glass slide, is transferred onto the embossed area surfaces of a patterned substrate. This coated substrate is brought into contact with a flat plate, and the two structures are permanently bonded to form a sealed fluidic system by thermocuring (60 degrees C for 30 min) the prepolymer. The PDMS exists only at the contact area of the two surfaces with a negligible portion exposed to the microfluidic channel. This method is demonstrated by bonding microfluidic channels of two representative soft materials (PDMS substrate on a PDMS plate), and two representative hard materials (glass substrate on a glass plate). The effects of the adhesive layer on the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in glass channels are calculated and compared with the experimental results of a CE separation. For a channel with a size of approximately 10 to 500 microm, a approximately 200-500 nm thick adhesive layer creates a bond without voids or excess material and has little effect on the EOF rate. The major advantages of this bonding method are its generality and its ease of use.

  17. An Easy-to-Use Polystyrene Microchip-based Cell Culture System.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, Hidekatsu; Sunaoshi, Shohei; Tokeshi, Manabu; Kitamori, Takehiko; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed an integrated, low-cost microfluidic cell culture system that is easy to use. This system consists of a disposable polystyrene microchip, a polytetrafluoroethylene valve, an air bubble trap, and an indium tin oxide temperature controller. Valve pressure resistance was validated with a manometer to be 3 MPa. The trap protected against bubble contamination. The temperature controller enabled the culture of Macaca mulatta RF/6A 135 vascular endothelial cells, which are difficult to culture in glass microchips, without a CO2 incubator. We determined the optimal coating conditions for these cells and were able to achieve stable, confluent culture within 1 week. This practical system is suitable for low-cost screening and has potential applications as circulatory cell culture systems and research platforms in cell biology. PMID:26960617

  18. Photometric flow injection determination of phosphate on a PDMS microchip using an optical detection system assembled with an organic light emitting diode and an organic photodiode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    A compact photometric detector was constructed from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) based on a europium complex, europium(diben-zoylmethanato)3(bathophenanthroline) (Eu(DBM)3bath), as the light source and an organic photodiode (OPD) fabricated from a hetero-junction of two layers of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) as the photo-detector on a microchip prepared from poly(dimethylsiloxan) (PDMS) and was applied to the determination of phosphate. The OLED and the OPD were fabricated by a vapor deposition method on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate with the following layered structure; Glass (0.7 mm)/ITO (110 nm)/4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl amino]-biphenyl (α-NPD) (30 nm)/4,4'-di(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl (CBP): Eu(3+) (8 wt%, 30 nm)/bathocuproine (BCP) (30 nm)/aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) (25 nm)/magnesium and silver (MgAg) (100 nm)/Ag (10nm) and Glass (0.7 mm)/ITO (110 nm)/CuPc (35 nm)/C60 (50 nm)/BCP (10 nm)/Ag (50 nm), respectively. The OLED based on the europium complex emitted a sharp light at the wavelength of 612 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 8 nm. The performance of the photometric detector assembled was evaluated based on measurements of the absorbance of different concentrations of malachite green (MG) solutions for a batch system with 1cm long path length. The molar absorptive coefficient of the MG solution, calculated from the photocurrent of the OPD, was in good agreement with the value reported in the literature. A microchip with two inlets and one outlet U-shaped channel was prepared by a conventional photolithograph method. The OLED and the OPD were configured so as to face each other through the PDMS microchip in parallel in order to align the light axis of the OLED and the OPD with the flow cell (optical path length of 5mm), which was located at the end of outlet. For the determination of phosphate, an ion-association reaction between MG and a molybdenum-phosphate complex was utilized

  19. Photometric flow injection determination of phosphate on a PDMS microchip using an optical detection system assembled with an organic light emitting diode and an organic photodiode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    A compact photometric detector was constructed from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) based on a europium complex, europium(diben-zoylmethanato)3(bathophenanthroline) (Eu(DBM)3bath), as the light source and an organic photodiode (OPD) fabricated from a hetero-junction of two layers of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) as the photo-detector on a microchip prepared from poly(dimethylsiloxan) (PDMS) and was applied to the determination of phosphate. The OLED and the OPD were fabricated by a vapor deposition method on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate with the following layered structure; Glass (0.7 mm)/ITO (110 nm)/4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl amino]-biphenyl (α-NPD) (30 nm)/4,4'-di(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl (CBP): Eu(3+) (8 wt%, 30 nm)/bathocuproine (BCP) (30 nm)/aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) (25 nm)/magnesium and silver (MgAg) (100 nm)/Ag (10nm) and Glass (0.7 mm)/ITO (110 nm)/CuPc (35 nm)/C60 (50 nm)/BCP (10 nm)/Ag (50 nm), respectively. The OLED based on the europium complex emitted a sharp light at the wavelength of 612 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 8 nm. The performance of the photometric detector assembled was evaluated based on measurements of the absorbance of different concentrations of malachite green (MG) solutions for a batch system with 1cm long path length. The molar absorptive coefficient of the MG solution, calculated from the photocurrent of the OPD, was in good agreement with the value reported in the literature. A microchip with two inlets and one outlet U-shaped channel was prepared by a conventional photolithograph method. The OLED and the OPD were configured so as to face each other through the PDMS microchip in parallel in order to align the light axis of the OLED and the OPD with the flow cell (optical path length of 5mm), which was located at the end of outlet. For the determination of phosphate, an ion-association reaction between MG and a molybdenum-phosphate complex was utilized

  20. On-Campus Projects: Inventing a Microchip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    In response to growth of microelectronics and changes in microchip design/manufacturing technology, universities are supporting class projects for students. Approximately 50 schools now conduct such programs which have resulted from earlier National Science Foundation sponsorship. Major advantages for the students include designing experience,…

  1. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry for noncontact temperature control of nanoliter-volume enzymatic reactions in glass microchips.

    PubMed

    Easley, Christopher J; Legendre, Lindsay A; Roper, Michael G; Wavering, Thomas A; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2005-02-15

    Optical fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry (EFPI) was investigated as a noncontact temperature sensor and utilized for regulating the temperature of small-volume solutions in microchips. Interference pattern analysis determined the optical path lengths (OPL) associated with reflections from various surfaces on or in the microchip, in particular, from gold sputtered on the bottom of a microchannel. Since OPL is directly proportional to refractive index, which is dependent on solution temperature, the EFPI sensor was capable of noncontact monitoring of solution temperature simply from alterations in the measured path length. Calibration of the sensor against a thermocouple was performed while heating the microchip in a noncontact manner with an IR lamp. The combination of EFPI temperature sensor, IR-mediated heating, and air cooling allowed a fully noncontact system for small-volume temperature control in microchip structures, and its utility was illustrated by optimal digestion of DNA by a temperature-dependent restriction endonuclease in 320 nL. The functionality and simplicity of the microchip EFPI temperature sensor was enhanced by replacing the prebonding sputtered gold with a tunable, chemically plated semireflective silver coating created in situ after chip fabrication. This provided an 8-fold improvement in the lowest detectable temperature change (deltaT = 0.1 degrees C), facilitated primarily by enhanced reflection from both the bottom and top surfaces of the microchannel. This approach for controlling micro- and nanoscale reactions--with heating, cooling, and temperature control being carried out in a completely noncontact fashion--provides an accurate and sensitive method for executing chemical and biochemical reactions in microchips. PMID:15858983

  2. Comparison of surface and hydrogel-based protein microchips.

    PubMed

    Zubtsov, D A; Savvateeva, E N; Rubina, A Yu; Pan'kov, S V; Konovalova, E V; Moiseeva, O V; Chechetkin, V R; Zasedatelev, A S

    2007-09-15

    Protein microchips are designed for high-throughput evaluation of the concentrations and activities of various proteins. The rapid advance in microchip technology and a wide variety of existing techniques pose the problem of unified approach to the assessment and comparison of different platforms. Here we compare the characteristics of protein microchips developed for quantitative immunoassay with those of antibodies immobilized on glass surfaces and in hemispherical gel pads. Spotting concentrations of antibodies used for manufacturing of microchips of both types and concentrations of antigen in analyte solution were identical. We compared the efficiency of antibody immobilization, the intensity of fluorescence signals for both direct and sandwich-type immunoassays, and the reaction-diffusion kinetics of the formation of antibody-antigen complexes for surface and gel-based microchips. Our results demonstrate higher capacity and sensitivity for the hydrogel-based protein microchips, while fluorescence saturation kinetics for the two types of microarrays was comparable.

  3. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection for Monitoring Environmental Pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This invited paper reviews recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, sample pretreatments, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  4. Microchip capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of intact proteins using uncoated Ormocomp microchips.

    PubMed

    Sikanen, Tiina; Aura, Susanna; Franssila, Sami; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2012-01-20

    We present rapid (<5 min) and efficient intact protein analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) using fully microfabricated and monolithically integrated capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization (CE-ESI) microchips. The microchips are fabricated fully of commercial inorganic-organic hybrid material, Ormocomp, by UV-embossing and adhesive Ormocomp-Ormocomp bonding (CE microchannels). A sheath-flow ESI interface is monolithically integrated with the UV-embossed separation channels by cutting a rectangular emitter tip in the end with a dicing saw. As a result, electrospray was produced from the corner of chip with good reproducibility between parallel tips (stability within 3.8-9.2% RSD). Thanks to its inherent biocompatibility and stable (negative) surface charge, Ormocomp microchips enable efficient intact protein analysis with up to ∼10(4) theoretical separation plates per meter without any chemical or physical surface modification before analysis. The same microchip setup is also feasible for rapid peptide sequencing and mass fingerprinting and shows excellent migration time repeatability from run to run for both peptides (5.6-5.9% RSD, n=4) and intact proteins (1.3-7.5% RSD, n=3). Thus, the Ormocomp microchips provide a versatile new tool for MS-based proteomics. Particularly, the feasibility of the Ormocomp chips for rapid analysis of intact proteins with such a simple setup is a valuable increment to the current technology.

  5. Protein microchips : use for immunoassay and enzymatic reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Arenkov, P.; Kukhtin, A.; Gemmell, A.; Voloschuk, S.; Chupeeva, V.; Mirzabekov, A.; Biochip Technology Center; Russian Academy of Sciences

    2000-02-15

    Different proteins such as antibodies, antigens, and enzymes were immobilized within the 100 x 100 x 20-{mu}m gel pads of protein microchips. A modified polyacrylamide gel has been developed to accommodate proteins of a size up to 400,000 daltons. Electrophoresis in the microchip reaction chamber speeded up antigen-antibody interactions within the gel. Protein microchips were used in immunoassays for detection of antigens or antibodies, as well as to carry out enzymatic reactions and to measure their kinetics in the absence or presence of an inhibitor. A protein microchip can be used several times in different immunoassays and enzymatic kinetic measurements.

  6. Comparison of digital rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in cats.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica M; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Lappin, Michael R

    2009-07-01

    This study compares the use of traditional rectal thermometry with an implantable microchip temperature transponder in cats. The microchip transponder was implanted over the shoulder blades and was programmed with cat identification information. Concurrently, the cats were involved in a study in which they were infected experimentally with feline herpesvirus 1; this situation enabled temperature comparisons in both normal and abnormal ranges. Results from the microchip transponder technique were compared with rectal thermometry by using a concordance test of agreement. These data revealed close agreement between rectal and microchip transponder thermometry in the cat at both normal and abnormal temperature ranges.

  7. Monitoring environmental pollutants by microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This is a review article. During the past decade, significant progress in the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems has Occurred due to the numerous advantages of microchip analysis. This review focuses on recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  8. Thin Film Formation and Morphology of Electrosprayed Polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Florian M; Töpper, Tino; Osmani, Bekim; Deyhle, Hans; Kovacs, Gabor; Müller, Bert

    2016-04-01

    Low-voltage dielectric actuators (DEAs) can be fabricated using submicrometer-thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. The two established techniques, namely spin coating and molecular beam deposition, however, are inappropriate to produce multistack DEAs in an efficient way. Therefore, we propose an alternative deposition technique, i.e., the alternating current electrospray deposition (ACESD) of 5 vol % PDMS in ethyl acetate solution and subsequent ultraviolet light curing. Atomic force microscopy makes possible the three-dimensional analysis of cured droplet-like islands. These circular islands, prepared on 2 in. Si(100) wafers from four polymers with molecular masses between 800 and 62,700 g/mol, reveal a characteristic morphology with an increasing height-to-diameter ratio. Using the 6000 g/mol polymer for ACESD, the film morphology evolution was tracked by applying conventional optical microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. When the deposition was terminated after 13 s, circular islands with a mean height of 30 nm were found, while terminating the deposition after about 155 s led to a confluent layer with a mean height of 91 ± 10 nm. Potential electrostatic interactions between the droplets could not be identified through the analysis of spatial island distribution. Nevertheless, ACESD is a budget-priced and competitive deposition technique that can be employed to fabricate submicrometer-thin PDMS films with true nanometer roughness. PMID:26978236

  9. Open channel electrochromatography on a microchip

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, S.C.; Hergenroeder, R.; Koutny, L.B.; Ramsey, J.M. )

    1994-07-15

    A glass microchip having a channel with a cross section of 5.6 [mu]m high and 66 [mu]m wide was fabricated using standard photolithographic and etching techniques. The surface of the channel was chemically modified with octadecylsilane to function as the stationary phase for open channel chromatography. Electroosmotic flow was used to [open quotes]load[close quotes] the sample into the microchip and to [open quotes]pump[close quotes] the mobile phase during the experiments. For electric field strengths in the separation column from 27 to 163 V/cm, the linear velocity for the electroosmotic flow ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 mm/s. Detection was performed using direct fluorescence for separation monitoring and indirect fluorescence for void time measurements. Plate heights as low as 4.1 and 5.0 [mu]m were generated for unretained and retained components, respectively. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Nonlinear mode coupling in a microchip laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lacot, E.; Stoeckel, F.

    1996-09-01

    The dynamics of the total intensity and of each individual mode of a microchip laser have been studied. Because of the nonlinear mode coupling by spatial hole burning, the intensity fluctuation of each longitudinal mode can be described by {ital N} relaxation frequencies, where {ital N} is the number of lasing modes. Owing to the small cross-saturation coefficient between the longitudinal modes, the total intensity exhibits a behavior much more complex than the regular relaxation oscillations usually observed. As a result of the short photon lifetime of the microchip laser this unstable behavior of the total intensity can easily be observed even when the number of modes is small. For each longitudinal mode, we also observed beating and antiphase dynamics between two coupled states of orthogonal polarization. Numerical simulations permit a good description of the experimental results. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  11. Detection of telomerase activity using microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Koji; Arakawa, Hidetoshi

    2015-07-01

    Telomerase participates in malignant transformation or immortalization of cells and thus has attracted attention as an anticancer drug target and diagnostic tumor marker. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and improved TRAP methods (TRAP-fluorescence, TRAP-hybridization, etc.) are widely used forms of this telomerase assay. However, these approaches generally employ acrylamide gel electrophoresis after amplification of telomeric repeats by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), making these TRAP methods time consuming and technically demanding. In this study we developed a novel telomerase assay using microchip electrophoresis for rapid and highly sensitive detection of telomerase activity in cancer cells. The mixed gel of 0.8% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and 0.3% polyethylene oxide (PEO) with SYBR Gold (fluorescent reagent) was used for microchip electrophoresis. As a result, the product amplified by a telomerase-positive cell could be measured in one cell per assay and detected with high reproducibility (CV=0.67%) in the short time of 100s.

  12. Possibility of Microchip Electrophoresis for Biological Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Masatoshi; Kido, Jun-Ichi; Shinohara, Yasuo

    Microchip electrophoresis has recently attracted much attention in the field of nuclear acid analysis due to its high efficiency, ease of operation, low consumption of samples and reagents, and relatively low costs. Nucleic acid fragments are separated by capillary electrophoresis in a chip with microfabricated channels, with automated detection as well as on-line data evaluation. Microfabricated devices are forecast to be fundamental to the postgenome era, especially in the field of genetics and medicine. However, although there are many reports of the use of these instruments to evaluate standard DNA, DNA ladders, PCR products, and commercially available plasmid digests, little information is available their use with biological material. In this report, we showed the accuracy of sizing and quantification of endonuclease-digested plasmid DNA. We also showed the feasibility of on-microchip endonuclease treatment of plasmid DNA and sequential analysis as an additional application for DNA analysis. Furthermore, to evaluate the possibility of microchip electrophoresis for biological application, the results of the examination of blood sugar in human plasma and mitochondrial membrane potential were shown.

  13. Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianhua; He, Yuan; Wei, Jianjun; Que, Long

    2012-01-01

    Herein we report the label-free detection of a cancer biomarker using newly developed arrayed nanostructured Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) microchips. Specifically, the prostate cancer biomarker free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) has been detected with a mouse anti-human PSA monoclonal antibody (mAb) as the receptor. Experiments found that the limit-of-detection of current nanostructured FPI microchip for f-PSA is about 10 pg/mL and the upper detection range for f-PSA can be dynamically changed by varying the amount of the PSA mAb immobilized on the sensing surface. The control experiments have also demonstrated that the immunoassay protocol used in the experiments shows excellent specificity and selectivity, suggesting the great potential to detect the cancer biomarkers at trace levels in complex biofluids. In addition, given its nature of low cost, simple-to-operation and batch fabrication capability, the arrayed nanostructured FPI microchip-based platform could provide an ideal technical tool for point-of-care diagnostics application and anticancer drug screen and discovery.

  14. Characterization of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) properties for biomedical micro/nanosystems.

    PubMed

    Mata, Alvaro; Fleischman, Aaron J; Roy, Shuvo

    2005-12-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS Sylgard 184, Dow Corning Corporation) pre-polymer was combined with increasing amounts of cross-linker (5.7, 10.0, 14.3, 21.4, and 42.9 wt.%) and designated PDMS1, PDMS2, PDMS3, PDMS4, and PDMS5, respectively. These materials were processed by spin coating and subjected to common micro-fabrication, micro-machining, and biomedical processes: chemical immersion, oxygen plasma treatment, sterilization, and exposure to tissue culture media. The PDMS formulations were analyzed by gravimetry, goniometry, tensile testing, nano-indentation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Spin coating of PDMS was formulation dependent with film thickness ranging from 308 microm on PDMS1 to 171 microm on PDMS5 at 200 revolutions per minute (rpm). Ultimate tensile stress (UTS) increased from 3.9 MPa (PDMS1) to 10.8 MPa (PDMS3), and then decreased down to 4.0 MPa (PDMS5). Autoclave sterilization (AS) increased the storage modulus (sigma) and UTS in all formulations, with the highest increase in UTS exhibited by PDMS5 (218%). PDMS surface hydrophilicity and micro-textures were generally unaffected when exposed to the different chemicals, except for micro-texture changes after immersion in potassium hydroxide and buffered hydrofluoric, nitric, sulfuric, and hydrofluoric acids; and minimal changes in contact angle after immersion in hexane, hydrochloric acid, photoresist developer, and toluene. Oxygen plasma treatment decreased the contact angle of PDMS2 from 109 degrees to 60 degrees. Exposure to tissue culture media resulted in increased PDMS surface element concentrations of nitrogen and oxygen.

  15. Highly cytocompatible and flexible three-dimensional graphene/polydimethylsiloxane composite for culture and electrochemical detection of L929 fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Waiwijit, Uraiwan; Maturos, Thitima; Pakapongpan, Saithip; Phokharatkul, Ditsayut; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Tuantranont, Adisorn

    2016-08-01

    Recently, three-dimensional graphene interconnected network has attracted great interest as a scaffold structure for tissue engineering due to its high biocompatibility, high electrical conductivity, high specific surface area and high porosity. However, free-standing three-dimensional graphene exhibits poor flexibility and stability due to ease of disintegration during processing. In this work, three-dimensional graphene is composited with polydimethylsiloxane to improve the structural flexibility and stability by a new simple two-step process comprising dip coating of polydimethylsiloxane on chemical vapor deposited graphene/Ni foam and wet etching of nickel foam. Structural characterizations confirmed an interconnected three-dimensional multi-layer graphene structure with thin polydimethylsiloxane scaffold. The composite was employed as a substrate for culture of L929 fibroblast cells and its cytocompatibility was evaluated by cell viability (Alamar blue assay), reactive oxygen species production and vinculin immunofluorescence imaging. The result revealed that cell viability on three-dimensional graphene/polydimethylsiloxane composite increased with increasing culture time and was slightly different from a polystyrene substrate (control). Moreover, cells cultured on three-dimensional graphene/polydimethylsiloxane composite generated less ROS than the control at culture times of 3-6 h. The results of immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that fibroblast cells expressed adhesion protein (vinculin) and adhered well on three-dimensional graphene/polydimethylsiloxane surface. Good cell adhesion could be attributed to suitable surface properties of three-dimensional graphene/polydimethylsiloxane with moderate contact angle and small negative zeta potential in culture solution. The results of electrochemical study by cyclic voltammetry showed that an oxidation current signal with no apparent peak was induced by fibroblast cells and the oxidation current at an

  16. Magnetorheological polydimethylsiloxane micro-optical resonator.

    PubMed

    Ioppolo, Tindaro; Otügen, M Volkan

    2010-06-15

    We investigate the possibility of using magnetorheological polydimethylsiloxane (MR-PDMS) spheres as micro-optical resonators. In particular, the effect of a magnetic field on the whispering gallery modes (WGM) of these resonators is studied. The applied field induces mechanical deformation, causing shifts in the WGM. The microspheres are made of PDMS with embedded magnetically polarizable particles. An analysis is carried out to estimate the WGM shifts induced by an external magnetic field. An experiment is also carried out to demonstrate the magnetic field-induced WGM shifts in an MR-PDMS microsphere. The results indicate that MR-PDMS microspheres can be used as high-Q-factor tunable optical cavities with potential applications in sensing. PMID:20548378

  17. Photolithographic surface micromachining of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiqiang; Lam, Raymond H. W.

    2014-01-01

    A major technical hurdle in microfluidics is the difficulty in achieving high fidelity lithographic patterning on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Here, we report a simple yet highly precise and repeatable PDMS surface micromachining method using direct photolithography followed by reactive ion etching (RIE). Our method to achieve surface patterning of PDMS applied an O2 plasma treatment to PDMS to activate its surface to overcome the challenge of poor photoresist adhesion on PDMS for photolithography. Our photolithographic PDMS surface micromachining technique is compatible with conventional soft lithography techniques and other silicon-based surface and bulk micromachining methods. To illustrate the general application of our method, we demonstrated fabrications of large microfiltration membranes and free-standing beam structures in PDMS. PMID:22089984

  18. Indentation of polydimethylsiloxane submerged in organic solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuhang; Chen, Xin; Whitesides, George; Vlassak, Joost; Suo, Zhigang

    2011-03-01

    This study uses a method based on indentation to characterize a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer submerged in an organic solvent (decane, heptane, pentane, or cyclohexane). An indenter is pressed into a disk of a swollen elastomer to a fixed depth, and the force on the indenter is recorded as a function of time. By examining how the relaxation time scales with the radius of contact, one can differentiate the poroelastic behavior from the viscoelastic behavior. By matching the relaxation curve measured experimentally to that derived from the theory of poroelasticity, one can identify elastic constants and permeability. The measured elastic constants are interpreted within the Flory-Huggins theory. The measured permeabilities indicate that the solvents migrate in PDMS by diffusion, rather than by convection. This work confirms that indentation is a reliable and convenient method to characterize swollen elastomers.

  19. Highly Stretchable Electrodes on Wrinkled Polydimethylsiloxane Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jun; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhang, Binzhen; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2015-11-01

    This paper demonstrates a fabrication technology of Ag wrinkled electrodes with application in highly stretchable wireless sensors. Ag wrinkled thin films that were formed by vacuum deposition on top of pre-strained and relaxed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates which have been treated using an O2 plasma and a surface chemical functionalization process can reach a strain limit up to 200%, while surface adhesion area can reach 95%. The electrical characteristics of components such as resistors, inductors and capacitors made from such Ag conductors have remained stable under stretching exhibiting low temperature and humidity coefficients. This technology was then demonstrated for wireless wearable electronics using compatible processing with established micro/nano fabrication technology.

  20. Highly Stretchable Electrodes on Wrinkled Polydimethylsiloxane Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhang, Binzhen; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a fabrication technology of Ag wrinkled electrodes with application in highly stretchable wireless sensors. Ag wrinkled thin films that were formed by vacuum deposition on top of pre-strained and relaxed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates which have been treated using an O2 plasma and a surface chemical functionalization process can reach a strain limit up to 200%, while surface adhesion area can reach 95%. The electrical characteristics of components such as resistors, inductors and capacitors made from such Ag conductors have remained stable under stretching exhibiting low temperature and humidity coefficients. This technology was then demonstrated for wireless wearable electronics using compatible processing with established micro/nano fabrication technology. PMID:26585636

  1. Shock-Induced Chemistry in Polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, Robert; Blais, Norm; Engelke, Ray; Dattelbaum, Dana; Sheffield, Steve; McInroy, Rhonda

    2006-07-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a common silicone polymer. Understanding its decomposition product distribution is required for calculating its equation of state under shock conditions. We have detonated small samples of HMX explosive in contact with the polymer in a high vacuum chamber and used a time-of-flight mass spectrometer to analyze the chemical products of PDMS decomposition. We have used the computer code CTH to model the time history of pressure and temperature in the sample. The time scale of a few nanoseconds in these experiments generates products that are significantly different than the equilibrium products observed in thermal pyrolysis experiments. The mass spectrum under shock conditions predominately shows monomers to heptamers of dimethylsiloxane, and the n-mers minus methyl groups. We have compared spectra of high molecular weight liquid PDMS, crosslinked solid PDMS, and silica filled solid PDMS.

  2. Chronic, programmed polypeptide delivery from an implanted, multireservoir microchip device.

    PubMed

    Prescott, James H; Lipka, Sara; Baldwin, Samuel; Sheppard, Norman F; Maloney, John M; Coppeta, Jonathan; Yomtov, Barry; Staples, Mark A; Santini, John T

    2006-04-01

    Implanted drug delivery systems are being increasingly used to realize the therapeutic potential of peptides and proteins. Here we describe the controlled pulsatile release of the polypeptide leuprolide from microchip implants over 6 months in dogs. Each microchip contains an array of discrete reservoirs from which dose delivery can be controlled by telemetry.

  3. Recent innovations in protein separation on microchips by electrophoretic methods.

    PubMed

    Peng, Youyuan; Pallandre, Antoine; Tran, N Thuy; Taverna, Myriam

    2008-01-01

    Microchips for analytical purposes have attracted great attention over the last 20 years. In the present review, we focus on the most recent development of microchips for electrophoretic separation of proteins. This review starts with a short recalling about the microchips covering the basic microchip layout for CE and the commercial chips and microchip platforms. A short paragraph is dedicated to the surface treatment of microchips, which is of paramount importance in protein analysis. One section is dedicated to on-line sample pretreatment in microchips and summarizes different strategies to pre-concentrate or to purify proteins from complex matrixes. Most of the common modes used for CE of proteins have already been adapted to the chip format, while multidimensional approaches are still in progress. The different routes to achieve detection in microchip are also presented with a special attention to derivatization or labeling of proteins. Finally, several recent applications are mentioned. They highlight the great potential of electrophoretic separations of proteins in numerous fields such as biological, pharmaceutical or agricultural and food analysis. A bibliography with 151 references is provided covering papers published from 2000 to the early 2007.

  4. Development of a microchip-pulsed electrochemical method for rapid determination of L-DOPA and tyrosine in Mucuna pruriens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinchun; Chen, Zuanguang; Yang, Fan; Pan, Jianbin; Li, Yinbao

    2013-05-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is a well-recognized therapeutic compound to Parkinson's disease. Tyrosine is a precursor for the biosynthesis of L-DOPA, both of which are widely found in traditional medicinal material, Mucuna pruriens. In this paper, we described a validated novel analytical method based on microchip capillary electrophoresis with pulsed electrochemical detection for the simultaneous measurement of L-DOPA and tyrosine in M. pruriens. This protocol adopted end-channel amperometric detection using platinum disk electrode on a homemade glass/polydimethylsiloxane electrophoresis microchip. The background buffer consisted of 10 mM borate (pH 9.5) and 0.02 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, which can produce an effective resolution for the two analytes. In the optimal condition, sufficient electrophoretic separation and sensitive detection for the target analytes can be realized within 60 s. Both tyrosine and L-DOPA yielded linear response in the concentration range of 5.0-400 μM (R(2) > 0.99), and the LOD were 0.79 and 1.1 μM, respectively. The accuracy and precision of the established method were favorable. The present method shows several merits such as facile apparatus, high speed, low cost and minimal pollution, and provides a means for the pharmacologically active ingredients assay in M. pruriens. PMID:23529844

  5. IATROGENIC MICROCHIP ARTERIAL EMBOLISM IN A CHILEAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Ewing, Jacob; Arruda, Paulo; Kuyper, Jennifer; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Miles, Kristina M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant microchip migration has been reported in domestic animal species, but in most cases, this migration is atraumatic to the patient. Reports of microchip-associated trauma and sarcoma development also have been reported in a variety of mammal species. This report describes accidental arterial microchip insertion causing obstruction of the iliac artery in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Diagnostic imaging included digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography to determine the location of the microchip. Surgical removal of the microchip was attempted; however, the flamingo died intraoperatively. Postmortem evaluation found trauma to the epicardium, without penetration of the ventricle. The descending aorta was found traumatized and identified as the most likely insertion point leading to the embolism.

  6. Recent developments in electrochemical detection for microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vandaveer, Walter R; Pasas-Farmer, Stephanie A; Fischer, David J; Frankenfeld, Celeste N; Lunte, Susan M

    2004-11-01

    Significant progress in the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems has occurred since their inception over a decade ago. This is primarily due to the numerous advantages of microchip analysis, including the ability to analyze minute samples, speed of analysis, reduced cost and waste, and portability. This review focuses on recent developments in integrating electrochemical (EC) detection with microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE). These detection modes include amperometry, conductimetry, and potentiometry. EC detection is ideal for use with microchip CE systems because it can be easily miniaturized with no diminution in analytical performance. Advances in microchip format, electrode material and design, decoupling of the detector from the separation field, and integration of sample preparation, separation, and detection on-chip are discussed. Microchip CEEC applications for enzyme/immunoassays, clinical and environmental assays, as well as the detection of neurotransmitters are also described.

  7. IATROGENIC MICROCHIP ARTERIAL EMBOLISM IN A CHILEAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Ewing, Jacob; Arruda, Paulo; Kuyper, Jennifer; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Miles, Kristina M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant microchip migration has been reported in domestic animal species, but in most cases, this migration is atraumatic to the patient. Reports of microchip-associated trauma and sarcoma development also have been reported in a variety of mammal species. This report describes accidental arterial microchip insertion causing obstruction of the iliac artery in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Diagnostic imaging included digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography to determine the location of the microchip. Surgical removal of the microchip was attempted; however, the flamingo died intraoperatively. Postmortem evaluation found trauma to the epicardium, without penetration of the ventricle. The descending aorta was found traumatized and identified as the most likely insertion point leading to the embolism. PMID:27468052

  8. Bulk modification of PDMS microchips by an amphiphilic copolymer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2007-09-01

    A simple and rapid bulk-modification method based on adding an amphiphilic copolymer during the fabrication process was employed to modify PDMS microchips. Poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) was used as the additive substance. Compared to the native PDMS microchips, both the contact angle and the EOF of the bulk-modified PDMS microchips decreased. The effects of the additive loading and the pH on the EOF were investigated in detail. The bulk-modified PDMS microchips exhibited reproducible and stable EOF behavior. The application of the bulk-modified PDMS microchips was also studied and the results indicated that they could be successfully used to separate amino acids and to suppress protein adsorption.

  9. Modular approach to fabrication of three-dimensional microchannel systems in PDMS-application to sheath flow microchips.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, O; Niedermann, P; Manz, A

    2001-12-01

    A modular approach to fabrication of three-dimensional microchannel systems in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is presented. It is based on building blocks with microstructuring on up to three faces. The assembled 3D-microchip consists of three building blocks in two layers. For assembly of the bottom layer two building blocks are joined horizontally, whereby the side structuring of the first is sealed against the flat side surface of the other. This results in the formation of a vertical interconnection opening between the building blocks to supplement the microstructuring on the lower faces. The 3D microchannel system is completed by placing a third building block, with microstructuring only on its lower face, on top of the assembled layer. While plasma assisted bonding is used between the two building blocks of the bottom layer, inherent adhesion is sufficient between the layers and for attaching the assembled 3D-microchip to a substrate. This modular approach was applied to the fabrication of a 3D-sheath flow microchip. It comprises a 20 microm deep microchannel system with sample inlet, open sensing area and outlet in the bottom layer and sheath flow inlet in the top layer. 100 microM fluorescein at 6 microL min(-1) was used as sample flow and water at increasing flow rates as sheath flow. With ratios of sheath to sample flow up to 20:1 sample layers down to 1 microm thickness could be generated. Sample layer thickness was determined via volume detection on an epi-fluorescence microscope followed by image analysis.

  10. Experiences with Hermann's tortoise (Testudo hermanni) microchipping in Slovenia - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Dovč, Alenka; Stvarnik, Mateja; Mavri, Urška; Gregurić-Gračner, Gordana; Tomažić, Iztok

    2016-03-01

    This study describes experiences obtained with microchipping of Hermann's tortoises in Slovenia. Over a period of three years, a total of 5,128 Hermann's tortoises from parental breeding stock were microchipped. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously in the left inguinal region. During the application of microchips, males were bleeding in 2.6% and females in 1.4% of the cases. Bleeding frequency was related to sex, animal size and environmental temperature at the time of microchipping. The presence of microchips was followed up over a period of several years. At the control check conducted a few years later, all previously microchipped tortoises were included. Out of the entire parental breeding stock, 235 (4.6%) had lost their microchips, thus 63 males (5.7%) and 172 females (4.3%) were unmarked. The possible reasons for microchip loss are migration or inactivity of the implanted microchips. PMID:26919141

  11. [Microchips based on three dimensional gel cells: history and perspective].

    PubMed

    Kolchinskiĭ, A M; Griadunov, D A; Lysov, Iu P; Mikhaĭlovich, V M; Nasedkina, T V; Turygin, A Iu; Rubina, A Iu; Barskiĭ, V E; Zasedatelev, A S

    2004-01-01

    The review describes the history of creation and development of the microchip technology and its role in the human genome project in Russia. The emphasis is placed on the three-dimensional gel-based microchips developed at the Center of Biological Microchips headed by A.D. Mirzabekov since 1988. The gel-based chips of the last generation, IMAGE chips (Immobilized Micro Array of Gel Elements), have a number of advantages over the previous versions. The microchips are manufactured by photo-initiated copolymerization of gel components and immobilized molecules (DNA, proteins, and ligands). This ensures an even distribution of the immobilized probe throughout the microchip gel element with a high yield (about 50% for oligonucleotides). The use of methacrylamide as a main component of the polymerization mixture resulted in a substantial increase of gel porosity without affecting its mechanical strength and stability, which allowed one to work with the DNA fragments of up to 500 nt in length, as well as with rather large protein molecules. At present, the gel-based microchips are widely applied to address different problems. The generic microchips containing a complete set of possible hexanucleotides are used to reveal the DNA motifs binding with different proteins and to study the DNA-protein interactions. The oligonucleotide microchips are a cheap and reliable tool of diagnostics designed for mass application. Biochips have been developed for identification of the tuberculosis pathogen and its antibiotic-resistant forms; for diagnostics of orthopoxviruses, including the smallpox virus; for diagnostics of the anthrax pathogen; and for identification of chromosomal rearrangements in leukemia patients. The protein microchips can be adapted for further use in proteomics. Bacterial and yeast cells were also immobilized in the gel, maintaining their viability, which open a wide potential for creation biosensors on the basis of microchips.

  12. Microchip Immunoaffinity Electrophoresis of Antibody-Thymidine Kinase 1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Pagaduan, Jayson V.; Ramsden, Madison; O’Neill, Kim; Woolley, Adam T.

    2015-01-01

    Thymidine kinase-1 (TK1) is an important cancer biomarker whose serum levels are elevated in early cancer development. We developed a microchip electrophoresis immunoaffinity assay to measure recombinant purified TK1 (pTK1) using an antibody that binds to human TK1. We fabricated poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic devices to test the feasibility of detecting antibody (Ab)-pTK1 immune complexes as a step towards TK1 analysis in clinical serum samples. We were able to separate immune complexes from unbound antibodies using 0.5X phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4) containing 0.01% Tween-20, with 1% w/v methylcellulose that acts as a dynamic surface coating and sieving matrix. Separation of the antibody and Ab-pTK1 complex was observed within a 5 mm effective separation length. This method of detecting pTK1 is easy to perform, requires only a 10 μL sample volume, and takes just 1 minute for separation. PMID:25486911

  13. Microchip immunoaffinity electrophoresis of antibody-thymidine kinase 1 complex.

    PubMed

    Pagaduan, Jayson V; Ramsden, Madison; O'Neill, Kim; Woolley, Adam T

    2015-03-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is an important cancer biomarker whose serum levels are elevated in early cancer development. We developed a microchip electrophoresis immunoaffinity assay to measure recombinant purified TK1 (pTK1) using an antibody (Ab) that binds to human TK1. We fabricated PMMA microfluidic devices to test the feasibility of detecting Ab-pTK1 immune complexes as a step toward TK1 analysis in clinical serum samples. We were able to separate immune complexes from unbound Abs using 0.5× PBS (pH 7.4) containing 0.01% Tween-20, with 1% w/v methylcellulose that acts as a dynamic surface coating and sieving matrix. Separation of the Ab and Ab-pTK1 complex was observed within a 5 mm effective separation length. This method of detecting pTK1 is easy to perform, requires only a 10 μL sample volume, and takes just 1 min for separation.

  14. Sterilization of polydimethylsiloxane surface with Chinese herb extract: a new antibiotic mechanism of chlorogenic acid

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Song; Wu, Ming; Guo, Jiayu; Zhang, Wang; Liu, Xiaohan; Sun, Lili; Holyst, Robert; Hou, Sen; Fang, Yongchun; Feng, Xizeng

    2015-01-01

    Coating of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface with a traditional Chinese herb extract chlorogenic acid (CA) solves the contemporary problem of sterilization of PDMS surface. The E. coli grows slower and has a higher death rate on the CA-coated PDMS surfaces. A smoother morphology of these E. coli cell wall is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Unlike the reported mechanism, where CA inhibits bacterial growth by damaging the cell membrane in the bulk solution, we find the CA-coated PDMS surface also decreases the stiffness of the cell wall. A decrease in the Young’s modulus of the cell wall from 3 to 0.8 MPa is reported. Unexpectedly, the CA effect on the swarming ability and the biofilm stability of the bacteria can be still observed, even after they have been removed from the CA environment, indicating a decrease in their resistance to antibiotics for a prolonged time. The CA-coated PDMS surface shows better antibiotic effect against three types of both Gram-positive and Gran-negative bacteria than the gentamicin-coated PDMS surface. Coating of CA on PDMS surface not only solves the problem of sterilization of PDMS surface, but also shines light on the application of Chinese traditional herbs in scientific research. PMID:25993914

  15. Sterilization of polydimethylsiloxane surface with Chinese herb extract: a new antibiotic mechanism of chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Ren, Song; Wu, Ming; Guo, Jiayu; Zhang, Wang; Liu, Xiaohan; Sun, Lili; Holyst, Robert; Hou, Sen; Fang, Yongchun; Feng, Xizeng

    2015-01-01

    Coating of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface with a traditional Chinese herb extract chlorogenic acid (CA) solves the contemporary problem of sterilization of PDMS surface. The E. coli grows slower and has a higher death rate on the CA-coated PDMS surfaces. A smoother morphology of these E. coli cell wall is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Unlike the reported mechanism, where CA inhibits bacterial growth by damaging the cell membrane in the bulk solution, we find the CA-coated PDMS surface also decreases the stiffness of the cell wall. A decrease in the Young's modulus of the cell wall from 3 to 0.8 MPa is reported. Unexpectedly, the CA effect on the swarming ability and the biofilm stability of the bacteria can be still observed, even after they have been removed from the CA environment, indicating a decrease in their resistance to antibiotics for a prolonged time. The CA-coated PDMS surface shows better antibiotic effect against three types of both Gram-positive and Gran-negative bacteria than the gentamicin-coated PDMS surface. Coating of CA on PDMS surface not only solves the problem of sterilization of PDMS surface, but also shines light on the application of Chinese traditional herbs in scientific research. PMID:25993914

  16. Photopatterning of Hydrogel Microarrays in Closed Microchips.

    PubMed

    Gumuscu, Burcu; Bomer, Johan G; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C T

    2015-12-14

    To date, optical lithography has been extensively used for in situ patterning of hydrogel structures in a scale range from hundreds of microns to a few millimeters. The two main limitations which prevent smaller feature sizes of hydrogel structures are (1) the upper glass layer of a microchip maintains a large spacing (typically 525 μm) between the photomask and hydrogel precursor, leading to diffraction of UV light at the edges of mask patterns, (2) diffusion of free radicals and monomers results in irregular polymerization near the illumination interface. In this work, we present a simple approach to enable the use of optical lithography to fabricate hydrogel arrays with a minimum feature size of 4 μm inside closed microchips. To achieve this, we combined two different techniques. First, the upper glass layer of the microchip was thinned by mechanical polishing to reduce the spacing between the photomask and hydrogel precursor, and thereby the diffraction of UV light at the edges of mask patterns. The polishing process reduces the upper layer thickness from ∼525 to ∼100 μm, and the mean surface roughness from 20 to 3 nm. Second, we developed an intermittent illumination technique consisting of short illumination periods followed by relatively longer dark periods, which decrease the diffusion of monomers. Combination of these two methods allows for fabrication of 0.4 × 10(6) sub-10 μm sized hydrogel patterns over large areas (cm(2)) with high reproducibility (∼98.5% patterning success). The patterning method is tested with two different types of photopolymerizing hydrogels: polyacrylamide and polyethylene glycol diacrylate. This method enables in situ fabrication of well-defined hydrogel patterns and presents a simple approach to fabricate 3-D hydrogel matrices for biomolecule separation, biosensing, tissue engineering, and immobilized protein microarray applications.

  17. Photopatterning of Hydrogel Microarrays in Closed Microchips.

    PubMed

    Gumuscu, Burcu; Bomer, Johan G; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C T

    2015-12-14

    To date, optical lithography has been extensively used for in situ patterning of hydrogel structures in a scale range from hundreds of microns to a few millimeters. The two main limitations which prevent smaller feature sizes of hydrogel structures are (1) the upper glass layer of a microchip maintains a large spacing (typically 525 μm) between the photomask and hydrogel precursor, leading to diffraction of UV light at the edges of mask patterns, (2) diffusion of free radicals and monomers results in irregular polymerization near the illumination interface. In this work, we present a simple approach to enable the use of optical lithography to fabricate hydrogel arrays with a minimum feature size of 4 μm inside closed microchips. To achieve this, we combined two different techniques. First, the upper glass layer of the microchip was thinned by mechanical polishing to reduce the spacing between the photomask and hydrogel precursor, and thereby the diffraction of UV light at the edges of mask patterns. The polishing process reduces the upper layer thickness from ∼525 to ∼100 μm, and the mean surface roughness from 20 to 3 nm. Second, we developed an intermittent illumination technique consisting of short illumination periods followed by relatively longer dark periods, which decrease the diffusion of monomers. Combination of these two methods allows for fabrication of 0.4 × 10(6) sub-10 μm sized hydrogel patterns over large areas (cm(2)) with high reproducibility (∼98.5% patterning success). The patterning method is tested with two different types of photopolymerizing hydrogels: polyacrylamide and polyethylene glycol diacrylate. This method enables in situ fabrication of well-defined hydrogel patterns and presents a simple approach to fabricate 3-D hydrogel matrices for biomolecule separation, biosensing, tissue engineering, and immobilized protein microarray applications. PMID:26558488

  18. Poly(vinyl alcohol) functionalized poly(dimethylsiloxane) solid surface for immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ling; Li, Chang Ming; Zhou, Qin; Luong, John H T

    2007-01-01

    In this communication, we describe a simple and robust method for the covalent bonding of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on a silanized poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surface. Nonspecific adsorption of proteins via hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions of the PVA-coated surface is greatly reduced, and biomolecules can be rapidly anchored on the PVA-coated surface with high loading and uniformity. On the basis of a sandwich immunoassay with the anti-rabbit IgG and IgG pair as a model, the detection limit for IgG is down to 1 pg/mL with linearity up to 11 microg the levels often encountered in biological, forensic, and environmental samples. PMID:17298027

  19. Functionalization of poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces with maleic anhydride copolymer films.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Ana L; Zschoche, Stefan; Janke, Andreas; Nitschke, Mirko; Werner, Carsten

    2009-02-01

    Combining advantageous bulk properties of polymeric materials with surface-selective chemical conversions is required in numerous advanced technologies. For that aim, we investigate strategies to graft maleic anhydride (MA) copolymer films onto poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) precoatings. Amino groups allowing the covalent attachment of the MA copolymer films to the PDMS (Sylgard 184) surface were introduced either by low-pressure ammonia plasma treatment, or by attachment of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) onto air plasma-treated PDMS. The resultant coatings were extensively characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), contact angle measurements, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the impact of the plasma treatment on the physical properties on the topmost surface of the PDMS is critically important for the characteristics of the layered coatings.

  20. Graft linker immobilization for spatial control of protein immobilization inside fused microchips.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kentaro; Renberg, Björn; Sato, Kae; Mawatari, Kazuma; Konno, Tomohiro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2009-12-01

    Fused silica glass microchips have several attractive features for lab-on-a-chip applications; they can be machined with excellent precision down to nanospace; are stable; transparent and can be modified with a range of silanization agents to change channel surface properties. For immobilization, however, ligands must be added after bonding, since the harsh bonding conditions using heat or hydrofluoric acid would remove all prior immobilized ligands. For spatial control over immobilization, UV-mediated immobilization offers several advantages; spots can be created in parallel, the feature size can be made small, and spatial control over patterns and positions is excellent. However, UV sensitive groups are often based on hydrophobic chemical moieties, which unfortunately result in greater non-specific binding of biomolecules, especially proteins. Here, we present techniques in which any -CH(x) (x=1,2,3) containing surface coating can be used as foundation for grafting a hydrophilic linker with a chemical anchor, a carboxyl group, to which proteins and amine containing molecules can be covalently coupled. Hence, the attractive features of many well-known protein and biomolecule repelling polymer coatings can be utilized while achieving site-specific immobilization only to pre-determined areas within the bonded microchips.

  1. Photopatterning the mechanical properties of polydimethylsiloxane films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, D. P. J.; Popel, A.; Graz, I. M.; Lacour, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    Silicone rubber films with graded and localized mechanical properties are prepared using two-part polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer, photoinhibitor compounds and conventional photolithography. First the un-cross-linked PDMS is mixed with benzophenone. The resulting positive photosensitive material is then exposed through a mask to UV light from a conventional mask aligner. Cross-linking of the UV exposed elastomer is inhibited, leading to softer regions than the surrounding unexposed matrix. By empirically fitting the nonlinear, hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin model to experimentally measured stress-strain curves we determine the equivalent tensile modulus (E) of the rubber film. We show the PDMS tensile modulus can then be adjusted in the 0.65-2.9 MPa range by decreasing the UV exposure dose (from 24 000 to 0 mJ cm-2). Further, using a patterned UV mask, we can locally define differential regions of tensile modulus within a single PDMS rubber film. We demonstrate that "hard islands" (E ≈ 2.9 MPa) of 100 μm minimum diameter can be patterned within a 100-μm-thick, single "soft" PDMS rubber membrane (E ≈ 0.65 MPa) cured at 150 °C for 24 h. Thin gold film conductors patterned directly onto the photopatterned PDMS are stretchable and withstand uniaxial cycling to tens of percent strain. The mechanically "pixellated" PDMS rubber film provides an improved substrate with built-in strain relief for stretchable electronics.

  2. Parallel thermodynamic analysis of duplexes on oligodeoxyribonucleotide microchips.

    SciTech Connect

    Fotin, A. V.; Drobyshev, A. L.; Proudnikov, D. Y.; Perov, A. N.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    1998-03-15

    A microchip method has been developed for massive and parallel thermodynamic analyses of DNA duplexes. Fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides were hybridized with oligonucleotides immobilized in the 100 x 100 x 20 mum gel pads of the microchips. The equilibrium melting curves for all microchip duplexes were measured in real time in parallel for all microchip duplexes. Thermodynamic data for perfect and mismatched duplexes that were obtained using the microchip method directly correlated with data obtained in solution. Fluorescent labels or longer linkers between the gel and the oligonucleotides appeared to have no significant effect on duplex stability. Extending the immobilized oligonucleotides with a four-base mixture from the 3'-end or one or two universal bases (5-nitroindole) from the 3'- and/or 5'- end increased the stabilities of their duplexes. These extensions were applied to increase the stabilities of the duplexes formed with short oligonucleotides in microchips, to significantly lessen the differences in melting curves of the AT- and GC-rich duplexes, and to improve discrimination of perfect duplexes from those containing poorly recognized terminal mismatches. This study explored a way to increase the efficiency of sequencing by hybridization on oligonucleotide microchips.

  3. Readability and histological biocompatibility of microchip transponders in horses.

    PubMed

    Wulf, M; Wohlsein, P; Aurich, J E; Nees, M; Baumgärtner, W; Aurich, C

    2013-10-01

    Identification of horses by microchip transponder is mandatory within the European Union with only a few exceptions. In this study, the readability of such microchips in 428 horses with three different scanners (A, B and C) and the histological changes at the implantation site in 16 animals were assessed. Identification of microchips differed between scanners (P<0.001), and with 'side of neck' (P<0.001). Scanners A, B and C identified 93.5%, 89.7% and 100% of microchips, respectively, on the 'chip-bearing' side of the neck. From the contralateral side, scanners A, B and C identified 21.5%, 26.9% and 89.5% of transponders, respectively. Microchip readability was affected by age (P<0.001), but not by breed of horse. At necropsy, transponders were found in the subcutaneous fat (n=3), inter- or peri-muscular connective tissue (n=8), or musculature (n=5), where they were surrounded by a fibrous capsule ranging in thickness from 12.7 to 289.5 μm in 15 animals. In two animals, immature granulation tissue with attendant granulomatous inflammation, and a granulomatous myositis, surrounding the microchip were identified, respectively. Severe (n=1), moderate (n=1), and mild (n=3) lymphohistiocytic inflammation was noted within the fibrous capsule. Microchip transponders were found to be a highly reliable and biocompatible method of horse identification. PMID:23769456

  4. Generating electrospray from microchip devices using electroosmotic pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, R.S.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-03-15

    A method of generating electrospray from solutions emerging from small channels etched on planer substrates in described. The fluids are delivered using electroosmotically induced pressures and are sprayed electrostatically from the terminus of a channel by applying an electrical potential of sufficient amplitude to generate the electrospray between the microchip and a conductor spaced from the channel terminus. No major modification of the microchip is required other than to expose a channel opening. The principles that regulate the fluid delivery are described and demonstrated. A spectrum for a test compound, tetrabutylammonium iodide, that was continuously electrophoresed was obtained by coupling the microchip to an ion trap mass spectrometer. 35 refs., 6 figs.

  5. A graphene-modified cellulose paper microchip for HIV detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavieh, Mohammadali; Khetani, Sultan; Kaul, Vivasvat; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Shafiee, Hadi

    2015-05-01

    Rapid and inexpensive virus detection and quantification at the point-of-care is of paramount importance for HIV management in resource-limited settings. Here, we report on an easy-to-fabricate, cellulose paper-based microchip with printed graphene-modified electrodes for rapid detection of HIV-1 through electrical sensing. We evaluated the effect of electrode material and geometry on the performance of the microchip to detect serially diluted, electrically conductive samples. We evaluated the optimized microchip with HIVspiked samples.

  6. Recent Developments in Miniaturized PCR-Microchips, Microarrays and Microdroplets

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Eleanor S; Fortina, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Microminiaturization of assays and lab-on-a-chip devices hold considerable promise for the future of analysis, especially in point-of-care testing. This article focuses on developments that have occurred during the last five years in the specific area of microchip PCR and miniaturized PCR in arrays of reaction vessels and droplets. Although, this area continues to be an active focus of research and development and the variety and ingenuity of microchip PCR and integrated microchip PCR devices continue to increase, commercialization lags behind the progress being made in digital PCR and arrays for real-time PCR.

  7. Fused quartz substrates for microchip electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, S.C.; Moore, A.W.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1995-07-01

    A fused quartz microchip is fabricated to perform capillary electrophoresis of metal ions complexed with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS). The channel manifold on the quartz substrate is fabricated using standard photolithographic, etching, and deposition techniques. By incorporating a direct bonding technique during the fabrication of the microchip, the substrate and cover plate can be fused together below the melting temperature for fused quartz. To enhance the resolution for the separation, the electroosmotic flow is minimized by covalently bonding polyacrylamide to the channel walls. A separation length of 16.5 mm and separation field strength of 870 V/cm enable separations to be performed in {<=}15 s. By increasing the concentration of HQS from 5 mM to 20 mM, the separation efficiency improves by approximately 3 times. The low background signal from the fused quartz substrate results in mass detection limits of 85, 61, and 134 amol and concentration detection limits of 46, 57, and 30 ppb for Zn, Cd, and Al, respectively. 30 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Detection of telomerase activity using microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Koji; Arakawa, Hidetoshi

    2015-07-01

    Telomerase participates in malignant transformation or immortalization of cells and thus has attracted attention as an anticancer drug target and diagnostic tumor marker. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and improved TRAP methods (TRAP-fluorescence, TRAP-hybridization, etc.) are widely used forms of this telomerase assay. However, these approaches generally employ acrylamide gel electrophoresis after amplification of telomeric repeats by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), making these TRAP methods time consuming and technically demanding. In this study we developed a novel telomerase assay using microchip electrophoresis for rapid and highly sensitive detection of telomerase activity in cancer cells. The mixed gel of 0.8% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and 0.3% polyethylene oxide (PEO) with SYBR Gold (fluorescent reagent) was used for microchip electrophoresis. As a result, the product amplified by a telomerase-positive cell could be measured in one cell per assay and detected with high reproducibility (CV=0.67%) in the short time of 100s. PMID:25980765

  9. Microchip device for liquid phase analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, j.m.

    2000-05-01

    The lab-on-a-chip concept has enabled miniature instruments to be developed that allow the rapid execution and automation of fluidic operations such as valving, separation, dilution, mixing, and flow splitting upon the proper application of a motive (driving) force. The integration of these simple operations to perform complete, multiple-step chemical assays is rapidly becoming a reality. Such compact, monolithic devices potentially enjoy advantages in speed, cost, automation, reagent consumption, and waste generation compared to existing laboratory-scale instruments. Initial reports of these microfluidic devices focused on combining various electrokinetically driven separation methods including microchip electrophoresis, gel electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and open channel electrochromatography (OCEC) with fluidic valving to introduce sample plugs into the separation channel. Other operations have quickly been integrated with the separations and fluidic valving on these microchips. For example, integrated devices with mixers/diluters for precolumn and postcolumn analyte derivatization, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) restriction digests, enzyme assays, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification have been added to the basic design. Integrated mixers that can perform solvent programming for both MEKC and OCEC have also been demonstrated. These examples are simple, yet powerful, demonstrations of the potential for lab-on-a-chip devices. In this report, three key areas for improved performance of these devices are described: on-chip calibration techniques, enhanced separative performance, and enhanced detection capabilities.

  10. Chemical modification of polymeric microchip devices.

    PubMed

    Muck, Alexander; Svatos, Ales

    2007-12-15

    Analytical polymeric microchips in both fluidic and array formats offer short analysis times, coupling of many sample processing and chemical reaction steps on one platform with minimal sample and reagent consumption, as well as low cost, minimal fabrication times and disposability. However, the invariable bulk properties of most commercial polymers have driven researchers to develop new modification strategies. This article critically reviews the scope and development of chemical modifications of such polymeric chips since 2003. Surface modifications were based on chemical derivatization or activation of surface layers with reagent solutions, reactive gases and irradiation. Bulk modification of polymer chips used newly incorporation of monomers with selective chemical functionalities throughout the bulk polymer material and integrated the chip modification and fabrication into a single step. Such modifications hold a great promise for establishing a true 'lab-on-chip' as can be seen from many novel applications for modulating electroosmosis, suppressing protein adsorption in microchip capillary electrophoretic separations, extraction of analytes and for zone-specific binding of enzymes and other biomolecules. PMID:18371647

  11. Contactless conductivity detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pumera, Martin; Wang, Joseph; Opekar, Frantisek; Jelinek, Ivan; Feldman, Jason; Lowe, Holger; Hardt, Steffen; Svehla, D. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated electrophoresis chip with an integrated contactless conductivity detection system is described. The new contactless conductivity microchip detector is based on placing two planar sensing aluminum film electrodes on the outer side of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchip (without contacting the solution) and measuring the impedance of the solution in the separation channel. The contactless route obviates problems (e.g., fouling, unwanted reactions) associated with the electrode-solution contact, offers isolation of the detection system from high separation fields, does not compromise the separation efficiency, and greatly simplifies the detector fabrication. Relevant experimental variables, such as the frequency and amplitude of the applied ac voltage or the separation voltage, were examined and optimized. The detector performance was illustrated by the separation of potassium, sodium, barium, and lithium cations and the chloride, sulfate, fluoride, acetate, and phosphate anions. The response was linear (over the 20 microM-7 mM range) and reproducible (RSD = 3.4-4.9%; n = 10), with detection limits of 2.8 and 6.4 microM (for potassium and chloride, respectively). The advantages associated with the contactless conductivity detection, along with the low cost of the integrated PMMA chip/detection system, should enhance the power and scope of microfluidic analytical devices.

  12. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  13. Thickness dependence of ice removal stress for a polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite: Sylgard 184.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenyu; Fuller, Trae; Zhang, Wei; Wynne, Kenneth J

    2014-11-01

    Minimizing adhesion of ice has been the subject of extensive studies because of importance to applications such aircraft wings, spacecraft, and power transmission wires. A growing interest concerns coatings for wind turbine blades and refrigeration. Herein, a new laboratory test was employed to obtain the thickness dependence of ice adhesion for Sylgard 184-a filled polydimethylsiloxane elastomer. A correlation between ice adhesion and coating thickness (t) was found that follows a relationship developed by Kendall over 40 years ago for removal of a rigid object from an elastomer. With a 0.05 mm/s probe speed a nearly linear relationship between peak removal stress (Ps) and 1/t(1/2) was obtained with Ps ∼ 460 kPa for an 18 μm coating, decreasing to ∼120 kPa for 533 μm. Preliminary results suggest that below ∼10 μm Ps departs from the 1/t(1/2) correlation while above ∼500 μm a limiting value for Ps may be reached. We previously reported that probe speed has negligible effect on the glassy polymer PMMA. In contrast, probe speed is identified as an important variable for testing ice release on elastomeric Sylgard 184 coatings. While work of adhesion, which is related to surface free energy, is recognized as an important factor that can affect ice release, the results reported herein show that coating thickness can override this single parameter for elastomeric substrates.

  14. Thickness dependence of ice removal stress for a polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite: Sylgard 184.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenyu; Fuller, Trae; Zhang, Wei; Wynne, Kenneth J

    2014-11-01

    Minimizing adhesion of ice has been the subject of extensive studies because of importance to applications such aircraft wings, spacecraft, and power transmission wires. A growing interest concerns coatings for wind turbine blades and refrigeration. Herein, a new laboratory test was employed to obtain the thickness dependence of ice adhesion for Sylgard 184-a filled polydimethylsiloxane elastomer. A correlation between ice adhesion and coating thickness (t) was found that follows a relationship developed by Kendall over 40 years ago for removal of a rigid object from an elastomer. With a 0.05 mm/s probe speed a nearly linear relationship between peak removal stress (Ps) and 1/t(1/2) was obtained with Ps ∼ 460 kPa for an 18 μm coating, decreasing to ∼120 kPa for 533 μm. Preliminary results suggest that below ∼10 μm Ps departs from the 1/t(1/2) correlation while above ∼500 μm a limiting value for Ps may be reached. We previously reported that probe speed has negligible effect on the glassy polymer PMMA. In contrast, probe speed is identified as an important variable for testing ice release on elastomeric Sylgard 184 coatings. While work of adhesion, which is related to surface free energy, is recognized as an important factor that can affect ice release, the results reported herein show that coating thickness can override this single parameter for elastomeric substrates. PMID:25299447

  15. Integration of amperometric sensors for microchip capillary electrophoresis application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicorato, F.; Moore, E.; Glennon, J.

    2011-08-01

    Capillary electrophoresis is a technique for the separation and analysis of chemical compounds. Techniques adopted from the microchip technology knowledge have led to recent developments of electrophoresis system with integration on microchip. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis (μCE) systems offer a series of advantages as easy integration for Lab-on-a-chip applications, high performance, portability, speed, minimal solvent and sample requirements. A new technological challenge aims at the development of an economic modular microchip capillary electrophoresis systems using separable and independent units concerning the sensor. In this project we worked on the development of an interchangeable amperometric sensor in order to provide a solution to such electrode passivation and facilitating the use of tailored sensors for specific analyte detection besides. Fluidic chips have been machined from cyclic olefin polymer pallets (Zeonor®) using a micro-injection molding machine.

  16. Feline lost: making microchipping compulsory for domestic cats.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M

    2016-08-13

    The independent nature of cats means that they are more likely to become lost or injured than dogs. Maggie Roberts believes that microchipping of cats should be compulsory in the UK as is the case with dogs. PMID:27516564

  17. Accuracy of microchip identification in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, M A; Buss, M S; Tyler, J W

    1995-09-15

    A study was performed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a commercially available microchip identification system approximately 1 year after implantation in dogs and cats. Thirty-three dogs and 16 cats in which a microchip had been implanted and 31 dogs and 18 cats in which a microchip had never been implanted were included in the study. In cats, sensitivity and specificity of microchip identification were 1.00. In dogs, sensitivity and specificity were 0.97 and 1.00, respectively. The chip had migrated in the 1 dog with a false-negative result, but the chip remained functional, and identification was established in this dog following closer physical examination and scanning.

  18. Apparatus for Precise Indium-Bump Bonding of Microchips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, Larry; Mulder, Jerry; Alvarado, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus has been designed and built for use in precise positioning and pressing of a microchip onto a substrate (which could, optionally, be another microchip) for the purpose of indium-bump bonding. The apparatus (see figure) includes the following: A stereomicroscope, A stage for precise positioning of the microchip in rotation angle (theta) about the nominally vertical pressing axis and in translation along two nominally horizontal coordinate axes (x and y), and An actuator system that causes a bonding tip to press the microchip against the substrate with a precisely controlled force. In operation, the microscope and the stage are used to position the microchip under the bonding tip and to align the indium bumps on the chip and the substrate, then the actuator system is used to apply a prescribed bonding force for a prescribed time. The improved apparatus supplants a partly similar prior apparatus that operated with less precision and repeatability, producing inconsistent and unreliable bonds. Results of the use of the prior apparatus included broken microchips, uneven bonds, and bonds characterized, variously, by overcompression or undercompression. In that apparatus, the bonding force was generated and controlled by use of a micrometer head positioned over the center of a spring-loaded scale, and the force was applied to the microchip via the scale, which was equipped for digital readout of the force. The inconsistency of results was attributed to the following causes: It was not possible to control the bonding force with sufficient precision or repeatability. Particularly troublesome was the inability to control the force at levels less than the weight of 150 g. Excessive compliance in the spring-loaded scale, combined with deviations from parallelarity of the substrate and bonding-tip surfaces, gave rise to nonuniformity in the pressure applied to the microchip, thereby generating excessive stresses and deformations in the microchip. In the

  19. Microchip-Embedded Capacitors for Implantable Neural Stimulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auciello, Orlando

    Miniaturization of microchips for implantation in the human body (e.g., microchip for the artificial retina to restore sight to people blinded by retina photoreceptors degeneration) requires the integration of high-capacitance (≥ 10 μF) energy-storage capacitors into the microchip. These capacitors would be based on high-dielectric constant layers, preferably made of materials that are bioinert (not affected by human body fluids) and are biocompatible (do not elicit adverse reactions in the human body). This chapter focuses on reviewing the work being done at Argonne National Laboratory (Materials Science Division and Center for Nanoscale Materials) to develop high-capacitance microchip-embedded capacitors based on novel high-K dielectric layers (TiAlOx or TiO2/Al2O3 superlattices). The microchip-embedded capacitor provides energy storage and electromagnetic signal coupling needed for neural stimulations. Advances in neural prostheses such as artificial retinas and cochlear implants require miniaturization of device size to minimize tissue damage and improve device/tissue interfaces in the human body. Therefore, development of microchip-embedded capacitors is critical to achieve full-implantable biomedical device miniaturization.

  20. Etching of glass microchips with supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Karásek, Pavel; Grym, Jakub; Roth, Michal; Planeta, Josef; Foret, František

    2015-01-01

    A novel method of etching channels in glass microchips with the most tunable solvent, water, was tested as an alternative to common hydrogen fluoride-containing etchants. The etching properties of water strongly depend on temperature and pressure, especially in the vicinity of the water critical point. The chips were etched at the subcritical, supercritical and critical temperature of water, and the resulting channel shape, width, depth and surface morphology were studied by scanning electron microscopy and 3D laser profilometry. Channels etched with the hot water were compared with the chips etched with standard hydrogen fluoride-containing solution. Depending on the water pressure and temperature, the silicate dissolved from the glass could be re-deposited on the channel surface. This interesting phenomenon is described together with the conditions necessary for its utilization. The results illustrate the versatility of pure water as a glass etching and surface morphing agent.

  1. Vapor deposition of cross-linked fluoropolymer barrier coatings onto pre-assembled microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Riche, Carson T; Marin, Brandon C; Malmstadt, Noah; Gupta, Malancha

    2011-09-21

    The interior surfaces of pre-assembled poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices were modified with a cross-linked fluoropolymer barrier coating that significantly increased the chemical compatibility of the devices. PMID:21850298

  2. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Microchip identification has become an important tool to reunite stray dogs and cats with their owners, and is now compulsory in most states of Australia. Improvement of the microchipping system in Australia is limited by a lack of published Australian data documenting the problems experienced by shelter staff when using microchip data to contact the owner of a stray animal. In this study we determine the character and frequency of inaccurate microchip data to identify weaknesses in the current microchipping system. This information could be used to develop strategies that increase the accuracy of microchip data that will increase the reclaiming of stray animals. Abstract A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of

  3. Passive Q-switching of diode-pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser with ion-implanted GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Ma, Xiaoyu; Zhong, Bin; Wang, Desong; Zhang, Qiulin; Feng, Baohua

    2004-01-01

    We reported a passive Q-switched diode laser pumped Yb:YAG microchip laser with an ion-implanted semi-insulating GaAs wafer. The wafer was implanted with 400-keV As^(+) in the concentration of 10^(16) ions/cm^(2). To decrease the non-saturable loss, we annealed the ion-implanted GaAs at 500 oC for 5 minutes and coated both sides of the ion-implanted GaAs with antireflection (AR) and highreflection (HR) films, respectively. Using GaAs wafer as an absorber and an output coupler, we obtained 52-ns pulse duration of single pulse.

  4. Synthesis of Macroporous Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Eileen; Brady, Ann-Christina; Fraker, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Macroporous, biostable scaffolds with controlled porous architecture were prepared from poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using sodium chloride particles (NaCl) and a solvent casting and particulate leaching (SCPL) technique. The effect of particulate size range and overall porosity on the resulting structure was evaluated. Results found 90% v/v scaffolds and particulate ranges above 100 µm to have the most optimal open framework and porosity. Resulting hydrophobic PDMS scaffolds were coated with fibronectin and evaluated as a platform for adherent cell culture using human mesenchymal stem cells. Biocompatibility of PDMS scaffolds was also evaluated in a rodent model, where implants were found to be highly biocompatibile and biostable, with positive extracellular matrix deposition throughout the scaffold. These results demonstrate the suitability of macroporous PDMS scaffolds for tissue engineering applications where strong integration with the host is desired. PMID:23683037

  5. Controlled Silylation of Nanofibrillated Cellulose in Water: Reinforcement of a Model Polydimethylsiloxane Network.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zheng; Tingaut, Philippe; Rentsch, Daniel; Zimmermann, Tanja; Sèbe, Gilles

    2015-08-24

    A comparative approach for the surface silylation of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) in water is proposed through an environmentally friendly sol-gel route based on alkoxysilanes. NFC suspensions were freeze-dried under controlled conditions in the presence of methyltrimethoxysilane used as a model alkoxysilane. Two different protocols that involve different pH values (0.4 and 4) and post-treatment procedures were investigated and compared. Protocol 1 led to a network of nanofibrils in which polysiloxane particles were dispersed, and protocol 2 produced a scaffold of cellulosic fibrils coated by a polysiloxane layer bonded firmly to the cellulosic substrate. Different from protocol 1, protocol 2 imparted the cellulosic material with hydrophobic properties and improved its thermal stability. Moreover, if 1 wt % of fibrils treated by protocol 2 were incorporated into a model polydimethylsiloxane network, substantial improvements of the static and dynamic mechanical properties of the composite were noted.

  6. CE microchips: an opened gate to food analysis.

    PubMed

    Escarpa, Alberto; González, María Cristina; Crevillén, Agustín González; Blasco, Antonio Javier

    2007-03-01

    CE microchips are the first generation of micrototal analysis systems (-TAS) emerging in the miniaturization scene of food analysis. CE microchips for food analysis are fabricated in both glass and polymer materials, such as PDMS and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and use simple layouts of simple and double T crosses. Nowadays, the detection route preferred is electrochemical in both, amperometry and conductivity modes, using end-channel and contactless configurations, respectively. Food applications using CE microchips are now emerging since food samples present complex matrices, the selectivity being a very important challenge because the total integration of analytical steps into microchip format is very difficult. As a consequence, the first contributions that have recently appeared in the relevant literature are based primarily on fast separations of analytes of high food significance. These protocols are combined with different strategies to achieve selectivity using a suitable nonextensive sample preparation and/or strategically choosing detection routes. Polyphenolic compounds, amino acids, preservatives, and organic and inorganic ions have been studied using CE microchips. Thus, new and exciting future expectations arise in the domain of food analysis. However, several drawbacks could easily be found and assumed within the miniaturization map.

  7. Simple surface engineering of polydimethylsiloxane with polydopamine for stabilized mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and multipotency

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Yon Jin; Koh, Yi Ting; Lim, Kaiyang; Menon, Nishanth V.; Wu, Yingnan; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been extensively exploited to study stem cell physiology in the field of mechanobiology and microfluidic chips due to their transparency, low cost and ease of fabrication. However, its intrinsic high hydrophobicity renders a surface incompatible for prolonged cell adhesion and proliferation. Plasma-treated or protein-coated PDMS shows some improvement but these strategies are often short-lived with either cell aggregates formation or cell sheet dissociation. Recently, chemical functionalization of PDMS surfaces has proved to be able to stabilize long-term culture but the chemicals and procedures involved are not user- and eco-friendly. Herein, we aim to tailor greener and biocompatible PDMS surfaces by developing a one-step bio-inspired polydopamine coating strategy to stabilize long-term bone marrow stromal cell culture on PDMS substrates. Characterization of the polydopamine-coated PDMS surfaces has revealed changes in surface wettability and presence of hydroxyl and secondary amines as compared to uncoated surfaces. These changes in PDMS surface profile contribute to the stability in BMSCs adhesion, proliferation and multipotency. This simple methodology can significantly enhance the biocompatibility of PDMS-based microfluidic devices for long-term cell analysis or mechanobiological studies. PMID:26647719

  8. Rapid bonding of Pyrex glass microchips.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshitake; Morishima, Keisuke; Kogi, Atsuna; Kikutani, Yoshikuni; Tokeshi, Manabu; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2007-03-01

    A newly developed vacuum hot press system has been specially designed for the thermal bonding of glass substrates in the fabrication process of Pyrex glass microchemical chips. This system includes a vacuum chamber equipped with a high-pressure piston cylinder and carbon plate heaters. A temperature of up to 900 degrees C and a force of as much as 9800 N could be applied to the substrates in a vacuum atmosphere. The Pyrex substrates bonded with this system under different temperatures, pressures, and heating times were evaluated by tensile strength tests, by measurements of thickness, and by observations of the cross-sectional shapes of the microchannels. The optimal bonding conditions of the Pyrex glass substrates were 570 degrees C for 10 min under 4.7 N/mm(2) of applied pressure. Whereas more than 16 h is required for thermal bonding with a conventional furnace, the new system could complete the whole bonding processes within just 79 min, including heating and cooling periods. Such improvements should considerably enhance the production rate of Pyrex glass microchemical chips. Whereas flat and dust-free surfaces are required for conventional thermal bonding, especially without long and repeated heating periods, our hot press system could press a fine dust into glass substrates so that even the areas around the dust were bonded. Using this capability, we were able to successfully integrate Pt/Ti thin film electrodes into a Pyrex glass microchip.

  9. A microchip platform for structural oncology applications

    PubMed Central

    Winton, Carly E; Gilmore, Brian L; Demmert, Andrew C; Karageorge, Vasilea; Sheng, Zhi; Kelly, Deborah F

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the development of functional materials offer new tools to dissect human health and disease mechanisms. The use of tunable surfaces is especially appealing as substrates can be tailored to fit applications involving specific cell types or tissues. Here we use tunable materials to facilitate the three-dimensional (3D) analysis of BRCA1 gene regulatory complexes derived from human cancer cells. We employed a recently developed microchip platform to isolate BRCA1 protein assemblies natively formed in breast cancer cells with and without BRCA1 mutations. The captured assemblies proved amenable to cryo-electron microscopy (EM) imaging and downstream computational analysis. Resulting 3D structures reveal the manner in which wild-type BRCA1 engages the RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) core complex that contained K63-linked ubiquitin moieties—a putative signal for DNA repair. Importantly, we also determined that molecular assemblies harboring the BRCA15382insC mutation exhibited altered protein interactions and ubiquitination patterns compared to wild-type complexes. Overall, our analyses proved optimal for developing new structural oncology applications involving patient-derived cancer cells, while expanding our knowledge of BRCA1’s role in gene regulatory events. PMID:27583302

  10. Cryogenic Tm:YAP microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubka, Zbyněk.; Å ulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Å koda, Václav

    2016-04-01

    The spectral characteristics of laser active media, and thus those of the laser output, are temperature dependent. Specifically, in almost every crystal host, cooling to low temperatures leads to better heat removal, a higher efficiency and output power, and a reduced lasing threshold. Tm-ion doped lasers have an emission wavelength around 2 μm and are important in medicine for soft tissue cutting and hemostasis, as well as in LIDAR or atmosphere sensing technology. This paper presents the performance-temperature dependency of a 4 at. % doped Tm:YAP microchip. During the experiment the Tm:YAP crystal was placed inside an evacuated liquid nitrogen cryostat on a cooling finger. As its temperature was varied from 80 K to 340 K, changes were observed in the absorption spectrum, ranging from 750 nm to 2000 nm and in the fluorescence spectrum from 1600 nm to 2050 nm. Fluorescence lifetime was seen to rise and fall with decreasing temperature. The laser was pumped by a 792 nm laser diode and at 80 K the maximum output peak power of the laser was 4.6 W with 23 % slope efficiency and 0.6 W threshold, compared to 2.4 W output peak power, 13 % slope efficiency and 3.3 W threshold when at 340 K. The laser emission wavelength changed from 1883 nm to 1993 nm for 80 K and 300 K, respectively.

  11. Optical microsystems with microchip lasers and micro-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulbert, Laurent R.; Molva, Engin; Marty, Jeannine; Thony, Philippe; Rabarot, Marc; Ferrand, Bernard

    1999-03-01

    The microchip laser is the most compact and the simplest diode pumped solid state laser, with a typical dimension of 0.5 mm3. In spite of the extreme simplicity of this concept which was described in sixties, the first devices have been realized much later in eighties, in different laboratories in the world. The main advantage of the microchip laser is its ability to be fabricated with collective fabrication processes, using techniques such as currently used in microelectronics, allowing a low cost mass production with a good reproducibility and reliability. The microchip lasers are very simple to use without any optical alignment and any maintenance. They foretell a true technical revolution in the domain of solid state lasers which should be opened to high volume and low cost markets. They have many different industrial applications in large markets such as: automotive, laser marking and material processing, environmental and medical applications, public works, telecommunications, etc.

  12. Analysis of Anions in Ambient Aerosols by Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; MacDonald, David A.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Hering, Susanne V.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Henry, Charles S.

    2006-10-01

    We describe a microchip capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of nitrate and sulfate in ambient aerosols. Investigating the chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles is essential for understanding their sources and effects. Significant progress has been made towards developing mass spectrometry-based instrumentation for rapid qualitative analysis of aerosols. Alternative methods for rapid quantification of selected high abundance compounds are needed to augment the capacity for widespread routine analysis. Such methods could provide much higher temporal and spatial resolution than can be achieved currently. Inorganic anions comprise a large percentage of particulate mass with nitrate and sulfate among the most abundant species. While ion chromatography has proven very useful for analyzing extracts of time-integrated ambient aerosol samples collected on filters and for semi-continuous, on-line particle composition measurements, there is a growing need for development of new compact, inexpensive approaches to routine on-line aerosol ion analysis for deployment in spatially dense, atmospheric measurement networks. Microchip capillary electrophoresis provides the necessary speed and portability to address this need. In this report, on-column contact conductivity detection is used with hydrodynamic injection to create a simple microchip instrument for analysis of nitrate and sulfate. On-column contact conductivity detection was achieved using a Pd decoupler placed upstream from the working electrodes. Microchips containing two Au or Pd working electrodes showed a good linear range (5-500 µM) and low limits-of-detection for sulfate and nitrate with Au providing the lowest detection limits (1 µM) for both ions. The completed microchip system was used to analyze ambient aerosol filter samples. Nitrate and sulfate concentrations measured by the microchip matched the concentrations measured by ion chromatography.

  13. A circular ferrofluid driven microchip for rapid polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Kwok, Y C; Nguyen, N T

    2007-08-01

    In the past few years, much attention has been paid to the development of miniaturized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) devices. After a continuous flow (CF) PCR chip was introduced, several CFPCR systems employing various pumping mechanisms were reported. However, the use of pumps increases cost and imposes a high requirement on microchip bonding integrity due to the application of high pressure. Other significant limitations of CFPCR devices include the large footprint of the microchip and the fixed cycle number which is dictated by the channel layout. In this paper, we present a novel circular close-loop ferrofluid driven microchip for rapid PCR. A small ferrofluid plug, containing sub-domain magnetic particles in a liquid carrier, is driven by an external magnet along the circular microchannel, which in turn propels the PCR mixture through three temperature zones. Amplification of a 500 bp lambda DNA fragment has been demonstrated on the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) PCR microchip fabricated by CO(2) laser ablation and bonded by a low pressure, high temperature technique. Successful PCR was achieved in less than 4 min. Effects of cycle number and cycle time on PCR products were investigated. Using a magnet as the actuator eliminates the need for expensive pumps and provides advantages of low cost, small power consumption, low requirement on bonding strength and flexible number of PCR cycles. Furthermore, the microchip has a much simpler design and smaller footprint compared to the rectangular serpentine CFPCR devices. To demonstrate its application in forensics, a 16-loci short tandem repeat (STR) sample was successfully amplified using the PCR microchip.

  14. MicroChip Imager Module for Recognition of Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alferov, Oleg

    2001-01-01

    The MicroChip Reader for Cereus Group takes the table of intensities of hybridization signals produced by the MicroChip Imager software and evokes a series of steps designed to recognize the pattern of intensities specific to a particular Cereus subgroup. Seven subgroups of the Cereus group can be identified by particular features of their RNA sequence. The Reader also provides statistics documenting how well its conclusion is confirmed by the hybridization signals. At the user’s request, the Reader can list every recognition step utilized so that the user can verify the recognition process manually if desired.

  15. MicroChip Imager Module for Recognition of Microorganisms

    2001-01-01

    The MicroChip Reader for Cereus Group takes the table of intensities of hybridization signals produced by the MicroChip Imager software and evokes a series of steps designed to recognize the pattern of intensities specific to a particular Cereus subgroup. Seven subgroups of the Cereus group can be identified by particular features of their RNA sequence. The Reader also provides statistics documenting how well its conclusion is confirmed by the hybridization signals. At the user’s request,more » the Reader can list every recognition step utilized so that the user can verify the recognition process manually if desired.« less

  16. Microchip-based electrochemical detection for monitoring cellular systems.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alicia S; Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R Scott

    2013-04-01

    The use of microchip devices to study cellular systems is a rapidly growing research area. There are numerous advantages of using on-chip integrated electrodes to monitor various cellular processes. The purpose of this review is to give examples of advancements in microchip-based cellular analysis, specifically where electrochemistry is used for the detection scheme. These examples include on-chip detection of single-cell quantal exocytosis, electrochemical analysis of intracellular contents, the ability to integrate cell culture/immobilization with electrochemistry, and the use of integrated electrodes to ensure cell confluency in longer-term cell culture experiments. A perspective on future trends in this area is also given.

  17. Adding functionality to microchips by wafer post-processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2007-06-01

    The traditional microchip processes, stores and communicates electrical information. Here we review an emerging class of microchips that have additional functionality through extra integrated components in the chip. In the final manufacturing stage, layers are added on top of the chip, with a specific property such as sensitivity to ionizing radiation. This paper reviews the technology underlying these monolithic microsystems, including the incorporation of new materials, the unconventional application of photoresist layers, and low-temperature technology for suspended membranes. The manufacturing of exemplary microsystems, such as the active pixel sensor and liquid-crystal-on-silicon, is detailed. A new class of fully integrated radiation imaging systems is now technologically within reach.

  18. Kinetics of hybridization on surface oligonucleotide microchips: theory, experiment, and comparison with hybridization on gel-based microchips.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, N V; Chechetkin, V R; Pan'kov, S V; Somova, O G; Livshits, M A; Donnikov, M Y; Turygin, A Y; Barsky, V E; Zasedatelev, A S

    2006-08-01

    The optimal design of oligonucleotide microchips and efficient discrimination between perfect and mismatch duplexes strongly depend on the external transport of target DNA to the cells with immobilized probes as well as on respective association and dissociation rates at the duplex formation. In this paper we present the relevant theory for hybridization of DNA fragments with oligonucleotide probes immobilized in the cells on flat substrate. With minor modifications, our theory also is applicable to reaction-diffusion hybridization kinetics for the probes immobilized on the surface of microbeads immersed in hybridization solution. The main theoretical predictions are verified with control experiments. Besides that, we compared the characteristics of the surface and gel-based oligonucleotide microchips. The comparison was performed for the chips printed with the same pin robot, for the signals measured with the same devices and processed by the same technique, and for the same hybridization conditions. The sets of probe oligonucleotides and the concentrations of probes in respective solutions used for immobilization on each platform were identical as well. We found that, despite the slower hybridization kinetics, the fluorescence signals and mutation discrimination efficiency appeared to be higher for the gel-based microchips with respect to their surface counterparts even for the relatively short hybridization time about 0.5-1 hour. Both the divergence between signals for perfects and the difference in mutation discrimination efficiency for the counterpart platforms rapidly grow with incubation time. In particular, for hybridization during 3 h the signals for gel-based microchips surpassed their surface counterparts in 5-20 times, while the ratios of signals for perfect-mismatch pairs for gel microchips exceeded the corresponding ratios for surface microchips in 2-4 times. These effects may be attributed to the better immobilization efficiency and to the higher

  19. Multiplexed Western Blotting Using Microchip Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shi; Furtaw, Michael D; Chen, Huaxian; Lamb, Don T; Ferguson, Stephen A; Arvin, Natalie E; Dawod, Mohamed; Kennedy, Robert T

    2016-07-01

    Western blotting is a commonly used protein assay that combines the selectivity of electrophoretic separation and immunoassay. The technique is limited by long time, manual operation with mediocre reproducibility, and large sample consumption, typically 10-20 μg per assay. Western blots are also usually used to measure only one protein per assay with an additional housekeeping protein for normalization. Measurement of multiple proteins is possible; however, it requires stripping membranes of antibody and then reprobing with a second antibody. Miniaturized alternatives to Western blot based on microfluidic or capillary electrophoresis have been developed that enable higher-throughput, automation, and greater mass sensitivity. In one approach, proteins are separated by electrophoresis on a microchip that is dragged along a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane so that as proteins exit the chip they are captured on the membrane for immunoassay. In this work, we improve this method to allow multiplexed protein detection. Multiple injections made from the same sample can be deposited in separate tracks so that each is probed with a different antibody. To further enhance multiplexing capability, the electrophoresis channel dimensions were optimized for resolution while keeping separation and blotting times to less than 8 min. Using a 15 μm deep × 50 μm wide × 8.6 cm long channel, it is possible to achieve baseline resolution of proteins that differ by 5% in molecular weight, e.g., ERK1 (44 kDa) from ERK2 (42 kDa). This resolution allows similar proteins detected by cross-reactive antibodies in a single track. We demonstrate detection of 11 proteins from 9 injections from a single Jurkat cell lysate sample consisting of 400 ng of total protein using this procedure. Thus, multiplexed Western blots are possible without cumbersome stripping and reprobing steps. PMID:27270033

  20. Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chip with integrated microheater and thermal sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinbo; Cao, Wenbin; Wen, Weijia; Chang, Donald Choy; Sheng, Ping

    2009-01-01

    A microheater and a thermal sensor were fabricated inside elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane microchannels by injecting silver paint (or other conductive materials) into the channels. With a high-precision control scheme, microheaters can be used for rapid heating, with precise temperature control and uniform thermal distribution. Using such a microheater and feedback system, a polymerase chain reaction experiment was carried out whereas the DNA was successfully amplified in 25 cycles, with 1 min per cycle. PMID:19693386

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of ordering of polydimethylsiloxane under uniaxial extension

    SciTech Connect

    Lacevic, N M; Gee, R H

    2005-03-11

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a bulk melts of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are utilized to study chain conformation and ordering under constant uniaxial tension. We find that large extensions induce chain ordering in the direction of applied tension. We also find that voids are created via a cavitation mechanism. This study represents a validation of the current model for PDMS and benchmark for the future study of mechanical properties of PDMS melts enriched with fillers under tension.

  2. A microchip laser with intracavity second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Derzhavin, S I; Mashkovskii, D A; Timoshkin, V N

    2008-12-31

    A short-pulse 'green' 532-nm Nd{sup 3+}:YVO{sub 4} and KTiOPO{sub 4} microchip laser with intracavity second-harmonic generation, which is pumped by a 809-nm semiconductor laser diode, is developed. (lasers. amplifiers)

  3. Integrated Micro-Chip Amino Acid Chirality Detector for MOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Botta, O.; Kminek, G.; Grunthaner, F.; Mathies, R.

    2001-01-01

    Integration of a micro-chip capillary electrophoresis analyzer with a sublimation-based extraction technique, as used in the Mars Organic Detector (MOD), for the in-situ detection of amino acids and their enantiomers on solar system bodies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Implantable microchip: the futuristic controlled drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Sutradhar, Kumar Bishwajit; Sumi, Chandra Datta

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that controlled and pulsatile drug delivery system is an important challenge in medicine over the conventional drug delivery system in case of therapeutic efficacy. However, the conventional drug delivery systems often offer a limited by their inability to drug delivery which consists of systemic toxicity, narrow therapeutic window, complex dosing schedule for long term treatment etc. Therefore, there has been a search for the drug delivery system that exhibit broad enhancing activity for more drugs with less complication. More recently, some elegant study has noted that, a new type of micro-electrochemical system or MEMS-based drug delivery systems called microchip has been improved to overcome the problems related to conventional drug delivery. Moreover, micro-fabrication technology has enabled to develop the implantable controlled released microchip devices with improved drug administration and patient compliance. In this article, we have presented an overview of the investigations on the feasibility and application of microchip as an advanced drug delivery system. Commercial manufacturing materials and methods, related other research works and current advancement of the microchips for controlled drug delivery have also been summarized.

  5. Apparatus and method for performing electrodynamic focusing on a microchip

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J.M.; Jacobson, S.C.

    1999-01-12

    A microchip device includes a focusing channel, in which an electric field strength established in the focusing channel is controlled relative to an electric field strength established in a material transport channel segment to spatially focus the material traversing the material transport channel segment. 22 figs.

  6. Apparatus and method for performing electrodynamic focusing on a microchip

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, John Michael; Jacobson, Stephen C.

    1999-01-01

    A microchip device includes a focusing channel, in which an electric field strength established in the focusing channel is controlled relative to an electric field strength established in a material transport channel segment to spatially focus the material traversing the material transport channel segment.

  7. Biotoxin sensing in food and environment via microchip.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaowei; Yu, Li; Xu, Lin; Hu, Xiaofeng; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Feng, Xiaojun

    2014-06-01

    Biotoxin contamination in food and environmental samples has threatened health or life of human and animals. Thus, a rapid lab-independent sensing method for biotoxin determination is urgently required. Microchip sensing system allows a promising rapid and low-cost detection strategy. Herein, the recent development of various microchips, including microfluidic chip and microarray, has been discussed to sense various biotoxins in food and environmental samples (i.e. phytotoxin, animal toxin, marine toxin, and mycotoxin). Microchip can be served as both analyte transportation and sensing platform, via either labeling or labeling-free sensing strategy. Because of its fast sensing time, low sample consumption, ready portability, and high compatibility, it has been extensively employed in biotoxin determination in both academic and industrial circle. With the advances of fabrication strategies and sensing modes, the microchip performance has been dramatically improved, including sensitivity, efficiency, reliability, stability, cost saving, portability. The potential applications can be found wide spread in biotoxin sensing in the near future, while their practical application in real sample need to be addressed.

  8. Fabrication of PMMA CE microchips by infrared-assisted polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Duan, Haotian; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2008-12-01

    In this report, a method based on the infrared-assisted polymerization of methyl methacrylate has been developed for the rapid fabrication of PMMA CE microchips. Methyl methacrylate containing AIBN was allowed to prepolymerize in a water bath to form a fast-curing molding solution that was subsequently sandwiched between a silicon template and a piece of 1 mm-thick PMMA plate. The images of microchannels on the silicon template were precisely replicated into the synthesized PMMA substrates during the infrared-assisted polymerization of the molding solution. The polymerization could be completed within 50 min at 50 degrees C. The obtained channel plate was subsequently bonded to a piece of PMMA cover sheet to form a microchip with the aid of heat and pressure. The new fabrication approach obviates the need for special equipment and significantly simplifies the process of fabricating PMMA microchips. The attractive performance of the obtained PMMA microchips has been demonstrated in connection with contactless conductivity detection for the separation and detection of ionic species.

  9. Longevity of radiofrequency identification device microchips in citrus trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term identification of individual plants in the field is an important part of many types of botanical and horticultural research. In a previous report, we described methods for using implanted radiofrequency (RFID) microchips to tag citrus trees for field research. This report provides an upd...

  10. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals-87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of microchip data to facilitate the reclaiming of stray dogs and cats.

  11. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals-87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of microchip data to facilitate the reclaiming of stray dogs and cats. PMID:26479238

  12. A novel titanium dioxide-polydimethylsiloxane plate for phosphopeptide enrichment and mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Lai, Chien-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Chun; Liu, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chiou, Liang-Wei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2014-02-17

    The phosphorylation of proteins is a major post-translational modification that is required for the regulation of many cellular processes and activities. Mass spectrometry signals of low-abundance phosphorylated peptides are commonly suppressed by the presence of abundant non-phosphorylated peptides. Therefore, one of the major challenges in the detection of low-abundance phosphopeptides is their enrichment from complex peptide mixtures. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been proven to be a highly efficient approach for phosphopeptide enrichment and is widely applied. In this study, a novel TiO2 plate was developed by coating TiO2 particles onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated MALDI plates, glass, or plastic substrates. The TiO2-PDMS plate (TP plate) could be used for on-target MALDI-TOF analysis, or as a purification plate on which phosphopeptides were eluted out and subjected to MALDI-TOF or nanoLC-MS/MS analysis. The detection limit of the TP plate was ∼10-folds lower than that of a TiO2-packed tip approach. The capacity of the ∼2.5 mm diameter TiO2 spots was estimated to be ∼10 μg of β-casein. Following TiO2 plate enrichment of SCC4 cell lysate digests and nanoLC-MS/MS analysis, ∼82% of the detected proteins were phosphorylated, illustrating the sensitivity and effectiveness of the TP plate for phosphoproteomic study.

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of haemostatic function in von Willebrand disease patients using a microchip-based flow chamber system.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, K; Nogami, K; Hosokawa, K; Ohnishi, T; Matsumoto, T; Shima, M

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (VWD) is difficult due to the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with this disorder. We have analysed and characterized haemostatic function in VWD patients using a microchip-based flow chamber system. Microchips coated with either collagen [platelet (PL)-chip] or collagen/thromboplastin [atherome (AR)-chip] were used to evaluate platelet thrombus formation at 1000 s(-1) and fibrin-rich platelet thrombus formation at 240 s(-1) respectively. Blood samples from an asymptomatic patient with VWD type 1 [von Willebrand factor (VWF): RCo 3.2%; bleeding score (BS 2] displayed normal thrombus formation in both PL- and AR-chips, whereas blood from a symptomatic type 1 patient (VWF: RCo 14%, BS 9) had significantly delayed capillary occlusion. Nearly complete suppression of the flow pressure increase was observed in symptomatic patients with VWD type 2A (BS 13) and 2N (BS 27), whereas no flow pressure was found for the type 3 patient (BS 6). Fibrin-rich platelet thrombus formation was only weakly increased by the in vitro addition of factor VIII (FVIII) to blood samples from the type 3 patient, but was normalized by the addition of VWF/FVIII. The in vivo effects of treatment with desmopressin or VWF/FVIII for the symptomatic patients were analysed using two types of microchips. The PL-chip was highly sensitive for patients' VWF-mediated platelet functions, whereas the AR-chip allowed assessment of overall haemostatic ability, including sensitivity to both VWF and FVIII. The combined analysis with PL- and AR-chips may be potentially useful for the diagnosis of VWD based on clinical phenotypes, and for monitoring drug effects.

  14. Immobilization of trypsin via graphene oxide-silica composite for efficient microchip proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2013-10-01

    In this report, trypsin was covalently immobilized in the graphene oxide (GO)-silica composite coating on the channel wall of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchips to fabricate microfluidic bioreactors for highly efficient proteolysis. A mixture solution containing GO nanosheets and silica gel was injected into the channels to form coating. 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide were used as carboxyl activating agents to crosslink the primary amino groups of trypsin to the carboxyl groups of the entrapped GO sheets in the composite to realize covalent immobilization. The feasibility and performance of the novel GO-based microfluidic bioreactors were demonstrated by the digestion of hemoglobin (HEM), cytochrome c (Cyt-c), myoglobin (MYO), and ovalbumin (OVA) and the digestion time was significantly reduced to 5s. The obtained digests were identified by MALDI-TOF MS with the sequence coverages of 95%, 76%, 69%, and 55% for HEM, Cyt-c, MYO, and OVA, respectively. The suitability of the prepared bioreactors to complex proteins was demonstrated by digesting human serum.

  15. Surface Modification of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Using Ionic Complementary Peptides to Minimize Nonspecific Protein Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoling; Xiao, Junzhu; Dang, Fuquan

    2015-06-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) has become a widely used material for microfluidic and biological applications. However, PDMS has unacceptably high levels of nonspecific protein adsorption, which significantly lowers the performance of PDMS-based microfluidic chips. Most existing methods to reduce protein fouling of PDMS are to make the surface more hydrophilic by surface oxidization, polymer grafting, and physisorbed coatings. These methods suffer from the relatively short-term stability, the multistep complex treatment procedure, or the insufficient adsorption reduction. Herein, we developed a novel and facile modification method based on self-assembled peptides with well-tailored amino acid composition and sequence, which can also interact strongly with the PDMS surface in the same way as proteins, for suppressing the nonspecific protein fouling and improving the biocompatibility of PDMS-based microfluidic chips. We first demonstrated that an ionic complementary peptide, EAR16-II with a sequence of [(Ala-Glu-Ala-Glu-Ala-Arg-Ala-Arg)2], can readily self-assemble into an amphipathic film predominantly composed of tightly packed β-sheets on the native hydrophobic and plasma-oxidized hydrophilic PDMS surfaces upon low concentrations of carbohydrates. The self-assembled EAR16-II amphipathic film exposed its hydrophobic side to the solution and thus rendered the PDMS surface hydrophobic with water contact angles (WCAs) of around 110.0°. However, the self-assembled EAR16-II amphipathic film exhibited excellent protein-repelling and blood compatibility properties comparable to or better than those obtained with previously reported methods. A schematic model has been proposed to explain the interactions of EAR16-II with the PDMS surface and the antifouling capability of EAR16-II coatings at a molecular level. The current work will pave the way to the development of novel coating materials to address the nonspecific protein adsorption on PDMS, thereby broadening the

  16. Customized oligonucleotide microchips that convert multiple genetic information to simple patterns, are portable and reusable

    DOEpatents

    Mirzabekov, Andrei; Guschin, Dmitry Y.; Chik, Valentine; Drobyshev, Aleksei; Fotin, Alexander; Yershov, Gennadiy; Lysov, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to using customized oligonucleotide microchips as biosensors for the detection and identification of nucleic acids specific for different genes, organisms and/or individuals in the environment, in food and in biological samples. The microchips are designed to convert multiple bits of genetic information into simpler patterns of signals that are interpreted as a unit. Because of an improved method of hybridizing oligonucleotides from samples to microchips, microchips are reusable and transportable. For field study, portable laser or bar code scanners are suitable.

  17. Fate and effects of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Stevens, C; Powell, D E; Mäkelä, P; Karman, C

    2001-07-01

    Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) defoamers are used to improve process efficiency under extreme conditions during gas-oil separation, when other chemicals fail to perform. They are also used to reduce the oil content of process waters discharged to the marine environment, thereby serving an important function in reducing oil pollution. As a consequence of these applications small quantities of PDMS may also be released into the environment. This paper reviews the fate of PDMS in the marine environment and the extensive effect studies that have been conducted. These demonstrate the absence of adverse effects on a wide range of marine species.

  18. Tuneable hydrophoretic separation using elastic deformation of poly(dimethylsiloxane).

    PubMed

    Choi, Sungyoung; Park, Je-Kyun

    2009-07-01

    This paper demonstrates a method for tuning elastomeric microchannels for hydrophoretic separation made in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Uniform compressive strain is imposed on the elastomeric microchannel between two acrylic substrates by fastening the bolts. The elastomeric microchannel can change its cross-section during compression, simultaneously tuning the criterion for hydrophoretic ordering. The change of the channel cross-section under compression is studied using a confocal microscope and finite element method (FEM). By pressing the channel for hydrophoretic separation, we achieved tuning of the separation criterion from 7 to 2.5 microm in particle diameter. PMID:19532973

  19. Conformational Rearrangements in Interfacial Region of Polydimethylsiloxane Melt Films

    SciTech Connect

    Evmenenko,G.; Mo, H.; Kewalramani, S.; Dutta, P.

    2006-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray reflectivity (XRR) confirms the formation of a quasi-immobilized layer in thin films of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) melts near silica surfaces. This layer (40-60 Angstroms) has a lower density than the bulk value, and its thickness varies slightly with PDMS molecular weight. Formation of this layer is very rapid for PDMS melts with low molecular weights (below entanglement limit for these molecules) but takes 5-10 h for higher molecular weights (close to and above their entanglement value).

  20. Softening in silver-nanowire-filled polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Indira; Esquenazi, Gibran L.; Borca-Tasciuc, Theo; Keblinski, Pawel; Ramanath, Ganpati

    2014-07-01

    We report that silver nanowire fillers can result in a three-fold decrease in viscoelastic storage modulus of polydimethylsiloxane composites above a low critical filler fraction of ˜0.5%, contrary to theoretical predictions presaging a modulus increase. Similar fractions of silver nanocube fillers result in no such observable effects. Rheology measurements and calorimetric kinetics analyses reveal that high surface area nanowire filler percolation curtails macromolecular mobility via pre-cure gelation, and hinders crosslinking. Our findings on the effect of metal filler aspect ratio on polymer stiffness at low loading fractions would be important for designing nanocomposites for applications.

  1. Relative thrombogenicity of polydimethylsiloxane and silicone rubber constituents.

    PubMed

    Weathersby, P K; Kolobow, T; Stool, E W

    1975-11-01

    Medical grade silicone rubber (MGSR) is composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as well as silica filler, oxidation products from the curing process, and other components. In a test that excludes air-blood interfaces, PDMS radiation cured under nitrogen has a whole blood clotting time 22% longer than MGSR. Curing the PDMS under oxidizing conditions maintains a 10% prolongation, but addition of silica filler to the PDMS returns the clotting time to that of MGSR. Extracting MGSR with solvents other than water appreciably lowers the clotting time. These results indicate the "pure" PDMS has an intrinsically high thromboresistance. Thrombogenicity is increased by the use of silica filler and oxidizing cure, as in MGSR.

  2. Diffusion of dye solution in the intermolecular nanostructure of polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Mitsunori; Nishimura, Tatsuya; Sakiyama, Kohei; Nakagawa, Michinori

    2012-09-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) contains a large, flexible free space between weakly-bonded molecules, which allows notable molecular diffusion. A toluene solution of diarylethene (photochromic dye) was mixed with a PDMS oil, and then the mixture was cured in a glass vessel by adding a curing agent. Violet laser (405 nm wavelength) irradiation induced an absorption band at around 530 nm, and consequently, the irradiated portion exhibited a red color. The colored portion gradually expanded to the entire sample because of diffusion of the dye molecules. This diffusion characteristic was used for improving an organic dye durability against a photo-induced degradation.

  3. Use of a microchip flow-chamber system as a screening test for platelet storage pool disease.

    PubMed

    Minami, Hiroaki; Nogami, Keiji; Ogiwara, Kenichi; Furukawa, Shoko; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Shima, Midori

    2015-08-01

    Platelet storage pool disease (SPD) is a platelet function disorder characterized by a reduction in the number or content of α-granules, dense granules, or both, and is diagnosed by specialized tests. Patients with SPD often present with prolonged bleeding time (BT), but the sensitivity and reproducibility of this test have limitations, often resulting in false negatives. It has recently been reported that an automated microchip flow-chamber system (T-TAS(®)) is useful in the assessment of anti-platelet therapy, and could have potential as a screening test for SPD. We examined the utility of T-TAS in three individuals from one family diagnosed with δ-SPD. The propositus had a mildly prolonged BT, and the standard tests for platelet function were close to the normal range. Whole blood samples were anti-coagulated with hirudin and applied to T-TAS microchips coated with collagen (PL-chips) at shear rates of 1000 and 2000 s(-1). Platelet thrombus formation (PTF) was monitored with a pressure sensor. Markedly depressed PTF was observed in all cases at both shear rates. These findings indicate that T-TAS is highly sensitive to the defect in these patients with SPD, and may represent a good candidate screening test for a wide range of platelet function disorders. PMID:26072294

  4. Use of a microchip flow-chamber system as a screening test for platelet storage pool disease.

    PubMed

    Minami, Hiroaki; Nogami, Keiji; Ogiwara, Kenichi; Furukawa, Shoko; Hosokawa, Kazuya; Shima, Midori

    2015-08-01

    Platelet storage pool disease (SPD) is a platelet function disorder characterized by a reduction in the number or content of α-granules, dense granules, or both, and is diagnosed by specialized tests. Patients with SPD often present with prolonged bleeding time (BT), but the sensitivity and reproducibility of this test have limitations, often resulting in false negatives. It has recently been reported that an automated microchip flow-chamber system (T-TAS(®)) is useful in the assessment of anti-platelet therapy, and could have potential as a screening test for SPD. We examined the utility of T-TAS in three individuals from one family diagnosed with δ-SPD. The propositus had a mildly prolonged BT, and the standard tests for platelet function were close to the normal range. Whole blood samples were anti-coagulated with hirudin and applied to T-TAS microchips coated with collagen (PL-chips) at shear rates of 1000 and 2000 s(-1). Platelet thrombus formation (PTF) was monitored with a pressure sensor. Markedly depressed PTF was observed in all cases at both shear rates. These findings indicate that T-TAS is highly sensitive to the defect in these patients with SPD, and may represent a good candidate screening test for a wide range of platelet function disorders.

  5. Microchip capillary electrophoresis of nitrite and nitrate in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Masár, Marián; Bodor, Róbert; Troška, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) is a relatively new analytical method requiring only small sample amounts, which is very favorable for the analysis of volume-limited biofluids. The practical use of MCE in bioanalysis is still restricted in terms of requirements for simplifying and/or concentrating sample pretreatment techniques. Here, we describe an MCE method for trace analysis of nitrite and nitrate, indicators of various neurological diseases, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The complex CSF samples were simplified by solid-phase microextraction prior to an online combination of isotachophoresis with capillary zone electrophoresis performed on a microchip with coupled channels and a high-volume sample injection channel (9.9 μL). The method is suitable for rapid (total analysis time lasted 20 min), reproducible (0.6-2.4 % RSD for migration time), and sensitive (3-9 nM limits of detection) determinations of nitrite and nitrate in 15-50 times diluted CSF samples. PMID:25673480

  6. Microchip-based electrochemical detection for monitoring cellular systems

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alicia S.; Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The use of microchip devices to study cellular systems is a rapidly growing research area. There are numerous advantages of using on-chip integrated electrodes to monitor various cellular processes. The purpose of this review article is to give examples of advancements in microchip-based cellular analysis, specifically where electrochemistry is used for the detection scheme. These examples include on-chip detection of single cell quantal exocytosis, electrochemical analysis of intracellular contents, the ability to integrate cell culture/immobilization with electrochemistry, and the use of integrated electrodes to ensure cell confluency in longer term cell culture experiments. A perspective on future trends in this area is also given. PMID:23340999

  7. Microchip-based detection of magnetically labeled cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Muluneh, Melaku; Issadore, David

    2014-02-01

    Micro-magnetic sensing and actuation have emerged as powerful tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. These technologies can be miniaturized and integrated onto compact, microfluidic platforms, enabling molecular diagnostics to be performed in practical clinical settings. Molecular targets tagged with magnetic nanoparticles can be detected with high sensitivity directly in unprocessed clinical samples (e.g. blood, sputum) due to the inherently negligible magnetic susceptibility of biological material. As a result, magnetic microchip-based diagnostics have been applied with great success to the isolation and detection of rare cells and the measurement of sparse soluble proteins. In this paper, we review recent advances in microchip-based detection of magnetically labeled biomarkers and their translation to clinical applications in cancer.

  8. Microchip capillary electrophoresis of nitrite and nitrate in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Masár, Marián; Bodor, Róbert; Troška, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) is a relatively new analytical method requiring only small sample amounts, which is very favorable for the analysis of volume-limited biofluids. The practical use of MCE in bioanalysis is still restricted in terms of requirements for simplifying and/or concentrating sample pretreatment techniques. Here, we describe an MCE method for trace analysis of nitrite and nitrate, indicators of various neurological diseases, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The complex CSF samples were simplified by solid-phase microextraction prior to an online combination of isotachophoresis with capillary zone electrophoresis performed on a microchip with coupled channels and a high-volume sample injection channel (9.9 μL). The method is suitable for rapid (total analysis time lasted 20 min), reproducible (0.6-2.4 % RSD for migration time), and sensitive (3-9 nM limits of detection) determinations of nitrite and nitrate in 15-50 times diluted CSF samples.

  9. Radially polarized cylindrical vector beams from a monolithic microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, Darryl; Fromager, Michael; Ait-Ameur, Kamel; Forbes, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Monolithic microchip lasers consist of a thin slice of laser crystal where the cavity mirrors are deposited directly onto the end faces. While this property makes such lasers very compact and robust, it prohibits the use of intracavity laser beam shaping techniques to produce complex light fields. We overcome this limitation and demonstrate the selection of complex light fields in the form of vector-vortex beams directly from a monolithic microchip laser. We employ pump reshaping and a thermal gradient across the crystal surface to control both the intensity and polarization profile of the output mode. In particular, we show laser oscillation on a superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes of zero radial and nonzero azimuthal index in both the scalar and vector regimes. Such complex light fields created directly from the source could find applications in fiber injection, materials processing and in simulating quantum processes.

  10. Diode edge-pumped passively Q-switched microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weipeng; Tsunekane, Masaki; Taira, Takunori

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for high-intensity subnanosecond lasers for emerging industrial applications. While femtosecond and picosecond laser sources are considered promising, they suffer from the significant drawbacks of increased complexity and cost. In this regard, we demonstrate a unique edge-pumped passively Q-switched Nd∶YAG/Cr4+∶YAG microchip laser. The microchip is made of a Nd∶YAG/Sm∶YAG composite ceramic, and a Sm∶YAG cladding is utilized as both the pump beam waveguide and amplified spontaneous emission absorber. With the use of a flat-concave laser cavity, we obtain single-pulse energy of 1.66 mJ for an absorbed pump energy of 24 mJ. Further, the resulting pulse width is 683 ps, and the repetition rate is 10 Hz.

  11. Continuous two-wave lasing in microchip Nd : YAG lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, Ivan V; Koryukin, Igor' V; Lebedeva, Yu S; Khandokhin, Pavel A

    2011-08-31

    Simultaneous two-wave lasing was obtained in microchip end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers at the wavelengths of 1061.5 and 1064.17 nm at room temperature. Laser wave intensities were studied as functions of crystal temperature and pump power. The ranges of parameters were determined in which the two-wave lasing occurs and the reasons for such lasing were established. A model is suggested, which adequately describes the experimental results obtained. (control of radiation parameters)

  12. Large linewidth-enhancement factor in a microchip laser

    SciTech Connect

    Szwaj, Christophe; Lacot, Eric; Hugon, Olivier

    2004-09-01

    We evidence experimentally that the linewidth-enhancement factor {alpha} can take a rather large value ({alpha}{approx_equal}1) for a nonsemiconductor laser, here a Nd{sup 3+}: YAG microchip laser. This measure is performed using an original and simple method adapted to this kind of laser and based on the variations of the laser relaxation frequency when the laser is subjected to an optical feedback.

  13. A minimally invasive microchip for transdermal injection/sampling applications.

    PubMed

    Strambini, Lucanos M; Longo, Angela; Diligenti, Alessandro; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2012-09-21

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of a minimally invasive silicon microchip for transdermal injection/sampling applications are reported and discussed. The microchip exploits an array of silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles with density of one million needles cm(-2) and lateral size of a few micrometers, protruding from the front-side chip surface for one hundred micrometers, to inject/draw fluids into/from the skin. The microneedles are in connection with independent reservoirs grooved on the back-side of the chip. Insertion experiments of the microchip in skin-like polymers (agarose hydrogels with concentrations of 2% and 4% wt) demonstrate that the microneedles successfully withstand penetration without breaking, despite their high density and small size, according to theoretical predictions. Operation of the microchip with different liquids of biomedical interest (deionized water, NaCl solution, and d-glucose solution) at different differential pressures, in the range 10-100 kPa, highlights that the flow-rate through the microneedles is linearly dependent on the pressure-drop, despite the small section area (about 13 μm(2)) of the microneedle bore, and can be finely controlled from a few ml min(-1) up to tens of ml min(-1). Evaporation (at room temperature) and acceleration (up to 80 g) losses through the microneedles are also investigated to quantify the ability of the chip in storing liquids (drug to be delivered or collected fluid) in the reservoir, and result to be of the order of 70 nl min(-1) and 1300 nl min(-1), respectively, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. PMID:22773092

  14. A minimally invasive microchip for transdermal injection/sampling applications.

    PubMed

    Strambini, Lucanos M; Longo, Angela; Diligenti, Alessandro; Barillaro, Giuseppe

    2012-09-21

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of a minimally invasive silicon microchip for transdermal injection/sampling applications are reported and discussed. The microchip exploits an array of silicon-dioxide hollow microneedles with density of one million needles cm(-2) and lateral size of a few micrometers, protruding from the front-side chip surface for one hundred micrometers, to inject/draw fluids into/from the skin. The microneedles are in connection with independent reservoirs grooved on the back-side of the chip. Insertion experiments of the microchip in skin-like polymers (agarose hydrogels with concentrations of 2% and 4% wt) demonstrate that the microneedles successfully withstand penetration without breaking, despite their high density and small size, according to theoretical predictions. Operation of the microchip with different liquids of biomedical interest (deionized water, NaCl solution, and d-glucose solution) at different differential pressures, in the range 10-100 kPa, highlights that the flow-rate through the microneedles is linearly dependent on the pressure-drop, despite the small section area (about 13 μm(2)) of the microneedle bore, and can be finely controlled from a few ml min(-1) up to tens of ml min(-1). Evaporation (at room temperature) and acceleration (up to 80 g) losses through the microneedles are also investigated to quantify the ability of the chip in storing liquids (drug to be delivered or collected fluid) in the reservoir, and result to be of the order of 70 nl min(-1) and 1300 nl min(-1), respectively, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature.

  15. Solid-state detector and optical system for microchip analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Kamei, Toshihiro; Scherer, James R.; Street, Robert A.

    2005-03-15

    A miniaturized optical excitation and detector system is described for detecting fluorescently labeled analytes in electrophoretic microchips and microarrays. The system uses miniature integrated components, light collection, optical fluorescence filtering, and an amorphous a-Si:H detector for detection. The collection of light is accomplished with proximity gathering and/or a micro-lens system. Optical filtering is accomplished by integrated optical filters. Detection is accomplished utilizing a-Si:H detectors.

  16. Atmospheric pressure thermospray ionization using a heated microchip nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto; Auriola, Seppo

    2009-10-30

    When a standard atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) or atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) ion source is used without applying the corona discharge or photoirradiation, atmospheric pressure thermospray ionization (APTSI) of various compounds can be achieved. Although largely ignored, this phenomenon has recently gained interest as an alternative ionization technique. In this study, this technique is performed for the first time on a miniaturized scale using a microchip nebulizer. Sample ionization with the presented microchip-APTSI (microAPTSI) is achieved by applying only heat and gas flow to a nebulizer chip, without any other methods to promote gas-phase ionization. To evaluate the performance of the described microAPTSI setup, ionization efficiency for a set of test compounds was monitored as the microchip positioning, temperature, nebulizer gas flow rate, sample solution composition, and solvent flow rate were varied. The microAPTSI mass spectra of the test compounds were also compared to those obtained with ESI and APCI. The microAPTSI produces ESI-like spectra with low background noise, favoring the formation of protonated or deprotonated molecules of compounds that are ionizable in solution. Multiple charging of peptides without in-source fragmentation was also observed. Unlike ESI, however, the microAPTSI source can tolerate the presence of mobile phase additives like trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) without significant ion suppression. The microAPTSI source can be used with standard mass spectrometer ion source hardware, being a unique alternative to the present interfacing techniques.

  17. Precolumn reactions with electrophoretic analysis integrated on a microchip

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, S.C.; Hergenroeder, R.; Moore, A.W. Jr.; Ramsey, J.M. )

    1994-12-01

    A glass microchip was constructed to perform chemical reactions and capillary electrophoresis sequentially. The channel manifold on the glass substrate was fabricated using standard photolithographic, etching, and deposition techniques. The microchip has a reaction chamber with a 1 nL reaction volume and a separation column with a 15.4 mm separation length. Electrical control of the buffer, analyte, and reagent streams made possible the precise manipulation of the fluids within the channel manifold. The microchip was operated under a continuous reaction mode with gated injections to introduce the reaction product onto the separation column with high reproducibility (<1.8% rsd in peak area). The reaction and separation performances were evaluated by reacting amino acids with o-phthaldialdehyde to generate a fluorescent product which was detected by laser-induced fluorescence. Control of the reaction and separation conditions was sufficient to measure reaction kinetics and variation of detection limits with reaction time. Half-times of reaction of 5.1 and 6.2 s and detection limits of 0.55 and 0.83 fmol were measured for arginine and glycine, respectively. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Recent developments in optical detection methods for microchip separations.

    PubMed

    Götz, Sebastian; Karst, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the features and performances of optical detection systems currently applied in order to monitor separations on microchip devices. Fluorescence detection, which delivers very high sensitivity and selectivity, is still the most widely applied method of detection. Instruments utilizing laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and lamp-based fluorescence along with recent applications of light-emitting diodes (LED) as excitation sources are also covered in this paper. Since chemiluminescence detection can be achieved using extremely simple devices which no longer require light sources and optical components for focusing and collimation, interesting approaches based on this technique are presented, too. Although UV/vis absorbance is a detection method that is commonly used in standard desktop electrophoresis and liquid chromatography instruments, it has not yet reached the same level of popularity for microchip applications. Current applications of UV/vis absorbance detection to microchip separations and innovative approaches that increase sensitivity are described. This article, which contains 85 references, focuses on developments and applications published within the last three years, points out exciting new approaches, and provides future perspectives on this field. PMID:17031620

  19. Microchip-based human serum atherogenic lipoprotein profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Zhang, Wei; Wan, Jun; Liu, Weiwei; Yu, Bo; Jin, Qinghui; Guan, Ming

    2014-12-15

    Owing to the mounting evidence of serum lipid changes in atherosclerosis, there has been increasing interest in developing new methods for analyzing atherogenic lipoprotein profiles. The separation of lipoprotein and lipoprotein subclasses has been demonstrated using a microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) system [Chromatographia 74 (2011) 799-805]. In contrast to this previous study, the current report demonstrates that sdLDL peak efficiencies can be improved dramatically by adding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to the sample. Moreover, NBD C6-ceramide was identified as a satisfactory dye for specific labeling and quantitation of individual serum lipoproteins. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with ultracentrifuge separated small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL). A high correlation was observed between these two methods for sdLDL cholesterol. Lipid levels were investigated between atherosclerotic patients and healthy controls. The variation of serum atherogenic lipoprotein profiles for atherosclerotic patients pre- and post-treatment was assessed by microchip CE. This method has potential for the rapid and sensitive detection of different lipoprotein classes as well as their subclasses and, therefore, is suitable for routine clinical applications. Microchip-based atherogenic lipoprotein profile assays will greatly improve the analysis of risk factors in atherosclerosis and will provide useful information for monitoring the effect of therapies on atherosclerotic disease.

  20. Nucleic Acid Isolation and Enrichment on a Microchip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Hilton, John P; Yang, Kyung A; Pei, Renjun; Stojanovic, Milan; Lin, Qiao

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a microchip that isolates and enriches target-binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) from a randomized DNA mixture using a combination of solid-phase extraction and electrophoresis. Strands of ssDNA in a randomized mixture are captured via specific binding onto target-functionalized microbeads in a microchamber. The strands are further separated from impurities and enriched on-chip via electrophoresis. The microchip consists of two microchambers that are connected by a channel filled with agarose gel. In the isolation chamber, beads functionalized with human immunoglobulin E (IgE) are retained by a weir structure. An integrated heater elevates the temperature in the chamber to elute desired ssDNA from the beads, and electrophoretic transport of the DNA through the gel to the second chamber is accomplished by applying an electric potential difference between the two chambers. Experimental results show that ssDNA expressing binding affinity to IgE was captured and enriched from a sample of ssDNA with random sequences, demonstrating the potential of the microchip to enhance the sensitivity of ssDNA detection methods in dilute and complex biological samples.

  1. [Development of microchips for the analysis of biomarkers in blood].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Masatoshi; Abe, Kaori; Hashimoto, Yoshiko; Yamamura, Shohei; Yatsushiro, Shouki

    2012-11-01

    Several types of microchips have been developed for application in clinical diagnosis. A microchip made of cyclic olefin copolymer with straight microchannels (300 microm width and 100 microm depth) was employed for sandwich ELISA for the determination of serum type I C-peptide (PICP), a biomarker of osteoporosis. This assay enabled us to determine PICP with accuracy and high sensitivity, reducing the time for the immunoassay to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method. Furthermore, cell microarray chips with 20,944 microchambers (105 microm width and 50 microm depth), made of polystyrene, were employed for malaria diagnosis and the detection of carcinoma cells among the leukocytes. Around 100 erythrocytes or leukocytes were accommodated in each microchamber with the formation of a monolayer. For malaria diagnosis, it offered 10-100 times higher sensitivity in the detection of malaria infected erythrocytes than conventional light microscopy, and easy operation within 15 min. By double staining for epithelial cells on the cell microarray chip, one carcinoma cell could be detected among 1,800,000 leukocytes. These results indicate the potential of microchips for clinic diagnosis.

  2. Disposable polyester-toner electrophoresis microchips for DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Gabriela R M; Coltro, Wendell K T; Borba, Juliane C; Price, Carol W; Landers, James P; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2012-06-01

    Microchip electrophoresis has become a powerful tool for DNA separation, offering all of the advantages typically associated with miniaturized techniques: high speed, high resolution, ease of automation, and great versatility for both routine and research applications. Various substrate materials have been used to produce microchips for DNA separations, including conventional (glass, silicon, and quartz) and alternative (polymers) platforms. In this study, we perform DNA separation in a simple and low-cost polyester-toner (PeT)-based electrophoresis microchip. PeT devices were fabricated by a direct-printing process using a 600 dpi-resolution laser printer. DNA separations were performed on PeT chip with channels filled with polymer solutions (0.5% m/v hydroxyethylcellulose or hydroxypropylcellulose) at electric fields ranging from 100 to 300 V cm(-1). Separation of DNA fragments between 100 and 1000 bp, with good correlation of the size of DNA fragments and mobility, was achieved in this system. Although the mobility increased with increasing electric field, separations showed the same profile regardless of the electric field. The system provided good separation efficiency (215,000 plates per m for the 500 bp fragment) and the separation was completed in 4 min for 1000 bp fragment ladder. The cost of a given chip is approximately $0.15 and it takes less than 10 minutes to prepare a single device.

  3. Reduced-size microchips for identification of horses: response to implantation and readability during a six-month period.

    PubMed

    Wulf, M; Aurich, C; von Lewinski, M; Möstl, E; Aurich, J E

    2013-11-01

    In this study, readability of reduced-size microchips in horses and the response to implantation were analysed. It was hypothesised that small microchips can be implanted stress-free but are less readable than larger microchips. Adult mares (n=40) were implanted with a reduced-size microchip (10.9×1.6 mm) at the left side of the neck (size of conventional microchips 11.4×2.2 mm). Microchips were identified with three different scanners (A, B, C) immediately, and at 6, 12 and 28 weeks after implantation. Twelve out of the 40 mares were submitted to microchip implantation and control treatments and cortisol, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined. From the chip-bearing side of the neck, microchips were identified with all scanners in all horses at all times. From the contralateral side, correct readings were always 100 per cent with scanner C and with scanners A and B ranged between 60 and 100 per cent. Heart rate and HRV variable sd of beat-to-beat interval increased slightly (P<0.01) at microchip implantation and control treatment, but cortisol concentration did not increase. In conclusion, reduced-size microchips are highly reliable for identification of horses. Compared with conventional microchips, the reduction in size did not impair readability. Microchip implantation is no pronounced stressor for horses.

  4. Enhanced In Vitro Biocompatibility of Chemically Modified Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Surfaces for Stable Adhesion and Long-term Investigation of Brain Cerebral Cortex Cells.

    PubMed

    Kuddannaya, Shreyas; Bao, Jingnan; Zhang, Yilei

    2015-11-18

    Studies on the mammalian brain cerebral cortex have gained increasing importance due to the relevance of the region in controlling critical higher brain functions. Interactions between the cortical cells and surface extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins play a pivotal role in promoting stable cell adhesion, growth, and function. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) based platforms have been increasingly used for on-chip in vitro cellular system analysis. However, the inherent hydrophobicity of the PDMS surface has been unfavorable for any long-term cell system investigations due to transitory physical adsorption of ECM proteins on PDMS surfaces followed by eventual cell dislodgement due to poor anchorage and viability. To address this critical issue, we employed the (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) based cross-linking strategy to stabilize ECM protein immobilization on PDMS. The efficiency of surface modification in supporting adhesion and long-term viability of neuronal and glial cells was analyzed. The chemically modified surfaces showed a relatively higher cell survival with an increased neurite length and neurite branching. These changes were understood in terms of an increase in surface hydrophilicity, protein stability, and cell-ECM protein interactions. The modification strategy could be successfully applied for stable cortical cell culture on the PDMS microchip for up to 3 weeks in vitro. PMID:26506436

  5. Development of an air-knife system for highly reproducible fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane microstencils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Ho; Kim, Gyu Man

    2015-08-01

    In this study, an air-knife system was developed for the automated fabrication of polymer microstencils with microscale perforated patterns. Blowing compressed N2 gas through the air knife provided a uniform laminar gas flow of high intensity suitable for perforating holes in the stencil. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencil was replicated from a master mold prepared by photolithography. When the prepolymer of PDMS was spin-coated onto the master mold, a thin layer of the prepolymer remained on top of the master's structure and consequently prevented the formation of the perforated patterns. This residual layer was easily removed by the presented air knife. The air-knife system controlled the flow rate of N2 gas and the conveying speed of the master mold; therefore, the system possessed high reproducibility compared to manual gas blowing. Its use reduced the fabrication time for perforated biocompatible polymer microstencils, allowing for their mass production via an automated system. The validity of this suggested method was proven through experiments and was evaluated by application in various fields.

  6. Temperature-Induced Switchable Adhesion using Nickel–Titanium–Polydimethylsiloxane Hybrid Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Frensemeier, Mareike; Kaiser, Jessica S; Frick, Carl P; Schneider, Andreas S; Arzt, Eduard; Fertig, Ray S; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    A switchable dry adhesive based on a nickel–titanium (NiTi) shape-memory alloy with an adhesive silicone rubber surface has been developed. Although several studies investigate micropatterned, bioinspired adhesive surfaces, very few focus on reversible adhesion. The system here is based on the indentation-induced two-way shape-memory effect in NiTi alloys. NiTi is trained by mechanical deformation through indentation and grinding to elicit a temperature-induced switchable topography with protrusions at high temperature and a flat surface at low temperature. The trained surfaces are coated with either a smooth or a patterned adhesive polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, resulting in a temperature-induced switchable surface, used for dry adhesion. Adhesion tests show that the temperature-induced topographical change of the NiTi influences the adhesive performance of the hybrid system. For samples with a smooth PDMS layer the transition from flat to structured state reduces adhesion by 56%, and for samples with a micropatterned PDMS layer adhesion is switchable by nearly 100%. Both hybrid systems reveal strong reversibility related to the NiTi martensitic phase transformation, allowing repeated switching between an adhesive and a nonadhesive state. These effects have been discussed in terms of reversible changes in contact area and varying tilt angles of the pillars with respect to the substrate surface. PMID:26120295

  7. The influence of polydimethylsiloxane curing ratio on capillary pressure in microfluidic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Ilenia; Zacheo, Antonella; Arima, Valentina; Aricò, Antonino S.; Cortese, Barbara; Manca, Michele; Zocco, Anna; Taurino, Antonietta; Rinaldi, Ross; Gigli, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    Investigations on surface properties of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are justified by its large application ranges especially as coating polymer in fluidic devices. At a micrometer scale, the liquid dynamics is strongly modified by interactions with a solid surface. A crucial parameter for this process is microchannel wettability that can be tuned by acting on surface chemistry and topography. In literature, a number of multi-step, time and cost consuming chemical and physical procedures are reported. Here we selectively modify both wetting and mechanical properties by a single step treatment. Changes of PDMS surface were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy and the effects of interface properties on the liquid displacement inside a microfluidic system were evaluated. The negative capillary pressure obtained tailoring the PDMS wettability is believed to be promising to accurately control sample leakage inside integrated lab-on-chip by acting on the liquid confinement and thus to reduce the sample volume, liquid drying as well as cross-contamination during the operation.

  8. Polydimethylsiloxane films doped with NdFeB powder: magnetic characterization and potential applications in biomedical engineering and microrobotics.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, V; Lucarini, G; Innocenti, C; Comisso, N; Dario, P; Ricotti, L; Menciassi, A

    2015-12-01

    This work reports the fabrication, magnetic characterization and controlled navigation of film-shaped microrobots consisting of a polydimethylsiloxane-NdFeB powder composite material. The fabrication process relies on spin-coating deposition, powder orientation and permanent magnetization. Films with different powder concentrations (10 %, 30 %, 50 % and 70 % w/w) were fabricated and characterized in terms of magnetic properties and magnetic navigation performances (by exploiting an electromagnet-based platform). Standardized data are provided, thus enabling the exploitation of these composite materials in a wide range of applications, from MEMS/microrobot development to biomedical systems. Finally, the possibility to microfabricate free-standing polymeric structures and the biocompatibility of the proposed composite materials is demonstrated.

  9. A micro gas chromatography with separation capability enhanced by polydimethylsiloxane stationary phase functionalized by carbon nanotubes and graphene.

    PubMed

    Li, Yubo; Zhang, Runzhou; Wang, Tao; Wang, Youhao; Wang, Yonghuan; Li, Lingfeng; Zhao, Weijun; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, Jikui

    2016-07-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stationary phases functionalized with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene, respectively, for the columns in micro gas chromatography are presented in this paper. To exploit the merits of MWCNTs and graphene in terms of their high specific surface area, low surface energy and chemical inertness, experimental conditions for separation (heating rate and final temperature of temperature programming, flow rate of carrier gas and the volume of samples injection) are investigated, and separations of both polar and nonpolar compound mixtures under these conditions are performed. Compared with PDMS-only coated stationary phases, the functionalization of the phases with carbon nano-materials improves the performance of columns in separation, repeatability, stability and revolution significantly.

  10. Yb:KYW microchip laser with self-frequency Raman conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Grabtchikov, A S; Kuzmin, A N; Lisinetskii, V A; Orlovich, V A; Voitovich, A P; Demidovich, A A; Eichler, H J; Titov, A N

    2003-02-28

    Passively Q-switched and cw operation regimes of a diode-pumped Yb:KYW microchip laser have been investigated. The maximum slope efficiency for cw operation of 23% relative to incident pump power has been achieved. Self-frequency Raman conversion for microchip cavity configuration has been realised. (lasers)

  11. Fluorometric flow-immunoassay for alkylphenol polyethoxylates on a microchip containing a fluorescence detector comprised of an organic light emitting diode and an organic photodiode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-03-01

    A compact fluorescence detector was constructed on a microchip from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) as the light source and an organic photodiode (OPD) as the photo-detector and was used in an immunoassay for alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APE). The OLED based on a terbium complex emitted a sharp light at the main wavelength of 546 nm with a full width at half maximum of 9 nm. The incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the OPD fabricated with Fullerene 70 (C70) and tris[4-(5-phenylthiopen-2-yl)phenyl]-amine (TPTPA) was approximately 44% for light at a wavelength of 586 nm. The performance of the fluorescence detector was evaluated for the determination of resorufin (λ(em)=586 nm) and the photocurrent of the OPD due to the fluorescence of resorufin was proportional to the concentration of resorufin in the range from 0 to 18 µM with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.6 µM. The fluorescence detector was successfully utilized in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for APE, where an anti-APE antibody was immobilized on the surface of the channel of the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip or on the surface of magnetic microbeads. After an immunoreaction with a sample solution of APE containing a horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled APE, the fluorescence of resorufin generated just after introduction of a mixed solution of Amplex Red and H2O2 was measured using the fluorescence detector. The calibration curve for the photocurrent signals of the OPD due to the fluorescence of resorufin against the logarithmic concentration of APE was sigmoidal in shape. The detection limits defined as IC80 were ca. 1 ppb and ca. 2 ppb, respectively, for the methods using the anti-APE antibody immobilized on the surface of the microchannel and in the case where the antibody was immobilized on the surface of magnetic microbeads.

  12. Fluorometric flow-immunoassay for alkylphenol polyethoxylates on a microchip containing a fluorescence detector comprised of an organic light emitting diode and an organic photodiode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-03-01

    A compact fluorescence detector was constructed on a microchip from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) as the light source and an organic photodiode (OPD) as the photo-detector and was used in an immunoassay for alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APE). The OLED based on a terbium complex emitted a sharp light at the main wavelength of 546 nm with a full width at half maximum of 9 nm. The incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the OPD fabricated with Fullerene 70 (C70) and tris[4-(5-phenylthiopen-2-yl)phenyl]-amine (TPTPA) was approximately 44% for light at a wavelength of 586 nm. The performance of the fluorescence detector was evaluated for the determination of resorufin (λ(em)=586 nm) and the photocurrent of the OPD due to the fluorescence of resorufin was proportional to the concentration of resorufin in the range from 0 to 18 µM with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.6 µM. The fluorescence detector was successfully utilized in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for APE, where an anti-APE antibody was immobilized on the surface of the channel of the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip or on the surface of magnetic microbeads. After an immunoreaction with a sample solution of APE containing a horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled APE, the fluorescence of resorufin generated just after introduction of a mixed solution of Amplex Red and H2O2 was measured using the fluorescence detector. The calibration curve for the photocurrent signals of the OPD due to the fluorescence of resorufin against the logarithmic concentration of APE was sigmoidal in shape. The detection limits defined as IC80 were ca. 1 ppb and ca. 2 ppb, respectively, for the methods using the anti-APE antibody immobilized on the surface of the microchannel and in the case where the antibody was immobilized on the surface of magnetic microbeads. PMID:25618638

  13. Self-cleaning poly(dimethylsiloxane) film with functional micro/nano hierarchical structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Zhu, Fu-Yun; Han, Meng-Di; Sun, Xu-Ming; Peng, Xu-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Xia

    2013-08-27

    This paper reports a novel single-step wafer-level fabrication of superhydrophobic micro/nano dual-scale (MNDS) poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films. The MNDS PDMS films were replicated directly from an ultralow-surface-energy silicon substrate at high temperature without any surfactant coating, achieving high precision. An improved deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process with enhanced passivation steps was proposed to easily realize the ultralow-surface-energy MNDS silicon substrate and also utilized as a post-treatment process to strengthen the hydrophobicity of the MNDS PDMS film. The chemical modification of this enhanced passivation step to the surface energy has been studied by density functional theory, which is also the first investigation of C4F8 plasma treatment at molecular level by using first-principle calculations. From the results of a systematic study on the effect of key process parameters (i.e., baking temperature and time) on PDMS replication, insight into the interaction of hierarchical multiscale structures of polymeric materials during the micro/nano integrated fabrication process is experimentally obtained for the first time. Finite element simulation has been employed to illustrate this new phenomenon. Additionally, hierarchical PDMS pyramid arrays and V-shaped grooves have been developed and are intended for applications as functional structures for a light-absorption coating layer and directional transport of liquid droplets, respectively. This stable, self-cleaning PDMS film with functional micro/nano hierarchical structures, which is fabricated through a wafer-level single-step fabrication process using a reusable silicon mold, shows attractive potential for future applications in micro/nanodevices, especially in micro/nanofluidics.

  14. A microchip electrophoresis device with on-line microdialysis sampling and on-chip sample derivatization by naphthalene 2,3-dicarboxaldehyde/2-mercaptoethanol for amino acid and peptide analysis.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Bryan H; Fogarty, Barbara A; Nandi, Pradyot; Lunte, Susan M

    2006-11-16

    The integration of rapid on-chip sample derivatization employing naphthalene 2,3-dicarboxaldehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol (NDA/2ME) with an easily assembled microdialysis/microchip electrophoresis device was carried out. The microchip device consisted of a glass layer with etched microfluidic channels that was sealed with a layer of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) via plasma oxidation. This simple sealing procedure alleviated the need for glass thermal bonding and allowed the device to be re-sealed in the event of blockages within the channels. The device was used for analysis of a mixture of amino acids and peptides derivatized on-chip with NDA/2ME for laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. A 0.6 mM NDA/1.2 mM 2ME mixture was simply added into the buffer reservoir for dynamic on-column derivatization of sample mixtures introduced at a flow rate of 1.0 microl/min. Using this scheme, sample injection plugs were derivatized and separated simultaneously. Injections of ca. 12 fmol of 5 mM amino acid and peptide samples were conducted using the system. Finally, a three-component mixture of Arg, Gly-Pro, and Asp was sampled from a vial using microdialysis, derivatized, separated and detected with the system. The ultimate goal of this effort is the creation of a micro-total analysis system for high-temporal resolution monitoring of primary amines in biological systems.

  15. Tube Radial Distribution Chromatography on a Microchip Incorporating Microchannels with a Three-to-One Channel Confluence Point.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Naomichi; Yamashita, Kenichi; Maeda, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We developed a capillary chromatography system using a phase-separated solvent mixture as a carrier solution--i.e., a water-hydrophilic/hydrophobic organic solvent mixture--which we call "tube radial distribution chromatography" (TRDC). Here, we attempted to apply the TRDC system to a microchip incorporating microchannels with a double T-junction for injection of analyte solution and a three-to-one, narrow-to-wide channel confluence point for tube radial distribution phenomenon (TRDP) at room temperature. A ternary mixed solvent of water, acetonitrile and ethyl acetate was used as a carrier solution. TRDP in the wide microchannel was examined using various flow rates, temperatures, and component solvent ratios. Successful observation was carried out using a fluorescence microscope-CCD camera. Model analytes perylene (hydrophobic) and Eosin Y (hydrophilic) were separated by flowing through the microchannel, without any treatment such as packed columns or coating, at room temperature (25°C).

  16. Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Branden M; Brunell, Marla K; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature is a common physiologic parameter measured in both clinical and research settings, with rectal thermometry being implied as the 'gold standard.' However, rectal thermometry usually requires physical or chemical restraint, potentially causing falsely elevated readings due to animal stress. A less stressful method may eliminate this confounding variable. The current study compared 2 types of digital rectal thermometers-a calibrated digital thermometer and a common digital thermometer-with an implantable subcutaneous transponder microchip. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously between the shoulder blades of 16 ferrets (8 male, 8 female), and temperatures were measured twice from the microchip reader and once from each of the rectal thermometers. Results demonstrated the microchip temperature readings had very good to good correlation and agreement to those from both of the rectal thermometers. This study indicates that implantable temperature-sensing microchips are a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for monitoring body temperature in ferrets.

  17. Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Branden M; Brunell, Marla K; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature is a common physiologic parameter measured in both clinical and research settings, with rectal thermometry being implied as the ‘gold standard.’ However, rectal thermometry usually requires physical or chemical restraint, potentially causing falsely elevated readings due to animal stress. A less stressful method may eliminate this confounding variable. The current study compared 2 types of digital rectal thermometers—a calibrated digital thermometer and a common digital thermometer—with an implantable subcutaneous transponder microchip. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously between the shoulder blades of 16 ferrets (8 male, 8 female), and temperatures were measured twice from the microchip reader and once from each of the rectal thermometers. Results demonstrated the microchip temperature readings had very good to good correlation and agreement to those from both of the rectal thermometers. This study indicates that implantable temperature-sensing microchips are a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for monitoring body temperature in ferrets. PMID:27177569

  18. Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Branden M; Brunell, Marla K; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature is a common physiologic parameter measured in both clinical and research settings, with rectal thermometry being implied as the 'gold standard.' However, rectal thermometry usually requires physical or chemical restraint, potentially causing falsely elevated readings due to animal stress. A less stressful method may eliminate this confounding variable. The current study compared 2 types of digital rectal thermometers-a calibrated digital thermometer and a common digital thermometer-with an implantable subcutaneous transponder microchip. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously between the shoulder blades of 16 ferrets (8 male, 8 female), and temperatures were measured twice from the microchip reader and once from each of the rectal thermometers. Results demonstrated the microchip temperature readings had very good to good correlation and agreement to those from both of the rectal thermometers. This study indicates that implantable temperature-sensing microchips are a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for monitoring body temperature in ferrets. PMID:27177569

  19. Fs-laser processing of medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanasov, P. A.; Stankova, N. E.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Fukata, N.; Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B.; Amoruso, S.; Wang, X.; Kolev, K. N.; Valova, E. I.; Georgieva, J. S.; Armyanov, St. A.

    2016-06-01

    Medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is a biomaterial widely used in medicine and high-tech devices, e.g. MEMS and NEMS. In this work, we report an experimental investigation on femtosecond laser processing of PDMS-elastomer with near infrared (NIR), visible (VIS) and ultraviolet (UV) pulses. High definition trenches are produced by varying processing parameters as laser wavelength, pulse duration, fluence, scanning speed and overlap of the subsequent pulses. The sample surface morphology and chemical composition are investigated by Laser Microscopy, SEM and Raman spectroscopy, addressing the effects of the various processing parameters through comparison with the native materials characteristics. For all the laser pulse wavelengths used, the produced tracks are successfully metalized with Ni via electro-less plating method. We observe a negligible influence of the time interval elapsed between laser treatment and metallization process. Our experimental findings suggest promising perspectives of femtosecond laser pulses in micro- and nano-fabrication of hi-tech PDMS devices.

  20. Topographies of plasma-hardened surfaces of poly(dimethylsiloxane)

    SciTech Connect

    Goerrn, Patrick; Wagner, Sigurd

    2010-11-15

    We studied the formation of surface layers hardened by plasma-enhanced oxidation of the silicone elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane). We explored the largest parameter space surveyed to date. The surface layers may wrinkle, crack, or both, under conditions that at times are controlled by design, but more often have been discovered by trial-and-error. We find four distinct topographies: flat/wrinkled/cracked/cracked and wrinkled. Each topography is clearly separated in the space of plasma dose versus plasma pressure. We analyzed wrinkle amplitude and wavelength by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode. From these dimensions we calculated the elastic modulus and thickness of the hard surface layer, and inferred a graded hardness, by employing a modified theoretical model. Our main result is the identification of the parameters under which the technologically important pure wrinkled, crack-free topography is obtained.

  1. Soft Polydimethylsiloxane Elastomers from Architecture-driven Entanglement Free Design

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Li-Heng; Kodger, Thomas E.; Guerra, Rodrigo E.; Pegoraro, Adrian F.; Rubinstein, Michael; Weitz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We fabricate soft, solvent-free polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers by crosslinking bottlebrush polymers rather than linear polymers. We design the chemistry to allow commercially available linear PDMS precursors to deterministically form bottlebrush polymers, which are simultaneously crosslinked, enabling a one-step synthesis. The bottlebrush architecture prevents the formation of entanglements, resulting in elastomers with precisely controllable elastic moduli from ~1 to ~100 kPa, below the intrinsic lower limit of traditional elastomers. Moreover, the solvent-free nature of the soft PDMS elastomers enables a negligible contact adhesion compared to commercially available silicone products of similar stiffness. The exceptional combination of softness and negligible adhesiveness may greatly broaden the applications of PDMS elastomers in both industry and research. PMID:26259975

  2. Vectorial strain gauge method using single flexible orthogonal polydimethylsiloxane gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao; Tang, Jun; Qian, Kun; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Binzhen; Chou, Xiujian; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-03-01

    A vectorial strain gauge method using a single sensing element is reported based on the double-sided polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Fraunhofer diffraction gratings structures. Using O2 plasma treatment steps, orthogonal wrinkled gratings were fabricated on both sides of a pre-strained PDMS film. Diffracted laser spots from this structure have been used to experimentally demonstrate, that any applied strain can be quantitatively characterized in both the x and y directions with an error of less than 0.6% and with a gauge factor of approximately 10. This simple and low cost technology which is completely different from the traditional vectorial strain gauge method, can be applied to surface vectorial strain measurement and multi-axis integrated mechanical sensors.

  3. Stretchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Liquid Metal-Filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeongseob; Lee, Dongju; Eom, Seunghyun; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-01-01

    A stretchable metamaterial absorber is proposed in this study. The stretchability was achieved by liquid metal and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). To inject liquid metal, microfluidic channels were fabricated using PDMS powers and microfluidic-channel frames, which were built using a three-dimensional printer. A top conductive pattern and ground plane were designed after considering the easy injection of liquid metal. The proposed metamaterial absorber comprises three layers of PDMS substrate. The top layer is for the top conductive pattern, and the bottom layer is for the meandered ground plane. Flat PDMS layers were inserted between the top and bottom PDMS layers. The measured absorptivity of the fabricated absorber was 97.8% at 18.5 GHz, and the absorption frequency increased from 18.5 to 18.65 GHz as the absorber was stretched from its original length (5.2 cm) to 6.4 cm. PMID:27077861

  4. A vapor-assisted method for adhering polydimethylsiloxane and glass.

    PubMed

    Sofla, Aarash Y N; Martin, Cristina

    2010-01-21

    A straightforward and inexpensive method to increase the adhesion strength of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass is described. In this method the targeted PDMS-glass sample is exposed to a fluoroalkyl trichlorosilane vapor in an enclosed container for a certain time. It is experimentally shown that the adhesion strength of the resulted interface depends on the exposure duration. Permanently bonded PDMS-glass interfaces were reliably achieved upon sufficient exposure to the vapor. This vapor-assisted method for adhering PDMS and glass does not require any special skill or equipment and therefore can be implemented at any laboratory. This method can be used for the simultaneous bonding of components and is suitable for the mass production of microfluidic devices.

  5. Nanoscale viscoelastic properties and adhesion of polydimethylsiloxane for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Wright, K. E.; Birch, M. A.

    2014-02-01

    It has shown that altering crosslink density of biopolymers will regulate the morphology of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) and the subsequent MSCs differentiation. These observations have been found in a wide range of biopolymers. However, a recent work published in Nature Materials has revealed that MSCs morphology and differentiation was unaffected by crosslink density of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which remains elusive. To understand such unusual behaviour, we use nanoindentation tests and modelling to characterize viscoelastic properties and surface adhesion of PDMS with different base:crosslink ratio varied from 50:1 (50D) to 10:1 (10D). It has shown that lower crosslink density leads to lower elastic moduli. Despite lower nanoindentation elastic moduli, PDMS with lowest crosslink density has higher local surface adhesion which would affect cell-biomaterials interactions. This work suggests that surface adhesion is likely another important physical cue to regulate cell-biomaterials interactions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Vectorial strain gauge method using single flexible orthogonal polydimethylsiloxane gratings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hao; Tang, Jun; Qian, Kun; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Binzhen; Chou, Xiujian; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    A vectorial strain gauge method using a single sensing element is reported based on the double-sided polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Fraunhofer diffraction gratings structures. Using O2 plasma treatment steps, orthogonal wrinkled gratings were fabricated on both sides of a pre-strained PDMS film. Diffracted laser spots from this structure have been used to experimentally demonstrate, that any applied strain can be quantitatively characterized in both the x and y directions with an error of less than 0.6% and with a gauge factor of approximately 10. This simple and low cost technology which is completely different from the traditional vectorial strain gauge method, can be applied to surface vectorial strain measurement and multi-axis integrated mechanical sensors.

  7. Vectorial strain gauge method using single flexible orthogonal polydimethylsiloxane gratings

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hao; Tang, Jun; Qian, Kun; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Binzhen; Chou, Xiujian; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    A vectorial strain gauge method using a single sensing element is reported based on the double-sided polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Fraunhofer diffraction gratings structures. Using O2 plasma treatment steps, orthogonal wrinkled gratings were fabricated on both sides of a pre-strained PDMS film. Diffracted laser spots from this structure have been used to experimentally demonstrate, that any applied strain can be quantitatively characterized in both the x and y directions with an error of less than 0.6% and with a gauge factor of approximately 10. This simple and low cost technology which is completely different from the traditional vectorial strain gauge method, can be applied to surface vectorial strain measurement and multi-axis integrated mechanical sensors. PMID:27005493

  8. An integrated tunable interferometer controlled by liquid diffusion in polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yun; Shen, Zhenhua; Chen, Xiang; Di, Ziyun; Chen, Xianfeng

    2012-08-13

    We demonstrated an integrated tunable interferometer in Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). In contrast to most on-chip interferometers which require complex fabrication, our design is realized by conventional soft lithography fabrication. The optical path difference occurs during propagation across a fluid-fluid interface. The diffusion level of the two miscible liquids which is controlled by liquid flow rates provides tunability. Different ratio of two liquid flow rates result in the interference spectral shift. Interference peak numbers are varied with flow rate ratio of two liquids. Mutual diffusion between two liquids changes the profile of the refractive index across the fluidic channel. The two arms structure of our design provides convenience for sensing and detection in biology system. This device not only offers the convenience for microfluidic networks but also paves the way for sensing in chemical microreactors. PMID:23038532

  9. Ripple dislocation slip in wrinkled gold film deposited on polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. B.; Chuang, Y. F.; Liu, Y. H.; Lee, Sanboh; Chou, Y. T.

    2011-07-01

    The motion of ripple dislocations in a wrinkled thin film of gold deposited on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was investigated. The deposition was made under tensile load along the first direction on the PDMS plate. After the tensile load was released, a ripple pattern and ripple dislocations were formed on the surface. Upon reloading in the second direction, these ripple dislocations were able to slip. At a given tensile load, the speed of slip decreased as the loading time increased, and finally reached a constant value, which was increasing with the applied load. The measured data were interpreted with a dynamic model based on Newton's law of motion. Interaction of ripple dislocations was also observed. It was shown that a pair of positive and negative ripple dislocations of equal strength could annihilate each other or form a dipole, depending on the magnitude of the applied load.

  10. Enhanced sensitivity of piezoelectric pressure sensor with microstructured polydimethylsiloxane layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Wook; Lee, Junwoo; Kyoung Yoo, Yong; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Jinseok; Hoon Lee, Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Highly sensitive detection tools that measure pressure and force are essential in palpation as well as real-time pressure monitoring in biomedical applications. So far, measurement has mainly been done by force sensing resistors and field effect transistor (FET) sensors for monitoring biological pressure and force sensing. We report a pressure sensor by the combination of a piezoelectric sensor layer integrated with a microstructured Polydimethylsiloxane (μ-PDMS) layer. We propose an enhanced sensing tool to be used for analyzing gentle touches without the external voltage source that is used in FET sensors, by incorporating a microstructured PDMS layer in a piezoelectric sensor. By measuring the directly induced electrical charge from the microstructure-enhanced piezoelectric signal, we observed a 3-fold increased sensitivity in a signal response. Both fast signal relaxation from force removal and wide dynamic range from 0.23 to 10 kPa illustrate the good feasibility of the thin film piezoelectric sensor for mimicking human skin.

  11. Polydimethylsiloxane fibers for optical fiber sensor of displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martincek, Ivan; Pudis, Dusan; Gaso, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The paper describes the preparation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber integrated on the conventional optical fibers and their use for optical fiber displacement sensor. PDMS fiber was made of silicone elastomer Sylgard 184 (Dow Corning) by drawing from partially cured silicone. Optical fiber displacement sensor using PDMS fiber is based on the measurement of the local minimum of optical signal in visible spectral range generated by intermodal interference of circularly symmetric modes. Position of the local minimum in spectral range varies by stretching the PDMS fiber of 230 μm in the wavelength range from 688 to 477 nm. In the stretched PDMS fiber is possible to determine the longitudinal displacement with an accuracy of approximately 1 micrometer.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of phantoms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva-Luna, A. E.; Santiago-Alvarado, A.; Castro-Ramos, J.; Licona-Moran, B.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Flores-Gil, A.; Delgado-Atencio, J. A.

    2011-03-01

    The transparent elastomer Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Sylgard 184 is increasingly used in optical applications, as in the manufacture of microlens, waveguides (optical fibers) and to elaborated phantoms (simulator of biological tissue); The wide range of applications is due to its excellent physic-chemical properties, its low cost, easy operation and null toxicity. This paper describes the manufacturing process and physic-chemical characterization of Phantoms prepared with PDMS as grid and doped with some elements present as Gliceryl, ink, glucose 10% and melanin provided by sigma aldrich. We made phantoms with different concentrations and elements; we measured their profiles, and thicknesses. Finally, we obtained their Raman Spectra. We present the experimental results obtained of the physic-chemical parameters of the phantoms and the conclusions.

  13. NMR Investigations into Polydimethylsiloxane Adsorption on Silica Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen Addad, J. P.; Morel, N.

    1996-02-01

    Adsorption properties of polydimethylsiloxane on the surface of silica aggregates are studied from chemical microanalysis combined with proton magnetic relaxation measurements and from swelling measurements performed on mixtures. It is shown that polymer molecules, observed right after the preparation of mixtures, are strongly adsorbed on about 1/4 of the silica surface, only; they form islets. It is also shown that the number of contact points of a chain with the surface is proportional to sqrt{N} during the progressive saturation of the silica surface; N is the number of monometric units in one chain. Les propriétés d'adsorption du polydimethylsiloxane sur la surface d'agrégats de silice sont étudiées par microanalyse chimique, par des mesures de relaxation magnétique des protons liés aux chaînes et par des mesures de gonflement des mélanges polymères-particules, utilisant un bon solvant. On montre qu'immédiatement après la préparation des mélanges, les chaînes solidement adsorbées n'occupent, sous la forme d'ilôts, que le quart de la surface de silice. On montre aussi que, pendant la saturation progressive de la surface, qui dure environ 3 mois à 343 K, le nombre de points de contacts d'une chaîne avec la silice est proportionnel à sqrt{N} ; N étant le nombre de maillons dans la chaîne.

  14. Optical nanocluster microchips for human diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Georg D.; Volnov, Sabine; Sontag, Gerhard; Leitner, Alfred; Aussenegg, Franz R.; Pittner, Fritz; Schalkhammer, Thomas G. M.

    1999-06-01

    Metal clusters excited by light exhibit high local field enhancement and nanoscale resonant behavior. Absorptive properties of these metal clusters bound to a surface are the basis of various new and highly promising setups to transduce biorecognitive interactions into an optical signal. Multilayered highly resonant systems had been proposed and recently demonstrated employing a metal mirror, a nanometric polymer distance layer, a biomolecule interaction layer and biorecognitively bound metal nano clusters. The optochips clearly exhibit strong reflection minima induced by the resonant behavior of the metal cluster layer. At least one narrow reflection minimum can be shifted to the red or infra red spectral range and therefore far away from spherical gold colloids (less than 520 nm) and human plasma absorption. The setup enabled us to replace conventional binding assays (like ELISA) overcoming the various technological limits as there are multiple incubation steps, harmful reagents and spatial resolution. A modified setup (the metal island coated swelling polymer over mirror system) employing an optical thin-layer system consisting of a metal mirror, an active analyte-induced swelling polymer, and a metal cluster (island) film as the topmost layer was used to transduce human plasma ion concentrations.

  15. Sensitive detection of C-reactive protein in serum by immunoprecipitation-microchip capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Ela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Wenz, Christian; Rüfer, Andreas; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis represents a significant cause of mortality in intensive care units. Early diagnosis of sepsis is essential to increase the survival rate of patients. Among others, C-reactive protein (CRP) is commonly used as a sepsis marker. In this work we introduce immune precipitation combined with microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (IP-MCGE) for the detection and quantification of CRP in serum samples. First high-abundance proteins (HSA, IgG) are removed from serum samples using affinity spin cartridges, and then the remaining proteins are labeled with a fluorescence dye and incubated with an anti-CRP antibody, and the antigen/antibody complex is precipitated with protein G-coated magnetic beads. After precipitation the complex is eluted from the beads and loaded onto the MCGE system. CRP could be reliably detected and quantified, with a detection limit of 25 ng/μl in serum samples and 126 pg/μl in matrix-free samples. The overall sensitivity (LOQ = 75 ng/μl, R(2) = 0.9668) of the method is lower than that of some specially developed methods (e.g., immune radiometric assay) but is comparable to those of clinically accepted ELISA methods. The straightforward sample preparation (not prone to mistakes), reduced sample and reagent volumes (including the antibodies), and high throughput (10 samples/3 h) are advantages and therefore IP-MCGE bears potential for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:25778394

  16. Sensitive detection of C-reactive protein in serum by immunoprecipitation-microchip capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Ela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Wenz, Christian; Rüfer, Andreas; Redl, Heinz; Bahrami, Soheyl; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Sepsis represents a significant cause of mortality in intensive care units. Early diagnosis of sepsis is essential to increase the survival rate of patients. Among others, C-reactive protein (CRP) is commonly used as a sepsis marker. In this work we introduce immune precipitation combined with microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (IP-MCGE) for the detection and quantification of CRP in serum samples. First high-abundance proteins (HSA, IgG) are removed from serum samples using affinity spin cartridges, and then the remaining proteins are labeled with a fluorescence dye and incubated with an anti-CRP antibody, and the antigen/antibody complex is precipitated with protein G-coated magnetic beads. After precipitation the complex is eluted from the beads and loaded onto the MCGE system. CRP could be reliably detected and quantified, with a detection limit of 25 ng/μl in serum samples and 126 pg/μl in matrix-free samples. The overall sensitivity (LOQ = 75 ng/μl, R(2) = 0.9668) of the method is lower than that of some specially developed methods (e.g., immune radiometric assay) but is comparable to those of clinically accepted ELISA methods. The straightforward sample preparation (not prone to mistakes), reduced sample and reagent volumes (including the antibodies), and high throughput (10 samples/3 h) are advantages and therefore IP-MCGE bears potential for point-of-care diagnosis.

  17. Observation of transverse patterns in an isotropic microchip laser

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.F.; Lan, Y.P.

    2003-04-01

    An isotropic microchip laser is used to study the characteristics of high-order wave functions in a two-dimensional (2D) quantum harmonic oscillator based on the identical functional forms. With a doughnut pump profile, the spontaneous transverse modes are found to, generally, be elliptic and hyperbolic transverse modes. Theoretical analyses reveal that the elliptic transverse modes are analogous to the coherent states of a 2D harmonic oscillator; the formation of hyperbolic transverse modes is a spontaneous mode locking between two identical Hermite-Gaussian modes.

  18. View northeast of a microchip based computer control system installed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast of a microchip based computer control system installed in the early 1980's to replace Lamokin Tower, at center of photograph; panels 1 and 2 at right of photograph are part of main supervisory board; panel 1 controlled Allen Lane sub-station #7; responsiblity for this portion of the system was transferred to southeast Pennsylvania transit authority (septa) in 1985; panel 2 at extreme right controls catenary switches in a coach storage yard adjacent to the station - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Magnetic microchip traps and single-atom detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Romain; Steinmetz, Tilo; Hommelhoff, Peter; Hansel, Wolfgang; Hansch, Theodor W.; Reichel, Jakob

    2003-07-01

    Microchip traps provide a promising approach to quantum information processing and communication (QIPC) with neutral atoms: strong and complex potentials can be produced for acting on the qubit atoms, and the potentials can be scaled to higher qubit numbers by virtue of the microfabrication process. We describe experimental results that are relevant to use in QIPC, such as the transport of Bose-Einstein-condensed atomic ensembles along the chip surface with the help of a magnetic conveyor belt. The second part of the paper is devoted to single-atom detection on the chip.

  20. Magnetic microchip traps and single-atom detection.

    PubMed

    Long, Romain; Steinmetz, Tilo; Hommelhoff, Peter; Hänsel, Wolfgang; Hänsch, Theodor W; Reichel, Jakob

    2003-07-15

    Microchip traps provide a promising approach to quantum information processing and communication (QIPC) with neutral atoms: strong and complex potentials can be produced for acting on the qubit atoms, and the potentials can be scaled to higher qubit numbers by virtue of the microfabrication process. We describe experimental results that are relevant to use in QIPC, such as the transport of Bose-Einstein-condensed atomic ensembles along the chip surface with the help of a magnetic conveyor belt. The second part of the paper is devoted to single-atom detection on the chip.

  1. Species-Level Identification of Orthopoxviruses with an Oligonucleotide Microchip

    PubMed Central

    Lapa, Sergey; Mikheev, Maxim; Shchelkunov, Sergei; Mikhailovich, Vladimir; Sobolev, Alexander; Blinov, Vladimir; Babkin, Igor; Guskov, Alexander; Sokunova, Elena; Zasedatelev, Alexander; Sandakhchiev, Lev; Mirzabekov, Andrei

    2002-01-01

    A method for species-specific detection of orthopoxviruses pathogenic for humans and animals is described. The method is based on hybridization of a fluorescently labeled amplified DNA specimen with the oligonucleotide DNA probes immobilized on a microchip (MAGIChip). The probes identify species-specific sites within the crmB gene encoding the viral analogue of tumor necrosis factor receptor, one of the most important determinants of pathogenicity in this genus of viruses. The diagnostic procedure takes 6 h and does not require any sophisticated equipment (a portable fluorescence reader can be used). PMID:11880388

  2. Preparation of superhydrophobic coating using modified CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yansheng; He, Yi; Qing, Yongquan; Hu, Chuanbo; Mo, Qian

    2013-01-01

    CaCO3 nanoparticles were modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic with oleic acid, hydrophobic coating was formed on the glass substrates with modified nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane via a simple process. The surface wettability and topology of coating were studied by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results showed that the coating exhibited self-cleaning property with a water average contact angle of 160° and sliding angle of 6°, coating surface with hierarchical nano and micro structures, this method has good prospect for applications.

  3. Preparation of iridescent colloidal crystal coatings with variable structural colors.

    PubMed

    Cong, Hailin; Yu, Bing; Wang, Shaopeng; Qi, Limin; Wang, Jilei; Ma, Yurong

    2013-07-29

    Iridescent colloidal crystal coatings with variable structural colors were fabricated by incorporating carbon black nanoparticles (CB-NPs) into the voids of polystyrene (PS) colloidal crystals. The structural color of the colloid crystal coatings was not only greatly enhanced after the composition but also varied with observation angles. By changing the diameter of monodisperse PS colloids in the composites, colloidal crystal coatings with three primary colors for additive or subtractive combination were obtained. After incorporation of the PS/CB-NPs hybrid coatings into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix, manmade opal jewelry with variable iridescent colors was made facilely. PMID:23938656

  4. Development of an SDS-gel electrophoresis method on SU-8 microchips for protein separation with LIF detection: Application to the analysis of whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Del Mar Barrios-Romero, Maria; Crevillén, Agustín G; Diez-Masa, José Carlos

    2013-08-01

    This work describes the development of an SDS-gel electrophoresis method for the analysis of major whey proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and BSA) carried out in SU-8 microchips. The method uses a low-viscosity solution of dextran as a sieving polymer. A commercial coating agent (EOTrol LN) was added to the separation buffer to control the EOF of the chips. The potential of this coating agent to prevent protein adsorption on the walls of the SU-8 channels was also evaluated. Additionally, the fluorescence background of the SU-8 material was studied to improve the sensitivity of the method. By selecting an excitation wavelength of 532 nm at which the background fluorescence remains low and by replacing the mercury arc lamp by a laser in the detection system, an LOD in the nanomolar range was achieved for proteins derivatized with the fluorogenic reagent Chromeo P540. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of milk samples, demonstrating the potential of SU-8 microchips for the analysis of proteins in complex food samples.

  5. Physiological and behavioural responses of young horses to hot iron branding and microchip implantation.

    PubMed

    Erber, R; Wulf, M; Becker-Birck, M; Kaps, S; Aurich, J E; Möstl, E; Aurich, C

    2012-02-01

    Branding is the traditional and well-established method used to mark horses, but recently microchip transponders for implantation have become available. In this study, behaviour, physiological stress variables and skin temperature in foals were determined in response to hot-iron branding (n=7) and microchip implantation (n=7). Salivary cortisol concentrations increased in response to branding (1.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL) and microchip implantation (1.4 ± 0.1ng/mL), but cortisol release over time did not differ. In response to both manipulations there was a transient increase in heart rate (P<0.001) and heart rate variability (P<0.01). Branding and microchip implantation induced a comparable aversive behaviour (branding, score 3.86 ± 0.85; microchip, score 4.00 ± 0.82). Both techniques thus caused similar physiological and behavioural changes indicative of stress. Acutely, implantation of a microchip was as stressful as branding in foals. Branding caused a necrotising skin burn lasting at least 7 days. Moreover branding, but not microchip implantation (P<0.001), was accompanied by a generalized increase in skin temperature which was comparable to low degree post-burn hypermetabolism in humans.

  6. DNA analysis using an integrated microchip for multiplex PCR amplification and electrophoresis for reference samples.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Delphine; Root, Brian E; Reedy, Carmen R; Hickey, Jeffrey A; Scott, Orion N; Bienvenue, Joan M; Landers, James P; Chassagne, Luc; de Mazancourt, Philippe

    2014-08-19

    A system that automatically performs the PCR amplification and microchip electrophoretic (ME) separation for rapid forensic short tandem repeat (STR) forensic profiling in a single disposable plastic chip is demonstrated. The microchip subassays were optimized to deliver results comparable to conventional benchtop methods. The microchip process was accomplished in sub-90 min compared with >2.5 h for the conventional approach. An infrared laser with a noncontact temperature sensing system was optimized for a 45 min PCR compared with the conventional 90 min amplification time. The separation conditions were optimized using LPA-co-dihexylacrylamide block copolymers specifically designed for microchip separations to achieve accurate DNA size calling in an effective length of 7 cm in a plastic microchip. This effective separation length is less than half of other reports for integrated STR analysis and allows a compact, inexpensive microchip design. This separation quality was maintained when integrated with microchip PCR. Thirty samples were analyzed conventionally and then compared with data generated by the microfluidic chip system. The microfluidic system allele calling was 100% concordant with the conventional process. This study also investigated allelic ladder consistency over time. The PCR-ME genetic profiles were analyzed using binning palettes generated from two sets of allelic ladders run three and six months apart. Using these binning palettes, no allele calling errors were detected in the 30 samples demonstrating that a microfluidic platform can be highly consistent over long periods of time.

  7. Self-transport and self-alignment of microchips using microscopic rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Bo; Shah, Ali; Zhou, Quan; Ras, Robin H. A.; Hjort, Klas

    2015-10-01

    Alignment of microchips with receptors is an important process step in the construction of integrated micro- and nanosystems for emerging technologies, and facilitating alignment by spontaneous self-assembly processes is highly desired. Previously, capillary self-alignment of microchips driven by surface tension effects on patterned surfaces has been reported, where it was essential for microchips to have sufficient overlap with receptor sites. Here we demonstrate for the first time capillary self-transport and self-alignment of microchips, where microchips are initially placed outside the corresponding receptor sites and can be self-transported by capillary force to the receptor sites followed by self-alignment. The surface consists of hydrophilic silicon receptor sites surrounded by superhydrophobic black silicon. Rain-induced microscopic droplets are used to form the meniscus for the self-transport and self-alignment. The boundary conditions for the self-transport have been explored by modeling and confirmed experimentally. The maximum permitted gap between a microchip and a receptor site is determined by the volume of the liquid and by the wetting contrast between receptor site and substrate. Microscopic rain applied on hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned surfaces greatly improves the capability, reliability and error-tolerance of the process, avoiding the need for accurate initial placement of microchips, and thereby greatly simplifying the alignment process.

  8. Self-transport and self-alignment of microchips using microscopic rain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo; Shah, Ali; Zhou, Quan; Ras, Robin H A; Hjort, Klas

    2015-10-09

    Alignment of microchips with receptors is an important process step in the construction of integrated micro- and nanosystems for emerging technologies, and facilitating alignment by spontaneous self-assembly processes is highly desired. Previously, capillary self-alignment of microchips driven by surface tension effects on patterned surfaces has been reported, where it was essential for microchips to have sufficient overlap with receptor sites. Here we demonstrate for the first time capillary self-transport and self-alignment of microchips, where microchips are initially placed outside the corresponding receptor sites and can be self-transported by capillary force to the receptor sites followed by self-alignment. The surface consists of hydrophilic silicon receptor sites surrounded by superhydrophobic black silicon. Rain-induced microscopic droplets are used to form the meniscus for the self-transport and self-alignment. The boundary conditions for the self-transport have been explored by modeling and confirmed experimentally. The maximum permitted gap between a microchip and a receptor site is determined by the volume of the liquid and by the wetting contrast between receptor site and substrate. Microscopic rain applied on hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned surfaces greatly improves the capability, reliability and error-tolerance of the process, avoiding the need for accurate initial placement of microchips, and thereby greatly simplifying the alignment process.

  9. Physiological and behavioural responses of young horses to hot iron branding and microchip implantation.

    PubMed

    Erber, R; Wulf, M; Becker-Birck, M; Kaps, S; Aurich, J E; Möstl, E; Aurich, C

    2012-02-01

    Branding is the traditional and well-established method used to mark horses, but recently microchip transponders for implantation have become available. In this study, behaviour, physiological stress variables and skin temperature in foals were determined in response to hot-iron branding (n=7) and microchip implantation (n=7). Salivary cortisol concentrations increased in response to branding (1.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL) and microchip implantation (1.4 ± 0.1ng/mL), but cortisol release over time did not differ. In response to both manipulations there was a transient increase in heart rate (P<0.001) and heart rate variability (P<0.01). Branding and microchip implantation induced a comparable aversive behaviour (branding, score 3.86 ± 0.85; microchip, score 4.00 ± 0.82). Both techniques thus caused similar physiological and behavioural changes indicative of stress. Acutely, implantation of a microchip was as stressful as branding in foals. Branding caused a necrotising skin burn lasting at least 7 days. Moreover branding, but not microchip implantation (P<0.001), was accompanied by a generalized increase in skin temperature which was comparable to low degree post-burn hypermetabolism in humans. PMID:21917490

  10. Self-transport and self-alignment of microchips using microscopic rain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Bo; Shah, Ali; Zhou, Quan; Ras, Robin H. A.; Hjort, Klas

    2015-01-01

    Alignment of microchips with receptors is an important process step in the construction of integrated micro- and nanosystems for emerging technologies, and facilitating alignment by spontaneous self-assembly processes is highly desired. Previously, capillary self-alignment of microchips driven by surface tension effects on patterned surfaces has been reported, where it was essential for microchips to have sufficient overlap with receptor sites. Here we demonstrate for the first time capillary self-transport and self-alignment of microchips, where microchips are initially placed outside the corresponding receptor sites and can be self-transported by capillary force to the receptor sites followed by self-alignment. The surface consists of hydrophilic silicon receptor sites surrounded by superhydrophobic black silicon. Rain-induced microscopic droplets are used to form the meniscus for the self-transport and self-alignment. The boundary conditions for the self-transport have been explored by modeling and confirmed experimentally. The maximum permitted gap between a microchip and a receptor site is determined by the volume of the liquid and by the wetting contrast between receptor site and substrate. Microscopic rain applied on hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned surfaces greatly improves the capability, reliability and error-tolerance of the process, avoiding the need for accurate initial placement of microchips, and thereby greatly simplifying the alignment process. PMID:26450019

  11. Anomalously high photocurrents in nanostructured electrodes : a new local microchip power source.

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Robert Clark; Dunphy, Darren Robert; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Brozik, Susan Marie

    2004-02-01

    An increase in photocurrent has been observed at silicon electrodes coated with nanostructured porous silica films as compared to bare, unmodified silicon. Ultimately, to utilize this effect in devices such as sensors or microchip power supplies, the physical phenomena behind this observation need to be well characterized. To this end, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was used to characterize the effect of surfactant-templated mesoporous silica films deposited onto silicon electrodes on the electrical properties of the electrode space-charge region in an aqueous electrolyte solution, as the electrical properties of this space-charge region are responsible for the photobehavior of semiconductor devices. A significant shift in apparent flat-band potential was observed for electrodes modified with the silica film when compared to bare electrodes; the reliability of this data is suspect, however, due to contributions from surface states to the overall capacitance of the system. To assist in the interpretation of this EIS data, a series of measurements at Pt electrodes was performed with the hope of decoupling electrode and film contributions from the EIS spectra. Surprisingly, the frequency-dependent impedance data for Pt electrodes coated with a surfactant-templated film was nearly identical to that observed for bare Pt electrodes, indicating that the mesoporous film had little effect on the transport of small electrolyte ions to the electrode surface. Pore-blocking agents (tetraalkylammonium salts) were not observed to inhibit this transport process. However, untemplated (non-porous) silica films dramatically increased film resistance, indicating that our EIS data for the Pt electrodes is reliable. Overall, our preliminary conclusion is that a shift in electrical properties in the space-charge region induced by the presence of a porous silica film is responsible for the increase in observed photocurrent.

  12. Integrated optical-fiber capillary electrophoresis microchips with novel spin-on-glass surface modification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Hsin; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Fu, Lung-Ming; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2004-07-30

    This paper presents a novel micro-capillary electrophoresis (CE) chip with embedded optical fibers for the on-line detection of DNA samples. The optical fibers are pre-etched and then inserted directly into fiber channels incorporated within low-cost soda-lime glass substrates. The embedded optical fibers are precisely aligned with the microfluidic channels such that the induced fluorescence signals from labeled bio-samples can be detected. This arrangement avoids the requirement for delicate optical alignment procedures and equipment. Surface modification of the CE channels is accomplished by means of a simple and reliable organic-based spin-on-glass (SOG) method. The zeta potential distribution and the corresponding electroosmotic mobility of the fluid are simulated numerically for the modified and non-modified channel surfaces, and then both sets of results are verified experimentally. The present results indicate that the value of the zeta potential for a surface with an SOG coating is 19.3 times smaller than that of an untreated surface. A phiX-174 DNA marker fluid is used to evaluate the injection and separation performance of the developed micro-CE device. Furthermore, the long-term stability of the SOG-coated surface is also investigated. The experimental data reveal that the microchip device is capable of providing highly efficient separations of bio-molecules, and that the SOG layer retains its low zeta potential characteristics for at least 45 days. The present results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed micro-CE chip in performing the on-line detection of DNA samples, and indicate that the SOG process represents a simple and reliable solution for the surface modification of glass-based microchannels. PMID:15142580

  13. Resorbable polymer microchips releasing BCNU inhibit tumor growth in the rat 9L flank model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Grace Y; Tyler, Betty M; Tupper, Malinda M; Karp, Jeffrey M; Langer, Robert S; Brem, Henry; Cima, Michael J

    2007-11-01

    Sustained local delivery of single agents and controlled delivery of multiple chemotherapeutic agents are sought for the treatment of brain cancer. A resorbable, multi-reservoir polymer microchip drug delivery system has been tested against a tumor model. The microchip reservoirs were loaded with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). BCNU was more stable at 37 degrees C within the microchip compared to a uniformly impregnated polymeric wafer (70% intact drug vs. 38%, at 48 h). The half-life of the intact free drug in the microchip was 11 days, which is a marked enhancement compared to its half-life in normal saline and 10% ethanol (7 and 10 min, respectively) [P. Tepe, S.J. Hassenbusch, R. Benoit, J.H. Anderson, BCNU stability as a function of ethanol concentration and temperature, J. Neurooncol. 10 (1991) 121-127; P. Kari, W.R. McConnell, J.M. Finkel, D.L. Hill, Distribution of Bratton-Marshall-positive material in mice following intravenous injections of nitrosoureas, Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 4 (1980) 243-248]. A syngeneic Fischer 344 9L gliosarcoma rat model was used to study the tumoricidal efficacy of BCNU delivery from the microchip or homogeneous polymer wafer. A dose-dependent decrease in tumor size was found for 0.17, 0.67, and 1.24 mg BCNU-microchips. Tumors treated with 1.24 mg BCNU-microchips showed significant tumor reduction (p=0.001) compared to empty control microchips at two weeks. The treatment showed similar efficacy to a polymer wafer with the same dosage. The microchip reservoir array may enable delivery of multiple drugs with independent release kinetics and formulations.

  14. Synthesis and morphology characterization of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadley, Maurice

    The thin film morphology characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers have been investigated. For this investigation, a commercially available hydroxyl terminated PDMS was purchased from Gelest and attached to a carboxylic acid functional reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent by Steglich esterification. This produced macro-RAFT agents to which styrene monomer was polymerized. By using this approach the generation of low polydispersity polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-block-PDMS) copolymers of various molecular weights spanning a wide volume fraction range in which the PDMS block remained the same in each polymerization. Synthesized block copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bulk and thin film characterization of PS-block-PDMS copolymers was done by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), contact angle measurements, scanning force microscopy (SFM), and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The following observations have been made. For PS-rich PS-block -PDMS copolymer thin films the low surface tension of PDMS caused it to migrate to the film surface regardless of solvent choice. The surface morphology was found to depend strongly on the solubility parameter of the solvent and exhibited SFM images consistent with parallel cylinder, perforated lamellar, and lamellar surface layers with increasing solvent solubility parameter. This behavior was due to the selective swelling of the individual blocks under slightly selective, good solvent conditions. A custom solvent annealing apparatus provided similar results in which order-order transitions in the thin films were observed with increasing solvent solubility parameter. Additionally improvements in the long-range order were observed after 1 h of solvent annealing. PS-rich PS-block-PDMS copolymer thin films also displayed PDMS

  15. Numerical simulation and optimization of passively q-switched erbium microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belghachem, Nabil; Mlynczak, Jarslow

    2015-08-01

    In this article we present a procedure of optimization of passively q-switched erbium microchip lasers. The procedure is based on the rate equation model, validated by comparing the numerical results to the experimental results of pulse generation in different types of erbium/ytterbium glass microchips q-switched by Co2+ : MgAl2O4 saturable absorber. Some Degnan’s optimization limitations in case of microchip lasers were also shown and the reabsorbtion cross section of erbium glass was also estimated.

  16. [A novel and facile microchip based on nitrocellulose membrane toward efficient capture of circulating tumor cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Sun, Changlong; Zhang, Ren; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2013-06-01

    A novel and facile circulating tumor cell (CTC) microchip has been developed for the isolation and detection of cancer cells. The CTC microchip was prepared based on the nitrocellulose membrane substrate, which shows high affinity to proteins and hence can adsorb antibodies naturally. We employed non-small-cells of lung cancer NCI-H1650 as target cells and testified the high capture efficacy of the CTC microchip. Furthermore, we spiked 500 cancer cells to 1 mL healthy donor's whole blood in order to simulate the detection of CTC in patient and detected 182 cancer cells ultimately, indicating the huge application potential in the future.

  17. A micro surface tension pump (MISPU) in a glass microchip.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xing Yue Larry

    2011-01-01

    A non-membrane micro surface tension pump (MISPU) was fabricated on a glass microchip by one-step glass etching. It needs no material other than glass and is driven by digital gas pressure. The MISPU can be seen working like a piston pump inside the glass microchip under a microscope. The design of the valves (MISVA) and pistons (MISTON) was based on the surface tension theory of the micro surface tension alveolus (MISTA). The digital gas pressure controls the moving gas-liquid interface to open or close the input and output MISVAs to refill or drive the MISTON for pumping a liquid. Without any moving parts, a MISPU is a kind of long-lasting micro pump for micro chips that does not lose its water pumping efficiency over a 20-day period. The volumetric pump output varied from 0 to 10 nl s(-1) when the pump cycle time decreased from 5 min to 15 s. The pump head pressure was 1 kPa.

  18. Quantitative analysis of plasma interleiukin-6 by immunoassay on microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yatsushiro, S.; Yamamura, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ooie, T.; Baba, Y.; Kataoka, M.

    2012-03-01

    Sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) is one of the most frequently employed assays for clinical diagnosis, since this enables the investigator to identify specific protein biomarkers. However, the conventional assay using a 96-well microtitration plate is time- and sample-consuming, and therefore is not suitable for rapid diagnosis. To overcome these drawbacks, we performed a sandwich ELISA on a microchip. We employed the piezoelectric inkjet printing for deposition and fixation of 1st antibody on the microchannnel surface (300 μm width and 100 μm depth). Model analyte was interleukin-6 (IL-6) which was one of the inflammatory cytokine. After blocking the microchannel, antigen, biotin-labeled 2nd antibody, and avidin-labeled peroxidase were infused into the microchannel and incubated for 20 min, 10 min, and 5 min, respectively. This assay could detect 2 pg/ml and quantitatively measure the range of 0-32 pg/ml. Liner regression analysis of plasma IL-6 concentration obtained by microchip and conventional methods exhibited a significant relationship (R2 = 0.9964). This assay reduced the time for the antigen-antibody reaction to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method. This assay enables us to determine plasma IL-6 with accuracy, high sensitivity, time saving ability, and low consumption of sample and reagents, and thus will be applicable to clinic diagnosis.

  19. Analytical detection of biological thiols in a microchip capillary channel.

    PubMed

    Chand, Rohit; Jha, Sandeep Kumar; Islam, Kamrul; Han, Dawoon; Shin, Ik-Soo; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2013-02-15

    Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as cysteine and homocysteine play crucial roles in biological systems for the diagnosis of medical states. In this regard, this paper deals with separation, aliquot and detection of amino thiols on a microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection in an inverted double Y-shaped microchannel. Unlike the conventional capillary electrophoresis, the modified microchannel design helps in storing the separated thiols in different reservoirs for further analysis, if required; and also eliminates the need of electrodes regeneration. The device was fabricated using conventional photolithographic technique which consisted of gold microelectrodes on a soda lime glass wafer and microchannels in PDMS mold. Multiple detections were performed using in-house fabricated dual potentiostat. Based on amperometric detection, cysteine and homocysteine were analyzed in 105 s and 120 s, respectively after diverting in branched channels. Repeated experiments proved the good reproducibility of the device. The device produced a linear response for both cysteine and homocysteine in electrochemical analysis. To prove the practicality of device, we also analyzed cysteine and homocysteine in real blood samples without any pre-treatment. Upon calculation, the device showed a very low limit of detection of 0.05 μM. The modified microchip design shall find a broad range of analytical applications involving assays of thiols and other biological compounds.

  20. Microchip-Associated Sarcoma in a Shrew (Suncus murinus)

    PubMed Central

    Schutt, Leah K; Turner, Patricia V

    2010-01-01

    A 16-mo-old female house musk shrew (Suncus murinus) with a 1-wk history of a rapidly growing subcutaneous mass in the interscapsular region was euthanized and submitted for necropsy. Macroscopic examination identified an irregular, well-demarcated, solid, tan-white subcutaneous mass. A small cavity containing a microchip device was present at the center of the mass. In addition, massive splenomegaly was evident grossly. Histologically, the subcutaneous mass comprised spindle cells arranged in a storiform pattern of interweaving bundles, consistent with a high-grade soft tissue sarcoma with multifocal necrosis. Immunohistochemical investigation suggested that the neoplastic cells were positive for neuron-specific enolase and (rarely) α-smooth muscle actin and negative for cytokeratin, desmin, S100, and vimentin. In light of the mesenchymal histopathologic phenotype and the lack of specific immunoreactivity pattern, the mass was considered to be most consistent with a poorly differentiated sarcoma. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a microchip-associated soft tissue sarcoma in a shrew. PMID:20858367

  1. Energy Conversion from Salinity Gradient Using Microchip with Nafion Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Che-Rong; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Yeh, Hung-Chun; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2016-06-01

    When a concentrated salt solution and a diluted salt solution are separated by an ion-selective membrane, cations and anions would diffuse at different rates depending on the ion selectivity of the membrane. The difference of positive and negative charges at both ends of the membrane would produce a potential, called the diffusion potential. Thus, electrical energy can be converted from the diffusion potential through reverse electrodialysis. This study demonstrated the fabrication of an energy conversion microchip using the standard micro-electromechanical technique, and utilizing Nafion junction as connecting membrane, which was fabricated by a surface patterned process. Through different salinity gradient of potassium chloride solutions, we experimentally investigated the diffusion potential and power generation from the microchip, and the highest value measured was 135 mV and 339 pW, respectively. Furthermore, when the electrolyte was in pH value of 3.8, 5.6, 10.3, the system exhibited best performance at pH value of 10.3; whereas, pH value of 3.8 yielded the worst.

  2. Fabrication and functional demonstration of a smart electrode with a built-in CMOS microchip for neural stimulation of a retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Noda, Toshihiko; Fujisawa, Takumi; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Takehara, Hiroaki; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we propose an advanced architecture of a smart electrode for neural stimulation of a retinal prosthesis. A feature of the proposed architecture is embedding CMOS microchips into the core of the stimulus electrodes. Microchip integration without dead space on the array is possible. Additionally, higher durability can be expected because the microchips are protected by the stimulus electrodes like a metal casing. Dedicated circular-shaped CMOS microchips were designed and fabricated. The microchip measured 400 μm in diameter. Stimulus electrodes that had a microcavity for embedding the microchip were also fabricated. In the assembly process, the CMOS microchip was mounted on a flexible substrate, and then the stimulus electrode was mounted to cover the microchip. The microchip was completely built into the inside of the electrode. By performing an ex-vivo experiment using the extracted eyeball of a pig, stimulus function of the electrode was demonstrated successfully. PMID:26737011

  3. Surface plasmon resonance imaging on a microchip for detection of DNA-modified gold nanoparticles deposited onto the surface in a non-cross-linking configuration.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasunobu; Sato, Kae; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Maeda, Mizuo

    2006-08-01

    Recently we reported that gold nanoparticles (GNPs) with fully matched duplexes on their surfaces are selectively deposited onto walls of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchannels at high salt concentrations. In this study, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging technique was applied to monitor this phenomenon for improvement of detection sensitivity and elucidation of the phenomenon. The microchip was fabricated by bonding a surface-patterned PDMS plate and a gold thin film-deposited glass substrate. Probe oligonucleotide-modified GNPs were hybridized with target oligonucleotides to make fully matched or single-base-mismatched duplexes. The hybridized GNP solution was mixed with an NaCl solution in a Y-shaped microchannel. The deposition of the GNPs onto the gold sensor surface was detected by SPR imaging. Discrimination of the targets was possible with limit of detection of 32 nM (19 fmol) without temperature control in 5 min. Detailed analysis indicated that a seed layer of GNPs was initially adsorbed onto the sensor surface regardless of the target sequence. Therefore, in combination with a portable SPR device, the proposed method is promising for point-of-care testing of single-nucleotide polymorphsims.

  4. Sol-gel modified poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices with high electroosmotic mobilities and hydrophilic channel wall characteristics.

    PubMed

    Roman, Gregory T; Hlaus, Tyler; Bass, Kevin J; Seelhammer, Todd G; Culbertson, Christopher T

    2005-03-01

    Using a sol-gel method, we have fabricated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips with SiO2 particles homogeneously distributed within the PDMS polymer matrix. These particles are approximately 10 nm in diameter. To fabricate such devices, PDMS (Sylgard 184) was cast against SU-8 molds. After curing, the chips were carefully removed from the mold and sealed against flat, cured pieces of PDMS to form enclosed channel manifolds. These chips were then solvated in tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), causing them to expand. Subsequently, the chips were placed in an aqueous solution containing 2.8% ethylamine and heated to form nanometer-sized SiO2 particles within the cross-linked PDMS polymer. The water contact angle for the PDMS-SiO2 chips was approximately 90.2 degrees compared to a water contact angle for Sylgard 184 of approximately 108.5 degrees . More importantly, the SiO2 modified PDMS chips showed no rhodamine B absorption after 4 h, indicating a substantially more hydrophilic and nonabsorptive surface than native PDMS. Initial electroosmotic mobilities (EOM) of (8.3+/-0.2)x10(-4) cm2/(V.s) (RSD=2.6% (RSD is relative standard deviation); n=10) were measured. This value was approximately twice that of native Sylgard 184 PDMS chips (4.21+/-0.09)x10(-4) cm2/(V.s) (RSD=2.2%; n=10) and 55% greater than glass chips (5.3+/-0.4)x10(-4) cm2/(V.s) (RSD=7.7%; n=5). After 60 days of dry storage, the EOM was (7.6+/-0.3)x10(-4) cm2/(V.s) (RSD=3.9%; n=3), a decrease of only 8% below that of the initially measured value. Separations performed on these devices generated 80,000-100,000 theoretical plates in 6-14 s for both tetramethylrhodamine succidimidyl ester and fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate derivatized amino acids. The separation distance was 3.5 cm. Plots of peak variance vs analyte migration times gave diffusion coefficients which indicate that the separation efficiencies are within 15% of the diffusion limit.

  5. Surface forces and protein adsorption on dextran- and polyethylene glycol-modified polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Megan; Beaudoin, Stephen

    2010-12-01

    Dextran and polyethylene glycol (PEG) are often covalently bound to the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for the purpose of modifying its hydrophilicity and biocompatibility. In this work, the effects of the dextran and PEG on the morphology, wetting, and surface charge of the resulting surfaces were quantified and correlated with changes in the amount of fibrinogen and albumin adsorbed from aqueous solution. PDMS films were functionalized in a microwave oxygen plasma to create surface hydroxyl groups that were subsequently aminated by incubation in a (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTES) solution. Oxidized dextran and PEG-aldehyde were linked to the surface amines via reductive amination. This process resulted in low surface coverage of immobilized PEG in the end-on conformation and a more uniform and dense distribution of side-on immobilized dextran. The immobilized dextran reduced the contact angle of the PDMS film from 109° to 80° and neutralized the zeta potential over the pH range from 3 to 11. An atomic force microscope was used to measure the interaction force between the modified PDMS and a model hydrophobic surface (polystyrene latex) and a model hydrophilic surface (silica) in aqueous solution to show that van der Waals and hydrophobic attractive forces are the dominant forces for protein adsorption in this system. The PEG- and dextran-modified PDMS were exposed to BSA and fibrinogen to test their resistance to protein adsorption. The coatings were ineffective at reducing the adsorption of either molecule, and the dextran-modification of the PDMS caused more BSA to adsorb than in the case of the unmodified PDMS. PMID:20801620

  6. Characterization of ultraviolet light cured polydimethylsiloxane films for low-voltage, dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpper, Tino; Wohlfender, Fabian; Weiss, Florian; Osmani, Bekim; Müller, Bert

    2016-04-01

    The reduction the operation voltage has been the key challenge to realize of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) for many years - especially for the application fields of robotics, lens systems, haptics and future medical implants. Contrary to the approach of manipulating the dielectric properties of the electrically activated polymer (EAP), we intend to realize low-voltage operation by reducing the polymer thickness to the range of a few hundred nanometers. A study recently published presents molecular beam deposition to reliably grow nanometer-thick polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. The curing of PDMS is realized using ultraviolet (UV) radiation with wavelengths from 180 to 400 nm radicalizing the functional side and end groups. The understanding of the mechanical properties of sub-micrometer-thin PDMS films is crucial to optimize DEAs actuation efficiency. The elastic modulus of UV-cured spin-coated films is measured by nano-indentation using an atomic force microscope (AFM) according to the Hertzian contact mechanics model. These investigations show a reduced elastic modulus with increased indentation depth. A model with a skin-like SiO2 surface with corresponding elastic modulus of (2.29 +/- 0.31) MPa and a bulk modulus of cross-linked PDMS with corresponding elastic modulus of (87 +/- 7) kPa is proposed. The surface morphology is observed with AFM and 3D laser microscopy. Wrinkled surface microstructures on UV-cured PDMS films occur for film thicknesses above (510 +/- 30) nm with an UV-irradiation density of 7.2 10-4 J cm-2 nm-1 at a wavelength of 190 nm.

  7. Single molecule studies of solvent-dependent diffusion and entrapment in poly(dimethylsiloxane) thin films.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jeffrey J; Culbertson, Christopher T; Higgins, Daniel A

    2008-12-15

    Single molecule microscopic and spectroscopic methods are employed to probe the mobility and physical entrapment of dye molecules in dry and solvent-loaded poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films. PDMS films of approximately 220 nm thickness are prepared by spin casting dilute solutions of Sylgard 184 onto glass coverslips, followed by low temperature curing. A perylene diimide dye (BPPDI) is used to probe diffusion and molecule-matrix interactions. Two classes of dye-loaded samples are investigated: (i) those incorporating dye dispersed throughout the films ("in film" samples) and (ii) those in which the dye is restricted primarily to the PDMS surface ("on film" samples). Experiments are performed under dry nitrogen and at various levels of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) loading from the vapor phase. A PDMS-coated quartz-crystal microbalance is employed to monitor solvent loading and drying of the PDMS and to ensure equilibrium conditions are achieved. Single molecules are shown to be predominantly immobile under dry conditions and mostly mobile under IPA-saturated conditions. Quantitative methods for counting the fluorescent spots produced by immobile single molecules in optical images of the samples demonstrate that the population of mobile molecules increases nonlinearly with IPA loading. Even under IPA saturated conditions, the population of fixed molecules is found to be greater than zero and is greatest for "in film" samples. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is used to measure the apparent diffusion coefficient for the mobile molecules, yielding a mean value of D = 1.4(+/-0.4) x 10(-8) cm(2)/s that is virtually independent of IPA loading and sample class. It is concluded that a nonzero population of dye molecules is physically entrapped within the PDMS matrix under all conditions. The increase in the population of mobile molecules under high IPA conditions is attributed to the filling of film micropores with solvent, rather than by incorporation of molecularly

  8. Asymmetric gold nanoparticle reduction into polydimethylsiloxane thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunklin, Jeremy R.; Forcherio, Gregory T.; Berry, Keith R.; Roper, D. Keith

    2014-09-01

    Polymer thin films embedded with plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are of significant interest in biomedicine, optics, photovoltaic, and nanoelectromechanical systems. Thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films containing 3-7 micron layers of AuNPs that were fabricated with a novel diffusive-reduction synthesis technique attenuated up to 85% of incoming laser light at the plasmon resonance. Rapid diffusive reduction of AuNPs into asymmetric PDMS thin films provided superior optothermal capabilities relative to thicker films in which AuNPs were reduced throughout. A photonto- heat conversion of up to 3000°C/watt was demonstrated, which represents a 3-230-fold increase over previous AuNPfunctionalized systems. Optical attenuation and thermal response increased in proportion to order of magnitude increases in tetrachloroaurate (TCA) solution concentration. Optical and thermoplasmonic responses were observed with and without an adjacent mesh support, which increased attenuation but decreased thermal response. Morphological, optical, and thermoplasmonic properties of asymmetric AuNP-PDMS films varied significantly with diffusive TCA concentration. Gold nanoparticles, networks, and conglomerates were formed via reduction as the amount of dissolved TCA increased across a log10-scale. Increasing TCA concentrations caused polymer surface cratering, leading to a larger effective surface area. This method, utilizing the diffusion of TCA into a single exposed partially cured PDMS interface, could be used to replace expensive lithographic or solution synthesis of plasmon-functionalized systems.

  9. Automated Lipid Bilayer Membrane Formation Using a Polydimethylsiloxane Thin Film.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sangbaek; Yoon, Sunhee; Ryu, Hyunil; Kim, Sun Min; Jeon, Tae-Joon

    2016-01-01

    An artificial lipid bilayer, or black lipid membrane (BLM), is a powerful tool for studying ion channels and protein interactions, as well as for biosensor applications. However, conventional BLM formation techniques have several drawbacks and they often require specific expertise and laborious processes. In particular, conventional BLMs suffer from low formation success rates and inconsistent membrane formation time. Here, we demonstrate a storable and transportable BLM formation system with controlled thinning-out time and enhanced BLM formation rate by replacing conventionally used films (polytetrafluoroethylene, polyoxymethylene, polystyrene) to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). In this experiment, a porous-structured polymer such as PDMS thin film is used. In addition, as opposed to conventionally used solvents with low viscosity, the use of squalene permitted a controlled thinning-out time via slow solvent absorption by PDMS, prolonging membrane lifetime. In addition, by using a mixture of squalene and hexadecane, the freezing point of the lipid solution was increased (~16 °C), in addition, membrane precursors were produced that can be indefinitely stored and readily transported. These membrane precursors have reduced BLM formation time of < 1 hr and achieved a BLM formation rate of ~80%. Moreover, ion channel experiments with gramicidin A demonstrated the feasibility of the membrane system. PMID:27501114

  10. Polydimethylsiloxane bilayer films with an embedded spontaneous curvature.

    PubMed

    Egunov, A I; Korvink, J G; Luchnikov, V A

    2016-01-01

    Elastomer polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films with embedded in-plane gradient stress are created by making PDMS/(PDMS + silicone oil) crosslinked bilayers and extracting the oil in a suitable organic solvent bath. The collapse of the elastomer after oil extraction generates differential stress in the films that is manifested through their out-of-plane deformation. The curvature κ of narrow stripes of the bilayer, which is composed of layers of approximately equal thicknesses and elasticity moduli, is satisfactorily described by the simple relationship κ = 1.5δH(-1), where δ is the mechanical strain, and H is the total thickness of the bilayer. Curvature mapping of triangular PDMS plates reveals the existence of spherical and cylindrical types of deformation at different locations of the plates. Various 3D-shaped objects can be formed by the self-folding of appropriately designed 2D patterns that are cut from the films, or by nonuniform distribution of the collapsing layer. Thin PDMS bilayers with embedded stress roll up into microtubes of almost perfect cylindrical shape when released in a controlled manner from a substrate. PMID:26539638

  11. Effect of mechanical stress on optical properties of polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turek, Ivan; Tarjányi, Norbert; Martinček, Ivan; Káčik, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we present results of our investigation of the effect of mechanical stress on the coefficient of absorption and the refractive index of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) in the NIR region. We study optical transmittance and optical paths of PDMS samples compressed up to a length expressed by the value of the relative stress -0.5. The experimentally obtained results imply that the stress-induced changes of the absorption coefficient and the refractive index of PDMS are due to a change of the density of dimethyl-siloxane groups rather than a change of the PDMS's molecular structure. Since we performed measurements for high stresses, we modified the Poisson's relation to obtain its generalized form that holds for any stress and that we named generalized Poisson's relation. To obtain this relation we assumed that an elementary increase of each of the two lateral dimensions of a sample is determined by the Poisson's constant and the actual longitudinal dimension of the sample which is subject to change during the process of deformation. Then to express the change of the density of the electric dipoles in a PDMS sample we used this relation. The realized measurements indicate that the deformation dependent changes of the optical transmittances and the optical paths of the samples are in a good agreement with the values calculated using the assumption of the dominant influence of the density of the elementary dipoles and the validity of the generalized Poisson's relation.

  12. Candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane composites for laser ultrasound transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wei-Yi; Huang, Wenbin; Kim, Jinwook; Li, Sibo; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2015-10-01

    Generation of high power laser ultrasound strongly demands the advanced materials with efficient laser energy absorption, fast thermal diffusion, and large thermoelastic expansion capabilities. In this study, candle soot nanoparticles-polydimethylsiloxane (CSNPs-PDMS) composite was investigated as the functional layer for an optoacoustic transducer with high-energy conversion efficiency. The mean diameter of the collected candle soot carbon nanoparticles is about 45 nm, and the light absorption ratio at 532 nm wavelength is up to 96.24%. The prototyped CSNPs-PDMS nano-composite laser ultrasound transducer was characterized and compared with transducers using Cr-PDMS, carbon black (CB)-PDMS, and carbon nano-fiber (CNFs)-PDMS composites, respectively. Energy conversion coefficient and -6 dB frequency bandwidth of the CSNPs-PDMS composite laser ultrasound transducer were measured to be 4.41 × 10-3 and 21 MHz, respectively. The unprecedented laser ultrasound transduction performance using CSNPs-PDMS nano-composites is promising for a broad range of ultrasound therapy applications.

  13. Surface Wrinkling on Polydimethylsiloxane Microspheres via Wet Surface Chemical Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jian; Han, Xue; Cao, Yanping; Lu, Conghua

    2014-01-01

    Here we introduce a simple low-cost yet robust method to realize spontaneously wrinkled morphologies on spherical surfaces. It is based on surface chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase-synthesized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microspheres in the mixed H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solution. Consequently, curvature and overstress-sensitive wrinkles including dimples and labyrinth patterns are successfully induced on the resulting oxidized PDMS microspheres. A power-law dependence of the wrinkling wavelength on the microsphere radius exists. The effects of experimental parameters on these tunable spherical wrinkles have been systematically investigated, when the microspheres are pre-deposited on a substrate. These parameters include the radius and modulus of microspheres, the mixed acid solution composition, the oxidation duration, and the water washing post-treatment. Meanwhile, the complicated chemical oxidation process has also been well studied by in-situ optical observation via the microsphere system, which represents an intractable issue in a planar system. Furthermore, we realize surface wrinkled topographies on the whole microspheres at a large scale, when microspheres are directly dispersed in the mixed acid solution for surface oxidation. These results indicate that the introduced wet surface chemical oxidation has the great potential to apply to other complicated curved surfaces for large-scale generation of well-defined wrinkling patterns, which endow the solids with desired physical properties. PMID:25028198

  14. Random lasing action in a polydimethylsiloxane wrinkle induced disordered structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Zhenhua; Wu, Leilei; Zhu, Shu; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-07-14

    This paper presents a chip-scale random lasing action utilizing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wrinkles with random periods as disordered medium. Nanoscale wrinkles with long range disorder structures are formed on the oxidized surface of a PDMS slab and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Light multiply scattered at each PDMS wrinkle-dye interfaces is optically amplified in the presence of pump gain. The shift of laser emission wavelength when pumping at different regions indicates the randomness of the winkle period. In addition, a relatively low threshold of about 27 μJ/mm{sup 2} is realized, which is comparable with traditional optofluidic dye laser. This is due to the unique sinusoidal Bragg-grating-like random structure. Contrast to conventional microfluidic dye laser that inevitably requires the accurate design and implementation of microcavity to provide optical feedback, the convenience in both fabrication and operation makes PDMS wrinkle based random laser a promising underlying element in lab-on-a-chip systems and integrated microfluidic networks.

  15. Modulating molecular and nanoparticle transport in flexible polydimethylsiloxane membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Kexin; Graham, Chase L.; Wolff, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The ability to fabricate flexible filtration membranes that can selectively separate particles of different sizes is of considerable interest. In this article, we describe a facile, reproducible and simple one-step method to produce pores in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes. We embedded micron-sized NaHCO3 particles in 50 micron thick PDMS films. After curing, the membranes were immersed in concentrated HCl acid. Pores were generated in the membrane by the evolution of CO2 gas from the reaction of NaHCO3 and HCl. High resolution Scanning Electron Microscope images clearly reveal the presence of openings on the surface and the cross-section of the membranes. Fluorescence and back-scattered electron imaging of porous PDMS membrane with embedded gold nanoparticles and comparison with non-porous PDMS membranes provided unambiguous evidence of pores in the membrane. Transport studies of molecular fluoresceinate ions, ions (sodium and chloride) and 240 nm polystyrene nanoparticles through these membranes demonstrate passable pores and existence of channels within the body of the membrane. Mechanically stretching the porous PDMS membrane and comparing the flow rates of fluoresceinate ions and the polystyrene beads through the stretched and unstretched membranes allowed a direct proof of the modulation of transport rate in the membranes. We show that stretching the membranes by 10% increases the flow rate of fluorescein molecules by 2.8 times and by a factor of approximately ~40% for the polystyrene nanoparticles. PMID:22942529

  16. Polydimethylsiloxane membranes for millimeter-wave planar ultra flexible antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiercelin, Nicolas; Coquet, Philippe; Sauleau, Ronan; Senez, Vincent; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2006-11-01

    We present here the use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes as a new soft polymer substrate (ɛr ap 2.67 at 77 GHz) for the realization of ultra-flexible millimeter-wave printed antennas thanks to the extremely low Young's modulus (EPDMS < 2 MPa). Ultimately this peculiar property enables one to design wide-angle mechanically beam-steering antennas and flexible conformal antennas. The experimental characterization of PDMS material in V- and W-bands highlights high loss tangent values (tanδ ap 0.04 at 77 GHz). Thus micromachining techniques have been developed to reduce dielectric losses for antenna applications at millimeter waves. Here the antenna performance is demonstrated in the 60 GHz band by considering a single microstrip patch antenna supported by a PDMS membrane over an air-filled cavity. After a brief description of the design approach using the method of moments (MoM) and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, the technological processes are described in detail. The input impedance and radiation patterns of the prototype are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The radiation efficiency of the micromachined antenna is equal to 60% and is in the same order as that obtained with conventional polymer bulk substrates such as Duroids. These results confirm the validity of the new technological process and assembly procedure, and demonstrate that PDMS membranes can be used to realize low-loss planar membrane-supported millimeter-wave printed circuits and radiating structures.

  17. Simple room temperature bonding of thermoplastics and poly(dimethylsiloxane).

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Vijaya; Park, Dong-Kyu; Hwang, Hyundoo; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Soper, Steven A; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2011-03-01

    We describe a simple and versatile method for bonding thermoplastics to elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at room temperature. The bonding of various thermoplastics including polycarbonate (PC), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and polystyrene (PS), to PDMS has been demonstrated at room temperature. An irreversible bonding was formed instantaneously when the thermoplastics, activated by oxygen plasma followed by aminopropyltriethoxysilane modification, were brought into contact with the plasma treated PDMS. The surface modified thermoplastics were characterized by water contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The tensile strength of the bonded hybrid devices fabricated with PC, COC, PMMA, and PS was found to be 430, 432, 385, and 388 kPa, respectively. The assembled devices showed high burst resistance at a maximum channel pressure achievable by an in-house built syringe pump, 528 kPa. Furthermore, they displayed very high hydrolytic stability; no significant change was observed even after the storage in water at 37 °C over a period of three weeks. In addition, this thermoplastic-to-PDMS bonding technique has been successfully employed to fabricate a relatively large sized device. For example, a lab-on-a-disc with a diameter of 12 cm showed no leakage when it spins for centrifugal fluidic pumping at a very high rotating speed of 6000 rpm. PMID:21152492

  18. Three-dimensional interconnected microporous poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Po Ki; Su, Hui; Goral, Vasiliy N; Fink, Katherine A

    2011-04-21

    This technical note presents a fabrication method and applications of three-dimensional (3D) interconnected microporous poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices. Based on soft lithography, the microporous PDMS microfluidic devices were fabricated by molding a mixture of PDMS pre-polymer and sugar particles in a microstructured mold. After curing and demolding, the sugar particles were dissolved and washed away from the microstructured PDMS replica revealing 3D interconnected microporous structures. Other than introducing microporous structures into the PDMS replica, different sizes of sugar particles can be used to alter the surface wettability of the microporous PDMS replica. Oxygen plasma assisted bonding was used to enclose the microstructured microporous PDMS replica using a non-porous PDMS with inlet and outlet holes. A gas absorption reaction using carbon dioxide (CO(2)) gas acidified water was used to demonstrate the advantages and potential applications of the microporous PDMS microfluidic devices. We demonstrated that the acidification rate in the microporous PDMS microfluidic device was approximately 10 times faster than the non-porous PDMS microfluidic device under similar experimental conditions. The microporous PDMS microfluidic devices can also be used in cell culture applications where gas perfusion can improve cell survival and functions.

  19. Simple room temperature bonding of thermoplastics and poly(dimethylsiloxane).

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Vijaya; Park, Dong-Kyu; Hwang, Hyundoo; Chantiwas, Rattikan; Soper, Steven A; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2011-03-01

    We describe a simple and versatile method for bonding thermoplastics to elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at room temperature. The bonding of various thermoplastics including polycarbonate (PC), cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), and polystyrene (PS), to PDMS has been demonstrated at room temperature. An irreversible bonding was formed instantaneously when the thermoplastics, activated by oxygen plasma followed by aminopropyltriethoxysilane modification, were brought into contact with the plasma treated PDMS. The surface modified thermoplastics were characterized by water contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The tensile strength of the bonded hybrid devices fabricated with PC, COC, PMMA, and PS was found to be 430, 432, 385, and 388 kPa, respectively. The assembled devices showed high burst resistance at a maximum channel pressure achievable by an in-house built syringe pump, 528 kPa. Furthermore, they displayed very high hydrolytic stability; no significant change was observed even after the storage in water at 37 °C over a period of three weeks. In addition, this thermoplastic-to-PDMS bonding technique has been successfully employed to fabricate a relatively large sized device. For example, a lab-on-a-disc with a diameter of 12 cm showed no leakage when it spins for centrifugal fluidic pumping at a very high rotating speed of 6000 rpm.

  20. Preparation of Glucose Sensor Using Polydimethylsiloxane / Polypyrrole Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuzawa, Mikito; Inoue, Shigeru; Imai, Shinji

    New glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized glucose sensors were prepared by the electropolymerization of 1-(6-D-gluconamidohexyl) pyrrole (GHP) on the platinum wire electrode precoated with the mixture solution of pyrrole derivative GHP, polydimethylsiloxane (PDS) and Nafion. The addition of Nafion into the precoating mixture solution was essential to obtain suitable sensor sensitivity. However, the sensitivity was about the half of that of the electrode without PDS precoating. Although, the introduction of Nafion was effective to improve the long-term stability of the enzyme-immobilized electrode, the electrode prepared using Nafion, PDS and GHP performed excellent long-term stability even at the measurement and storage temperatures of 40°C. Relatively constant response current was obtained over 30 days under the condition of 40°C and over 9 months measured at 25°C. Moreover, the GOD-immobilized GHP polymer film prepared on the electrode precoated with GHP, PDS and Nafion solution, was found to have excellent hemocompatibility from the result of platelet rich plasma contacting test.

  1. Electric field-induced deformation of polydimethylsiloxane polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioppolo, T.; Stubblefield, J.; Ötügen, M. V.

    2012-08-01

    The deformation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) spheres under uniform external electric field was studied experimentally and analytically. In the experiments, ˜1 mm diameter PDMS spheres with base-to-curing-agent mixing ratios of 10:1 and 60:1 were exposed to uniform external electric field with varying magnitudes and poling durations. The spheres elongate along the electric field direction. For a given electric field strength, the sphere deformation is initially a time function but reaches a terminal strain value over a certain time period. This terminal strain value is larger for stronger external electric fields and larger PDMS mixing ratio spheres. At this state, the material is no longer poled and the surface charge distribution remains constant. In the analysis, an expression for the sphere deformation is obtained by modeling the PDMS as a linear elastic solid and solving the Navier equation along with Maxwell's equations for boundary conditions. The analysis takes into account the surface charge distribution and predicts well the experimental trends.

  2. Counterion effect on rheology and morphology of polydimethylsiloxane ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coehn, Claude; Batra, Ashish; Kim, Hansoo; Winey, Karen

    2005-03-01

    We have synthesized a series of polydimethylsiloxane ionomers with control over spacing between ions, number of ions/chain and molecular weight. Freshly precipitated transition metal zinc and cobalt ionomers with less than one mol % of ions flow at room temperature and exhibit a zero shear-rate viscosity. X-ray scattering data and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) data do not show any evidence of ionic aggregates. These ionomers form a network on annealing and the time to network percolation follows an Arrhenius dependence with temperature. Annealed zinc and cobalt ionomers also do not show any evidence of ionic aggregates that could be detected by X-rays or STEM leading to the conclusion that individual ion pairs act as cross-link points. Under similar conditions of spacing between ions and number of ions, barium ionomers, on the other hand, precipitate as weak networks at room temperature and form stronger gels on annealing. STEM and X-ray scattering from these ionomers show aggregate formation. At the higher 8 mol% zinc ions, these ionomers also precipitate as gels and show rod-like aggregates with an aspect ratio of 20 and a diameter of 1nm as observed by STEM.

  3. Surface Wrinkling on Polydimethylsiloxane Microspheres via Wet Surface Chemical Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jian; Han, Xue; Cao, Yanping; Lu, Conghua

    2014-07-01

    Here we introduce a simple low-cost yet robust method to realize spontaneously wrinkled morphologies on spherical surfaces. It is based on surface chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase-synthesized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microspheres in the mixed H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solution. Consequently, curvature and overstress-sensitive wrinkles including dimples and labyrinth patterns are successfully induced on the resulting oxidized PDMS microspheres. A power-law dependence of the wrinkling wavelength on the microsphere radius exists. The effects of experimental parameters on these tunable spherical wrinkles have been systematically investigated, when the microspheres are pre-deposited on a substrate. These parameters include the radius and modulus of microspheres, the mixed acid solution composition, the oxidation duration, and the water washing post-treatment. Meanwhile, the complicated chemical oxidation process has also been well studied by in-situ optical observation via the microsphere system, which represents an intractable issue in a planar system. Furthermore, we realize surface wrinkled topographies on the whole microspheres at a large scale, when microspheres are directly dispersed in the mixed acid solution for surface oxidation. These results indicate that the introduced wet surface chemical oxidation has the great potential to apply to other complicated curved surfaces for large-scale generation of well-defined wrinkling patterns, which endow the solids with desired physical properties.

  4. High-grade optical polydimethylsiloxane for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Lovchik, Robert Dean; Wolf, Heiko; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Commercially available polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers, such as Sylgard 184® are widely used in soft lithography and for microfluidic applications. These PDMS elastomers contain fillers to enhance their mechanical stability. The reinforcing fillers, often sub-micrometer small SiO(2) particles, tend to aggregate, swell with water, and thereby become cognoscible in a way that can strongly interfere with the visualization of micro-scale events taking place next to PDMS structures. As PDMS microfluidics are often used for studying cells and micro-/nanoparticles and for creating/handling nanodroplets, it has become highly desirable to employ a PDMS having high optical quality and that allows microscopy observation without artifacts. Here, we present a PDMS formulation that is free of fillers and has sufficiently low viscosity to perform a filtration step of the mixed prepolymers before curing. By molding a bi-layer microfluidic network (MFN), composed of a thin filler-free PDMS layer and a thicker Sylgard 184® backing layer, PDMS MFNs featuring both high optical quality and mechanical stability, can be fabricated.

  5. Effect of anti-biofouling potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes-filled polydimethylsiloxane composites on pioneer microbial colonization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Lang, Yanhe; Sun, Qian; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Yongkang; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, two carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofillers, namely the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the carboxyl-modified MWCNTs (cMWCNTs), were introduced into the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix respectively, in order to produce the PDMS composites with reinforced anti-biofouling properties. The anti-biofouling capacity of the silicone-based coatings, including the unfilled PDMS (P0), the MWCNTs-filled PDMS (PM) and the cMWCNTs-filled PDMS (PC), was examined via the field assays conducted in Weihai, China. The effect of different silicone-based coatings on the dynamic variations of the pioneer microbial-community diversity was analyzed using the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The PM and PC surfaces have exhibited excellent anti-biofouling properties in contrast to that of the PDMS surface, with extremely low attachment of the early colonizers, such as juvenile invertebrates, seaweeds and algae sporelings. The PM and PC surfaces can effectively prevent biofouling for more than 12 weeks. These combined results suggest that the incorporation of MWCNTs or cMWCNTs into the PDMS matrix can dramatically reinforce its anti-biofouling properties. The SSCP analysis reveals that compared with the PDMS surfaces, the PM and PC surfaces have strong modulating effect on the pioneer prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities, particularly on the colonization of pioneer eukaryotic microbes. The significantly reduced pioneer eukaryotic-community diversity may contribute to the weakening of the subsequent colonization of macrofoulers. PMID:27137800

  6. Micropatterning of poly(dimethylsiloxane) using a photoresist lift-off technique for selective electrical insulation of microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaewon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Han, Arum

    2009-01-01

    A poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterning method based on a photoresist lift-off technique to make an electrical insulation layer with selective openings is presented. The method enables creating PDMS patterns with small features and various thicknesses without any limitation in the designs and without the need for complicated processes or expensive equipments. Patterned PDMS layers were created by spin-coating liquid phase PDMS on top of a substrate having sacrificial photoresist patterns, followed by a photoresist lift-off process. The thickness of the patterned PDMS layers could be accurately controlled (6.5–24 µm) by adjusting processing parameters such as PDMS spin-coating speeds, PDMS dilution ratios, and sacrificial photoresist thicknesses. PDMS features as small as 15 µm were successfully patterned and the effects of each processing parameter on the final patterns were investigated. Electrical resistance tests between adjacent electrodes with and without the insulation layer showed that the patterned PDMS layer functions properly as an electrical insulation layer. Biocompatibility of the patterned PDMS layer was confirmed by culturing primary neuron cells on top of the layer for up to two weeks. An extensive neuronal network was successfully formed, showing that this PDMS patterning method can be applied to various biosensing microdevices. The utility of this fabrication method was further demonstrated by successfully creating a patterned electrical insulation layer on flexible substrates containing multi-electrode arrays. PMID:19946385

  7. Effect of anti-biofouling potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes-filled polydimethylsiloxane composites on pioneer microbial colonization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Lang, Yanhe; Sun, Qian; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Yongkang; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, two carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofillers, namely the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the carboxyl-modified MWCNTs (cMWCNTs), were introduced into the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix respectively, in order to produce the PDMS composites with reinforced anti-biofouling properties. The anti-biofouling capacity of the silicone-based coatings, including the unfilled PDMS (P0), the MWCNTs-filled PDMS (PM) and the cMWCNTs-filled PDMS (PC), was examined via the field assays conducted in Weihai, China. The effect of different silicone-based coatings on the dynamic variations of the pioneer microbial-community diversity was analyzed using the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The PM and PC surfaces have exhibited excellent anti-biofouling properties in contrast to that of the PDMS surface, with extremely low attachment of the early colonizers, such as juvenile invertebrates, seaweeds and algae sporelings. The PM and PC surfaces can effectively prevent biofouling for more than 12 weeks. These combined results suggest that the incorporation of MWCNTs or cMWCNTs into the PDMS matrix can dramatically reinforce its anti-biofouling properties. The SSCP analysis reveals that compared with the PDMS surfaces, the PM and PC surfaces have strong modulating effect on the pioneer prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities, particularly on the colonization of pioneer eukaryotic microbes. The significantly reduced pioneer eukaryotic-community diversity may contribute to the weakening of the subsequent colonization of macrofoulers.

  8. Characteristics of High-Resolution Hemoglobin Measurement Microchip Integrated with Signal Processing Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Toshihiko; Takao, Hidekuni; Ashiki, Mitsuaki; Ebi, Hiroyuki; Sawada, Kazuaki; Ishida, Makoto

    2004-04-01

    In this study, a microchip for measurement of hemoglobin in human blood has been proposed, fabricated and evaluated. The measurement principle of hemoglobin is based on the “cyanmethemoglobin method” that calculates the cyanmethemoglobin concentration by absorption photometry. A glass/silicon/silicon structure was used for the microchip. The middle silicon layer includes flow channels, and 45° mirrors formed at each end of the flow channels. Photodiodes and metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuits were fabricated on the bottom silicon layer. The performance of the microchip for hemoglobin measurement was evaluated using a solution of red food color instead of a real blood sample. The fabricated microchip exhibited a similar performance to a nonminiaturized absorption cell which has the same optical path length. Signal processing output varied with solution concentration from 5.32 V to 5.55 V with very high stability due to differential signal processing.

  9. Fibrosarcoma adjacent to the site of microchip implantation in a cat.

    PubMed

    Daly, Meighan K; Saba, Corey F; Crochik, Sonia S; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Kosarek, Carrie E; Cornell, Karen K; Roberts, Royce E; Northrup, Nicole C

    2008-04-01

    A 14-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with an interscapular mass. A computed tomography scan, biopsy, and histological examination revealed a fibrosarcoma adjacent to a pet identification microchip. Because the cat was previously vaccinated at this site, it is not possible to establish definitive causation of the fibrosarcoma, but this is the first report of a tumor in the vicinity of a microchip in a cat. Microchip-associated tumors have been reported in rodents and dogs. Veterinarians should be aware that because inflammation may predispose felines to tumor formation, separation and observation of vaccination and implantation sites are indicated. Adherence to American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) vaccination guidelines and monitoring of microchip implantation sites are recommended.

  10. Effect of mixing on reaction-diffusion kinetics for protein hydrogel-based microchips.

    PubMed

    Zubtsov, D A; Ivanov, S M; Rubina, A Yu; Dementieva, E I; Chechetkin, V R; Zasedatelev, A S

    2006-03-01

    Protein hydrogel-based microchips are being developed for high-throughput evaluation of the concentrations and activities of various proteins. To shorten the time of analysis, the reaction-diffusion kinetics on gel microchips should be accelerated. Here we present the results of the experimental and theoretical analysis of the reaction-diffusion kinetics enforced by mixing with peristaltic pump. The experiments were carried out on gel-based protein microchips with immobilized antibodies under the conditions utilized for on-chip immunoassay. The dependence of fluorescence signals at saturation and corresponding saturation times on the concentrations of immobilized antibodies and antigen in solution proved to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. It is shown that the enhancement of transport with peristaltic pump results in more than five-fold acceleration of binding kinetics. Our results suggest useful criteria for the optimal conditions for assays on gel microchips to balance high sensitivity and rapid fluorescence saturation kinetics.

  11. Kinetic effects on signal normalization in oligonucleotide microchips with labeled immobilized probes.

    PubMed

    Pan'kov, S V; Chechetkin, V R; Somova, O G; Antonova, O V; Moiseeva, O V; Prokopenko, D V; Yurasov, R A; Gryadunov, D A; Chudinov, A V

    2009-10-01

    Among various factors affecting operation of oligonucleotide microchips, the variations in concentration and in homogeneous distribution of immobilized probes over the cells are one of the most important. The labeling of immobilized probes ensures the complete current monitoring on the probe distribution and is reliable and convenient. Using hydrogel-based oligonucleotide microchips, the applicability of Cy3-labeled immobilized probes for quality control and signal normalization after hybridization with Cy5-labeled target DNA was investigated. This study showed that proper signal normalization should be different in thermodynamic conditions and in transient regime with hybridization far from saturation. This kinetic effect holds for both hydrogel-based and surface oligonucleotide microchips. Besides proving basic features, the technique was assessed on a sampling batch of 50 microchips developed for identifying mutations responsible for rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  12. Rapid amplification of genetically modified organisms using a circular ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Kwok, Yien-Chian; Foo-Peng Lee, Peter; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2009-07-01

    The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology is extensively used for the detection of GMOs in food products in order to verify compliance with labeling requirements. In this paper, we present a novel close-loop ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip for rapid amplification of GMOs. The microchip was fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate by CO2 laser ablation and was integrated with three temperature zones. PCR solution was contained in a circular closed microchannel and was driven by magnetic force generated by an external magnet through a small oil-based ferrofluid plug. Successful amplification of genetically modified soya and maize were achieved in less than 13 min. This PCR microchip combines advantages of cycling flexibility and quick temperature transitions associated with two existing microchip PCR techniques, and it provides a cost saving and less time-consuming way to conduct preliminary screening of GMOs.

  13. [On-microchip PCR for detection of influenza A viruses subtypes, circulating in the human population].

    PubMed

    Kostina, E V; Ryabinin, V A; Ternovoi, V A; Sinyakov, A N

    2015-01-01

    A oligonucleotide microchip was developed for revealing Influenza A viruses subtypes, circulating in human population: pandemic H1N1 swine influenza viruses, seasonal H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, H5N1, H9N2, H7N9. Typing of influenza virus was performed by on-microchip PCR. We used immobilized primers-probes selected for the neuraminidase gene that allows determining both subtype of neuraminidase and subtype of hemagglutinin. PMID:26050481

  14. [On-microchip PCR for detection of influenza A viruses subtypes, circulating in the human population].

    PubMed

    Kostina, E V; Ryabinin, V A; Ternovoi, V A; Sinyakov, A N

    2015-01-01

    A oligonucleotide microchip was developed for revealing Influenza A viruses subtypes, circulating in human population: pandemic H1N1 swine influenza viruses, seasonal H1N1, H2N2, H3N2, H5N1, H9N2, H7N9. Typing of influenza virus was performed by on-microchip PCR. We used immobilized primers-probes selected for the neuraminidase gene that allows determining both subtype of neuraminidase and subtype of hemagglutinin.

  15. Microchip implant system used for animal identification in laboratory rabbits, guineapigs, woodchucks and in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Mrozek, M; Fischer, R; Trendelenburg, M; Zillmann, U

    1995-07-01

    Traditional methods for animal identification have a number of drawbacks. We evaluated a new system for individual identification using microchip implants in rabbits, guineapigs, woodchucks (Marmota monax) and amphibians (Xenopus laevis, Pleurodeles waltlii). Implantation procedure and long-term observations are described. Microchip implants proved to be a practicable and reliable system for animal identification without obvious adverse effects. The applicability of electronic animal identification in comparison with common methods and with regard to animal welfare and legal aspects is discussed.

  16. Microchip micellar electrokinetic chromatography separation of alkaloids with UV-absorbance spectral detection.

    PubMed

    Newman, Carl I D; Giordano, Braden C; Copper, Christine L; Collins, Greg E

    2008-02-01

    A microchip device is demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation and UV-absorbance spectral detection of four toxic alkaloids: colchicine, aconitine, strychnine, and nicotine. A fused-silica (quartz) microchip containing a simple cross geometry is utilized to perform the separations, and a miniature, fiber-optic CCD spectrometer is coupled to the microchip for detection. Sensitive UV-absorbance detection is achieved via the application of online preconcentration techniques in combination with the quartz microchip substrate which contains an etched bubble-cell for increased pathlength. The miniature CCD spectrometer is configured to detect light between 190 and 645 nm and LabView programming written in-house enables absorbance spectra as well as separations to be monitored from 210 to 400 nm. Consequently, the configuration of this microchip device facilitates qualitative and quantitative separations via simultaneous spatial and spectral resolution of solutes. UV-absorbance limits of quantification for colchicine, 20 microM (8 mg/L); strychnine, 50 microM (17 mg/L); aconitine, 50 microM (32 mg/L); and nicotine, 100 microM (16 mg/L) are demonstrated on the microchip. With the exception of aconitine, these concentrations are > or =20-times more sensitive than lethal dose monitoring requirements. Finally, this device is demonstrated to successfully detect each toxin in water, skim milk, and apple juice samples spiked at sublethal dose concentrations after a simple, SPE procedure. PMID:18203247

  17. On-chip immunoassay of a cardiac biomarker in serum using a polyester-toner microchip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Rahn; Kim, Joo Yeon; Choi, Kihwan; Chung, Doo Soo

    2013-05-15

    An on-chip immunoassay to detect C-reactive protein (CRP) was performed using a polyester-toner (PT) microchip. CRP is a highly conserved plasma protein responding to inflammation and is used for clinical purposes to diagnose an inflammatory state. For rapid analysis and specific interactions in immunoassays, extensive studies using microfluidic chips have been carried out. Recently, a simple technique to fabricate a disposable PT microchip by a direct printing process was developed and several applications were introduced. One major drawback of the PT microchip, however, is the poor separation performance due to the quality of the microfluidic structures. This problem for a PT microchip can be overcome using a cleavable tag immunoassay, which requires minimal separation performance. After analytes are conjugated onto antibodies which are immobilized on the surface of microbeads placed on the PT microchip, a second group of fluorescently tagged antibodies are added and complexed with the analytes. The tag is then cleaved and the solution containing the cleaved tag is analyzed by electrophoresis. The time needed for the complete analysis to be carried out on a PT microchip was less than 35 min. The dynamic range of the CRP in 10-fold diluted serum was 0.3-100 mg/L and the limit of detection was 0.3 mg/L, which demonstrated the possibility of a quantitative analysis of CRP in serum in clinical trials.

  18. Optical properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) during nanosecond laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankova, N. E.; Atanasov, P. A.; Nikov, Ru. G.; Nikov, R. G.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Stoyanchov, T. R.; Fukata, N.; Kolev, K. N.; Valova, E. I.; Georgieva, J. S.; Armyanov, St. A.

    2016-06-01

    This article presents experimental investigations of effects of the process parameters on the medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer processed by laser source with irradiation at UV (266 and 355 nm), VIS (532 nm) and NIR (1064 nm). Systematic experiments are done to characterize how the laser beam parameters (wavelength, fluence, and number of pulses) affect the optical properties and the chemical composition in the laser treated areas. Remarkable changes of the optical properties and the chemical composition are observed. Despite the low optical absorption of the native PDMS for UV, VIS and NIR wavelengths, successful laser treatment is accomplished due to the incubation process occurring below the polymer surface. With increasing of the fluence and the number of the pulses chemical transformations are revealed in the entire laser treated area and hence decreasing of the optical transmittance is observed. The incubation gets saturation after a certain number of pulses and the laser ablation of the material begins efficiently. At the UV and VIS wavelengths the number of the initial pulses, at which the optical transmittance begins to reduce, decreases from 16 up to 8 with increasing of the laser fluence up to 1.0, 2.5 and 10 J cm-2 for 266, 355 and 532 nm, respectively. In the case of 1064 nm the optical transmittance begins to reduce at 11th pulse incident at a fluence of 13 J cm-2 and the number of the pulses decreases to 8 when the fluence reaches value of 16 J cm-2. The threshold laser fluence needed to induce incubation process after certain number of pulses of 8 is different for every wavelength irradiation as the values increase from 1.0 for 266 nm up to 16 J cm-2 for 1064 nm. The incubation and the ablation processes occur in the PDMS elastomer material during its pulsed laser treatment are a complex function of the wavelength, fluence, number of pulses and the material properties as well.

  19. The moisture outgassing kinetics of a silica reinforced polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, H. N.; McLean, W.; Maxwell, R. S.; Dinh, L. N.

    2016-09-01

    A silica-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite M9787 was investigated for potential outgassing in a vacuum/dry environment with the temperature programmed desorption/reaction method. The outgassing kinetics of 463 K vacuum heat-treated samples, vacuum heat-treated samples which were subsequently re-exposed to moisture, and untreated samples were extracted using the isoconversional and constrained iterative regression methods in a complementary fashion. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of water interactions with a silica surface were also performed to provide insight into the structural motifs leading to the obtained kinetic parameters. Kinetic analysis/model revealed that no outgassing occurs from the vacuum heat-treated samples in subsequent vacuum/dry environment applications at room temperature (˜300 K). The main effect of re-exposure of the vacuum heat-treated samples to a glove box condition (˜30 ppm by volume of H2O) for even a couple of days was the formation, on the silica surface fillers, of ˜60 ppm by weight of physisorbed and loosely bonded moisture, which subsequently outgasses at room temperature in a vacuum/dry environment in a time span of 10 yr. However, without any vacuum heat treatment and even after 1 h of vacuum pump down, about 300 ppm by weight of H2O would be released from the PDMS in the next few hours. Thereafter the outgassing rate slows down substantially. The presented methodology of using the isoconversional kinetic analysis results and some appropriate nature of the reaction as the constraints for more accurate iterative regression analysis/deconvolution of complex kinetic spectra, and of checking the so-obtained results with first principle calculations such as DFT can serve as a template for treating other complex physical/chemical processes as well.

  20. Culture of bovine embryos on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell plate.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Satoshi; Hosoe, Misa; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Takahashi, Seiya

    2010-08-01

    We fabricated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microwell plate (PDMS-MP) containing 100 microwells with a rounded bottom and examined whether it can be used for culture of individual in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos or parthenogenetically activated zona-free embryos in cattle. In Experiment 1, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of IVF embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. After IVF, 20 embryos were transferred into 100 microl drops on PDMS-MP and cultured individually in each well of PDMS-MP (PDMS group). After 7 days of culture, the embryos in the PDMS group developed to the blastocyst stage at the same rate of those in the control group cultured in a group of 20 embryos without PDMS-MP. There were no differences in total number of cells and the ratio of inner cell mass to total cells between the PDMS and control groups. In Experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of parthenogenetically activated zona-free bovine embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. The zona-free embryos were cultured individually in each well of a PDMS-MP or in each well produced by pressing a darning needle onto the bottom of a culture dish (WOW group). After 7 days of culture, the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts in the PDMS group did not differ from those of the zona-intact embryos in the control group. Also, there were no differences in the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts between the WOW and PDMS groups. These results suggest that the culture system using PDMS-MP is useful for individual embryos or zona-free embryos in cattle. PMID:20484872

  1. Adjustable microchip ring trap for cold atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Paul M.; Stickney, James A.; Squires, Matthew B.; Scoville, James A.; Carlson, Evan J.; Buchwald, Walter R.; Miller, Steven M.

    2009-12-15

    We describe the design and function of a circular magnetic waveguide produced from wires on a microchip for atom interferometry using de Broglie waves. The guide is a two-dimensional magnetic minimum for trapping weak-field seeking states of atoms or molecules with a magnetic dipole moment. The design consists of seven circular wires sharing a common radius. We describe the design, the time-dependent currents of the wires and show that it is possible to form a circular waveguide with adjustable height and gradient while minimizing perturbation resulting from leads or wire crossings. This maximal area geometry is suited for rotation sensing with atom interferometry via the Sagnac effect using either cold atoms, molecules and Bose-condensed systems.

  2. [Infrared fluorescent markers for microarray DNA analysis on biological microchip].

    PubMed

    Spitsyn, M A; Shershov, V E; Kuznetsova, V E; Barsky, V E; Egorov, E E; Emelyanova, M A; Kreindlin, E Ya; Lysov, Yu P; Guseinov, T O; Fesenko, D E; Lapa, S A; Surzhikov, S A; Abramov, I S; Nasedkina, T V; Zasedatelev, A S; Chudinov, A V

    2015-01-01

    To expand the informational capabilities of molecular genetic research, on the biological microchips, new indotricarbocyanine dyes that fluoresce in the near infrared (IR) spectral region have been synthesized. The developed IR dyes were studied using a biochip-based test system for detection of mutations in the BRCA1/BRCA2 and CHECK2 genes associated with breast cancer. The fluorescent label was introduced to the analyzed DNA during PCR using primers labeled with the synthesized IR dyes. An analyzer that allows recording and processing of images of fluorescent microarrays in the IR spectral region was designed and manufactured. It has been shown that the use of the synthesized dyes enables to conduct analysis in the IR region and improve the reliability of medical diagnostic tests due to low fluorescence intensity of sample components as well as of a biochip substrate and the reagents used for analysis. PMID:26510593

  3. Microchip for the Measurement of Seebeck Coefficients of Single Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völklein, F.; Schmitt, M.; Cornelius, T. W.; Picht, O.; Müller, S.; Neumann, R.

    2009-07-01

    Bismuth nanowires were electrochemically grown in ion track-etched polycarbonate membranes. Micromachining and microlithography were employed to realize a newly developed microchip for Seebeck coefficient measurements on individual nanowires. By anisotropic etching of a (100) Si wafer, an 800-nm-thick SiO2/Si3N4 membrane was prepared in the chip center. The low thermal conductivity of the membrane is crucial to obtain the required temperature difference Δ T along the nanowire. The wire is electrically contacted to thin metal pads which are patterned by a new method of microscopic exposure of photoresist and a lift-off process. A Δ T between the two pairs of contact pads, located on the membrane, is established by a thin-film heater. Applying the known Seebeck coefficient of a reference film, the temperature difference at this gap is determined. Using Δ T and the measured Seebeck voltage U of the nanowire, its Seebeck coefficient can be calculated.

  4. Microchip capillary electrophoresis based electroanalysis of triazine herbicides.

    PubMed

    Islam, Kamrul; Chand, Rohit; Han, Dawoon; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2015-01-01

    The number of pesticides used in agriculture is increasing steadily, leading to contamination of soil and drinking water. Herein, we present a microfluidic platform to detect the extent of contamination in soil samples. A microchip capillary electrophoresis system with in-channel electrodes was fabricated for label-free electroanalytical detection of triazine herbicides. The sample mixture contained three representative triazines: simazine, atrazine and ametryn. The electropherogram for each individual injection of simazine, atrazine and ametryn showed peaks at 58, 66 and 72 s whereas a mixture of them showed distinct peaks at 59, 67 and 71 s respectively. The technique as such may prove to be a useful qualitative and quantitative tool for the similar environmental pollutants.

  5. Investigation of temperature effect on cell mechanics by optofluidic microchips

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tie; Nava, Giovanni; Minzioni, Paolo; Veglione, Manuela; Bragheri, Francesca; Lelii, Francesca Demetra; Vazquez, Rebeca Martinez; Osellame, Roberto; Cristiani, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the results of a study concerning the effect of temperature on cell mechanical properties. Two different optofluidic microchips with external temperature control are used to investigate the temperature-induced changes of highly metastatic human melanoma cells (A375MC2) in the range of ~0 – 35 °C. By means of an integrated optical stretcher, we observe that cells’ optical deformability is strongly enhanced by increasing cell and buffer-fluid temperature. This finding is supported by the results obtained from a second device, which probes the cells’ ability to be squeezed through a constriction. Measured data demonstrate a marked dependence of cell mechanical properties on temperature, thus highlighting the importance of including a proper temperature-control system in the experimental apparatus. PMID:26309762

  6. Vacuum membrane distillation by microchip with temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaopeng; Kato, Shinji; Anazawa, Takanori

    2010-04-01

    A multilayered microchip (25 x 95 mm) used for vacuum distillation is designed, fabricated and tested by rectification of a water-methanol mixture. The polymer chip employs a cooling channel to generate a temperature gradient along a distillation channel below, which is separated into a channel (72 microm deep) for liquid phase and a channel (72 microm deep) for vapor phase by an incorporated microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane. The temperature gradient is controlled by adjusting hotplate temperature and flow rate of cooling water to make the temperatures in the stripping section higher than the increasing boiling points of the water-enriched liquids and the temperatures in the rectifying section lower than the decreasing dew points of the methanol-enriched vapors. The effects of temperature gradient, feed composition, feed flow rate and membrane pore size on the micro distillation are also investigated. A theoretical plate number up to 1.8 is achieved at the optimum conditions. PMID:20300677

  7. PMMA-based capillary electrophoresis electrochemical detection microchip fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Ray-Hua; Han, Pin; Chen, Hung-Yu; Lin, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Tung-Mung; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a 50 µm (depth) × 50 µm (width) microfluidic channel is made on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate using thick photoresist. Openings were drilled for buffer reservoirs on an additional piece of PMMA. A final PMMA/patterned photoresist/PMMA sandwich configuration was completed using a bonding process. The thick photoresist was used as the adhesion layer and also as the microfluidic system. Using screen-printed technology for carbon and silver electrode fabrication, the microchip electrophoretic device functions were demonstrated. Successful detection of uric acid and L-ascorbic acid (the main components in human urine) validates the functionality of the proposed system. Successful ascorbic and uric acid separation in a sample from a urine donor who had consumed 500 mg of vitamins verified the proposed biochip.

  8. [Infrared fluorescent markers for microarray DNA analysis on biological microchip].

    PubMed

    Spitsyn, M A; Shershov, V E; Kuznetsova, V E; Barsky, V E; Egorov, E E; Emelyanova, M A; Kreindlin, E Ya; Lysov, Yu P; Guseinov, T O; Fesenko, D E; Lapa, S A; Surzhikov, S A; Abramov, I S; Nasedkina, T V; Zasedatelev, A S; Chudinov, A V

    2015-01-01

    To expand the informational capabilities of molecular genetic research, on the biological microchips, new indotricarbocyanine dyes that fluoresce in the near infrared (IR) spectral region have been synthesized. The developed IR dyes were studied using a biochip-based test system for detection of mutations in the BRCA1/BRCA2 and CHECK2 genes associated with breast cancer. The fluorescent label was introduced to the analyzed DNA during PCR using primers labeled with the synthesized IR dyes. An analyzer that allows recording and processing of images of fluorescent microarrays in the IR spectral region was designed and manufactured. It has been shown that the use of the synthesized dyes enables to conduct analysis in the IR region and improve the reliability of medical diagnostic tests due to low fluorescence intensity of sample components as well as of a biochip substrate and the reagents used for analysis.

  9. Electrothermally activated microchips for implantable drug delivery and biosensing.

    PubMed

    Maloney, John M; Uhland, Scott A; Polito, Benjamin F; Sheppard, Norman F; Pelta, Christina M; Santini, John T

    2005-12-01

    Novel drug delivery and biosensing devices have the potential to increase the efficacy of drug therapy by providing physicians and patients the ability to precisely control key therapy parameters. Such "intelligent" systems can enable control of dose amount and the time, rate, and location of drug delivery. We have developed and demonstrated the operation of an electrothermal mechanism to precisely control the delivery of drugs and exposure of biosensors. These microchip devices contain an array of individually sealed and actuated reservoirs, each capped by a thin metal membrane comprised of either gold or multiple layers of titanium and platinum. The passage of a threshold level of electric current through the membrane causes it to disintegrate, thereby exposing the protected contents (drugs or biosensors) of the reservoir to the surrounding environment. This paper describes the theory and experimental characterization of the electrothermal method and includes in vitro release results for a model compound.

  10. Investigation of temperature effect on cell mechanics by optofluidic microchips.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tie; Nava, Giovanni; Minzioni, Paolo; Veglione, Manuela; Bragheri, Francesca; Lelii, Francesca Demetra; Vazquez, Rebeca Martinez; Osellame, Roberto; Cristiani, Ilaria

    2015-08-01

    Here we present the results of a study concerning the effect of temperature on cell mechanical properties. Two different optofluidic microchips with external temperature control are used to investigate the temperature-induced changes of highly metastatic human melanoma cells (A375MC2) in the range of ~0 - 35 °C. By means of an integrated optical stretcher, we observe that cells' optical deformability is strongly enhanced by increasing cell and buffer-fluid temperature. This finding is supported by the results obtained from a second device, which probes the cells' ability to be squeezed through a constriction. Measured data demonstrate a marked dependence of cell mechanical properties on temperature, thus highlighting the importance of including a proper temperature-control system in the experimental apparatus.

  11. Affinity Monolith-Integrated Microchips for Protein Purification and Concentration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Qiao, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a valuable method to purify and concentrate minute amount of proteins. Monoliths with epoxy groups for affinity immobilization were prepared by direct in-situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in porogenic solvents consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. By integrating affinity monoliths onto a microfluidic system, targeted biomolecules can be captured and retained on affinity column, while other biomolecules having no specific interactions toward the immobilized ligands flow through the microchannel. Therefore, proteins which remain on the affinity column are purified and concentrated, and then eluted by appropriate solutions and finally, separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis. This integrated microfluidic device has been applied to the purification and separation of specific proteins (FITC-labeled human serum albumin and IgG) in a mixture.

  12. Affinity Monolith-Integrated Microchips for Protein Purification and Concentration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Qiao, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a valuable method to purify and concentrate minute amount of proteins. Monoliths with epoxy groups for affinity immobilization were prepared by direct in-situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in porogenic solvents consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. By integrating affinity monoliths onto a microfluidic system, targeted biomolecules can be captured and retained on affinity column, while other biomolecules having no specific interactions toward the immobilized ligands flow through the microchannel. Therefore, proteins which remain on the affinity column are purified and concentrated, and then eluted by appropriate solutions and finally, separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis. This integrated microfluidic device has been applied to the purification and separation of specific proteins (FITC-labeled human serum albumin and IgG) in a mixture. PMID:27473483

  13. Accurate multiplex gene synthesis from programmable DNA microchips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jingdong; Gong, Hui; Sheng, Nijing; Zhou, Xiaochuan; Gulari, Erdogan; Gao, Xiaolian; Church, George

    2004-12-01

    Testing the many hypotheses from genomics and systems biology experiments demands accurate and cost-effective gene and genome synthesis. Here we describe a microchip-based technology for multiplex gene synthesis. Pools of thousands of `construction' oligonucleotides and tagged complementary `selection' oligonucleotides are synthesized on photo-programmable microfluidic chips, released, amplified and selected by hybridization to reduce synthesis errors ninefold. A one-step polymerase assembly multiplexing reaction assembles these into multiple genes. This technology enabled us to synthesize all 21 genes that encode the proteins of the Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunit, and to optimize their translation efficiency in vitro through alteration of codon bias. This is a significant step towards the synthesis of ribosomes in vitro and should have utility for synthetic biology in general.

  14. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study.

  15. Highly Transparent and Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerators with Subwavelength-Architectured Polydimethylsiloxane by a Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template.

    PubMed

    Dudem, Bhaskar; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-09-23

    Highly transparent and flexible triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) were fabricated using the subwavelength-architectured (SWA) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template as a replica mold. The SWA PDMS could be utilized as a multifunctional film for a triboelectric layer, an antireflection coating, and a self-cleaning surface. The nanopore arrays of AAO were formed by a simple, fast, and cost-effective electrochemical oxidation process of aluminum, which is relatively impressive for fabrication of the TENG device. For electrical contacts, the SWA PDMS was laminated on the indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a bottom electrode, and the bare ITO-coated PET (i.e., ITO/PET) was used for the top electrode. Compared to the ITO/PET, the SWA PDMS on the ITO/PET improved the transmittance from 80.5 to 83% in the visible wavelength region and also had high transmittances of >85% at wavelengths of 430-455 nm. The SWA PDMS also exhibited the hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle (θCA) of ∼115°, which can be useful for self-cleaning applications. The average transmittance (Tavg) of the entire TENG device was observed to be ∼70% over a broad wavelength range. At an external pushing frequency of 0.5 Hz, for the TENG device with the ITO top electrode, open-circuit voltage (VOC) and short-circuit current (ISC) values of ∼3.8 V and ∼0.8 μA were obtained instantaneously, respectively, which were higher than those (i.e., VOC ≈ 2.2 V, and ISC ≈ 0.4 μA) of the TENG device with a gold top electrode. The effect of external pushing force and frequency on the output device performance of the TENGs was investigated, including the device robustness. A theoretical optical analysis of SWA PDMS was also performed. PMID:26301328

  16. Highly Transparent and Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerators with Subwavelength-Architectured Polydimethylsiloxane by a Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template.

    PubMed

    Dudem, Bhaskar; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-09-23

    Highly transparent and flexible triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) were fabricated using the subwavelength-architectured (SWA) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template as a replica mold. The SWA PDMS could be utilized as a multifunctional film for a triboelectric layer, an antireflection coating, and a self-cleaning surface. The nanopore arrays of AAO were formed by a simple, fast, and cost-effective electrochemical oxidation process of aluminum, which is relatively impressive for fabrication of the TENG device. For electrical contacts, the SWA PDMS was laminated on the indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a bottom electrode, and the bare ITO-coated PET (i.e., ITO/PET) was used for the top electrode. Compared to the ITO/PET, the SWA PDMS on the ITO/PET improved the transmittance from 80.5 to 83% in the visible wavelength region and also had high transmittances of >85% at wavelengths of 430-455 nm. The SWA PDMS also exhibited the hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle (θCA) of ∼115°, which can be useful for self-cleaning applications. The average transmittance (Tavg) of the entire TENG device was observed to be ∼70% over a broad wavelength range. At an external pushing frequency of 0.5 Hz, for the TENG device with the ITO top electrode, open-circuit voltage (VOC) and short-circuit current (ISC) values of ∼3.8 V and ∼0.8 μA were obtained instantaneously, respectively, which were higher than those (i.e., VOC ≈ 2.2 V, and ISC ≈ 0.4 μA) of the TENG device with a gold top electrode. The effect of external pushing force and frequency on the output device performance of the TENGs was investigated, including the device robustness. A theoretical optical analysis of SWA PDMS was also performed.

  17. Covalent functionalization of silica surface using "inert" poly(dimethylsiloxanes).

    PubMed

    Graffius, Gabriel; Bernardoni, Frank; Fadeev, Alexander Y

    2014-12-16

    Methyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxanes) (PDMSs) are typically considered to be inert and not suitable for surface functionalization reactions because of the absence of readily hydrolyzable groups. Nevertheless, these siloxanes do react with silica and other oxides, producing chemically grafted organic surfaces. Known since the 1970s and then forgotten and recently rediscovered, this reaction provides a versatile yet simple method for the covalent functionalization of inorganic surfaces. In this work, we have explored the reactions of linear methyl-terminated and cyclic PDMS and bis-fluoroalkyl disiloxanes for the surface functionalization of mesoporous silica (Dpore ≈ 30-35 nm). The optimal reaction conditions included 24 h of contact of neat siloxane liquids and silica at 120-250 °C (depending on the siloxane). A study of the reactions of silicas with different extents of hydration demonstrated the critical role of water in facilitating the grafting of the siloxanes. The proposed reaction mechanism involved the hydrolysis of the adsorbed siloxanes by the Lewis acidic centers (presumably formed by water adsorbed onto surface defects) followed by the coupling of silanols to the surface to produce grafted siloxanes. For rigorously dehydrated silicas (calcination ∼1000 °C), an alternative pathway that did not require water and involved the reaction of the siloxanes with the strained siloxane rings was also plausible. According to FTIR and chemical analysis, the reactions of bis-fluoroalkyl disiloxanes and cyclic PDMS (D3-D5) produced covalently-attached monolayer surfaces, and the reactions of high-MM methyl-terminated PDMS produced polymeric grafted silicas with a PDMS mass content of up to 50%. As evidenced by the high contact angles of ∼130°/100° (adv/rec) and the negligible amount of water adsorption over the entire range of relative pressures, including saturation (p/p0 → 1), the siloxane-grafted porous silicas show uniform, high-quality hydrophobic

  18. Polydimethylsiloxane SlipChip for mammalian cell culture applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Wen; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2015-11-01

    This paper reports a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SlipChip for in vitro cell culture applications, multiple-treatment assays, cell co-cultures, and cytokine detection assays. The PDMS SlipChip is composed of two PDMS layers with microfluidic channels on each surface that are separated by a thin silicone fluid (Si-fluid) layer. The integration of Si-fluid enables the two PDMS layers to be slid to different positions; therefore, the channel patterns can be re-arranged for various applications. The SlipChip design significantly reduces the complexity of sample handling, transportation, and treatment processes. To apply the developed SlipChip for cell culture applications, human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) and lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) were cultured to examine the biocompatibility of the developed PDMS SlipChip. Moreover, embryonic pluripotent stem cells (ES-D3) were also cultured in the device to evaluate the retention of their stemness in the device. The experimental results show that cell morphology, viability and proliferation are not affected when the cells are cultured in the SlipChip, indicating that the device is highly compatible with mammalian cell culture. In addition, the stemness of the ES-D3 cells was highly retained after they were cultured in the device, suggesting the feasibility of using the SlipChip for stem cell research. Various cell experiments, such as simultaneous triple staining of cells and co-culture of MRC-5 with A549 cells, were also performed to demonstrate the functionalities of the PDMS SlipChip. Furthermore, we used a cytokine detection assay to evaluate the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) treatment on the cytokine secretion of A549 cells using the SlipChip. The developed PDMS SlipChip provides a straightforward and effective platform for various on-chip in vitro cell cultures and consequent analysis, which is promising for a number of cell biology studies and biomedical applications. PMID:26381390

  19. Development of a Real-Time Microchip PCR System for Portable Plant Disease Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Cifci, Osman S.; Vaughn-Diaz, Vanessa L.; Ma, Bo; Kim, Sungman; Abdel-Raziq, Haron; Ong, Kevin; Jo, Young-Ki; Gross, Dennis C.; Shim, Won-Bo; Han, Arum

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of plant pathogens in the field is crucial to prevent the proliferation of infected crops. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process is the most reliable and accepted method for plant pathogen diagnosis, however current conventional PCR machines are not portable and require additional post-processing steps to detect the amplified DNA (amplicon) of pathogens. Real-time PCR can directly quantify the amplicon during the DNA amplification without the need for post processing, thus more suitable for field operations, however still takes time and require large instruments that are costly and not portable. Microchip PCR systems have emerged in the past decade to miniaturize conventional PCR systems and to reduce operation time and cost. Real-time microchip PCR systems have also emerged, but unfortunately all reported portable real-time microchip PCR systems require various auxiliary instruments. Here we present a stand-alone real-time microchip PCR system composed of a PCR reaction chamber microchip with integrated thin-film heater, a compact fluorescence detector to detect amplified DNA, a microcontroller to control the entire thermocycling operation with data acquisition capability, and a battery. The entire system is 25×16×8 cm3 in size and 843 g in weight. The disposable microchip requires only 8-µl sample volume and a single PCR run consumes 110 mAh of power. A DNA extraction protocol, notably without the use of liquid nitrogen, chemicals, and other large lab equipment, was developed for field operations. The developed real-time microchip PCR system and the DNA extraction protocol were used to successfully detect six different fungal and bacterial plant pathogens with 100% success rate to a detection limit of 5 ng/8 µl sample. PMID:24349341

  20. Fluoroalkyl silane modified silicone rubber/nanoparticle composite: a super durable, robust superhydrophobic fabric coating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua; Wang, Hongxia; Niu, Haitao; Gestos, Adrian; Wang, Xungai; Lin, Tong

    2012-05-01

    A superhydrophobic fabric coating made of a crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane elastomer, containing well-dispersed hydrophobic silica nanoparticles and fluorinated alkyl silane, shows remarkable durability against repeated machine washes, severe abrasion, strong acid or base, boiling water or beverages and excellent stain resistance.

  1. Study of colloids transport during two-phase flow using a novel polydimethylsiloxane micro-model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiulan; Karadimitriou, N K; Hassanizadeh, S M; Kleingeld, P J; Imhof, A

    2013-07-01

    As a representation of a porous medium, a closed micro-fluidic device made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), with uniform wettability and stable hydrophobic properties, was designed and fabricated. A flow network, with a mean pore size of 30 μm, was formed in a PDMS slab, covering an area of 1 mm × 10 mm. The PDMS slab was covered and bonded with a 120-μm-thick glass plate to seal the model. The glass plate was first spin-coated with a thin layer, roughly 10 μm, of PDMS. The micro-model was treated with silane in order to make it uniformly and stably hydrophobic. Fluorescent particles of 300 μm in diameter were used as colloids. It is known that more removal of colloids occurs under unsaturated conditions, compared to saturated flow in soil. At the same time, the change of saturation has been observed to cause remobilization of attached colloids. The mechanisms for these phenomena are not well understood. This is the first time that a closed micro-model, made of PDMS with uniform and stable wettability, has been used in combination with confocal microscopy to study colloid transport under transient two-phase flow conditions. With confocal microscopy, the movement of fluorescent particles and flow of two liquids within the pores can be studied. One can focus at different depths within the pores and thus determine where the particles exactly are. Thus, remobilization of attached colloids by moving fluid-fluid interfaces was visualized. In order to allow for the deposition and subsequent remobilization of colloids during two-phase flow, three micro-channels for the injection of liquids with and without colloids were constructed. An outlet channel was designed where effluent concentration breakthrough curves can be quantified by measuring the fluorescence intensity. A peak concentration also indicated in the breakthrough curve with the drainage event. The acquired images and breakthrough curve successfully confirmed the utility of the combination of such a PDMS

  2. Monolithic thermally bonded Er3+, Yb3+:glass/Co2+:MgAl2O4 microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, Jaroslaw; Belghachem, Nabil

    2015-12-01

    The highest ever reported 10 kW peak power in monolithic thermally bonded Er3+, Yb3+:glass/Co2+:MgAl2O4 microchip laser was achieved. To show the superiority of monolithic microchip lasers over those with external mirrors the laser generation characteristics of the same samples in both cases were compared.

  3. A Sol-Gel-Modified Poly(methyl methacrylate) Electrophoresis Microchip with a Hydrophilic Channel Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Xu, Xuejiao; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2007-07-27

    A sol-gel method was employed to fabricate a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrophoresis microchip that contains a hydrophilic channel wall. To fabricate such a device, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was injected into the PMMA channel and was allowed to diffuse into the surface layer for 24 h. After removing the excess TEOS, the channel was filled with an acidic solution for 3 h. Subsequently, the channel was flushed with water and was pretreated in an oven to obtain a sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip. The water contact angle for the sol-gel-modified PMMA was 27.4° compared with 66.3° for the pure PMMA. In addition, the electro-osmotic flow increased from 2.13×10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the native-PMMA channel to 4.86×10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the modified one. The analytical performance of the sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip was demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation of several purines, coupled with amperometric detection. The separation efficiency of uric acid increased to 74 882.3 m-1 compared with 14 730.5 m-1 for native-PMMA microchips. The result of this simple modification is a significant improvement in the performance of PMMA for microchip electrophoresis and microfluidic applications.

  4. A high-speed, high-performance on-chip integrated reverse transcription (RT)-microchip.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwanyong; Han, Nari; Choi, In-Hak; Han, Ki-Ho

    2013-02-01

    This report introduces an on-chip integrated reverse transcription (RT)-microchip, which includes two genetic functionalities of RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. In the RNA extraction compartment, RNA is extracted from peripheral blood lysate within 1 min, by lateral magnetophoresis using magnetic oligo-dT beads. The extracted RNA is then collected and used directly to produce cDNA in the cDNA synthesis microchamber, which is monolithically integrated with the RNA extraction compartment. To verify the superiority of the proposed RT-microchip, RT-PCR amplification was performed using cDNA harvested from the RT-microchip, and the results were compared with those obtained using typical RNA extraction methods such as a silica matrix column and magnetic oligo-dT beads. The RT-PCR amplification results using 100 μl of blood showed that the intensity of the bands in gel electrophoresis of the RT-microchip was 2-fold stronger than that of the silica matrix column and 2.65-fold stronger than that of the magnetic oligo-dT beads. The results demonstrate that the RT-microchip technique is the most sensitive of the tested methods.

  5. Fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane composites with nickel nanoparticle and nanowire fillers and study of their mechanical and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denver, Heather; Heiman, Timothy; Martin, Elizabeth; Gupta, Amit; Borca-Tasciuc, Diana-Andra

    2009-09-01

    This work presents the fabrication and characterization of mechanical and magnetic properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposites with nickel nanoparticles and nanowires as fillers. To enhance filler dispersion and polymer-filler interface bonding, allyltrimethoxysilane was used for nanofiller coating. Sample preparation was carried out by speed mixing and curing at 100 °C. Nanowire-PDMS composites were exposed to magnetic field prior to full curing in order to facilitate nanowire alignment. Composites with concentrations of 5, 10, and 15 vol % of nanoparticles and 5 vol % of nanowires were prepared and tested. An increase in elastic modulus of ˜30% was observed for composites with 5 vol % nanoparticle concentration. A much higher increase in elastic modulus, of ˜80%, was observed for nanowire-based composites of same concentration. The measured elastic modulus agrees well with predictions that assume strong interface bonding between the polymer and the filler. Magnetic anisotropy and higher remanent magnetization and coercivity are observed for the nanowire composite. These multifunctional materials could have a wide range of applications, from active structural components to sensing elements in macro- and particularly microsystem applications.

  6. The fabrication of microfluidic structures by means of full-wafer adhesive bonding using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samel, Björn; Kamruzzaman Chowdhury, M.; Stemme, Göran

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we present the use of a PDMS (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) curing-agent as the intermediate layer for adhesive full-wafer bonding suitable for fabrication of microfluidic structures. The curing-agent of the two-component silicone rubber (Sylgard 184) is spin coated on a substrate, brought into contact with another PDMS layer and heat cured to create an irreversible seal which is as strong as or even stronger than plasma-assisted PDMS bonding. The maximum bond strength is measured to 800 kPa when bonding together PDMS and silicon. The applicability of the new PDMS adhesive bonding method is verified by means of fabricating microfluidic structures. Using this method allows for wafer-level bonding of PDMS to various materials such as PDMS, glass or silicon and more importantly to selectively bond different layers by using a patterned adhesive bonding technique. Moreover, precise alignment of the structural layers is facilitated since curing is initiated upon heat which is an advantage when fabricating multilayer microfluidic devices.

  7. Comparison of Noncontact Infrared Thermometry and 3 Commercial Subcutaneous Temperature Transponding Microchips with Rectal Thermometry in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-01-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates. PMID:23043815

  8. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates.

  9. Electromagnetically induced transparency in Rb-filled coated hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Light, P S; Benabid, F; Couny, F; Maric, M; Luiten, A N

    2007-05-15

    We report the observation of lambda-configuration electromagnetically induced transparency as well as optical pumping in rubidium-filled kagome-structure hollow-coated-core photonic crystal fiber. We show that a polydimethylsiloxane coating of the fiber core reduces the linewidth of the transparency below that which could be expected for an uncoated fiber. The measured 6 MHz linewidth was dominated by optical broadening.

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency in Rb-filled coated hollow-core photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, P. S.; Benabid, F.; Couny, F.; Maric, M.; Luiten, A. N.

    2007-05-01

    We report the observation of lambda-configuration electromagnetically induced transparency as well as optical pumping in rubidium-filled kagome-structure hollow-coated-core photonic crystal fiber. We show that a polydimethylsiloxane coating of the fiber core reduces the linewidth of the transparency below that which could be expected for an uncoated fiber. The measured 6 MHz linewidth was dominated by optical broadening.

  11. Recent applications of microchip electrophoresis to biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nuchtavorn, Nantana; Suntornsuk, Worapot; Lunte, Susan M; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2015-09-10

    Many separation methods have been developed for biomedical analysis, including chromatographic (e.g. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC)) and electrophoretic methods (e.g. gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis (CE)). Among these techniques, CE provides advantages in terms of high separation efficiency, simplicity, low sample and solvent volume consumption, short analysis time and applicability to a wide range of biomedically important substances. Microchip electrophoresis (ME) is a miniaturized platform of CE and is now considered as a simpler and more convenient alternative, which has demonstrated potential in analytical chemistry. High-throughput, cost-effective and portable analysis systems can be developed using ME. The current review describes different separation modes and detectors that have been employed in ME to analyze various classes of biomedical analytes (e.g. pharmaceuticals and related substances, nucleic acids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, antibodies and antigens, carbohydrates, cells, cell components and lysates). Recent applications (during 2010-2014) in these areas are presented in tables and some significant findings are highlighted. PMID:25840947

  12. Microchip-based forensic short tandem repeat genotyping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Tae; Heo, Hyun Young; Oh, Shin Hye; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-08-01

    Micro total analysis system (μTAS) or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology has advanced over decades, and the high performance for chemical and biological analysis has been well demonstrated with advantages of low sample consumption, rapid analysis time, high-throughput screening, and portability. In particular, μTAS or LOC based genetic applications have been extensively explored, and the short tandem repeat (STR) typing on a chip has garnered attention in the forensic community due to its special use for human identification in the field of mass disaster and missing person investigation, paternity testing, and perpetrator identification. The STR typing process consists of sample collection, DNA extraction, DNA quantitation, STR loci amplification, capillary electrophoretic separation, and STR profiling. Recent progress of microtechnology shows its ability to substitute the conventional analytical tools, and furthermore demonstrates total integration of the whole STR processes on a single wafer for on-site STR typing. In this review article, we highlighted some representative results for fluorescence labeling techniques, microchip-based DNA purification, on-chip polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a capillary electrophoretic microdevice, and a fully integrated microdevice for STR typing. PMID:25963560

  13. Multiplexed detection of biological agents using optical microchip sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, D.; McDonnell, M. B.; Perkins, E.

    2010-10-01

    A multi-channel optical microchip sensor system suitable for real-time, label-free detection of a wide range of biological agents is presented. SpectroSensTM chips containing multiple high-precision planar Bragg gratings are exploited as lowcost, robust refractive index sensors. Sensitivity to biological agents is conferred by functionalising individual sensing regions with different antibodies selected against numerous targets of interest. Antigen binding to the surfaceimmobilised antibodies results in localised changes in refractive index; upon laser-induced interrogation of the sensing region via optical fibres, these antibody-antigen interactions manifest as increases in wavelength of light reflected from the sensor chip. Real-time detection of multiple biological agents including bacterial cells/spores, viruses and toxins has been demonstrated. Further improvements to sensor performance including physical and chemical methods are also investigated. This multi-analyte capability highlights the potential use of this sensing technology in applications ranging from bio-hazard detection for defence purposes to point-of-care clinical diagnostics.

  14. BEC on a microchip: integrated coherent manipulation of matter waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichel, Jakob

    2002-03-01

    We use the magnetic fields generated by lithographic conductor patterns to trap and manipulate cold neutral atoms in close proximity to a microchip surface. Recently we succeeded in achieving Bose-Einstein-condensation in such a "chip trap". Indeed, the strong field gradients generated by the microscopic conductors enable very strongly confining traps, ideally suited for evaporative cooling. Thus, the new technique not only speeds up the process of condensate production, it also simplifies the apparatus significantly. Moreover, the benefits of lithography and integration now open the door to new applications of condensed atomic ensembles. Functions such as coherent splitting, transport and controlled interactions can be integrated on the same chip. Because of such features, the chip trap approach appears well-suited for implementing quantum computing schemes with neutral atoms. As a first step, we have already realized a "conveyor belt" which coherently transports the trapped condensate along the chip in a distance of less than 100 microns from the surface. Experiments under way include single atom detection on the chip, as well as an integrated atom interferometer. This will enable us to measure the phase shift due to a controlled collision between two trapped atoms.

  15. Implementation of microchip electrophoresis instrumentation for future spaceflight missions.

    PubMed

    Willis, Peter A; Creamer, Jessica S; Mora, Maria F

    2015-09-01

    We present a comprehensive discussion of the role that microchip electrophoresis (ME) instrumentation could play in future NASA missions of exploration, as well as the current barriers that must be overcome to make this type of chemical investigation possible. We describe how ME would be able to fill fundamental gaps in our knowledge of the potential for past, present, or future life beyond Earth. Despite the great promise of ME for ultrasensitive portable chemical analysis, to date, it has never been used on a robotic mission of exploration to another world. We provide a current snapshot of the technology readiness level (TRL) of ME instrumentation, where the TRL is the NASA systems engineering metric used to evaluate the maturity of technology, and its fitness for implementation on missions. We explain how the NASA flight implementation process would apply specifically to ME instrumentation, and outline the scientific and technology development issues that must be addressed for ME analyses to be performed successfully on another world. We also outline research demonstrations that could be accomplished by independent researchers to help advance the TRL of ME instrumentation for future exploration missions. The overall approach described here for system development could be readily applied to a wide range of other instrumentation development efforts having broad societal and commercial impact.

  16. Microchip-based ultrafast serodiagnostic assay for tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Vigneshwaran; Paleja, Bhairav; Larbi, Karima; Kumar, Pavanish; Tay, Jo Ann; Siew, Jie Yee; Inci, Fatih; Wang, ShuQi; Chee, Cynthia; Wang, Yee Tang; Demirci, Utkan; De Libero, Gennaro; Singhal, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Access to point-of-care (POC), rapid, inexpensive, sensitive, and instrument-free tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge. Here, we report a simple and low-cost microchip-based TB ELISA (MTBE) platform for the detection of anti-mycobacterial IgG in plasma samples in less than 15 minutes. The MTBE employs a flow-less, magnet-actuated, bead-based ELISA for simultaneous detection of IgG responses against multiple mycobacterial antigens. Anti-trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) IgG responses were the strongest predictor for differentiating active tuberculosis (ATB) from healthy controls (HC) and latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI). The TDM-based MTBE demonstrated superior sensitivity compared to sputum microscopy (72% vs. 56%) with 80% and 63% positivity among smear-positive and smear-negative confirmed ATB samples, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated good accuracy for differentiating ATB from HC (AUC = 0.77). Thus, TDM-based MTBE can be potentially used as a screening device for rapid diagnosis of active TB at the POC. PMID:27775039

  17. A Contactless Capacitance Detection System for Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peter

    2008-05-01

    The design, construction and operation of a simple, inexpensive and compact high voltage power supply for use in conjunction with a simple cross, capillary electrophoresis microchip is presented. The detection system utilizes a single high voltage power supply (15 kV), a voltage divider network for obtaining the required voltages for enabling a gated injection valve, and two high voltage relays for switching between the open and closed gate sequences of the injection. The system is used to determine sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) concentration in diluted fruit juices and tap water. A separation buffer consisting of 20 mM citric acid and histidine at pH 3.5 enabled the detection of the anion in diluted apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice without lengthy sample pretreatments. Limit of detection in diluted juices and tap water were determined to be 125, 167, 138, and 173 mg/L for tap water, apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice, respectively, based upon an S/N of 3:1. The total analysis time for detecting the MFA anion in fruit juices was less than 5 min, which represents a considerable reduction in analysis time compared to other analytical methods currently used in food analysis.

  18. Microchip-Based Organophosphorus Detection Using Bienzyme Bioelectrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yong Duk; Jeong, Chi Yong; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Hyun C.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a microsystem for the detection of organophosphorus (OP) compounds using acetylcholine esterase (AchE) and choline oxidase (ChOx) bienzyme bioelectrocatalysis. Because AchE is irreversibly inhibited by OP pesticides, the change in AchE activity with OP treatment can be traced to determine OP concentration. Polymer-associated ChOx immobilization on the working electrode surface and magnetic microparticle (MP)-assisted AchE deposition methods were employed to create an AchE-ChOx bienzyme-modified biosensing system. ChOx was immobilized on the micropatterned electrodes using poly(L-lysine), glutaraldehyde, and amine-rich interfacial surface. AchE was immobilized on the MP surface via Schiff's base formation, and the enzyme-modified MPs were deposited on the working electrode using a magnet under the microfluidic channel. The bioelectrocatalytic reaction between AchE-ChOx bienzyme cascade and the ferrocenyl electron shuttle was successfully used to detect OP with the developed microchip. This provides a self-contained and relatively easy method for OP detection. It requires minimal time and a small sample size, and has potential analytic applications in pesticides and chemical warfare agents.

  19. Electrochemical methods in conjunction with capillary and microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mark, Jonas J P; Scholz, Rebekka; Matysik, Frank-Michael

    2012-12-01

    Electromigrative techniques such as capillary and microchip electrophoresis (CE and MCE) are inherently associated with various electrochemical phenomena. The electrolytic processes occurring in the buffer reservoirs have to be considered for a proper design of miniaturized electrophoretic systems and a suitable selection of buffer composition. In addition, the control of the electroosmotic flow plays a crucial role for the optimization of CE/MCE separations. Electroanalytical methods have significant importance in the field of detection in conjunction with CE/MCE. At present, amperometric detection and contactless conductivity detection are the predominating electrochemical detection methods for CE/MCE. This paper reviews the most recent trends in the field of electrochemical detection coupled to CE/MCE. The emphasis is on methodical developments and new applications that have been published over the past five years. A rather new way for the implementation of electrochemical methods into CE systems is the concept of electrochemically assisted injection which involves the electrochemical conversions of analytes during the injection step. This approach is particularly attractive in hyphenation to mass spectrometry (MS) as it widens the range of CE-MS applications. An overview of recent developments of electrochemically assisted injection coupled to CE is presented.

  20. Microchip-based forensic short tandem repeat genotyping.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Tae; Heo, Hyun Young; Oh, Shin Hye; Lee, Seung Hwan; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2015-08-01

    Micro total analysis system (μTAS) or lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology has advanced over decades, and the high performance for chemical and biological analysis has been well demonstrated with advantages of low sample consumption, rapid analysis time, high-throughput screening, and portability. In particular, μTAS or LOC based genetic applications have been extensively explored, and the short tandem repeat (STR) typing on a chip has garnered attention in the forensic community due to its special use for human identification in the field of mass disaster and missing person investigation, paternity testing, and perpetrator identification. The STR typing process consists of sample collection, DNA extraction, DNA quantitation, STR loci amplification, capillary electrophoretic separation, and STR profiling. Recent progress of microtechnology shows its ability to substitute the conventional analytical tools, and furthermore demonstrates total integration of the whole STR processes on a single wafer for on-site STR typing. In this review article, we highlighted some representative results for fluorescence labeling techniques, microchip-based DNA purification, on-chip polymerase chain reaction (PCR), a capillary electrophoretic microdevice, and a fully integrated microdevice for STR typing.

  1. Recent applications of microchip electrophoresis to biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nuchtavorn, Nantana; Suntornsuk, Worapot; Lunte, Susan M; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2015-09-10

    Many separation methods have been developed for biomedical analysis, including chromatographic (e.g. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC)) and electrophoretic methods (e.g. gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis (CE)). Among these techniques, CE provides advantages in terms of high separation efficiency, simplicity, low sample and solvent volume consumption, short analysis time and applicability to a wide range of biomedically important substances. Microchip electrophoresis (ME) is a miniaturized platform of CE and is now considered as a simpler and more convenient alternative, which has demonstrated potential in analytical chemistry. High-throughput, cost-effective and portable analysis systems can be developed using ME. The current review describes different separation modes and detectors that have been employed in ME to analyze various classes of biomedical analytes (e.g. pharmaceuticals and related substances, nucleic acids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, antibodies and antigens, carbohydrates, cells, cell components and lysates). Recent applications (during 2010-2014) in these areas are presented in tables and some significant findings are highlighted.

  2. Competitive immunoassay of progesterone by microchip electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fanggui; Liu, Jinwen; Huang, Yong; Li, Shutin; Zhao, Shulin

    2013-10-01

    A sensitive and rapid homogeneous immunoassay method based on microchip electrophoresis-chemiluminescence detection (MCE-CL) using luminol-hydrogen peroxide as chemiluminescence system catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was developed for the determination of progesterone (P). The assay was based on the competitive immunoreactions between HRP-labeled P antigen (HRP-P) and P with a limited amount of anti-P mouse monoclonal antibody (Ab), and MCE separation of free HRP-P and HRP-P-Ab immunocomplex followed by CL detection. The effect of various factors such as conditions for the CL reaction, MCE and incubation time for the immunoreactions were examined and optimized. Under optimal assay conditions, the MCE separation was accomplished within 80s. The linear range of detection for P was 8-800nM with a detection limit of 3.8nM (signal/noise ratio=3). This present method has been applied to determine P in human serum samples from normal and pregnant women. The result indicates that the proposed MCE-CL based homogeneous immunoassay method can serve as an alternative tool for clinical assay of P.

  3. Preconcentration of milk proteins using octadecylated monolithic silica microchip.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Eman; Welham, Kevin

    2013-10-10

    Sample preparation is a bottleneck in systems for chemical analysis and it is a required step in order to remove interference and preconcentrate the target analytes. Much research in recent years has focused on porous monolithic materials since they are highly permeable to liquid flow and show high mass transfer compared with common packed beds. This study has focused on the use of a glass microchip containing an inorganic silica-based monolithic material modified with octadecyl groups for preconcentration of milk proteins from skimmed cows' milk that vary in molecular weight, hydrophobicity, and abundance. Comparison between the fabricated device and a commercial cartridge for the preconcentration of proteins in skimmed cows' milk showed the ability of the device to successfully enrich protein mixtures from the sample. The three replicate experiments showed that the RSD of the mass to charge ratio of milk proteins ranged from 0.01 to 0.46%. In addition, it was found that there were no significant differences between the observed and reported masses of the milk proteins and the relative percentage error of the molecular masses ranged between 0.03 and 0.90%. The fact that the small amounts of sample required and short sample preparation time suggest that this new microfluidic device may be a viable alternative to existing procedures for protein extraction from real samples. PMID:24070482

  4. A review of microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis for monitoring biological events.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Rachel A; Lunte, Susan M

    2015-02-20

    Microdialysis is a powerful sampling technique that enables monitoring of dynamic processes in vitro and in vivo. The combination of microdialysis with chromatographic or electrophoretic methods with selective detection yields a "separation-based sensor" capable of monitoring multiple analytes in near real time. For monitoring biological events, analysis of microdialysis samples often requires techniques that are fast (<1 min), have low volume requirements (nL-pL), and, ideally, can be employed on-line. Microchip electrophoresis fulfills these requirements and also permits the possibility of integrating sample preparation and manipulation with detection strategies directly on-chip. Microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis has been employed for monitoring biological events in vivo and in vitro. This review discusses technical considerations for coupling microdialysis sampling and microchip electrophoresis, including various interface designs, and current applications in the field. PMID:25637011

  5. A review of microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis for monitoring biological events

    PubMed Central

    Saylor, Rachel A.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Microdialysis is a powerful sampling technique that enables monitoring of dynamic processes in vitro and in vivo. The combination of microdialysis with chromatographic or electrophoretic methods yields along with selective detection methods yields a “separation-based sensor” capable of monitoring multiple analytes in near real time. Analysis of microdialysis samples requires techniques that are fast (<1 min), have low volume requirements (nL–pL), and, ideally, can be employed on-line. Microchip electrophoresis fulfills these requirements and also permits the possibility of integrating sample preparation and manipulation with detection strategies directly on-chip. Microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis has been employed for monitoring biological events in vivo and in vitro. This review discusses technical considerations for coupling microdialysis sampling and microchip electrophoresis, including various interface designs, and current applications in the field. PMID:25637011

  6. High-resolution pluronic-filled microchip CE-SSCP analysis system via channel width control.

    PubMed

    Shin, Giyoung; Kim, Dong-Kyun; Doh, Junsang; Lee, Daeyeon; Lee, Nam Ki; Jung, Gyoo Yeol

    2016-02-01

    Although the resolution of CE-SSCP has been significantly improved by using a poly(ethyleneoxide)-poly(propyleneoxide)-poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO; Pluronic(®)) triblock copolymer as a separation medium, CE-SSCP on a microchip format is not widely applicable because their resolution is limited by short channel length. Therefore, a strategy to improve the resolution in channels of limited lengths is highly required for enabling microchip-based CE-SSCP. In this study, we developed a high-resolution CE-SSCP microchip system by controlling the width of the pluronic-filled channel. We tested four different channel widths of 180, 240, 300, and 400 μm, and found that 300 μm showed the highest resolution in the separation of two pathogen specific markers. Potential applications of our method in various genetic analyses were also shown by using SNP markers for spinal muscular atrophy. PMID:26542319

  7. A review of microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis for monitoring biological events.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Rachel A; Lunte, Susan M

    2015-02-20

    Microdialysis is a powerful sampling technique that enables monitoring of dynamic processes in vitro and in vivo. The combination of microdialysis with chromatographic or electrophoretic methods with selective detection yields a "separation-based sensor" capable of monitoring multiple analytes in near real time. For monitoring biological events, analysis of microdialysis samples often requires techniques that are fast (<1 min), have low volume requirements (nL-pL), and, ideally, can be employed on-line. Microchip electrophoresis fulfills these requirements and also permits the possibility of integrating sample preparation and manipulation with detection strategies directly on-chip. Microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis has been employed for monitoring biological events in vivo and in vitro. This review discusses technical considerations for coupling microdialysis sampling and microchip electrophoresis, including various interface designs, and current applications in the field.

  8. Subcutaneous soft tissue tumours at the site of implanted microchips in mice.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, T; Kamino, K; Dasenbrock, C; Ernst, H; Kohler, M; Morawietz, G; Campo, E; Cardesa, A; Tomatis, L; Mohr, U

    1997-08-01

    An experiment using 4279 CBA/J mice of two generations was carried out to investigate the influence of parental preconceptual exposure to X-ray radiation or to chemical carcinogens. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously in the dorsolateral back for unique identification of each animal. The animals were kept for lifespan under standard laboratory conditions. In 36 mice a circumscribed neoplasm occurred in the area of the implanted microchip. Females were significantly more frequently affected than male mice. An influence of age or different treatment on the s.c. tumour incidence in two mice generations could not be observed. Macroscopically, firm, pale white nodules up to 25 mm in diameter with the microchip in its center were found. Microscopically, soft tissue tumours such as fibrosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma were detected.

  9. Tumors in long-term rat studies associated with microchip animal identification devices.

    PubMed

    Elcock, L E; Stuart, B P; Wahle, B S; Hoss, H E; Crabb, K; Millard, D M; Mueller, R E; Hastings, T F; Lake, S G

    2001-02-01

    Tumors surrounding implanted microchip animal identification devices were noted in two separate chronic toxicity/oncogenicity studies using F344 rats. The tumors occurred at a low incidence rate (approximately 1 percent), but did result in the early sacrifice of most affected animals, due to tumor size and occasional metastases. No sex-related trends were noted. All tumors occurred during the second year of the studies, were located in the subcutaneous dorsal thoracic area (the site of microchip implantation) and contained embedded microchip devices. All were mesenchymal in origin and consisted of the following types, listed in order of frequency: malignant schwannoma, fibrosarcoma, anaplastic sarcoma, and histiocytic sarcoma. The following diagnostic techniques were employed: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. The mechanism of carcinogenicity appeared to be that of foreign-body induced tumorigenesis.

  10. Assessment of the use of temperature-sensitive microchips to determine core body temperature in goats.

    PubMed

    Torrao, N A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L C R; Fick, L G

    2011-03-26

    Body temperature was measured at five different body sites (retroperitoneum, groin, semimembranosus muscle, flank and shoulder) using temperature-sensitive microchips implanted in five female goats, and compared with the core body and rectal temperatures. Body temperature was measured while the goats were kept in different ambient temperatures, with and without radiant heat, as well as during a fever induced experimentally by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Bland-Altman limit of agreement analysis was used to compare the temperature measurements at the different body sites during the different interventions. Temperatures measured by the microchip implanted in the retroperitoneum showed the closest agreement (mean 0.2 °C lower) with core and rectal temperatures during all interventions, whereas temperatures measured by the microchips implanted in the groin, muscle, flank and shoulder differed from core body temperature by up to 3.5 °C during the various interventions.

  11. Method of producing an electronic unit having a polydimethylsiloxane substrate and circuit lines

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, James Courtney; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Maghribi, Mariam N.; Benett, William J.; Hamilton, Julie K.; Tovar, Armando R.

    2012-06-19

    A system of metalization in an integrated polymer microsystem. A flexible polymer substrate is provided and conductive ink is applied to the substrate. In one embodiment the flexible polymer substrate is silicone. In another embodiment the flexible polymer substrate comprises poly(dimethylsiloxane).

  12. Immobilized MutS-Mediated Error Removal of Microchip-Synthesized DNA.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wen; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2017-01-01

    Applications of microchip-synthesized oligonucleotides for de novo gene synthesis are limited primarily by their high error rates. The mismatch binding protein MutS, which can specifically recognize and bind to mismatches, is one of the cheapest tools for error correction of synthetic DNA. Here, we describe a protocol for removing errors in microchip-synthesized oligonucleotides and for the assembly of DNA segments using these oligonucleotides. This protocol can also be used in traditional de novo gene DNA synthesis. PMID:27671944

  13. Functional thermal lens microscopes for ultrasensitive analysis of non-fluorescent molecules and microchip chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2006-09-01

    Thermal lens microscope (TLM) is a kind of absorption spectrophotometry based on photothermal phenomena of non-fluorescent molecules. TLM has high sensitivity (single molecule concentration in fL detection volume) and wide applicability (non-fluorescent molecules). TLM was successfully applied to detection on microchip in clinical diagnosis, environmental analysis, single cell analysis and so on. The basic function of TLM is concentration determination in microspace. In addition, we have realized various functions on TLM for sensitive chiral analysis, individual nanoparticle counting and in situ flow sensing. In this presentation, we explain these functional TLMs for microchip chemistry.

  14. Microchips fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining in glass for observation of aquatic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Y.; Sugioka, K.; Kawano, H.; Ishikawa, I.; Miyawaki, A.; Midorikawa, K.

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) hollow microstructures embedded in photostructurable glass by a nonlinear multiphoton absorption process using a femtosecond (fs) laser. Fs laser direct writing followed by annealing and successive wet etching in dilute hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution resulted in the rapid manufacturing of microchips with 3-D hollow microstructures for the dynamic observation of living microorganisms in fresh water. The embedded microchannel structure enables us to analyze the continuous motion of Euglena gracilis and Dinoflagellate. Such microchips, referred to as nano-aquariums realize the efficient and highly functional observation of microorganisms.

  15. DNA sequence analysis by hybridization with oligonucleotide microchips : MALDI mass spectrometry identification of 5mers contiguously stacked to microchip oligonucleotides.

    SciTech Connect

    Stomakhin, A. A.; Vasiliskov, V. A.; Timofeev, E.; Schulga, D.; Cotter, R. J.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology; Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology; Middle Atlantic Mass Spectrometry Lab.; Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine

    2000-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) has been applied to increase the informational output from DNA sequence analysis. It has been used to analyze DNA by hybridization with microarrays of gel-immobilized oligonucleotides extended with stacked 5mers. In model experiments, a 28 nt long DNA fragment was hybridized with 10 immobilized, overlapping 8mers. Then, in a second round of hybridization DNA-8mer duplexes were hybridized with a mixture of 10 5mers. The stability of the 5mer complex with DNA was increased to raise the melting temperature of the duplex by 10-15{sup o}C as a result of stacking interaction with 8mers. Contiguous 13 bp duplexes containing an internal break were formed. MALDI MS identified one or, in some cases, two 5mers contiguously stacked to each DNA-8mer duplex formed on the microchip. Incorporating a mass label into 5mers optimized MALDI MS monitoring. This procedure enabled us to reconstitute the sequence of a model DNA fragment and identify polymorphic nucleotides. The application of MALDI MS identification of contiguously stacked 5mers to increase the length of DNA for sequence analysis is discussed.

  16. [THE POSSIBILITIES OF APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY PROTEIN MICROARRAY (MICROCHIPS) FOR ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF BLOOD SERUM].

    PubMed

    Gumanova, N G; Klimushina, M V; Metelskaya, V A; Boitsov, S A

    2015-10-01

    The microchip technology represents convenient and relatively economic tool of analyzing specific biomarkers with the purpose to diagnose diseases, to evaluate effectiveness of therapy and to investigate signaling pathways. To analyze protein composition of blood serum certain types of finished microchips which were not applied previously on the territory of Russia. The detection from 2% to 5% out of matrix of chips depending on their variety was managed without preliminary depletion of serum (removal of proteins of major fractions). Hence, partial protein composition of blood serum can be analyzed with microchips even without preliminary removal of proteins of major fractions. PMID:26841666

  17. [THE POSSIBILITIES OF APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY PROTEIN MICROARRAY (MICROCHIPS) FOR ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF BLOOD SERUM].

    PubMed

    Gumanova, N G; Klimushina, M V; Metelskaya, V A; Boitsov, S A

    2015-10-01

    The microchip technology represents convenient and relatively economic tool of analyzing specific biomarkers with the purpose to diagnose diseases, to evaluate effectiveness of therapy and to investigate signaling pathways. To analyze protein composition of blood serum certain types of finished microchips which were not applied previously on the territory of Russia. The detection from 2% to 5% out of matrix of chips depending on their variety was managed without preliminary depletion of serum (removal of proteins of major fractions). Hence, partial protein composition of blood serum can be analyzed with microchips even without preliminary removal of proteins of major fractions.

  18. Observation of repetitively nanosecond pulse-width transverse patterns in microchip self-Q-switched laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Jun; Ueda, Ken-ichi

    2006-05-15

    Repetitively nanosecond pulse-width transverse pattern formation in a plane-parallel microchip Cr,Nd: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) self-Q-switched laser was investigated. The complex point-symmetric transverse patterns were observed by varying the pump beam diameter incident on the Cr,Nd:YAG crystal. The gain guiding effect and the thermal effect induced by the pump power in microchip Cr,Nd:YAG laser control the oscillating transverse modes. These transverse pattern formations were due to the variation of the saturated inversion population and the thermal induced index profile along radial and longitudinal direction in the Cr,Nd:YAG crystal induced by the pump power incident on the Cr,Nd:YAG crystal. These were intrinsic properties of such a microchip self-Q-switched laser. The longitudinal distribution of the saturated inversion population inside the gain medium plays an important role on the transverse pattern formation. Different sets of the transverse patterns corresponds to the different saturated inversion population distribution inside microchip Cr,Nd:YAG crystal.

  19. Massive parallel analysis of DNA - Hoechst 33258 binding specificity with a generic oligonucleotide microchip.

    SciTech Connect

    Drobyshev, A. L.; Zasedatelev, A. S.; Yershov, G. M.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center

    1999-10-15

    A generic oligodeoxyribonucleotide microchip was used to determine the sequence specificity of Hoechst 33258 binding to double-stranded DNA. The generic microchip contained 4096 oxctadeoxynucleo-tides in which all possible 4(6)= 4096 hexadeoxy-nucleotide sequences are flanked on both the 3'- and 5'-ends with equimolar mixtures of four bases. The microchip was manufactured by chemical immobilization of presynthesized 8mers within polyacrylamide gel pads. A selected set of immobilized 8mers was converted to double-stranded form by hybridization with a mixture of fluorescently labeled complementary 8mers. Massive parallel measurements of melting curves were carried out for the majority of 2080 6mer duplexes, in both the absence and presence of the Hoechst dye. The sequence-specific affinity for Hoechst 33258 was calculated as the increase in melting temperature caused by ligand binding. The dye exhibited specificity for A:T but not G:C base pairs. The affinity is low for two A:T base pairs, increases significantly for three, and reaches a plateau for four A:T base pairs. The relative ligand affinity for all trinucleotide and tetranucleotide sequences (A/T)(3)and (A/T)(4)was estimated. The free energy of dye binding to several duplexes was calculated from the equilibrium melting curves of the duplexes formed on the oligonucleotide microchips. This method can be used as a general approach for massive screening of the sequence specificity of DNA-binding compounds.

  20. Enhanced Detection of Proteins in Microchip Separations by On-Chip Preconcentration

    SciTech Connect

    Foote, R.S.

    2001-05-24

    Microfluidic chips incorporating a semiporous glass filter were used to electrokinetically concentrate proteins on-chip prior to injection and electrophoretic analysis. Signal enhancements of >100-fold could be achieved for the microchip analysis of both native and SDS-denatured proteins using this technique.

  1. Microchip ELISA coupled with cell phone to detect ovarian cancer HE4 biomarker in urine.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShuQi; Akbas, Ragip; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers in the USA, and early diagnosis can potentially increase 5-year survival rate. Detection of biomarkers derived from hyperplasia of epithelial tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) proves to be a practical way of early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, ELISA is commonly performed in a laboratory setting, and it cannot be used in a clinical setting for on-site consultation. We have shown a microchip ELISA that detects HE4, an ovarian cancer biomarker, from urine using a cell phone integrated with a mobile application for imaging and data analysis. In microchip ELISA, HE4 from urine was first absorbed on the surface; the primary and secondary antibodies were subsequently anchored on the surface via immuno-reaction; and addition of substrate led to color development because of enzymatic labeling. The microchip after color development was imaged using a cell phone, and the color intensity was analyzed by an integrated mobile application. By comparing with an ELISA standard curve, the concentration of HE4 was reported on the cell phone screen. The presented microchip ELISA coupled with a cell phone is portable as opposed to traditional ELISA, and this method can facilitate the detection of ovarian cancer at the point-of-care (POC). PMID:25626535

  2. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. PMID:26724197

  3. Poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized polymeric microchips for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuefei; Li, Dan; Lee, Milton L

    2009-08-01

    Recently, we reported the synthesis, fabrication, and preliminary evaluation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-functionalized polymeric microchips that are inherently resistant to protein adsorption without surface modification in capillary electrophoresis (CE). In this study, we investigated the impact of cross-linker purity and addition of methyl methacrylate (MMA) as a comonomer on CE performance. Impure poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) induced electroosmotic flow (EOF) and increased the separation time, while the addition of MMA decreased the separation efficiency to approximately 25% of that obtained using microchips fabricated without MMA. Resultant improved microchips were evaluated for the separation of fluorescent dyes, amino acids, peptides, and proteins. A CE efficiency of 4.2 x 10(4) plates for aspartic acid in a 3.5 cm long microchannel was obtained. Chiral separation of 10 different D,L-amino acid pairs was obtained with addition of a chiral selector (i.e., beta-cyclodextrin) in the running buffer. Selectivity (alpha) and resolution (R(s)) for D,L-leucine were 1.16 and 1.64, respectively. Good reproducibility was an added advantage of these PEG-functionalized microchips. PMID:19572700

  4. Rapid amplification of genetically modified organisms using a circular ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Kwok, Yien-Chian; Foo-Peng Lee, Peter; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2009-07-01

    The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology is extensively used for the detection of GMOs in food products in order to verify compliance with labeling requirements. In this paper, we present a novel close-loop ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip for rapid amplification of GMOs. The microchip was fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate by CO2 laser ablation and was integrated with three temperature zones. PCR solution was contained in a circular closed microchannel and was driven by magnetic force generated by an external magnet through a small oil-based ferrofluid plug. Successful amplification of genetically modified soya and maize were achieved in less than 13 min. This PCR microchip combines advantages of cycling flexibility and quick temperature transitions associated with two existing microchip PCR techniques, and it provides a cost saving and less time-consuming way to conduct preliminary screening of GMOs. PMID:19399482

  5. Microchip transponder thermometry for monitoring core body temperature of antelope during capture.

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Fuller, Andrea; Hetem, Robyn S; Lease, Hilary M; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthermia is described as the major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with capture, immobilization and restraint of wild animals. Therefore, accurately determining the core body temperature of wild animals during capture is crucial for monitoring hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures. We investigated if microchip thermometry can accurately reflect core body temperature changes during capture and cooling interventions in the springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), a medium-sized antelope. Subcutaneous temperature measured with a temperature-sensitive microchip was a weak predictor of core body temperature measured by temperature-sensitive data loggers in the abdominal cavity (R(2)=0.32, bias >2 °C). Temperature-sensitive microchips in the gluteus muscle, however, provided an accurate estimate of core body temperature (R(2)=0.76, bias=0.012 °C). Microchips inserted into muscle therefore provide a convenient and accurate method to measure body temperature continuously in captured antelope, allowing detection of hyperthermia and the efficacy of cooling procedures.

  6. On-chip pumping for pressure mobilization of the focused zones following microchip isoelectric focusing.

    PubMed

    Guillo, Christelle; Karlinsey, James M; Landers, James P

    2007-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing (IEF), traditionally accomplished in slab or tube gels, has also been performed extensively in capillary and, more recently, in microchip formats. IEF separations performed in microchips typically use electroosmotic flow (EOF) or chemical treatment to mobilize the focused zones past the detection point. This report describes the development and optimization of a microchip IEF method in a hybrid PDMS-glass device capable of controlling the mobilization of the focused zones past the detector using on-chip diaphragm pumping. The microchip design consisted of a glass fluid layer (separation channels), a PDMS layer and a glass valve layer (pressure connections and valve seats). Pressure mobilization was achieved on-chip using a diaphragm pump consisting of a series of reversible elastomeric valves, where a central diaphragm valve determined the volume of solution displaced while the gate valves on either side imparted directionality. The pumping rate could be adjusted to control the mobilization flow rate by varying the actuation times and pressure applied to the PDMS to actuate the valves. In order to compare the separation obtained using the chip with that obtained in a capillary, a serpentine channel design was used to match the separation length of the capillary, thereby evaluating the effect of diaphragm pumping itself on the overall separation quality. The optimized mIEF method was applied to the separation of labeled amino acids. PMID:17180213

  7. Microchip ELISA coupled with cell phone to detect ovarian cancer HE4 biomarker in urine.

    PubMed

    Wang, ShuQi; Akbas, Ragip; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers in the USA, and early diagnosis can potentially increase 5-year survival rate. Detection of biomarkers derived from hyperplasia of epithelial tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) proves to be a practical way of early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, ELISA is commonly performed in a laboratory setting, and it cannot be used in a clinical setting for on-site consultation. We have shown a microchip ELISA that detects HE4, an ovarian cancer biomarker, from urine using a cell phone integrated with a mobile application for imaging and data analysis. In microchip ELISA, HE4 from urine was first absorbed on the surface; the primary and secondary antibodies were subsequently anchored on the surface via immuno-reaction; and addition of substrate led to color development because of enzymatic labeling. The microchip after color development was imaged using a cell phone, and the color intensity was analyzed by an integrated mobile application. By comparing with an ELISA standard curve, the concentration of HE4 was reported on the cell phone screen. The presented microchip ELISA coupled with a cell phone is portable as opposed to traditional ELISA, and this method can facilitate the detection of ovarian cancer at the point-of-care (POC).

  8. Development of a microchip Europium nanoparticle immunoassay for sensitive point-of-care HIV detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jikun; Du, Bingchen; Zhang, Panhe; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Zhao, Jiangqin; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Lee, Sherwin; DeVoe, Don L; Hewlett, Indira K

    2014-11-15

    Rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic assays play an indispensable role in determination of HIV infection stages and evaluation of efficacy of antiretroviral therapy. Recently, our laboratory developed a sensitive Europium nanoparticle-based microtiter-plate immunoassay capable of detecting target analytes at subpicogram per milliliter levels without the use of catalytic enzymes and signal amplification processes. Encouraged by its sensitivity and simplicity, we continued to miniaturize this assay to a microchip platform for the purpose of converting the benchtop assay technique to a point-of-care test. It was found that detection capability of the microchip platform could be readily improved using Europium nanoparticle probes. We were able to routinely detect 5 pg/mL (4.6 attomoles) of HIV-1 p24 antigen at a signal-to-blank ratio of 1.5, a sensitivity level reasonably close to that of microtiter-plate Europium nanoparticle assay. Meanwhile, use of the microchip platform effectively reduced sample/reagent consumption 4.5 fold and shortened total assay time 2 fold in comparison with microtiter plate assays. Complex matrix substance in plasma negatively affected the microchip assays and the effects could be minimized by diluting the samples before loading. With further improvements in sensitivity, reproducibility, usability, assay process simplification, and incorporation of portable time-resolved fluorescence reader, Europium nanoparticle immunoassay technology could be adapted to meet the challenges of point-of-care diagnosis of HIV or other health-threatening pathogens at bedside or in resource-limited settings.

  9. Determination of metabolic organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid by microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Danč, Ladislav; Bodor, Róbert; Troška, Peter; Horčičiak, Michal; Masár, Marián

    2014-08-01

    A new MCE method for the determination of oxalic, citric, glycolic, lactic, and 2- and 3-hydroxybutyric acids, indicators of some metabolic and neurological diseases, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was developed. MCE separations were performed on a PMMA microchip with coupled channels at lower pH (5.5) to prevent proteins interference. A double charged counter-ion, BIS-TRIS propane, was very effective in resolving the studied organic acids. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 μM were obtained with the aid of contact conductivity detector implemented directly on the microchip. RSDs for migration time and peak area of organic acids in artificial and CSF samples were <0.8 and <9.7%, respectively. Recoveries of organic acids in untreated CSF samples on the microchip varied from 91 to 104%. Elimination of chloride interference, a major anionic constituent of CSF, has been reached by two approaches: (i) the use of coupled channels microchip in a column switching mode when approximately 97-99% of chloride was removed electrophoretically in the first separation channel and (ii) the implementation of micro-SPE with silver-form resin prior to the MCE analysis, which selectively removed chloride from undeproteinized CSF samples.

  10. Highly sensitive contactless conductivity microchips based on concentric electrodes for flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Lima, Renato S; Piazzetta, Maria H O; Gobbi, Angelo L; Segato, Thiago P; Cabral, Murilo F; Machado, Sergio A S; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2013-12-18

    In this communication, we describe for the first time the integration of concentric electrodes (wrapping around the microchannel) in microchips. The use of such electrodes has been shown to be effective towards improvement of the sensitivity and detectability in pressure-driven flow platforms incorporating C(4)D.

  11. Poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized polymeric microchips for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuefei; Li, Dan; Lee, Milton L

    2009-08-01

    Recently, we reported the synthesis, fabrication, and preliminary evaluation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-functionalized polymeric microchips that are inherently resistant to protein adsorption without surface modification in capillary electrophoresis (CE). In this study, we investigated the impact of cross-linker purity and addition of methyl methacrylate (MMA) as a comonomer on CE performance. Impure poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) induced electroosmotic flow (EOF) and increased the separation time, while the addition of MMA decreased the separation efficiency to approximately 25% of that obtained using microchips fabricated without MMA. Resultant improved microchips were evaluated for the separation of fluorescent dyes, amino acids, peptides, and proteins. A CE efficiency of 4.2 x 10(4) plates for aspartic acid in a 3.5 cm long microchannel was obtained. Chiral separation of 10 different D,L-amino acid pairs was obtained with addition of a chiral selector (i.e., beta-cyclodextrin) in the running buffer. Selectivity (alpha) and resolution (R(s)) for D,L-leucine were 1.16 and 1.64, respectively. Good reproducibility was an added advantage of these PEG-functionalized microchips.

  12. A low timing jitter picosecond microchip laser pumped by pulsed LD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sha; Wang, Yan-biao; Feng, Guoying; Zhou, Shou-huan

    2016-07-01

    SESAM passively Q-switched microchip laser is a very promising instrument to replace mode locked lasers to obtain picosecond pulses. The biggest drawback of a passively Q-switched microchip laser is its un-avoided large timing jitter, especially when the pump intensity is low, i.e. at low laser repetition rate range. In order to obtain a low timing jitter passively Q-switched picosecond microchip laser in the whole laser repetition rate range, a 1000 kHz pulsed narrow bandwidth Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) stablized laser diode was used as the pump source. By tuning the pump intensity, we could control the output laser frequency. In this way, we achieved a very low timing jitter passively Q-switched picosecond laser at 2.13 mW, 111.1 kHz. The relative timing jitter was only 0.0315%, which was around 100 times smaller compared with a cw LD pumped microchip working at hundred kilohertz repetition rate frequency range.

  13. Toward point-of-care testing for JAK2 V617F mutation on a microchip.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Weiwei; Zhang, Xinju; Xu, Xiao; Kang, Zhihua; Li, Shibao; Wu, Zhiyuan; Yang, Zhiliu; Yao, Bo; Guan, Ming

    2015-09-01

    Molecular genetics now plays a crucial role in diagnosis, the identification of prognostic markers, and monitoring of hematological malignancies. Demonstration of acquired changes such as the JAK2 V617F mutation within myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) has quickly moved from a research setting to the diagnostic laboratory. Microfluidics-based assays can reduce the assay time and sample/reagent consumption and enhance the reaction efficiency; however, no current assay has integrated isothermal amplification for point-of-care MPN JAK2 V617F mutation testing with a microchip. In this report, an integrated microchip that performs the whole human blood genomic DNA extraction, loop-mediated isothermal nucleic acid amplification (LAMP) and visual detection for point-of-care genetic mutation testing is demonstrated. This method was validated on DNA from cell lines as well as on whole blood from patients with MPN. The results were compared with those obtained by unlabeled probe melting curve analysis. This chip enjoys a high accuracy, operability, and cost/time efficiency within 1h. All these benefits provide the chip with a potency toward a point-of-care genetic analysis. All samples identified as positive by unlabeled probe melting curve analysis (n=27) proved positive when tested by microchip assay. None of the 30 negative controls gave false positive results. In addition, a patient with polycythemia vera diagnosed as being JAK2 V617F-negative by unlabeled probe melting curve analysis was found to be positive by the microchip. This microchip would possibly be very attractive in developing a point-of-care platform for quick preliminary diagnosis of MPN or other severe illness in resource-limited settings. PMID:26235214

  14. Toward point-of-care testing for JAK2 V617F mutation on a microchip.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Weiwei; Zhang, Xinju; Xu, Xiao; Kang, Zhihua; Li, Shibao; Wu, Zhiyuan; Yang, Zhiliu; Yao, Bo; Guan, Ming

    2015-09-01

    Molecular genetics now plays a crucial role in diagnosis, the identification of prognostic markers, and monitoring of hematological malignancies. Demonstration of acquired changes such as the JAK2 V617F mutation within myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) has quickly moved from a research setting to the diagnostic laboratory. Microfluidics-based assays can reduce the assay time and sample/reagent consumption and enhance the reaction efficiency; however, no current assay has integrated isothermal amplification for point-of-care MPN JAK2 V617F mutation testing with a microchip. In this report, an integrated microchip that performs the whole human blood genomic DNA extraction, loop-mediated isothermal nucleic acid amplification (LAMP) and visual detection for point-of-care genetic mutation testing is demonstrated. This method was validated on DNA from cell lines as well as on whole blood from patients with MPN. The results were compared with those obtained by unlabeled probe melting curve analysis. This chip enjoys a high accuracy, operability, and cost/time efficiency within 1h. All these benefits provide the chip with a potency toward a point-of-care genetic analysis. All samples identified as positive by unlabeled probe melting curve analysis (n=27) proved positive when tested by microchip assay. None of the 30 negative controls gave false positive results. In addition, a patient with polycythemia vera diagnosed as being JAK2 V617F-negative by unlabeled probe melting curve analysis was found to be positive by the microchip. This microchip would possibly be very attractive in developing a point-of-care platform for quick preliminary diagnosis of MPN or other severe illness in resource-limited settings.

  15. Compaction of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) due to proton beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szilasi, Szabolcs Zoltan; Kokavecz, Janos; Huszank, Robert; Rajta, Istvan

    2011-03-01

    This work is about the detailed investigation of the changes of the surface topography, the degree of compaction/shrinkage and its relation to the irradiation fluence and the structure spacing in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterned with 2 MeV proton microbeam. The irradiated periodic structures consisted of parallel lines with different widths and spacing. To achieve different degrees of compaction, each structure was irradiated with more different fluences. At the irradiated areas the surface topography, the adhesion, the wettability and the rigidity of the surface also changes due to the chemical/structural change of the basic poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer. The surface topography, the phase modification of the surface, and the connection between them was revealed with using an atomic force microscope (AFM).

  16. Effect of repeated contact on adhesion measurements involving polydimethylsiloxane structural material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, E.; Maboudian, R.; Arzt, E.

    2009-09-01

    During the last few years several research groups have focused on the fabrication of artificial gecko inspired adhesives. For mimicking these structures, different polymers are used as structure material, such as polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS), polyurethanes (PU), and polypropylene (PP). While these polymers can be structured easily and used for artificial adhesion systems, the effects of repeated adhesion testing have never been investigated closely. In this paper we report on the effect of repeated adhesion measurements on the commercially available poly(dimethylsiloxane) polymer kit Sylgard 184 (Dow Corning). We show that the adhesion force decreases as a function of contact cycles. The rate of change and the final value of adhesion are found to depend on the details of the PDMS synthesis and structuring.

  17. The in-situ generation of silica reinforcement in modified polydimethylsiloxane elastomers

    SciTech Connect

    Prabakar, S; Bates, S.E.; Black, E.P.; Ulibarri, T.A.

    1996-06-01

    Structure and properties of a series of modified polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers reinforced by {ital in situ} generated silic particles were investigated. The PDMS elastomer was modified by systematically varying the molecular weight between reactive groups incorporated into the backbone. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and partial hydrolyzate of TEOS were used to generate silic particles. Chemistry and phase structure of the materials were investigated by {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and swelling experiments.

  18. Plasma-induced surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane aimed at reducing salt and protein deposition.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Nele; Rymarczyk-Machal, Monika; Schacht, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an elastomer that is widely used in construction and for biological and biomedical applications. The biocompatibility of PDMS was improved by different surface treatment methods, i.e., plasma treatment or a combination of plasma treatment with UV-irradiation or redox initiator, to minimize the effects of deposition of salts and proteins. In this work we used the vinyl monomers sulfobetaine and AMPS which have good biocompatible properties. PMID:21176391

  19. Aluminide coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, Jr; Charles, H; Shin, Yongsoon; Samuels, William D

    2009-08-18

    Disclosed herein are aluminide coatings. In one embodiment coatings are used as a barrier coating to protect a metal substrate, such as a steel or a superalloy, from various chemical environments, including oxidizing, reducing and/or sulfidizing conditions. In addition, the disclosed coatings can be used, for example, to prevent the substantial diffusion of various elements, such as chromium, at elevated service temperatures. Related methods for preparing protective coatings on metal substrates are also described.

  20. COATED ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Harman, C.G.; O'Bannon, L.S.

    1958-07-15

    A coating is described for iron group metals and alloys, that is particularly suitable for use with nickel containing alloys. The coating is glassy in nature and consists of a mixture containing an alkali metal oxide, strontium oxide, and silicon oxide. When the glass coated nickel base metal is"fired'' at less than the melting point of the coating, it appears the nlckel diffuses into the vitreous coating, thus providing a closely adherent and protective cladding.

  1. A Novel Protocol to Analyze Short- and Long-Chain Fatty Acids Using Nonaqueous Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, M. L.; Stockton, A. M.; Mora, Maria F; Willis, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new protocol to identify and quantify both short- and long-chain saturated fatty acids in samples of astrobiological interest using non-aqueous microchip capillary electrophoresis (micronNACE) with laser induced fluorescence (LIF).

  2. One-step surface modification for irreversible bonding of various plastics with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) elastomer at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2014-05-01

    Here, we introduce a simple and facile method for bonding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) to various plastics irreversibly via a one-step chemical treatment at room temperature. This was mediated by poly[dimethylsiloxane-co-(3-aminopropyl)methylsiloxane] (amine-PDMS linker), a chemical composed of a PDMS backbone incorporating an amine side group. Room temperature anchoring of the linker was achieved via a reaction between the amine functionality of the linker and the carbon backbone of the plastics, thereby producing urethane bonds. This resulted in the PDMS functionality being exposed on the plastic surface, mimicking the surface properties of bulk PDMS. Following corona treatment of the PDMS-modified plastic and a sheet of PDMS, the two surfaces were placed in contact with each other and heated at 80 °C for 1 h. This resulted in permanent bonding between PDMS and the plastic. To examine the effectiveness of the amine-PDMS linker coating procedure, the surfaces were characterized by measuring water contact angles and by employing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Polycarbonate (PC), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(vinylchloride) (PVC), and polyimide (PI) were bonded successfully to PDMS using this method, with bond strengths of PC, PET, and PVC with PDMS measured to be approximately 428.5 ± 17.9, 361.7 ± 31.2, and 430.0 ± 14.9 kPa, respectively. The bond strength of a PC-PC homogeneous assembly, also realized using the proposed method, was measured to be approximately 343.9 ± 7.4 kPa. Delamination tests revealed that the PC-PC assembly was able to withstand intense introduction of a liquid whose per-minute injection volume was approximately 278 times greater than the total internal volume of the microchannel fabricated in PC. This demonstrated the robustness of the seal formed using the proposed technique.

  3. Quantitative analysis of spherical microbubble cavity array formation in thermally cured polydimethylsiloxane for use in cell sorting applications.

    PubMed

    Giang, Ut-Binh T; Jones, Meghan C; Kaule, Matthew J; Virgile, Chelsea R; Pu, Qihui; Delouise, Lisa A

    2014-02-01

    Microbubbles are spherical cavities formed in thermally cured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using the gas expansion molding technique. Microbubble cavity arrays are generated by casting PDMS over a silicon wafer mold containing arrays of deep etched pits. To be useful in various high throughput cell culture and sorting applications it is imperative that uniform micron-sized cavities can be formed over large areas (in(2)). This paper provides an in-depth quantitative analysis of the fabrication parameters that effect the microbubble cavity formation efficiency and size. These include (1) the hydrophobic coating of the mold, (2) the mold pit dimensions, (3) the spatial arrangement of the pit openings, (4) the curing temperature of PDMS pre-polymer, (5) PDMS thickness, and (6) the presence and composition of residual gas in the PDMS pre-polymer mixture. Results suggest that the principles of heterogeneous nucleation and gas diffusion govern microbubble cavity formation, and that surface tension prevents detachment of the vapor bubble that forms in the PDMS over the pit. Paramerters are defined that enable the fabrication of large format arrays with uniform cavity size over 6 in(2) with a coefficient-of-variation <10 %. The architecture of the microbubble cavity is uniquely advantageous for cell culture. Large format arrays provide a highly versatile system that can be adapted for use in various high-throughput cell sorting applications. Herein, we demonstrate the use of microbubble cavity arrays to dissect the cellular heterogeneity that exists in a tumorigenic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell line at the single cell level.

  4. Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation on Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Layer

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, C. S.; Groza, A.; Iconaru, S. L.; Popa, C. L.; Chapon, P.; Chifiriuc, M. C.; Hristu, R.; Stanciu, G. A.; Negrila, C. C.; Ghita, R. V.; Ganciu, M.; Predoi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was the preparation, physicochemical characterization, and microbiological evaluation of novel hydroxyapatite doped with silver/polydimethylsiloxane (Ag:HAp-PDMS) composite layers. In the first stage, the deposition of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer layer on commercially pure Si disks has been produced in atmospheric pressure corona discharges. Finally, the new silver doped hydroxyapatite/polydimethylsiloxane composite layer has been obtained by the thermal evaporation technique. The Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layers were characterized by various techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The antimicrobial activity of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer was assessed against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (ATCC—American Type Culture Collection) by culture based and confirmed by SEM and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) methods. This is the first study reporting the antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer, which proved to be active against Candida albicans biofilm embedded cells. PMID:26504849

  5. Antimicrobial Activity Evaluation on Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite Layer.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, C S; Groza, A; Iconaru, S L; Popa, C L; Chapon, P; Chifiriuc, M C; Hristu, R; Stanciu, G A; Negrila, C C; Ghita, R V; Ganciu, M; Predoi, D

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was the preparation, physicochemical characterization, and microbiological evaluation of novel hydroxyapatite doped with silver/polydimethylsiloxane (Ag:HAp-PDMS) composite layers. In the first stage, the deposition of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer layer on commercially pure Si disks has been produced in atmospheric pressure corona discharges. Finally, the new silver doped hydroxyapatite/polydimethylsiloxane composite layer has been obtained by the thermal evaporation technique. The Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layers were characterized by various techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The antimicrobial activity of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer was assessed against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 (ATCC-American Type Culture Collection) by culture based and confirmed by SEM and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) methods. This is the first study reporting the antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer, which proved to be active against Candida albicans biofilm embedded cells. PMID:26504849

  6. Immobilization of Piromyces rhizinflata β-glucanase on poly(dimethylsiloxane) and Si wafer and prediction of optimum reaction for enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih-Wen; Yeh, Dan-Ju; Chuang, Fang-Tzu; Lee, Si-Chen; Liu, Je-Ruei

    2015-01-01

    EglA, a β-1,4-glucanase isolated from the ruminal fungus Piromyces rhizinflata, shows promise in a wide range of industrial applications because of its broad substrate specificity. In this study, EglA was immobilized on different supporting materials including poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), Si wafer, textured Si wafer, and indium tin oxide-coated (ITO-coated) glass. The binding abilities of PDMS and Si wafer toward EglA were significantly higher than those of the other supporting materials. The optimized temperature and pH conditions for EglA immobilized on PDMS and on Si wafer were further determined by a response surface methodology (RSM) combined with a central composite design (CCD). The results indicated that the optimum pH and temperature values as well as the specific β-glucanase activity of EglA on PDMS were higher than those of free-form EglA. In addition, EglA immobilized on PDMS could be reused up to six times with detectable enzyme activity, while the enzyme activity of Eg1A on Si wafer was undetectable after three cycles of enzyme reaction. The results demonstrate that PDMS is an attractive supporting material for EglA immobilization and could be developed into an enzyme chip or enzyme tube for potential industrial applications.

  7. Comparison of body temperature readings between an implantable microchip and a cloacal probe in lorikeets (Trichoglossus haematodus sp.).

    PubMed

    Hoskinson, Christine; McCain, Stephanie; Allender, Matthew C

    2014-01-01

    Body temperature readings can be a useful diagnostic tool for identifying the presence of subclinical disease. Traditionally, rectal or cloacal thermometry has been used to obtain body temperatures. The use of implantable microchips to obtain these temperatures has been studied in a variety of animals, but not yet in avian species. Initially, timepoint one (T₁), nine lorikeets were anesthetized via facemask induction with 5% isoflurane and maintained at 2-3% for microchip placement and body temperature data collection. Body temperature was measured at 0 and 2 min post-anesthetic induction both cloacally, using a Cardell veterinary monitor and also via implantable microchip, utilizing a universal scanner. On two more occasions, timepoints two and three (T₂, T₃), the same nine lorikeets were manually restrained to obtain body temperature readings both cloacally and via microchip, again at minutes 0 and 2. There was no statistical difference between body temperatures, for both methods, at T₁. Microchip temperatures were statistically different than cloacal temperatures at T₂ and T₃. Body temperatures at T₁, were statistically different from those obtained at T₂ and T₃ for both methods. Additional studies are warranted to verify the accuracy of microchip core body temperature readings in avian species.

  8. Ultra-fast simultaneous detection of obesity-related coenzymes in mice using microchip electrophoresis with a LIF detector.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Gu; Kumar, K S; Soh, Ju-Ryoun; Cha, Youn-Soo; Kang, Seong Ho

    2008-06-30

    Hepatic acyl-coenzyme A synthetase (ACS), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) and acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) are coenzymes associated with the genetic type of obesity in animal models. This paper reports the use of microchip electrophoresis (ME) with a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detector based on a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the amplified DNA fragments of these coenzymes (ACS, CPT-I and ACC) in the mRNA extracted from mice. DNA fragments ranging from 50 to 2652 bp were well resolved using this procedure with a running buffer (1x TBE), 0.5% polyvinylpyrrolidone (M(r) 1,000,000) as the coating gel and 0.7% polyethyleneoxide (M(r) 8,000,000) as the sieving gel at pH 8.30. The separation of the three RT-PCR products was achieved by ME in a single-run within 17 s using programmed field strength gradients (PFSG) (470 V cm(-1) for 9 s, 205.8 V cm(-1) for 2 s, 411.6 V cm(-1) for 4 s, 117.6 V cm(-1) for 2 s and 470.4V cm(-1) for 8 s). The ME-PFSG method was found to be 4 times faster than the method using a constant field and 138 times faster than slab gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the amplified RT-PCR products of the obesity-related coenzymes in C57BL/6J mice were analyzed using only sub-micro liter samples.

  9. Sub-nanosecond Yb:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser.

    PubMed

    Loiko, P; Serres, J M; Mateos, X; Yumashev, K; Yasukevich, A; Petrov, V; Griebner, U; Aguiló, M; Díaz, F

    2016-06-01

    A diode-pumped Yb:KLu(WO4)2 microchip laser passively Q-switched by a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber generated a maximum average output power of 590 mW at 1031 nm with a slope efficiency of 55%. The pulse characteristics were 690 ps/47.6 μJ at a pulse repetition frequency of 12.4 kHz. The output beam had an excellent circular profile with M2<1.05. Yb:KLu(WO4)2 is very promising for ultrathin sub-ns microchip lasers. PMID:27244429

  10. Immobilization of DNA in polyacrylamide gel for the manufacture of DNA and DNA-oligonucleotide microchips.

    SciTech Connect

    Proudnikov, D.; Timofeev, E.; Mirzabekov, A.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    1998-05-15

    Activated DNA was immobilized in aldehyde-containing polyacrylamide gel for use in manufacturing the MAGIChip (microarrays of gel-immobilized compounds on a chip). First, abasic sites were generated in DNA by partial acidic depurination. Amino groups were then introduced into the abasic sites by reaction with ethylenediamine and reduction of the aldimine bonds formed. It was found that DNA could be fragmented at the site of amino group incorporation or preserved mostly unfragmented. In similar reactions, both amino-DNA and amino-oligonucleotides were attached through their amines to polyacrylamide gel derivatized with aldehyde groups. Single- and double-stranded DNA of 40 to 972 nucleotides or base pairs were immobilized on the gel pads to manufacture a DNA microchip. The microchip was hybridized with fluorescently labeled DNA-specific oligonucleotide probes. This procedure for immobilization of amino compounds was used to manufacture MAGIChips containing both DNA and oligonucleotides.

  11. Applications of microfluidics and microchip electrophoresis for potential clinical biomarker analysis.

    PubMed

    Pagaduan, Jayson V; Sahore, Vishal; Woolley, Adam T

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews advances over the last five years in microfluidics and microchip-electrophoresis techniques for detection of clinical biomarkers. The variety of advantages of miniaturization compared with conventional benchtop methods for detecting biomarkers has resulted in increased interest in developing cheap, fast, and sensitive techniques. We discuss the development of applications of microfluidics and microchip electrophoresis for analysis of different clinical samples for pathogen identification, personalized medicine, and biomarker detection. We emphasize the advantages of microfluidic techniques over conventional methods, which make them attractive future diagnostic tools. We also discuss the versatility and adaptability of this technology for analysis of a variety of biomarkers, including lipids, small molecules, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and cells. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of aspects that need to be improved to move this technology towards routine clinical and point-of-care applications. PMID:25855148

  12. APPLICATIONS OF MICROFLUIDICS AND MICROCHIP ELECTROPHORESIS FOR POTENTIAL CLINICAL BIOMARKER ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Pagaduan, Jayson V.; Sahore, Vishal; Woolley, Adam T.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews advances over the last 5 years in microfluidics and microchip electrophoresis techniques for detection of clinical biomarkers. The various advantages of miniaturization compared with conventional benchtop methods for detecting biomarkers have resulted in increased interest in developing cheap, fast, and sensitive platforms. We discuss the development of applications of microfluidics and microchip electrophoresis for analysis of various clinical samples for pathogen identification, personalized medicine, and biomarker detection. We highlight the advantages of microfluidics platforms over conventional methods that make them an attractive future diagnostic tool. We also discuss the versatility and adaptability of this technology for analysis of various biomarkers, including lipids, small molecules, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins and cells. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of areas that need to be improved upon to move this technology towards routine clinical and point-of-care applications. PMID:25855148

  13. Using microchip gel electrophoresis to probe DNA-drug binding interactions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Nan; Ugaz, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    Binding of small molecules with DNA plays an important role in many biological functions such as DNA replication, repair, and transcription. These interactions also offer enormous potential as targets for diagnostics and therapeutics, leading to intense interest in development of methods to probe the underlying binding events. In this chapter, we present a new approach to investigate the structural changes that accompany binding of DNA and small molecules. Instead of relying on conventional yet delicate single-molecule imaging methods, we show how a single microchip gel electrophoresis experiment incorporating both constant electric field and on-off actuation over a specific frequency range enables fundamental structural parameters (e.g., contour and persistence lengths) to be simultaneously determined. The microchip format offers an attractive combination of simplicity and scale-up potential that makes it amenable for high-throughput screening. PMID:24162976

  14. Applications of microfluidics and microchip electrophoresis for potential clinical biomarker analysis.

    PubMed

    Pagaduan, Jayson V; Sahore, Vishal; Woolley, Adam T

    2015-09-01

    This article reviews advances over the last five years in microfluidics and microchip-electrophoresis techniques for detection of clinical biomarkers. The variety of advantages of miniaturization compared with conventional benchtop methods for detecting biomarkers has resulted in increased interest in developing cheap, fast, and sensitive techniques. We discuss the development of applications of microfluidics and microchip electrophoresis for analysis of different clinical samples for pathogen identification, personalized medicine, and biomarker detection. We emphasize the advantages of microfluidic techniques over conventional methods, which make them attractive future diagnostic tools. We also discuss the versatility and adaptability of this technology for analysis of a variety of biomarkers, including lipids, small molecules, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, proteins, and cells. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of aspects that need to be improved to move this technology towards routine clinical and point-of-care applications.

  15. Inner structure detection by optical tomography technology based on feedback of microchip Nd:YAG lasers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxin; Zhang, Shulian; Tan, Yidong; Zhao, Shijie

    2013-05-20

    We describe a new optical tomography technology based on feedback of microchip Nd:YAG lasers. In the case of feedback light frequency-shifted, light can be magnified by a fact of 10(6) in the Nd:YAG microchip lasers, which makes it possible to realize optical tomography with a greater depth than current optical tomography. The results of the measuring and imaging of kinds of samples are presented, which demonstrate the feasibility and potential of this approach in the inner structure detection. The system has a lateral resolution of ~1 μm, a vertical resolution of 15 μm and a longitudinal scanning range of over 10mm.

  16. Gold nanodome-patterned microchips for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wuytens, Pieter C; Subramanian, Ananth Z; De Vos, Winnok H; Skirtach, Andre G; Baets, Roel

    2015-12-21

    While top-down substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) offer outstanding control and reproducibility of the gold nanopatterns and their related localized surface plasmon resonance, intracellular SERS experiments heavily rely on gold nanoparticles. These nanoparticles often result in varying and uncontrollable enhancement factors. Here we demonstrate the use of top-down gold-nanostructured microchips for intracellular sensing. We develop a tunable and reproducible fabrication scheme for these microchips. Furthermore we observe the intracellular uptake of these structures, and find no immediate influence on cell viability. Finally, we perform a proof-of-concept intracellular SERS experiment by the label-free detection of extraneous molecules. By bringing top-down SERS substrates to the intracellular world, we set an important step towards time-dependent and quantitative intracellular SERS.

  17. A real time affinity biosensor on an insulated polymer using electric impedance spectroscopy in dielectric microchips.

    PubMed

    Kechadi, Mohammed; Sotta, Bruno; Chaal, Lila; Tribollet, Bernard; Gamby, Jean

    2014-06-21

    This paper presents development of real time monitoring of binding events on flexible plastic in microchips. Two planar carbon microelectrodes are integrated into an insulated polyethylene terephthalate microchip without direct electrical contact with the solution in the microchannel. It has been possible to probe the electric impedance changes through the interface constituted by the microelectrode/PET microchannel/solution when a biomolecular interaction takes place on the polymer surface. This new transduction for biosensing was demonstrated for the molecular recognition of BSA immobilized on the polymer microchannel surface using the corresponding rabbit anti-BSA antibodies as an analyte in the flow microchannel at the nanomolar range concentration. The equilibrium association constant was determined for the affinity reaction between both ligands and was obtained equal to 5 × 10(7) M(-1). The promising results obtained with this new device make it a competitive biosensor.

  18. Scalable gene synthesis by selective amplification of DNA pools from high-fidelity microchips.

    PubMed

    Kosuri, Sriram; Eroshenko, Nikolai; Leproust, Emily M; Super, Michael; Way, Jeffrey; Li, Jin Billy; Church, George M

    2010-12-01

    Development of cheap, high-throughput and reliable gene synthesis methods will broadly stimulate progress in biology and biotechnology. Currently, the reliance on column-synthesized oligonucleotides as a source of DNA limits further cost reductions in gene synthesis. Oligonucleotides from DNA microchips can reduce costs by at least an order of magnitude, yet efforts to scale their use have been largely unsuccessful owing to the high error rates and complexity of the oligonucleotide mixtures. Here we use high-fidelity DNA microchips, selective oligonucleotide pool amplification, optimized gene assembly protocols and enzymatic error correction to develop a method for highly parallel gene synthesis. We tested our approach by assembling 47 genes, including 42 challenging therapeutic antibody sequences, encoding a total of ∼35 kilobase pairs of DNA. These assemblies were performed from a complex background containing 13,000 oligonucleotides encoding ∼2.5 megabases of DNA, which is at least 50 times larger than in previously published attempts.

  19. The 1.7 kilogram microchip: energy and material use in the production of semiconductor devices.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eric D; Ayres, Robert U; Heller, Miriam

    2002-12-15

    The scale of environmental impacts associated with the manufacture of microchips is characterized through analysis of material and energy inputs into processes in the production chain. The total weight of secondary fossil fuel and chemical inputs to produce and use a single 2-gram 32MB DRAM chip are estimated at 1600 g and 72 g, respectively. Use of water and elemental gases (mainly N2) in the fabrication stage are 32,000 and 700 g per chip, respectively. The production chain yielding silicon wafers from quartz uses 160 times the energy required for typical silicon, indicating that purification to semiconductor grade materials is energy intensive. Due to its extremely low-entropy, organized structure, the materials intensity of a microchip is orders of magnitude higher than that of "traditional" goods. Future analysis of semiconductor and other low entropy high-tech goods needs to include the use of secondary materials, especially for purification.

  20. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings XVI: fouling-release properties of amphiphilic polysiloxane coatings.

    PubMed

    Stafslien, Shane J; Christianson, David; Daniels, Justin; VanderWal, Lyndsi; Chernykh, Andrey; Chisholm, Bret J

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput methods were used to prepare and characterize the fouling-release (FR) properties of an array of amphiphilic polysiloxane-based coatings possessing systematic variations in composition. The coatings were derived from a silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane, a silanol-terminated polytrifluorpropylmethylsiloxane (CF3-PDMS), 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl]-trimethoxysilane (TMS-PEG), methyltriacetoxysilane and hexamethyldisilazane-treated fumed silica. The variables investigated were the concentration of TMS-PEG and the concentration of CF3-PDMS. In general, it was found that the TMS-PEG and the CF3-PDMS had a synergist effect on FR properties with these properties being enhanced by combining both compounds into the coating formulations. In addition, reattached adult barnacles removed from coatings possessing both TMS-PEG and relatively high levels of CF3-PDMS displayed atypical base-plate morphologies. The majority of the barnacles removed from these coatings exhibited a cupped or domed base-plate as compared to the flat base-plate observed for the control coating that did not contain TMS-PEG or CF3-PDMS. Coating surface analysis using water contact angle measurements indicated that the presence of CF3-PDMS facilitated migration of TMS-PEG to the coating/air interface during the film formation/curing process. In general, coatings containing both TMS-PEG and relatively high levels of CF3-PDMS possessed excellent FR properties.

  1. Combinatorial materials research applied to the development of new surface coatings XVI: fouling-release properties of amphiphilic polysiloxane coatings.

    PubMed

    Stafslien, Shane J; Christianson, David; Daniels, Justin; VanderWal, Lyndsi; Chernykh, Andrey; Chisholm, Bret J

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput methods were used to prepare and characterize the fouling-release (FR) properties of an array of amphiphilic polysiloxane-based coatings possessing systematic variations in composition. The coatings were derived from a silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane, a silanol-terminated polytrifluorpropylmethylsiloxane (CF3-PDMS), 2-[methoxy(polyethyleneoxy)propyl]-trimethoxysilane (TMS-PEG), methyltriacetoxysilane and hexamethyldisilazane-treated fumed silica. The variables investigated were the concentration of TMS-PEG and the concentration of CF3-PDMS. In general, it was found that the TMS-PEG and the CF3-PDMS had a synergist effect on FR properties with these properties being enhanced by combining both compounds into the coating formulations. In addition, reattached adult barnacles removed from coatings possessing both TMS-PEG and relatively high levels of CF3-PDMS displayed atypical base-plate morphologies. The majority of the barnacles removed from these coatings exhibited a cupped or domed base-plate as compared to the flat base-plate observed for the control coating that did not contain TMS-PEG or CF3-PDMS. Coating surface analysis using water contact angle measurements indicated that the presence of CF3-PDMS facilitated migration of TMS-PEG to the coating/air interface during the film formation/curing process. In general, coatings containing both TMS-PEG and relatively high levels of CF3-PDMS possessed excellent FR properties. PMID:25647177

  2. Rapid determination of catecholamines in urine samples by nonaqueous microchip electrophoresis with LIF detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongmei; Guo, Yuanming; Li, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Nonaqueous microchip electrophoresis (NAMCE), which makes use of an organic medium instead of a conventional aqueous buffer solution, is a promising separation method for analytical chemistry due to the enhanced solubility of hydrophobic analytes and tailored selectivity of separation. Here, we describe an NAMCE with LIF detection combined with a pump-free negative pressure sampling device for rapid determination of catecholamines (CAs) in urine samples, and the whole analysis time (including sampling time and separation time) was less than 1 min.

  3. Polyurethane/poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel coating improves the cytocompatibility of neural electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Zhou, Hai-han; Li, Tao; Li, Cheng-yan; Xia, Zhong-yuan; Duan, Yanwen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Neural electrodes, the core component of neural prostheses, are usually encapsulated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, PDMS can generate a tissue response after implantation. Based on the physicochemical properties and excellent biocompatibility of polyurethane (PU) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) when used as coating materials, we synthesized PU/PVA hydrogel coatings and coated the surface of PDMS using plasma treatment, and the cytocompatibility to rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells was assessed. Protein adsorption tests indicated that the amount of protein adsorption onto the PDMS substrate was reduced by 92% after coating with the hydrogel. Moreover, the PC12 cells on the PU/PVA-coated PDMS showed higher cell density and longer and more numerous neurites than those on the uncoated PDMS. These results indicate that the PU/PVA hydrogel is cytocompatible and a promising coating material for neural electrodes to improve their biocompatibility. PMID:26889197

  4. Adhesion study of silicone coatings: the interaction of thickness, modulus and shear rate on adhesion force.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongsoo; Chisholm, Bret J; Bahr, James

    2007-01-01

    Interactions between coating thickness, modulus and shear rate on pseudobarnacle adhesion to a platinum-cured silicone coating were studied using a statistical experimental design. A combined design method was used for two mixture components and two process variables. The two mixture components, vinyl end-terminated polydimethylsiloxanes (V21: MW=6 kg mole(-1) and V35: MW=4 9.5 kg mole(-1), Gelest Inc.) were mixed at five different levels to vary the modulus. The dry coating thickness was varied from 160 - 740 microm and shear tests were performed at four different shear rates (2, 7, 12, and 22 microm s(-1)). The results of the statistical analysis showed that the mixture components were significant factors on shear stress, showing an interaction with the process variable. For the soft silicone coating based on the high molecular weight polydimethylsiloxane (E=0.08 MPa), shear stress significantly increased as coating thickness decreased, while shear rate slightly impacted shear force especially at 160 microm coating thickness. As the modulus was increased (E=1.3 MPa), more force was required to detach the pseudobarnacle from the coatings, but thickness and rate dependence on shear stress became less important. PMID:17453735

  5. Investigation of absorption saturation in diode end-pumped microchip lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Z.; Chardon, A.; Sanchez, F.; Stephan, G.

    1996-12-31

    Two sorts of microchip laser materials, such as Nd:YVO{sub 4} and Er/Yb:Cr phosphate Kigre glass, are used to perform the experimental study of pump absorption saturation. A spatial-dependent rate equation model has been developed for the simulation, and hence the corresponding absorption saturation intensities are determined, the pump saturation intensity is 840 W/cm{sup 2} in the {pi}-polarization, and 2,200 W/cm{sup 2} in the {sigma}-polarization for the 3% a-cut Nd:YVO{sub 4} crystal for the 810nm pump wavelength, and 130 kW/cm{sup 2} for Er/Yb:Cr phosphate Kigre glass for the 975nm pump wavelength. Based on this nonlinear absorption effect, a high performance LD end-pumped Nd:YVO{sub 4} microchip laser was obtained with a low pump threshold of 3 mW and a high slope efficiency of 50%, while for Er/Yb:Cr phosphate Kigre glass laser, a low pump threshold of 5mW and 20% slope efficiency was obtained when pumped by a Ti:Sapphire laser. All the laser operated in a single transverse mode, and the 1.535{micro}m laser operated at a single longitudinal mode. This study gives a useful guideline to design and to optimize the pump beam radius of LD end-pumped microchip lasers.

  6. Integration of serpentine channels for microchip electrophoresis with a palladium decoupler and electrochemical detection

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Amanda L; Martin, R. Scott

    2010-01-01

    While it has been shown that microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection can be used to separate and detect electroactive species, there is a need to increase the separation performance of these devices so that complex mixtures can be routinely analyzed. Previous work in microchip electrophoresis has demonstrated that increasing the separation channel length leads to an increase in resolution between closely eluting analytes. This paper details the use of lengthened serpentine microchannels for microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection where a palladium decoupler is used to ground the separation voltage so that the working electrodes remain in the fluidic network. In this work, palladium electrodepositions were used to increase the decoupler surface area and more efficiently dissipate hydrogen produced at the decoupler. Dopamine and norepinephrine, which only differ in structure by a hydroxyl group, were used as model analytes. It was found that increasing the separation channel length led to improvements in both resolution and the number of theoretical plates for these analytes. The use of a bi-layer valving device, where PDMS-based valves are utilized for the injection process, along with serpentine microchannels and amperometric detection resulted in a multi-analyte separation and an average of 28,700 theoretical plates. It was also shown that the increased channel length is beneficial when separating and detecting analytes from a high ionic strength matrix. This was demonstrated by monitoring the stimulated release of neuro-transmitters from a confluent layer of PC 12 cells. PMID:19739137

  7. Phosphate-affinity electrophoresis on a microchip for determination of protein kinase activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Aishan; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Maeda, Mizuo

    2009-10-01

    We describe microchip-based phosphate-affinity electrophoresis (microPAE) for separation of peptides aimed at determination of kinase activity. The microPAE exploits two recently published technologies: autonomous sample injection for PDMS microchips and a phosphate-specific affinity ligand, Phos-tag. We prepared a fluorescently labeled substrate peptide, specific to human c-Src, and its phosphorylated form. We synthesized a Phos-tag-poly(dimethylacrylamide) conjugate. The conjugate and the sample solutions were autonomously injected into a PDMS-glass hybrid microchip. The two solutions were contacted together in the microchannel. When the peptides were electrophoresed into the Phos-tag-poly(dimethylacrylamide) region, the phosphorylated peptide was specifically trapped, and separated from the nonphosphorylated peptide in 10 s. The results were quantified by the areas of the fluorescence peaks. The calibration plot obtained with standard samples showed an excellent linearity and a LOD of 0.9% phosphorylated peptide among the total peptides. For c-Src-reacted samples, the results from the microPAE were in good agreement with those from matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The microPAE was also successful in the presence of inhibitors for c-Src. The measured 50% inhibitory concentration values for staurosporine, PP2, and SU6656 were in good agreement with the literature values. PMID:19784951

  8. Low-cost fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) microchips using disposable gelatin gel templates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi; Yu, Zhengyin; Chen, Gang

    2010-06-15

    A simple method based on disposable gelatin gel templates has been developed for the low-cost fabrication of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfluidic chips. Gelatin was dissolved in glycerol aqueous solution under heat to prepare a thermally reversible impression material. The molten gel was then sandwiched between a glass plate and a SU-8 template bearing negative relief of microstructure. After cooling, the negative SU-8 template could be easily separated from the solidified gelatin gel and a layer of gelatin template bearing positive relief of the microstructure was left on the glass plate. Subsequently, prepolymerized methyl methacrylate molding solution containing a UV-initiator was sandwiched between the gel template and a PMMA plate and was allowed to polymerize under UV light to fabricate PMMA channel plate at room temperature. Complete microchips could be obtained by bonding the channel plates with covers using plasticizer-assisted thermal bonding at 90 degrees C. Gelatin gel template can be mass-produced and will find application in the mass production of PMMA microchips at low cost. The prepared microfluidic microchips have been successfully employed in the capillary electrophoresis analysis of several ions in connection with contactless conductivity detection.

  9. A new soft lithographic route for the facile fabrication of hydrophilic sandwich microchips.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Bi, Xiaodong; Yu, Jianzhao; Ren, Carolyn L; Liu, Zhen

    2012-08-01

    Manufacturing materials are an essential element for the fabrication of microfluidic chips. PDMS, the most widely used polymeric material, is associated with apparent disadvantages such as hydrophobic nature, while other materials also suffer from some limitations. In this paper, a new soft lithographic route was proposed for the facile manufacturing of hydrophilic sandwich microchips, using bisphenol A based epoxy acrylate (BABEA) as a new patterning material. The BABEA copolymers are hydrophilic, highly transparent in visible range while highly untransparent when the wavelength is less than 290 nm, and of high replication fidelity. By combining with appropriate monomers, including glycidyl methacrylate, methylmethacrylate, and acrylic acid, the copolymers contain active functional groups, which allows for easy postmodification for desirable functional units. A fabrication procedure was proposed for manufacturing hybrid quartz/BABEA copolymer/quartz microchips. In the procedure, no micromachining equipments, wet etching, or imprinting techniques were involved, making the fabrication approach applicable in ordinary chemistry laboratories. The performance of the prepared microchips was demonstrated in terms of CIEF with UV-whole channel imaging detection. The hydrophilic microchannel ensures stable focusing while the polymeric middle layer acts as a perfectly aligned optical slit for whole channel UV absorbance detection.

  10. [Applications of microchip electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis for screening FLT3-ITD gene mutation in acute myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Leng, Xin; Li, Ling-Di; Li, Jin-Lan; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Ruan, Guo-Rui

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of microchip electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis for screening FLT3-ITD gene mutation in acute myeloid leukemia. The FLT3-ITD mutation in the genomic DNA samples from 214 untreated AML patients were separately detected by PCR-microchip electrophoresis and PCR-capillary electrophoresis, then the DNA direct sequencing analysis was carried out. The results from PCR-microchip electrophoresis showed that there were 151 FLT3-ITD mutation negative, 58 FLT3-ITD mutation positive (58/214, 27.1%) and 5 FLT3-ITD mutation doubtful positive (5/214, 2.3%), while the outcomes from PCR-capillary electrophoresis displayed that there were 147 FLT3-ITD mutation negative and 67 FLT3-ITD mutation positive (67/214, 31.3%) without doubtful positive. In the 67 FLT3-ITD mutation positive samples detected by using PCR-capillary electrophoresis, 4 samples were detected as the negative while 5 samples were measured as the doubtful positive by using PCR-microchip electrophoresis. The followed sequencing analysis demonstrated that the above 9 samples were all FLT3-ITD mutation positive, indicating that PCR-capillary electrophoresis was more accurate and sensitive in screening the FLT3-ITD mutation, although statistic analysis showed that there were no significant differences in the detected results between PCR-microchip electrophoresis and PCR-capillary electrophoresis groups (Pearson Chi-squared Test, P > 0.05). It is concluded that both PCR-microchip electrophoresis and PCR-capillary electrophoresis were convenient and fast for screening FLT3-ITD mutation, but the accuracy of PCR-microchip electrophoresis awaits further improvement.

  11. Metal Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, General Magnaplate Corporation developed process techniques for bonding dry lubricant coatings to space metals. The coatings were not susceptible to outgassing and offered enhanced surface hardness and superior resistance to corrosion and wear. This development was necessary because conventional lubrication processes were inadequate for lightweight materials used in Apollo components. General Magnaplate built on the original technology and became a leader in development of high performance metallurgical surface enhancement coatings - "synergistic" coatings, - which are used in applications from pizza making to laser manufacture. Each of the coatings is designed to protect a specific metal or group of metals to solve problems encountered under operating conditions.

  12. Morphological investigations of cells that adhered to the irregular patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface without reagents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Hee; Min, Junhong

    2009-07-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface consisting irregular pattern was investigated to develop cell-based biochip using PDMS. PDMS surface was modified with nano- and micro-combined patterns using surface deformation technology. Hydrophobicity of nano-patterned PDMS surface was sustained. Nevertheless it has irregular patterns consisting of micro- and nano-patterns. According to atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal microscopy results by immunostaining method, human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) adhered well on irregularly patterned surface without any reagents such as gelatin and collagen, compared to commercial culture dish. It implies PDMS material can be utilized as template for cell-based biochip without any reagents. PMID:19427124

  13. Digital polymerase chain reaction in an array of femtoliter polydimethylsiloxane microreactors.

    PubMed

    Men, Yongfan; Fu, Yusi; Chen, Zitian; Sims, Peter A; Greenleaf, William J; Huang, Yanyi

    2012-05-15

    We developed a simple, compact microfluidic device to perform high dynamic-range digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) in an array of isolated 36-femtoliter microreactors. The density of the microreactors exceeded 20000/mm(2). This device, made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), allows the samples to be loaded into all microreactors simultaneously. The microreactors are completely sealed through the deformation of a PDMS membrane. The small volume of the microreactors ensures a compact device with high reaction efficiency and low reagent and sample consumption. Future potential applications of this platform include multicolor dPCR and massively parallel dPCR for next generation sequencing library preparation. PMID:22482776

  14. Flexible and fluorophore-doped luminescent solar concentrators based on polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Tummeltshammer, Clemens; Taylor, Alaric; Kenyon, Anthony J; Papakonstantinou, Ioannis

    2016-02-15

    We demonstrate a simple and inexpensive method to fabricate flexible and fluorophore-doped luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) serves as a host material which additionally offers the potential to cast LSCs in arbitrary shapes. The laser dye Pyrromethene 567 is used as a prototype fluorophore, and it is shown that it has a high quantum yield of 93% over the concentration range investigated. The optical efficiency and loss channels of the flexible LSCs are investigated; it is also demonstrated that the efficiency remains high while bending the LSC which is essential for flexible LSCs to make an impact on solar energy.

  15. Tunable wetting behavior of nanostructured poly(dimethylsiloxane) by plasma combination treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Nicolas J.; Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Chu, Shi-Gan; Zhu, Fu-Yun; Seidel, Helmut; Zhang, Hai-Xia

    2012-11-01

    This letter reports on the tunable wetting behavior of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) via the combination of nanostructuring and plasma treatment. The PDMS is first micro/nanostructured by an integrated casting process. Subsequently, an inductively coupled plasma is used to modify the siloxanes' surface chemistry. Sulfur hexafluoride, fluoroform, as well as octafluorocyclobutane plasma were applied to treat PDMS samples successively. By optimizing the treatment parameters, tunable wettability of the siloxane was observed, i.e., superhydrophilicity and superhydrophobicity. The stability of its wetting behavior has been demonstrated after 24 h. This stable and tunable wettability extends the applications of PDMS in microfluidic systems.

  16. Microchip electrophoresis with background electrolyte containing polyacrylic acid and high content organic solvent in cyclic olefin copolymer microchips for easily adsorbed dyes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuan; Sun, Ping; Yang, Shenghong; Zhao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Li, Fengyun; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2016-07-29

    Plastic microchips can significantly reduce the fabrication cost but the adsorption of some analytes limits their application. In this work, background electrolyte containing ionic polymer and high content of organic solvent was adopted to eliminate the analyte adsorption and achieve highly efficient separation in microchip electrophoresis. Two dyes, rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) and rhodamine B (RhB) were used as the model analytes. By using methanol as the organic solvent and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as a multifunctional additive, successful separation of the two dyes within 75μm id. microchannels was realized. The role of PAA is multiple, including viscosity regulator, selectivity modifier and active additive for counteracting analyte adsorption on the microchannel surface. The number of theoretical plate of 7.0×10(5)/m was attained within an effective separation distance of 2cm using background electrolyte consisting 80% methanol, 0.36% PAA and 30mmol/L phosphate at pH 5.0. Under optimized conditions, relative standard deviations of Rh6G and RhB detection (n=5) were no more than 1.5% for migration time and 2.0% for peak area, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 0.1nmol/L for Rh6G. The proposed technique was applied in the determination of both Rh6G and RhB in chilli powder and lipstick samples with satisfactory recoveries of 81.3-103.7%. PMID:27371017

  17. The use of ethylene glycol solution as the running buffer for highly efficient microchip-based electrophoresis in unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer microchips.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qin; Zhang, Yuan; Ding, Hui; Wu, Jing; Wang, Lili; Zhou, Lei; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2011-12-30

    An ethylene glycol solution was used as the electrophoretic running buffer in unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) microchips to minimize the interactions between the analytes and the hydrophobic walls of the plastic microchannels, enhance the resolution of the analytes and eliminate the uncontrollable dispersion caused by uneven liquid levels and non-uniform surfaces of the separation channels. Five amino acids that were labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were used as model analytes to examine the separation efficiency. The effects of ethylene glycol concentration, pH and sodium tetraborate concentration were systematically investigated. The five FITC-labeled amino acids were effectively resolved using a COC microchip with an effective length of 2.5 cm under optimum conditions, which included using a running buffer of 20 mmol/L sodium tetraborate in ethylene glycol:water (80:20, v/v), pH 6.7. A theoretical plate number of 4.8 × 10(5)/m was obtained for aspartic acid. The system exhibited good repeatability, and the relative standard deviations (n=5) of the peak areas and migration times were no more than 3.4% and 0.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the system was successfully applied to elucidate these five amino acids in human saliva.

  18. Microchip electrophoresis with background electrolyte containing polyacrylic acid and high content organic solvent in cyclic olefin copolymer microchips for easily adsorbed dyes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xuan; Sun, Ping; Yang, Shenghong; Zhao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Li, Fengyun; Pu, Qiaosheng

    2016-07-29

    Plastic microchips can significantly reduce the fabrication cost but the adsorption of some analytes limits their application. In this work, background electrolyte containing ionic polymer and high content of organic solvent was adopted to eliminate the analyte adsorption and achieve highly efficient separation in microchip electrophoresis. Two dyes, rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) and rhodamine B (RhB) were used as the model analytes. By using methanol as the organic solvent and polyacrylic acid (PAA) as a multifunctional additive, successful separation of the two dyes within 75μm id. microchannels was realized. The role of PAA is multiple, including viscosity regulator, selectivity modifier and active additive for counteracting analyte adsorption on the microchannel surface. The number of theoretical plate of 7.0×10(5)/m was attained within an effective separation distance of 2cm using background electrolyte consisting 80% methanol, 0.36% PAA and 30mmol/L phosphate at pH 5.0. Under optimized conditions, relative standard deviations of Rh6G and RhB detection (n=5) were no more than 1.5% for migration time and 2.0% for peak area, respectively. The limit of detection (S/N=3) was 0.1nmol/L for Rh6G. The proposed technique was applied in the determination of both Rh6G and RhB in chilli powder and lipstick samples with satisfactory recoveries of 81.3-103.7%.

  19. Printed Flexible Plastic Microchip for Viral Load Measurement through Quantitative Detection of Viruses in Plasma and Saliva.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Hadi; Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Juillard, Franceline; Keser, Mert; Sadasivam, Magesh; Yuksekkaya, Mehmet; Hanhauser, Emily; Henrich, Timothy J; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Kaye, Kenneth M; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-01-01

    We report a biosensing platform for viral load measurement through electrical sensing of viruses on a flexible plastic microchip with printed electrodes. Point-of-care (POC) viral load measurement is of paramount importance with significant impact on a broad range of applications, including infectious disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring specifically in resource-constrained settings. Here, we present a broadly applicable and inexpensive biosensing technology for accurate quantification of bioagents, including viruses in biological samples, such as plasma and artificial saliva, at clinically relevant concentrations. Our microchip fabrication is simple and mass-producible as we print microelectrodes on flexible plastic substrates using conductive inks. We evaluated the microchip technology by detecting and quantifying multiple Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) subtypes (A, B, C, D, E, G, and panel), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) in a fingerprick volume (50 µL) of PBS, plasma, and artificial saliva samples for a broad range of virus concentrations between 10(2) copies/mL and 10(7) copies/mL. We have also evaluated the microchip platform with discarded, de-identified HIV-infected patient samples by comparing our microchip viral load measurement results with reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as the gold standard method using Bland-Altman Analysis. PMID:26046668

  20. [Development of an on-site measurement system for salivary stress-related substances based on microchip capillary electrophoresis technology].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshihide; Naruishi, Nahoko

    2008-11-01

    Psychological stress is of major importance to all age groups in recent years, and may lead to mental disorder and various diseases. An objective and quantitative method for measuring salivary stress-related substances is highly desired because saliva collection is easy, stress free and noninvasive. We have developed a rapid and easy-to-use analytical tool for the measurement of cortisol and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) based on microchip technology, immunoselectivity and electrophoretic separation technique. Performing immunoreaction and capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation on microchips is a promising technique for on-site determination of biogenic substances, and has a few advantages over conventional immunoassay methods: reduced sample size, shortening analysis times, high separation efficiency, reduced cost, and downsizing of analytical system. At this stage of our research, some preliminary prototypes of a high-sensitive microchip CE instrument were constructed to determine the stress-related substances in real saliva samples. However, there is not enough detection sensitivity for cortisol analysis. On the other hand, sIgA was successfully analyzed using a laboratory-built microchip CE system and optimal analytical conditions. The sIgA determination is rapid compared with a conventional immunoassay method, and provides an acceptable degree of repeatability and recovery. In the future, microchip technologies will enable total automation and integration of sample preparation. This research has widespread future potential for monitoring multiple stress-related markers within minutes from a trace of saliva, and can contribute to disease prevention and overall good health.

  1. Printed Flexible Plastic Microchip for Viral Load Measurement through Quantitative Detection of Viruses in Plasma and Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee, Hadi; Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Juillard, Franceline; Keser, Mert; Sadasivam, Magesh; Yuksekkaya, Mehmet; Hanhauser, Emily; Henrich, Timothy J.; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Kaye, Kenneth M.; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-01-01

    We report a biosensing platform for viral load measurement through electrical sensing of viruses on a flexible plastic microchip with printed electrodes. Point-of-care (POC) viral load measurement is of paramount importance with significant impact on a broad range of applications, including infectious disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring specifically in resource-constrained settings. Here, we present a broadly applicable and inexpensive biosensing technology for accurate quantification of bioagents, including viruses in biological samples, such as plasma and artificial saliva, at clinically relevant concentrations. Our microchip fabrication is simple and mass-producible as we print microelectrodes on flexible plastic substrates using conductive inks. We evaluated the microchip technology by detecting and quantifying multiple Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) subtypes (A, B, C, D, E, G, and panel), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), and Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) in a fingerprick volume (50 µL) of PBS, plasma, and artificial saliva samples for a broad range of virus concentrations between 102 copies/mL and 107 copies/mL. We have also evaluated the microchip platform with discarded, de-identified HIV-infected patient samples by comparing our microchip viral load measurement results with reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as the gold standard method using Bland-Altman Analysis. PMID:26046668

  2. Printed Flexible Plastic Microchip for Viral Load Measurement through Quantitative Detection of Viruses in Plasma and Saliva.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Hadi; Kanakasabapathy, Manoj Kumar; Juillard, Franceline; Keser, Mert; Sadasivam, Magesh; Yuksekkaya, Mehmet; Hanhauser, Emily; Henrich, Timothy J; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Kaye, Kenneth M; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-06-05

    We report a biosensing platform for viral load measurement through electrical sensing of viruses on a flexible plastic microchip with printed electrodes. Point-of-care (POC) viral load measurement is of paramount importance with significant impact on a broad range of applications, including infectious disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring specifically in resource-constrained settings. Here, we present a broadly applicable and inexpensive biosensing technology for accurate quantification of bioagents, including viruses in biological samples, such as plasma and artificial saliva, at clinically relevant concentrations. Our microchip fabrication is simple and mass-producible as we print microelectrodes on flexible plastic substrates using conductive inks. We evaluated the microchip technology by detecting and quantifying multiple Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) subtypes (A, B, C, D, E, G, and panel), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpes Virus (KSHV) in a fingerprick volume (50 µL) of PBS, plasma, and artificial saliva samples for a broad range of virus concentrations between 10(2) copies/mL and 10(7) copies/mL. We have also evaluated the microchip platform with discarded, de-identified HIV-infected patient samples by comparing our microchip viral load measurement results with reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as the gold standard method using Bland-Altman Analysis.

  3. Comparison of dielectric properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) grafted polyacrylates/nano alumina and nano silica composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murudkar, Vrishali V.; Gaonkar, Amita A.; Deshpande, V. D.; Mhaske, S. T.

    2016-05-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane possess very poor mechanical properties. However, typically the initial modulus and durability of material is low and to improve this aspect a reinforcement phase is required. For the composite to be effective the filler must be with large aspect ratio i.e. with large surface area to volume ratio. Nano alumina (Al2O3) and nano silica (SiO2) are materials of choice for nanocomposite design. Grafted Polydimethylsiloxane (G-PDMS) and nano alumina and nano Silica composites have been prepared, by solvent casting method. FTIR study reveals that there is bonding overlap in G-PDMS/SiO2 nano composites. In dielectric study, it is observed that G-PDMS/SiO2 nano composites were more conducting in nature than G-PDMS/ Al2O3 nano composites. G-PDMS/ Al2O3 nano composites showed enhanced dielectric constant and less loss of energy than G-PDMS/SiO2 nano composites.

  4. Synthesis and Characterizations of Novel Ca-Mg-Ti-Fe-Oxides Based Ceramic Nanocrystals and Flexible Film of Polydimethylsiloxane Composite with Improved Mechanical and Dielectric Properties for Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Ashis; Pramanik, Sumit; Manna, Ayan; Azrin Shah, Nabila Farhana; Shasmin, Hanie Nadia; Radzi, Zamri; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2016-01-01

    Armalcolite, a rare ceramic mineral and normally found in the lunar earth, was synthesized by solid-state step-sintering. The in situ phase-changed novel ceramic nanocrystals of Ca-Mg-Ti-Fe based oxide (CMTFOx), their chemical reactions and bonding with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were determined by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and microscopy. Water absorption of all the CMTFOx was high. The lower dielectric loss tangent value (0.155 at 1 MHz) was obtained for the ceramic sintered at 1050 °C (S1050) and it became lowest for the S1050/PDMS nanocomposite (0.002 at 1 MHz) film, which was made by spin coating at 3000 rpm. The excellent flexibility (static modulus ≈ 0.27 MPa and elongation > 90%), viscoelastic property (tanδ = E″/E′: 0.225) and glass transition temperature (Tg: −58.5 °C) were obtained for S1050/PDMS film. Parallel-plate capacitive and flexible resistive humidity sensors have been developed successfully. The best sensing performance of the present S1050 (3000%) and its flexible S1050/PDMS composite film (306%) based humidity sensors was found to be at 100 Hz, better than conventional materials. PMID:26927116

  5. Synthesis and Characterizations of Novel Ca-Mg-Ti-Fe-Oxides Based Ceramic Nanocrystals and Flexible Film of Polydimethylsiloxane Composite with Improved Mechanical and Dielectric Properties for Sensors.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Ashis; Pramanik, Sumit; Manna, Ayan; Shah, Nabila Farhana Azrin; Shasmin, Hanie Nadia; Radzi, Zamri; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2016-01-01

    Armalcolite, a rare ceramic mineral and normally found in the lunar earth, was synthesized by solid-state step-sintering. The in situ phase-changed novel ceramic nanocrystals of Ca-Mg-Ti-Fe based oxide (CMTFOx), their chemical reactions and bonding with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were determined by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and microscopy. Water absorption of all the CMTFOx was high. The lower dielectric loss tangent value (0.155 at 1 MHz) was obtained for the ceramic sintered at 1050 °C (S1050) and it became lowest for the S1050/PDMS nanocomposite (0.002 at 1 MHz) film, which was made by spin coating at 3000 rpm. The excellent flexibility (static modulus ≈ 0.27 MPa and elongation > 90%), viscoelastic property (tanδ = E″/E': 0.225) and glass transition temperature (Tg: -58.5 °C) were obtained for S1050/PDMS film. Parallel-plate capacitive and flexible resistive humidity sensors have been developed successfully. The best sensing performance of the present S1050 (3000%) and its flexible S1050/PDMS composite film (306%) based humidity sensors was found to be at 100 Hz, better than conventional materials. PMID:26927116

  6. Synthesis and Characterizations of Novel Ca-Mg-Ti-Fe-Oxides Based Ceramic Nanocrystals and Flexible Film of Polydimethylsiloxane Composite with Improved Mechanical and Dielectric Properties for Sensors.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Ashis; Pramanik, Sumit; Manna, Ayan; Shah, Nabila Farhana Azrin; Shasmin, Hanie Nadia; Radzi, Zamri; Abu Osman, Noor Azuan

    2016-02-27

    Armalcolite, a rare ceramic mineral and normally found in the lunar earth, was synthesized by solid-state step-sintering. The in situ phase-changed novel ceramic nanocrystals of Ca-Mg-Ti-Fe based oxide (CMTFOx), their chemical reactions and bonding with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were determined by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and microscopy. Water absorption of all the CMTFOx was high. The lower dielectric loss tangent value (0.155 at 1 MHz) was obtained for the ceramic sintered at 1050 °C (S1050) and it became lowest for the S1050/PDMS nanocomposite (0.002 at 1 MHz) film, which was made by spin coating at 3000 rpm. The excellent flexibility (static modulus ≈ 0.27 MPa and elongation > 90%), viscoelastic property (tanδ = E″/E': 0.225) and glass transition temperature (Tg: -58.5 °C) were obtained for S1050/PDMS film. Parallel-plate capacitive and flexible resistive humidity sensors have been developed successfully. The best sensing performance of the present S1050 (3000%) and its flexible S1050/PDMS composite film (306%) based humidity sensors was found to be at 100 Hz, better than conventional materials.

  7. Comparison of rectal, microchip transponder, and infrared thermometry techniques for obtaining body temperature in the laboratory rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Chen, Patty H; White, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    This study compared rabbit rectal thermometry with 4 other thermometry techniques: an implantable microchip temperature transponder, an environmental noncontact infrared thermometer, a tympanic infrared thermometer designed for use on humans, and a tympanic infrared thermometer designed for use on animals. The microchip transponder was implanted between the shoulder blades; the environmental noncontact infrared thermometer recorded results from the base of the right pinna and the left inner thigh, and the tympanic infrared thermometer temperatures were taken from the right ear. Results from each technique were compared to determine agreement between the test modality and the rectal temperature. The practicality and reliability of the modalities were reviewed also. According to this study, the implantable microchip transponder measurements agreed most closely with the rectal temperature.

  8. Feasibility of capillary liquid chromatography/microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry in analyzing anabolic steroids in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Linda L; Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2010-04-15

    We examined the feasibility of capillary liquid chromatography/microchip atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry (capLC/microAPPI-MS/MS) for the analysis of anabolic steroids in human urine. The urine samples were pretreated by enzymatic hydrolysis (with beta-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia), and the compounds were liquid-liquid extracted with diethyl ether. After separation the compounds were vaporized by microchip APPI, photoionized by a 10 eV krypton discharge lamp, and detected by selected reaction monitoring. The capLC/microAPPI-MS/MS method showed good sensitivity with detection limits at the level of 1.0 ng mL(-1), good linearity with correlation coefficients between 0.9954 and 0.9990, and good repeatability with relative standard deviations below 10%. These results demonstrate that microchip APPI combined with capLC/MS/MS provides a new potential method for analyzing non-polar and neutral compounds in biological samples. PMID:20209666

  9. One-step dip coating of zwitterionic sulfobetaine polymers on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Harihara S; Han, Xia; Nowinski, Ann K; Ella-Menye, Jean-Rene; Wimbish, Collin; Marek, Patrick; Senecal, Kris; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2014-05-14

    Zwitterionic sulfobetaine polymers with a catechol chain end (DOPA-PSB) were applied to a variety of hydrophobic polymer sheets and fibers. In addition, a silica surface was tested as a representative hydrophilic substrate. The polymer-coated surfaces showed significantly lower fouling levels than uncoated controls. Because of the anti-polyelectrolyte nature of sulfobetaine zwitterionic polymers, the effect of salt concentration on the coating solutions and the quality of the polymer coating against fouling are studied. The coating method involves only water-based solutions, which is compatible with most surfaces and is environmentally friendly. To demonstrate the versatility of the reported method, we evaluated the fouling levels of the polymer coating on commonly used polymeric surfaces such as polypropylene (PP), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS), nylon, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). PMID:24730392

  10. Free-solution electrophoretic separations of DNA-drag-tag conjugates on glass microchips with no polymer network and no loss of resolution at increased electric field strength.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jennifer Coyne; Kerby, Matthew B; Niedringhaus, Thomas P; Lin, Jennifer S; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Barron, Annelise E

    2011-05-01

    Here, we demonstrate the potential for high-resolution electrophoretic separations of ssDNA-protein conjugates in borosilicate glass microfluidic chips, with no sieving media and excellent repeatability. Using polynucleotides of two different lengths conjugated to moderately cationic protein polymer drag-tags, we measured separation efficiency as a function of applied electric field. In excellent agreement with prior theoretical predictions of Slater et al., resolution is found to remain constant as applied field is increased up to 700 V/cm, the highest field we were able to apply. This remarkable result illustrates the fundamentally different physical limitations of free-solution conjugate electrophoresis (FSCE)-based DNA separations relative to matrix-based DNA electrophoresis. ssDNA separations in "gels" have always shown rapidly declining resolution as the field strength is increased; this is especially true for ssDNA > 400 bases in length. FSCE's ability to decouple DNA peak resolution from applied electric field suggests the future possibility of ultra-rapid FSCE sequencing on chips. We investigated sources of peak broadening for FSCE separations on borosilicate glass microchips, using six different protein polymer drag-tags. For drag-tags with four or more positive charges, electrostatic and adsorptive interactions with poly(N-hydroxyethylacrylamide)-coated microchannel walls led to appreciable band-broadening, while much sharper peaks were seen for bioconjugates with nearly charge-neutral protein drag-tags.

  11. Separation of motile sperm for in vitro fertilization from frozen-thawed bull semen using progesterone induction on a microchip.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingchun; Ning, Bolin; Cao, Xinyan; Luo, Yinghua; Guo, Li; Wei, Guosheng; Liu, Shengjun; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Aizhong; Wu, Rui; Li, Yanbing

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a novel method for the separation of motile sperm from non-progressive motile and immotile sperm and in vitro Fertilization (IVF). This separation of bull sperm was accomplished by inducing chemotaxis along a progesterone release agent in a 7.5-mm microchannel microchip composed of a biocompatible polydimethysiloxane layer and a glass gradient. The selected sperm was applied directly for IVF. In the first experiment, we tested the effect of different lengths of microchannnel (5mm, 7.5mm and 10mm) on quality parameter of separated sperm. The results showed that separated sperm using 7.5-mm microchannel chip were improved in sperm motility, swimming velocity, and beat frequency compared with other groups. In the second experiment, a medium containing sperm from swim-up method and outlet reservoir of our 7.5-mm microchannel chip was collected and mitochondrial activity of the sperm was determined by fluorescence microscopy. The sperm from the microchip had higher mitochondria activity (47.6%±6.0%) than the sperm from the swim-up method (23.6%±4.7%) (P<0.05). There were significant differences in rate of acrosome intactness between the swim-up method and the microchip (36.0%±4.1% vs. 66.8±2.1%, respectively, P<0.05). In the third experiment, we compared sperm penetration in the microchip-IVF system with a standard IVF method (droplet-IVF). The microchip-IVF group had the highest percentages of oocytes penetrated (82.2%±1.6% vs. 63.5%±2.4%) and monospermic oocytes (67.8%±3.4% vs. 42.4%±1.5%). In addition, early developmental competence of oocytes to the blastocyst stage was higher when the oocytes were inseminated in the microchip-IVF system compared with those inseminated in a standard droplet-IVF system. These results demonstrate that our microchip based on a sperm chemotaxis system is useful for motile sperm separation from frozen-thawed bull semen for IVF. Therefore, the optimized microchip system provides a good opportunity to sort

  12. Fast high-throughput screening of H1N1 virus by parallel detection with multichannel microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Nan, He; Lee, Seungah; Kang, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is one of the acute respiratory diseases of human caused by the influenza A (H1N1) virus and accounted for major public health concerns worldwide. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods are the most popular tools for clinical diagnosis of influenza A virus. Microchip electrophoresis is a widely used method for DNA molecules separation. Herein, we describe the fast and high-throughput separation of hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) gene PCR products (116 bp and 195 bp, respectively) by parallel detection with multichannel microchip electrophoresis and programmed step electric field strength (PSEFS). PMID:25673484

  13. Fast high-throughput screening of H1N1 virus by parallel detection with multichannel microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Nan, He; Lee, Seungah; Kang, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is one of the acute respiratory diseases of human caused by the influenza A (H1N1) virus and accounted for major public health concerns worldwide. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods are the most popular tools for clinical diagnosis of influenza A virus. Microchip electrophoresis is a widely used method for DNA molecules separation. Herein, we describe the fast and high-throughput separation of hemagglutinin (HA) and nucleocapsid protein (NP) gene PCR products (116 bp and 195 bp, respectively) by parallel detection with multichannel microchip electrophoresis and programmed step electric field strength (PSEFS).

  14. Photoemissive coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Polystyrene coating is applied to holographic storage tube substrate via glow discharge polymerization in an inert environment. After deposition of styrene coating, antimony and then cesium are added to produce photoemissive layer. Technique is utilized in preparing perfectly organized polymeric films useful as single-crystal membranes.

  15. Photoinduced absorption measurement on a microchip equipped with organic dye-doped polymer waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, T.; Nagai, K.; Yamashita, K.

    2013-05-01

    We have fabricated a waveguide-type optical sensing microchip and succeeded in on-chip photoinduced absorption (PIA) spectroscopy. The PIA microchip was fabricated with a conventional photolithographic technique and consisted of plastic optical waveguides and microfluidic channels. Furthermore, a serially-cascaded polymer waveguide doped with organic dyes was integrated on this microchip, which was fabricated using a self-written waveguide process. This dye-doped waveguide was pumped by a UV light emitting diode (UV-LED) and used as a probe light source with a broad emission spectrum. At the same time, a solution of test material in the microfluidic channel was synchronously pumped by a UV-LED or UV laser diode. Since the transmission spectrum of the photo-excited test material could be measured, the PIA spectra were obtained easily. In this study, we have demonstrated the on-chip PIA measurements for two classes of test materials, rare-earth complex and chlorophyll molecules. In the measurement for the aqueous solution of Neodymium (III) acetate hydrate, PIA signals attributed to the 4f-4f transition was observed. Furthermore, by varying the modulation frequency of the pulsed optical pumping, lifetime analysis of the excited 4f states was achieved. In the measurements for the ethanol solutions of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, PIA signals were observed at the wavelength near the Q-band absorption peaks. These spectra were very similar to the well-known feature for the photosystem II protein complex observed in a conventional PIA system. From these results, it is expected that the onchip PIA measurement technique is applicable to the transient analyses for the material systems with photoexcited charge transfer.

  16. A glass microchip device for conducting serological survey of West Nile viral antibodies.

    PubMed

    Pena, Javier; McAllister, Steven J; Dutta, Debashis

    2014-10-01

    Serological surveys are vital to determining the prevalence of a disease and/or the immunity status against it in any population. However, the relatively large sample volume requirement (1-10 mL) in traditional serum-based assays demands that blood draw camps be set up by medical professionals to obtain samples for these studies which significantly increases the time and cost associated with them. Here we address these drawbacks of a serosurvey by reducing the whole blood requirement in its diagnostic procedures down to 10 μL using the microfluidic platform. Such a miniaturization approach was demonstrated in our current work by developing a microchip based serological device for determining the serum levels of West Nile (WN) viral antibodies (IgG and IgM) to assess the immunity status against WN virus in Fremont County, Wyoming. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for these target analytes in glass microchannels to accomplish this task using antibodies/assay reagents purchased from commercial sources. The reported assays were directly quantitated using a fluorescence microplate reader which to our knowledge is the first account of signal measurement in a microchip based ELISA procedure using this standard instrument. To enable this quantitation method, the assay channels on our device were spaced identically as the wells on a commercial microplate, and a holder having the dimensions of this plate was used to accommodate the microchips. Our microfluidic assays showed an excellent correlation with the results from the microwell plate based experiments for significantly lower incubation periods and using only 3 μL of the ELISA reagents.

  17. Use of epoxy-embedded electrodes to integrate electrochemical detection with microchip-based analysis systems

    PubMed Central

    Selimovic, Asmira; Johnson, Alicia S.; Kiss, István Z.; Martin, R. Scott

    2011-01-01

    A new method of fabricating electrodes for microchip devices that involves the use of Teflon molds and a commercially available epoxy to embed electrodes of various size and composition is described. The resulting epoxy base can be polished to generate a fresh electrode and sealed against PDMS-based fluidic structures. Microchip-based flow injection analysis was used to characterize the epoxy-embedded electrodes. It was shown that gold electrodes can be amalgamated with liquid mercury and the resulting mercury/gold electrode used to selectively detect glutathione from lysed red blood cells. The ability to encapsulate multiple electrode materials of differing composition enabled the integration of microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Finally, a unique feature of this approach is that the electrode connection is made from the bottom of the epoxy base. This enables the creation of three-dimensional gold pillar electrodes (65 µm in diameter and 27 µm in height) that can be integrated within a fluidic network. As compared to the use of a flat electrode of a similar diameter, the use of the pillar electrode led to improvements in both the sensitivity (72.1 pA/µM for the pillar vs. 4.2 pA/µM for the flat electrode) and limit of detection (20 nM for the pillar vs. 600 nM for the flat electrode), with catechol being the test analyte. These epoxy-embedded electrodes hold promise for the creation of inexpensive microfluidic devices that can be used to electrochemically detect biologically important analytes in a manner where the electrodes can be polished and a fresh electrode surface generated as desired. PMID:21413031

  18. Microchip laser based on Yb:YAG/V:YAG monolith crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejezchleb, Karel; Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Škoda, Václav

    2016-03-01

    V:YAG crystal was investigated as a passive Q-switch of longitudinally diode-pumped microchip laser, emitting radiation at wavelength 1030.5 nm. This laser was based on diffusion bonded monolith crystal (diameter 3 mm) which combines in one piece an active laser part (Yb:YAG crystal, 10 at.% Yb/Y, 3 mm long) and saturable absorber (V:YAG crystal, 2 mm long, initial transmission 86 % @ 1031 nm). The microchip resonator consisted of dielectric mirrors directly deposited on the monolith surfaces (pump mirror HT @ 968 nm and HR @ 1031 nm on Yb:YAG part, output coupler with reflection 55 % @ 1031 nm on the V:YAG part). For longitudinal CW pumping of Yb:YAG part, a fibre coupled (core diameter 100 μm, NA = 0.22, emission @ 968 nm) laser diode was used. The laser threshold was 3.8W. The laser slope efficiency for output mean in respect to incident pumping was 16 %. The linearly polarized generated transversal intensity beam profile was close to the fundamental Gaussian mode. The generated pulse length, stable and mostly independent on pumping power, was equal to 1.3 ns (FWHM). The single pulse energy was increasing with the pumping power and for the maximum pumping 9.7W it was 78 μJ which corresponds to the pulse peak-power 56 kW. The maximum Yb:YAG/V:YAG microchip laser mean output power of 1W was reached without observable thermal roll-over. The corresponding Q-switched pulses repetition rate was 13.1 kHz.

  19. Microchip Analysis of Toxic Metal Ions in Support of DOE's EMSP

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Greg E.; Lu, Qin; Deng, Gang

    2003-09-10

    The DoE currently has the daunting task of deactivating 7,000 contaminated buildings and decommissioning 900 contaminated buildings that remain from the United States' involvement in nuclear weapons development over the last 50 years. The Environmental Management team has highlighted the need for revolutionizing technologies capable of improving characterization, monitoring and certification of contaminated equipment and facilities with emphasis on real time characterization in the field. We will discuss our efforts to develop a portable, compact microchip capillary electrophoresis unit for rapid characterization and certification of ppb levels of surface and airborne toxic metal contaminants found or originating from scrap metal and building materials in real time within the field.

  20. Multidimensional microchip-capillary electrophoresis device for determination of functional proteins in infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruige; Wang, Zhiping; Fung, Ying Sing

    2015-01-01

    Functional proteins have been found in infant milk formula as supplements, added by an increasing number of manufacturers. Their supplementations are expected to be controlled and monitored. Here, we describe a microchip-integrated CE method for the determination of these low levels of functional proteins in a protein-rich sample matrix. On-chip isoelectric focusing (IEF) is used to separate high-abundance proteins from low-abundance proteins instead of using some complicated time-consuming protein purification process. After that, transient isotachophoresis hyphenated capillary zone electrophoresis (t-ITP-CZE) can preconcentrate, separate, and analyze transferred functional proteins in the embedded capillary under UV detection. PMID:25673487

  1. Rapid determination of catecholamines in urine samples by nonaqueous microchip electrophoresis with LIF detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongmei; Guo, Yuanming; Li, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Nonaqueous microchip electrophoresis (NAMCE), which makes use of an organic medium instead of a conventional aqueous buffer solution, is a promising separation method for analytical chemistry due to the enhanced solubility of hydrophobic analytes and tailored selectivity of separation. Here, we describe an NAMCE with LIF detection combined with a pump-free negative pressure sampling device for rapid determination of catecholamines (CAs) in urine samples, and the whole analysis time (including sampling time and separation time) was less than 1 min. PMID:25673489

  2. Diode-end-pumped Tm, Ho:YVO4 microchip laser at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, B. Q.; Chen, F.; Wu, C. T.; Wang, Q.; Li, G.; Zhang, C. H.; Wang, Y. Z.; Ju, Y. L.

    2011-04-01

    Room temperature Tm, Ho:YVO4 microchip laser operated around 2 μm was demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. At a heat sink temperature of 283 K, a maximum output power of 47 mW was obtained by using a 0.25 mm length crystal at an absorbed pump power of 912 mW, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 9.1%. Increasing the temperature to 288 K, as much as 16.5 mW 2052.3 nm single-longitudinal-mode laser was achieved. The M 2 factor was measured to be 1.4.

  3. Diode-End-Pumped Tm:Ho:GdVO4 Microchip Laser at Room Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bao-Quan; Chen, Fang; Wang, Qiang; Wu, Chun-Ting; Li, Gang; Zhang, Chao-Hui; Wang, Yue-Zhu; Ju, You-Lun

    2011-02-01

    Room-temperature Tm:Ho:GdVO4 microchip laser operated around 2 μm is demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. At a heat sink temperature of 283 K, maximum output power of 29.7 mW is obtained by using a 0.25-mm-long crystal at an absorbed pump power of 912 mW, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 5.0%. At the temperature to 283 K, a single-longitudinal-mode laser as much as 8mW at 2048.5 nm is achieved. The M 2 factor is measured to be 1.4.

  4. Recent developments and applications of capillary and microchip electrophoresis in proteomic and peptidomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Štěpánová, Sille; Kašička, Václav

    2016-01-01

    This review presents recent developments and applications of capillary and microchip electromigration methods in proteomics and peptidomics. Sample preparation methods as well as instrumental innovations in the coupling of these advanced electromigration methods with mass spectrometry detection employed in proteomic and peptidomic analyses are presented. Interesting applications of various capillary electromigration methods in bottom-up as well as top-down proteomics, including investigation of post-translational modifications of proteins are described. In addition, several examples of the use of capillary electromigration methods combined with mass spectrometry detection in clinical proteomics and peptidomics are demonstrated.

  5. Multidimensional microchip-capillary electrophoresis device for determination of functional proteins in infant milk formula.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruige; Wang, Zhiping; Fung, Ying Sing

    2015-01-01

    Functional proteins have been found in infant milk formula as supplements, added by an increasing number of manufacturers. Their supplementations are expected to be controlled and monitored. Here, we describe a microchip-integrated CE method for the determination of these low levels of functional proteins in a protein-rich sample matrix. On-chip isoelectric focusing (IEF) is used to separate high-abundance proteins from low-abundance proteins instead of using some complicated time-consuming protein purification process. After that, transient isotachophoresis hyphenated capillary zone electrophoresis (t-ITP-CZE) can preconcentrate, separate, and analyze transferred functional proteins in the embedded capillary under UV detection.

  6. Enhanced field emission properties of screen-printed doubled-walled carbon nanotubes by polydimethylsiloxane elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hui; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Zhejuan; Wang, Kai; Qian, Min; Chen, Yiwei; Sun, Zhuo

    2010-09-01

    Field emission (FE) properties of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) treated by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer with different heating temperature have been systematically studied. The current density of treated DWCNT films decreases with the increase of heating temperature. The screen-printed DWCNTs treated by PDMS elastomer with drying temperature 150 °C for 20 min have the best FE performance with a marvelous field enhancement factor ( β = 20194). The optimized FE performance is attributed to the morphological change of DWCNT films after PDMS elastomer treatment and the change of separation energy for the CNT-substrate interface. It is proved that the PDMS treatment is a facile and effective method for field emission display (FED) application, especially for low-temperature FED preparation.

  7. Synthesis and mechanical properties of interconnected carbon nanofiber network reinforced polydimethylsiloxane composites.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z Y; Khatri, N D; Nguyen, K; Song, S Q; Sun, L

    2011-02-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) reinforced elastomer composites with light weight, sustainability of large deformation, chemical stability, corrosion and fatigue resistance, and vibration and noise reduction capability can have positive impact on a wide range of applications. However, this type of composite is still a under studied research area due to the difficulties in material handling and processing. To improve processing control and reproducibility for large scale engineering applications, cost effective carbon nanofibers (CNFs) in form of interconnected porous network structure were used as nanofillers. Processing, microstructure and mechanical properties of carbon nanofibers reinforced polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have been studied. Mechanical measurements on the composites show that the CNF-PDMS interfacial bonding can be until failure, interfacial debonding happens in the CNF-PDMS composites and the resulted permanent deformation stabilizes with increasing load-unload cycles with significant energy dissipation. PMID:21456144

  8. Pumping fluids in microfluidic systems using the elastic deformation of poly(dimethylsiloxane).

    PubMed

    Weibel, Douglas B; Siegel, Adam C; Lee, Andrew; George, Alexander H; Whitesides, George M

    2007-12-01

    This paper demonstrates a methodology for storing and pumping fluids that provide a useful capability for microfluidic devices. It uses microfluidic screw valves to isolate fluids in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microcompartments, in which the pressure of the liquid is stored in the elastic deformation of the walls and ceiling of the compartments. Fluids can be stored under pressure in these structures for months. When the valves are opened, the walls and ceiling push the fluid out of the compartments into microfluidic channels. The system has five useful characteristics: (i) it is made using soft lithographic techniques; (ii) it allows multiple reagents to be preloaded in devices and stored under pressure without any additional user intervention; (iii) it makes it possible to meter out fluids in devices, and to control rates of flow of fluids; (iv) it prevents the user from exposure to potentially toxic reagents; and (v) it is hand-operated and does not require additional equipment or resources. PMID:18030408

  9. Poly-dimethylsiloxane derivates side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migani, V.; Weiss, H.; Massafra, M. R.; Merlo, A.; Colleoni, C.; Rosace, G.

    2011-02-01

    Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers finishing of Polyamide-6,6 (PA66) fabrics involves ionic interactions between reactive groups on the PDMS polymers and the ones of the textile fabric. Such interactions could be strengthened by a pretreatment with a fixing agent to promote either ion-ion and H-bonding and ion-dipole forces. These forces could contribute towards the building of substantial PDMS-PA66 systems and the achieving of better adhesion properties to fabrics. Four different silicone polymers based on PDMS were applied on a synthetic tanning agent (syntan) finished Polyamide-6,6 fabric under acid conditions. Soxhlet extraction method and ATR FT-IR technique were used to investigate the application conditions. The finishing parameters such as pH and temperature together with fastness, mechanical and performance properties of the treated samples were studied and related to PDMS side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric.

  10. Multiwalled carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composite films as high performance flexible electric heating elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jing; Jeong, Young Gyu

    2014-08-01

    High performance elastomeric electric heating elements were prepared by incorporating various contents of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix by using an efficient solution-casting and curing technique. The pristine MWCNTs were identified to be uniformly dispersed in the PDMS matrix and the electrical percolation of MWCNTs was evaluated to be at ˜0.27 wt. %, where the electrical resistivity of the MWCNT/PDMS composite films dropped remarkably. Accordingly, the composite films with higher MWCNT contents above 0.3 wt. % exhibit excellent electric heating performance in terms of temperature response rapidity and electric energy efficiency at constant applied voltages. In addition, the composite films, which were thermally stable up to 250 °C, showed excellent heating-cooling cyclic performance, which was associated with operational stability in actual electric heating applications.

  11. Multiwalled carbon nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane composite films as high performance flexible electric heating elements

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Jing; Jeong, Young Gyu

    2014-08-04

    High performance elastomeric electric heating elements were prepared by incorporating various contents of pristine multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix by using an efficient solution-casting and curing technique. The pristine MWCNTs were identified to be uniformly dispersed in the PDMS matrix and the electrical percolation of MWCNTs was evaluated to be at ∼0.27 wt. %, where the electrical resistivity of the MWCNT/PDMS composite films dropped remarkably. Accordingly, the composite films with higher MWCNT contents above 0.3 wt. % exhibit excellent electric heating performance in terms of temperature response rapidity and electric energy efficiency at constant applied voltages. In addition, the composite films, which were thermally stable up to 250 °C, showed excellent heating-cooling cyclic performance, which was associated with operational stability in actual electric heating applications.

  12. Effect of cross-link density on carbon dioxide separation in polydimethylsiloxane-norbornene membranes

    DOE PAGES

    Hong, Tao; Niu, Zhenbin; Hu, Xunxiang; Gmernicki, Kevin; Cheng, Shiwang; Fan, Fei; Johnson, J. Casey; Hong, Eunice; Mahurin, Shannon; Jiang, De -en; et al

    2015-01-01

    The development of high performance materials for CO2 separation and capture will significantly contribute to a solution for climate change. In this work, (bicycloheptenyl) ethyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMSPNB) membranes with varied cross-link densities were synthesized via ring-opening metathesis polymerization. The developed polymer membranes show higher permeability and better selectivity than those of conventional cross-linked PDMS membrane. The achieved performance (CO2 permeability ~ 6800 Barrer and CO2/N2 selectivity ~ 14) is very promising for practical applications. The key to achieving this high performance is the use of an in-situ cross-linking method of the difunctional PDMS macromonomers, which provides lightly cross-linked membranes.more » By combining positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, broadband dielectric spectroscopy and gas solubility measurements, we have elucidated the key parameters necessary for achieving their excellent performance.« less

  13. Microfabrication of polydimethylsiloxane phantoms to simulate tumor hypoxia and vascular anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Ren, Wenqi; Yu, Zelin; Dong, Erbao; Zhang, Shiwu; Xu, Ronald X.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce a microfluidic approach to simulate tumor hypoxia and vascular anomaly. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantoms with embedded microchannel networks were fabricated by a soft lithography process. A dialysis membrane was sandwiched between two PDMS slabs to simulate the controlled mass transport and oxygen metabolism. A tortuous microchannel network was fabricated to simulate tumor microvasculature. A dual-modal multispectral and laser speckle imaging system was used for oxygen and blood flow imaging in the tumor-simulating phantom. The imaging results were compared with those of the normal vasculature. Our experiments demonstrated the technical feasibility of simulating tumor hypoxia and vascular anomalies using the proposed PDMS phantom. Such a phantom fabrication technique may be potentially used to calibrate optical imaging devices, to study the mechanisms for tumor hypoxia and angiogenesis, and to optimize the drug delivery strategies.

  14. Stretchable photo sensor using perylene/graphene composite on ridged polydimethylsiloxane substrate.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shawkat; Bae, Jinho; Lee, Chong Hyun

    2015-11-30

    To apply in wearable electronics, we propose a stretchable photo sensor that detects an inversely changed resistance by varying light intensity, which is stably operated up to 25% axial strain. Especially, the stretchabity of the proposed photo sensor is achived by using a uniform ridged substrate made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The proposed device is composed of a thin film of perylene/graphene composite, which is sandwiched between bottom and top indium tin oxide (ITO) transparent electrodes fabricated through electro-hydrodynamic (EHD) technique. The electrical conductivity of perylene is improved by blending graphene with it. The resistance of the proposed photo sensor changes from 108 MΩ to 87 MΩ within the light intensity range of 0 to 400 lux, respectively. Furthermore, the flexibility is verified through a bendability test from 16 mm down to 0 mm and a bending endurance test for more than 1000 cycles. Uniform and smooth deposition of the active layer is tested through surface morphology characterization.

  15. Flexible and stretchable energy harvesting device using three-dimensional poly(dimethylsiloxane)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Sung Il; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Sang-Myung; Lee, Jeong Hoon

    2014-08-01

    We propose a flexible stretchable energy harvesting device by implementing permselective pores on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sheet for the direct energy conversion of pressure to electrical power. The devices consist of five layers of PDMS, giving full flexibility to the devices. From current-voltage (I-V) measurements, we observed down-shifts in the limiting regime with strains, demonstrating that the permselective pores act as nanofluidic channels. We clearly observed that the limiting region shifts to lower voltages, illustrating that the cross-sectional dimensions were changed, thereby enhancing the ion concentration polarization with external strains. Simply by manual mechanical bending, we acquired a streaming current of 400 nA.

  16. Effect of cross-link density on carbon dioxide separation in polydimethylsiloxane-norbornene membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tao; Niu, Zhenbin; Hu, Xunxiang; Gmernicki, Kevin; Cheng, Shiwang; Fan, Fei; Johnson, J. Casey; Hong, Eunice; Mahurin, Shannon; Jiang, De -en; Long, Brian; Mays, Jimmy; Sokolov, Alexei; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    The development of high performance materials for CO2 separation and capture will significantly contribute to a solution for climate change. In this work, (bicycloheptenyl) ethyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMSPNB) membranes with varied cross-link densities were synthesized via ring-opening metathesis polymerization. The developed polymer membranes show higher permeability and better selectivity than those of conventional cross-linked PDMS membrane. The achieved performance (CO2 permeability ~ 6800 Barrer and CO2/N2 selectivity ~ 14) is very promising for practical applications. The key to achieving this high performance is the use of an in-situ cross-linking method of the difunctional PDMS macromonomers, which provides lightly cross-linked membranes. By combining positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, broadband dielectric spectroscopy and gas solubility measurements, we have elucidated the key parameters necessary for achieving their excellent performance.

  17. Mechanically tunable surface plasmon resonance based on gold nanoparticles and elastic membrane polydimethylsiloxane composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Yu-Lun; Chen, Chih-Wei; Wang, Chun-Hsiung; Hsieh, Chun-Yi; Chen, Yung-Ting; Shih, Han-Yu; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Surface plasmon in nanoscaled materials has recently attracted a great deal of attention due to its possibility in a wide range of application. From a practical standpoint, it is desirable for the devices having a tunability of surface plasmon frequency. To achieve this goal, in this study, a composite consisting of two-dimensional gold nanoparticles array embedded in elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane has been synthesized. Because the elastic PDMS membrane has a high malleability, with an external stress, it is very easy to regulate the interparticle distance in the gold nanoparticle array. The change in the distance between each nanoparticle will alter the surface plasmon interaction, and hence surface plasmon frequency can be manipulated. It is found that when the interparticle distance increases, the enhanced surface plasma mutual coupling will cause the blueshift of surface plasmon resonance frequency. The observed result satisfies the forecast based on electromagnetic theory.

  18. Indentation size effects in polydimethylsiloxane at micro- and nanometer length scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrucke, Andrew J.

    2011-12-01

    Previous indentation testing on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has shown amazing size dependent deformation at the micro- and millimeter length scales. PDMS is a soft silicone elastomer which has been previously investigated to lesser degrees. Nano- and micro-indentation tests have been conducted on two different PDMS formulations to study the universal hardness and elastic modulus at various indentation depths and crosslink densities to study the indentation size effects within the polymer. In these experiments, PDMS exhibited an 80 fold increase in hardness over the indentation depth range of 200 nm to 120 microm. The indentation size effects are analyzed with respect to theoretical models that rationalizes the size dependent deformation rotation gradients caused by indentation work and corresponding molecular mechanisms. The rationale is discussed in view of other experiments and explanations in the literature.

  19. Assessing Viscoelastic Properties of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Using Loading and Unloading of the Macroscopic Compression Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fincan, Mustafa

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mechanical properties were measured using custom-built compression test device. PDMS elastic modulus can be varied with the elastomer base to the curing agent ratio, i.e. by changing the cross-linking density. PDMS samples with different crosslink density in terms of their elastic modulus were measured. In this project the PDMS samples with the base/curing agent ratio ranging from 5:1 to 20:1 were tested. The elastic modulus varied with the amount of the crosslinker, and ranged from 0.8 MPa to 4.44 MPa. The compression device was modified by adding digital displacement gauges to measure the lateral strain of the sample, which allowed obtaining the true stress-strain data. Since the unloading behavior was different than the loading behavior of the viscoelastic PDMS, it was utilized to asses viscoelastic properties of the polymer. The thesis describes a simple method for measuring mechanical properties of soft polymeric materials.

  20. Why the Mechanical Properties of Cross-linked Polydimethylsiloxane Surface Enhance? - A First Principles Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhifan; Jin, Mengting; Zhang, Yanning; Beijing Computational Science Research Center Collaboration

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been widely used in various areas due to its high flexibility, controllable mechanical properties, brilliant biocompatibility and low cost. Now more work on PDMS focus on tuning its surface physical and chemical properties. Our experimental group has shown that the top surface stiffness of PDMS is significantly enhanced after a surface treatment of hyperthermal hydrogen induced cross-linking (HHIC), without losing its inherent hydrophobicity. To understand why this, we investigated how the HHIC treatment changes the structure of PDMS molecules and chains, by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations with the nonlocal van der Waals interaction. The elastic and hydrophobic properties of PDMS, before and after the surface treatment, will be discussed then, providing deep understandings on the experimental observations. Our theoretical studies could give insights in the new development of HHIC tuning technology.