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Sample records for polydimethylsiloxane microchips coated

  1. Separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips coated with supported bilayer membranes.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K Scott; Kottegoda, Sumith; Kang, Kyung Mo; Sims, Christopher E; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2008-12-15

    Hybrid microchannels composed of poly(dimethylsiloxane) and glass were coated with supported bilayer membranes (SBMs) by the process of vesicle fusion. The electroosmotic mobility (mu(eo)) of zwitterionic, positively charged, and negatively charged phospholipid membranes was measured over a 4 h time to evaluate the stability of the coatings in an electric field. Coated microchips with a simple cross design were used to separate the fluorescent dyes fluorescein and Oregon Green. Migration time reproducibility was better than 5% RSD over 70 min of continuous separations. Separation of Oregon Green and fluorescein in channels coated with zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine (PC) membranes yielded efficiencies of 611,000 and 499,000 plates/m and a resolution of 2.4 within 2 s. Both zwitterionic and negatively charged membranes were used to separate peptide substrates from their phosphorylated analogues with efficiencies of 200,000-400,000 plates/m. Notably, separations of fluorescently labeled ABL substrate peptide from its phosphorylated counterpart were achieved using a high-salt physiological buffer with near-baseline resolution in 10 s. PC-coated devices were used to successfully separate enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) from a fusion protein (eGFP-Crakl) with an efficiency of 358,000 and 278,000 plates/m respectively in less than 12 s. These SBM-based coatings may enable the separation of a broad range of analytes and may be ideal in biological applications for microfluidics.

  2. One-step preparation and application of mussel-inspired poly(norepinephrine)-coated polydimethylsiloxane microchip for separation of chiral compounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Liang, Ru-Ping; Wu, Lu-Lu; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, using the self-polymerization of norepinephrine (NE) and its favorable film-forming property, a simple and green preparation approach was developed to modify a PDMS channel for enantioseparation of chiral compounds. After the PDMS microchip was filled with NE solution, poly(norepinephrine) (PNE) film was gradually formed and deposited on the inner wall of microchannel as permanent coating via the oxidation of NE by the oxygen dissolved in the solution. Due to possessing plentiful catechol and amine functional groups, the PNE-coated PDMS microchip exhibited much better wettability, more stable and suppressed EOF, and less nonspecific adsorption. The water contact angle and EOF of PNE-coated PDMS substrate were measured to be 13° and 1.68 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) , compared to those of 108° and 2.24 × 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) from the untreated one, respectively. Different kinds of chiral compounds, such as amino acid enantiomer, drug enantiomer, and peptide enantiomer were efficiently separated utilizing a separation length of 37 mm coupled with in-column amperometric detection on the PNE-coated PDMS microchips. This facile mussel-inspired PNE-based microchip system exhibited strong recognition ability, high-performance, admirable reproducibility, and stability, which may have potential use in the complex biological analysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Improvement of heat dissipation for polydimethylsiloxane microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Bao, Ning; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2004-11-19

    Effective removing of Joule heat in polymer-based microchip system is an important factor for high efficient separation because of lower heat conductivity of polymers than silica or glass. In this paper, a new kind of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip electrophoresis system integrated with a laser-induced fluorescence detector has been successfully constructed on the basis of a commercial heat sink for computer CPU (central processor unit). Experimental results on separation current using high concentration running buffers demonstrated that heat dissipation of PDMS/PDMS microchip system was significantly improved. Furthermore, with this integrated system, theoretical plate number of fluorescein using 100 mM phosphate-buffered saline + 1 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate as running buffer was determined to be 2750 (for 2.5-cm separation channel, corresponding to 110,000/m). This high separation efficiency demonstrated that such heat sink-based polymer microchip system could be effectively applied for high-concentration buffers.

  4. Sensitive detection of influenza viruses with Europium nanoparticles on an epoxy silica sol-gel functionalized polycarbonate-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid microchip.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jikun; Zhao, Jiangqin; Petrochenko, Peter; Zheng, Jiwen; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-12-15

    In an effort to develop new tools for diagnosing influenza in resource-limited settings, we fabricated a polycarbonate (PC)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid microchip using a simple epoxy silica sol-gel coating/bonding method and employed it in sensitive detection of influenza virus with Europium nanoparticles (EuNPs). The incorporation of sol-gel material in device fabrication provided functionalized channel surfaces ready for covalent immobilization of primary antibodies and a strong bonding between PDMS substrates and PC supports without increasing background fluorescence. In microchip EuNP immunoassay (µENIA) of inactivated influenza viruses, replacing native PDMS microchips with hybrid microchips allowed the achievement of a 6-fold increase in signal-to-background ratio, a 12-fold and a 6-fold decreases in limit-of-detection (LOD) in influenza A and B tests respectively. Using influenza A samples with known titers, the LOD of influenza µENIA on hybrid microchips was determined to be ~10(4) TCID50 titer/mL and 10(3)-10(4) EID50 titer/mL. A comparison test indicated that the sensitivity of influenza µENIA enhanced using the hybrid microchips even surpassed that of a commercial laboratory influenza ELISA test. In addition to the sensitivity improvement, assay variation was clearly reduced when hybrid microchips instead of native PDMS microchips were used in the µENIA tests. Finally, infectious reference viruses and nasopharyngeal swab patient specimens were successfully tested using μENIA on hybrid microchip platforms, demonstrating the potential of this unique microchip nanoparticle assay in clinical diagnosis of influenza. Meanwhile, the tests showed the necessity of using nucleic acid confirmatory tests to clarify ambiguous test results obtained from prototype or developed point-of-care testing devices for influenza diagnosis.

  5. Ultrasensitive Nanoelectrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry using Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microchips with Monolithically Integrated Emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-09-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is the most widely used substrate for microfluidic devices as it enables facile fabrication and has other distinctive properties. However, for applications involving highly sensitive nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) detection, the use of PDMS microdevices has been hindered by the leaching of uncross-linked oligomers and other contaminants from the substrate that yields a large background of chemical noise in the mass spectra. A more general challenge is that microfluidic devices containing integrated electrospray emitters are frequently unable to operate stably in the nanoflow regime where the best sensitivity is achieved. In this report, we extracted the contaminants from PDMS substrates using a series of solvents, eliminating the background observed when untreated PDMS microchips are used for nanoESI-MS. Optimization of the integrated emitter geometry enabled stable operation at flow rates as low as 10 nL/min. Peptide concentrations of 1 nM were readily detected, representing ~170 zmol of consumed analyte, and an extrapolated detection limit of ~40 zmol; these are the lowest mass and concentration detection limits reported to date for a microchip having an integrated electrospray emitter.

  6. Integrated hybrid polystyrene-polydimethylsiloxane device for monitoring cellular release with microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alicia S.; Mehl, Benjamin T.; Martin, R. Scott

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a polystyrene (PS)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) hybrid device was developed to enable the integration of cell culture with analysis by microchip electrophoresis and electrochemical detection. It is shown that this approach combines the fundamental advantages of PDMS devices (the ability to integrate pumps and valves) and PS devices (the ability to permanently embed fluidic tubing and electrodes). The embedded fused-silica capillary enables high temporal resolution measurements from off-chip cell culture dishes and the embedded electrodes provide close to real-time analysis of small molecule neurotransmitters. A novel surface treatment for improved (reversible) adhesion between PS and PDMS is described using a chlorotrimethylsilane stamping method. It is demonstrated that a Pd decoupler is efficient at handling the high current (and cathodic hydrogen production) resulting from use of high ionic strength buffers needed for cellular analysis; thus allowing an electrophoretic separation and in-channel detection. The separation of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in highly conductive biological buffers was optimized using a mixed surfactant system. This PS-PDMS hybrid device integrates multiple processes including continuous sampling from a cell culture dish, on-chip pump and valving technologies, microchip electrophoresis, and electrochemical detection to monitor neurotransmitter release from PC 12 cells. PMID:25663849

  7. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip-based immunoassay with multiple reaction zones: Toward on-chip multiplex detection platform

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Jun; Li, Zhaohui; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Wang, Wanjun; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-09-20

    In this work, a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip-based immuno-sensing platform with integrated pneumatic micro valves is described. The microchip was fabricated with multiple layer soft lithography technology. By controlling the activation status of corresponding valves, reagent flows in the microchannel network can be well manipulated so that immuno-reactions only take place at designated reaction zones (DRZs). Four DRZs are included in the prototype microchip. Since these DRZs are all isolated from each other by micro valves, cross contamination is prevented. Using the inner surface of the all-PDMS microchannel as immunoassay substrate, on-chip sandwich format solid phase immunoassay was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this immuno-sensing platform. Mouse IgG and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were used as the model analyte and the signal reporter respectively. Only 10 ul sample is needed for the assay and low detection limit of 5 ng/ml (≈33 pM) was achieved though low-cost polyclonal antibodies were used in our experiment for feasibility study only. The encouraging results from mouse IgG immunoassay proved the feasibility of our microchip design. With slight modification of the assay protocol, the same chip design can be used for multi-target detection and can provide a simple, cost-effective and integrated microchip solution for multiplex immunoassay applications.

  8. Direct inkjet printing of micro-scale silver electrodes on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Ren, X.; Kim, J. W.; Noh, H.

    2014-11-01

    Recently, direct inkjet printing of conductive solutions has received much attention in the microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip community because of its low-cost and mask-free deposition of electrodes on various substrates. However, the investigation of micro-scale direct inkjet printing on the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate has not been completed. Here we present a direct inkjet printing technique to produce narrow (40-90 µm) silver microelectrodes on PDMS. Extensive experimental characterization studies on the pattern uniformity and electrical properties of the printed silver lines are presented. The effect of major printing parameters such as drop spacing, sintering temperature and duration, platen temperature, and nozzle temperature have been thoroughly investigated. We also investigated multiple layer printing as well as the effects of thermal expansion and mechanical bending. In order to demonstrate the utility of the inkjet-printed silver microelectrode, we fabricated both quadruple and castellated electrodes, and conducted dielectrophoretic manipulation of microbeads. The results clearly show that the printed silver electrodes can be used for electrokinetic applications in PDMS microchip devices. We believe that the direct inkjet printing of silver ink on PDMS presented here can provide a very convenient way of creating microelectrodes on PDMS devices for a variety of applications in the MEMS, microfluidics, and lab-on-a-chip communities.

  9. Electrophoretic separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips using a mixture of ionic and zwitterionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qian; Noblitt, Scott D; Henry, Charles S

    2012-01-01

    The use of mixtures of ionic and zwitterionic surfactants in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips is reported. The effect of surfactant concentration on electroosmotic flow (EOF) was studied for a single anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a single zwitterionic surfactant (N-tetradecylammonium-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate, TDAPS), and a mixed SDS/TDAPS surfactant system. SDS increased the EOF as reported previously while TDAPS showed an initial increase in EOF followed by a reduction at higher concentrations. When TDAPS was added to a solution containing SDS, the EOF decreased in a concentration-dependent manner. The EOF for all three surfactant systems followed expected pH trends, with increasing EOF at higher pH. The mixed surfactant system allowed tuning of the EOF across a range of pH and concentration conditions. After establishing the EOF behavior, the adsorption/desorption kinetics were measured and showed a slower adsorption/desorption rate for TDAPS than SDS. Finally, the separation and electrochemical detection of model catecholamines in buffer and reduced glutathione in red blood cell lysate using the mixed surfactant system were explored. The mixed surfactant system provided shorter analysis times and/or improved resolution when compared to the single surfactant systems.

  10. Electrophoretic separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips using mixtures of ionic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Qian; Noblitt, Scott D.; Henry, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of surfactant mixtures to affect both electroosmotic flow (EOF) and separation selectivity in electrophoresis with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates is reported, and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C4D) is introduced for EOF measurement on PDMS microchips. First, the EOF was measured for two nonionic surfactants (Tween 20 and Triton X-100), mixed ionic/nonionic surfactant systems (SDS/Tween 20 and SDS/Triton X-100), and finally for the first time, mixed zwitterionic/nonionic surfactant systems (TDAPS/Tween 20 and TDAPS/Triton X-100). EOF for the nonionic surfactants decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. The addition of SDS or TDAPS to a nonionic surfactant increased EOF. After establishing the EOF behavior, the separation of model catecholamines was explored to show the impact on separations. Similar analyte resolution with greater peak heights was achieved with mixed surfactant systems containing Tween 20 and TDAPS relative to the single surfactant system. Finally, the detection of catecholamine release from PC12 cells by stimulation with 80 mM K+ was performed to demonstrate the usefulness of mixed surfactant systems to provide resolution of biological compounds in complex samples. PMID:23019105

  11. A hydrophobic ionic liquid compartmentalized sampling/labeling and its separation techniques in polydimethylsiloxane microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Quan, Hong Hua; Li, Ming; Huang, Yan; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a novel compartmentalized sampling/labeling method and its separation techniques using a hydrophobic ionic liquid (IL)-1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imidate (BmimNTf2 )-as the immiscible phase, which is capable of minimizing signal losses during microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE). The MCE device consists of a silica tube connected to a straight polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) separation channel. Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDAC) was coated on the inner surface of channel to ease the introduction of IL plugs and enhance the IL wetting on the PDMS surface for sample releasing. Electroosmotic flow (EOF)-based sample compartmentalization was carried out through a sequenced injection into sampling tubes with the following order: leading IL plug/sample segment/terminal IL plug. The movement of the sample segment was easily controlled by applying an electrical voltage across both ends of the chip without a sample volume change. This approach effectively prevented analyte diffusion before injection into MCE channels. When the sample segment was manipulated to the PDDAC-modified PDMS channel, the sample plug then was released from isolation under EOF while IL plugs adsorbed onto channel surfaces owing to strong adhesion. A mixture of flavin adenine nucleotides (FAD) and flavin mononucleotides (FMN) was successfully separated on a 2.5 cm long separation channel, for which the theoretical numbers of plates were 15 000 and 17 000, respectively. The obtained peak intensity was increased 6.3-fold over the corresponding value from conventional electrokinetic injection with the same sampling time. Furthermore, based on the compartmented sample segment serving as an interim reactor, an on-chip fluorescence labeling is demonstrated. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A simplified poly(dimethylsiloxane) capillary electrophoresis microchip integrated with a low-noise contactless conductivity detector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Benyan; Zhang, Yi; Mayer, Dirk; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Jin, Qinghui; Zhao, Jianlong; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    A contactless conductivity detector integrated into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip for electrophoresis is presented. It adopted the simplest configuration of electrodes commonly used in this detection mode for capillary electrophoresis microchips. Although the chip is based on a simple and effective design, it is able to obtain low detection levels due to the low noise of the detection circuit. A circuit based on a lock-in amplifier was designed on printed circuit boards to read out the signal. The property of the detection cell was studied by applying excitation signals of different frequencies and different amplitudes. It was found that the best detection limit could be achieved with a frequency of 50 kHz and amplitude of 20 V. The performance of the detector was demonstrated by successfully separating and detecting several inorganic ions and also a mixture of heavy metal ions. An average detection limit of 0.4 μM was obtained for inorganic cations. This value is significantly improved compared to similar microchip-based detectors. The presented detector could be promising for mass production due to its properties, such as simple construction, high degree of integration, high performance and low cost.

  13. A sensor for adenosine triphosphate fabricated by laser-induced forward transfer of luciferase onto a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Yasuyuki; Furuhata, Yosuke; Kitamura, Noboru

    2007-08-01

    Laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) of the enzyme luciferase was explored as a potential technique to be used in the fabrication of a microchip adenosine triphosphate (ATP) sensor. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was selected as the substrate for deposition of the luciferase. In comparison with other solid substrates, such as glass and polystyrene, it was found that the flexibility of PDMS made it a superior substrate for the immobilization of micro-spots of luciferase. LIFT of luciferase onto a PDMS substrate using a 355 nm laser was successfully carried out, while the bioactivity of the enzyme was maintained. Yellow luminescence ascribed to luciferase was observed from a transferred spot on the PDMS chip from the enzymatic reaction between luciferin and ATP. A microchip ATP sensor was also fabricated by attaching a small photodiode to the PDMS chip. On the basis of the fabricated microchip, the Michaelis-Menten relation between the luminescence intensity from the spot, and the ATP concentration was confirmed. The potential for fabricating biosensors using a combination of the LIFT technique with a PDMS substrate was shown to be very good.

  14. Stable low-fouling plasma polymer coatings on polydimethylsiloxane

    PubMed Central

    Forster, S.; McArthur, S. L.

    2012-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (DMS) is a popular material for microfluidics, but it is hydrophobic and is prone to non-specific protein adsorption. In this study, we explore methods for producing stable, protein resistant, tetraglyme plasma polymer coatings on PDMS by combining extended baking processes with multiple plasma polymer coating steps. We demonstrate that by using this approach, it is possible to produce a plasma polymer coatings that resist protein adsorption (<10 ng/cm2) and are stable to storage over at least 100 days. This methodology can translate to any plasma polymer system, enabling the introduction of a wide range of surface functionalities on PDMS surfaces. PMID:24062864

  15. PDMS microchip coated with polydopamine/gold nanoparticles hybrid for efficient electrophoresis separation of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ru-Ping; Meng, Xiang-Ying; Liu, Chun-Ming; Qiu, Jian-Ding

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, a novel, simple, economical and environmentally friendly method based on in situ chemically induced synthesis strategy was designed and developed for the modification of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip channel with polydopamine/gold nanoparticles (PDA/Au NPs) to create a hydrophilic and biofouling resistant surface. Dopamine as a reductant and a monomer, and HAuCl(4) as an oxidant to trigger dopamine polymerization and the source of metallic nanoparticles, were filled into the PDMS microchannel to yield in situ a well-distributed and robust PDA/Au NP coating. Au NPs were highly and uniformly dispersed in/on the PDA matrix with a narrow size distribution, as verified by scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectra. Compared with the native PDMS microchannel, the modified surfaces exhibited much better wettability, high stability and suppressed electroosmotic mobility, and less nonspecific adsorption towards biomolecules. The water contact angle and EOF of PDA/Au NP-coated PDMS microchip were measured to be 13° and 4.17×10(-4) cm(2)/V s, compared to those of 111° and 5.33×10(-4) cm(2)/V s from the native one, respectively. Fast and efficient separations of five amino acids such as arginine, proline, histidine, valine and threonine suggested greatly improved electrophoretic performance of the PDA/Au NP-functionalized PDMS microchips. This one-step procedure offers an effective approach for a biomimetic surface design on microfluidic chips, which is promising in high-throughput and complex biological analysis.

  16. Comparing polyelectrolyte multilayer - coated poly(methylmethacrylate) microfluidic devices and glass microchips for electrophoretic separations

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Christa A.; Shim, Joon Sub; Ahn, Chong; Limbach, Patrick A.; Halsall, H. Brian

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing drive in microfluidics to transfer microchip systems from the more expensive glass microchips to cheaper polymer microchips. Here, we investigate using polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) as a coating system for poly (methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) microchips to improve their functionality. The multilayer system was prepared by layer-on-layer depositon of poly (diallydimethylammonium) chloride (PDAD) and polystyrene sulfonate (PSS). Practical aspects of coating PMMA microchips were explored. The multilayer buildup process was monitored using EOF measurements, and the stability of the PEM was investigated. The performance of the PEM-PMMA microchip was compared to those of a standard glass microchip and a PEM-glass microchip in terms of electroosmotic flow and separating two fluorescent dyes. Several key findings in the development of the multilayer coating procedure for PMMA chips are also presented. It was found that, with careful preparation, a PEM-PMMA microchip can be prepared that has properties comparable - and in some cases superior - to those of a standard glass microchip. PMID:20013912

  17. Comparing polyelectrolyte multilayer-coated PMMA microfluidic devices and glass microchips for electrophoretic separations.

    PubMed

    Currie, Christa A; Shim, Joon Sub; Lee, Se Hwan; Ahn, Chong; Limbach, Patrick A; Halsall, H Brian; Heineman, William R

    2009-12-01

    There is a continuing drive in microfluidics to transfer microchip systems from the more expensive glass microchips to cheaper polymer microchips. Here, we investigate using polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEM) as a coating system for PMMA microchips to improve their functionality. The multilayer system was prepared by layer-to-layer deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride and polystyrene sulfonate. Practical aspects of coating PMMA microchips were explored. The multilayer buildup process was monitored using EOF measurements, and the stability of the PEM was investigated. The performance of the PEM-PMMA microchip was compared with those of a standard glass microchip and a PEM-glass microchip in terms of EOF and separating two fluorescent dyes. Several key findings in the development of the multilayer coating procedure for PMMA chips are also presented. It was found that, with careful preparation, a PEM-PMMA microchip can be prepared that has properties comparable--and in some cases superior--to those of a standard glass microchip.

  18. Glucose microfluidic biosensors based on immobilizing glucose oxidase in poly(dimethylsiloxane) electrophoretic microchips.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2006-11-24

    Here we reported a novel microfluidic biosensor with an on-column immobilized enzyme microreactor. The fabrication approach of this biosensor is simple and the enzyme microreactors with controlled sizes can be placed at any desired position on the microchip. Taking glucose oxidase (GOx) as an example, electroosmotic flow (EOF) as a driving force and amperometry as a detection method, the performance of biosensors were modulated by changing the length of enzyme reactor from 0.5 cm to 3 cm, and the linear ranges were changed from 0-8.0 mM to 0-30.0 mM with the detection limits from 42 microM to 6.5 microM. The enzyme reactor remained its 65% activity after 23 days storage. It also showed good anti-interference ability and was used to quantify glucose in human serum samples.

  19. Polydimethylsiloxane-based self-healing composite and coating materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Soo Hyoun

    This thesis describes the science and technology of a new class of autonomic polymeric materials which mimic some of the functionalities of biological materials. Specifically, we demonstrate an autonomic self-healing polymer system which can heal damage in both coatings and bulk materials. The new self-healing system we developed greatly extends the capability of self-healing polymers by introducing tin catalyzed polycondensation of hydroxyl end-functionalited polydimethylsiloxane and polydiethoxysiloxane based chemistries. The components in this system are widely available and comparatively low in cost, and the healing chemistry also remains stable in humid or wet environments. These achievements significantly increase the probability that self-healing could be extended not only to polymer composites but also to coatings and thin films in harsh environments. We demonstrate the bulk self-healing property of a polymer composite composed of a phase-separated PDMS healing agent and a microencapsulated organotin catalyst by chemical and mechanical testing. Another significant research focus is on self-healing polymer coatings which prevent corrosion of a metal substrate after deep scratch damage. The anti-corrosion properties of the self-healing polymer on metal substrates are investigated by corrosion resistance and electrochemical tests. Even after scratch damage into the substrate, the coating is able to heal, while control samples which do not include all the necessary healing components reveal rapid corrosion propagation. This self-healing coating solution can be easily applied to most substrate materials, and is compatible with most common polymer matrices. Self-healing has the potential to extend the lifetime and increase the reliability of thermosetting polymers used in a wide variety of applications ranging from microelectronics to aerospace.

  20. Electrophoretic separations in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchips using mixtures of ionic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qian; Noblitt, Scott D; Henry, Charles S

    2012-09-01

    The use of surfactant mixtures to affect both EOF and separation selectivity in electrophoresis with PDMS substrates is reported, and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection is introduced for EOF measurement on PDMS microchips. First, the EOF was measured for two nonionic surfactants (Tween 20 and Triton X-100), mixed ionic/nonionic surfactant systems (SDS/Tween 20 and SDS/Triton X-100), and finally for the first time, mixed zwitterionic/nonionic surfactant systems (TDAPS/Tween 20 and TDAPS/Triton X-100). EOF for the nonionic surfactants decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. The addition of SDS or TDAPS to a nonionic surfactant increased EOF. After establishing the EOF behavior, the separation of model catecholamines was explored to show the impact on separations. Similar analyte resolution with greater peak heights was achieved with mixed surfactant systems containing Tween 20 and TDAPS relative to the single surfactant system. Finally, the detection of catecholamine release from PC12 cells by stimulation with 80 mM K(+) was performed to demonstrate the usefulness of mixed surfactant systems to provide resolution of biological compounds in complex samples.

  1. Deoxyribonucleic acid modified poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic channels for the enhancement of microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ruping; Hu, Pengfei; Gan, Guihua; Qiu, Jianding

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was employed to construct a functional film on the PDMS microfluidic channel surface and apply to perform electrophoresis coupled with electrochemical detection. The functional film was formed by sequentially immobilizing chitosan and DNA to the PDMS microfluidic channel surface using the layer-by-layer assembly. The polysaccharide backbone of chitosan can be strongly adsorbed onto the hydrophobic PDMS surface through electrostatic interaction in the acidic media, meanwhile, chitosan contains one protonatable functional moiety resulting in a strong electrostatic interactions between the surface amine group of chitosan and the charged phosphate backbone of DNA at low pH, which generates a hydrophilic microchannel surface and reveals perfect resistance to nonspecific adsorption of analytes. Aminophenol isomers (p-, o-, and m-aminophenol) served as a separation model to evaluate the effect of the functional PDMS microfluidic chips. The results clearly showed that these analytes were efficiently separated within 60s in a 3.7 cm long separation channel and successfully detected on the modified microchip coupled with in-channel amperometric detection mode at a single carbon fiber electrode. The theoretical plate numbers were 74,021, 92,658 and 60,552 Nm(-1) at the separation voltage of 900 V with the detection limits of 1.6, 4.7 and 2.5 microM (S/N=3) for p-, o-, and m-aminophenol, respectively. In addition, this report offered an effective means for preparing hydrophilic and biocompatible PDMS microchannel surface, which would facilitate the use of microfluidic devices for more widespread applications.

  2. Physisorbed surface coatings for poly(dimethylsiloxane) and quartz microfluidic devices

    PubMed Central

    Viefhues, M.; Manchanda, S.; Chao, T.-C.; Anselmetti, D.; Regtmeier, J.; Ros, A.

    2011-01-01

    Surface modifications of microfluidic devices are of essential importance for successful bioanalytical applications. Here, we investigate three different coatings for quartz and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces. We employed a triblock copolymer with trade name F108, poly (l-lysine)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-PEG), as well as the hybrid coating n-dodecyl-β-d-maltoside and methyl cellulose (DDM/MC). The impact of these coatings was characterized by measuring the electroosmotic flow (EOF), contact angle, and prevention of protein adsorption. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of static coatings, i.e., the incubation with the coating agent prior to measurements, and dynamic coatings, where the coating agent was present during the measurement. We found that all coatings on PDMS as well as quartz reduced EOF, increased reproducibility of EOF, reduced protein adsorption, and improved the wettability of the surfaces. Among the coating strategies tested, the dynamic coatings with DDM/MC and F108 demonstrated maximal reduction of EOF and protein adsorption and simultaneously best long-term stability concerning EOF. For PLL-PEG, a reversal in the EOF direction was observed. Interestingly, the static surface coating strategy with F108 proved to be as effective to prevent protein adsorption as dynamic coating with this block copolymer. These findings will allow optimized parameter choices for coating strategies on PDMS and quartz microfluidic devices in which control of EOF and reduced biofouling are indispensable. PMID:21847528

  3. Poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated microfluidic devices for high-performance microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Belder, Detlev; Deege, Alfred; Kohler, Frank; Ludwig, Martin

    2002-10-01

    The channels of microfluidic glass chips have been coated with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Applied for microchip electrophoresis, the coated devices exhibited a suppressed electroosmotic flow and improved separation performance. The superior performance of PVA-coated channels could be demonstrated by electrophoretic separations of labeled amines and by video microscopy. While a distorted sample zone is injected using uncoated channels the application of PVA-coated channels results in an improved shape of the sample zone with less band broadening. Applying PVA-coated microchips for the separation of amines labeled with Alexa Fluor 350 even sub-second separations, utilizing a separation length of only 650 microm, could be obtained, while this was not possible using uncoated devices. By using PVA-coated devices rather than an uncoated chip a threefold increase in separation efficiencies could be observed. As the electroosmotic flow (EOF) was suppressed, the anionic compounds were detected at the anode whereas the dominant EOF in uncoated devices resulted in an effective mobility to the cathode. Besides improved separation performance another important feature of the PVA-coated channels was the suppressed adsorption of fluorescent compounds in repetitive runs which results in an improved robustness and detection sensitivity. Applying PVA-coated channels, rinsing or etching steps could be omitted while this was necessary for a reliable operation of uncoated devices.

  4. Formation of lipid bilayer membrane in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip integrated with a stacked polycarbonate membrane support and an on-site nanoinjector.

    PubMed

    Teng, Wei; Ban, Changill; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a new and facile approach for the formation of pore-spanning bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) within a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device. Commercially, readily available polycarbonate (PC) membranes are employed for the support of BLMs. PC sheets with 5 μm, 2 μm, and 0.4 μm pore diameters, respectively, are thermally bonded into a multilayer-stack, reducing the pore density of 0.4 μm-pore PC by a factor of 200. The BLMs on this support are considerably stable (a mean lifetime: 17 h). This multilayer-stack PC (MSPC) membrane is integrated into the PDMS chip by an epoxy bonding method developed to secure durable bonding under the use of organic solvents. The microchip has a special channel for guiding a micropipette in the proximity of the MSPC support. With this on-site injection technique, tens to hundreds of nanoliters of solutions can be directly dispensed to the support. Incorporating gramicidin ion channels into BLMs on the MSPC support has confirmed the formation of single BLMs, which is based on the observation from current signals of 20 pS conductance that is typical to single channel opening. Based on the bilayer capacitance (1.4 pF), about 15% of through pores across the MSPC membrane are estimated to be covered with BLMs.

  5. Formation of lipid bilayer membrane in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip integrated with a stacked polycarbonate membrane support and an on-site nanoinjector

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Wei; Ban, Changill; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new and facile approach for the formation of pore-spanning bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) within a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic device. Commercially, readily available polycarbonate (PC) membranes are employed for the support of BLMs. PC sheets with 5 μm, 2 μm, and 0.4 μm pore diameters, respectively, are thermally bonded into a multilayer-stack, reducing the pore density of 0.4 μm-pore PC by a factor of 200. The BLMs on this support are considerably stable (a mean lifetime: 17 h). This multilayer-stack PC (MSPC) membrane is integrated into the PDMS chip by an epoxy bonding method developed to secure durable bonding under the use of organic solvents. The microchip has a special channel for guiding a micropipette in the proximity of the MSPC support. With this on-site injection technique, tens to hundreds of nanoliters of solutions can be directly dispensed to the support. Incorporating gramicidin ion channels into BLMs on the MSPC support has confirmed the formation of single BLMs, which is based on the observation from current signals of 20 pS conductance that is typical to single channel opening. Based on the bilayer capacitance (1.4 pF), about 15% of through pores across the MSPC membrane are estimated to be covered with BLMs. PMID:26015832

  6. Immobilization of trypsin on silica-coated fiberglass core in microchip for highly efficient proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Gang

    2009-03-15

    In this report, trypsin was immobilized on silica-coated fiberglass core in microchip to form a core-changeable bioreactor for highly efficient proteolysis. To prepare the fiber core, a layer of organic-inorganic hybrid silica coating was prepared on the surface of a piece of glass fiber by a sol-gel method with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as precursors. Subsequently, trypsin was immobilized on the coating with the aid of glutaraldehyde. Prior to use, the enzyme-immobilized fiber was inserted into the channel of a microchip to form an in-channel fiber bioreactor. The novel bioreactor can be regenerated by changing its fiber core. The scanning electron microscopy images of the cross-section of a trypsin-immobilized fiber indicated that a layer of approximately 1mum thick film formed on the glass substrate. The feasibility and performance of the unique bioreactor were demonstrated by the tryptic digestion of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and cytochrome c (Cyt-c) and the digestion time was significantly reduced to less than 10s. The digests were identified by MALDI-TOF MS with sequence coverages of 45% (BSA) and 77% (Cyt-c) that were comparable to those obtained by 12-h conventional in-solution tryptic digestion. The fiber-based microchip bioreactor provides a promising platform for the high-throughput protein identification.

  7. Hydrogel-based protein and oligonucleotide microchips on metal-coated surfaces: enhancement of fluorescence and optimization of immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Zubtsova, Zh I; Zubtsov, D A; Savvateeva, E N; Stomakhin, A A; Chechetkin, V R; Zasedatelev, A S; Rubina, A Yu

    2009-10-26

    Manufacturing of hydrogel-based microchips on metal-coated substrates significantly enhances fluorescent signals upon binding of labeled target molecules. This observation holds true for both oligonucleotide and protein microchips. When Cy5 is used as fluorophore, this enhancement is 8-10-fold in hemispherical gel elements and 4-5-fold in flattened gel pads, as compared with similar microchips manufactured on uncoated glass slides. The effect also depends on the hydrophobicity of metal-coated substrate and on the presence of a layer of liquid over the gel pads. The extent of enhancement is insensitive to the nature of formed complexes and immobilized probes and remains linear within a wide range of fluorescence intensities. Manufacturing of gel-based protein microarrays on metal-coated substrates improves their sensitivity using the same incubation time for immunoassay. Sandwich immunoassay using these microchips allows shortening the incubation time without loss of sensitivity. Unlike microchips with probes immobilized directly on a surface, for which the plasmon mechanism is considered responsible for metal-enhanced fluorescence, the enhancement effect observed using hydrogel-based microchips on metal-coated substrates might be explained within the framework of geometric optics.

  8. Anti-fouling Coatings of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Devices for Biological and Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbin; Chiao, Mu

    Fouling initiated by nonspecific protein adsorption is a great challenge in biomedical applications, including biosensors, bioanalytical devices, and implants. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), a popular material with many attractive properties for device fabrication in the biomedical field, suffers serious fouling problems from protein adsorption due to its hydrophobic nature, which limits the practical use of PDMS-based devices. Effort has been made to develop biocompatible materials for anti-fouling coatings of PDMS. In this review, typical nonfouling materials for PDMS coatings are introduced and the associated basic anti-fouling mechanisms, including the steric repulsion mechanism and the hydration layer mechanism, are described. Understanding the relationships between the characteristics of coating materials and the accompanying anti-fouling mechanisms is critical for preparing PDMS coatings with desirable anti-fouling properties.

  9. Surface studies on superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane-silica nanocomposite coating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Bharathibai J.; Dinesh Kumar, V.; Anandan, C.

    2012-11-01

    Superhydrophobic and oleophobic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-silica nanocomposite double layer coating was fabricated by applying a thin layer of low surface energy fluoroalkyl silane (FAS) as topcoat. The coatings exhibited WCA of 158-160° and stable oleophobic property with oil CA of 79°. The surface morphology was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and surface chemical composition was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometery (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FESEM images of the coatings showed micro-nano binary structure. The improved oleophobicity was attributed to the combined effect of low surface energy of FAS and roughness created by the random distribution of silica aggregates. This is a facile, cost-effective method to obtain superhydrophobic and oleophobic surfaces on larger area of various substrates.

  10. Towards dynamic coating of glass microchip chambers for amplifying DNA via the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Giordano, B C; Copeland, E R; Landers, J P

    2001-01-01

    As microchip technology evolves to allow for the integration of more complex processes, particularly the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it will become necessary to define simple approaches for minimizing the effects of surfaces on the chemistry/processes to be performed. We have explored alternatives to silanization of the glass surface with the use of additives that either dynamically coat or adsorb to the glass surface. Polyethylene glycol, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), and hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) have been explored as potential dynamic coatings and epoxy (poly)dimethylacrylamide (EPDMA) evaluated as an adsorbed coating. By carrying out analysis of the PCR products generated under different conditions via microchip electrophoresis, we demonstrate that these coating agents adequately passivate the glass surface in a manner that prevents interference with the subsequent PCR process. While several of the agents tested allowed for PCR amplification of DNA in glass, the EPDMA was clearly superior with respect to ease of preparation. However, more efficient PCR (larger mass of amplified product) could be obtained by silanizing the glass surface.

  11. Coated microfluidic devices for improved chiral separations in microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Martin; Belder, Detlev

    2003-08-01

    Chiral separations of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled amines have been performed in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-coated microfluidic glass chips. Baseline separation of enantiomers could be realized in coated devices while they could not be resolved in uncoated chips. The electroosmotic flow (EOF) in PVA-coated channels is suppressed over a wide pH range which leads to a considerable improved reproducibility of migration times in repetitive analysis. Due to the high resolution obtained in such devices, it was possible to reliable determine the enantiomeric purity with high accuracy. One percent of the minor enantiomer could be determined in the presence of large excess of the other enantiomer. As the EOF was suppressed, the anionic compounds were detected at the anode whereas the dominant EOF in uncoated devices resulted in an effective mobility to the cathode. Applying PVA-coated channels considerable improved precision of migration times was found. The relative standard deviation of migration times was below 1% in PVA-coated devices. Accordingly, excessive rinsing or etching steps in order to stabilize the EOF could be omitted while this was necessary for a reliable operation of uncoated devices.

  12. Accurate measurement of the sticking time and sticking probability of Rb atoms on a polydimethylsiloxane coating

    SciTech Connect

    Atutov, S. N. Plekhanov, A. I.

    2015-01-15

    We present the results of a systematic study of Knudsen’s flow of Rb atoms in cylindrical capillary cells coated with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) compound. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the characterization of the coating in terms of the sticking probability and sticking time of Rb on the two types of coating of high and medium viscosities. We report the measurement of the sticking probability of a Rb atom to the coating equal to 4.3 × 10{sup −5}, which corresponds to the number of bounces 2.3 × 10{sup 4} at room temperature. These parameters are the same for the two kinds of PDMS used. We find that at room temperature, the respective sticking times for high-viscosity and medium-viscosity PDMS are 22 ± 3 μs and 49 ± 6 μs. These sticking times are about million times larger than the sticking time derived from the surface Rb atom adsorption energy and temperature of the coating. A tentative explanation of this surprising result is proposed based on the bulk diffusion of the atoms that collide with the surface and penetrate inside the coating. The results can be important in many resonance cell experiments, such as the efficient magnetooptical trapping of rare elements or radioactive isotopes and in experiments on the light-induced drift effect.

  13. Fabrication of robust hydrogel coatings on polydimethylsiloxane substrates using micropillar anchor structures with chemical surface modification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongbin; Bian, Chao; Jackson, John K; Khademolhosseini, Farzad; Burt, Helen M; Chiao, Mu

    2014-06-25

    A durable hydrophilic and protein-resistant surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based devices is desirable in many biomedical applications such as implantable and microfluidic devices. This paper describes a stable antifouling hydrogel coating on PDMS surfaces. The coating method combines chemical modification and surface microstructure fabrication of PDMS substrates. Three-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylates containing C═C groups were used to modify PDMS surfaces with micropillar array structures fabricated by a replica molding method. The micropillar structures increase the surface area of PDMS surfaces, which facilitates secure bonding with a hydrogel coating compared to flat PMDS surfaces. The adhesion properties of the hydrogel coating on PDMS substrates were characterized using bending, stretching and water immersion tests. Long-term hydrophilic stability (maintaining a contact angle of 55° for a month) and a low protein adsorption property (35 ng/cm(2) of adsorbed BSA-FITC) of the hydrogel coated PDMS were demonstrated. This coating method is suitable for PDMS modification with most crosslinkable polymers containing C═C groups, which can be useful for improving the anti-biofouling performance of PDMS-based biomedical microdevices.

  14. Neutral polymers as coatings for high resolution electrophoretic separation of Aβ peptides on glass microchips.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, Kiarach; Verpillot, Romain; Chiari, Marcella; Pallandre, Antoine; Taverna, Myriam

    2014-12-21

    This study reports a comparison of the performances of two neutral polymers, poly ethylene-oxide (PEO) and poly(dimethylacrylamide-co-allyl glycidyl ether) (EpDMA), in glass microchips to achieve zone electrophoresis separation of several truncated forms of beta amyloid (Aβ) peptides, sharing very similar structures. The peptides were derivatized by FluoProbes 488 NHS to allow their fluorescence detection. Two protocols based either on PEO or EpDMA led to good pH stabilities in addition to a significant reduction of the electroosmotic flow. These two polymer coatings allowed repeatable analyses and high resolution for the simultaneous analysis of three Aβ peptides, Aβ 1-38, Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42, considered as potential biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. A recovery study showed that EpDMA was superior in reducing the adsorption of the Aβ peptides on the coated inner wall. Finally, the separation method relying on the EpDMA coated microchips was validated as linear using a calibration curve and the LOD was estimated to be close to 200 nM. Despite very short migration distances, different N-terminal or C-terminal truncated Aβ peptides, corresponding to promising biomarker combinations for the future diagnostic, were fully resolved. The method was successfully applied to detect these peptides in spiked cerebrospinal fluid and has provided a first achievement towards the development of a microsystem that would integrate preconcentration and separation steps.

  15. Uniform polydimethylsiloxane beads coated with polydopamine and their potential biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Jun, Dae-Ryong; Moon, Seung-Kwan; Choi, Sung-Wook

    2014-09-01

    Based on oil-in-water emulsion, uniform poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) beads were prepared using a simple fluidic device and then modified with polydopamine (PDA) to improve cell attachment. The size of the PDMS beads could be easily tuned by changing the flow rates of the discontinuous and continuous phases, and PDMS concentration in oil phase. The PDA-coated PDMS beads exhibited a dark and rough surface, whereas the pristine PDMS beads had a clear and smooth surface. The PDA layer at the surface of the PDMS beads was found to provide a favorable environment for cell culture due to its hydrophilic property. The PDA-coated PDMS beads can potentially be employed as filler materials for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High-speed separation of proteins by microchip electrophoresis using a polyethylene glycol-coated plastic chip with a sodium dodecyl sulfate-linear polyacrylamide solution.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Hideya; Tabuchi, Mari; Hirano, Ken; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2005-07-01

    In this paper, we describe a method for size-based electrophoretic separation of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-protein complexes on a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microchip, using a separation buffer solution containing SDS and linear polyacrylamide as a sieving matrix. We developed optimum conditions under which protein separations can be performed, using polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated polymer microchips and electrokinetic sample injection. We studied the performance of protein separations on the PEG-coated PMMA microchip. The electrophoretic separation of proteins (21.5-116.0 kDa) was completed with separation lengths of 3 mm, achieved within 8 s on the PEG-coated microchip. This high-speed method may be applied to protein separations over a large range of molecular weight, making the PEG-coated microchip approach applicable to high-speed proteome analysis systems.

  17. Internal modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchannels with a borosilicate glass coating.

    PubMed

    Orhan, J-B; Parashar, V K; Flueckiger, J; Gijs, M A M

    2008-08-19

    We report on an original technique for the in situ coating of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchannels with borosilicate glass, starting from an active nonaqueous and alkali-free precursor solution. By chemical reaction of this active solution inside the microchannel and subsequent thermal annealing, a protective and chemically inert glass borosilicate coating is bonded to the PDMS. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the active solution show that it is composed of a silicon oxide network with boron connectivity. Thermal gravimetric analysis demonstrates the absence of organic content when curing is done above 150 degrees C. The borosilicate nature of the glass coating covalently bonded to the PDMS is demonstrated using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy show a smooth and crack-free coating. The latter is used as an efficient protective barrier against diffusion in PDMS of fluorescent rhodamine B dye that is dissolved either in water or in toluene. Moreover, the coating prevents swelling and consequent structural damage of the PDMS when the latter is exposed to harsh chemicals such as toluene.

  18. Robust and thermal-healing superhydrophobic surfaces by spin-coating of polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Long, Mengying; Peng, Shan; Deng, Wanshun; Yang, Xiaojun; Miao, Kai; Wen, Ni; Miao, Xinrui; Deng, Wenli

    2017-12-15

    Superhydrophobic surfaces easily lose their excellent water-repellency after damages, which limit their broad applications in practice. Thus, the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces with excellent durability and thermal healing should be taken into consideration. In this work, robust superhydrophobic surfaces with thermal healing were successfully fabricated by spin-coating method. To achieve superhydrophobicity, cost-less and fluoride-free polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was spin-coated on rough aluminum substrates. After being spin-coated for one cycle, the superhydrophobic PDMS coated hierarchical aluminum (PDMS-H-Al) surfaces showed excellent tolerance to various chemical and mechanical damages in lab, and outdoor damages for 90days. When the PDMS-H-Al surfaces underwent severe damages such as oil contamination (peanut oil with high boiling point) or sandpaper abrasion (500g of force for 60cm), their superhydrophobicity would lose. Interestingly, through a heating process, cyclic oligomers generating from the partially decomposed PDMS acted as low-surface-energy substance on the damaged rough surfaces, leading to the recovery of superhydrophobicity. The relationship between the spin-coating cycles and surface wettability was also investigated. This paper provides a facile, fluoride-free and efficient method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with thermal healing. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Niobium oxide-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid composite coatings for tuning primary fibroblast functions.

    PubMed

    Young, Matthew D; Tran, Nhiem; Tran, Phong A; Jarrell, John D; Hayda, Roman A; Born, Chistopher T

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluates the potential of niobium oxide-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites for tuning cellular response of fibroblasts, a key cell type of soft tissue/implant interfaces. In this study, various hybrid coatings of niobium oxide and PDMS with different niobium oxide concentrations were synthesized and characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), and contact angle goniometry. The coatings were then applied to 96-well plates, on which primary fibroblasts were seeded. Fibroblast viability, proliferation, and morphology were assessed after 1, 2, and 3 days of incubation using WST-1 and calcein AM assays along with fluorescent microscopy. The results showed that the prepared coatings had distinct surface features with submicron spherical composites covered in a polymeric layer. The water contact angle measurement demonstrated that the hybrid surfaces were much more hydrophobic than the original pure niobium oxide and PDMS. The combination of surface roughness and chemistry resulted in a biphasic cellular response with maximum fibroblast density on substrate with 40 wt % of niobium oxide. The results of the current study indicate that by adjusting the concentration of niobium oxide in the coating, a desirable cell response can be achieved to improve tissue/implant interfaces.

  20. Study on the wetting behavior and theoretical models of polydimethylsiloxane/silica coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kunquan; Zeng, Xingrong; Li, Hongqiang; Lai, Xuejun; Ye, Chaoxian; Xie, Hu

    2013-08-01

    The hydrophobic coatings were successfully fabricated through spraying via mixing the hydrophobic silica (SiO2) and the cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which was cured by tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) under the catalysis of dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL). The effects of SiO2 content on the surface morphology and wettability, as well as the water at different temperatures on the hydrophobic behavior were investigated. When the mass ratio of SiO2 to PDMS-TEOS is 0.3, the micromorphology of coating shows random micro/nanostructure and the water contact angle (WCA) of the coating reaches 153.4° with a sliding angle (SA) lower than 5°. However, with the increase of temperature of water droplet over 50 °C, the WCA falls below 130.4° and the SA significantly increases to nearly 180°, which implies that the state of water droplet on superhydrophobic surface has changed from Cassie-Baxter (CB) model to Wenzel model. Meanwhile, on the basis of the variant WAC of water at different temperatures on the same surfaces, a revised model is proposed to explain the state of water droplet on the hydrophobic surface. Thus, the effective way to increase the WCA is to capture more air in the grooves. Finally, based on the models, the relationship between hydrophobicity and superhydrophobicity is explained.

  1. Improvement of the Thermal and Optical Performances of Protective Polydimethylsiloxane Space Coatings with Cellulose Nanocrystal Additives.

    PubMed

    Planes, Mikael; Brand, Jérémie; Lewandowski, Simon; Remaury, Stéphanie; Solé, Stéphane; Le Coz, Cédric; Carlotti, Stéphane; Sèbe, Gilles

    2016-10-07

    This work investigates the possibility of using cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) as biobased nanoadditives in protective polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) space coatings, to improve the thermal and optical performances of the material. CNCs produced from wood pulp were functionalized in different conditions with the objective to improve their dispersibility in the PDMS matrix, increase their thermal stability and provide photoactive functions. Polysiloxane, cinnamate, chloroacetate and trifluoroacetate moieties were accordingly anchored at the CNCs surface by silylation, using two different approaches, or acylation with different functional vinyl esters. The modified CNCs were thoroughly characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, solid-state NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, before being incorporated into a PDMS space coating formulation in low concentration (0.5 to 4 wt %). The cross-linked PDMS films were subsequently investigated with regards to their mechanical behavior, thermal stability and optical properties after photoaging. Results revealed that the CNC additives could significantly improve the thermal stability of the PDMS coating, up to 140 °C, depending on the treatment and CNC concentration, without affecting the mechanical properties and transparency of the material. In addition, the PDMS films loaded with as low as 1 wt % halogenated nanoparticles, exhibited an improved UV-stability after irradiation in geostationary conditions.

  2. A general microchip surface modification approach using a spin-coated polymer resist film doped with hydroxypropyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiuhua; Yang, Weichun; Geng, Yanli; Woolley, Adam T

    2009-04-07

    We have developed a simple and effective method for surface modification of polymer microchips by entrapping hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) in a spin-coated thin film on the surface. Poly(methyl methacrylate-8.5-methacrylic acid), a widely available commercial resist formulation, was utilized as a matrix for dissolving HPC and providing adherence to native polymer surfaces. Various amounts of HPC (0.1-2.0%) dissolved in the copolymer and spun on polymer surfaces were evaluated. The modified surfaces were characterized by contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The developed method was applied on both poly(methyl methacrylate) and cyclic olefin copolymer microchips. A fluorescently labeled myoglobin digest, binary protein mixture, and human serum sample were all separated in these surface-modified polymer microdevices. Our work exhibits an easy and reliable way to achieve favorable biomolecular separation performance in polymer microchips.

  3. A general microchip surface modification approach using a spin-coated polymer resist film doped with hydroxypropyl cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiuhua; Yang, Weichun; Geng, Yanli; Woolley, Adam T.

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a simple and effective method for surface modification of polymer microchips by entrapping hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) in a spin-coated thin film on the surface. Poly(methyl methacrylate-8.5-methacrylic acid), a widely available commercial resist formulation, was utilized as a matrix for dissolving HPC and providing adherence to native polymer surfaces. Various amounts of HPC (0.1–2.0%) dissolved in the copolymer and spun on polymer surfaces were evaluated. The modified surfaces were characterized by contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The developed method was applied on both poly(methyl methacrylate) and cyclic olefin copolymer microchips. A fluorescently labeled myoglobin digest, binary protein mixture, and human serum sample were all separated in these surface-modified polymer microdevices. Our work exhibits an easy and reliable way to achieve favorable biomolecular separation performance in polymer microchips. PMID:19294306

  4. Superhydro-oleophobic bio-inspired polydimethylsiloxane micropillared surface via FDTS coating/blending approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zihe; Shahsavan, Hamed; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fut K.; Zhao, Boxin

    2015-01-01

    In this work we render superhydro-oleophobic properties to the surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer through bio-inspired micropillar surface and chemical modification with a fluorosilane polymer, trichloro(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)silane (FDTS). Two different chemical modification approaches were applied on both flat and micropillar PDMS: (1) vapor deposition of FDTS on cured PDMS surface, and (2) blending FDTS with the liquid PDMS precursor before curing. Comparative studies of the water and oil contact angles on the neat and FDTS-modified PDMS (both flat and micropillar) indicated that superhydro-oleophobicity was delivered by a combination of FDTS chemistry and micropillar geometry. FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar displayed better oleophobicity with an oil contact angle of ∼141° than FDTS-coated PDMS micropillar (∼115°). In contrast to the smooth surface of FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar, rough surface with some structure defects were found on the FDTS-coated micropillar surface caused by the vapor deposition process; the surface defects might be responsible for the observed low oleophobicity of FDTS-coated PDMS micropillar. Superhydrophobicity of FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar in terms of water contact angles was found to be independent of the quantity of FDTS. However, the oleophobicity of FDTS-blended PDMS micropillar was found to be dependent of the quantity of FDTS; with the increased weight concentration of FDTS in PDMS, the oils contact angle first increased and then leveled out at a finite concentration. FTIR and XPS were applied to analyze surface chemistry information suggesting the blended FDTS segregated from bulk PDMS and enriched at the surface to reduce surface tension so as to make surface super-oleophobic.

  5. Disposable Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-Coated Fused Silica Optical Fibers for Sampling Pheromones of Moths

    PubMed Central

    Lievers, Rik; Groot, Astrid T.

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, the sex pheromone composition in female moths has been analyzed by different methods, ranging from volatile collections to gland extractions, which all have some disadvantage: volatile collections can generally only be conducted on (small) groups of females to detect the minor pheromone compounds, whereas gland extractions are destructive. Direct-contact SPME overcomes some of these disadvantages, but is expensive, the SPME fiber coating can be damaged due to repeated usage, and samples need to be analyzed relatively quickly after sampling. In this study, we assessed the suitability of cheap and disposable fused silica optical fibers coated with 100 μm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by sampling the pheromone of two noctuid moths, Heliothis virescens and Heliothis subflexa. By rubbing the disposable PDMS fibers over the pheromone glands of females that had called for at least 15 minutes and subsequently extracting the PDMS fibers in hexane, we collected all known pheromone compounds, and we found a strong positive correlation for most pheromone compounds between the disposable PDMS fiber rubs and the corresponding gland extracts of the same females. When comparing this method to volatile collections and the corresponding gland extracts, we generally found comparable percentages between the three techniques, with some differences that likely stem from the chemical properties of the individual pheromone compounds. Hexane extraction of cheap, disposable, PDMS coated fused silica optical fibers allows for sampling large quantities of individual females in a short time, eliminates the need for immediate sample analysis, and enables to use the same sample for multiple chemical analyses. PMID:27533064

  6. ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane composite solid phase micro-extraction fiber coating: fabrication and extraction capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Qingtang; Zhang, Zhuomin; Chen, Guonan

    2012-01-21

    ZnO nanorod array coating is a novel kind of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating which shows good extraction capability due to the nanostructure. To prepare the composite coating is a good way to improve the extraction capability. In this paper, the ZnO nanorod array polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite SPME fiber coating has been prepared and its extraction capability for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been studied by headspace sampling the typical volatile mixed standard solution of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX). Improved detection limit and good linear ranges have been achieved for this composite SPME fiber coating. Also, it is found that the composite SPME fiber coating shows good extraction selectivity to the VOCs with alkane radicals.

  7. Polydimethylsiloxane coating on an ionic polymer metallic composite for a tunable focusing mirror.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih-An; Wei, Hsiang-Chun; Su, Guo-Dung J

    2012-12-10

    An ionic polymer metallic composite (IPMC) can perform a bending deformation under an electric field by a small bias voltage. A roughening process is necessary and typically included in the IPMC fabrication. Roughening processes bring several advantages, including better metal adhesion and actuation performance. However, the resulting large surface roughness is an obstacle for optical applications. In this paper, we coated polydimethylsiloxane to improve the surface roughness of IPMC. The improved surface roughness is around 28 nm versus tens of micrometers with an uncoated IPMC. The surface-improved IPMC achieved focusing power of 77 diopters under a 7 V bias voltage. We also found that the lifetime in atmosphere is 30 times longer than that of the nonimproved IPMC. Compared with other popular focusing techniques, such as liquid lenses or micromachined deformable mirrors, the driving voltage is at least one order of magnitude lower and the tunable range is two to three times larger. The effects of the surface-improved fabrication on reflectance, surface scattering, and actuation performance are also discussed. We demonstrate the surface-improved method to construct a patterned IPMC deformable membrane for optical applications.

  8. Preparation and characterization of polydimethylsiloxane/poly(vinylalcohol) coated solid phase microextraction fibers using sol-gel technology.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Alexandre Leite; Augusto, Fabio

    2004-11-12

    The applicability of a composite composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PDMS/PVA) as coating sorbent for SPME fibers is demonstrated here. Fused silica (FS) fibers were coated with PDMS/PVA composite through a sol-gel process, using methyltrimethoxysilane as reticulating agent. The chemical and physical properties of the sol-gel PDMS/PVA composite were determined by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Electron scanning microscopy of the prepared fibers, showed that the coating obtained was highly microporous, having a thickness of approximately 5 microm. The fibers were tested for the headspace extraction of several organic compounds (o-xylene, naphthalene, ethyl caprate, p-chlorotoluene and PCB) prior to gas chromatographic analysis. The extractive capacity of the PDMS/PVA coating was found to be superior to that of pure conventional PDMS fibers.

  9. Air-Stable Supported Membranes for Single Cell Cytometry on PDMS Microchips

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, K. Scott; Kang, Kyung Mo; Licata, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Protein reinforced supported bilayer membranes (rSBMs) composed of phosphatidyl choline (PC), biotin-PE and Neutravidin were used to coat hybrid microchips composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass. Since the coatings required a freshly oxidized, hydrophilic substrate, a novel method to rapidly connect reservoirs using plasma oxidation was first developed and found to support up to 5.2 N/cm2 (1.5 N) pull-off force. rSBMs were then assembled in the oxidized hydrophilic channels. The electroosmotic mobility (μeo) of rSBM-coated channels was measured over a 3 h time to evaluate the stability of the coatings for microchip electrophoresis. rSBM-coated microchips with a simple cross design had excellent properties for microchip separations, yielding efficiencies of up to 700,000 plates/m for fluorescent dyes and peptides. The separation performance of rSBM and PC-coated channels was evaluated after repeatedly drying and rehydrating the channels. The separation efficiency of fluorescein on PC-coated devices decreased by 40% after one dehydration cycle and nearly 75% after 3 cycles. In contrast for rSBM-coated devices there was no significant change in the fluorescein efficiency until the third cycle (10% decreased efficiency). rSBM-coated channels were also markedly more stable when placed in a dehydrated state during long-term storage compared to PC-coated channels, and showed reduced chip failure and no reduction in performance for up to one month of dehydrated storage. Finally, rSBM-coated devices were used to perform single-cell cytometry. Microchips that had been dehydrated, stored two weeks, and rehydrated prior to use demonstrated similar performance to newly coated devices for the separation of fluorescein and carboxyfluorescein from single cells. Thus rSBM-coated devices were rugged- withstanding electric fields, prolonged storage under dehydrated conditions, and biofouling by cellular constituents while maintaining excellent separation performance. PMID

  10. Air-stable supported membranes for single-cell cytometry on PDMS microchips.

    PubMed

    Phillips, K Scott; Kang, Kyung Mo; Licata, Louise; Allbritton, Nancy L

    2010-04-07

    Protein-reinforced supported bilayer membranes (rSBMs) composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC), biotin-PE and Neutravidin were used to coat hybrid microchips composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and glass. Since the coatings required a freshly oxidized, hydrophilic substrate, a novel method to rapidly connect reservoirs using plasma oxidation was first developed and found to support up to 5.2 N cm(-2) (1.5 N) pull-off force. rSBMs were then assembled in the oxidized hydrophilic channels. The electroosmotic mobility (mu(eo)) of rSBM-coated channels was measured over a 3 h time to evaluate the stability of the coatings for microchip electrophoresis. rSBM-coated microchips with a simple cross-design had excellent properties for microchip separations, yielding efficiencies of up to 700,000 plates m(-1) for fluorescent dyes and peptides. The separation performance of rSBM and PC-coated channels was evaluated after repeatedly drying and rehydrating the channels. The separation efficiency of fluorescein on PC-coated devices decreased by 40% after one dehydration cycle and nearly 75% after 3 cycles. In contrast for rSBM-coated devices there was no significant change in the fluorescein efficiency until the third cycle (10% decreased efficiency). rSBM-coated channels were also markedly more stable when placed in a dehydrated state during long-term storage compared to PC-coated channels, and showed reduced chip failure and no reduction in performance for up to one month of dehydrated storage. Finally, rSBM-coated devices were used to perform single-cell cytometry. Microchips that had been dehydrated, stored two weeks, and rehydrated prior to use demonstrated similar performance to newly coated devices for the separation of fluorescein and carboxyfluorescein from single cells. Thus rSBM-coated devices were rugged withstanding electric fields, prolonged storage under dehydrated conditions, and biofouling by cellular constituents while maintaining excellent separation

  11. Constructing a superhydrophobic surface on polydimethylsiloxane via spin coating and vapor-liquid sol-gel process.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Ting; Lo, Kuo-Feng; Juang, Yi-Je

    2010-04-06

    In this study, a superhydrophobic surface on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate was constructed via the proposed vapor-liquid sol-gel process in conjunction with spin coating of dodecyltrichlorosilane (DTS). Unlike the conventional sol-gel process where the reaction takes place in the liquid phase, layers of silica (SiO(2)) particles were formed through the reaction between the reactant spin-coated on the PDMS surface and vapor of the acid solution. This led to the SiO(2) particles inlaid on the PDMS surface. Followed by subsequent spin coating of DTS solution, the wrinkle-like structure was formed, and the static contact angle of the water droplet on the surface could reach 162 degrees with 2 degrees sliding angle and less than 5 degrees contact angle hysteresis. The effect of layers of SiO(2) particles, concentrations of DTS solution and surface topography on superhydrophobicity of the surface is discussed.

  12. Effect of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coating on TiO2-based MALDI matrix for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eun Ji; Han, Sang Wook; Jeong, Bora; Park, Seon Hwa; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Young Dok

    2015-10-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles were used as MALDI matrix for detecting dimethyl methylphosphate (DMMP) and its efficiency, in terms of DMMP signal intensity in the MALDI-MS analysis, was compared with that of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated TiO2 matrix. Intensity of the DMMP signal in the MALDI-MS analysis was significantly increased by using PDMS-coated TiO2 matrix instead of bare ones. It was verified using FT-IR that the enhanced DMMP signal upon PDMS coating on TiO2 matrix is a result of weaker interactions between DMMP molecule and the PDMS-covered surface than that of bare TiO2. A weaker DMMP-matrix interaction can facilitate desorption of DMMP from the matrix surface in the MALDI process, yielding a higher sensitivity to DMMP in the MALDI-MS.

  13. Stabilization of two-phase octanol/water flows inside poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchannels using polymer coatings.

    PubMed

    van der Linden, H J; Jellema, L C; Holwerda, M; Verpoorte, E

    2006-08-01

    In this paper we present our first results on the realization of stable water/octanol, two-phase flows inside poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchannels. Native PDMS microchannels were coated with high molecular weight polymers to change the surface properties of the microchannels and thus stabilize the laminar flow profile. The polymers poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene glycol), and poly(vinyl alcohol) were assessed for their quality as stabilization coatings after deposition from flowing and stationary solutions. Additionally, the influence of coating the microchannels homogeneously with a single kind of polymer or heterogeneously with two different polymers was investigated. From the experimental observations, it can be concluded that homogeneous polymer coatings with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) led to the effective stabilization of laminar water/octanol flows. Furthermore, heterogeneous coatings led to two-phase flows which had a better-defined and more stable interface over long distances (i.e., 40-mm-long microchannels). Finally, the partitioning of fuchsin dye in the coated microchannels was demonstrated, establishing the feasibility of the use of the polymer-coated PDMS microchannels for determination of logP values in laminar octanol/water flows.

  14. Microchip bioreactors based on trypsin-immobilized graphene oxide-poly(urea-formaldehyde) composite coating for efficient peptide mapping.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huizhi; Yao, Feina; Xu, Shuyuan; Chen, Gang

    2013-12-15

    Trypsin was covalently immobilized to graphene oxide (GO)-poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) composite coated on the channel wall of poly(methyl methacrylate) microchips to fabricate microfluidic bioreactors for highly efficient proteolysis. A mixture solution containing urea-formaldehyde prepolymer and GO nanosheets was allowed to flow through the channels. The modification layer on the channel wall could further polycondense to form GO-PUF composite coating in the presence of ammonium chloride. The primary amino groups of trypsin could react with the carboxyl groups of the GO sheets in the coating with the aid of carboxyl activating agents to realize covalent immobilization. The feasibility and performance of the novel GO-based microchip bioreactors were demonstrated by the digestion of bovine serum albumin, lysozyme, ovalbumin, and myoglobin. The digestion time was significantly reduced to less than 5s. The obtained digests were identified by MALDI-TOF MS with satisfactory sequence coverages that were comparable to those obtained by using 12-h in-solution digestion. The present proteolysis strategy is simple and efficient, offering great promise for high-throughput protein identification. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. On-line coupling of a microelectrode array equipped poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip with an integrated graphite electrospray emitter for electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liljegren, Gustav; Dahlin, Andreas; Zettersten, Camilla; Bergquist, Jonas; Nyholm, Leif

    2005-10-01

    A novel method for the manufacturing of microchips for on-chip combinations of electrochemistry (EC) and sheathless electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is described. The technique, which does not require access to clean-room facilities, is based on the incorporation of an array of gold microcoil electrodes into a poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) microflow channel equipped with an integrated graphite based sheathless ESI emitter. Electrochemical measurements, which were employed to determine the electroactive area of the electrodes and to test the microchips, show that the manufacturing process was reproducible and that the important interelectrode distance in the electrochemical cell could to be adequately controlled. The EC-ESI-MS device was evaluated based on the ESI-MS detection of the oxidation products of dopamine. The results demonstrate that the present on-chip approach enables full potentiostatic control of the electrochemical cell and the attainment of very short transfer times between the electrochemical cell and the electrospray emitter. The transfer times were 0.6 and 1.2 s for flow rates of 1.0 and 0.5 microL min(-1), respectively, while the electrochemical conversion efficiency of the electrochemical cell was found to be 30% at a flow rate of 0.5 microL min(-1). To decouple the electrochemical cell from the ESI-MS high voltage and to increase the user-friendliness, the on-line electrochemistry-ESI-MS experiments were performed using a wireless Bluetooth battery-powered instrument with the chip floating at the potential induced by the ESI high voltage. The described on-chip EC-ESI-MS device can be used for fundamental electrochemical investigations as well as for applications based on the use of electrochemically controlled sample pretreatment, preconcentration and ionisation steps prior to ESI-MS.

  16. Influence of polydimethylsiloxane outer coating and packing material on analyte recovery in dual-phase headspace sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Bicchi, Carlo; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Sgorbini, Barbara; David, Frank; Sandra, Pat; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2007-09-14

    Dual phase twisters (DP twisters), consisting of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) outer coating and a second complementary (ad)sorbent as inner packing, have recently been shown to extend the applicability of headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE). In comparison to HSSE using PDMS only, the recovery of analytes from the headspace of a solid or liquid matrix is increased by combining the concentration capabilities of two sampling materials operating on different mechanisms (sorption and adsorption). This study compares the performance of DP twisters consisting of different PDMS outer coatings and different packing materials, including Tenax GC, a bisphenol-PDMS copolymer, Carbopack coated with 5% of Carbowax and beta-cyclodextrin, for the analysis of the headspace of roasted Arabica coffee, dried sage leaves and an aqueous test mixture containing compounds with different water solubility, acidity, polarity and volatility as test samples. In general, DP twisters showed a higher concentration capability than the corresponding conventional PDMS twisters for the analytes considered. The highest recoveries were obtained with DP twisters consisting of 0.2mm thick PDMS coating combined with Tenax GC, a bisphenol-PDMS copolymer and Carbopack coated with 5% of Carbowax as inner adsorption phase.

  17. Bottom-up fabrication of paper-based microchips by blade coating of cellulose microfibers on a patterned surface.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bingbing; Liu, Hong; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-12-23

    We report a method for the bottom-up fabrication of paper-based capillary microchips by the blade coating of cellulose microfibers on a patterned surface. The fabrication process is similar to the paper-making process in which an aqueous suspension of cellulose microfibers is used as the starting material and is blade-coated onto a polypropylene substrate patterned using an inkjet printer. After water evaporation, the cellulose microfibers form a porous, hydrophilic, paperlike pattern that wicks aqueous solution by capillary action. This method enables simple, fast, inexpensive fabrication of paper-based capillary channels with both width and height down to about 10 μm. When this method is used, the capillary microfluidic chip for the colorimetric detection of glucose and total protein is fabricated, and the assay requires only 0.30 μL of sample, which is 240 times smaller than for paper devices fabricated using photolithography.

  18. Immobilization of trypsin on poly(urea-formaldehyde)-coated fiberglass cores in microchip for highly efficient proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Huizhi; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2011-08-01

    Trypsin was covalently immobilized on poly(urea-formaldehyde)-coated fiberglass cores based on the condensation reaction between poly(urea-formaldehyde) and trypsin for efficient microfluidic proteolysis in this work. Prior to use, a piece of the trypsin-immobilized fiber was inserted into the main channel of a microchip under a magnifier to form a core-changeable bioreactor. Because trypsin was not permanently immobilized on the channel wall, the novel bioreactor was regenerable. Two standard proteins, hemoglobin (HEM) and lysozyme (LYS), were digested by the unique bioreactor to demonstrate its feasibility and performance. The interaction time between the flowing proteins and the immobilized trypsin was evaluated to be less than 10 s. The peptides in the digests were identified by MALDI-TOF MS to obtain PMF. The results indicated that digestion performance of the microfluidic bioreactor was better than that of 12-h in-solution digestion.

  19. Low-temperature solid-state microwave reduction of graphene oxide for transparent electrically conductive coatings on flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

    PubMed

    Liang, Qizhen; Hsie, Sinsar Alec; Wong, Ching Ping

    2012-11-12

    Microwaves (MWs) are applied to initialize deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) in the solid state and at low temperatures (∼165 °C). The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of MW-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) show a significantly reduced concentration of oxygen-containing functional groups, such as carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl. X-ray photoelectron spectra confirm that microwaves can promote deoxygenation of GO at relatively low temperatures. Raman spectra and TGA measurements indicate that the defect level of GO significantly decreases during the isothermal solid-state MW-reduction process at low temperatures, corresponding to an efficient recovery of the fine graphene lattice structure. Based on both deoxygenation and defect-level reduction, the resurgence of interconnected graphene-like domains contributes to a low sheet resistance (∼7.9×10(4) Ω per square) of the MW-reduced GO on SiO(2) -coated Si substrates with an optical transparency of 92.7 % at ∼547 nm after MW reduction, indicating the ultrahigh efficiency of MW in GO reduction. Moreover, the low-temperature solid-state MW reduction is also applied in preparing flexible transparent conductive coatings on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. UV/Vis measurements indicate that the transparency of the thus-prepared MW-reduced GO coatings on PDMS substrates ranges from 34 to 96 %. Correspondingly, the sheet resistance of the coating ranges from 10(5) to 10(9) Ω per square, indicating that MW reduction of GO is promising for the convenient low-temperature preparation of transparent conductors on flexible polymeric substrates. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Stretchable Array of Highly Sensitive Pressure Sensors Consisting of Polyaniline Nanofibers and Au-Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Micropillars.

    PubMed

    Park, Heun; Jeong, Yu Ra; Yun, Junyeong; Hong, Soo Yeong; Jin, Sangwoo; Lee, Seung-Jung; Zi, Goangseup; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2015-10-27

    We report on the facile fabrication of a stretchable array of highly sensitive pressure sensors. The proposed pressure sensor consists of the top layer of Au-deposited polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars and the bottom layer of conductive polyaniline nanofibers on a polyethylene terephthalate substrate. The sensors are operated by the changes in contact resistance between Au-coated micropillars and polyaniline according to the varying pressure. The fabricated pressure sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 2.0 kPa(-1) in the pressure range below 0.22 kPa, a low detection limit of 15 Pa, a fast response time of 50 ms, and high stability over 10000 cycles of pressure loading/unloading with a low operating voltage of 1.0 V. The sensor is also capable of noninvasively detecting human-pulse waveforms from carotid and radial artery. A 5 × 5 array of the pressure sensors on the deformable substrate, which consists of PDMS islands for sensors and the mixed thin film of PDMS and Ecoflex with embedded liquid metal interconnections, shows stable sensing of pressure under biaxial stretching by 15%. The strain distribution obtained by the finite element method confirms that the maximum strain applied to the pressure sensor in the strain-suppressed region is less than 0.04% under a 15% biaxial strain of the unit module. This work demonstrates the potential application of our proposed stretchable pressure sensor array for wearable and artificial electronic skin devices.

  1. Carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane, a new coating for 96-blade solid-phase microextraction for determination of phenolic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Kueseng, Pamornrat; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2013-11-22

    A new thin-film, carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane (MWCNTs-COOH/PDMS) coating was developed for 96-blade solid-phase microextraction (SPME) system followed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The method provided good extraction efficiency (64-90%) for three spiked levels, with relative standard deviations (RSD)≤6%, and detection limits between 1 and 2 μg/L for three phenolic compounds. The MWCNTs-COOH/PDMS 96-blade SPME system presents advantages over traditional methods due to its simplicity of use, easy coating preparation, low cost and high sample throughput (2.1 min per sample). The developed coating is reusable for a minimum of 110 extractions with good extraction efficiency. The coating provided higher extraction efficiency (3-8 times greater) than pure PDMS coatings.

  2. Ionspray microchip.

    PubMed

    Pól, Jaroslav; Kauppila, Tiina J; Franssila, Sami; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2010-09-15

    An ionspray microchip is introduced. The chip is based on the earlier presented nebulizer microchip that consists of glass and silicon plates bonded together. A liquid inlet channel, nebulizer gas inlet, and nozzle are etched on the silicon plate and a platinum heater is integrated on the glass plate. The nebulizer microchip has been previously used in atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization, sonic spray ionization, and thermospray ionization modes. In this work we show that the microchip can be operated also in ionspray mode by introducing high voltage to the silicon plate of the microchip. The effects of operation parameters (voltage, nebulizer gas pressure, sample solution flow rate, solvent composition, and analyte concentration) on the performance of the ion spray microchip were studied. Under optimized conditions the microchip provides efficient ionization of small and large compounds and good quantitative performance. The feasibility of the ion spray microchip in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) was demonstrated by the analysis of tryptic peptides of bovine serum albumin. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Isoelectric focusing in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Cui, Huanchun; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Dutta, Prashanta; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports the application of ampholyte-based isoelectric focusing in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) using methylcellulose (MC) to reduce electroosmosis and peak drift. Although the characteristics of PDMS make it possible to fabricate microfluidic chips using soft lithography, unstable electroosmotic flow (EOF) and cathodic drift are significant problems when this medium is used. This paper demonstrates that EOF is greatly reduced in PDMS by applying a dynamic coat of MC to the channel walls and that higher concentrations of MC can be used to increase the viscosity of the electrode solutions in order to suppress pH gradient drift and reduce "compression"of the pH gradient. To illustrate the effect of MC on performance, several fluorescent proteins were focused in microchip channels 5 microm deep by 300 microm wide by 2 cm long in 3-10 min using broad-range ampholytes at electric field strengths ranging from 25 to 100 V/cm.

  4. Simple and Rapid Immobilization of Coating Polymers on Poly(dimethyl siloxane)-glass Hybrid Microchips by a Vacuum-drying Method.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Nakagawara, Syo; Nukatsuka, Isoshi; Hori, Yusuke; Sueyoshi, Kenji; Otsuka, Koji

    2015-01-01

    A simple and rapid vacuum-drying modification method was applied to several neutral and charged polymers to obtain coating layers for controlling electroosmotic flow (EOF) and suppressing sample adsorption on poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS)-glass hybrid microchips. In the vacuum-dried poly(vinylpyrrolidone) coating, the electroosmotic mobility (μeo) was suppressed from +2.1 to +0.88 × 10(-4) cm(2)/V·s, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of μeo was improved from 10.2 to 2.5% relative to the bare microchannel. Among several neutral polymers, poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) and poly(dimethylacrylamide) coatings gave more suppressed and repeatable EOF with RSDs of less than 2.3%. The vacuum-drying method was also applicable to polyanions and polycations to provide accelerated and inversed EOF, respectively, with acceptable RSDs of less than 4.9%. In the microchip electrophoresis (MCE) analysis of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the vacuum-dried and thermally-treated PVA coating channel, an almost symmetric peak of BSA was obtained, while in the native microchannel a significantly skewed peak was observed. The results demonstrated that the vacuum-dried polymer coatings were effective to control the EOF, and reduced the surface adsorption of proteins in MCE.

  5. Detection of polydimethylsiloxanes transferred from silicone-coated parchment paper to baked goods using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Andreas; Crawford, Elizabeth A; Gross, Jürgen H

    2016-04-01

    The non-stick properties of parchment papers are achieved by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) coatings. During baking, PDMS can thus be extracted from the silicone-coated parchment into the baked goods. Positive-ion direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry (MS) is highly efficient for the analysis of PDMS. A DART-SVP source was coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer to detect PDMS on the contact surface of baked goods after use of silicone-coated parchment papers. DART spectra from the bottom surface of baked cookies and pizzas exhibited signals because of PDMS ions of the general formula [(C2H6SiO)n  + NH4 ](+) in the m/z 800-1900 range. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic polydimethylsiloxane-coated cotton for oil-water separation process: An evidence of the relationship between its loading capacity and oil absorption ability.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yangxin; Jiang, Peng; Ke, Qingping; Cheng, Feihuan; Zhu, Yinshengnan; Zhang, Yixiang

    2015-12-30

    Developing functional porous materials with highly efficient oil-water separation ability are of great importance due to the global scale of severe water pollution arising from oil spillage and chemical leakage. A solution immersion process was used to fabricate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated cotton, which exhibited superhydrophobic and superoleophilic properties. The water contact angle of ∼ 157° and mass of ∼ 1.49 g were retained after 1000 compression cycles, indicating that the PDMS was strongly attached to the cotton fibres. The PDMS-coated cotton absorbed various oils and organic solvents with high selectivity, high absorption capacity (up to 7080 wt.%), and good recyclability (exceeding 500 cycles). Notably, the loading capacity of the PDMS-coated cotton against water exhibited a similar trend to its oil absorption capacity. These findings will further the application of superhydrophobic and superoleophilic porous materials in oil/water separation.

  7. Stable nonpolar solvent droplet generation using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic channel coated with poly-p-xylylene for a nanoparticle growth.

    PubMed

    Lim, Heejin; Moon, SangJun

    2015-08-01

    Applications of microfluidic devices fabricated in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) have been limited to water-based analysis rather than nonpolar solvent based chemistry due to a PDMS swelling problem that occurs by the absorption of the solvents. The absorption and swelling causes PDMS channel deformation in shape, and changes the cross sectional area making it difficult to control the flow rate and concentrations of solution in PDMS microfluidic channels. We propose that poly-p-xylylene polymers (parylenes) are chemical vapors deposited on the surfaces of PDMS channels that alleviate the effect of solvents on the absorption and swelling. The parylene coated surface sustains 3 h with a small volumetric change (less than 22 % of PDMS swelling ratio). By generating an air-nonpolar solvent interface based on droplets in PDMS channel, we confirmed poly-p-xylylene coated PDMS microfluidic channels have the potential to be applicable to nanocrystal growth using nonpolar solvents.

  8. Science and Technology of Bio-Inert Thin Films as Hermetic-Encapsulating Coatings for Implantable Biomedical Devices: Application to Implantable Microchip in the Eye for the Artificial Retina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auciello, Orlando; Shi, Bing

    Extensive research has been devoted to the development of neuron prostheses and hybrid bionic systems to establish links between the nervous system and electronic or robotic prostheses with the main focus of restoring motor and sensory functions in blind patients. Artificial retinas, one type of neural prostheses we are currently working on, aim to restore some vision in blind patients caused by retinitis picmentosa or macular degeneration, and in the future to restore vision at the level of face recognition, if not more. Currently there is no hermetic microchip-size coating that provides a reliable, long-term (years) performance as encapsulating coating for the artificial retina Si microchip to be implanted inside the eye. This chapter focuses on the critical topics relevant to the development of a robust, long-term artificial retina device, namely the science and technology of hermetic bio-inert encapsulating coatings to protect a Si microchip implanted in the human eye from being attacked by chemicals existing in the eye's saline environment. The work discussed in this chapter is related to the development of a novel ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) hermetic coating, which exhibited no degradation in rabbit eyes. The material synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of these hermetic coatings are reviewed for application as encapsulating coating for the artificial retinal microchips implantable inside the human eye. Our work has shown that UNCD coatings may provide a reliable hermetic bio-inert coating technology for encapsulation of Si microchips implantable in the eye specifically and in the human body in general. Electrochemical tests of the UNCD films grown under CH4/Ar/H2 (1%) plasma exhibit the lowest leakage currents (˜7 × 10-7 A/cm2) in a saline solution simulating the eye environment. This leakage is incompatible with the functionality of the first-generation artificial retinal microchip. However, the growth of UNCD on top of the

  9. Prototyping disposable electrophoresis microchips with electrochemical detection using rapid marker masking and laminar flow etching.

    PubMed

    Manica, Drew P; Ewing, Andrew G

    2002-11-01

    Two novel methods are described for the fabrication of components for microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection (microchip CEEC) on glass substrates. First, rapid marker masking is introduced as a completely nonphotolithographic method of patterning and fabricating integrated thin-film metal electrodes onto a glass substrate. The process involves applying the pattern directly onto the metal layer with a permanent marker that masks the ensuing chemical etch. The method is characterized, and the performance of the resulting electrode is evaluated using catecholamines. The response compares well with photolithographically defined electrodes and exhibits detection limits of 648 nM and 1.02 microM for dopamine and catechol, respectively. Second, laminar flow etching is introduced as a partially nonphotolithographic method of replicating channel networks onto glass substrates. The replication process involves applying a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) mold of the channel network onto a slide coated with a sacrificial metal layer and then pulling solutions of metal etchants through the channels to transfer the pattern onto the sacrificial layer. The method is tested, and prototype channel networks are shown. These methods serve to overcome the time and cost involved in fabricating glass-based microchips, thereby making the goal of a disposable high performance lab-on-a-chip more attainable.

  10. Microchip Lasers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-31

    physics that underlies their performance, typical operating parameters for the devices, and several of their applications . Keywords Composite-cavity...laser, Diode -pumped laser, Laser, Microchip laser, Miniature laser, Monolithic laser, Passively Q-switched laser, Q-switched laser, Saturable...cavity mirrors are deposited directly on the gain medium and the laser is pumped with a diode laser, either directly, as shown in Fig. 1, or via an

  11. Polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic frameworks coated fiber for solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in river and lake water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guijiang; Zang, Xiaohuan; Li, Zhi; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2014-11-01

    In this study, polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic frameworks (PDMS/MOFs), including PDMS/MIL-101 and PDMS/MOF-199, were immobilized onto a stainless steel wire through sol-gel technique as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The prepared fibers were used for the extraction of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Under the optimized experiment conditions, the PDMS/MIL-101 coated fiber exhibited higher extraction efficiency towards PAHs than that of PDMS/MOF-199. Several parameters affecting the extraction of PAHs by SPME with PDMS/MIL-101 fiber, including the extraction temperature, extraction time, sample volume, salt addition and desorption conditions, were investigated. The limits of detection (LODs) were less than 4.0 ng L(-1) and the linearity was observed in the range from 0.01 to 2.0 µg L(-1) with the correlation coefficients (r) ranging from 0.9940 to 0.9986. The recoveries of the method for the PAHs from water samples at spiking levels of 0.05 and 0.2 µg L(-1) ranged from 78.2% to 110.3%. Single fiber repeatability and fiber-to-fiber reproducibility were less than 9.3% and 13.8%, respectively.

  12. Development and characterization of a stable adhesive bond between a poly(dimethylsiloxane) catheter material and a bacterial biofilm resistant acrylate polymer coating.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Hook, Andrew; Pelster, Andreas; Williams, Paul; Alexander, Morgan; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2017-05-23

    Catheter associated urinary tract infections are the most common health related infections worldwide, contributing significantly to patient morbidity and mortality and increased health care costs. To reduce the incidence of these infections, new materials that resist bacterial biofilm formation are needed. A composite catheter material, consisting of bulk poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) coated with a novel bacterial biofilm resistant polyacrylate [ethylene glycol dicyclopentenyl ether acrylate (EGDPEA)-co-di(ethyleneglycol) methyl ether methacrylate (DEGMA)], has been proposed. The coated material shows excellent bacterial resistance when compared to commercial catheter materials, but delamination of the EGDPEA-co-DEGMA coatings under mechanical stress presents a challenge. In this work, the use of oxygen plasma treatment to improve the wettability and reactivity of the PDMS catheter material and improve adhesion with the EGDPEA-co-DEGMA coating has been investigated. Argon cluster three dimensional-imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has been used to probe the buried adhesive interface between the EGDPEA-co-DEGMA coating and the treated PDMS. ToF-SIMS analysis was performed in both dry and frozen-hydrated states, and the results were compared to mechanical tests. From the ToF-SIMS data, the authors have been able to observe the presence of PDMS, silicates, salt particles, cracks, and water at the adhesive interface. In the dry catheters, low molecular weight PDMS oligomers at the interface were associated with poor adhesion. When hydrated, the hydrophilic silicates attracted water to the interface and led to easy delamination of the coating. The best adhesion results, under hydrated conditions, were obtained using a combination of 5 min O2 plasma treatment and silane primers. Cryo-ToF-SIMS analysis of the hydrated catheter material showed that the bond between the primed PDMS catheter and the EGDPEA-co-DEGMA coating was stable in the

  13. In vivo feasibility test using transparent carbon nanotube-coated polydimethylsiloxane sheet at brain tissue and sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caifeng; Oh, Sangjin; Lee, Hyun Ah; Kang, Jieun; Jeong, Ki-Jae; Kang, Seon Woo; Hwang, Dae Youn; Lee, Jaebeom

    2017-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes, with their unique and outstanding properties, such as strong mechanical strength and high electrical conductivity, have become very popular for the repair of tissues, particularly for those requiring electrical stimuli. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based elastomers have been used in a wide range of biomedical applications because of their optical transparency, physiological inertness, blood compatibility, non-toxicity, and gas permeability. In present study, most of artificial nerve guidance conduits (ANGCs) are not transparent. It is hard to confirm the position of two stumps of damaged nerve during nerve surgery and the conduits must be cut open again to observe regenerative nerves after surgery. Thus, a novel preparation method was utilized to produce a transparent sheet using PDMS and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) via printing transfer method. Characterization of the PDMS/MWNT (PM) sheets revealed their unique physicochemical properties, such as superior mechanical strength, a certain degree of electrical conductivity, and high transparency. Characterization of the in vitro and in vivo usability was evaluated. PM sheets showed high biocompatibility and adhesive ability. In vivo feasibility tests of rat brain tissue and sciatic nerve revealed the high transparency of PM sheets, suggesting that it can be used in the further development of ANGCs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1736-1745, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic frameworks coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detector for the determination of estrogens in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cong; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Zhong, Cheng; Hu, Bin

    2013-10-04

    In this work, three kinds of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), MOF-5, MOF-199 and IRMOF-3, were introduced in stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and novel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/MOFs (including PDMS/MOF-5, PDMS/MOF-199 and PDMS/IRMOF-3) coated stir bars were prepared by sol-gel technique. These PDMS/MOFs coatings were characterized and critically compared for the extraction of seven target estrogens (17-β-estradiol, dienestrol, diethylstilbestrol, estrone, 4-t-octylphenol, bisphenol-A and 17α-ethynylestradiol) by SBSE, and the results showed that PDMS/IRMOF-3 exhibited highest extraction efficiency. Based on the above facts, a novel method of PDMS/IRMOF-3 coating SBSE-high performance liquid chromatography ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was developed for the determination of seven target estrogens in environmental waters. Several parameters affecting extraction of seven target estrogens by SBSE (PDMS/IRMOF-3) including extraction time, stirring rate, pH, ionic strength, desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.15-0.35 μg/L. The linear range was 2-2,500 μg/L for 17α-ethynylestradiol and 1-2,500 μg/L for other estrogens. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 3.7-9.9% (n=8, c=20 μg/L) and the enrichment factors were from 30.3 to 55.6-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 100-fold). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of estrogens in environmental water samples, and quantitative recoveries were obtained for the spiking experiments.

  15. Mutation detection using ligase chain reaction in passivated silicon-glass microchips and microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xing Jian; Panaro, Nicholas J; Wilding, Peter; Fortina, Paolo; Kricka, Larry J

    2004-09-01

    The ligase chain reaction (LCR) following PCR is one of the most sensitive and specific methods for detecting mutations, especially single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Performing LCR in microchips remains a challenge because of the inhibitory effect of the internal surfaces of silicon-glass microchips. We have tested a dynamic polymer-based surface passivation method for LCR conducted in oxide-coated silicon-glass microchips. The combination of polyvinylpyrrolidone 40 (PVP-40) at 0.75% (w/v) with an excess of the ligase produced successful LCR in the silicon-glass microchips, with yields of ligated primers comparable to reactions performed in conventional reaction tubes. Ligated primers were detected and quantified simply and conveniently using microchip capillary electrophoresis.

  16. Entrapping efficiency and drug release profile of an oil-in-water (o/w) emulsion formulation using a polydimethylsiloxane-coated glass bead assay.

    PubMed

    Minagawa, T; Kohno, Y; Suwa, T; Tsuji, A

    1994-04-01

    Evaluation of entrapping efficiency is difficult for an o/w emulsion formulation containing a lipophilic oily drug, isocarbacyclin methyl ester (TEI-9090), by commonly employed techniques (dialysis, ultrafiltration, or gel filtration), because of its adsorption to the system materials. Employing this characteristic of TEI-9090, we developed an adsorption technique with polydimethylsiloxane-coated glass beads (PDMS-GB). The assay is based on the quantitative adsorption of unentrapped TEI-9090 to the PDMS-GB. The entrapping efficiency of a 10% soybean oil emulsion containing [3H]TEI-9090 (1 microgram/mL) assayed by this method approached 100%. The PDMS-GB assay was performed for the emulsion diluted 100 times with physiological saline at different time intervals after dilution over a period of 24 hr. A plot of [3H]TEI-9090 in the emulsion particles versus time showed rapid release within 1 hr, followed by very slow release, reaching equilibrium. Applying first-order kinetics, the data were found to fit to a biexponential equation over the first hour of release. The terminal release resembled the first-order release of the drug from the phospholipid-rich infranatant, which was separated from the creamy layer by ultracentrifugation of the emulsion and contained 35% [3H]TEI-9090. These results suggest that the drug is released from two components in the emulsion.

  17. A hydrodynamic microchip for formation of continuous cell chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Shi-Yang; Nasabi, Mahyar; Soffe, Rebecca; Tovar-Lopez, Francisco J.; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Mitchell, Arnan

    2014-05-01

    Here, we demonstrate the unique features of a hydrodynamic based microchip for creating continuous chains of model yeast cells. The system consists of a disk shaped microfluidic structure, containing narrow orifices that connect the main channel to an array of spoke channels. Negative pressure provided by a syringe pump draws fluid from the main channel through the narrow orifices. After cleaning process, a thin layer of water is left between the glass substrate and the polydimethylsiloxane microchip, enabling leakage beneath the channel walls. A mechanical clamp is used to adjust the operation of the microchip. Relaxing the clamp allows leakage of liquid beneath the walls in a controllable fashion, leading to formation of a long cell chain evenly distributed along the channel wall. The unique features of the microchip are demonstrated by creating long chains of yeast cells and model 15 μm polystyrene particles along the side wall and analysing the hydrogen peroxide induced death of patterned cells.

  18. Polydimethylsiloxane/covalent triazine frameworks coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for the determination of phenols in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Cheng; He, Man; Liao, Huaping; Chen, Beibei; Wang, Cheng; Hu, Bin

    2016-04-08

    In this work, covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs) were introduced in stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and a novel polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS)/CTFs stir bar coating was prepared by sol-gel technique for the sorptive extraction of eight phenols (including phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, p-chloro-m-cresol and 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) from environmental water samples followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection. The prepared PDMS/CTFs coated stir bar showed good preparation reproducibility with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 3.5 to 5.7% (n=7) in one batch, and from 3.7 to 9.3% (n=7) among different batches. Several parameters affecting SBSE of eight target phenols including extraction time, stirring rate, sample pH, ionic strength, desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.08-0.30 μg/L. The linear range was 0.25-500 μg/L for 2-nitrophenol, 0.5-500 μg/L for phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-nitrophenol as well as 2,4-dimethylphenol, and 1-500 μg/L for p-chloro-m-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol as well as 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, respectively. The intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 4.3-9.4% (n=7, c=2 μg/L) and the enrichment factors ranged from 64.9 to 145.6 fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 200-fold). Compared with commercial PDMS coated stir bar (Gerstel) and PEG coated stir bar (Gerstel), the prepared PDMS/CTFs stir bar showed better extraction efficiency for target phenol compounds. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of phenols in environmental water samples and good relative recoveries were obtained with the spiking level at 2, 10, 50 μg/L, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Micromachining of polydimethylsiloxane induced by laser plasma EUV light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, S.; Makimura, T.; Okazaki, K.; Nakamura, D.; Takahashi, A.; Okada, T.; Niino, H.; Murakami, K.

    2011-06-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is fundamental materials in the field of biotechnology. Because of its biocompatibility, microfabricated PDMS sheets are applied to micro-reactors and microchips for cell culture. Conventionally, the microstructures were fabricated by means of cast or imprint using molds, however it is difficult to fabricate the structures at high aspect ratios such as through-holes/vertical channels. The fabrication of the high-aspect structures would enable us to stack sheets to realize 3D fluidic circuits. In order to achieve the micromachining, direct photo-ablation by short wavelength light is promising. In the previous works, we investigated ablation of transparent materials such as silica glass and poly(methyl methacrylate) induced by irradiation with laser plasma EUV light. We achieved smooth and fine nanomachining. In this work, we applied our technique to PDMS micromachining. We condensed the EUV light onto PDMS surfaces at high power density up to 108 W/cm2 using a Au coated ellipsoidal mirror. We found that PDMS sheet was ablated at a rate up to 440 nm/shot. It should be emphasized that through hole with a diameter of 1 μm was fabricated in a PDMS sheet with a thickness of 4 μm. Thus we demonstrated the micromachining of PDMS sheets using laser plasma EUV light.

  20. Promotion of osteoblast differentiation in 3D biomaterial micro-chip arrays comprising fibronectin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) polycarbonate.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Brigitte; Steinberg, Thorsten; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Gottwald, Eric; Tomakidi, Pascal; Bächle-Haas, Maria; Kohal, Ralf-Joachim

    2011-12-01

    Due to the architecture of solid body tissues including bone, three-dimensional (3D) in vitro microenvironments appear favorable, since herein cell growth proceeds under more physiological conditions compared to conventional 2D systems. In the present study we show that a 3D microenvironment comprising a fibronectin-coated PMMA/PC-based micro-chip promotes differentiation of primary human osteoblasts as reflected by the densely-packed 3D bone cell aggregates and expression of biomarkers indicating osteoblast differentiation. Morphogenesis and fluorescence dye-based live/dead staining revealed homogenous cell coverage of the microcavities of the chip array, whereat cells showed high viability up to 14 days. Moreover, Azur II staining proved formation of uniform sized multilayered aggregates, exhibiting progressive intracellular deposition of extracellular bone matrix constituents comprising fibronectin, osteocalcin and osteonectin from day 7 on. Compared to 2D monolayers, osteoblasts grown in the 3D chip environment displayed differential mostly higher gene expression for osteocalcin, osteonectin, and alkaline phosphatase, while collagen type I remained fairly constant in both culture environments. Our results indicate that the 3D microenvironment, based on the PMMA biomaterial chip array promotes osteoblast differentiation, and hereby renders a promising tool for tissue-specific in vitro preconditioning of osteoblasts designated for clinically-oriented bone augmentation or regeneration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of microchip material and surface treatment options for IEF of allergenic milk proteins on microchips.

    PubMed

    Poitevin, Martine; Shakalisava, Yuliya; Miserere, Sandrine; Peltre, Gabriel; Viovy, Jean-Louis; Descroix, Stephanie

    2009-12-01

    The use of glass and PDMS microchips has been investigated to perform rapid and efficient separation of allergenic whey proteins by IEF. To decrease EOF and to limit protein adsorption, two coating procedures have been compared. The first one consists in immobilizing hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and the second one poly(dimethylacrylamide-co-allyl glycidyl ether) (PDMA-AGE). EOF limitation has been evaluated using frontal electrophoresis of a fluorescent marker of known effective mobility. EOF velocity was decreased by a factor about 100 and 30, respectively. pH gradient formation has been evaluated for each microchip using fluorescent pI markers. It was demonstrated that as expected a coating was essential to avoid pH gradient drift. Both coatings were efficient on glass microchips, but only PDMA-AGE allowed satisfying focusing of pI markers on PDMS microchips. Fluorescent covalent and noncovalent labelings of milk proteins have been compared by IEF on slab-gels. IEF separation of three major allergenic whey proteins [beta-lactoglobulin A (pI 5.25) and B (pI 5.35) and alpha-lactalbumin (pI 4.2-4.5)] was performed in both microchips. Milk proteins were separated with better resolution and shorter analysis time than by classical CIEF. Finally, better resolutions for milk allergens separation were obtained on glass microchips.

  2. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI) technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method. PMID:28326222

  3. Side-by-side comparison of disposable microchips with commercial capillary cartridges for application in capillary isoelectric focusing with whole column imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Ou, Junjie; Samy, Razim; Glawdel, Tomasz; Huang, Tiemin; Ren, Carolyn L; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-10-01

    Simple-structured, well-functioned disposable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchips were developed for capillary isoelectric focusing with whole column imaging detection (CIEF-WCID). Side-by-side comparison of the developed microchips with well-established commercial capillary cartridges demonstrated that the disposable microchips have comparable performance as well as advantages such as absence of lens effect and possibility of high-aspect-ratio accompanied with a dramatic reduction in cost.

  4. Microchip-based immunoassays with application of silicon dioxide nanoparticle film.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Kang, Qin-Shu; Sun, Guo-Ping; Su, Li-Jin; Zheng, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Zhen-Feng; Wang, Han-Zhong; He, Zhi-Ke; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Highly sensitive detection of proteins offers the possibility of early and rapid diagnosis of various diseases. Microchip-based immunoassay integrates the benefits from both immunoassays (high specificity of target sample) and microfluidics (fast analysis and low sample consumption). However, direct capture of proteins on bare microchannel surface suffers from low sensitivity due to the low capacity of microsystem. In this study, we demonstrated a microchip-based heterogeneous immunoassay using functionalized SiO(2) nanoparticles which were covalently assembled on the surface of microchannels via a liquid-phase deposition technique. The formation of covalent bonds between SiO(2) nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane substrate offered sufficient stability of the microfluidic surface, and furthermore, substantially enhanced the protein capturing capability, mainly due to the increased surface-area-to-volume ratio. IgG antigen and FITC-labeled anti-IgG antibody conjugates were adopted to compare protein-enrichment effect, and the fluorescence signals were increased by ~75-fold after introduction of functionalized SiO(2) nanoparticles film. Finally, a proof-of-concept experiment was performed by highly efficient capture and detection of inactivated H1N1 influenza virus using a microfluidic chip comprising highly ordered SiO(2) nanoparticles coated micropillars array. The detection limit of H1N1 virus antigen was 0.5 ng mL(-1), with a linear range from 20 to 1,000 ng mL(-1) and mean coefficient of variance of 4.71%.

  5. Acoustothermal heating of polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Byung Hang; Lee, Kang Soo; Destgeer, Ghulam; Park, Jinsoo; Choung, Jin Seung; Jung, Jin Ho; Shin, Jennifer Hyunjong; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2015-07-01

    We report an observation of rapid (exceeding 2,000 K/s) heating of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), one of the most popular microchannel materials, under cyclic loadings at high (~MHz) frequencies. A microheater was developed based on the finding. The heating mechanism utilized vibration damping in PDMS induced by sound waves that were generated and precisely controlled using a conventional surface acoustic wave (SAW) microfluidic system. The refraction of SAW into the PDMS microchip, called the leaky SAW, takes a form of bulk wave and rapidly heats the microchannels in a volumetric manner. The penetration depths were measured to range from 210 μm to 1290 μm, enough to cover most sizes of microchannels. The energy conversion efficiency was SAW frequency-dependent and measured to be the highest at around 30 MHz. Independent actuation of each interdigital transducer (IDT) enabled independent manipulation of SAWs, permitting spatiotemporal control of temperature on the microchip. All the advantages of this microheater facilitated a two-step continuous flow polymerase chain reaction (CFPCR) to achieve the billion-fold amplification of a 134 bp DNA amplicon in less than 3 min.

  6. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  7. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser

    PubMed Central

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-01-01

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the “photonic crystal microchip laser”, a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation. PMID:27683066

  8. Photonic Crystal Microchip Laser.

    PubMed

    Gailevicius, Darius; Koliadenko, Volodymyr; Purlys, Vytautas; Peckus, Martynas; Taranenko, Victor; Staliunas, Kestutis

    2016-09-29

    The microchip lasers, being very compact and efficient sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here it is proposed that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. Experiments show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M(2) reducing it by a factor of 2, and increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 3. This comprises a new kind of laser, the "photonic crystal microchip laser", a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial quality high brightness radiation.

  9. Photonic crystal microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailevicius, D.; Koliadenko, V.; Purlys, V.; Peckus, M.; Taranenko, V.; Staliunas, K.

    2017-02-01

    The microchip lasers, being sources of coherent light, suffer from one serious drawback: low spatial quality of the beam, strongly reducing the brightness of emitted radiation. Attempts to improve the beam quality, such as pump-beam guiding, external feedback, either strongly reduce the emission power, or drastically increase the size and complexity of the lasers. Here we propose that specially designed photonic crystal in the cavity of a microchip laser, can significantly improve the beam quality. We experimentally show that a microchip laser, due to spatial filtering functionality of intracavity photonic crystal, improves the beam quality factor M2 reducing it by factor of 2, and thus increase the brightness of radiation by a factor of 4. This comprises a new kind of laser, the "photonic crystal microchip laser", a very compact and efficient light source emitting high spatial high brightness radiation.

  10. Controlled-release microchips.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sadhana; Nijdam, A Jasper; Sinha, Piyush M; Walczak, Robbie J; Liu, Xuewu; Cheng, Mark M-C; Ferrari, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Efficient drug delivery remains an important challenge in medicine: continuous release of therapeutic agents over extended time periods in accordance with a predetermined temporal profile; local delivery at a constant rate to the tumour microenvironment to overcome much of the systemic toxicity and to improve antitumour efficacy; improved ease of administration, and increasing patient compliance required are some of the unmet needs of the present drug delivery technology. Microfabrication technology has enabled the development of novel controlled-release microchips with capabilities not present in the current treatment modalities. In this review, the current status and future prospects of different types of controlled-release microchips are summarised and analysed with reference to microneedle-based microchips, as well as providing an in-depth focus on microreservoir-based and nanoporous microchips.

  11. Microchip CE analysis of amino acids on a titanium dioxide nanoparticles-coated PDMS microfluidic device with in-channel indirect amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jian-Ding; Wang, Li; Liang, Ru-Ping; Wang, Jing-Wu

    2009-10-01

    In this paper, titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO(2) NPs) were employed to construct a functional film on PDMS microfluidic channel surface, which was formed by sequentially immobilizing poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and TiO(2) NPs on PDMS surface by layer-by-layer assembly technique. The modified PDMS microchip exhibited a decreased and stable EOF, which was favorable for the separation of biomolecules with similar migration times. Arginine, phenylalanine, serine and threonine were used as model analytes to evaluate the performance of the modified microchip. The four amino acids were efficiently separated within 100 s in a 3.7 cm long separation channel and successfully detected on the carbon fiber electrode in conjunction with in-channel indirect amperometry. Resolutions and theoretical plate numbers of the analytes were considerably enhanced in the presence of TiO(2) NPs. The modified microchip demonstrated excellent stability and reproducibility with improved RSDs of migration times and peak currents for run-to-run, day-to-day and chip-to-chip analyses, respectively. Variables influencing the separation efficiency and amperometric response, including injection and separation voltage, the working electrode position and buffer concentration, were optimized in detail.

  12. Design and Fabrication of a PDMS Microchip Based Immunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Wanjun; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication process of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip for on-chip multiplex immunoassay application. The microchip consists of a PDMS microfluidic channel layer and a micro pneumatic valve control layer. By selectively pressurizing the pneumatic microvalves, immuno reagents were controlled to flow and react in certain fluidic channel sites. Cross contamination was prevented by tightly closed valves. Our design was proposed to utilize PDMS micro channel surface as the solid phase immunoassay substrate and simultaneously detect four targets antigens on chip. Experiment result shows that 20psi valve pressure is sufficient to tightly close a 200µm wide micro channel with flow rate up to 20µl/min.

  13. Microlensed microchip VECSEL.

    PubMed

    Laurand, Nicolas; Lee, C L; Gu, E; Hastie, J E; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin D

    2007-07-23

    We report a 1.055-mum microchip VECSEL array which uses a microlens-patterned diamond both as a heatspreader and as an array of concave output mirrors. This configuration, which is suitable for laser array operation, is here exploited to perform a systematic study of a set of microchip lasers with the same semiconductor structure but different cavity properties. The transverse mode selection of individual VECSELs is found to depend on the mode-matching conditions and on the microlens aperture size. Mode-matched single-device emission in the fundamental mode (M2~1.1) with pump-limited output power of 70 mW is demonstrated.

  14. Development of an integrated direct-contacting optical-fiber microchip with light-emitting diode-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changchun; Cui, Dafu; Chen, Xing

    2007-11-02

    In this paper, one poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sandwich microchip integrated with one direct-contacting optical fiber was fabricated by using a thin-casting method. This novel integrated PDMS sandwich microchip included top glass plate, PDMS membrane replica with microfluidic networks and optical fiber, flat PDMS membrane and bottom glass plate. As the tip of excitation optical fiber completely contacted with the separation microchannel in this integrated microchip, it not only increased the excitation light intensity to achieve the high sensitivity, but also reduced the diameter of excitation beam to obtain high resolution. In addition, we found that this rigid PDMS sandwich microchip structure effectively prevented PDMS microchannel distortion from rigid optical fiber, and provided a substantial convenience for microchips manipulating. A blue light-emitting diode (LED) was applied as excitation source by using optical fiber to couple excitation light into its direct-contacting microchannel for fluorescence detection. The performances of this integrated PDMS sandwich microchip was demonstrated by separating the mixture of sodium fluorescein (SF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate isomer I (FITC), and showed a higher sensitive and resolution than those obtained from the conventional integrated optical-fiber PDMS microchip with a 100-microm distance between fiber tip and separation microchannel. Additionally, the reproducibility of this integrated microchip with LED-induced fluorescence detection was also examined by separation of a mixture of FITC-labeled amino acids.

  15. Sorptive extraction using polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic framework coated stir bars coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cong; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Zhong, Cheng; Hu, Bin

    2014-08-22

    In this work, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, Al-MIL-53-NH₂) were synthesized via the hydrothermal method, and novel polydimethylsiloxane/metal-organic framework (PDMS/MOFs, PDMS/Al-MIL-53-NH₂)-coated stir bars were prepared by the sol-gel technique. The preparation reproducibility of the PDMS/MOFs-coated stir bar was good, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 4.8% to 14.9% (n=7) within one batch and from 6.2% to 16.9% (n=6) among different batches. Based on this fact, a new method of PDMS/MOFs-coated stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and ultrasonic-assisted liquid desorption (UALD) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental water samples. To obtain the best extraction performance for PAHs, several parameters affecting SBSE, such as extraction time, stirring rate, and extraction temperature, were investigated. Under optimal experimental conditions, wide linear ranges and good RSDs (n=7) were obtained. With enrichment factors (EFs) of 16.1- to 88.9-fold (theoretical EF, 142-fold), the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) of the developed method for the target PAHs were found to be in the range of 0.05-2.94 ng/L. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of PAHs in Yangtze River and East Lake water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Amino modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane coated stir bar sorptive extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection for the determination of phenols in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Hu, Cong; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2013-07-26

    In this work, amino modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polydimethylsiloxane (multi-walled carbon nanotubes-4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane/polydimethylsiloxane, MWCNTs-DDM/PDMS) was synthesized, and utilized as a novel coating for stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of seven phenols (phenol, 2-chlorophenol, 2-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, p-choro-m-cresol and 2,4,6-trichlorphenol) in environmental water and soil samples, followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). The prepared MWCNTs-DDM/PDMS coated stir bar was characterized and good preparation reproducibility was obtained with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 4.7% to 11.3% (n=9) in one batch, and from 4.8% to 13.9% (n=8) among different batches. Several parameters affecting the extraction of seven target phenols by MWCNTs-DDM/PDMS-SBSE including extraction time, stirring rate, pH, ionic strength, desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. Under the optimal experimental conditions, the limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were found to be in the range of 0.14μg/L (2-nitrophenol) to 1.76μg/L (phenol) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N=10) were found to be in the range of 0.46μg/L (2-nitrophenol) to 5.8μg/L (phenol). The linear range was 5-1000μg/L for phenol and 4-nitrophenol, 1-1000μg/L for 2-nitrophenol and 2-1000μg/L for other phenols, respectively. The RSDs of the developed method were in the range of 6.2-11.6% (n=8, c=10μg/L) and the enrichment factors were from 6.5 to 62.8-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 100-fold). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of phenols in environmental water and soil samples, and good recoveries were obtained for the spiked samples. The proposed method is simple, highly sensitive and suitable for the analysis of trace phenols in environmental samples with complex matrix.

  17. Microchip sonic spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Pól, Jaroslav; Kauppila, Tiina J; Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Ketola, Raimo A; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2007-05-01

    The first microchip version of sonic spray ionization (SSI) as an atmospheric pressure ionization source for mass spectrometry (MS) is presented. The microchip used for SSI has recently been developed in our laboratory, and it has been used before as an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source. Now the ionization is achieved simply by applying high (sonic) speed nebulizer gas, without heat, corona discharge, or high voltage. The microchip SSI was applied to the analysis of tetra-N-butylammonium, verapamil, testosterone, angiotensin I, and ibuprofen. The limits of detection were in the range of 15 nM to 4 microM. The technique was found to be highly dependent on the position of the chip toward the mass spectrometer inlet, and on the gas and the sample solution flow rates. The microchip SSI provided dynamic linearity following a pattern similar to that used with electrospray, good quantitative repeatability (RSD=16%), and long-term signal stability.

  18. Control of adhesion of human induced pluripotent stem cells to plasma-patterned polydimethylsiloxane coated with vitronectin and γ-globulin.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryotaro; Hattori, Koji; Tachikawa, Saoko; Tagaya, Motohiro; Sasaki, Toru; Sugiura, Shinji; Kanamori, Toshiyuki; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2014-09-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising source of cells for medical applications. Recently, the development of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microdevices to control the microenvironment of hiPSCs has been extensively studied. PDMS surfaces are often treated with low-pressure air plasma to facilitate protein adsorption and cell adhesion. However, undefined molecules present in the serum and extracellular matrix used to culture cells complicate the study of cell adhesion. Here, we studied the effects of vitronectin and γ-globulin on hiPSC adhesion to plasma-treated and untreated PDMS surfaces under defined culture conditions. We chose these proteins because they have opposite properties: vitronectin mediates hiPSC attachment to hydrophilic siliceous surfaces, whereas γ-globulin is adsorbed by hydrophobic surfaces and does not mediate cell adhesion. Immunostaining showed that, when applied separately, vitronectin and γ-globulin were adsorbed by both plasma-treated and untreated PDMS surfaces. In contrast, when PDMS surfaces were exposed to a mixture of the two proteins, vitronectin was preferentially adsorbed onto plasma-treated surfaces, whereas γ-globulin was adsorbed onto untreated surfaces. Human iPSCs adhered to the vitronectin-rich plasma-treated surfaces but not to the γ-globulin-rich untreated surfaces. On the basis of these results, we used perforated masks to prepare plasma-patterned PDMS substrates, which were then used to pattern hiPSCs. The patterned hiPSCs expressed undifferentiated-cell markers and did not escape from the patterned area for at least 7 days. The patterned PDMS could be stored for up to 6 days before hiPSCs were plated. We believe that our results will be useful for the development of hiPSC microdevices.

  19. Sol-gel polydimethylsiloxane/poly(vinylalcohol)-coated stir bar sorptive extraction of organophosphorus pesticides in honey and their determination by large volume injection GC.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chunhe; Hu, Bin

    2009-01-01

    A PDMS/poly(vinylalcohol) (PDMS/PVA) film prepared through a sol-gel process was coated on stir bars for sorptive extraction, followed by liquid desorption and large volume injection-GC-flame photometric detector (LVI-GC-FPD) for the determination of five organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) (phorate, fenitrothion, malathion, parathion, and quinalphos) in honey. The preparation reproducibility of PDMS/PVA-coated stir bar ranged from 4.3 to 13.4% (n = 4) in one batch, and from 6.0 to 12.6% (n = 4) in batch to batch. And one prepared stir bar can be used for more than 50 times without apparent coating loss. The significant parameters affecting stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) were investigated and optimized. The LODs for five OPPs ranged from 0.013 (parathion) to 0.081 microg/L (phorate) with the RSDs ranging from 5.3 to 14.2% (c = 1 microg/L, n = 6). The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of five OPPs in honey.

  20. Carbon paste-based electrochemical detectors for microchip capillary electrophoresis/electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Martin, R S; Gawron, A J; Fogarty, B A; Regan, F B; Dempsey, E; Lunte, S M

    2001-03-01

    The first reported use of a carbon paste electrochemical detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) is described. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microchip CE devices were constructed by reversibly sealing a PDMS layer containing separation and injection channels to a separate PDMS layer that contained carbon paste working electrodes. End-channel amperometric detection with a single electrode was used to detect amino acids derivatized with naphthalene dicarboxaldehyde. Two electrodes were placed in series for dual electrode detection. This approach was demonstrated for the detection of copper(II) peptide complexes. A major advantage of carbon paste is that catalysts can be easily incorporated into the electrode. Carbon paste that was chemically modified with cobalt phthalocyanine was used for the detection of thiols following a CE separation. These devices illustrate the potential for an easily constructed microchip CE system with a carbon-based detector that exhibits adjustable selectivity.

  1. Single-frequency microchip Nd lasers.

    PubMed

    Zayhowski, J J; Mooradian, A

    1989-01-01

    Optically pumped, single-frequency, Nd-doped, solid-state lasers have been constructed using flat-flat cavities, which were diced from large dielectrically coated wafers of various crystals. For example, a Nd:YAG laser with a cavity length of 730 microm has operated at room temperature in a single longitudinal mode from a threshold of less than 1 mW to greater than 40 times the threshold. Theslope efficiency was greater than 30%. Heterodyne measurements showed an instrument-limited linewidth of 5 kHz. The microchip lasers demonstrate ways to reduce greatly the cost and complexity offabricating small lasers and electro-optic devices.

  2. Application of poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber sol-gel coated onto NiTi alloy electrodeposited with zirconium oxide for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in herbal infusions.

    PubMed

    Budziak, Dilma; Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

    2008-08-01

    A PDMS fiber sol-gel coated onto an NiTi alloy previously electrodeposited with zirconium oxide (named NiTi-ZrO(2)-PDMS) was applied to the determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in infusions of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf), chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), and anise seeds (Pimpinella anisum L.). Salting-out effect, extraction time, and extraction temperature were optimized firstly by means of a full-factorial design and then using a Doehlert matrix. No salt addition and 50 min of extraction at 70 degrees C were the optimum conditions. Satisfactory LODs in the range of 2-17 ng/L, as well as good correlation coefficients (at least 0.9981) in the linear range studied, were obtained. Calibration was successfully applied using an infusion of M. recutita L. and recovery tests were performed to ensure the accuracy of the method, with values in the range of 77-120%. Comparison of the NiTi-ZrO(2)-PDMS with commercially available PDMS fibers showed that the proposed fiber has an extraction efficiency comparable to that of PDMS 30 microm for the compounds evaluated, demonstrating its potential applicability.

  3. New nanostructure of polydimethylsiloxane coating as a solid-phase microextraction fiber: Application to analysis of BTEX in aquatic environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Zali, Sara; Jalali, Fahimeh; Es-Haghi, Ali; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2016-10-15

    Electrospinning technique was used to convert polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) sol-gel solution to a new nanostructure on a stainless steel wire. The surface morphology of the fiber was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It showed a diameter range of 30-60nm for PDMS nanoparticles with a homogeneous and porous surface structure. The applicability of this coating was assessed for the headspace SPME (HS-SPME) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) from water samples followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The important parameters affecting extraction efficiency such as extraction time and temperature, desorption conditions, agitation rate and ionic strength were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, LODs and LOQs of 0.3-5μgL(-1) and 1-10μgL(-1) were obtained, respectively. The method showed linearity in the broad range of 1-5000μgL(-1) with correlation coefficient of >0.99. Inter-day and intra-day precisions of the developed method ranged from 2.43% to 6.54% and from 5.24% to 13.73%, respectively. The thermal stability of the fiber was investigated on stainless steel wire. It was found to be durable at 260°C for more than 360min. Furthermore, the proposed method was successfully applied for quantification of BTEX in real water samples.

  4. Preparation of a Surface-functionalized Power-free PDMS Microchip for MicroRNA Detection Utilizing Electron Beam-induced Graft Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Ryo; Uchino, Yoshitaka; Hosokawa, Kazuo; Maeda, Mizuo; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2017-01-01

    We propose an easy microchannel surface functionalization method for a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchip that utilizes electron beam-induced graft polymerization (EIGP) as a platform for microchip-based biomarker analysis. Unlike other grafting techniques, EIGP enables rapid surface modification of PDMS without initiator immobilization. The grafted microchip is preservable, and can be easily functionalized for versatile applications. In this study, the surface-functionalized power-free microchip (SF-PF microchip) was used for the detection of microRNA (miRNA), which is a biomarker for many serious diseases. The EIGP enables high-density three-dimensional probe DNA immobilization, resulting in rapid and sensitive miRNA detection on the portable SF-PF microchip. The limit of detection was 0.8 pM, the required sample volume was 0.5 μL, and the analysis time was 15 min. The SF-PF microchip will be a versatile platform for microchip-based point-of-care diagnosis.

  5. A novel polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic viscometer fabricated using microwire-molding.

    PubMed

    Zou, Misha; Cai, Shaoxi; Zhao, Zhenli; Chen, Longcong; Zhao, Yi; Fan, Xin; Chen, Sijia

    2015-10-01

    We present a new economical microfluidic viscometer to measure the viscosity of biological fluids, using sample volumes of less than 200 μl. It is fabricated using a microwire-molding technique, making it easier and cheaper to produce than existing viscometers. The viscometer is based on laminar flow inside a polydimethylsiloxane microchip. The velocity of the sample flow inside the capillary was monitored with a camera, and the movement of the liquid column was determined by a Matlab video-processing program. The device was calibrated using deionized water, which is a Newtonian fluid, at 20 °C. The viscometer provides accurate measurements of viscosity for values as small as 0.69 mPa s. The viscosity of water at different temperatures was measured, showing more than 98% agreement with the values provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Various samples including a series of glycerol solutions, phosphate-buffered saline, alcohol, and cell media were also tested, and the measured viscosities were compared with those from a traditional glass capillary viscometer. The results show good agreement between the two methods, with an average relative error of less than 1%. Furthermore, the viscosities of several cell suspensions were measured, showing a relative standard deviation of less than 1.5%. The microchip viscometer is economical and is shown to be accurate, which is very important for the simulation and control of lab-on-a-chip experiments.

  6. A novel polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic viscometer fabricated using microwire-molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Misha; Cai, Shaoxi; Zhao, Zhenli; Chen, Longcong; Zhao, Yi; Fan, Xin; Chen, Sijia

    2015-10-01

    We present a new economical microfluidic viscometer to measure the viscosity of biological fluids, using sample volumes of less than 200 μl. It is fabricated using a microwire-molding technique, making it easier and cheaper to produce than existing viscometers. The viscometer is based on laminar flow inside a polydimethylsiloxane microchip. The velocity of the sample flow inside the capillary was monitored with a camera, and the movement of the liquid column was determined by a Matlab video-processing program. The device was calibrated using deionized water, which is a Newtonian fluid, at 20 °C. The viscometer provides accurate measurements of viscosity for values as small as 0.69 mPa s. The viscosity of water at different temperatures was measured, showing more than 98% agreement with the values provided by the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Various samples including a series of glycerol solutions, phosphate-buffered saline, alcohol, and cell media were also tested, and the measured viscosities were compared with those from a traditional glass capillary viscometer. The results show good agreement between the two methods, with an average relative error of less than 1%. Furthermore, the viscosities of several cell suspensions were measured, showing a relative standard deviation of less than 1.5%. The microchip viscometer is economical and is shown to be accurate, which is very important for the simulation and control of lab-on-a-chip experiments.

  7. Serial dilution microchip for cytotoxicity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bang, Hyunwoo; Lim, Sun Hee; Lee, Young Kyung; Chung, Seok; Chung, Chanil; Han, Dong-Chul; Chang, Jun Keun

    2004-08-01

    Today's pharmaceutical industry is facing challenges resulting from the vast increases in sample numbers produced by high-throughput screening (HTS). In addition, the bottlenecks created by increased demand for cytotoxicity testing (required to assess compound safety) are becoming a serious problem. We have developed a polymer PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device that can perform a cytotoxicity test in a rapid and reproducible manner. The concept that the device includes is well adjustable to automated robots in huge HTS systems, so we can think of it as a potential dilution and delivery module. Cytotoxicity testing is all about the dilution and dispensing of a drug sample. Previously, we made a PDMS based microfluidic device which automatically and precisely diluted drugs with a buffer solution with serially increasing concentrations. This time, the serially diluted drug solution was directly delivered to 96 well plates for cytotoxicity testing. Cytotoxic paclitaxel solution with 2% RPMI 1640 has been used while carrying out cancerous cell based cytotoxicity tests. We believe that this rapid and robust use of the PDMS microchip will overcome the growing problem in cytotoxicity testing for HTS.

  8. Red microchip VECSEL array.

    PubMed

    Hastie, Jennifer; Morton, Lynne; Calvez, Stephane; Dawson, Martin; Leinonen, Tomi; Pessa, Markus; Gibson, Graham; Padgett, Miles

    2005-09-05

    We report an InGaP/AlInGaP/GaAs microchip vertical-external-cavity surface emitting laser operating directly at red wavelengths and demonstrate its potential for array-format operation. Optical pumping with up to 3.3W at 532nm produced a maximum output power of 330mW at 675nm, in a single circularly-symmetric beam with M2<2. Simultaneous pumping with three separate input beams, generated using a diffractive optical element, achieved lasing from three discrete areas of the same chip. Output power of ~95mW per beam was obtained from this 3x1 array, each beam having a Gaussian intensity profile with M2<1.2. In a further development, a spatial light modulator allowed computer control over the orientation and separation of the pump beams, and hence dynamic control over the configuration of the VECSEL array.

  9. Hydrodynamic injection with pneumatic valving for microchip electrophoresis with total analyte utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xuefei; Kelly, Ryan T.; Danielson, William F.; Agrawal, Nitin; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2011-04-26

    A novel hydrodynamic injector that is directly controlled by a pneumatic valve has been developed for reproducible microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) separations. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) devices used for evaluation comprise a separation channel, a side channel for sample introduction, and a pneumatic valve aligned at the intersection of the channels. A low pressure (≤ 3 psi) applied to the sample reservoir is sufficient to drive sample into the separation channel. The rapidly actuated pneumatic valve enables injection of discrete sample plugs as small as ~100 pL for CE separation. The injection volume can be easily controlled by adjusting the intersection geometry, the solution back pressure and the valve actuation time. Sample injection could be reliably operated at different frequencies (< 0.1 Hz to >2 Hz) with good reproducibility (peak height relative standard deviation ≤ 3.6%) and no sampling biases associated with the conventional electrokinetic injections. The separation channel was dynamically coated with a cationic polymer, and FITC-labeled amino acids were employed to evaluate the CE separation. Highly efficient (≥ 7.0 × 103 theoretical plates for the ~2.4 cm long channel) and reproducible CE separations were obtained. The demonstrated method has numerous advantages compared with the conventional techniques, including repeatable and unbiased injections, no sample waste, high duty cycle, controllable injected sample volume, and fewer electrodes with no need for voltage switching. The prospects of implementing this injection method for coupling multidimensional separations, for multiplexing CE separations and for sample-limited bioanalyses are discussed.

  10. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography on microchips.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Otsuka, Koji

    2008-03-01

    This review highlights the methodological and instrumental developments in microchip micellar EKC (MCMEKC) from 1995. The combination of higher separation efficiencies in micellar EKC (MEKC) with high-speed separation in microchip electrophoresis (MCE) should provide high-throughput and high-performance analytical systems. The chip-based separation technique has received considerable attention due to its integration ability without any connector. This advantage allows the development of a multidimensional separation system. Several types of 2-D separation microchips are described in the review. Since complicated channel configurations can easily be fabricated on planar substrates, various sample manipulations can be carried out prior to MCMEKC separations. For example, mixing for on-chip reactions, on-line sample preconcentration, on-chip assay, etc., have been integrated on MEKC microchips. The application of on-line sample preconcentration to MCMEKC can provide not only sensitivity enhancement but also the elucidation of the preconcentration mechanism due to the visualization ability of MCE. The characteristics of these sample manipulations on MEKC microchips are presented in this review. The scope of applications in MCMEKC covers mainly biogenic compounds such as amino acids, peptides, proteins, biogenic amines, DNA, and oestrogens. This review provides a comprehensive table listing the applications in MCMEKC in relation to detection methods.

  11. Elastomeric Microchip Electrospray Emitter for Stable Cone-Jet Mode Operation in the Nanoflow Regime.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Tang, Keqi; Irimia, Daniel; Toner, Mehmet; Smith, Richard D.

    2008-05-15

    Despite widespread interest in applying lab-on-a-chip technologies to mass spectrometry (MS)-based analyses, the coupling of microfluidics to electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS remains challenging. We report a robust, integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip interface for ESI-MS using simple and widely accessible microfabrication procedures. The interface uses an auxiliary channel to provide electrical contact in the Taylor cone of the electrospray without sample loss or dilution. The electric field at the channel terminus is enhanced by two vertical cuts that cause the interface to taper to a line rather than to a point, and the formation of small Taylor cones at the channel exit ensures sub-nL post-column dead volumes. While comparable ESI-MS sensitivities were achieved using both microchip and conventional fused silica capillary emitters, stable cone-jet mode electrospray could be established over a far broader range of flow rates (from 50–1000 nL/min) and applied potentials using the microchip emitters. This special feature of the microchip emitter should minimize the fine tuning required for electrospray optimization and make the stable electrospray more resistant to external perturbations.

  12. Microchip problems plague DOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. J.

    1984-10-01

    The major issues in the controversy over the discovery of millions of defective microchips sold to the DOD by the Texas Instruments (TI) corporation are outlined. Defects in the microcircuits are blamed on inadequate testing procedures performed by TI during manufacture, and on inadequate testing procedures used by a subcontractor especially contracted to test the chips. Because the problem persisted over a period of years, defects might be possible in as many as 100 million chips used in a broad range of military applications including the Trident submarine, the B-52, B-1B, F-15, F-111, F-4, A-6, and A-7 aircraft, the Harpoon and HARM missile systems, and the Space Shuttles Discovery and Challenger. It is pointed out that although TI has accepted responsibility for the defective chips, little will be done by the DOD to compel the company to replace them, or to upgrade testing procedures. It is concluded that the serious nature of the problem could renew interest in recommendations for the standardization of military microcircuits.

  13. Microchip electrophoresis for wine analysis.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Federico J V; Silva, M Fernanda

    2016-12-01

    The present critical review provides a summary of representative articles describing the analysis of wine by microchip electrophoresis. Special emphasis has been given to those compounds able to provide background information to achieve the differentiation of wines according to botanical origin, provenance, vintage and quality or assure wine authentication. This review focuses on capillary electrophoresis (CE) microchips dedicated to the analysis of wine covering all the contributions concerning this area. The most relevant compounds in wine analysis such as phenols, organic acids, inorganic species, aldehydes, sugars, alcohols, and neuroactive amines were considered. Moreover, a special section is dedicated to the potential of CE microchip for wine classification. Indeed, potential directions for the future are discussed.

  14. Microchip capillary electrophoresis/electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Lacher, N A; Garrison, K E; Martin, R S; Lunte, S M

    2001-08-01

    Microfabricated fluidic devices have generated considerable interest over the past ten years due to the fact that sample preparation, injection, separation, derivatization, and detection can be integrated into one miniaturized device. This review reports progress in the development of microfabricated analytical systems based on microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical (EC) detection. Electrochemical detection has several advantages for use with microchip electrophoresis systems, for example, ease of miniaturization, sensitivity, and selectivity. In this review, the basic components necessary for microchip CEEC are described, including several examples of different detector configurations. Lastly, details of the application of this technique to the determination of catechols and phenols, amino acids, peptides, carbohydrates, nitroaromatics, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products, organophosphates, and hydrazines are described.

  15. Filmy channel microchip with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Fu, Feng F U; Xu, Xueqin; Lin, Jin-Ming; Chen, Guonan

    2009-11-01

    In this article, a new type of microchip with filmy channels and a sample-injection fracture is introduced. Unlike commercial microchip, new microchip possessed filmy channel with width 2-3 mm. The effective cooling ability made filmy channel microchip restrain the generation of Joule heat even under electric field of 588 V/cm. Moreover, wider channel could be more easily modified to prevent the absorption of samples, load more samples and result in a higher sensitivity. Sample-injection fracture was first applied to match the filmy channel in microchip. Equipped with an amperometric detector, the characteristics of the newly designed filmy channel microchip had been studied and the results showed that it had good reproducibility, higher sensitivity and excellent separation ability. The microchip was also applied to separate L-tryptophan's metabolites, namely 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan, 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxy-indole-3-acetic acid.

  16. Power-free sequential injection for microchip immunoassay toward point-of-care testing.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Kazuo; Omata, Masaki; Sato, Kae; Maeda, Mizuo

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents a simple fluid handling technique for microchip immunoassay. Necessary solutions were sequentially injected into a microchannel by air-evacuated poly(dimethylsiloxane), and were passively regulated by capillary force at the inlet opening. For heterogeneous immunoassay, microchips are potentially useful for reduction of sample consumption and assay time. However, most of the previously reported microchips have limitations in their use because of the needs for external power sources for fluid handling. In this paper, an on-chip heterogeneous immunofluorescence assay without such an external power source is demonstrated. The microchip consisting of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and glass has a simple structure, and therefore is suitable for single-use applications. Necessary solutions were sequentially injected into a microchannel in an autonomous fashion with the power-free pumping technique, which exploits the high solubility and the rapid diffusion of air in PDMS. For deionized water, this method yielded flow rates of 3-5 nL s-1 with reproducibility of 4-10%. The inlet opening of the microchannel functioned as a passive valve to hold the solution when the flow was finished. Rabbit immunoglobulin G (rIgG) and human C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected using the microchannel walls as reaction sites. With the sample consumption of 1 microL and the assay time of approximately 20 min including the antibody immobilization step, the sandwich immunoassay methods for rIgG and CRP exhibited the limits of detection of 0.21 nM (0.21 fmol) and 0.42 nM (0.42 fmol), respectively.

  17. Integration of ground aerogel particles as chromatographic stationary phase into microchip.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Attila; Nagy, Andrea; Lazar, Istvan

    2011-02-18

    C16 modified and ground monolithic silica aerogel particles in submicrometer size, as a new type of stationary phase was prepared and integrated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip. The aerogel particles were packed into the microfluidic channel using a simple procedure, which does not require any special frit or fabrication step to retain the particles. The subnanoliter volume of samples can be transported through the porous, short length of packing with low pressure (< 3 bar). Food dyes as test components could be separated using low pressure within 6s. A 50-fold preconcentration could be achieved by retaining 100 nL volume of sample on the packing and elution with methanol.

  18. Surface modification in microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Belder, Detlev; Ludwig, Martin

    2003-11-01

    Different approaches and techniques for surface modification of microfluidic devices applied for microchip electrophoresis are reviewed. The main focus is on the improved electrophoretic separation by reducing analyte-wall interactions and manipulation of electroosmosis. Approaches and methods for permanent and dynamic surface modification of microfluidic devices, manufactured from glass, quartz and also different polymeric substrates, are described.

  19. Analytical Chemistry and the Microchip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Robert K.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical techniques used at various points in making microchips are described. They include: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (silicon purity); optical emission spectroscopy (quantitative thin-film composition); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (chemical changes in thin films); wet chemistry, instrumental analysis (process chemicals);…

  20. Analytical Chemistry and the Microchip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Robert K.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical techniques used at various points in making microchips are described. They include: Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (silicon purity); optical emission spectroscopy (quantitative thin-film composition); X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (chemical changes in thin films); wet chemistry, instrumental analysis (process chemicals);…

  1. Dyneon THV, a fluorinated thermoplastic as a novel material for microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Nacéra; Ferraro, Davide; Taverna, Myriam; Descroix, Stéphanie; Smadja, Claire; Thuy Tran, N

    2016-10-21

    In this work, we have investigated Dyneon THV, a fluorinated material, as a new material to afford electrokinetic separations in microfluidic devices. To overcome protein adsorption, two poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based coatings have been investigated: Pluronic F127 and PEO stearate 40. The best results were obtained with the PEO stearate 40 coating which allowed decreasing the surface contact angle from 91 ± 3 to 76°± 3. With this surface treatment, a 66% reduction of the electroosmotic mobility at pH 8.0 and a marked suppression of protein adsorption were observed compared to a native Dyneon THV microchip. Finally, a separation of fluorescently labeled proteins (bovine serum albumin and trypsin inhibitor), well-known for their strong tendency to adsorb on hydrophobic surfaces, was successfully achieved in an HEPES buffer with a PEO stearate 40 treated microchip by capillary zone electrophoresis. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility to perform non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis analysis of hydrophobic dyes using various solvents in untreated microchips. The overall results demonstrated not only the suitability of the Dyneon THV microchip for electrokinetic separations, but also its versatility allowing different separation modes to be implemented with the same microchip material.

  2. Application of Microchip for Biomarker Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Masatoshi; Yatsushiro, Shouki; Yamamura, Shouhei; Abe, Hiroko

    Microchip technologies have received considerable attention, due to their competitive advantages, especially in regards to reduced sample and reagent consumption, analysis time, and easy operation. This approach has been successfully used to analyze DNA, amino acids, proteins, and carbohydrates. In the present study, we showed the potential of microchip technologies for the biomarker analysis, blood carbohydrate analysis on microchip electrophoresis, quantitative analysis of protein with antigen-antibody reaction on microchip, and the detection of malaria-infected erythrocyte with a cell microarray chip.

  3. Characterization of low viscosity polymer solutions for microchip electrophoresis of non-denatured proteins on plastic chips.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Takao; Reza Mohamadi, Mohamad; Kaji, Noritada; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Tokeshi, Manabu; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we study characteristics of polymers (methylcellulose, hypromellose ((hydroxypropyl)methyl cellulose), poly(vinylpyrrolidone), and poly(vinyl alcohol)) with different chemical structures for microchip electrophoresis of non-denatured protein samples in a plastic microchip made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Coating efficiency of these polymers for controlling protein adsorption onto the channel surface of the plastic microchip, wettability of the PMMA surface, and electroosmotic flow in the PMMA microchannels in the presence of these polymers were compared. Also relative electrophoretic mobility of protein samples in solutions of these polymers was studied. We showed that when using low polymer concentrations (lower than the polymer entanglement point) where the sieving effect is substantially negligible, the interaction of the samples with the polymer affected the electrophoretic mobility of the samples. This effect can be used for achieving better resolution in microchip electrophoresis of protein samples.

  4. Barcoded microchips for biomolecular assays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Sun, Jiashu; Zou, Yu; Chen, Wenwen; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-01-20

    Multiplexed assay of analytes is of great importance for clinical diagnostics and other analytical applications. Barcode-based bioassays with the ability to encode and decode may realize this goal in a straightforward and consistent manner. We present here a microfluidic barcoded chip containing several sets of microchannels with different widths, imitating the commonly used barcode. A single barcoded microchip can carry out tens of individual protein/nucleic acid assays (encode) and immediately yield all assay results by a portable barcode reader or a smartphone (decode). The applicability of a barcoded microchip is demonstrated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoassays for simultaneous detection of three targets (anti-gp41 antibody, anti-gp120 antibody, and anti-gp36 antibody) from six human serum samples. We can also determine seven pathogen-specific oligonucleotides by a single chip containing both positive and negative controls.

  5. Particle-free microchip processing

    DOEpatents

    Geller, A.S.; Rader, D.J.

    1996-06-04

    Method and apparatus for reducing particulate contamination in microchip processing are disclosed. The method and apparatus comprise means to reduce particle velocity toward the wafer before the particles can be deposited on the wafer surface. A reactor using electric fields to reduce particle velocity and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. A reactor using a porous showerhead to reduce particle velocities and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. 5 figs.

  6. Particle-free microchip processing

    DOEpatents

    Geller, Anthony S.; Rader, Daniel J.

    1996-01-01

    Method and apparatus for reducing particulate contamination in microchip processing are disclosed. The method and apparatus comprise means to reduce particle velocity toward the wafer before the particles can be deposited on the wafer surface. A reactor using electric fields to reduce particle velocity and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed. A reactor using a porous showerhead to reduce particle velocities and prevent particulate contamination is disclosed.

  7. Low outgassing polydimethylsiloxane material and preparation thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidenberg, B. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A fluid polydimethylsiloxane resin having improved outgassing properties in the cured state is described. The fluid resin is obtained by pouring, to a height of up to about 2 inches a starting polydimethylsiloxane resin such as RTV-602 silicone resin and devolatilizing the starting resin at a temperature of about 125 to 150 C under a vacuum of at least 0.00001 torr.

  8. Downstream microwave ammonia plasma treatment of polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect

    Pruden, K.G.; Beaudoin, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    To control the interactions between surfaces and biological systems, it is common to attach polymers, proteins, and other species to the surfaces of interest. In this case, surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was performed by exposing PDMS films to the effluent from a microwave ammonia plasma, with a goal of creating primary amine groups on the PDMS. These amine sites were to be used as binding sites for polymer attachment. Chemical changes to the surface of the PDMS were investigated as a function of treatment time, microwave power, and PDMS temperature during plasma treatment. Functional groups resulting from this treatment were characterized using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. Plasma treatment resulted in the incorporation of oxygen- and nitrogen-containing groups, including primary amine groups. In general, increasing the treatment time, plasma power and substrate temperature increased the level of oxidation of the films, and led to the formation of imines and nitriles. PDMS samples treated at 100 W and 23 deg. C for 120 s were chosen for proof-of-concept dextran coating. Samples treated at this condition contained primary amine groups and few oxygen-containing groups. To test the viability of the primary amines for attachment of biopolymers, functionalized dextran was successfully attached to primary amine sites on the PDMS films.

  9. Infrared dielectric function of polydimethylsiloxane and selective emission behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Arvind; Czapla, Braden; Mayo, Jeff; Narayanaswamy, Arvind

    2016-08-01

    The complex refractive index of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is determined in the wavelength range between 2.5 μm and 16.7 μm. The parameters of a Drude-Lorentz oscillator model (with 15 oscillators) are extracted from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflectance measurements made on both bulk PDMS and thin films of PDMS deposited on the gold coated silicon substrates. It is shown that thin films of PDMS atop gold exhibit selective emission in the 8 μm to 13 μm atmospheric transmittance window, which demonstrates that PDMS, especially due to its ease of deposition, may be a viable material for passive radiative cooling applications.

  10. Production of Microchips from Polystyrene Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pace, Sarah Lindsey

    2009-01-01

    Currently manufactured microchips are expensive to make, require specialized equipment, and leave a large environmental footprint. To counter this, an alternative procedure that is cheaper and leaves a smaller environmental footprint should be made. The goal of this research project is to develop a process that creates microchips from polystyrene…

  11. Microchips in Medicine: Current and Future Applications

    PubMed Central

    Eltorai, Adam E. M.; Fox, Henry; McGurrin, Emily; Guang, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    With the objective of improving efficacy and morbidity, device manufacturers incorporate chemicals or drugs into medical implants. Using multiple reservoirs of discrete drug doses, microchips represent a new technology capable of on-demand release of various drugs over long periods of time. Herein, we review drug delivery systems, how microchips work, recent investigations, and future applications in various fields of medicine. PMID:27376079

  12. Microchips in Medicine: Current and Future Applications.

    PubMed

    Eltorai, Adam E M; Fox, Henry; McGurrin, Emily; Guang, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    With the objective of improving efficacy and morbidity, device manufacturers incorporate chemicals or drugs into medical implants. Using multiple reservoirs of discrete drug doses, microchips represent a new technology capable of on-demand release of various drugs over long periods of time. Herein, we review drug delivery systems, how microchips work, recent investigations, and future applications in various fields of medicine.

  13. Efficient proteolysis strategies based on microchip bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuang; Bao, Huimin; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2013-04-26

    In proteome research, proteolysis is an important procedure prior to the mass spectrometric identification of proteins. The typical time of conventional in-solution proteolysis is as long as several hours to half a day. To enhance proteolysis efficiency, a variety of microchip bioreactors have been developed for the rapid digestion and identification of proteins in the past decade. This review mainly focuses on the recent advances and the key strategies of microchip bioreactors in protein digestion. The subjects covered include microchip proteolysis systems, the immobilization of proteases in microchannels, the applications of microchip bioreactors in highly efficient proteolysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip bioreactors will become powerful tools in protein analysis and will find a wide range of applications in high-throughput protein identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Microbioassay system for antiallergic drug screening using suspension cells retaining in a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Tokuyama, Takahito; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Sato, Kiichi; Abo, Mitsuru; Okubo, Akira

    2005-05-15

    This article describes an antiallergic drug-screening system by the detection of histamine released from mast cells (suspension cells) on a multilayer microchip. In this study, the elastmeric material, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), was employed to fabricate microchannels and microchambers. The microchip consists of two sections: a histamine-releasing one, which has a cell chamber, and a histamine-derivatizing one. Both were laminated to one microchip. Rat peritoneal mast cells were retained in the cell chamber (1.2 microL) with a filtering system using a cellulose nitrate membrane. This filtering system could easily retain suspension cells without cell damage. Mast cells were viable for a sufficient time to conduct the assay on the cell chamber. The cells were stimulated with a chemical release compound 48/80 (C48/80), and then histamine flowed into the lower layer, where it was derivatized to the fluorescent molecules with o-phthalaldehyde and its fluorescence was detected on the microchip. This flow system could detect the time course of the histamine release, and this microchip system required only 20 min for the assay. By this integrated system, 51 pmol of histamine released from 500 cells was detected, and the number of cells required for the assay was reduced to 1% compared with conventional bulk systems. By comparing the released histamine levels with and without drugs, their effect could be evaluated. The inhibition ratio of C48/80 induced-histamine release using an antiallergic drug, disodium cromoglicate (DSCG), was related to the concentration of DSCG. This flow system was applicable for antiallergy drug screening by rapid measurement of the inhibition of histamine release from a very small amount of mast cells.

  15. Microchip electrophoresis for chiral separations.

    PubMed

    Belder, Detlev; Ludwig, Martin

    2003-08-01

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) is a promising new technique for the separation of enantiomers. This recently introduced technique enables chiral separations to be performed in seconds on tiny micromachined devices. This review is intended to give a brief introduction into the principles of chiral separations with MCE with regard to methodology and instrumentation. Different approaches to realize chiral separations in microfluidic devices are described and discussed. This review gives an overview of original work done in this field with emphasis on approaches to improve detection and resolution in chiral MCE.

  16. Integration of valving and sensing on a capillary-assembled microchip.

    PubMed

    Hisamoto, Hideaki; Funano, Shun-ichi; Terabe, Shigeru

    2005-04-01

    A simple integration of both flow control valves and a reaction-based sensing function on a single microchip was performed by using capillary-assembled microchip (CAs-CHIP: Hisamoto, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Kitamura, C.; Funano, S.-i.; Yasuoka, M.; Morishima, K.; Kikutani, Y.; Kitamori, T.; Terabe, S. Anal. Chem. 2004, 76, 3222-3228.). In contrast to the previously reported on-chip valving systems, where the simple valving functions were integrated, our system can integrate not only valving function but also many other chemical functions to perform a complex chemical operation on a single microchip. Here, an enzymatic reaction-based readout system is employed as an example. A square capillary immobilizing N-isopropylacrylamide polymer monolith (referred to as "valving capillary") is used as a thermoresponsive "valving part" and the immobilizing enzyme-modified glycidyl methacrylate polymer monolith (referred to as "sensing capillary") is used as a "sensing part" of the CAs-CHIP. These capillaries are embedded into a lattice microchannel network fabricated on poly(dimethylsiloxane), which has the same channel dimensions as the outer dimensions of the square capillaries. After bonding, a small Peltier device (2 mm x 2 mm) for temperature control is placed on the embedded valving capillaries to control fluid flow. Using this for heating or cooling, fast operation times of 1.4 and 3.2 s for opening and closing valves, respectively, are successfully achieved. Finally, two valving capillaries are independently controlled to trap sample solution within a bypass channel, where the enzyme-immobilized capillary is embedded, and then enzymatic reaction-based sensing of chemical species is performed as an example. The fundamental characteristics of the valve-integrated microchip are fully investigated, and an application to the analysis of an enzyme substrate by using two independent valving capillaries and a sensing capillary is demonstrated.

  17. Viability study of HL60 cells in contact with commonly used microchip materials.

    PubMed

    Wolbers, Floor; ter Braak, Paul; Le Gac, Severine; Luttge, Regina; Andersson, Helene; Vermes, Istvan; van den Berg, Albert

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a study in which different commonly used microchip materials (silicon oxide, borosilicate glass, and PDMS) were analyzed for their effect on human promyelocytic leukemic (HL60) cells. Copper-coated silicon was analyzed for its toxicity and therefore served as a positive control. With quantitative PCR, the expression of the proliferation marker Cyclin D1 and the apoptosis marker tissue transglutaminase were measured. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the distribution through the different phases of the cell cycle (propidium iodide, PI) and the apoptotic cascade (Annexin V in combination with PI). All microchip materials, with the exception of Cu, appeared to be suitable for HL60 cells, showing a ratio apoptosis/proliferation (R(ap)) comparable to materials used in conventional cell culture (polystyrene). These results were confirmed with cell cycle analysis and apoptosis studies. Precoating the microchip material surfaces with serum favor the proliferation, as demonstrated by a lower R(ap) as compared to uncoated surfaces. The Cu-coated surface appeared to be toxic for HL60 cells, showing over 90% decreased viability within 24 h. From these results, it can be concluded that the chosen protocol is suitable for selection of the cell culture material, and that the most commonly used microchip materials are compatible with HL60 culturing.

  18. Measurement of Nitrogen Mustard Degredation Products by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microchip Electrophoresis with Contactless Conductivity Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential risk of human exposure from an accidental or intentional release of CWAs into a civilian population continues to drive the need for screening and monitoring techniques for these compounds. In particular, rapid and reliable methods for detecting CWAs such as the nitr...

  19. Measurement of Nitrogen Mustard Degredation Products by Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microchip Electrophoresis with Contactless Conductivity Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential risk of human exposure from an accidental or intentional release of CWAs into a civilian population continues to drive the need for screening and monitoring techniques for these compounds. In particular, rapid and reliable methods for detecting CWAs such as the nitr...

  20. NcRNA-microchip analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mrázek, Jan; Vorwerk, Sonja

    2010-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of human B cells requires the presence of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), which regulate expression of viral and host genes. To identify differentially expressed regulatory ncRNAs involved in EBV infection, a specialized cDNA library, enriched for ncRNAs derived from EBV-infected cells, was subjected to deep-sequencing. From the deep-sequencing analysis, we generated a custom-designed ncRNA-microchip to investigate differential expression of ncRNA candidates. By this approach, we identified 25 differentially expressed novel host-encoded ncRNA candidates in EBV-infected cells, comprised of six non-repeat-derived and 19 repeat-derived ncRNAs. Upon EBV infection of B cells, we also observed increased expression levels of oncogenic miRNAs mir-221 and mir-222, which might contribute to EBV-related tumorigenesis, as well as decreased expression levels of RNase P RNA, a ribozyme involved in tRNA maturation. Thus, in this study we demonstrate that our ncRNA-microchip approach serves as a powerful tool to identify novel differentially expressed ncRNAs acting as potential regulators of gene expression during EBV infection. PMID:21037422

  1. Contact solid-phase microextraction with uncoated glass and polydimethylsiloxane-coated fibers versus solvent sampling for the determination of hydrocarbons in adhesion secretions of Madagascar hissing cockroaches Gromphadorrhina portentosa (Blattodea) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, Heike; Schmitt, Christian; Betz, Oliver; Albert, Klaus; Lämmerhofer, Michael

    2015-04-03

    Molecular profiles of adhesion secretions of Gromphadorrhina portentosa (Madagascar hissing cockroach, Blattodea) were investigated by gas chromatography mass spectrometry with particular focus on a comprehensive analysis of linear and branched hydrocarbons. For this purpose, secretions from the tarsi (feet), possibly contributing to adhesion on smooth surfaces, and control samples taken from the tibiae (lower legs), which contain general cuticular hydrocarbons that are supposed to be not involved in the biological adhesion function, were analyzed and their molecular fingerprints compared. A major analytical difficulty in such a study constitutes the representative, spatially controlled, precise and reproducible sampling from a living insect as well as the minute quantities of insect secretions on both tarsi and tibiae. Thus, three different in vivo sampling methods were compared in terms of sampling reproducibility and extraction efficiency by replicate measurement of samples from tarsi and tibiae. While contact solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber showed higher peak intensities, a self-made uncoated glass fiber had the best repeatability in contact-SPME sampling. Chromatographic profiles of these two contact-SPME sampling methods were statistically not significantly different. Inter-individual variances were larger than potentially existing minor differences in molecular patterns of distinct sampling methods. Sampling by solvent extraction was time consuming, showed lower sensitivities and was less reproducible. In general, sampling by contact-SPME with a cheap glass fiber turned out to be a viable alternative to PDMS-SPME sampling. Hydrocarbon patterns of the tarsal adhesion secretions were qualitatively similar to those of epicuticular hydrocarbon profiles of the tibiae. However, hydrocarbons were in general less abundant in tarsal secretions than secretions from tibiae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  3. Coatings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    This review covers analytical techniques applicable to the examination of coatings, raw materials, and substrates upon which coatings are placed. Techniques include chemical and electrochemical methods, chromatography, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, microscopy, and miscellaneous techniques. (MVL)

  4. Highly efficient dynamic modification of plastic microfluidic devices using proteins in microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Naruishi, Nahoko; Tanaka, Yoshihide; Higashi, Tetsuji; Wakida, Shin-ichi

    2006-10-20

    New dynamic coating agents were investigated for the manipulation of electroosmotic flow (EOF) in poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) microchips. Blocking proteins designed for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) applications (e.g. Block Ace and UltraBlock), and egg-white lysozyme were proposed in this study. The EOF could be enhanced, suppressed or its direction could be reversed, depending on the buffer pH and the charge on the proteins. The coating procedure is simple, requiring only filling of the microchannels with a coating solution, followed by a rinse with a running buffer solution prior to analysis. One major advantage of this method is that it is not necessary to add the coating agent to the running buffer solution. Block Ace and UltraBlock coatings were stable for at least five runs in a given microchannel without the need to condition the coating between runs other than replenishing the buffer solution after each run, i.e. the RSD values of EOF (n=5) were less than 4.3%, and there was no significant change in the EOF after 5 runs. The reproducibility of the coating procedures was found from the channel-to-channel RSD values of the EOF, and were less than 5.0% when using HEPES-Na buffer (pH 7.4) as the running buffer. Several examples of electrophoretic separations of amino acids and biogenic amines derivatized with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) are demonstrated in this paper. The dynamic coating method has the potential for a broad range of applications in microchip capillary electrophoresis (microchip CE) separations.

  5. Electrokinetic sample preconcentration and hydrodynamic sample injection for microchip electrophoresis using a pneumatic microvalve.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yongzheng; Katipamula, Shanta; Geng, Tao; Prost, Spencer A; Tang, Keqi; Kelly, Ryan T

    2016-02-01

    A microfluidic platform was developed to perform online electrokinetic sample preconcentration and rapid hydrodynamic sample injection for zone electrophoresis using a single microvalve. The polydimethylsiloxane microchip comprises a separation channel, a side channel for sample introduction, and a control channel which is used as a pneumatic microvalve aligned at the intersection of the two flow channels. The closed microvalve, created by multilayer soft lithography, serves as a nanochannel preconcentrator under an applied electric potential, enabling current to pass through while preventing bulk flow. Once analytes are concentrated, the valve is briefly opened and the stacked sample is pressure injected into the separation channel for electrophoretic separation. Fluorescently labeled peptides were enriched by a factor of ∼450 in 230 s. This method enables both rapid analyte concentration and controlled injection volume for high sensitivity, high-resolution CE.

  6. Infrared dielectric function of polydimethylsiloxane and selective emission behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Arvind; Czapla, Braden; Narayanaswamy, Arvind; Mayo, Jeff

    2016-08-08

    The complex refractive index of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is determined in the wavelength range between 2.5 μm and 16.7 μm. The parameters of a Drude-Lorentz oscillator model (with 15 oscillators) are extracted from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reflectance measurements made on both bulk PDMS and thin films of PDMS deposited on the gold coated silicon substrates. It is shown that thin films of PDMS atop gold exhibit selective emission in the 8 μm to 13 μm atmospheric transmittance window, which demonstrates that PDMS, especially due to its ease of deposition, may be a viable material for passive radiative cooling applications.

  7. Microchip-based Immunomagnetic Detection of Circulating Tumor Cell

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Yen; Lane, Nancy; Huebschman, Michael; Uhr, Jonathan W.; Frenkel, Eugene P.; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2012-01-01

    Screening for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood has been an object of interest for evidence of progressive disease, status of disease activity, recognition of clonal evolution of molecular changes and for possible early diagnosis of cancer. We describe a new method of microchip-based immunomagnetic CTC detection, in which the benefits of both immunomagnetic assay and the microfluidic device are combined. As the blood sample flows through the microchannel closely above arrayed magnets, cancer cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles are separated from blood flow and deposited at the bottom wall of the glass coverslip, which allows direct observation of captured cells with a fluorescence microscope. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microchannel fixed on a glass coverslip was used to screen blood samples. The thin, flat dimensions of the microchannel, combined with the sharp magnetic field gradient in the vicinity of arrayed magnets with alternate polarities, lead to an effective capture of labeled cells. Comparing to the commercially available CellSearch™ system, less (25%) magnetic particles are required to achieve a comparable capture rate, while the screening speed (at optimal blood flow rate of 10 mL/hour) is more than five times faster than those reported previously with a microchannel-based assay. For the screening experiment, blood drawn from healthy subjects into CellSave™ tubes was spiked with cultured cancer cell lines of COLO205 and SKBR3. The blood was then kept at room temperature for 48 hours before the screening, emulating the actual clinical cases of blood screening. Customized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Veridex Ferrofluid™) conjugated to anti-Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies were introduced into the blood samples to label cancer cells, and the blood was then run through the microchip device to capture the labelled cells. After capture, the cells were stained with fluorescently labelled anti-cytokeratin, DAPI and

  8. Microchip-based immunomagnetic detection of circulating tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Kazunori; Huang, Yu-Yen; Lane, Nancy; Huebschman, Michael; Uhr, Jonathan W; Frenkel, Eugene P; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2011-10-21

    Screening for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood has been an object of interest for evidence of progressive disease, status of disease activity, recognition of clonal evolution of molecular changes and for possible early diagnosis of cancer. We describe a new method of microchip-based immunomagnetic CTC detection, in which the benefits of both immunomagnetic assay and the microfluidic device are combined. As the blood sample flows through the microchannel closely above arrayed magnets, cancer cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles are separated from blood flow and deposited at the bottom wall of the glass coverslip, which allows direct observation of captured cells with a fluorescence microscope. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microchannel fixed on a glass coverslip was used to screen blood samples. The thin, flat dimensions of the microchannel, combined with the sharp magnetic field gradient in the vicinity of arrayed magnets with alternate polarities, lead to an effective capture of labeled cells. Compared to the commercially available CellSearch™ system, fewer (25%) magnetic particles are required to achieve a comparable capture rate, while the screening speed (at an optimal blood flow rate of 10 mL h(-1)) is more than five times faster than those reported previously with a microchannel-based assay. For the screening experiment, blood drawn from healthy subjects into CellSave™ tubes was spiked with cultured cancer cell lines of COLO205 and SKBR3. The blood was then kept at room temperature for 48 hours before the screening, emulating the actual clinical cases of blood screening. Customized Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (Veridex Ferrofluid™) conjugated to anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies were introduced into the blood samples to label cancer cells, and the blood was then run through the microchip device to capture the labelled cells. After capture, the cells were stained with fluorescent labelled anti

  9. Floating resistivity detector for microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Tay, Elaine Teng Teng; Law, Wai Siang; Sim, Steven Poh Chuen; Feng, Huatao; Zhao, Jian Hong; Li, Sam Fong Yau

    2007-12-01

    A newly developed conductivity detector, the floating resistivity detector (FRD), for microchip electrophoresis was introduced in this work. The detector design permits decoupling of the detection circuit from the high separation voltage without compromising separation efficiency. This greatly simplifies the integration of microchip electrophoresis systems. Its method of detection relies on platinum electrodes being dipped in two buffer-filled branched detection probe reservoirs on the microchip device. In this way, analytes passing through the detection window will not pass through and subsequently adsorb onto the electrodes, alleviating problems of electrode fouling due to analyte contamination and surface reactions. A customized microchip design was proposed and optimized stepwise for the new FRD system. Each branched detection probe was determined to be 4.50 mm long with a 0.075 mm detection window gap between them. The distance between the detection window and buffer waste reservoir was determined to be 1.50 mm. The optimized microchip design was subsequently used in the analysis of four groups of analytes - inorganic cations, amino acids, aminoglycosides antibiotics, and biomarkers. Based on the preliminary results obtained, the detection limits were in the range of 0.4-0.7 mg/L for the inorganic cations and 1.5-15 mg/L for the amino compounds.

  10. Polydimethylsiloxane-enclosed liquid crystal lasers for lab-on-chip applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, Jürgen; Terentjev, Eugene M.

    2010-04-01

    We demonstrate the operation of a self-organized cholesteric liquid crystal laser confined between optically clear and elastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The formation of a planar helical texture in the cholesteric was supported by microsctructuring of PDMS layer surface, using the nanoembossing technique with glass substrates coated with conventional alignment layers as a template. The potential of combining miniature cholesteric laser sources and microfluidic devices for lab-on-chip applications is discussed.

  11. DNA detection on a power-free microchip with laminar flow-assisted dendritic amplification.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Kazuo; Sato, Takahiro; Sato, Yasunobu; Maeda, Mizuo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe DNA detection experiments using our two original technologies, power-free microchip and laminar flow-assisted dendritic amplification (LFDA), which were previously applied to immunoassays. A microchip was fabricated by combining a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) part having microchannel patterns and a glass plate modified with probe DNA. We carried out two kinds of experiments: the detection of 21-base biotinylated target DNA and the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in 56-base unlabeled target DNA by sandwich hybridization with biotinylated probe DNA. For both of the experiments, the necessary solutions were injected into microchannels not by an external power source, but by air dissolution into the PDMS part. After a hybridization reaction, the LFDA was started by injecting FITC-labeled streptavidin and biotinylated anti-streptavidin antibody onto the reaction site. With a detection time of 20 min, the limit of detection (LOD) for the biotinylated target was 2.2 pM, and the LOD for the SNP was 10-30 pM, depending on the SNP type.

  12. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of ultrananocrystalline diamond as an encapsulation layer for implantable microchips.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Tsai, Che-Yao; Lee, Chi-Young; Lin, I-Nan

    2014-05-01

    Thin ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films were evaluated for use as hermetic and bioinert encapsulating coatings for implantable microchips, where the reaction to UNCD in vitro and in vivo tissue was investigated. Leakage current tests showed that depositing UNCD coatings, which were conformally grown in (1% H2) Ar/CH4 plasma, on microchips rendered the surface electrochemically inactive, i.e. with a very low leakage current density (2.8×10(-5)Acm(-2) at -1V and 1.9×10(-3)Acm(-2) at ±5V) ex vivo. The impact of UNCD with different surface modifications on the growth and activation of macrophages was compared to that of standard-grade polystyrene. Macrophages attached to oxygen-terminated UNCD films down-regulated their production of cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, with UNCD-coated microchips, which were implanted subcutaneously into BALB/c mice for up to 3months, the tissue reaction and capsule formation was significantly decreased compared to the medical-grade titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V and bare silicon. Additionally, the leakage current density, elicited by electrochemical activity, on silicon chips encapsulated in oxygen-terminated UNCD coatings remained at the low level of 2.5×10(-3)Acm(-2) at 5V for up to 3months in vivo, which is half the level of those encapsulated in hydrogen-terminated UNCD coatings. Thus, controlling the surface properties of UNCDs makes it possible to manipulate the in vivo functionality and stability of implantable devices so as to reduce the host inflammatory response following implantation. These observations suggest that oxygen-terminated UNCDs are promising candidates for use as encapsulating coatings for implantable microelectronic devices.

  13. Use of epoxy-embedded electrodes to integrate electrochemical detection with microchip-based analysis systems.

    PubMed

    Selimovic, Asmira; Johnson, Alicia S; Kiss, István Z; Martin, R Scott

    2011-04-01

    A new method of fabricating electrodes for microchip devices that involves the use of Teflon molds and a commercially available epoxy to embed electrodes of various sizes and compositions is described. The resulting epoxy base can be polished to generate a fresh electrode and sealed against poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based fluidic structures. Microchip-based flow injection analysis was used to characterize the epoxy-embedded electrodes. It was shown that gold electrodes can be amalgamated with liquid mercury and the resulting mercury/gold electrode is used to selectively detect glutathione from lysed red blood cells. The ability to encapsulate multiple electrode materials of differing compositions enabled the integration of microchip electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. Finally, a unique feature of this approach is that the electrode connection is made from the bottom of the epoxy base. This enables the creation of three-dimensional gold pillar electrodes (65 μm in diameter and 27 μm in height) that can be integrated within a fluidic network. As compared with the use of a flat electrode of a similar diameter, the use of the pillar electrode led to improvements in both the sensitivity (72.1 pA/μM for the pillar versus 4.2 pA/μM for the flat electrode) and limit of detection (20 nM for the pillar versus 600 nM for the flat electrode), with catechol being the test analyte. These epoxy-embedded electrodes hold promise for the creation of inexpensive microfluidic devices that can be used to electrochemically detect biologically important analytes in a manner where the electrodes can be polished and a fresh electrode surface is generated as desired. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Recent advances in microchip electrophoresis for amino acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Ou, Gaozhi; Feng, Xiaojun; Du, Wei; Liu, Xin; Liu, Bi-Feng

    2013-10-01

    With the maturation of microfluidic technologies, microchip electrophoresis has been widely employed for amino acid analysis owing to its advantages of low sample consumption, reduced analysis time, high throughput, and potential for integration and automation. In this article, we review the recent progress in amino acid analysis using microchip electrophoresis during the period from 2007 to 2012. Innovations in microchip materials, surface modification, sample introduction, microchip electrophoresis, and detection methods are documented, as well as nascent applications of amino acid analysis in single-cell analysis, microdialysis sampling, food analysis, and extraterrestrial exploration. Without doubt, more applications of microchip electrophoresis in amino acid analysis may be expected soon.

  15. Liquid phase chromatography on microchips.

    PubMed

    Kutter, Jörg P

    2012-01-20

    Over the past twenty years, the field of microfluidics has emerged providing one of the main enabling technologies to realize miniaturized chemical analysis systems, often referred to as micro-Total Analysis Systems (uTAS), or, more generally, Lab-on-a-Chip Systems (LOC) [1,2]. While microfluidics was driven forward a lot from the engineering side, especially with respect to ink jet and dispensing technology, the initial push and interest from the analytical chemistry community was through the desire to develop miniaturized sensors, detectors, and, very early on, separation systems. The initial almost explosive development of, in particular, chromatographic separation systems on microchips, has, however, slowed down in recent years. This review takes a closer, critical look at how liquid phase chromatography has been implemented in miniaturized formats over the past several years, what is important to keep in mind when developing or working with separations in a miniaturized format, and what challenges and pitfalls remain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Functionality and stability of heparin immobilized onto poly(dimethylsiloxane).

    PubMed

    Thorslund, Sara; Sanchez, Javier; Larsson, Rolf; Nikolajeff, Fredrik; Bergquist, Jonas

    2005-10-10

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) has become an attractive material when working in the field of microfluidics, mainly because of the rapid prototyping process it involves. The increased surface volume ratio in microchannels makes the interaction between sample and material surface highly important, evident when handling complex biological samples such as plasma or blood. This study demonstrates a new grade of non-covalent heparin surface that adds efficient anticoagulant property to the PDMS material. The surface modification is a simple and fast one-step process performed at neutral pH, optimal when working with closed microsystems. The heparin formed a uniform and functional coating on hydrophobic PDMS with comparatively high level of antithrombin-binding capacity. In addition, long-term studies revealed that the immobilized heparin was more or less stable in the microchannels over a time of three weeks. Recalcified plasma in contact with native PDMS showed complete coagulation after 1h, while no fibrin formation was detected in plasma incubated on heparin-coated PDMS within the same time. In conclusion, we see the heparin coating developed and evaluated in this study as a tool that greatly facilitates the use of PDMS in microfluidics dealing with plasma or blood samples.

  17. Application of Microchip Electrophoresis for Clinical Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsushiro, Shouki; Kataoka, Masatoshi

    Microchip electrophoresis has recently attracted much attention in the field of nuclear acid analysis due to its high efficiency, ease of operation, low consumption of samples and reagents, and relatively low costs. In addition, the analysis has expanded to an analytical field like not only the analysis of DNA but also the analysis of RNA, the protein, the sugar chain, and the cellular function, etc. In this report, we showed that high-performance monitoring systems for human blood glucose levels and α-amylase activity in human plasma using microchip electrophoresis.

  18. Self-cleaning superhydrophobic surface based on titanium dioxide nanowires combined with polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Guo, Yonggang; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Pingyu

    2013-11-01

    The present work describes a simple dipping process for the preparation of superhydrophobic coatings based on titanium dioxide nanowires combined with polydimethylsiloxane. The coating surface morphology, composition and wettability were investigated by scanning electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron spectroscope and contact angle measurements, respectively. Interestingly, the superhydrophobic coatings turn into a hydrophilic one after UV irradiation. It is found that the superhydrophobic surface shows almost complete wet self-cleaning of dirt particles with water droplets. Furthermore, the coating surface shows the anti-fouling performance for organic solvents, which can self-remove the organic solvents layer and recovers its superhydrophobic behavior. The advantage of the present approach is that the damaged coating can be easily repaired.

  19. A facile one-step method for cell lysis and DNA extraction of waterborne pathogens using a microchip.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Vivek; Pandey, Sulaxna; Paknikar, Kishore; Bodas, Dhananjay

    2018-01-15

    Globally, waterborne organisms are the primary causative agents for the transmission of various forms of diarrheal diseases. For accurate diagnosis, molecular tools have gained considerable attention in the recent past. Molecular tools require DNA as the starting material for diagnosis, and hence, a prerequisite is the quality and integrity of DNA. To obtain high quality DNA rapidly, we have fabricated a microchip in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography process. The microchip facilitated in-flow coating of chitosan on the magnetic nanoparticles, which under external mechanical vibration caused cell lysis and released DNA in the supernatant. The released DNA was captured by the nanoparticles owing to its positive charge (chitosan coating). The magnetic nanoparticle-DNA complex was then isolated from the in-flow matrix using permanent magnet, Further, removal of the cell debris, proteins, and carbohydrates was done using wash buffer. DNA extracted using the microchip was pure with absorbance (260/280) ratio of 1.77±0.04, as compared to 1.79±0.03 obtained by TRIzol method. The complete isolation of the DNA using the microchip took ~ 15min as against>2h with a TRIzol method. Six gram-negative waterborne pathogens were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the microchip based DNA extraction process. The integrity of the isolated DNA was assessed by amplifying the 16S rRNA gene using Com1 and Com2 universal primers. The presence of a band at 407bp on gel electrophoresis confirmed the amplified product. Further, the gel image was used for quantification of the amplified product using ImageJ software. Higher regression values obtained using microchip confirmed better quality and integrity of the extracted DNA as opposed to the conventional method. The lower (<2%) relative standard deviation values obtained from the data suggested that the microchip process was reproducible. The quality and integrity of the obtained DNA proved the simplicity, rapidity, and

  20. Encapsulated Electrodes for Microchip Devices: Microarrays and Platinized Electrodes for Signal Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present two new methodologies of improving the performance of microchip-based electrochemical detection in microfluidic devices. The first part describes the fabrication and characterization of epoxy-embedded gold microelectrode arrays that are evenly spaced and easily modified. Electrodepositions using a gold plating solution can be performed on the electrodes to result in a 3-dimenional pillar array that, when used with microchip-based flow injection analysis, leads to an 8-fold increase in signal (when compared to a single electrode), with the limit of detection (LOD) for catechol being 4 nM. For detecting analytically challenging molecules such as nitric oxide (NO), platinization of electrodes is commonly used to increase the sensitivity. It is shown here that microchip devices containing either the pillar arrays or more traditional glassy carbon electrodes can be modified with platinum black for NO detection. In the case of using glassy carbon electrodes for NO detection, integration of the resulting platinized electrode with microchip-based flow analysis resulted in a 10 times signal increase relative to use of a bare glassy carbon electrode. In addition, it is demonstrated that these electrodes can be coated with Nafion to impart selectivity towards NO over interfering species such as nitrite. The LOD for NO when using the platinum black/Nafion-coated glassy carbon electrode was 9 nM. These electrodes can also be embedded in a polystyrene substrate, with the applicability of these sensitive and selective electrodes being demonstrated by monitoring the ATP-mediated release of NO from endothelial cells immobilized in a microfluidic network without any adhesion factor. PMID:23670668

  1. Encapsulated electrodes for microchip devices: microarrays and platinized electrodes for signal enhancement.

    PubMed

    Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R Scott

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we present two new methodologies of improving the performance of microchip-based electrochemical detection in microfluidic devices. The first part describes the fabrication and characterization of epoxy-embedded gold microelectrode arrays that are evenly spaced and easily modified. Electrodepositions using a gold plating solution can be performed on the electrodes to result in a 3D pillar array that, when used with microchip-based flow injection analysis, leads to an eightfold increase in signal (when compared to a single electrode), with the LOD for catechol being 4 nM. For detecting analytically challenging molecules such as nitric oxide (NO), platinization of electrodes is commonly used to increase the sensitivity. It is shown here that microchip devices containing either the pillar arrays or more traditional glassy carbon electrodes can be modified with platinum black (Pt-black) for NO detection. In the case of using glassy carbon electrodes for NO detection, integration of the resulting platinized electrode with microchip-based flow analysis resulted in a ten times signal increase relative to use of a bare glassy carbon electrode. In addition, it is demonstrated that these electrodes can be coated with Nafion to impart selectivity toward NO over interfering species such as nitrite. The LOD for NO when using the Pt-black /Nafion-coated glassy carbon electrode was 9 nM. These electrodes can also be embedded in a polystyrene substrate, with the applicability of these sensitive and selective electrodes being demonstrated by monitoring the adenosine triphosphate-mediated release of NO from endothelial cells immobilized in a microfluidic network without any adhesion factor.

  2. Photometric flow injection determination of phosphate on a PDMS microchip using an optical detection system assembled with an organic light emitting diode and an organic photodiode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    A compact photometric detector was constructed from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) based on a europium complex, europium(diben-zoylmethanato)3(bathophenanthroline) (Eu(DBM)3bath), as the light source and an organic photodiode (OPD) fabricated from a hetero-junction of two layers of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) as the photo-detector on a microchip prepared from poly(dimethylsiloxan) (PDMS) and was applied to the determination of phosphate. The OLED and the OPD were fabricated by a vapor deposition method on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate with the following layered structure; Glass (0.7 mm)/ITO (110 nm)/4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl amino]-biphenyl (α-NPD) (30 nm)/4,4'-di(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl (CBP): Eu(3+) (8 wt%, 30 nm)/bathocuproine (BCP) (30 nm)/aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) (25 nm)/magnesium and silver (MgAg) (100 nm)/Ag (10nm) and Glass (0.7 mm)/ITO (110 nm)/CuPc (35 nm)/C60 (50 nm)/BCP (10 nm)/Ag (50 nm), respectively. The OLED based on the europium complex emitted a sharp light at the wavelength of 612 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 8 nm. The performance of the photometric detector assembled was evaluated based on measurements of the absorbance of different concentrations of malachite green (MG) solutions for a batch system with 1cm long path length. The molar absorptive coefficient of the MG solution, calculated from the photocurrent of the OPD, was in good agreement with the value reported in the literature. A microchip with two inlets and one outlet U-shaped channel was prepared by a conventional photolithograph method. The OLED and the OPD were configured so as to face each other through the PDMS microchip in parallel in order to align the light axis of the OLED and the OPD with the flow cell (optical path length of 5mm), which was located at the end of outlet. For the determination of phosphate, an ion-association reaction between MG and a molybdenum-phosphate complex was utilized

  3. On-Campus Projects: Inventing a Microchip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    In response to growth of microelectronics and changes in microchip design/manufacturing technology, universities are supporting class projects for students. Approximately 50 schools now conduct such programs which have resulted from earlier National Science Foundation sponsorship. Major advantages for the students include designing experience,…

  4. On-Campus Projects: Inventing a Microchip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    In response to growth of microelectronics and changes in microchip design/manufacturing technology, universities are supporting class projects for students. Approximately 50 schools now conduct such programs which have resulted from earlier National Science Foundation sponsorship. Major advantages for the students include designing experience,…

  5. Fs-laser processing of polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect

    Atanasov, Petar A. Nedyalkov, Nikolay N.; Valova, Eugenia I.; Georgieva, Zhenya S.; Armyanov, Stefan A.; Kolev, Konstantin N.; Amoruso, Salvatore; Wang, Xuan; Bruzzese, Ricardo; Sawczak, Miroslaw; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2014-07-14

    We present an experimental analysis on surface structuring of polydimethylsiloxane films with UV (263 nm) femtosecond laser pulses, in air. Laser processed areas are analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The laser-treated sample shows the formation of a randomly nanostructured surface morphology. μ-Raman spectra, carried out at both 514 and 785 nm excitation wavelengths, prior and after laser treatment allow evidencing the changes in the sample structure. The influence of the laser fluence on the surface morphology is studied. Finally, successful electro-less metallization of the laser-processed sample is achieved, even after several months from the laser-treatment contrary to previous observation with nanosecond pulses. Our findings address the effectiveness of fs-laser treatment and chemical metallization of polydimethylsiloxane films with perspective technological interest in micro-fabrication devices for MEMS and nano-electromechanical systems.

  6. Extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry for noncontact temperature control of nanoliter-volume enzymatic reactions in glass microchips.

    PubMed

    Easley, Christopher J; Legendre, Lindsay A; Roper, Michael G; Wavering, Thomas A; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2005-02-15

    Optical fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometry (EFPI) was investigated as a noncontact temperature sensor and utilized for regulating the temperature of small-volume solutions in microchips. Interference pattern analysis determined the optical path lengths (OPL) associated with reflections from various surfaces on or in the microchip, in particular, from gold sputtered on the bottom of a microchannel. Since OPL is directly proportional to refractive index, which is dependent on solution temperature, the EFPI sensor was capable of noncontact monitoring of solution temperature simply from alterations in the measured path length. Calibration of the sensor against a thermocouple was performed while heating the microchip in a noncontact manner with an IR lamp. The combination of EFPI temperature sensor, IR-mediated heating, and air cooling allowed a fully noncontact system for small-volume temperature control in microchip structures, and its utility was illustrated by optimal digestion of DNA by a temperature-dependent restriction endonuclease in 320 nL. The functionality and simplicity of the microchip EFPI temperature sensor was enhanced by replacing the prebonding sputtered gold with a tunable, chemically plated semireflective silver coating created in situ after chip fabrication. This provided an 8-fold improvement in the lowest detectable temperature change (deltaT = 0.1 degrees C), facilitated primarily by enhanced reflection from both the bottom and top surfaces of the microchannel. This approach for controlling micro- and nanoscale reactions--with heating, cooling, and temperature control being carried out in a completely noncontact fashion--provides an accurate and sensitive method for executing chemical and biochemical reactions in microchips.

  7. Comparison of surface and hydrogel-based protein microchips.

    PubMed

    Zubtsov, D A; Savvateeva, E N; Rubina, A Yu; Pan'kov, S V; Konovalova, E V; Moiseeva, O V; Chechetkin, V R; Zasedatelev, A S

    2007-09-15

    Protein microchips are designed for high-throughput evaluation of the concentrations and activities of various proteins. The rapid advance in microchip technology and a wide variety of existing techniques pose the problem of unified approach to the assessment and comparison of different platforms. Here we compare the characteristics of protein microchips developed for quantitative immunoassay with those of antibodies immobilized on glass surfaces and in hemispherical gel pads. Spotting concentrations of antibodies used for manufacturing of microchips of both types and concentrations of antigen in analyte solution were identical. We compared the efficiency of antibody immobilization, the intensity of fluorescence signals for both direct and sandwich-type immunoassays, and the reaction-diffusion kinetics of the formation of antibody-antigen complexes for surface and gel-based microchips. Our results demonstrate higher capacity and sensitivity for the hydrogel-based protein microchips, while fluorescence saturation kinetics for the two types of microarrays was comparable.

  8. Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis with Electrochemical Detection for Monitoring Environmental Pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This invited paper reviews recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, sample pretreatments, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  9. Microchip capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of intact proteins using uncoated Ormocomp microchips.

    PubMed

    Sikanen, Tiina; Aura, Susanna; Franssila, Sami; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2012-01-20

    We present rapid (<5 min) and efficient intact protein analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) using fully microfabricated and monolithically integrated capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization (CE-ESI) microchips. The microchips are fabricated fully of commercial inorganic-organic hybrid material, Ormocomp, by UV-embossing and adhesive Ormocomp-Ormocomp bonding (CE microchannels). A sheath-flow ESI interface is monolithically integrated with the UV-embossed separation channels by cutting a rectangular emitter tip in the end with a dicing saw. As a result, electrospray was produced from the corner of chip with good reproducibility between parallel tips (stability within 3.8-9.2% RSD). Thanks to its inherent biocompatibility and stable (negative) surface charge, Ormocomp microchips enable efficient intact protein analysis with up to ∼10(4) theoretical separation plates per meter without any chemical or physical surface modification before analysis. The same microchip setup is also feasible for rapid peptide sequencing and mass fingerprinting and shows excellent migration time repeatability from run to run for both peptides (5.6-5.9% RSD, n=4) and intact proteins (1.3-7.5% RSD, n=3). Thus, the Ormocomp microchips provide a versatile new tool for MS-based proteomics. Particularly, the feasibility of the Ormocomp chips for rapid analysis of intact proteins with such a simple setup is a valuable increment to the current technology.

  10. Monitoring environmental pollutants by microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2006-01-15

    This is a review article. During the past decade, significant progress in the development of miniaturized microfluidic systems has Occurred due to the numerous advantages of microchip analysis. This review focuses on recent advances and the key strategies in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ECD) for separating and detecting a variety of environmental pollutants. The subjects covered include the fabrication of microfluidic chips, ECD, typical applications of microchip CE with ECD in environmental analysis, and future prospects. It is expected that microchip CE-ECD will become a powerful tool in the environmental field and will lead to the creation of truly portable devices.

  11. Protein microchips : use for immunoassay and enzymatic reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Arenkov, P.; Kukhtin, A.; Gemmell, A.; Voloschuk, S.; Chupeeva, V.; Mirzabekov, A.; Biochip Technology Center; Russian Academy of Sciences

    2000-02-15

    Different proteins such as antibodies, antigens, and enzymes were immobilized within the 100 x 100 x 20-{mu}m gel pads of protein microchips. A modified polyacrylamide gel has been developed to accommodate proteins of a size up to 400,000 daltons. Electrophoresis in the microchip reaction chamber speeded up antigen-antibody interactions within the gel. Protein microchips were used in immunoassays for detection of antigens or antibodies, as well as to carry out enzymatic reactions and to measure their kinetics in the absence or presence of an inhibitor. A protein microchip can be used several times in different immunoassays and enzymatic kinetic measurements.

  12. Characterization and performance of injection molded poly(methylmethacrylate) microchips for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Nikcevic, Irena; Lee, Se Hwan; Piruska, Aigars; Ahn, Chong H; Ridgway, Thomas H; Limbach, Patrick A; Wehmeyer, K R; Heineman, William R; Seliskar, Carl J

    2007-06-22

    Injection molded poly(methylmethacrylate) (IM-PMMA), chips were evaluated as potential candidates for capillary electrophoresis disposable chip applications. Mass production and usage of plastic microchips depends on chip-to-chip reproducibility and on analysis accuracy. Several important properties of IM-PMMA chips were considered: fabrication quality evaluated by environmental scanning electron microscope imaging, surface quality measurements, selected thermal/electrical properties as indicated by measurement of the current versus applied voltage (I-V) characteristic and the influence of channel surface treatments. Electroosmotic flow was also evaluated for untreated and O2 reactive ion etching (RIE) treated surface microchips. The performance characteristics of single lane plastic microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) separations were evaluated using a mixture of two dyes-fluorescein (FL) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). To overcome non-wettability of the native IM-PMMA surface, a modifier, polyethylene oxide was added to the buffer as a dynamic coating. Chip performance reproducibility was studied for chips with and without surface modification via the process of RIE with O2 and by varying the hole position for the reservoir in the cover plate or on the pattern side of the chip. Additionally, the importance of reconditioning steps to achieve optimal performance reproducibility was also examined. It was found that more reproducible quantitative results were obtained when normalized values of migration time, peak area and peak height of FL and FITC were used instead of actual measured parameters.

  13. Thermally stable hydrophobicity in electrospun silica/polydimethylsiloxane hybrid fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhonglin; Li, Jianjun; Wang, Chao; Cao, Jungang; Yao, Yongtao; Lu, Haibao; Li, Yibin; He, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve practical performances of silica-based inorganic/organic hybrid fibers, silica/polydimethylsiloxane hydrophobic fibers were successfully prepared by electrospinning. Silica sol and polydimethylsiloxane can be mixed homogeneously and become stable precursor solution in dichloromethane, which allows the transformation of silica/polydimethylsiloxane precursor solution into ultrafine fibers. Flame can ignite organic groups in polydimethylsiloxane directly and destroy the hydrophobicity of hybrid fibers, but hydrophobic feature may survive if electrospun hybrid membrane is combined with thin stainless-steel-304 gauze of 150 meshes due to its thermally stable hydrophobicity (>600 °C).

  14. Polydimethylsiloxane-based Self healing Composite and Coating Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    interfacial polymerization for catalyst microencapsulation . ...........26 Figure 2.14: Microscopic images of synthesized microcapsules : (a) Optical...control b, matrix, adhesion promoter, and microencapsulated tin catalyst (dimethyldineodecanoate tin, 3 wt% of total microcapsules ); control c... microencapsulated monomer, which can be dispersed through the matrix, is used. Using microcapsules enables self-healing polymer mass production, even

  15. Open channel electrochromatography on a microchip

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, S.C.; Hergenroeder, R.; Koutny, L.B.; Ramsey, J.M. )

    1994-07-15

    A glass microchip having a channel with a cross section of 5.6 [mu]m high and 66 [mu]m wide was fabricated using standard photolithographic and etching techniques. The surface of the channel was chemically modified with octadecylsilane to function as the stationary phase for open channel chromatography. Electroosmotic flow was used to [open quotes]load[close quotes] the sample into the microchip and to [open quotes]pump[close quotes] the mobile phase during the experiments. For electric field strengths in the separation column from 27 to 163 V/cm, the linear velocity for the electroosmotic flow ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 mm/s. Detection was performed using direct fluorescence for separation monitoring and indirect fluorescence for void time measurements. Plate heights as low as 4.1 and 5.0 [mu]m were generated for unretained and retained components, respectively. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Nonlinear mode coupling in a microchip laser

    SciTech Connect

    Lacot, E.; Stoeckel, F.

    1996-09-01

    The dynamics of the total intensity and of each individual mode of a microchip laser have been studied. Because of the nonlinear mode coupling by spatial hole burning, the intensity fluctuation of each longitudinal mode can be described by {ital N} relaxation frequencies, where {ital N} is the number of lasing modes. Owing to the small cross-saturation coefficient between the longitudinal modes, the total intensity exhibits a behavior much more complex than the regular relaxation oscillations usually observed. As a result of the short photon lifetime of the microchip laser this unstable behavior of the total intensity can easily be observed even when the number of modes is small. For each longitudinal mode, we also observed beating and antiphase dynamics between two coupled states of orthogonal polarization. Numerical simulations permit a good description of the experimental results. {copyright} {ital 1996 Optical Society of America.}

  17. Adaptive nanowires for switchable microchip devices.

    PubMed

    Piccin, Evandro; Laocharoensuk, Rawiwan; Burdick, Jared; Carrilho, Emanuel; Wang, Joseph

    2007-06-15

    This paper demonstrates for the first time the use of adaptive functional nickel nanowires for switching on-demand operation of microfluidic devices. Controlled reversible magnetic positioning and orientation of these nanowires at the microchannel outlet offers modulation of the detection and separation processes, respectively. The former facilitates switching between active and passive detection states to allow the microchip to be periodically activated to perform a measurement and reset it to the passive ("off") state between measurements. Fine magnetic tuning of the separation process (postchannel broadening of the analyte zone) is achieved by reversibly modulating the nanowire orientation (i.e., detector alignment) at the channel outlet. The concept can be extended to other microchip functions and stimuli-responsive materials and holds great promise for regulating the operation of microfluidic devices in reaction to specific needs or unforeseen scenarios.

  18. Mini-electrochemical detector for microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lei; Lu, Yao; Dai, Zhongpeng; Xie, Minhao; Lin, Bingcheng

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a mini-electrochemical detector for microchip electrophoresis. The small size (3.6 x 5.0 cm2, W x L) of the detector is compatible with the dimension of the microchip. The use of universal serial bus (USB) ports facilitates installation and use of the detector, miniaturizes the detector, and makes it ideal for lab-on-a-chip applications. A fixed 10 M ohm feedback resistance was chosen to convert current of the working electrode to voltage with second gain of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 for small signal detection instead of adopting selectable feedback resistance. Special attention has been paid to the power support circuitry and printed circuit board (PCB) design in order to obtain good performance in such a miniature size. The working electrode potential could be varied over a range of +/-2.5 V with a resolution of 0.01 mV. The detection current ranges from -0.3 x 10(-7) A to 2.5 x 10(-7) A and the noise is lower than 1 pA. The analytical performance of the new system was demonstrated by the detection of epinephrine using an integrated PDMS/glass microchip with detection limit of 2.1 microM (S/N = 3).

  19. Nanostructured optical microchips for cancer biomarker detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianhua; He, Yuan; Wei, Jianjun; Que, Long

    2012-01-01

    Herein we report the label-free detection of a cancer biomarker using newly developed arrayed nanostructured Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) microchips. Specifically, the prostate cancer biomarker free prostate-specific antigen (f-PSA) has been detected with a mouse anti-human PSA monoclonal antibody (mAb) as the receptor. Experiments found that the limit-of-detection of current nanostructured FPI microchip for f-PSA is about 10 pg/mL and the upper detection range for f-PSA can be dynamically changed by varying the amount of the PSA mAb immobilized on the sensing surface. The control experiments have also demonstrated that the immunoassay protocol used in the experiments shows excellent specificity and selectivity, suggesting the great potential to detect the cancer biomarkers at trace levels in complex biofluids. In addition, given its nature of low cost, simple-to-operation and batch fabrication capability, the arrayed nanostructured FPI microchip-based platform could provide an ideal technical tool for point-of-care diagnostics application and anticancer drug screen and discovery.

  20. Possibility of Microchip Electrophoresis for Biological Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Masatoshi; Kido, Jun-Ichi; Shinohara, Yasuo

    Microchip electrophoresis has recently attracted much attention in the field of nuclear acid analysis due to its high efficiency, ease of operation, low consumption of samples and reagents, and relatively low costs. Nucleic acid fragments are separated by capillary electrophoresis in a chip with microfabricated channels, with automated detection as well as on-line data evaluation. Microfabricated devices are forecast to be fundamental to the postgenome era, especially in the field of genetics and medicine. However, although there are many reports of the use of these instruments to evaluate standard DNA, DNA ladders, PCR products, and commercially available plasmid digests, little information is available their use with biological material. In this report, we showed the accuracy of sizing and quantification of endonuclease-digested plasmid DNA. We also showed the feasibility of on-microchip endonuclease treatment of plasmid DNA and sequential analysis as an additional application for DNA analysis. Furthermore, to evaluate the possibility of microchip electrophoresis for biological application, the results of the examination of blood sugar in human plasma and mitochondrial membrane potential were shown.

  1. Use of surface plasmon resonance to study the adsorption of detergents on poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Attila; Kecskemeti, Adam; Gomez, Frank A

    2013-04-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of surface plasmon resonance to study adsorption (either reversible or irreversible) of detergents on PDMS surfaces in real time. The surface plasmon resonance measurements can directly provide information about the adsorption/desorption processes of detergents on the surface revealing the durability of the adsorbed layer and the anticipated degree of the EOF. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose very strongly adsorbs onto PDMS and can be considered both a semipermanent layer and stable semipermanent coating. Adsorbed SDS or CTAB layers were stable for several minutes upon rinsing the surface with solution not containing the detergent. It was shown that SDS coated onto PDMS in microchips has the potential to afford similar separations in PDMS as found in conventional fused silica capillaries. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Production, Cost and Chip Characteristics of In-Woods Microchipping

    Treesearch

    J. Thompson; W. Sprinkle

    2013-01-01

    Emerging markets for biomass have increased the interest in producing microchips in the field. As a component of a large United States Department of Energy (DOE) funded project, microchipping has been trialed on a limited scale. The goal of the research was to evaluate the production, cost and chip characteristics of a mobile disc chipper configured to produce...

  3. Recent innovations in protein separation on microchips by electrophoretic methods.

    PubMed

    Peng, Youyuan; Pallandre, Antoine; Tran, N Thuy; Taverna, Myriam

    2008-01-01

    Microchips for analytical purposes have attracted great attention over the last 20 years. In the present review, we focus on the most recent development of microchips for electrophoretic separation of proteins. This review starts with a short recalling about the microchips covering the basic microchip layout for CE and the commercial chips and microchip platforms. A short paragraph is dedicated to the surface treatment of microchips, which is of paramount importance in protein analysis. One section is dedicated to on-line sample pretreatment in microchips and summarizes different strategies to pre-concentrate or to purify proteins from complex matrixes. Most of the common modes used for CE of proteins have already been adapted to the chip format, while multidimensional approaches are still in progress. The different routes to achieve detection in microchip are also presented with a special attention to derivatization or labeling of proteins. Finally, several recent applications are mentioned. They highlight the great potential of electrophoretic separations of proteins in numerous fields such as biological, pharmaceutical or agricultural and food analysis. A bibliography with 151 references is provided covering papers published from 2000 to the early 2007.

  4. Magnetic microparticle-polydimethylsiloxane composite for reversible microchannel bonding.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Chia-Wen; Lee, Yueh-Pu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, an iron oxide magnetic microparticles and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (MMPs-PDMS) composite material was employed to demonstrate a simple high-strength reversible magnetic bonding method. This paper presents the casting of opaque-view (where optical inspection through the microchannels was impossible) and clear-view (where optical inspection through the microchannel was possible) MMPs-PDMS. The influence of the microchannel geometries on the casting of the opaque-view casting was limited, which is similar to standard PDMS casting. Clear-view casting performance was highly associated with the microchannel geometries. The effects of the microchannel layout and the gap between the PDMS cover layer and the micromold substrate were thoroughly investigated. Compared with the native PDMS bonding strength of 31 kPa, the MMPs-PDMS magnetic bonding experiments showed that the thin PDMS film with an MMPs-PDMS layer effectively reduced the surface roughness and enhanced MMPs-PDMS reversible magnetic bonding strength. A thin PDMS film-coated opaque-view MMPs-PDMS device exhibited the greatest bonding strength of 110 kPa, and a clear-view MMPs-PDMS device with a thin PDMS film attained a magnetic bonding strength of 81 kPa.

  5. Magnetic microparticle-polydimethylsiloxane composite for reversible microchannel bonding

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Chia-Wen; Lee, Yueh-Pu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, an iron oxide magnetic microparticles and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (MMPs-PDMS) composite material was employed to demonstrate a simple high-strength reversible magnetic bonding method. This paper presents the casting of opaque-view (where optical inspection through the microchannels was impossible) and clear-view (where optical inspection through the microchannel was possible) MMPs-PDMS. The influence of the microchannel geometries on the casting of the opaque-view casting was limited, which is similar to standard PDMS casting. Clear-view casting performance was highly associated with the microchannel geometries. The effects of the microchannel layout and the gap between the PDMS cover layer and the micromold substrate were thoroughly investigated. Compared with the native PDMS bonding strength of 31 kPa, the MMPs-PDMS magnetic bonding experiments showed that the thin PDMS film with an MMPs-PDMS layer effectively reduced the surface roughness and enhanced MMPs-PDMS reversible magnetic bonding strength. A thin PDMS film-coated opaque-view MMPs-PDMS device exhibited the greatest bonding strength of 110 kPa, and a clear-view MMPs-PDMS device with a thin PDMS film attained a magnetic bonding strength of 81 kPa. PMID:27877852

  6. Advantages and challenges of microfluidic cell culture in polydimethylsiloxane devices.

    PubMed

    Halldorsson, Skarphedinn; Lucumi, Edinson; Gómez-Sjöberg, Rafael; Fleming, Ronan M T

    2015-01-15

    Culture of cells using various microfluidic devices is becoming more common within experimental cell biology. At the same time, a technological radiation of microfluidic cell culture device designs is currently in progress. Ultimately, the utility of microfluidic cell culture will be determined by its capacity to permit new insights into cellular function. Especially insights that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to obtain with macroscopic cell culture in traditional polystyrene dishes, flasks or well-plates. Many decades of heuristic optimization have gone into perfecting conventional cell culture devices and protocols. In comparison, even for the most commonly used microfluidic cell culture devices, such as those fabricated from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), collective understanding of the differences in cellular behavior between microfluidic and macroscopic culture is still developing. Moving in vitro culture from macroscopic culture to PDMS based devices can come with unforeseen challenges. Changes in device material, surface coating, cell number per unit surface area or per unit media volume may all affect the outcome of otherwise standard protocols. In this review, we outline some of the advantages and challenges that may accompany a transition from macroscopic to microfluidic cell culture. We focus on decisive factors that distinguish macroscopic from microfluidic cell culture to encourage a reconsideration of how macroscopic cell culture principles might apply to microfluidic cell culture.

  7. IATROGENIC MICROCHIP ARTERIAL EMBOLISM IN A CHILEAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Ewing, Jacob; Arruda, Paulo; Kuyper, Jennifer; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Miles, Kristina M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant microchip migration has been reported in domestic animal species, but in most cases, this migration is atraumatic to the patient. Reports of microchip-associated trauma and sarcoma development also have been reported in a variety of mammal species. This report describes accidental arterial microchip insertion causing obstruction of the iliac artery in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Diagnostic imaging included digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography to determine the location of the microchip. Surgical removal of the microchip was attempted; however, the flamingo died intraoperatively. Postmortem evaluation found trauma to the epicardium, without penetration of the ventricle. The descending aorta was found traumatized and identified as the most likely insertion point leading to the embolism.

  8. Bulk modification of PDMS microchips by an amphiphilic copolymer.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2007-09-01

    A simple and rapid bulk-modification method based on adding an amphiphilic copolymer during the fabrication process was employed to modify PDMS microchips. Poly(lactic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLA-PEG) was used as the additive substance. Compared to the native PDMS microchips, both the contact angle and the EOF of the bulk-modified PDMS microchips decreased. The effects of the additive loading and the pH on the EOF were investigated in detail. The bulk-modified PDMS microchips exhibited reproducible and stable EOF behavior. The application of the bulk-modified PDMS microchips was also studied and the results indicated that they could be successfully used to separate amino acids and to suppress protein adsorption.

  9. A microsystem of low-voltage-driven electrophoresis on microchip with array electrode pairs for the separation of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Hu, Xiaoguo; Liang, Jing; Sun, Jianxin; Gu, Wenwen; Zhao, Tianming; Wen, Zhiyu

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, a new approach for the separation of amino acids on the electrophoresis chip-based low-voltage-driven electrophoresis was reported in detail. This low-voltage-driven electrophoresis process could be realized by powering directly the arrayed electrode pairs with low direct current (DC) voltage to generate a moving electric field along the separation microchannel, which could maintain enough electric field strength for electrophoresis. The proposed microfluidic electrophoresis chip was bonded directly with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) cover plate at room temperature. The microfluidic channels and the arrayed electrodes were etched on SOI wafer by silicon microelectromechanical system technology. A specially integrated circuit was proposed to power a 30-60-V DC voltage to particular sets of these electrode pairs in a controlled sequence such that the moving electric field could be formed, and the low-voltage-driven electrophoresis could be realized in the microchannel. In the experiments, with 10(-4) mol/L phenylalanine and lysine as analytes, the separation of amino acids on the low-voltage-driven electrophoresis microchip was conducted by homemade integrated control circuit; a method for separating amino acids was well established. It was also shown that the phenylalanine and lysine mixture was effectively separated in less than 7 min and with a resolution of 2.0. To the best of our knowledge, the low-voltage-driven microchip electrophoresis device could be of potential prospective in the fields of integrated and miniaturized biochemical analysis system.

  10. Development of a microchip-pulsed electrochemical method for rapid determination of L-DOPA and tyrosine in Mucuna pruriens.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinchun; Chen, Zuanguang; Yang, Fan; Pan, Jianbin; Li, Yinbao

    2013-05-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is a well-recognized therapeutic compound to Parkinson's disease. Tyrosine is a precursor for the biosynthesis of L-DOPA, both of which are widely found in traditional medicinal material, Mucuna pruriens. In this paper, we described a validated novel analytical method based on microchip capillary electrophoresis with pulsed electrochemical detection for the simultaneous measurement of L-DOPA and tyrosine in M. pruriens. This protocol adopted end-channel amperometric detection using platinum disk electrode on a homemade glass/polydimethylsiloxane electrophoresis microchip. The background buffer consisted of 10 mM borate (pH 9.5) and 0.02 mM cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, which can produce an effective resolution for the two analytes. In the optimal condition, sufficient electrophoretic separation and sensitive detection for the target analytes can be realized within 60 s. Both tyrosine and L-DOPA yielded linear response in the concentration range of 5.0-400 μM (R(2) > 0.99), and the LOD were 0.79 and 1.1 μM, respectively. The accuracy and precision of the established method were favorable. The present method shows several merits such as facile apparatus, high speed, low cost and minimal pollution, and provides a means for the pharmacologically active ingredients assay in M. pruriens.

  11. Ultraviolet photodetection of flexible ZnO nanowire sheets in polydimethylsiloxane polymer

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Nunzio; Lee, Soonil

    2012-01-01

    Summary ZnO nanowires are normally exposed to an oxygen atmosphere to achieve high performance in UV photodetection. In this work we present results on a UV photodetector fabricated using a flexible ZnO nanowire sheet embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a gas-permeable polymer, showing reproducible UV photoresponse and enhanced photoconduction. PDMS coating results in a reduced response speed compared to that of a ZnO nanowire film in air. The rising speed is slightly reduced, while the decay time is prolonged by about a factor of four. We conclude that oxygen molecules diffusing in PDMS are responsible for the UV photoresponse. PMID:23016139

  12. Multi-layered poly-dimethylsiloxane as a non-hermetic packaging material for medical MEMS.

    PubMed

    Lachhman, S; Zorman, C A; Ko, W H

    2012-01-01

    Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an attractive material for packaging implantable biomedical microdevices owing to its biocompatibility, ease in application, and bio-friendly mechanical properties. Unfortunately, devices encapsulated solely by PDMS lack the longevity for use in chronic implant applications due to defect-related moisture penetration through the packaging layer caused by conventional deposition processes such as spin coating. This paper describes an effort to improve the performance of PDMS as a packaging material by constructing the encapsulant from multiple, thin roller casted layers of PDMS as a part of a polymeric multi-material package.

  13. Particle transport in a He-microchip plasma atomic emission system with an ultrasonic nebulizer for aqueous sample introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Joosuck; Lim, H. B.

    2008-11-01

    The transport efficiency of dried particles generated from an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) was studied to improve the analytical performance of a lab-made, He-microchip plasma system, in which a quartz tube (~ 1 mm i.d.) was positioned inside the central channel of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer chip. The polymer microchip plasma has the advantages of low cost, small size, easy handling and design, and self-ignition with long stabilization (> 24 h). However, direct introduction of aqueous solution into the microplasma for the detection of metals remains problematic due to plasma instability. In addition, the much smaller size of the system can cause signal suppression due to low transport efficiency. Therefore, knowledge of particle transport efficiency in this microplasma system is required to enhance the sensitivity and stability. The weight of transported particles in the range of 0.02 to 10 mg m - 3 was measured using a piezobalance with a precision of 0.4-17.8%, depending on the operating conditions. The significant effects of the USN operating conditions and the physical properties of the tubing, namely, length, inner diameter and surface characteristics, on the number of particles transported from the nebulizer to the microplasma were studied. When selected metals, such as Na, Mg and Pb, at a concentration of 5 mg L - 1 were nebulized, transported particles were obtained with a mass range of 0.5-5 mg m - 3 , depending on atomic weights. For application of the He-rf-microplasma, the atomic emission system was optimized by changing both the radio frequency (rf) power (60-200 W) and cooling temperature of the USN (- 12-9 °C). The limits of detection obtained for K, Na and Cu were 0.26, 0.22, and 0.28 mg L - 1 , respectively. These results confirmed the suitable stability and sensitivity of the He-rf-PDMS microchip plasma for application as an atomization source.

  14. Highly cytocompatible and flexible three-dimensional graphene/polydimethylsiloxane composite for culture and electrochemical detection of L929 fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Waiwijit, Uraiwan; Maturos, Thitima; Pakapongpan, Saithip; Phokharatkul, Ditsayut; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Tuantranont, Adisorn

    2016-08-01

    Recently, three-dimensional graphene interconnected network has attracted great interest as a scaffold structure for tissue engineering due to its high biocompatibility, high electrical conductivity, high specific surface area and high porosity. However, free-standing three-dimensional graphene exhibits poor flexibility and stability due to ease of disintegration during processing. In this work, three-dimensional graphene is composited with polydimethylsiloxane to improve the structural flexibility and stability by a new simple two-step process comprising dip coating of polydimethylsiloxane on chemical vapor deposited graphene/Ni foam and wet etching of nickel foam. Structural characterizations confirmed an interconnected three-dimensional multi-layer graphene structure with thin polydimethylsiloxane scaffold. The composite was employed as a substrate for culture of L929 fibroblast cells and its cytocompatibility was evaluated by cell viability (Alamar blue assay), reactive oxygen species production and vinculin immunofluorescence imaging. The result revealed that cell viability on three-dimensional graphene/polydimethylsiloxane composite increased with increasing culture time and was slightly different from a polystyrene substrate (control). Moreover, cells cultured on three-dimensional graphene/polydimethylsiloxane composite generated less ROS than the control at culture times of 3-6 h. The results of immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that fibroblast cells expressed adhesion protein (vinculin) and adhered well on three-dimensional graphene/polydimethylsiloxane surface. Good cell adhesion could be attributed to suitable surface properties of three-dimensional graphene/polydimethylsiloxane with moderate contact angle and small negative zeta potential in culture solution. The results of electrochemical study by cyclic voltammetry showed that an oxidation current signal with no apparent peak was induced by fibroblast cells and the oxidation current at an

  15. [Microchips based on three dimensional gel cells: history and perspective].

    PubMed

    Kolchinskiĭ, A M; Griadunov, D A; Lysov, Iu P; Mikhaĭlovich, V M; Nasedkina, T V; Turygin, A Iu; Rubina, A Iu; Barskiĭ, V E; Zasedatelev, A S

    2004-01-01

    The review describes the history of creation and development of the microchip technology and its role in the human genome project in Russia. The emphasis is placed on the three-dimensional gel-based microchips developed at the Center of Biological Microchips headed by A.D. Mirzabekov since 1988. The gel-based chips of the last generation, IMAGE chips (Immobilized Micro Array of Gel Elements), have a number of advantages over the previous versions. The microchips are manufactured by photo-initiated copolymerization of gel components and immobilized molecules (DNA, proteins, and ligands). This ensures an even distribution of the immobilized probe throughout the microchip gel element with a high yield (about 50% for oligonucleotides). The use of methacrylamide as a main component of the polymerization mixture resulted in a substantial increase of gel porosity without affecting its mechanical strength and stability, which allowed one to work with the DNA fragments of up to 500 nt in length, as well as with rather large protein molecules. At present, the gel-based microchips are widely applied to address different problems. The generic microchips containing a complete set of possible hexanucleotides are used to reveal the DNA motifs binding with different proteins and to study the DNA-protein interactions. The oligonucleotide microchips are a cheap and reliable tool of diagnostics designed for mass application. Biochips have been developed for identification of the tuberculosis pathogen and its antibiotic-resistant forms; for diagnostics of orthopoxviruses, including the smallpox virus; for diagnostics of the anthrax pathogen; and for identification of chromosomal rearrangements in leukemia patients. The protein microchips can be adapted for further use in proteomics. Bacterial and yeast cells were also immobilized in the gel, maintaining their viability, which open a wide potential for creation biosensors on the basis of microchips.

  16. Extending the upper temperature range of gas chromatography with all-silicon microchip columns using a heater/clamp assembly.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Johnson, Jacob E; Nuss, Johnathan G; Stark, Brittany A; Hawkins, Aaron R; Tolley, Luke T; Iverson, Brian D; Tolley, H Dennis; Lee, Milton L

    2017-09-29

    Miniaturization of gas chromatography (GC) instrumentation is of interest because it addresses current and future issues relating to compactness, portability and field application. While incremental advancements continue to be reported in GC with columns fabricated in microchips (referred to in this paper as "microchip columns"), the current performance is far from acceptable. This lower performance compared to conventional GC is due to factors such as pooling of the stationary phase in corners of non-cylindrical channels, adsorption of sensitive compounds on incompletely deactivated surfaces, shorter column lengths and less than optimum interfacing to injector and detector. In this work, a GC system utilizing microchip columns was developed that solves the latter challenge, i.e., microchip interfacing to injector and detector. A microchip compression clamp was constructed to heat the microchip (i.e., primary heater), and seal the injector and detector fused silica interface tubing to the inlet and outlet ports of the microchip channels with minimum extra-column dead volume. This clamp allowed occasional operation up to 375°C and routine operation up to 300°C. The compression clamp was constructed of a low expansion alloy, Kovar™, to minimize leaking due to thermal expansion mismatch at the interface during repeated thermal cycling, and it was tested over several months for more than one hundred injections without forming leaks. A 5.9m long microcolumn with rectangular cross section of 158μm×80μm, which approximately matches a 100μm i.d. cylindrical fused silica column, was fabricated in a silicon wafer using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) and high temperature fusion bonding; finally, the channel was coated statically with a 1% vinyl, 5% phenyl, 94% methylpolysiloxane stationary phase. High temperature separations of C10-C40 n-alkanes and a commercial diesel sample were demonstrated using the system under both temperature programmed GC (TPGC) and thermal

  17. Microchip Immunoaffinity Electrophoresis of Antibody-Thymidine Kinase 1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Pagaduan, Jayson V.; Ramsden, Madison; O’Neill, Kim; Woolley, Adam T.

    2015-01-01

    Thymidine kinase-1 (TK1) is an important cancer biomarker whose serum levels are elevated in early cancer development. We developed a microchip electrophoresis immunoaffinity assay to measure recombinant purified TK1 (pTK1) using an antibody that binds to human TK1. We fabricated poly(methyl methacrylate) microfluidic devices to test the feasibility of detecting antibody (Ab)-pTK1 immune complexes as a step towards TK1 analysis in clinical serum samples. We were able to separate immune complexes from unbound antibodies using 0.5X phosphate buffer saline (pH 7.4) containing 0.01% Tween-20, with 1% w/v methylcellulose that acts as a dynamic surface coating and sieving matrix. Separation of the antibody and Ab-pTK1 complex was observed within a 5 mm effective separation length. This method of detecting pTK1 is easy to perform, requires only a 10 μL sample volume, and takes just 1 minute for separation. PMID:25486911

  18. Electroosmotically induced hydraulic pumping on microchips: differential ion transport

    PubMed

    Culbertson; Ramsey; Ramsey

    2000-05-15

    The theory behind and operation of an electroosmotically induced hydraulic pump for microfluidic devices is reported. This microchip functional element consists of a tee intersection with one inlet channel and two outlet channels. The inlet channel is maintained at high voltage while one outlet channel is kept at ground and the other channel has no electric potential applied. A pressure-induced flow of buffer is created in both outlet channels of the tee by reducing electroosmosis in the ground channel relative to that of the inlet channel. Spatially selective reduction of electroosmosis is accomplished by coating the walls of the ground channel with a viscous polymer. The pump is shown to differentially transport ions down the two outlet channels. This ion discrimination ability of the pump is examined as a function of an analyte's electrophoretic velocity. In addition, we demonstrate that an anion can be rejected from the ground channel and made to flow only into the field-free channel if the electrophoretic velocity of the anion is greater than the pressure-generated flow in the ground channel. The velocity threshold at which anion rejection occurs can be selectively tuned by changing the flow resistance in the field-free channel relative to the ground channel.

  19. Highly Stretchable Electrodes on Wrinkled Polydimethylsiloxane Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jun; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhang, Binzhen; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a fabrication technology of Ag wrinkled electrodes with application in highly stretchable wireless sensors. Ag wrinkled thin films that were formed by vacuum deposition on top of pre-strained and relaxed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates which have been treated using an O2 plasma and a surface chemical functionalization process can reach a strain limit up to 200%, while surface adhesion area can reach 95%. The electrical characteristics of components such as resistors, inductors and capacitors made from such Ag conductors have remained stable under stretching exhibiting low temperature and humidity coefficients. This technology was then demonstrated for wireless wearable electronics using compatible processing with established micro/nano fabrication technology. PMID:26585636

  20. Highly Stretchable Electrodes on Wrinkled Polydimethylsiloxane Substrates.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhang, Binzhen; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2015-11-20

    This paper demonstrates a fabrication technology of Ag wrinkled electrodes with application in highly stretchable wireless sensors. Ag wrinkled thin films that were formed by vacuum deposition on top of pre-strained and relaxed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates which have been treated using an O2 plasma and a surface chemical functionalization process can reach a strain limit up to 200%, while surface adhesion area can reach 95%. The electrical characteristics of components such as resistors, inductors and capacitors made from such Ag conductors have remained stable under stretching exhibiting low temperature and humidity coefficients. This technology was then demonstrated for wireless wearable electronics using compatible processing with established micro/nano fabrication technology.

  1. Highly Stretchable Electrodes on Wrinkled Polydimethylsiloxane Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jun; Guo, Hao; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhang, Binzhen; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2015-11-01

    This paper demonstrates a fabrication technology of Ag wrinkled electrodes with application in highly stretchable wireless sensors. Ag wrinkled thin films that were formed by vacuum deposition on top of pre-strained and relaxed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates which have been treated using an O2 plasma and a surface chemical functionalization process can reach a strain limit up to 200%, while surface adhesion area can reach 95%. The electrical characteristics of components such as resistors, inductors and capacitors made from such Ag conductors have remained stable under stretching exhibiting low temperature and humidity coefficients. This technology was then demonstrated for wireless wearable electronics using compatible processing with established micro/nano fabrication technology.

  2. Polydimethylsiloxane-indomethacin blends and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Racles, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    A series of blends of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and indomethacin (IMC), containing 20-80 wt.% IMC were obtained and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction in order to observe the mutual influence of the two components. The main thermal transitions of PDMS remained un-changed. Both the solvent (tetrahydrofuran, THF) and the PDMS influenced the crystalline form of IMC. The blends were subsequently re-dissolved in THF, with or without cross-linking reagents added and precipitated into diluted aqueous solutions of siloxane-based surfactants. The resulted nanoparticles were analyzed by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the particles had diameters between 200 and 300 nm. The surfactants, the IMC content and the cross-linking influenced the particles size and polydispersity, as well as the nanoparticle yield. The maximum drug release from selected aqueous formulations was 30%.

  3. Cell behavior on surface modified polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

    PubMed

    Stanton, Morgan M; Rankenberg, Johanna M; Park, Byung-Wook; McGimpsey, W Grant; Malcuit, Christopher; Lambert, Christopher R

    2014-07-01

    Designing complex tissue culture systems requires cell alignment and directed extracellular matrix (ECM) and gene expression. Here, a micro-rough, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface, that also integrates a micro-pattern of 50 µm wide lines of fibronectin (FN) separated by 60 µm wide lines of bovine serum albumin (BSA), is developed. Human fibroblasts cultured on the rough, patterned substrate have aligned growth and a significant change in morphology when compared to cells on a flat, patterned surface. The rough PDMS topography significantly decreases cell area and induces the upregulation of several ECM related genes by two-fold when compared to cells cultured on flat PDMS. This study describes a simple surface engineering procedure for creating surface architecture for scaffolds to design and control the cell-surface interface.

  4. Nanometer-scale embossing of polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Hoh, Maria; Werbin, Jeffrey L; Dumas, Julie K; Heinz, William F; Hoh, Jan H

    2010-02-16

    Microstructured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is an important and widely used material in biology and chemistry. Here we report that micrometer- and nanometer-scale features can be introduced into the surface of PDMS in a process that is functionally equivalent to embossing. We show that surface features <50 nm can be replicated onto the surface of previously cured PDMS at room temperature and at low pressure. This type of embossing can be performed on samples in solution. It also allows one template to be used for many different types of microstructures by changing the embossing time or serial embossing at different alignments. The balance between elastic and plastic properties of the PDMS has the effect of high-pass filtering the features that are captured and produces a sample that is suitable for sensitive surface characterization technologies such as atomic force microscopy. These findings extend the applications of PDMS as well as open the possibility for new uses.

  5. Injectable polydimethylsiloxane-hydroxyapatite composite cement.

    PubMed

    Ignjatović, Nenad; Jovanović, Jelena; Suljovrujić, Edin; Uskoković, Dragan

    2003-01-01

    An injectable polydimethylsiloxane/hydroxyapatite (PDMS/HAp) composite cement was synthesised using linear PDMS and HAp (particles of about 100 nm in size) of different mass fractions. The effect of HAp mass fraction (5-60 mass%) on the hardness of PDMS/HAp composite cement was investigated. The hardness achieved is 25-49 degrees ShA. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the cross-linking process and the influence of HAp on the temperature and duration of PDMS/HAp cross-linking. The microstructure of composite cement surfaces after 10 days in vivo tests was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of well-adhered macrophages, fibroblasts and monocytes was found on the implant surface upon its extraction from the organism.

  6. Photopatterning of Hydrogel Microarrays in Closed Microchips.

    PubMed

    Gumuscu, Burcu; Bomer, Johan G; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C T

    2015-12-14

    To date, optical lithography has been extensively used for in situ patterning of hydrogel structures in a scale range from hundreds of microns to a few millimeters. The two main limitations which prevent smaller feature sizes of hydrogel structures are (1) the upper glass layer of a microchip maintains a large spacing (typically 525 μm) between the photomask and hydrogel precursor, leading to diffraction of UV light at the edges of mask patterns, (2) diffusion of free radicals and monomers results in irregular polymerization near the illumination interface. In this work, we present a simple approach to enable the use of optical lithography to fabricate hydrogel arrays with a minimum feature size of 4 μm inside closed microchips. To achieve this, we combined two different techniques. First, the upper glass layer of the microchip was thinned by mechanical polishing to reduce the spacing between the photomask and hydrogel precursor, and thereby the diffraction of UV light at the edges of mask patterns. The polishing process reduces the upper layer thickness from ∼525 to ∼100 μm, and the mean surface roughness from 20 to 3 nm. Second, we developed an intermittent illumination technique consisting of short illumination periods followed by relatively longer dark periods, which decrease the diffusion of monomers. Combination of these two methods allows for fabrication of 0.4 × 10(6) sub-10 μm sized hydrogel patterns over large areas (cm(2)) with high reproducibility (∼98.5% patterning success). The patterning method is tested with two different types of photopolymerizing hydrogels: polyacrylamide and polyethylene glycol diacrylate. This method enables in situ fabrication of well-defined hydrogel patterns and presents a simple approach to fabricate 3-D hydrogel matrices for biomolecule separation, biosensing, tissue engineering, and immobilized protein microarray applications.

  7. Graft linker immobilization for spatial control of protein immobilization inside fused microchips.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Kentaro; Renberg, Björn; Sato, Kae; Mawatari, Kazuma; Konno, Tomohiro; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2009-12-01

    Fused silica glass microchips have several attractive features for lab-on-a-chip applications; they can be machined with excellent precision down to nanospace; are stable; transparent and can be modified with a range of silanization agents to change channel surface properties. For immobilization, however, ligands must be added after bonding, since the harsh bonding conditions using heat or hydrofluoric acid would remove all prior immobilized ligands. For spatial control over immobilization, UV-mediated immobilization offers several advantages; spots can be created in parallel, the feature size can be made small, and spatial control over patterns and positions is excellent. However, UV sensitive groups are often based on hydrophobic chemical moieties, which unfortunately result in greater non-specific binding of biomolecules, especially proteins. Here, we present techniques in which any -CH(x) (x=1,2,3) containing surface coating can be used as foundation for grafting a hydrophilic linker with a chemical anchor, a carboxyl group, to which proteins and amine containing molecules can be covalently coupled. Hence, the attractive features of many well-known protein and biomolecule repelling polymer coatings can be utilized while achieving site-specific immobilization only to pre-determined areas within the bonded microchips.

  8. Readability and histological biocompatibility of microchip transponders in horses.

    PubMed

    Wulf, M; Wohlsein, P; Aurich, J E; Nees, M; Baumgärtner, W; Aurich, C

    2013-10-01

    Identification of horses by microchip transponder is mandatory within the European Union with only a few exceptions. In this study, the readability of such microchips in 428 horses with three different scanners (A, B and C) and the histological changes at the implantation site in 16 animals were assessed. Identification of microchips differed between scanners (P<0.001), and with 'side of neck' (P<0.001). Scanners A, B and C identified 93.5%, 89.7% and 100% of microchips, respectively, on the 'chip-bearing' side of the neck. From the contralateral side, scanners A, B and C identified 21.5%, 26.9% and 89.5% of transponders, respectively. Microchip readability was affected by age (P<0.001), but not by breed of horse. At necropsy, transponders were found in the subcutaneous fat (n=3), inter- or peri-muscular connective tissue (n=8), or musculature (n=5), where they were surrounded by a fibrous capsule ranging in thickness from 12.7 to 289.5 μm in 15 animals. In two animals, immature granulation tissue with attendant granulomatous inflammation, and a granulomatous myositis, surrounding the microchip were identified, respectively. Severe (n=1), moderate (n=1), and mild (n=3) lymphohistiocytic inflammation was noted within the fibrous capsule. Microchip transponders were found to be a highly reliable and biocompatible method of horse identification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Parallel thermodynamic analysis of duplexes on oligodeoxyribonucleotide microchips.

    SciTech Connect

    Fotin, A. V.; Drobyshev, A. L.; Proudnikov, D. Y.; Perov, A. N.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Center for Mechanistic Biology and Biotechnology; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology

    1998-03-15

    A microchip method has been developed for massive and parallel thermodynamic analyses of DNA duplexes. Fluorescently labeled oligonucleotides were hybridized with oligonucleotides immobilized in the 100 x 100 x 20 mum gel pads of the microchips. The equilibrium melting curves for all microchip duplexes were measured in real time in parallel for all microchip duplexes. Thermodynamic data for perfect and mismatched duplexes that were obtained using the microchip method directly correlated with data obtained in solution. Fluorescent labels or longer linkers between the gel and the oligonucleotides appeared to have no significant effect on duplex stability. Extending the immobilized oligonucleotides with a four-base mixture from the 3'-end or one or two universal bases (5-nitroindole) from the 3'- and/or 5'- end increased the stabilities of their duplexes. These extensions were applied to increase the stabilities of the duplexes formed with short oligonucleotides in microchips, to significantly lessen the differences in melting curves of the AT- and GC-rich duplexes, and to improve discrimination of perfect duplexes from those containing poorly recognized terminal mismatches. This study explored a way to increase the efficiency of sequencing by hybridization on oligonucleotide microchips.

  10. Generating electrospray from microchip devices using electroosmotic pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, R.S.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1997-03-15

    A method of generating electrospray from solutions emerging from small channels etched on planer substrates in described. The fluids are delivered using electroosmotically induced pressures and are sprayed electrostatically from the terminus of a channel by applying an electrical potential of sufficient amplitude to generate the electrospray between the microchip and a conductor spaced from the channel terminus. No major modification of the microchip is required other than to expose a channel opening. The principles that regulate the fluid delivery are described and demonstrated. A spectrum for a test compound, tetrabutylammonium iodide, that was continuously electrophoresed was obtained by coupling the microchip to an ion trap mass spectrometer. 35 refs., 6 figs.

  11. A graphene-modified cellulose paper microchip for HIV detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavieh, Mohammadali; Khetani, Sultan; Kaul, Vivasvat; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Shafiee, Hadi

    2015-05-01

    Rapid and inexpensive virus detection and quantification at the point-of-care is of paramount importance for HIV management in resource-limited settings. Here, we report on an easy-to-fabricate, cellulose paper-based microchip with printed graphene-modified electrodes for rapid detection of HIV-1 through electrical sensing. We evaluated the effect of electrode material and geometry on the performance of the microchip to detect serially diluted, electrically conductive samples. We evaluated the optimized microchip with HIVspiked samples.

  12. Sterilization of polydimethylsiloxane surface with Chinese herb extract: a new antibiotic mechanism of chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Ren, Song; Wu, Ming; Guo, Jiayu; Zhang, Wang; Liu, Xiaohan; Sun, Lili; Holyst, Robert; Hou, Sen; Fang, Yongchun; Feng, Xizeng

    2015-05-21

    Coating of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface with a traditional Chinese herb extract chlorogenic acid (CA) solves the contemporary problem of sterilization of PDMS surface. The E. coli grows slower and has a higher death rate on the CA-coated PDMS surfaces. A smoother morphology of these E. coli cell wall is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Unlike the reported mechanism, where CA inhibits bacterial growth by damaging the cell membrane in the bulk solution, we find the CA-coated PDMS surface also decreases the stiffness of the cell wall. A decrease in the Young's modulus of the cell wall from 3 to 0.8 MPa is reported. Unexpectedly, the CA effect on the swarming ability and the biofilm stability of the bacteria can be still observed, even after they have been removed from the CA environment, indicating a decrease in their resistance to antibiotics for a prolonged time. The CA-coated PDMS surface shows better antibiotic effect against three types of both Gram-positive and Gran-negative bacteria than the gentamicin-coated PDMS surface. Coating of CA on PDMS surface not only solves the problem of sterilization of PDMS surface, but also shines light on the application of Chinese traditional herbs in scientific research.

  13. Contactless conductivity detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pumera, Martin; Wang, Joseph; Opekar, Frantisek; Jelinek, Ivan; Feldman, Jason; Lowe, Holger; Hardt, Steffen; Svehla, D. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated electrophoresis chip with an integrated contactless conductivity detection system is described. The new contactless conductivity microchip detector is based on placing two planar sensing aluminum film electrodes on the outer side of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchip (without contacting the solution) and measuring the impedance of the solution in the separation channel. The contactless route obviates problems (e.g., fouling, unwanted reactions) associated with the electrode-solution contact, offers isolation of the detection system from high separation fields, does not compromise the separation efficiency, and greatly simplifies the detector fabrication. Relevant experimental variables, such as the frequency and amplitude of the applied ac voltage or the separation voltage, were examined and optimized. The detector performance was illustrated by the separation of potassium, sodium, barium, and lithium cations and the chloride, sulfate, fluoride, acetate, and phosphate anions. The response was linear (over the 20 microM-7 mM range) and reproducible (RSD = 3.4-4.9%; n = 10), with detection limits of 2.8 and 6.4 microM (for potassium and chloride, respectively). The advantages associated with the contactless conductivity detection, along with the low cost of the integrated PMMA chip/detection system, should enhance the power and scope of microfluidic analytical devices.

  14. Microchip device for liquid phase analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, j.m.

    2000-05-01

    The lab-on-a-chip concept has enabled miniature instruments to be developed that allow the rapid execution and automation of fluidic operations such as valving, separation, dilution, mixing, and flow splitting upon the proper application of a motive (driving) force. The integration of these simple operations to perform complete, multiple-step chemical assays is rapidly becoming a reality. Such compact, monolithic devices potentially enjoy advantages in speed, cost, automation, reagent consumption, and waste generation compared to existing laboratory-scale instruments. Initial reports of these microfluidic devices focused on combining various electrokinetically driven separation methods including microchip electrophoresis, gel electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and open channel electrochromatography (OCEC) with fluidic valving to introduce sample plugs into the separation channel. Other operations have quickly been integrated with the separations and fluidic valving on these microchips. For example, integrated devices with mixers/diluters for precolumn and postcolumn analyte derivatization, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) restriction digests, enzyme assays, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification have been added to the basic design. Integrated mixers that can perform solvent programming for both MEKC and OCEC have also been demonstrated. These examples are simple, yet powerful, demonstrations of the potential for lab-on-a-chip devices. In this report, three key areas for improved performance of these devices are described: on-chip calibration techniques, enhanced separative performance, and enhanced detection capabilities.

  15. Detection of telomerase activity using microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, Koji; Arakawa, Hidetoshi

    2015-07-01

    Telomerase participates in malignant transformation or immortalization of cells and thus has attracted attention as an anticancer drug target and diagnostic tumor marker. The telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) and improved TRAP methods (TRAP-fluorescence, TRAP-hybridization, etc.) are widely used forms of this telomerase assay. However, these approaches generally employ acrylamide gel electrophoresis after amplification of telomeric repeats by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), making these TRAP methods time consuming and technically demanding. In this study we developed a novel telomerase assay using microchip electrophoresis for rapid and highly sensitive detection of telomerase activity in cancer cells. The mixed gel of 0.8% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and 0.3% polyethylene oxide (PEO) with SYBR Gold (fluorescent reagent) was used for microchip electrophoresis. As a result, the product amplified by a telomerase-positive cell could be measured in one cell per assay and detected with high reproducibility (CV=0.67%) in the short time of 100s. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Contactless conductivity detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pumera, Martin; Wang, Joseph; Opekar, Frantisek; Jelinek, Ivan; Feldman, Jason; Lowe, Holger; Hardt, Steffen; Svehla, D. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A microfabricated electrophoresis chip with an integrated contactless conductivity detection system is described. The new contactless conductivity microchip detector is based on placing two planar sensing aluminum film electrodes on the outer side of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchip (without contacting the solution) and measuring the impedance of the solution in the separation channel. The contactless route obviates problems (e.g., fouling, unwanted reactions) associated with the electrode-solution contact, offers isolation of the detection system from high separation fields, does not compromise the separation efficiency, and greatly simplifies the detector fabrication. Relevant experimental variables, such as the frequency and amplitude of the applied ac voltage or the separation voltage, were examined and optimized. The detector performance was illustrated by the separation of potassium, sodium, barium, and lithium cations and the chloride, sulfate, fluoride, acetate, and phosphate anions. The response was linear (over the 20 microM-7 mM range) and reproducible (RSD = 3.4-4.9%; n = 10), with detection limits of 2.8 and 6.4 microM (for potassium and chloride, respectively). The advantages associated with the contactless conductivity detection, along with the low cost of the integrated PMMA chip/detection system, should enhance the power and scope of microfluidic analytical devices.

  17. Contactless conductivity detector for microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pumera, Martin; Wang, Joseph; Opekar, Frantisek; Jelínek, Ivan; Feldman, Jason; Löwe, Holger; Hardt, Steffen

    2002-05-01

    A microfabricated electrophoresis chip with an integrated contactless conductivity detection system is described. The new contactless conductivity microchip detector is based on placing two planar sensing aluminum film electrodes on the outer side of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchip (without contacting the solution) and measuring the impedance of the solution in the separation channel. The contactless route obviates problems (e.g., fouling, unwanted reactions) associated with the electrode-solution contact, offers isolation of the detection system from high separation fields, does not compromise the separation efficiency, and greatly simplifies the detector fabrication. Relevant experimental variables, such as the frequency and amplitude of the applied ac voltage or the separation voltage, were examined and optimized. The detector performance was illustrated by the separation of potassium, sodium, barium, and lithium cations and the chloride, sulfate, fluoride, acetate, and phosphate anions. The response was linear (over the 20 microM-7 mM range) and reproducible (RSD = 3.4-4.9%; n = 10), with detection limits of 2.8 and 6.4 microM (for potassium and chloride, respectively). The advantages associated with the contactless conductivity detection, along with the low cost of the integrated PMMA chip/detection system, should enhance the power and scope of microfluidic analytical devices.

  18. Silicone nanocomposite coatings for fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberts, Kenneth (Inventor); Lee, Stein S. (Inventor); Singhal, Amit (Inventor); Ou, Runqing (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A silicone based coating for fabrics utilizing dual nanocomposite fillers providing enhanced mechanical and thermal properties to the silicone base. The first filler includes nanoclusters of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and a metal oxide and a second filler of exfoliated clay nanoparticles. The coating is particularly suitable for inflatable fabrics used in several space, military, and consumer applications, including airbags, parachutes, rafts, boat sails, and inflatable shelters.

  19. Granulomatous Inflammatory Response to a Microchip Implanted in a Dog for Eight Years.

    PubMed

    Legallet, Claire; Mankin, Kelley Thieman; Spaulding, Kathy; Mansell, Joanne

    An 8 yr old neutered male springer spaniel dog was referred to Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine for a large, firm, fixed mass, located in the dorsal cervical tissue. The dog was otherwise healthy and had undergone microchip implantation approximately 8 yr prior. Radiographs, ultrasound, and microchip scanner confirmed the presence of a microchip within the mass. The microchip and associated mass were surgically excised, and histopathologic examination revealed granulomatous inflammation surrounding a cracked microchip. This case represents the first report of a granulomatous inflammatory response to a microchip 8 yr after implantation in a dog and highlights an important differential diagnosis.

  20. FBG sensor of breathing encapsulated into polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajkus, Marcel; Nedoma, Jan; Siska, Petr; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    The technology of Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) belongs to the most widespread fiber-optic sensors. They are used for measuring a large number of physical and chemical quantities. Small size, immunity to electromagnetic interference, high sensitivity and a principle of information encoding about the measurement value into spectral characteristics causes usability of FBG sensors in medicine for monitoring vital signs such as temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiration. An important factor is the use of an inert material for the encapsulation of Bragg gratings in this area. A suitable choice is a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer having excellent thermal and elastic properties. Experimental results describe the creation of FBG sensory prototype for monitoring breathing in this paper. The sensor is realized by encapsulation of Bragg grating into PDMS. The FBG sensor is mounted on the elastic contact strap which encircles the chest of the patient. This tension leads to a spectral shift of the reflected light from the FBG. For measurement, we used a broadband light source Light-Emitting Diode (LED) with central wavelength 1550 nm and optical spectrum analyzer.

  1. Photopatterning the mechanical properties of polydimethylsiloxane films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, D. P. J.; Popel, A.; Graz, I. M.; Lacour, S. P.

    2011-03-01

    Silicone rubber films with graded and localized mechanical properties are prepared using two-part polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer, photoinhibitor compounds and conventional photolithography. First the un-cross-linked PDMS is mixed with benzophenone. The resulting positive photosensitive material is then exposed through a mask to UV light from a conventional mask aligner. Cross-linking of the UV exposed elastomer is inhibited, leading to softer regions than the surrounding unexposed matrix. By empirically fitting the nonlinear, hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin model to experimentally measured stress-strain curves we determine the equivalent tensile modulus (E) of the rubber film. We show the PDMS tensile modulus can then be adjusted in the 0.65-2.9 MPa range by decreasing the UV exposure dose (from 24 000 to 0 mJ cm-2). Further, using a patterned UV mask, we can locally define differential regions of tensile modulus within a single PDMS rubber film. We demonstrate that "hard islands" (E ≈ 2.9 MPa) of 100 μm minimum diameter can be patterned within a 100-μm-thick, single "soft" PDMS rubber membrane (E ≈ 0.65 MPa) cured at 150 °C for 24 h. Thin gold film conductors patterned directly onto the photopatterned PDMS are stretchable and withstand uniaxial cycling to tens of percent strain. The mechanically "pixellated" PDMS rubber film provides an improved substrate with built-in strain relief for stretchable electronics.

  2. Surface micromachining of polydimethylsiloxane for microfluidics applications.

    PubMed

    Hill, Staci; Qian, Weiyi; Chen, Weiqiang; Fu, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer has emerged as one of the most frequently applied materials in microfluidics. However, precise and large-scale surface micromachining of PDMS remains challenging, limiting applications of PDMS for microfluidic structures with high-resolution features. Herein, surface patterning of PDMS was achieved using a simple yet effective method combining direct photolithography followed by reactive-ion etching (RIE). This method incorporated a unique step of using oxygen plasma to activate PDMS surfaces to a hydrophilic state, thereby enabling improved adhesion of photoresist on top of PDMS surfaces for subsequent photolithography. RIE was applied to transfer patterns from photoresist to underlying PDMS thin films. Systematic experiments were conducted in the present work to characterize PDMS etch rate and etch selectivity of PDMS to photoresist as a function of various RIE parameters, including pressure, RF power, and gas flow rate and composition. We further compared two common RIE systems with and without bias power and employed inductively coupled plasma and capacitively coupled plasma sources, respectively, in terms of their PDMS etching performances. The RIE-based PDMS surface micromachining technique is compatible with conventional Si-based surface and bulk micromachining techniques, thus opening promising opportunities for generating hybrid microfluidic devices with novel functionalities.

  3. Apparatus for Precise Indium-Bump Bonding of Microchips

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wild, Larry; Mulder, Jerry; Alvarado, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    An improved apparatus has been designed and built for use in precise positioning and pressing of a microchip onto a substrate (which could, optionally, be another microchip) for the purpose of indium-bump bonding. The apparatus (see figure) includes the following: A stereomicroscope, A stage for precise positioning of the microchip in rotation angle (theta) about the nominally vertical pressing axis and in translation along two nominally horizontal coordinate axes (x and y), and An actuator system that causes a bonding tip to press the microchip against the substrate with a precisely controlled force. In operation, the microscope and the stage are used to position the microchip under the bonding tip and to align the indium bumps on the chip and the substrate, then the actuator system is used to apply a prescribed bonding force for a prescribed time. The improved apparatus supplants a partly similar prior apparatus that operated with less precision and repeatability, producing inconsistent and unreliable bonds. Results of the use of the prior apparatus included broken microchips, uneven bonds, and bonds characterized, variously, by overcompression or undercompression. In that apparatus, the bonding force was generated and controlled by use of a micrometer head positioned over the center of a spring-loaded scale, and the force was applied to the microchip via the scale, which was equipped for digital readout of the force. The inconsistency of results was attributed to the following causes: It was not possible to control the bonding force with sufficient precision or repeatability. Particularly troublesome was the inability to control the force at levels less than the weight of 150 g. Excessive compliance in the spring-loaded scale, combined with deviations from parallelarity of the substrate and bonding-tip surfaces, gave rise to nonuniformity in the pressure applied to the microchip, thereby generating excessive stresses and deformations in the microchip. In the

  4. Microchip-Embedded Capacitors for Implantable Neural Stimulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auciello, Orlando

    Miniaturization of microchips for implantation in the human body (e.g., microchip for the artificial retina to restore sight to people blinded by retina photoreceptors degeneration) requires the integration of high-capacitance (≥ 10 μF) energy-storage capacitors into the microchip. These capacitors would be based on high-dielectric constant layers, preferably made of materials that are bioinert (not affected by human body fluids) and are biocompatible (do not elicit adverse reactions in the human body). This chapter focuses on reviewing the work being done at Argonne National Laboratory (Materials Science Division and Center for Nanoscale Materials) to develop high-capacitance microchip-embedded capacitors based on novel high-K dielectric layers (TiAlOx or TiO2/Al2O3 superlattices). The microchip-embedded capacitor provides energy storage and electromagnetic signal coupling needed for neural stimulations. Advances in neural prostheses such as artificial retinas and cochlear implants require miniaturization of device size to minimize tissue damage and improve device/tissue interfaces in the human body. Therefore, development of microchip-embedded capacitors is critical to achieve full-implantable biomedical device miniaturization.

  5. Microchip atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ostman, Pekka; Marttila, Seppo J; Kotiaho, Tapio; Franssila, Sami; Kostiainen, Risto

    2004-11-15

    A novel microchip heated nebulizer for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry is presented. Anisotropic wet etching is used to fabricate the flow channels, inlet, and nozzle on a silicon wafer. An integrated heater of aluminum is sputtered on a glass wafer. The two wafers are jointed by anodic bonding, creating a two-dimensional version of an APCI source with a sample channel in the middle and gas channels symmetrically on both sides. The ionization is initiated with an external corona-discharge needle positioned 2 mm in front of the microchip heated nebulizer. The microchip APCI source provides flow rates down to 50 nL/min, stable long-term analysis with chip lifetime of weeks, good quantitative repeatability (RSD < 10%) and linearity (r(2) > 0.995) with linear dynamic rage of at least 4 orders of magnitude, and cost-efficient manufacturing. The limit of detection (LOD) for acridine measured with microchip APCI at flow rate of 6.2 muL/min was 5 nM, corresponding to a mass flow of 0.52 fmol/s. The LOD with commercial macro-APCI at a flow rate of 1 mL/min for acridine was the same, 5 nM, corresponding to a significantly worse mass flow sensitivity (83 fmol/s) than measured with microchip APCI. The advantages of microchip APCI makes it a very attractive new microfluidic detector.

  6. Thickness dependence of ice removal stress for a polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposite: Sylgard 184.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenyu; Fuller, Trae; Zhang, Wei; Wynne, Kenneth J

    2014-11-04

    Minimizing adhesion of ice has been the subject of extensive studies because of importance to applications such aircraft wings, spacecraft, and power transmission wires. A growing interest concerns coatings for wind turbine blades and refrigeration. Herein, a new laboratory test was employed to obtain the thickness dependence of ice adhesion for Sylgard 184-a filled polydimethylsiloxane elastomer. A correlation between ice adhesion and coating thickness (t) was found that follows a relationship developed by Kendall over 40 years ago for removal of a rigid object from an elastomer. With a 0.05 mm/s probe speed a nearly linear relationship between peak removal stress (Ps) and 1/t(1/2) was obtained with Ps ∼ 460 kPa for an 18 μm coating, decreasing to ∼120 kPa for 533 μm. Preliminary results suggest that below ∼10 μm Ps departs from the 1/t(1/2) correlation while above ∼500 μm a limiting value for Ps may be reached. We previously reported that probe speed has negligible effect on the glassy polymer PMMA. In contrast, probe speed is identified as an important variable for testing ice release on elastomeric Sylgard 184 coatings. While work of adhesion, which is related to surface free energy, is recognized as an important factor that can affect ice release, the results reported herein show that coating thickness can override this single parameter for elastomeric substrates.

  7. Subsecond chiral separations on a microchip.

    PubMed

    Piehl, Natalia; Ludwig, Martin; Belder, Detlev

    2004-11-01

    Fast chiral separation of DNS-amino acids could be realized using microchip electrophoresis with fluorescence detection. For this purpose, highly sulfated cyclodextrins (HS-gamma-CD) were used as chiral selectors enabling high selectivity. Even subsecond separation of DNS-tryptophan, DNS-norleucine, DNS-phenylalanine, DNS-methionine, and DNS-aspartic acid could be achieved. Baseline separation could be accomplished within 720 ms, which is the fastest separation of enantiomers reported to date. A more complex mixture consisting of three chiral DNS-amino acids could be separated within 3.3 s utilizing a separation length of only 7 mm and an electrical field strength of 2012 V/cm.

  8. Generation of modulated microchip laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almabouada, F.; Aiadi, K. E.; Louhibi, D.

    2015-01-01

    Modulated 532 nm laser pulses were generated by a Nd:YVO4 microchip laser and a KTP crystal end-pumped by a 808 nm laser diode. The interest in such works arise from the efficiency of this type of laser in several applications. To obtain the desired type of the modulated laser pulses, the electrical circuit of the laser diode was designed so as to enable varying their driving signal and current values. Different modulated signals were used, such as square wave, sine wave, and burst mode pulses. Varying the peak drive current, the duty cycle, and the number of pulses allowed us to adjust the laser energy. For the burst mode experiment, the pulse energy obtained was about 1.2 μJ.

  9. Etching of glass microchips with supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Karásek, Pavel; Grym, Jakub; Roth, Michal; Planeta, Josef; Foret, František

    2015-01-07

    A novel method of etching channels in glass microchips with the most tunable solvent, water, was tested as an alternative to common hydrogen fluoride-containing etchants. The etching properties of water strongly depend on temperature and pressure, especially in the vicinity of the water critical point. The chips were etched at the subcritical, supercritical and critical temperature of water, and the resulting channel shape, width, depth and surface morphology were studied by scanning electron microscopy and 3D laser profilometry. Channels etched with the hot water were compared with the chips etched with standard hydrogen fluoride-containing solution. Depending on the water pressure and temperature, the silicate dissolved from the glass could be re-deposited on the channel surface. This interesting phenomenon is described together with the conditions necessary for its utilization. The results illustrate the versatility of pure water as a glass etching and surface morphing agent.

  10. The Antioxidation Mechanism of Polydimethylsiloxane in Oil.

    PubMed

    Yawata, Miho; Satoh, Tohru; Iwahashi, Maiko; Hori, Ryuji; Takeuchi, Shigeo; Shiramasa, Hiroshi; Totani, Nagao

    2015-01-01

    Strong and stable antioxidation effects of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are widely accepted and utilized in commercial frying oil; however, the mechanism is not fully established. On the other hand, canola oil contains about 700 ppm (mg/kg-oil) of the natural antioxidant, tocopherol. Canola oil containing 0, 1 and 10 ppm added PDMS was heated at 180°C for 1 h under stirring, then left for 2-3 days at room temperature; this treatment was repeated 5 times. Compared to pure canola oil, PDMS-containing canola oil exhibited remarkably lower peroxide, p-anisidine and acid values, a lower decrease in tocopherol content but a higher oxygen content during the heating experiments, implicating low oxygen consumption for the oxidation. While PDMS has not been known to exhibit antioxidative effects at ambient temperatures, the present results show that PDMS prevents autoxidation as well as thermal oxidation. In addition, PDMS, not tocopherols, provided the major antioxidative effect during intermittent heating, and the decrease of tocopherols was significantly inhibited by PDMS. Phase contrast microscopy confirmed that PDMS contained in canola oil was suspended as particles. Also, the oxygen content in standing PDMS-containing canola oil decreased as the depth of oil increased, corresponding to the PDMS distribution, which also decreased as the depth of oil increased. Moreover, PDMS had a higher affinity for oxygen than canola oil in a mixture of canola oil/PDMS, 1:1 v/v. Thus, it is suggested that PDMS restricted the behavior of oxygen dissolved in canola oil by attracting oxygen in and around the PDMS particles, which is wholly different from the radical scavenging antioxidation of tocopherol.

  11. Investigation of the pH gradient formation and cathodic drift in microchip isoelectric focusing with imaged UV detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongqi; Okabe, Noboru; Arai, Akihiro; Hirokawa, Takeshi

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports the protein analysis by using microchip IEF carried on an automated chip system. We herein focused on two important topics of microchip IEF, the pH gradient and cathodic drift. The computer simulation clarified that the EOF could delay the establishment of pH gradient and move the carrier ampholytes (CAs) to cathode, which probably caused a cathodic drift to happen. After focusing, the peak positions of components in a calibration kit with broad pI were plotted against their pI values to know the actual pH gradient in a microchannel varying time. It was found that the formed pH gradient was stable, not decayed after readily steady state, and migrated to cathode at a rate of 10.0 μm/s that determined by the experimental conditions such as chip material, internal surface coating and field strength. The theoretical pH gradient was parallel with the actual pH gradient, which was demonstrated in two types of microchip with different channel lengths. No compression of pH gradient was observed when 2% w/v hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose was added in sample and electrolytes. The effect of CAs concentration on current and cathodic drift was also explored. With the current automatic chip system, the calculated peak capacity was 23-48, and the minimal pI difference was 0.20-0.42 for the used single channel microchip with the effective length of 40.5 mm. The LOD for the analysis of CA-I and CA-II was around 0.32 μg/mL by using normal imaged UV detection, the detected amount is ca. 0.07 ng.

  12. Ultrafast DNA sequencing on a microchip by a hybrid separation mechanism that gives 600 bases in 6.5 minutes

    PubMed Central

    Fredlake, Christopher P.; Hert, Daniel G.; Kan, Cheuk-Wai; Chiesl, Thomas N.; Root, Brian E.; Forster, Ryan E.; Barron, Annelise E.

    2008-01-01

    To realize the immense potential of large-scale genomic sequencing after the completion of the second human genome (Venter's), the costs for the complete sequencing of additional genomes must be dramatically reduced. Among the technologies being developed to reduce sequencing costs, microchip electrophoresis is the only new technology ready to produce the long reads most suitable for the de novo sequencing and assembly of large and complex genomes. Compared with the current paradigm of capillary electrophoresis, microchip systems promise to reduce sequencing costs dramatically by increasing throughput, reducing reagent consumption, and integrating the many steps of the sequencing pipeline onto a single platform. Although capillary-based systems require ≈70 min to deliver ≈650 bases of contiguous sequence, we report sequencing up to 600 bases in just 6.5 min by microchip electrophoresis with a unique polymer matrix/adsorbed polymer wall coating combination. This represents a two-thirds reduction in sequencing time over any previously published chip sequencing result, with comparable read length and sequence quality. We hypothesize that these ultrafast long reads on chips can be achieved because the combined polymer system engenders a recently discovered “hybrid” mechanism of DNA electromigration, in which DNA molecules alternate rapidly between reptating through the intact polymer network and disrupting network entanglements to drag polymers through the solution, similar to dsDNA dynamics we observe in single-molecule DNA imaging studies. Most importantly, these results reveal the surprisingly powerful ability of microchip electrophoresis to provide ultrafast Sanger sequencing, which will translate to increased system throughput and reduced costs. PMID:18184818

  13. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Microchip identification has become an important tool to reunite stray dogs and cats with their owners, and is now compulsory in most states of Australia. Improvement of the microchipping system in Australia is limited by a lack of published Australian data documenting the problems experienced by shelter staff when using microchip data to contact the owner of a stray animal. In this study we determine the character and frequency of inaccurate microchip data to identify weaknesses in the current microchipping system. This information could be used to develop strategies that increase the accuracy of microchip data that will increase the reclaiming of stray animals. Abstract A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of

  14. Print your own membrane: direct rapid prototyping of polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Femmer, Tim; Kuehne, Alexander J C; Wessling, Matthias

    2014-08-07

    Polydimethylsiloxane is a translucent and biologically inert silicone material used in sealants, biomedical implants and microscale lab-on-a-chip devices. Furthermore, in membrane technology, polydimethylsiloxane represents a material for separation barriers as it has high permeabilities for various gases. The facile handling of two component formulations with a silicone base material, a catalyst and a small molecular weight crosslinker makes it widely applicable for soft-lithographic replication of two-dimensional device geometries, such as microfluidic chips or micro-contact stamps. Here, we develop a new technique to directly print polydimethylsiloxane in a rapid prototyping device, circumventing the need for masks or sacrificial mold production. We create a three-dimensional polydimethylsiloxane membrane for gas-liquid-contacting based on a Schwarz-P triple-periodic minimal-surface, which is inaccessible with common machining techniques. Direct 3D-printing of polydimethylsiloxane enables rapid production of novel chip geometries for a manifold of lab-on-a-chip applications.

  15. Transparent, wear-resistant, superhydrophobic and superoleophobic poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Martin, Samuel; Bhushan, Bharat

    2017-02-15

    Superoleophobic surfaces that exhibit self-cleaning, antifouling, low-drag, and anti-smudge properties with high transparency are of interest in industrial applications including optical devices, solar panels, and self-cleaning windows. In many superoleophobic surfaces created to date, the lack of mechanical durability has been an issue. In this work, for the first time, transparent, wear-resistant, superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surfaces were developed for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a simple and scalable fabrication technique. PDMS is of importance in biomedical applications as it is biocompatible, chemically stable, and transparent. PDMS was made superhydrophobic either through micropatterning or an applied coating of hydrophobic SiO2 nanoparticles with a binder of methylphenyl silicone resin. Through the addition of fluorination via fluorosilane, the nanoparticle/binder coating was made superoleophobic. Intermediate steps using ultraviolet-ozone treatment were required for improved deposition and adhesion of the coatings. The effects of surface treatments were examined through contact angle and tilt angle measurements. The coating was found to have re-entrant geometries desirable for superoleophobicity and to exhibit mechanical wear resistance and transparent properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microchips for CE: breakthroughs in real-world food analysis.

    PubMed

    Escarpa, Alberto; González, María Cristina; López Gil, Miguel Angel; Crevillén, Agustín G; Hervás, Miriam; García, Miguel

    2008-12-01

    The well-known complexity of food matrices is approached using CE microchips with different strategies to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of the analysis by avoiding and/or making the sample preparation as simple as possible: (i) enhancing the peak capacity in order to perform direct injection, (ii) using the microchip platform to measure one target analyte/group of analytes with or without separating other related interferences, (iii) integrating sample preparation steps on the microchip platform, and (iv) integrating new analytical tools from nanotechnology in the detection stage. New analyte separations of food significance involving DNA probes, biogenic amines, vanilla flavors, and dyes have been reported as successfully breaking new barriers in areas of high impact in the market, such as transgenic food analysis, as well as the detection of frauds and toxins. Simple microchip layouts are still the most common designs used, though sophisticated new ones are emerging. In contrast to other application areas, electrochemical detection continues to be the most common detection route, followed by LIF, though non-conventional detection routes are also emerging, such as chemiluminescence or UV. In terms of analytical performance, the integration of calibration and quality control on a microchip platform, and remarkable accuracy and precision are being obtained using creative analytical methodologies that enhance the analytical potency of microfluidic chips for their future commercialization. This review critically states the most important advances derived from work done in the field over the past 2-3 years.

  17. CE microchips: an opened gate to food analysis.

    PubMed

    Escarpa, Alberto; González, María Cristina; Crevillén, Agustín González; Blasco, Antonio Javier

    2007-03-01

    CE microchips are the first generation of micrototal analysis systems (-TAS) emerging in the miniaturization scene of food analysis. CE microchips for food analysis are fabricated in both glass and polymer materials, such as PDMS and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and use simple layouts of simple and double T crosses. Nowadays, the detection route preferred is electrochemical in both, amperometry and conductivity modes, using end-channel and contactless configurations, respectively. Food applications using CE microchips are now emerging since food samples present complex matrices, the selectivity being a very important challenge because the total integration of analytical steps into microchip format is very difficult. As a consequence, the first contributions that have recently appeared in the relevant literature are based primarily on fast separations of analytes of high food significance. These protocols are combined with different strategies to achieve selectivity using a suitable nonextensive sample preparation and/or strategically choosing detection routes. Polyphenolic compounds, amino acids, preservatives, and organic and inorganic ions have been studied using CE microchips. Thus, new and exciting future expectations arise in the domain of food analysis. However, several drawbacks could easily be found and assumed within the miniaturization map.

  18. Effect of aspect ratio on chemical reactions on microchip.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Masaki, Hiroyuki; Korenaga, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    Parallel two-phase laminar flow, which is formed when two solutions flow in microchannels, has been developed and has advanced unique research in the area of microchip analysis. In two-phase laminar flow, channel size has a significant effect on the efficiency of chemical reactions. However, the sizes of microchannels vary greatly in many studies. In this paper, we report on the effect of microchannel size on chemical reactions on a microchip. Aspect ratio is defined as the ratio of depth to width of a microchannel. Five microchips with different aspect ratios (from 0.50 to 2.00) were fabricated by mechanical machining. The reaction of nitrous acid and Saltzman reagent was carried out on these microchips and the absorbance was measured on-line in a capillary tube, which was attached to the outlet on the microchip. The results showed that the color reaction occurred more efficiently as the aspect ratio increased. This result is expected to be useful when determining the size of microchannels.

  19. Fabrication of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic system based on masters directly printed with an office laser printer.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ning; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2005-09-30

    Applications of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic systems are more popular nowadays. Previous fabrication methods of the masters for PDMS microchannels require complicated steps and/or special device. In this paper, we demonstrated that the toner printed on the transparency film with the office laser printer (1200 dpi) can be used as the positive relief of the masters. The transparency film was printed in two steps in order to obtain the same printing quality for the crossed lines. With the laser-printed master, the depth of the fabricated PDMS microchannels was ca. 10 microm and the smallest width was ca. 60 microm. Surface characteristics of the PDMS/PDMS microchannels were performed with SEM. Their electrokinetic properties were investigated by the aids of the measurement of electroosmotic flow (EOF) and the Ohm's curve. Using the PDMS/PDMS microchip CE systems, electroactive biological molecules and non-electroactive inorganic ions were well separated, respectively. This simple approach could make it easy to carry out the studies of PDMS microfluidic systems in more general labs without special devices.

  20. Simple approach for the fabrication of screen-printed carbon-based electrode for amperometric detection on microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Petroni, Jacqueline Marques; Lucca, Bruno Gabriel; Ferreira, Valdir Souza

    2017-02-15

    This paper describes a simple method for the fabrication of screen-printed based electrodes for amperometric detection on microchip electrophoresis (ME) devices. The procedure developed is quite simple and does not require expensive instrumentation or sophisticated protocols commonly employed on the production of amperometric sensors, such as photolithography or sputtering steps. The electrodes were fabricated through manual deposition of home-made conductive carbon ink over patterned acrylic substrate. Morphological structure and electrochemical behavior of the carbon electrodes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The produced amperometric sensors were coupled to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchips at end-channel configuration in order to evaluate their analytical performance. For this purpose, electrophoretic experiments were carried out using nitrite and ascorbic acid as model analytes. Separation of these substances was successfully performed within 50s with good resolution (R = 1.2) and sensitivities (713.5 pA/μM for nitrite and 255.4 pA/μM for ascorbate). The reproducibility of the fabrication method was evaluated and revealed good values concerning the peak currents obtained (8.7% for nitrite and 9.3% for ascorbate). The electrodes obtained through this method exhibited satisfactory lifetime (ca. 400 runs) over low fabrication cost (less than $1 per piece). The feasibility of the proposed device for real analysis was demonstrated through the determination of nitrite concentration levels in drinking water samples. Based on the results achieved, the approach proposed here shows itself as an interesting alternative for simple fabrication of carbon-based electrodes. Furthermore, the devices indicate great promise for other kind of analytical applications involving ME devices.

  1. Rapid bonding of Pyrex glass microchips.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Yoshitake; Morishima, Keisuke; Kogi, Atsuna; Kikutani, Yoshikuni; Tokeshi, Manabu; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2007-03-01

    A newly developed vacuum hot press system has been specially designed for the thermal bonding of glass substrates in the fabrication process of Pyrex glass microchemical chips. This system includes a vacuum chamber equipped with a high-pressure piston cylinder and carbon plate heaters. A temperature of up to 900 degrees C and a force of as much as 9800 N could be applied to the substrates in a vacuum atmosphere. The Pyrex substrates bonded with this system under different temperatures, pressures, and heating times were evaluated by tensile strength tests, by measurements of thickness, and by observations of the cross-sectional shapes of the microchannels. The optimal bonding conditions of the Pyrex glass substrates were 570 degrees C for 10 min under 4.7 N/mm(2) of applied pressure. Whereas more than 16 h is required for thermal bonding with a conventional furnace, the new system could complete the whole bonding processes within just 79 min, including heating and cooling periods. Such improvements should considerably enhance the production rate of Pyrex glass microchemical chips. Whereas flat and dust-free surfaces are required for conventional thermal bonding, especially without long and repeated heating periods, our hot press system could press a fine dust into glass substrates so that even the areas around the dust were bonded. Using this capability, we were able to successfully integrate Pt/Ti thin film electrodes into a Pyrex glass microchip.

  2. Cryogenic Tm:YAP microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubka, Zbyněk.; Å ulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Å koda, Václav

    2016-04-01

    The spectral characteristics of laser active media, and thus those of the laser output, are temperature dependent. Specifically, in almost every crystal host, cooling to low temperatures leads to better heat removal, a higher efficiency and output power, and a reduced lasing threshold. Tm-ion doped lasers have an emission wavelength around 2 μm and are important in medicine for soft tissue cutting and hemostasis, as well as in LIDAR or atmosphere sensing technology. This paper presents the performance-temperature dependency of a 4 at. % doped Tm:YAP microchip. During the experiment the Tm:YAP crystal was placed inside an evacuated liquid nitrogen cryostat on a cooling finger. As its temperature was varied from 80 K to 340 K, changes were observed in the absorption spectrum, ranging from 750 nm to 2000 nm and in the fluorescence spectrum from 1600 nm to 2050 nm. Fluorescence lifetime was seen to rise and fall with decreasing temperature. The laser was pumped by a 792 nm laser diode and at 80 K the maximum output peak power of the laser was 4.6 W with 23 % slope efficiency and 0.6 W threshold, compared to 2.4 W output peak power, 13 % slope efficiency and 3.3 W threshold when at 340 K. The laser emission wavelength changed from 1883 nm to 1993 nm for 80 K and 300 K, respectively.

  3. Further improvement of hydrostatic pressure sample injection for microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong; Zhang, Qingquan; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2007-12-01

    Hydrostatic pressure sample injection method is able to minimize the number of electrodes needed for a microchip electrophoresis process; however, it neither can be applied for electrophoretic DNA sizing, nor can be implemented on the widely used single-cross microchip. This paper presents an injector design that makes the hydrostatic pressure sample injection method suitable for DNA sizing. By introducing an assistant channel into the normal double-cross injector, a rugged DNA sample plug suitable for sizing can be successfully formed within the cross area during the sample loading. This paper also demonstrates that the hydrostatic pressure sample injection can be performed in the single-cross microchip by controlling the radial position of the detection point in the separation channel. Rhodamine 123 and its derivative as model sample were successfully separated.

  4. Organically modified sols as pseudostationary phases for microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pumera, Martin; Wang, Joseph; Grushka, Eli; Lev, Ovadia

    2007-04-30

    We demonstrate that the selectivity of microchip electrophoresis separations is greatly improved by the presence of organically modified silica (Ormosil) sols in the run buffer. A negatively-charged N-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)ethylenediamine triacetic-acid (TETT)-based sol is used for improving the selectivity between nitroaromatic explosives and a methyltrimethoxysilane (MTMOS)-based sol is employed for enhancing the microchip separation of environmental pollutants, aminophenols. These sols are added to the run buffer and act as pseudostationary phases. Their presence in the run buffer changes the apparent mobility of studied solutes, and leads to a higher resolution. The observed mobilities changes reflect the interactions between the Ormosil sols and the solutes. Relevant experimental variables have been characterized and optimized. The diverse chemistry of Ormosil sols should be extremely useful for tailoring the selectivity of a wide range of electrophoresis microchip separations.

  5. A facile and simple high-performance polydimethylsiloxane casting based on self-polymerization dopamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; Zhang, Lu-lu; Sun, Jian-hai; Li, Hui; Cui, Da-fu

    2014-09-01

    We present a new and facile method for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) casting by dip-coating the master molds in an aqueous solution of dopamine. A poly(dopamine) film formed by self-polymerization of dopamine is used as the surface anti-adhesion coating for PDMS de-molding. Different master molds, such as metal, silicon and PDMS replica, were used to verify the feasibility of this proposed PDMS casting method. The poly(dopamine) coatings at various fabrication conditions were studied by using surface plasmon resonance technology. We found that it is very easy to form repeated poly(dopamine) coatings with similar thicknesses and density at fairly flexible conditions of self-polymerization. The water contact angles of the PDMS master molds and the positive PDMS replicas were studied after the PDMS master molds were immersed in the dopamine coating solution for different times. The de-molding process was then measured by surface plasmon resonance technology. The surface morphology of the master molds and the PDMS replicas were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Results demonstrate that the poly(dopamine) coating exhibits a strong release property in the PDMS de-molding process and has good stickiness after PDMS de-molding a dozen times. The package performances of the PDMS replicas were detected and compared by bonding experiments. PDMS replicas after a second round of de-molding present a little higher package performance than that of the PDMS replicas with an anti-sticking agent of silane. The biochemical properties of PDMS replicas were studied through fluorescence immunoassay experiments. The PDMS replicas present similar biochemical properties to the bare PDMS. This biomimetic surface modification method of dopamine for PDMS casting has a great potential for preparing microdevices for various biological and clinical applications.

  6. Analysis of Anions in Ambient Aerosols by Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; MacDonald, David A.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Hering, Susanne V.; Collett, Jeffrey L.; Henry, Charles S.

    2006-10-01

    We describe a microchip capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of nitrate and sulfate in ambient aerosols. Investigating the chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles is essential for understanding their sources and effects. Significant progress has been made towards developing mass spectrometry-based instrumentation for rapid qualitative analysis of aerosols. Alternative methods for rapid quantification of selected high abundance compounds are needed to augment the capacity for widespread routine analysis. Such methods could provide much higher temporal and spatial resolution than can be achieved currently. Inorganic anions comprise a large percentage of particulate mass with nitrate and sulfate among the most abundant species. While ion chromatography has proven very useful for analyzing extracts of time-integrated ambient aerosol samples collected on filters and for semi-continuous, on-line particle composition measurements, there is a growing need for development of new compact, inexpensive approaches to routine on-line aerosol ion analysis for deployment in spatially dense, atmospheric measurement networks. Microchip capillary electrophoresis provides the necessary speed and portability to address this need. In this report, on-column contact conductivity detection is used with hydrodynamic injection to create a simple microchip instrument for analysis of nitrate and sulfate. On-column contact conductivity detection was achieved using a Pd decoupler placed upstream from the working electrodes. Microchips containing two Au or Pd working electrodes showed a good linear range (5-500 µM) and low limits-of-detection for sulfate and nitrate with Au providing the lowest detection limits (1 µM) for both ions. The completed microchip system was used to analyze ambient aerosol filter samples. Nitrate and sulfate concentrations measured by the microchip matched the concentrations measured by ion chromatography.

  7. A circular ferrofluid driven microchip for rapid polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Kwok, Y C; Nguyen, N T

    2007-08-01

    In the past few years, much attention has been paid to the development of miniaturized polymerase chain reaction (PCR) devices. After a continuous flow (CF) PCR chip was introduced, several CFPCR systems employing various pumping mechanisms were reported. However, the use of pumps increases cost and imposes a high requirement on microchip bonding integrity due to the application of high pressure. Other significant limitations of CFPCR devices include the large footprint of the microchip and the fixed cycle number which is dictated by the channel layout. In this paper, we present a novel circular close-loop ferrofluid driven microchip for rapid PCR. A small ferrofluid plug, containing sub-domain magnetic particles in a liquid carrier, is driven by an external magnet along the circular microchannel, which in turn propels the PCR mixture through three temperature zones. Amplification of a 500 bp lambda DNA fragment has been demonstrated on the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) PCR microchip fabricated by CO(2) laser ablation and bonded by a low pressure, high temperature technique. Successful PCR was achieved in less than 4 min. Effects of cycle number and cycle time on PCR products were investigated. Using a magnet as the actuator eliminates the need for expensive pumps and provides advantages of low cost, small power consumption, low requirement on bonding strength and flexible number of PCR cycles. Furthermore, the microchip has a much simpler design and smaller footprint compared to the rectangular serpentine CFPCR devices. To demonstrate its application in forensics, a 16-loci short tandem repeat (STR) sample was successfully amplified using the PCR microchip.

  8. Analysis of anions in ambient aerosols by microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; MacDonald, David A; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Hering, Susanne V; Collett, Jeffrey L; Henry, Charles S

    2006-11-01

    We describe a microchip capillary electrophoresis method for the analysis of nitrate and sulfate in ambient aerosols. Investigating the chemical composition of ambient aerosol particles is essential for understanding their sources and effects. Significant progress has been made towards developing mass spectrometry-based instrumentation for rapid qualitative analysis of aerosols. Alternative methods for rapid quantification of selected high abundance compounds are needed to augment the capacity for widespread routine analysis. Such methods could provide much higher temporal and spatial resolution than can be achieved currently. Inorganic anions comprise a large percentage of particulate mass, with nitrate and sulfate among the most abundant species. While ion chromatography has proven very useful for analyzing extracts of time-integrated ambient aerosol samples collected on filters and for semi-continuous, on-line particle composition measurements, there is a growing need for development of new compact, inexpensive approaches to routine on-line aerosol ion analysis for deployment in spatially dense, atmospheric measurement networks. Microchip capillary electrophoresis provides the necessary speed and portability to address this need. In this report, on-column contact conductivity detection is used with hydrodynamic injection to create a simple microchip instrument for analysis of nitrate and sulfate. On-column contact conductivity detection was achieved using a Pd decoupler placed upstream from the working electrodes. Microchips containing two Au or Pd working electrodes showed a good linear range (5-500 microM) and low limits-of-detection for sulfate and nitrate, with Au providing the lowest detection limits (1 microM) for both ions. The completed microchip system was used to analyze ambient aerosol filter samples. Nitrate and sulfate concentrations measured by the microchip matched the concentrations measured by ion chromatography.

  9. MicroChip Imager Module for Recognition of Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Alferov, Oleg

    2001-01-01

    The MicroChip Reader for Cereus Group takes the table of intensities of hybridization signals produced by the MicroChip Imager software and evokes a series of steps designed to recognize the pattern of intensities specific to a particular Cereus subgroup. Seven subgroups of the Cereus group can be identified by particular features of their RNA sequence. The Reader also provides statistics documenting how well its conclusion is confirmed by the hybridization signals. At the user’s request, the Reader can list every recognition step utilized so that the user can verify the recognition process manually if desired.

  10. Protein self-interaction chromatography on a microchip.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Kedar; Ahamed, Tangir; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Horst, Joop H Ter; Jansens, Peter J; Ottens, Marcel

    2009-02-21

    This paper presents the development of a novel miniaturized experimental procedure for the measurement of protein-protein interactions through Self-Interaction Chromatography (SIC) on a microchip, without the use of chromatographic resins. SIC was recently demonstrated to be a relatively easy method to obtain quantitative thermodynamic information about protein-protein interactions, like the osmotic second virial coefficient B(22), which relates to protein phase behavior including protein crystallization. This successful miniaturization to microchip level of a measurement device for protein self-interaction data is a first key step to a complete microfluidic screening platform for the rational design of protein crystallizations, using substantially less expensive protein and experimentation time.

  11. Measurement of electroosmotic flow in capillary and microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Fang; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Jian-Rong; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2007-11-02

    Microfluidics is the science and technology of systems that process or manipulate small amounts of fluids, using channels with dimensions of tens of micrometers. Electroosmotic flow (EOF) is an important characteristic of fluids in microchannels. In this paper, EOF generation, effects on separation and definition of EOF are introduced. And EOF measurement methods on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microchip CE are systematically reviewed based on detection principle, hallmarks of EOF measurement methods are presented, the devices and signals are also schematically described. This paper offers researchers a guidance to obtain an estimate of EOF mobility in capillary and microchip electrophoresis.

  12. Analysis of proteins and peptides by electromigration methods in microchips.

    PubMed

    Štěpánová, Sille; Kašička, Václav

    2017-01-01

    This review presents the developments and applications of microchip electromigration methods in the separation and analysis of peptides and proteins in the period 2011-mid-2016. The developments in sample preparation and preconcentration, microchannel material, and surface treatment are described. Separations by various microchip electromigration methods (zone electrophoresis in free and sieving media, affinity electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, isoelectric focusing, electrokinetic chromatography, and electrochromatography) are demonstrated. Advances in detection methods are reported and novel applications in the areas of proteomics and peptidomics, quality control of peptide and protein pharmaceuticals, analysis of proteins and peptides in biomatrices, and determination of physicochemical parameters are shown.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10496 - Amino alkoxy polydimethylsiloxane, hydroxy-terminated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amino alkoxy polydimethylsiloxane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10496 Amino alkoxy polydimethylsiloxane, hydroxy... substance identified generically as amino alkoxy polydimethylsiloxane, hydroxy-terminated (PMN P-06-9)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10496 - Amino alkoxy polydimethylsiloxane, hydroxy-terminated (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amino alkoxy polydimethylsiloxane... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10496 Amino alkoxy polydimethylsiloxane, hydroxy... substance identified generically as amino alkoxy polydimethylsiloxane, hydroxy-terminated (PMN P-06-9)...

  15. Kinetics of hybridization on surface oligonucleotide microchips: theory, experiment, and comparison with hybridization on gel-based microchips.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, N V; Chechetkin, V R; Pan'kov, S V; Somova, O G; Livshits, M A; Donnikov, M Y; Turygin, A Y; Barsky, V E; Zasedatelev, A S

    2006-08-01

    The optimal design of oligonucleotide microchips and efficient discrimination between perfect and mismatch duplexes strongly depend on the external transport of target DNA to the cells with immobilized probes as well as on respective association and dissociation rates at the duplex formation. In this paper we present the relevant theory for hybridization of DNA fragments with oligonucleotide probes immobilized in the cells on flat substrate. With minor modifications, our theory also is applicable to reaction-diffusion hybridization kinetics for the probes immobilized on the surface of microbeads immersed in hybridization solution. The main theoretical predictions are verified with control experiments. Besides that, we compared the characteristics of the surface and gel-based oligonucleotide microchips. The comparison was performed for the chips printed with the same pin robot, for the signals measured with the same devices and processed by the same technique, and for the same hybridization conditions. The sets of probe oligonucleotides and the concentrations of probes in respective solutions used for immobilization on each platform were identical as well. We found that, despite the slower hybridization kinetics, the fluorescence signals and mutation discrimination efficiency appeared to be higher for the gel-based microchips with respect to their surface counterparts even for the relatively short hybridization time about 0.5-1 hour. Both the divergence between signals for perfects and the difference in mutation discrimination efficiency for the counterpart platforms rapidly grow with incubation time. In particular, for hybridization during 3 h the signals for gel-based microchips surpassed their surface counterparts in 5-20 times, while the ratios of signals for perfect-mismatch pairs for gel microchips exceeded the corresponding ratios for surface microchips in 2-4 times. These effects may be attributed to the better immobilization efficiency and to the higher

  16. Simple surface engineering of polydimethylsiloxane with polydopamine for stabilized mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and multipotency

    PubMed Central

    Chuah, Yon Jin; Koh, Yi Ting; Lim, Kaiyang; Menon, Nishanth V.; Wu, Yingnan; Kang, Yuejun

    2015-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been extensively exploited to study stem cell physiology in the field of mechanobiology and microfluidic chips due to their transparency, low cost and ease of fabrication. However, its intrinsic high hydrophobicity renders a surface incompatible for prolonged cell adhesion and proliferation. Plasma-treated or protein-coated PDMS shows some improvement but these strategies are often short-lived with either cell aggregates formation or cell sheet dissociation. Recently, chemical functionalization of PDMS surfaces has proved to be able to stabilize long-term culture but the chemicals and procedures involved are not user- and eco-friendly. Herein, we aim to tailor greener and biocompatible PDMS surfaces by developing a one-step bio-inspired polydopamine coating strategy to stabilize long-term bone marrow stromal cell culture on PDMS substrates. Characterization of the polydopamine-coated PDMS surfaces has revealed changes in surface wettability and presence of hydroxyl and secondary amines as compared to uncoated surfaces. These changes in PDMS surface profile contribute to the stability in BMSCs adhesion, proliferation and multipotency. This simple methodology can significantly enhance the biocompatibility of PDMS-based microfluidic devices for long-term cell analysis or mechanobiological studies. PMID:26647719

  17. Chemical and physical modifications to poly(dimethylsiloxane) surfaces affect adhesion of Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Sun, Bing; Ziemer, Katherine S; Barabino, Gilda A; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2010-06-15

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) silicone elastomer is extensively used in soft lithography processes to fabricate microscale or nano scale systems for microfluidic or cell culture applications. Though PDMS is biocompatible, it is not an ideal material for cell culture due to its poor cell adhesion properties. In this study, PDMS surfaces were modified to promote intestinal cell adhesion, in the interest of testing feasibility of using microfabricated PDMS systems for high throughput drug screening. Modification techniques included changing chemical composition of PDMS (i.e., varying curing to mixing agent ratio, and oxidization of PDMS surface by oxygen plasma), surface treatment of PDMS by coating with charged molecules (i.e., poly-D-lysine, L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine, and a layer bylayer coating), and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (i.e., laminin, fibronectin, and collagen). The influence of these modifications on PDMS properties, including elastic modulus and surface properties (wettability, chemical composition, topography, and protein adsorption) were characterized. Modification techniques were all found to change PDMS properties and influence the attachment and proliferation of Caco-2 cells over three days of culture to varying degrees. Generally, Caco-2 cells preferred to attach on collagen-coated, fibronectin-coated, and fibronectin-coated oxygen-plasma treated PDMS. The results highlight the importance of considering multiple physical and chemical factors that may be influenced by biomaterial modification and result in altered cell attachment to microfabricated systems, including surface hydrophobicity, chemical composition, stiffness, and topography. This study provides a foundation for further miniaturization, utilizing soft lithography techniques, of Caco-2 cell-based system for high-throughput screening of drug intestinal absorption during lead optimization in drug discovery. The understanding of different surface modifications on

  18. Longevity of radiofrequency identification device microchips in citrus trees

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Long-term identification of individual plants in the field is an important part of many types of botanical and horticultural research. In a previous report, we described methods for using implanted radiofrequency (RFID) microchips to tag citrus trees for field research. This report provides an upd...

  19. Apparatus and method for performing electrodynamic focusing on a microchip

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, John Michael; Jacobson, Stephen C.

    1999-01-01

    A microchip device includes a focusing channel, in which an electric field strength established in the focusing channel is controlled relative to an electric field strength established in a material transport channel segment to spatially focus the material traversing the material transport channel segment.

  20. Apparatus and method for performing electrodynamic focusing on a microchip

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, J.M.; Jacobson, S.C.

    1999-01-12

    A microchip device includes a focusing channel, in which an electric field strength established in the focusing channel is controlled relative to an electric field strength established in a material transport channel segment to spatially focus the material traversing the material transport channel segment. 22 figs.

  1. Implantable microchip: the futuristic controlled drug delivery system.

    PubMed

    Sutradhar, Kumar Bishwajit; Sumi, Chandra Datta

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that controlled and pulsatile drug delivery system is an important challenge in medicine over the conventional drug delivery system in case of therapeutic efficacy. However, the conventional drug delivery systems often offer a limited by their inability to drug delivery which consists of systemic toxicity, narrow therapeutic window, complex dosing schedule for long term treatment etc. Therefore, there has been a search for the drug delivery system that exhibit broad enhancing activity for more drugs with less complication. More recently, some elegant study has noted that, a new type of micro-electrochemical system or MEMS-based drug delivery systems called microchip has been improved to overcome the problems related to conventional drug delivery. Moreover, micro-fabrication technology has enabled to develop the implantable controlled released microchip devices with improved drug administration and patient compliance. In this article, we have presented an overview of the investigations on the feasibility and application of microchip as an advanced drug delivery system. Commercial manufacturing materials and methods, related other research works and current advancement of the microchips for controlled drug delivery have also been summarized.

  2. A microchip laser with intracavity second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Derzhavin, S I; Mashkovskii, D A; Timoshkin, V N

    2008-12-31

    A short-pulse 'green' 532-nm Nd{sup 3+}:YVO{sub 4} and KTiOPO{sub 4} microchip laser with intracavity second-harmonic generation, which is pumped by a 809-nm semiconductor laser diode, is developed. (lasers. amplifiers)

  3. Integrated Micro-Chip Amino Acid Chirality Detector for MOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Bada, J. L.; Botta, O.; Kminek, G.; Grunthaner, F.; Mathies, R.

    2001-01-01

    Integration of a micro-chip capillary electrophoresis analyzer with a sublimation-based extraction technique, as used in the Mars Organic Detector (MOD), for the in-situ detection of amino acids and their enantiomers on solar system bodies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Fabrication of PMMA CE microchips by infrared-assisted polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Duan, Haotian; Zhang, Luyan; Chen, Gang

    2008-12-01

    In this report, a method based on the infrared-assisted polymerization of methyl methacrylate has been developed for the rapid fabrication of PMMA CE microchips. Methyl methacrylate containing AIBN was allowed to prepolymerize in a water bath to form a fast-curing molding solution that was subsequently sandwiched between a silicon template and a piece of 1 mm-thick PMMA plate. The images of microchannels on the silicon template were precisely replicated into the synthesized PMMA substrates during the infrared-assisted polymerization of the molding solution. The polymerization could be completed within 50 min at 50 degrees C. The obtained channel plate was subsequently bonded to a piece of PMMA cover sheet to form a microchip with the aid of heat and pressure. The new fabrication approach obviates the need for special equipment and significantly simplifies the process of fabricating PMMA microchips. The attractive performance of the obtained PMMA microchips has been demonstrated in connection with contactless conductivity detection for the separation and detection of ionic species.

  5. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-05-13

    A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals-87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of microchip data to facilitate the reclaiming of stray dogs and cats.

  6. Implantable micro-chip for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ho; Park, Min; Park, Chun Gwon; Kim, Byung-Hwi; Lee, Jieun; Choi, SungYoon; Nam, So-rae; Park, Sung-Hye; Choy, Young Bin

    2014-12-28

    We prepared an implantable micro-chip enabled for controlled delivery of diclofenac sodium (DS). The micro-chip was made of poly(methyl methacrylate), where a pair of micro-channels and micro-wells was embedded to serve as a drug diffusion barrier and a reservoir, respectively. For this purpose, the micro-channel and micro-well were filled with a water-soluble polymer, polyethylene glycol and a fine powder of DS, respectively. To modulate the drug release profile, we varied both the cross-sectional area and length of the micro-channels. Thus, the average rate and onset time of drug release could be varied from 0.32%/day to 3.68%/day and from day 0.5 to day 8, respectively, as the cross-sectional area to length ratio (i.e., A/L) of the micro-channels increased from 0.0026 mm to 0.0280 mm. To achieve both almost immediate onset and zero-order release of DS, we also prepared a micro-chip embedded with multiple pairs of the micro-wells and the micro-channels of different dimensions. In this work, a single micro-chip equipped with the micro-channels with A/Ls of 0.0280 mm, 0.0217 mm and 0.0108 mm exhibited almost zero-order drug release for 31 days (R2>0.996) after the release onset on day 0.5. When the resulting micro-chip was implanted in living rats, the drug concentration in the blood could be maintained at 148 ng/ml-225 ng/ml for the first 23 days while showing good biocompatibility.

  7. Surface engineering of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic devices using transition metal sol-gel chemistry.

    PubMed

    Roman, Gregory T; Culbertson, Christopher T

    2006-04-25

    We report the coating of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microchannels using transition metal sol-gel chemistry and the subsequent characterization of the coatings. The channels were created using soft polymer lithography, and three metal alkoxide sol-gel precursors were investigated, titanium isopropoxide, zirconium isopropoxide, and vanadium triisobutoxide oxide. The metal alkoxides were diffused into the sidewalls of a PDMS channel and subsequently hydrolyzed using water vapor. This procedure resulted in the formation of durable metal oxide surfaces of titania, zirconia, or vanadia. The resulting surfaces were characterized using contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and electroosmotic mobility (EOM) measurements. All of the metal oxide-modified PDMS surfaces were significantly more hydrophilic than native PDMS. Contact angles for the coatings were 90 degrees for PDMS-ZrO2, 61 degrees for PDMS-TiO2, and 19 degrees for PDMS-vanadia. XPS showed the presence of titania, zirconia, and vanadia on the PDMS surface. XPS spectra also showed no chemical modification of the PDMS after the in situ deposition of the particles either in the Si-O, Si-C, or C-H bonds of the PDMS. The particles deposited in situ were imaged with TEM and were found to be homogeneously distributed throughout the bulk of the PDMS. EOM measurements of the inorganic coatings were stable over a period of at least 95 days. Both cathodic and anodic EOMs could be generated depending upon buffer pH used. The points of net zero charge for PDMS-TiO2, PDMS-ZrO2, and PDMS-vanadia channels were calculated using EOM versus pH measurements and were found to be 4.1 +/- 0.25, 6.1 +/- 0.2, and 7.0 +/- 0.43, respectively. In addition to modifying PDMS channels with inorganic coatings, these inorganic coatings were derivatized with various organic functionalities including oligoethylene

  8. Stacking-cyclodextrin-microchip electrokinetic chromatographic determination of gabapentinoid drugs in pharmaceutical and biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Zeid, Abdallah M; Kaji, Noritada; Nasr, Jenny Jeehan M; Belal, Fathalla F; Baba, Yoshinobu; Walash, Mohamed I

    2017-06-23

    A facile, rapid, and highly sensitive microchip-based electrokinetic chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of two gabapentinoid drugs, gabapentin (GPN) and pregabalin (PGN). Both drugs were first reacted with 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-F) via nucleophilic substitution reactions to yield highly fluorescent products with λex/em 470/540nm. Analyses of both fluorescently labeled compounds were achieved within 200s in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchip with a 30mm separation channel. Optimum separation was achieved using a borate buffer (pH 9.0) solution containing methylcellulose and β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) as buffer additives. Methylcellulose acted as a dynamic coating to prevent adsorption of the studied compounds on the inner surfaces of the microchannels, while β-CD acted as a pseudo-stationary phase to improve the separation efficiency between the labeled drugs with high resolution (Rs>7). The fluorescence intensities of the labeled drugs were measured using a light emitting diode-induced fluorescence detector at 540nm after excitation at 470nm. The sensitivity of the method was enhanced 14- and 17-fold for PGN and GPN, respectively by field-amplified stacking relative to traditional pinched injection so that it could quantify 10ngmL(-1) for both analytes, with a detection limit lower than 3ngmL(-1). The developed method was efficiently applied to analyze PGN and GPN in their pharmaceutical dosage forms and in biological fluids. The extraction recoveries of the studied drugs from plasma and urine samples were more than 89% with%RSD values lower than 6.2. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High performance separation of quaternary amines using microchip non-aqueous electrophoresis coupled with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Roger Cardoso; Lopes, Marilia Sousa; Medeiros Junior, Iris; Coltro, Wendell K T

    2017-05-26

    This study describes the development of an analytical methodology for the separation of quaternary amines using non-aqueous microchip electrophoresis (NAME) coupled with capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (C(4)D). All experiments were performed using a commercial microchip electrophoresis system consisting of a C(4)D detector, a high-voltage sequencer and a microfluidic platform to assemble a glass microchip with integrated sensing electrodes. The detection parameters were optimized and the best response was reached applying a 700-kHz sinusoidal wave with 14Vpp excitation voltage. The running electrolyte composition was optimized aiming to achieve the best analytical performance. The mixture containing methanol and acetonitrile at the proportion of 90:10 (v:v) as well as sodium deoxycholate provided separations of ten quaternary amines with high efficiency and baseline resolution. The separation efficiencies ranged from 8.7×10(4) to 3.0×10(5) plates/m. The proposed methodology provided linear response in the concentration range between 50 and 1000μmol/L and limits of detection between 2 and 27μmol/L. The analytical feasibility of the proposed methodology was tested in the determination of quaternary amines in corrosion inhibitor samples often used for coating oil pipelines. Five quaternary amines (dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride, tetradecyltrimetylammonium bromide, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, tetraoctylammonium bromide and tetradodecylammonium bromide) were successfully detected at concentration levels from 0.07 to 6.45mol/L. The accuracy of the developed methodology was investigated and the achieved recovery values varied from 85 to 122%. Based on the reported data, NAME-C(4)D devices exhibited great potential to provide high performance separations of hydrophobic compounds. The developed methodology can be useful for the analysis of species that usually present strong adsorption on the channel inner walls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of haemostatic function in von Willebrand disease patients using a microchip-based flow chamber system.

    PubMed

    Ogiwara, K; Nogami, K; Hosokawa, K; Ohnishi, T; Matsumoto, T; Shima, M

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of von Willebrand disease (VWD) is difficult due to the wide spectrum of clinical phenotypes associated with this disorder. We have analysed and characterized haemostatic function in VWD patients using a microchip-based flow chamber system. Microchips coated with either collagen [platelet (PL)-chip] or collagen/thromboplastin [atherome (AR)-chip] were used to evaluate platelet thrombus formation at 1000 s(-1) and fibrin-rich platelet thrombus formation at 240 s(-1) respectively. Blood samples from an asymptomatic patient with VWD type 1 [von Willebrand factor (VWF): RCo 3.2%; bleeding score (BS 2] displayed normal thrombus formation in both PL- and AR-chips, whereas blood from a symptomatic type 1 patient (VWF: RCo 14%, BS 9) had significantly delayed capillary occlusion. Nearly complete suppression of the flow pressure increase was observed in symptomatic patients with VWD type 2A (BS 13) and 2N (BS 27), whereas no flow pressure was found for the type 3 patient (BS 6). Fibrin-rich platelet thrombus formation was only weakly increased by the in vitro addition of factor VIII (FVIII) to blood samples from the type 3 patient, but was normalized by the addition of VWF/FVIII. The in vivo effects of treatment with desmopressin or VWF/FVIII for the symptomatic patients were analysed using two types of microchips. The PL-chip was highly sensitive for patients' VWF-mediated platelet functions, whereas the AR-chip allowed assessment of overall haemostatic ability, including sensitivity to both VWF and FVIII. The combined analysis with PL- and AR-chips may be potentially useful for the diagnosis of VWD based on clinical phenotypes, and for monitoring drug effects.

  11. Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chip with integrated microheater and thermal sensor

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jinbo; Cao, Wenbin; Wen, Weijia; Chang, Donald Choy; Sheng, Ping

    2009-01-01

    A microheater and a thermal sensor were fabricated inside elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane microchannels by injecting silver paint (or other conductive materials) into the channels. With a high-precision control scheme, microheaters can be used for rapid heating, with precise temperature control and uniform thermal distribution. Using such a microheater and feedback system, a polymerase chain reaction experiment was carried out whereas the DNA was successfully amplified in 25 cycles, with 1 min per cycle. PMID:19693386

  12. Magnetic cobalt dispersions in poly(dimethylsiloxane) fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, J. P.; Rutnakornpituk, M.; Vadala, M.; Esker, A. R.; Charles, S. W.; Wells, S.; Dailey, J. P.; Riffle, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic cobalt nanoparticle dispersions in biocompatible poly(dimethylsiloxane) fluids were studied for treating retinal detachments. Dispersions were prepared in toluene with triblock poly(dimethylsiloxane-b-(3-cyanopropyl)methylsiloxane-b-dimethylsiloxane) stabilizers where anchor blocks adsorbed onto the particles and tail blocks provided steric stability. These copolymers formed micelles in toluene with aggregation dependent on block lengths, and dispersion formation also depended on block lengths. The stabilizers could also function as the carrier fluids.

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of ordering of polydimethylsiloxane under uniaxial extension

    SciTech Connect

    Lacevic, N M; Gee, R H

    2005-03-11

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a bulk melts of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are utilized to study chain conformation and ordering under constant uniaxial tension. We find that large extensions induce chain ordering in the direction of applied tension. We also find that voids are created via a cavitation mechanism. This study represents a validation of the current model for PDMS and benchmark for the future study of mechanical properties of PDMS melts enriched with fillers under tension.

  14. Non-polydimethylsiloxane devices for oxygen-free flow lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bong, Ki Wan; Xu, Jingjing; Kim, Jong-Ho; Chapin, Stephen C.; Strano, Michael S.; Gleason, Karen K.; Doyle, Patrick S.

    2012-05-01

    Flow lithography has become a powerful particle synthesis technique. Currently, flow lithography relies on the use of polydimethylsiloxane microchannels, because the process requires local inhibition of polymerization, near channel interfaces, via oxygen permeation. The dependence on polydimethylsiloxane devices greatly limits the range of precursor materials that can be processed in flow lithography. Here we present oxygen-free flow lithography via inert fluid-lubrication layers for the synthesis of new classes of complex microparticles. We use an initiated chemical vapour deposition nano-adhesive bonding technique to create non-polydimethylsiloxane-based devices. We successfully synthesize microparticles with a sub-second residence time and demonstrate on-the-fly alteration of particle height. This technique greatly expands the synthesis capabilities of flow lithography, enabling particle synthesis, using water-insoluble monomers, organic solvents, and hydrophobic functional entities such as quantum dots and single-walled carbon nanotubes. As one demonstrative application, we created near-infrared barcoded particles for real-time, label-free detection of target analytes.

  15. Non-polydimethylsiloxane devices for oxygen-free flow lithography.

    PubMed

    Bong, Ki Wan; Xu, Jingjing; Kim, Jong-Ho; Chapin, Stephen C; Strano, Michael S; Gleason, Karen K; Doyle, Patrick S

    2012-05-01

    Flow lithography has become a powerful particle synthesis technique. Currently, flow lithography relies on the use of polydimethylsiloxane microchannels, because the process requires local inhibition of polymerization, near channel interfaces, via oxygen permeation. The dependence on polydimethylsiloxane devices greatly limits the range of precursor materials that can be processed in flow lithography. Here we present oxygen-free flow lithography via inert fluid-lubrication layers for the synthesis of new classes of complex microparticles. We use an initiated chemical vapour deposition nano-adhesive bonding technique to create non-polydimethylsiloxane-based devices. We successfully synthesize microparticles with a sub-second residence time and demonstrate on-the-fly alteration of particle height. This technique greatly expands the synthesis capabilities of flow lithography, enabling particle synthesis, using water-insoluble monomers, organic solvents, and hydrophobic functional entities such as quantum dots and single-walled carbon nanotubes. As one demonstrative application, we created near-infrared barcoded particles for real-time, label-free detection of target analytes.

  16. Rapid fabrication of functionalised poly(dimethylsiloxane) microwells for cell aggregate formation.

    PubMed

    Forget, A; Burzava, A L S; Delalat, B; Vasilev, K; Harding, F J; Blencowe, A; Voelcker, N H

    2017-03-28

    Cell aggregates reproduce many features of the natural architecture of functional tissues, and have therefore become an important in vitro model of tissue function. In this study, we present an efficient and rapid method for the fabrication of site specific functionalised poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microwell arrays that promote the formation of insulin-producing beta cell (MIN6) aggregates. Microwells were prepared using an ice templating technique whereby aqueous droplets were frozen on a surface and PDMS was cast on top to form a replica. By employing an aqueous alkali hydroxide solution, we demonstrate exclusive etching and functionalisation of the microwell inner surface, thereby allowing the selective absorption of biological factors within the microwells. Additionally, by manipulating surface wettability of the substrate through plasma polymer coating, the shape and profile of the microwells could be tailored. Microwells coated with antifouling Pluronic 123, bovine serum albumin, collagen type IV or insulin growth factor 2 were employed to investigate the formation and stability of MIN6 aggregates in microwells of different shapes. MIN6 aggregates formed with this technique retained insulin expression. These results demonstrate the potential of this platform for the rapid screening of biological factors influencing the formation and response of insulin-producing cell aggregates without the need for expensive micromachining techniques.

  17. Amino-functionalized surface modification of polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber-supported polydimethylsiloxane membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Leiqing; Cheng, Jun; Li, Yannan; Liu, Jianzhong; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to improve surface polarity of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes and provide surface active sites which were easy to react with other chemicals. 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) containing an amino group was introduced into a PDMS membrane by crosslinking to prepare polyacrylonitrile hollow fiber-supported PDMS membranes with an amino-functionalized surface. Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analyses proved the existence of APTES and its amino group in the PDMS membrane. The concentration of N atoms on the PDMS membrane surface reached ∼6% when the mass ratio of APTES/PDMS oligomer in the PDMS coating solution was increased to 4/3. The water contact angle decreased from ∼114° to ∼87.5°, indicating the improved surface polarization of the PDMS membrane. The density and swelling degree of the PDMS membrane decreased and increased, respectively, with increasing APTES content in PDMS. This phenomenon increased CO2 permeability and decreased CO2/H2 selectivity, CO2/CH4 selectivity, and CO2/N2 selectivity. When the mass ratio of APTES/PDMS oligomer was increased from 0 to 4/3, the CO2 permeation rate of the hollow fiber-supported PDMS membranes initially decreased from ∼2370 GPU to ∼860 GPU and then increased to ∼2000 GPU due to the change in coating solution viscosity.

  18. A novel titanium dioxide-polydimethylsiloxane plate for phosphopeptide enrichment and mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Lai, Chien-Chen; Tseng, Mei-Chun; Liu, Yu-Ching; Liu, Yu-Huei; Chiou, Liang-Wei; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2014-02-17

    The phosphorylation of proteins is a major post-translational modification that is required for the regulation of many cellular processes and activities. Mass spectrometry signals of low-abundance phosphorylated peptides are commonly suppressed by the presence of abundant non-phosphorylated peptides. Therefore, one of the major challenges in the detection of low-abundance phosphopeptides is their enrichment from complex peptide mixtures. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been proven to be a highly efficient approach for phosphopeptide enrichment and is widely applied. In this study, a novel TiO2 plate was developed by coating TiO2 particles onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-coated MALDI plates, glass, or plastic substrates. The TiO2-PDMS plate (TP plate) could be used for on-target MALDI-TOF analysis, or as a purification plate on which phosphopeptides were eluted out and subjected to MALDI-TOF or nanoLC-MS/MS analysis. The detection limit of the TP plate was ∼10-folds lower than that of a TiO2-packed tip approach. The capacity of the ∼2.5 mm diameter TiO2 spots was estimated to be ∼10 μg of β-casein. Following TiO2 plate enrichment of SCC4 cell lysate digests and nanoLC-MS/MS analysis, ∼82% of the detected proteins were phosphorylated, illustrating the sensitivity and effectiveness of the TP plate for phosphoproteomic study.

  19. Development of functional biointerfaces by surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane with bioactive chlorogenic acid.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; He, Jia; Ren, Xiao; Cai, Wen-Sheng; Fang, Yong-Chun; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2014-04-01

    The effect of physicochemical surface properties and chemical structure on the attachment and viability of bacteria and mammalian cells has been extensively studied for the development of biologically relevant applications. In this study, we report a new approach that uses chlorogenic acid (CA) to modify the surface wettability, anti-bacterial activity and cell adhesion properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The chemical structure of the surface was obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the roughness was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the water contact angle was evaluated for PDMS substrates both before and after CA modification. Molecular modelling showed that the modification was predominately driven by van der Waals and electrostatic interactions. The exposed quinic-acid moiety improved the hydrophilicity of CA-modified PDMS substrates. The adhesion and viability of E. coli and HeLa cells were investigated using fluorescence and phase contrast microscopy. Few viable bacterial cells were found on CA-coated PDMS surfaces compared with unmodified PDMS surfaces. Moreover, HeLa cells exhibited enhanced adhesion and increased spreading on the modified PDMS surface. Thus, CA-coated PDMS surfaces reduced the ratio of viable bacterial cells and increased the adhesion of HeLa cells. These results contribute to the purposeful design of anti-bacterial surfaces for medical device use.

  20. Deep UV laser-induced fluorescence detection of unlabeled drugs and proteins in microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Philipp; Ludwig, Martin; Kohler, Frank; Belder, Detlev

    2005-03-01

    Deep UV fluorescence detection at 266-nm excitation wavelength has been realized for sensitive detection in microchip electrophoresis. For this purpose, an epifluorescence setup was developed enabling the coupling of a deep UV laser into a commercial fluorescence microscope. Deep UV laser excitation utilizing a frequency quadrupled pulsed laser operating at 266 nm shows an impressive performance for native fluorescence detection of various compounds in fused-silica microfluidic devices. Aromatic low molecular weight compounds such as serotonin, propranolol, a diol, and tryptophan could be detected at low-micromolar concentrations. Deep UV fluorescence detection was also successfully employed for the detection of unlabeled basic proteins. For this purpose, fused-silica chips dynamically coated with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose were employed to suppress analyte adsorption. Utilizing fused-silica chips permanently coated with poly(vinyl alcohol), it was also possible to separate and detect egg white chicken proteins. These data show that deep UV fluorescence detection significantly widens the application range of fluorescence detection in chip-based analysis techniques.

  1. Customized oligonucleotide microchips that convert multiple genetic information to simple patterns, are portable and reusable

    DOEpatents

    Mirzabekov, Andrei; Guschin, Dmitry Y.; Chik, Valentine; Drobyshev, Aleksei; Fotin, Alexander; Yershov, Gennadiy; Lysov, Yuri

    2002-01-01

    This invention relates to using customized oligonucleotide microchips as biosensors for the detection and identification of nucleic acids specific for different genes, organisms and/or individuals in the environment, in food and in biological samples. The microchips are designed to convert multiple bits of genetic information into simpler patterns of signals that are interpreted as a unit. Because of an improved method of hybridizing oligonucleotides from samples to microchips, microchips are reusable and transportable. For field study, portable laser or bar code scanners are suitable.

  2. Initial deposition of calcium phosphate ceramic on polyethylene and polydimethylsiloxane by rf magnetron sputtering deposition: the interface chemistry.

    PubMed

    Feddes, B; Wolke, J G C; Vredenberg, A M; Jansen, J A

    2004-02-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings are well known for their bioactive nature. CaP coated polymeric materials can be used as implant material. For this, a strong adhesion between the coating and substrate is necessary. Because the chemical structure of the interface plays an important role in the coating adhesion, we studied the interface between CaP and the polymers polyethylene (PE) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS/silicone rubber). Both untreated and plasma pretreated polymers were used. On PE, a low Ca/P ratio nearby the interface and a high amount of C-O bonds were found on both untreated and plasma pretreated PE. This is the result of phosphate-like groups that are able to bind to the carbon of the PE. PDMS reacts towards the plasma pretreatment by losing CH(3) side groups. Compared to PE, a low amount of C-O bonds is found nearby the interface. Besides, a low Ca/P ratio is found nearby the interface. This is the result of phosphate groups that connect to Si atoms of the PDMS, thereby replacing the CH(3) side groups. The bombardment by negatively charged oxygen ions that are accelerated from the target during the deposition process makes the chemical interaction between the coating and the substrates possible.

  3. Rapid determination of gizzerosine in fish meals using microchip capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meng-Wei; Bai, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Pei-Li; Zhao, Yan; Yang, Li; Liu, Yi-Ming; Liao, Xun

    2017-05-01

    Sensitive detection of gizzerosine, a causative agent for deadly gizzard erosion in chicken feeds, is very important to the poultry industry. In this work, a new method was developed based on microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection for rapid analysis of gizzerosine, a biogenic amine in fish meals. The MCE separation was performed on a glass microchip using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as dynamic coating modifier. Separation conditions, including running buffer pH and concentration, SDS concentration, and the separation voltage were investigated to achieve fast and sensitive quantification of gizzerosine. The assay proposed was very quick and could be completed within 65 s. A linear calibration curve was obtained in the range from 0.04 to 1.8 μg ml(-1) gizzerosine. The detection limit was 0.025 μg ml(-1) (0.025 mg kg(-1)), which was far more sensitive than those previously reported. Gizzerosine was well separated from other endogenous components in fish meal samples. Recovery of gizzerosine from this sample matrix (n = 3) was determined to be 97.2-102.8%. The results from analysing fish meal samples indicated that the present MCE-LIF method might hold the potential for rapid detection of gizzerosine in poultry feeds.

  4. Variability of microchip capillary electrophoresis with conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Tantra, Ratna; Robinson, Kenneth; Sikora, Aneta

    2014-02-01

    Microfluidic CE with conductivity detection platforms could have an impact on the future development of smaller, faster and portable devices. However, for the purpose of reliable identification and quantification, there is a need to understand the degree of irreproducibility associated with the analytical technique. In this study, a protocol was developed to remove baseline drift problems sometimes observed in such devices. The protocol, which consisted of pre-conditioning steps prior to analysis, was used to further assess measurement variability from 24 individual microchips fabricated from six separate batches of glass substrate. Results show acceptable RSD percentage for retention time measurements but large variability in their corresponding peak areas (with some microchips having variability of ∼50%). Sources of variability were not related to substrate batch but possibly to a number of factors such as applied voltage fluctuations or variations in microchannel quality, for example surface roughness that will subsequently affect microchannel dimensions.

  5. Microchip-based electrochemical detection for monitoring cellular systems

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alicia S.; Selimovic, Asmira; Martin, R. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The use of microchip devices to study cellular systems is a rapidly growing research area. There are numerous advantages of using on-chip integrated electrodes to monitor various cellular processes. The purpose of this review article is to give examples of advancements in microchip-based cellular analysis, specifically where electrochemistry is used for the detection scheme. These examples include on-chip detection of single cell quantal exocytosis, electrochemical analysis of intracellular contents, the ability to integrate cell culture/immobilization with electrochemistry, and the use of integrated electrodes to ensure cell confluency in longer term cell culture experiments. A perspective on future trends in this area is also given. PMID:23340999

  6. Microchip-based detection of magnetically labeled cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Muluneh, Melaku; Issadore, David

    2014-02-01

    Micro-magnetic sensing and actuation have emerged as powerful tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. These technologies can be miniaturized and integrated onto compact, microfluidic platforms, enabling molecular diagnostics to be performed in practical clinical settings. Molecular targets tagged with magnetic nanoparticles can be detected with high sensitivity directly in unprocessed clinical samples (e.g. blood, sputum) due to the inherently negligible magnetic susceptibility of biological material. As a result, magnetic microchip-based diagnostics have been applied with great success to the isolation and detection of rare cells and the measurement of sparse soluble proteins. In this paper, we review recent advances in microchip-based detection of magnetically labeled biomarkers and their translation to clinical applications in cancer.

  7. High-efficiency microchip laser with self-injection seeding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Wang, Yan-biao; Yang, Xian-heng; Feng, Guo-ying; Zhou, Shou-huan

    2015-12-10

    In this paper, we use a small bandwidth 808 nm cw Ti:sapphire laser as a pump source to pump a picosecond microchip laser. Different focal length pump focus lenses have been tested to improve laser efficiency. A maximum slope efficiency of around 20% is obtained by a 30 mm focal length lens. The pump threshold is only 13 mW. In order to reduce the timing jitter, we explored the self-injection seeding method by adding a seeding cavity to the microchip laser. A reduction factor in the timing jitter of up to a factor of 23 relative to the unseeded laser is obtained. From the experiments, we also found that higher seeding pulse energy will help to reduce the jitter more.

  8. Radially polarized cylindrical vector beams from a monolithic microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, Darryl; Fromager, Michael; Ait-Ameur, Kamel; Forbes, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Monolithic microchip lasers consist of a thin slice of laser crystal where the cavity mirrors are deposited directly onto the end faces. While this property makes such lasers very compact and robust, it prohibits the use of intracavity laser beam shaping techniques to produce complex light fields. We overcome this limitation and demonstrate the selection of complex light fields in the form of vector-vortex beams directly from a monolithic microchip laser. We employ pump reshaping and a thermal gradient across the crystal surface to control both the intensity and polarization profile of the output mode. In particular, we show laser oscillation on a superposition of Laguerre-Gaussian modes of zero radial and nonzero azimuthal index in both the scalar and vector regimes. Such complex light fields created directly from the source could find applications in fiber injection, materials processing and in simulating quantum processes.

  9. Diode edge-pumped passively Q-switched microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weipeng; Tsunekane, Masaki; Taira, Takunori

    2015-09-01

    There is an increasing demand for high-intensity subnanosecond lasers for emerging industrial applications. While femtosecond and picosecond laser sources are considered promising, they suffer from the significant drawbacks of increased complexity and cost. In this regard, we demonstrate a unique edge-pumped passively Q-switched Nd∶YAG/Cr4+∶YAG microchip laser. The microchip is made of a Nd∶YAG/Sm∶YAG composite ceramic, and a Sm∶YAG cladding is utilized as both the pump beam waveguide and amplified spontaneous emission absorber. With the use of a flat-concave laser cavity, we obtain single-pulse energy of 1.66 mJ for an absorbed pump energy of 24 mJ. Further, the resulting pulse width is 683 ps, and the repetition rate is 10 Hz.

  10. Microchip-based detection of magnetically labeled cancer biomarkers☆

    PubMed Central

    Muluneh, Melaku; Issadore, David

    2015-01-01

    Micro-magnetic sensing and actuation have emerged as powerful tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of cancer. These technologies can be miniaturized and integrated onto compact, microfluidic platforms, enabling molecular diagnostics to be performed in practical clinical settings. Molecular targets tagged with magnetic nanoparticles can be detected with high sensitivity directly in unprocessed clinical samples (e.g. blood, sputum) due to the inherently negligible magnetic susceptibility of biological material. As a result, magnetic microchip-based diagnostics have been applied with great success to the isolation and detection of rare cells and the measurement of sparse soluble proteins. In this paper, we review recent advances in microchip-based detection of magnetically labeled biomarkers and their translation to clinical applications in cancer. PMID:24099664

  11. On-column electrochemical detection for microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Osbourn, Damon M; Lunte, Craig E

    2003-06-01

    The development of a cellulose acetate decoupler for on-column electrochemical detection in microchip capillary electrophoresis is presented. The capillary based laser-etched decoupler is translated to the planar format to isolate the detector circuit from the separation circuit. The decoupler is constructed by aligning a series of 20 30-microm holes through the coverplate of the microchip with the separation channel and casting a thin film of cellulose acetate within the holes. The decoupler shows excellent isolation of the detection circuit for separation currents up to 60 microA, with noise levels at or below 1 pA at a carbon fiber electrode. Detection limits of 25 nM were achieved for dopamine. This decoupler design combines excellent mechanical stability, effective shunting of high separation currents, and ease of manufacture.

  12. 1.6 μm microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šulc, J.; Jelínková, H.; Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Lukasiewicz, T.

    2009-03-01

    Properties of new pulsed-diode-pumped Er:YVO4 and Er:YVO4+CaO microchip lasers working in an ``eye-safe'' spectral region were investigated. As a pumping source, a fiber coupled (core diameter-200 μm) laser diode emitting radiation at wavelength 976 nm was used. The laser diode was operating in pulsed regime with 3 ms pulse width, and 20 Hz repetition rate. The result obtained was 175 mW and 152 mW output peak power for the Er:YVO4 and Er:YVO4+CaO lasers, respectively. The maximal efficiency with respect to the absorbed power was ~ 5%. The laser emission for Er:YVO4 microchip was observed in detail in the range 1593 nm to 1604 nm with respect to pumping. However, for Er:YVO4+CaO crystal only 1604 nm was generated.

  13. Maskless Electron-Beam Lithography for Trusted Microchip Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    lithography has soared and continues to rise unabated. Multibeam has developed maskless electron-beam lithography ( EBL ) for producing advanced Rad-Hard...and other DoD microchips at lower cost. In addition to significant cost savings in mask and lithography equipment, Multibeam’s maskless EBL technology...maskless electron-beam lithography ( EBL ); e-beam direct write (EBDW); complementary e-beam lithography (CEBL); multiple patterning; cycle time

  14. Solid-state detector and optical system for microchip analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Mathies, Richard A.; Kamei, Toshihiro; Scherer, James R.; Street, Robert A.

    2005-03-15

    A miniaturized optical excitation and detector system is described for detecting fluorescently labeled analytes in electrophoretic microchips and microarrays. The system uses miniature integrated components, light collection, optical fluorescence filtering, and an amorphous a-Si:H detector for detection. The collection of light is accomplished with proximity gathering and/or a micro-lens system. Optical filtering is accomplished by integrated optical filters. Detection is accomplished utilizing a-Si:H detectors.

  15. Large linewidth-enhancement factor in a microchip laser

    SciTech Connect

    Szwaj, Christophe; Lacot, Eric; Hugon, Olivier

    2004-09-01

    We evidence experimentally that the linewidth-enhancement factor {alpha} can take a rather large value ({alpha}{approx_equal}1) for a nonsemiconductor laser, here a Nd{sup 3+}: YAG microchip laser. This measure is performed using an original and simple method adapted to this kind of laser and based on the variations of the laser relaxation frequency when the laser is subjected to an optical feedback.

  16. Continuous two-wave lasing in microchip Nd : YAG lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, Ivan V; Koryukin, Igor' V; Lebedeva, Yu S; Khandokhin, Pavel A

    2011-08-31

    Simultaneous two-wave lasing was obtained in microchip end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers at the wavelengths of 1061.5 and 1064.17 nm at room temperature. Laser wave intensities were studied as functions of crystal temperature and pump power. The ranges of parameters were determined in which the two-wave lasing occurs and the reasons for such lasing were established. A model is suggested, which adequately describes the experimental results obtained. (control of radiation parameters)

  17. Microchip-based human serum atherogenic lipoprotein profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Zhang, Wei; Wan, Jun; Liu, Weiwei; Yu, Bo; Jin, Qinghui; Guan, Ming

    2014-12-15

    Owing to the mounting evidence of serum lipid changes in atherosclerosis, there has been increasing interest in developing new methods for analyzing atherogenic lipoprotein profiles. The separation of lipoprotein and lipoprotein subclasses has been demonstrated using a microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) system [Chromatographia 74 (2011) 799-805]. In contrast to this previous study, the current report demonstrates that sdLDL peak efficiencies can be improved dramatically by adding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to the sample. Moreover, NBD C6-ceramide was identified as a satisfactory dye for specific labeling and quantitation of individual serum lipoproteins. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with ultracentrifuge separated small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL). A high correlation was observed between these two methods for sdLDL cholesterol. Lipid levels were investigated between atherosclerotic patients and healthy controls. The variation of serum atherogenic lipoprotein profiles for atherosclerotic patients pre- and post-treatment was assessed by microchip CE. This method has potential for the rapid and sensitive detection of different lipoprotein classes as well as their subclasses and, therefore, is suitable for routine clinical applications. Microchip-based atherogenic lipoprotein profile assays will greatly improve the analysis of risk factors in atherosclerosis and will provide useful information for monitoring the effect of therapies on atherosclerotic disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Precolumn reactions with electrophoretic analysis integrated on a microchip

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, S.C.; Hergenroeder, R.; Moore, A.W. Jr.; Ramsey, J.M. )

    1994-12-01

    A glass microchip was constructed to perform chemical reactions and capillary electrophoresis sequentially. The channel manifold on the glass substrate was fabricated using standard photolithographic, etching, and deposition techniques. The microchip has a reaction chamber with a 1 nL reaction volume and a separation column with a 15.4 mm separation length. Electrical control of the buffer, analyte, and reagent streams made possible the precise manipulation of the fluids within the channel manifold. The microchip was operated under a continuous reaction mode with gated injections to introduce the reaction product onto the separation column with high reproducibility (<1.8% rsd in peak area). The reaction and separation performances were evaluated by reacting amino acids with o-phthaldialdehyde to generate a fluorescent product which was detected by laser-induced fluorescence. Control of the reaction and separation conditions was sufficient to measure reaction kinetics and variation of detection limits with reaction time. Half-times of reaction of 5.1 and 6.2 s and detection limits of 0.55 and 0.83 fmol were measured for arginine and glycine, respectively. 18 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Food analysis on microchip electrophoresis: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Martín, Aida; Vilela, Diana; Escarpa, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    From 2008 to date, basically, single-cross microchip electrophoresis (ME) design has been used for food analysis with electrochemical and laser-induced fluorescence detection being the most common principles coupled. In the last 4 years, the main outlines were: (i) the exploration of new analytes such as heavy metals, nitrite, micotoxins, microorganisms, and allergens; (ii) the development of electrokinetic microfluidic (bio-) sensors into microchip format for the detection of toxins; and interestingly (iii) although sample preparation is still performed off-chip, an important increase in works dealing with complicated food samples has been clearly noticed. Although microchip technology based on electrokinetics is emerging from important fields such as authentication of foods, detection of frauds, toxics, and allergens; the marriage between micro- and nanotechnologies and total integration approaches has not reached the expected impact in the field but it is still a great promise for the development of ME of new generations for food analysis. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Microchip system for monitoring microbial physiological behaviour under drug influences.

    PubMed

    Arora, S; Lim, C S; Foo, J Y; Sakharkar, M K; Dixit, P; Liu, A Q; Miao, J M

    2009-08-01

    Single-step real-time high-throughput monitoring of drug influences on bacterial cell behaviour has become important with growing interests in personalized therapy and medication. Conventional microchip assemblies to perform similar work do exist. However, most of these devices have complex set-ups incorporating micromixers, separators, pumps, or valves. These microcomponents can sometimes damage the entities being monitored because of the creation of unfavourable biological environments. This paper presents a microchip-based system that enables single-step mixing of two solutions in various ratios, without the need for additional microcomponents such as mixers and pumps, in order to screen effectively their combinatory effects on cell outcomes. In this work, in-vitro experiments were carried out using ampicillin at various concentrations to investigate their effects on Escherichia coli (E. coli). Results showed that the microchip provided effective screening, which yielded useful results such as effective dosages, ineffective dosages, and other possible outcomes; for instance, in this case, the occurrence of adaptive mutation of the bacteria at certain drug concentrations. Comparative microbiological laboratory tests were carried out as standard for confirmation of the results.

  1. Nucleic Acid Isolation and Enrichment on a Microchip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinho; Hilton, John P; Yang, Kyung A; Pei, Renjun; Stojanovic, Milan; Lin, Qiao

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a microchip that isolates and enriches target-binding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) from a randomized DNA mixture using a combination of solid-phase extraction and electrophoresis. Strands of ssDNA in a randomized mixture are captured via specific binding onto target-functionalized microbeads in a microchamber. The strands are further separated from impurities and enriched on-chip via electrophoresis. The microchip consists of two microchambers that are connected by a channel filled with agarose gel. In the isolation chamber, beads functionalized with human immunoglobulin E (IgE) are retained by a weir structure. An integrated heater elevates the temperature in the chamber to elute desired ssDNA from the beads, and electrophoretic transport of the DNA through the gel to the second chamber is accomplished by applying an electric potential difference between the two chambers. Experimental results show that ssDNA expressing binding affinity to IgE was captured and enriched from a sample of ssDNA with random sequences, demonstrating the potential of the microchip to enhance the sensitivity of ssDNA detection methods in dilute and complex biological samples.

  2. Recent developments in optical detection methods for microchip separations.

    PubMed

    Götz, Sebastian; Karst, Uwe

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the features and performances of optical detection systems currently applied in order to monitor separations on microchip devices. Fluorescence detection, which delivers very high sensitivity and selectivity, is still the most widely applied method of detection. Instruments utilizing laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and lamp-based fluorescence along with recent applications of light-emitting diodes (LED) as excitation sources are also covered in this paper. Since chemiluminescence detection can be achieved using extremely simple devices which no longer require light sources and optical components for focusing and collimation, interesting approaches based on this technique are presented, too. Although UV/vis absorbance is a detection method that is commonly used in standard desktop electrophoresis and liquid chromatography instruments, it has not yet reached the same level of popularity for microchip applications. Current applications of UV/vis absorbance detection to microchip separations and innovative approaches that increase sensitivity are described. This article, which contains 85 references, focuses on developments and applications published within the last three years, points out exciting new approaches, and provides future perspectives on this field.

  3. Disposable polyester-toner electrophoresis microchips for DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Gabriela R M; Coltro, Wendell K T; Borba, Juliane C; Price, Carol W; Landers, James P; Carrilho, Emanuel

    2012-06-07

    Microchip electrophoresis has become a powerful tool for DNA separation, offering all of the advantages typically associated with miniaturized techniques: high speed, high resolution, ease of automation, and great versatility for both routine and research applications. Various substrate materials have been used to produce microchips for DNA separations, including conventional (glass, silicon, and quartz) and alternative (polymers) platforms. In this study, we perform DNA separation in a simple and low-cost polyester-toner (PeT)-based electrophoresis microchip. PeT devices were fabricated by a direct-printing process using a 600 dpi-resolution laser printer. DNA separations were performed on PeT chip with channels filled with polymer solutions (0.5% m/v hydroxyethylcellulose or hydroxypropylcellulose) at electric fields ranging from 100 to 300 V cm(-1). Separation of DNA fragments between 100 and 1000 bp, with good correlation of the size of DNA fragments and mobility, was achieved in this system. Although the mobility increased with increasing electric field, separations showed the same profile regardless of the electric field. The system provided good separation efficiency (215,000 plates per m for the 500 bp fragment) and the separation was completed in 4 min for 1000 bp fragment ladder. The cost of a given chip is approximately $0.15 and it takes less than 10 minutes to prepare a single device.

  4. [Development of microchips for the analysis of biomarkers in blood].

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Masatoshi; Abe, Kaori; Hashimoto, Yoshiko; Yamamura, Shohei; Yatsushiro, Shouki

    2012-11-01

    Several types of microchips have been developed for application in clinical diagnosis. A microchip made of cyclic olefin copolymer with straight microchannels (300 microm width and 100 microm depth) was employed for sandwich ELISA for the determination of serum type I C-peptide (PICP), a biomarker of osteoporosis. This assay enabled us to determine PICP with accuracy and high sensitivity, reducing the time for the immunoassay to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method. Furthermore, cell microarray chips with 20,944 microchambers (105 microm width and 50 microm depth), made of polystyrene, were employed for malaria diagnosis and the detection of carcinoma cells among the leukocytes. Around 100 erythrocytes or leukocytes were accommodated in each microchamber with the formation of a monolayer. For malaria diagnosis, it offered 10-100 times higher sensitivity in the detection of malaria infected erythrocytes than conventional light microscopy, and easy operation within 15 min. By double staining for epithelial cells on the cell microarray chip, one carcinoma cell could be detected among 1,800,000 leukocytes. These results indicate the potential of microchips for clinic diagnosis.

  5. Vibrational spectroscopic analysis of chlorosilanes and siloxane oligomers: implications for the spectra of polydimethylsiloxanes.

    PubMed

    Hard, Andrew P; Parker, Stewart F; Jayasooriya, Upali A

    2007-03-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering spectra of the polydimethylsiloxane polymer models, methyltrichlorosilane (MTCS), dimethyldichlorosilane (DMDCS), trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS), hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS), and octamethyltrisiloxane (OMTS), are reported and assigned by comparison with ab initio calculations. Also reported are the spectra of a series of polydimethylsiloxane samples with viscosities in the range 5-100 cSt, based on the model compounds and calculated spectra of a short polydimethylsiloxane, and the spectrum of polydimethylsiloxane is reassigned. Also reported are the infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of TMCS and OMTS.

  6. Surface Modification of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Using Ionic Complementary Peptides to Minimize Nonspecific Protein Adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaoling; Xiao, Junzhu; Dang, Fuquan

    2015-06-02

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) has become a widely used material for microfluidic and biological applications. However, PDMS has unacceptably high levels of nonspecific protein adsorption, which significantly lowers the performance of PDMS-based microfluidic chips. Most existing methods to reduce protein fouling of PDMS are to make the surface more hydrophilic by surface oxidization, polymer grafting, and physisorbed coatings. These methods suffer from the relatively short-term stability, the multistep complex treatment procedure, or the insufficient adsorption reduction. Herein, we developed a novel and facile modification method based on self-assembled peptides with well-tailored amino acid composition and sequence, which can also interact strongly with the PDMS surface in the same way as proteins, for suppressing the nonspecific protein fouling and improving the biocompatibility of PDMS-based microfluidic chips. We first demonstrated that an ionic complementary peptide, EAR16-II with a sequence of [(Ala-Glu-Ala-Glu-Ala-Arg-Ala-Arg)2], can readily self-assemble into an amphipathic film predominantly composed of tightly packed β-sheets on the native hydrophobic and plasma-oxidized hydrophilic PDMS surfaces upon low concentrations of carbohydrates. The self-assembled EAR16-II amphipathic film exposed its hydrophobic side to the solution and thus rendered the PDMS surface hydrophobic with water contact angles (WCAs) of around 110.0°. However, the self-assembled EAR16-II amphipathic film exhibited excellent protein-repelling and blood compatibility properties comparable to or better than those obtained with previously reported methods. A schematic model has been proposed to explain the interactions of EAR16-II with the PDMS surface and the antifouling capability of EAR16-II coatings at a molecular level. The current work will pave the way to the development of novel coating materials to address the nonspecific protein adsorption on PDMS, thereby broadening the

  7. Reduced-size microchips for identification of horses: response to implantation and readability during a six-month period.

    PubMed

    Wulf, M; Aurich, C; von Lewinski, M; Möstl, E; Aurich, J E

    2013-11-09

    In this study, readability of reduced-size microchips in horses and the response to implantation were analysed. It was hypothesised that small microchips can be implanted stress-free but are less readable than larger microchips. Adult mares (n=40) were implanted with a reduced-size microchip (10.9×1.6 mm) at the left side of the neck (size of conventional microchips 11.4×2.2 mm). Microchips were identified with three different scanners (A, B, C) immediately, and at 6, 12 and 28 weeks after implantation. Twelve out of the 40 mares were submitted to microchip implantation and control treatments and cortisol, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) were determined. From the chip-bearing side of the neck, microchips were identified with all scanners in all horses at all times. From the contralateral side, correct readings were always 100 per cent with scanner C and with scanners A and B ranged between 60 and 100 per cent. Heart rate and HRV variable sd of beat-to-beat interval increased slightly (P<0.01) at microchip implantation and control treatment, but cortisol concentration did not increase. In conclusion, reduced-size microchips are highly reliable for identification of horses. Compared with conventional microchips, the reduction in size did not impair readability. Microchip implantation is no pronounced stressor for horses.

  8. Microchip separations-based sensors for cellular analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manica, Drew Prentice

    The objective of this thesis has been to introduce and develop novel methods for microchip separations for bioanalytical applications. A novel detection scheme is introduced, involving simultaneous dual amperometric and fluorescence detection on a microchip. Dual detection is shown to increase selectivity and throughput, resolve co-migrating species that may be selectively detected, and provide a convenient means to normalize for the irreproducibility of migration times often encountered in CE applications. Such normalization is expected to facilitate the use of microchip CE to monitor biological samples, which are inclined to exacerbate the irreproducibility of migration times. The use of electrochemical detection presents a unique and fundamental challenge. An effective method for reproducibly regenerating a clean surface is demonstrated. The method is optimized and utilized to achieve high sensitivity even for highly adsorptive compounds, such as those released from mast cells. The development of an in-situ electrode-cleaning protocol is an essential step toward reliably monitoring cellular release on a microchip CEEC device. Two novel techniques are presented which are capable of producing disposable microanalytical systems on glass. Electrodes and channels produced with these methods exhibit performance characteristics that are comparable to examples in current literature. These techniques demonstrate the feasibility of manufacturing a disposable glass lab-on-a-chip, which may be used for cellular analysis or as a point-of-use sensor. Increased interest in analyzing biological samples has led to the development of a wide range of derivatizing agents for biological compounds such as amino acids and peptides. A common tag that is both fluorescent and electroactive is naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA). While there has been much discussion regarding the stability of a similar compound, o-phthalaldehyde, there has been no discussion regarding the stability of

  9. Softening in silver-nanowire-filled polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Indira; Esquenazi, Gibran L.; Borca-Tasciuc, Theo; Keblinski, Pawel; Ramanath, Ganpati

    2014-07-01

    We report that silver nanowire fillers can result in a three-fold decrease in viscoelastic storage modulus of polydimethylsiloxane composites above a low critical filler fraction of ˜0.5%, contrary to theoretical predictions presaging a modulus increase. Similar fractions of silver nanocube fillers result in no such observable effects. Rheology measurements and calorimetric kinetics analyses reveal that high surface area nanowire filler percolation curtails macromolecular mobility via pre-cure gelation, and hinders crosslinking. Our findings on the effect of metal filler aspect ratio on polymer stiffness at low loading fractions would be important for designing nanocomposites for applications.

  10. Polydimethylsiloxane for injection laryngoplasty: two cases necessitating tracheotomy.

    PubMed

    Ovari, Attila; Witt, Gabriele; Schuldt, Tobias; Hingst, Volker; Pau, Hans-Wilhelm; Jäckel, Martin; Dommerich, Steffen

    2014-04-01

    The surgical treatment of glottic insufficiency due to lesions of the recurrent laryngeal nerve has become a routine procedure in the last few decades. In particular, injection laryngoplasty with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has proved to be an easy, effective and safe method for vocal fold medialization. It is a biologically inert substance having almost ideal properties as a filler; complications related to its intralaryngeal use such as migration, or granuloma formation are extremely rare and allergic reactions have not been reported as yet. We discuss two cases representing the first description of acute severe complications after injection laryngoplasty with PDMS.

  11. Quasielastic gamma-ray scattering from polydimethylsiloxane in benzene solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Hammouda, B.; Schupp, G.; Maglic, S. Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO )

    1990-10-15

    Quasielastic gamma-ray scattering of 46.5-keV Moessbauer photons by polydimethylsiloxane has been studied at room temperature as a function of dilution in benzene. The high energy resolution of this novel technique allowed the separation of the scattering signal into a narrow component associated with stiff motions along the polymer chain backbone and a quasielastic component associated with softer side group motions. The narrow component disappears upon dilution in benzene while the intensity of the quasielastic component grows proportionately. This result is interpreted as a softening of the backbone normal modes upon dilution.

  12. Conformational Rearrangements in Interfacial Region of Polydimethylsiloxane Melt Films

    SciTech Connect

    Evmenenko,G.; Mo, H.; Kewalramani, S.; Dutta, P.

    2006-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray reflectivity (XRR) confirms the formation of a quasi-immobilized layer in thin films of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) melts near silica surfaces. This layer (40-60 Angstroms) has a lower density than the bulk value, and its thickness varies slightly with PDMS molecular weight. Formation of this layer is very rapid for PDMS melts with low molecular weights (below entanglement limit for these molecules) but takes 5-10 h for higher molecular weights (close to and above their entanglement value).

  13. Yb:KYW microchip laser with self-frequency Raman conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Grabtchikov, A S; Kuzmin, A N; Lisinetskii, V A; Orlovich, V A; Voitovich, A P; Demidovich, A A; Eichler, H J; Titov, A N

    2003-02-28

    Passively Q-switched and cw operation regimes of a diode-pumped Yb:KYW microchip laser have been investigated. The maximum slope efficiency for cw operation of 23% relative to incident pump power has been achieved. Self-frequency Raman conversion for microchip cavity configuration has been realised. (lasers)

  14. Microchip Module for Blood Sample Preparation and Nucleic Acid Amplification Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Po Ki; Kricka, Larry J.; Fortina, Paolo; Panaro, Nicholas J.; Sakazume, Taku; Wilding, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A computer numerical control-machined plexiglas-based microchip module was designed and constructed for the integration of blood sample preparation and nucleic acid amplification reactions. The microchip module is comprised of a custom-made heater-cooler for thermal cycling, a series of 254 μm × 254 μm microchannels for transporting human whole blood and reagents in and out of an 8–9 μL dual-purpose (cell isolation and PCR) glass-silicon microchip. White blood cells were first isolated from a small volume of human whole blood (<3 μL) in an integrated cell isolation–PCR microchip containing a series of 3.5-μm feature-sized “weir-type” filters, formed by an etched silicon dam spanning the flow chamber. A genomic target, a region in the human coagulation Factor V gene (226-bp), was subsequently directly amplified by microchip-based PCR on DNA released from white blood cells isolated on the filter section of the microchip mounted onto the microchip module. The microchip module provides a convenient means to simplify nucleic acid analyses by integrating two key steps in genetic testing procedures, cell isolation and PCR and promises to be adaptable for additional types of integrated assays. PMID:11230164

  15. Microchip module for blood sample preparation and nucleic acid amplification reactions.

    PubMed

    Yuen, P K; Kricka, L J; Fortina, P; Panaro, N J; Sakazume, T; Wilding, P

    2001-03-01

    A computer numerical control-machined plexiglas-based microchip module was designed and constructed for the integration of blood sample preparation and nucleic acid amplification reactions. The microchip module is comprised of a custom-made heater-cooler for thermal cycling, a series of 254 microm x 254 microm microchannels for transporting human whole blood and reagents in and out of an 8--9 microL dual-purpose (cell isolation and PCR) glass-silicon microchip. White blood cells were first isolated from a small volume of human whole blood (<3 microL) in an integrated cell isolation--PCR microchip containing a series of 3.5-microm feature-sized "weir-type" filters, formed by an etched silicon dam spanning the flow chamber. A genomic target, a region in the human coagulation Factor V gene (226-bp), was subsequently directly amplified by microchip-based PCR on DNA released from white blood cells isolated on the filter section of the microchip mounted onto the microchip module. The microchip module provides a convenient means to simplify nucleic acid analyses by integrating two key steps in genetic testing procedures, cell isolation and PCR and promises to be adaptable for additional types of integrated assays.

  16. Tube Radial Distribution Chromatography on a Microchip Incorporating Microchannels with a Three-to-One Channel Confluence Point.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Naomichi; Yamashita, Kenichi; Maeda, Hideaki; Hashimoto, Masahiko; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    We developed a capillary chromatography system using a phase-separated solvent mixture as a carrier solution--i.e., a water-hydrophilic/hydrophobic organic solvent mixture--which we call "tube radial distribution chromatography" (TRDC). Here, we attempted to apply the TRDC system to a microchip incorporating microchannels with a double T-junction for injection of analyte solution and a three-to-one, narrow-to-wide channel confluence point for tube radial distribution phenomenon (TRDP) at room temperature. A ternary mixed solvent of water, acetonitrile and ethyl acetate was used as a carrier solution. TRDP in the wide microchannel was examined using various flow rates, temperatures, and component solvent ratios. Successful observation was carried out using a fluorescence microscope-CCD camera. Model analytes perylene (hydrophobic) and Eosin Y (hydrophilic) were separated by flowing through the microchannel, without any treatment such as packed columns or coating, at room temperature (25°C).

  17. Chaotic dynamics and synchronization in microchip solid-state lasers with optoelectronic feedback.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Atsushi; Mizumura, Keisuke; Yoshimori, Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    We experimentally observe the dynamics of a two-mode Nd:YVO4 microchip solid-state laser with optoelectronic feedback. The total laser output is detected and fed back to the injection current of the laser diode for pumping. Chaotic oscillations are observed in the microchip laser with optoelectronic self-feedback. We also observe the dynamics of two microchip lasers coupled mutually with optoelectronic link. The output of one laser is detected by a photodiode and the electronic signal converted from the laser output is sent to the pumping of the other laser. Chaotic fluctuation of the laser output is observed when the relaxation oscillation frequency is close to each other between the two microchip lasers. Synchronization of periodic wave form is also obtained when the microchip lasers have a single-longitudinal mode.

  18. Comparison of Digital Rectal and Microchip Transponder Thermometry in Ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Branden M; Brunell, Marla K; Olsen, Cara H; Bentzel, David E

    2016-01-01

    Body temperature is a common physiologic parameter measured in both clinical and research settings, with rectal thermometry being implied as the ‘gold standard.’ However, rectal thermometry usually requires physical or chemical restraint, potentially causing falsely elevated readings due to animal stress. A less stressful method may eliminate this confounding variable. The current study compared 2 types of digital rectal thermometers—a calibrated digital thermometer and a common digital thermometer—with an implantable subcutaneous transponder microchip. Microchips were implanted subcutaneously between the shoulder blades of 16 ferrets (8 male, 8 female), and temperatures were measured twice from the microchip reader and once from each of the rectal thermometers. Results demonstrated the microchip temperature readings had very good to good correlation and agreement to those from both of the rectal thermometers. This study indicates that implantable temperature-sensing microchips are a reliable alternative to rectal thermometry for monitoring body temperature in ferrets. PMID:27177569

  19. Polydimethylsiloxane as dielectric and hydrophobic material in electro-wetting liquid lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Duan, Junping; Zhang, Binzhen; Wang, Wanjun

    2016-10-01

    An electro-wetting-based variable-focus liquid lens with a spin coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer is presented. The PDMS layer acts as both insulation and hydrophobic material of the liquid lens. By changing the applied voltage between the two electrodes, the radius of the water-oil contact curved surface is adjusted to realize the zoom function. In preparation process, at first, the liquid lens is divided into two parts, the PDMS substrate and the cavity, and then two parts of liquid lens are bonding together after surface treatment. After liquid injection and sealing cavity, the whole process was accomplished. The zooming performance of lens is tested, and COMSOL is used to analyze the shape of the water-oil contact curved surface at different voltages, the results shows that with the applied voltage changing from 0V to 120V, the height of meniscus vertex reduced from 2.41mm to 1.67mm, and the focal length changes from -14.3mm to infinity first, and then to 27.1mm.

  20. Temperature-Induced Switchable Adhesion using Nickel–Titanium–Polydimethylsiloxane Hybrid Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Frensemeier, Mareike; Kaiser, Jessica S; Frick, Carl P; Schneider, Andreas S; Arzt, Eduard; Fertig, Ray S; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-01-01

    A switchable dry adhesive based on a nickel–titanium (NiTi) shape-memory alloy with an adhesive silicone rubber surface has been developed. Although several studies investigate micropatterned, bioinspired adhesive surfaces, very few focus on reversible adhesion. The system here is based on the indentation-induced two-way shape-memory effect in NiTi alloys. NiTi is trained by mechanical deformation through indentation and grinding to elicit a temperature-induced switchable topography with protrusions at high temperature and a flat surface at low temperature. The trained surfaces are coated with either a smooth or a patterned adhesive polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, resulting in a temperature-induced switchable surface, used for dry adhesion. Adhesion tests show that the temperature-induced topographical change of the NiTi influences the adhesive performance of the hybrid system. For samples with a smooth PDMS layer the transition from flat to structured state reduces adhesion by 56%, and for samples with a micropatterned PDMS layer adhesion is switchable by nearly 100%. Both hybrid systems reveal strong reversibility related to the NiTi martensitic phase transformation, allowing repeated switching between an adhesive and a nonadhesive state. These effects have been discussed in terms of reversible changes in contact area and varying tilt angles of the pillars with respect to the substrate surface. PMID:26120295

  1. Development of an air-knife system for highly reproducible fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane microstencils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Ho; Kim, Gyu Man

    2015-08-01

    In this study, an air-knife system was developed for the automated fabrication of polymer microstencils with microscale perforated patterns. Blowing compressed N2 gas through the air knife provided a uniform laminar gas flow of high intensity suitable for perforating holes in the stencil. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stencil was replicated from a master mold prepared by photolithography. When the prepolymer of PDMS was spin-coated onto the master mold, a thin layer of the prepolymer remained on top of the master's structure and consequently prevented the formation of the perforated patterns. This residual layer was easily removed by the presented air knife. The air-knife system controlled the flow rate of N2 gas and the conveying speed of the master mold; therefore, the system possessed high reproducibility compared to manual gas blowing. Its use reduced the fabrication time for perforated biocompatible polymer microstencils, allowing for their mass production via an automated system. The validity of this suggested method was proven through experiments and was evaluated by application in various fields.

  2. Molecular weight evaluation of poly-dimethylsiloxane on solid surfaces using silver deposition/TOF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masae; Murase, Atsushi

    2004-06-01

    Molecular ions include information about end groups, functional groups and molecular weight. A method for directly detecting this in the high-mass region of the spectrum (>1000 amu) from poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on a solid surface was investigated. It was found that a TOF-SIMS analysis of silver-deposited surfaces (silver deposition/TOF-SIMS) is useful for this purpose. Two methods for silver deposition, the diode sputtering method and the vacuum evaporation coating method, were tried. The former required the sample to be cooled so as to prevent the damage of the sample surface due to thermal oxidation; the latter caused no damage to sample surfaces at room temperature. Using silver deposition/TOF-SIMS analysis, silver-cationized quasi-molecular ions were clearly detected from PDMS on solid surfaces and their images were observed without the interference of deposited silver. By applying to the analysis of paint defects, etc., it was confirmed that this technique is useful to analyze practical industrial materials. Silver-cationized ions were detected not only from PDMS, but also from other organic materials, such as some kinds of lubricant additives and fluorine oils on solid surfaces. Therefore, silver deposition/TOF-SIMS was proved to be useful for the analysis of thin substances on solid surfaces.

  3. Graphene-polydimethylsiloxane/chromium bilayer-based flexible, reversible, and large bendable photomechanical actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leeladhar; Raturi, Parul; Kumar, Ajeet; Singh, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of highly versatile photomechanical actuators based on graphene-polymer/metal bilayers that offers fast, low-cost fabrication, large deflection, reversible actuation under zero applied pre-strain, and wavelength-selective response. The photomechanical actuator consists of a graphene nanoplatelet (GNP)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposite with a thin chromium metal coating of 35 nm thickness on the backside of the structure. The photomechanical response of the GNP-PDMS/Cr photomechanical actuator was measured by recording the variation of the bending angle upon infrared (IR) light illumination. The bending in the bilayer actuator is caused by the generation of thermal stress due to the large mismatch (the ratio being 1/20) of the thermal expansion coefficient between the two layers as a result of IR absorption by GNPs and a subsequent increase in the local temperature. The maximum bending angle was found to be about 40 degrees with a corresponding large deflection value of about 6-7 mm within 6 s for IR illumination with an intensity of 550 mW cm-2. The corresponding actuation response and relaxation times were about 1 and 3 s, respectively. The GNP-PDMS/Cr bilayer combination when integrated with the standard surface micromachining technique of micro-electromechanical system fabrication can find useful applications in the realization of micro soft-robotics, controlled drug delivery, and light-driven micro switches i.e. micro-optomechanical systems.

  4. Fabrication of micron and submicron gratings by using plasma treatment on the curved polydimethylsiloxane surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jiangtao; Tang, Jun; Guo, Hao; Liu, Wenyao; Shen, Chong; Liu, Jun; Qin, Li

    2017-10-01

    Here, a simple and low-cost fabrication strategy to efficiently construct well-ordered micron and submicron gratings on polymeric substrates by oxygen plasma treatment is reported. The Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate is prepared on the polyethylene (PET) by spin-coating method, then the curved PDMS-PET substrates are processed in oxygen plasma. After appropriate surface treatment time in plasma the curved substrates are flattened, and well-ordered wrinkling shape gratings are obtained, due to the mechanical buckling instability. It is also demonstrated that changing the curvature radius of PDMS-PET substrates and the time of plasma treatment, the period of the wrinkling patterns and the amplitude of grating also change accordingly. It is found the period of the wrinkling patterns increased with the radius of curvature; while the amplitude decreased with that. It also shows good optical performance in transmittance diffraction testing experiments. Thus the well-ordered grating approach may further develop portable and economical applications and offer a valuable method to fabricate other optical micro strain gauges devices.

  5. Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) applied in the surface modification of hydroxyapatite to develop polydimethylsiloxane/hydroxyapatite composites.

    PubMed

    Bareiro, O; Santos, L A

    2014-03-01

    Nanometric hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles were modified with 5 or 10 wt.% tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) solutions in order to prepare polydimethylsiloxane/hydroxyapatite (PDMS/HAp) composites. The surface modification of the HAp particles was studied by transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM) and by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) equipment. The dispersion state of the modified particles in the PDMS matrix was also assessed by SEM. The composite phase composition was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The composite thermodynamic parameters of cross-linking were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TEM micrographs and EDS spectra indicated evidence of silica-coating formation on the surface of modified HAp particles. SEM results showed that the HAp particles formed agglomerates in the PDMS matrix. It was found that the introduction of HAp particles into the PDMS changed the enthalpy of cross-linking and the temperature of the beginning of the cross-linking reaction. EDS results indicated that the surface modification of HAp produced composites showing thermodynamic parameters that were more similar to those of unfilled PDMS.

  6. Highly Sensitive Flexible Pressure Sensor Based on Silver Nanowires-Embedded Polydimethylsiloxane Electrode with Microarray Structure.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Xingtian; Zhu, Pengli; Zeng, Wenjin; Hu, Yougen; Liang, Xianwen; Zhang, Yu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2017-08-09

    Flexible pressure sensors have attracted increasing research interest because of their potential applications for wearable sensing devices. Herein, a highly sensitive flexible pressure sensor is exhibited based on the elastomeric electrodes and a microarray architecture. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, coated with silver nanowires (AgNWs), is used as the top electrode, while polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as the dielectric layer. Several transfer processes are applied on seeking facile strategy for the preparation of the bottom electrode via embedding AgNWs into the PDMS film of microarray structure. The flexible pressure sensor integrates the top electrode, dielectric layer, and microarray electrode in a sandwich structure. It is demonstrated that such sensors possess the superiorities of high sensitivity (2.94 kPa(-1)), low detection limit (<3 Pa), short response time (<50 ms), excellent flexibility, and long-term cycle stability. This simple process for preparing such sensors can also be easily scaled up to construct pressure sensor arrays for detecting the intensity and distribution of the loaded pressure. In addition, this flexible pressure sensor exhibits good performance even in a noncontact way, such as detecting voice vibrations and air flow. Due to its superior performance, this designed flexible pressure sensor demonstrates promising potential in the application of electronic skins, as well as wearable healthcare monitors.

  7. Roll-printed organic thin-film transistor using patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp.

    PubMed

    Jo, Jeongdai; Yu, Jong-Su; Lee, Taik-Min; Kim, Dong-Soo; Kim, Kwang-Young

    2010-05-01

    The roll-printed gate, source, and drain electrodes of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) were fabricated by gravure printing or gravure-offset printing using patterned poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) stamp with various channel lengths and low-resistance silver (Ag) pastes on flexible 150 x 150 mm2 plastic substrates. Bottom-contact roll-printed OTFTs used polyvinylphenol (PVP) as polymeric dielectric and bis(triisopropyl-silylethynyl) pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) as organic semiconductor; they were formed by spin coating or ink-jetting. Depending on the choice of roll-printing method, the printed OTFTs obtained had a field-effect mobility of between 0.08 and 0.1 cm2/Vs, an on/off current ratio of between 10(4) and 10(5), and a subthreshold slope of between 1.96 and 2.32 V/decade. The roll-printing using patterned PDMS stamp and soluble processes made it possible to fabricate a printed OTFT with a channel length of between 12 to 74 microm on a plastic substrate; this was not previously possible using traditional printing techniques. The proposed fabrication process was 20 steps shorted than conventional fabrication techniques.

  8. Polydimethylsiloxane films doped with NdFeB powder: magnetic characterization and potential applications in biomedical engineering and microrobotics.

    PubMed

    Iacovacci, V; Lucarini, G; Innocenti, C; Comisso, N; Dario, P; Ricotti, L; Menciassi, A

    2015-12-01

    This work reports the fabrication, magnetic characterization and controlled navigation of film-shaped microrobots consisting of a polydimethylsiloxane-NdFeB powder composite material. The fabrication process relies on spin-coating deposition, powder orientation and permanent magnetization. Films with different powder concentrations (10 %, 30 %, 50 % and 70 % w/w) were fabricated and characterized in terms of magnetic properties and magnetic navigation performances (by exploiting an electromagnet-based platform). Standardized data are provided, thus enabling the exploitation of these composite materials in a wide range of applications, from MEMS/microrobot development to biomedical systems. Finally, the possibility to microfabricate free-standing polymeric structures and the biocompatibility of the proposed composite materials is demonstrated.

  9. A micro gas chromatography with separation capability enhanced by polydimethylsiloxane stationary phase functionalized by carbon nanotubes and graphene.

    PubMed

    Li, Yubo; Zhang, Runzhou; Wang, Tao; Wang, Youhao; Wang, Yonghuan; Li, Lingfeng; Zhao, Weijun; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, Jikui

    2016-07-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stationary phases functionalized with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene, respectively, for the columns in micro gas chromatography are presented in this paper. To exploit the merits of MWCNTs and graphene in terms of their high specific surface area, low surface energy and chemical inertness, experimental conditions for separation (heating rate and final temperature of temperature programming, flow rate of carrier gas and the volume of samples injection) are investigated, and separations of both polar and nonpolar compound mixtures under these conditions are performed. Compared with PDMS-only coated stationary phases, the functionalization of the phases with carbon nano-materials improves the performance of columns in separation, repeatability, stability and revolution significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A visual multiplex PCR microchip with easy sample loading.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian-Wei; Shao, Ning; Zhang, Yuchen; Zhu, Yuanshou; Yang, Litao; Tao, Sheng-Ce

    2017-06-20

    There is an urgent demand for affordable, rapid and easy-to-use technology to simultaneously detect many different DNA targets within one reaction. Conventional multiplex PCR is an effective methodology to simultaneously amplify different DNA targets. However, its multiplicity is limited due to the intrinsic interference and competition among primer pairs within one tube. Here, we present an easy multiplex PCR microchip system, which can simultaneously detect 54 targets. The design of the microchip is quite simple. There is a microchannel connected with multiple underlying parallel microwells. And every microchannel has an inlet/outlet for loading PCRmix. The surface of the microchannel is hydrophobic and the inner surface of the microwell is hydrophilic, which enables us to load and separate the PCRmix into different microwells simultaneously. Different primer pairs and low melting agarose are pre-fixed in different microwells, and the microchip is assembled with top glass. The PCRmix is loaded into inlets and then mineral oil is sequentially pipetted into channels to push the PCRmix into all microwells and subsequently mineral oil fills the channels to avoid cross contaminations. After the PCRmix is loaded, it would be placed on a plat thermal cycler for PCR. During PCR, the low melting gel in the well is liquid and after PCR it would be solidified due to temperature changes. When PCR is completed, a nucleic acid dye is introduced into channels and then results are visualized by a home-made, potable UV detector. In our platform we successfully detected seven frequently used targets of genetically modified (GM) organisms. The results demonstrate that our platform has high flexibility and specificity. Due to the excellent performance of this technology, we believe that it can be applied to multiple nucleic acid detection fields including GM organisms.

  11. Self-cleaning poly(dimethylsiloxane) film with functional micro/nano hierarchical structures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Sheng; Zhu, Fu-Yun; Han, Meng-Di; Sun, Xu-Ming; Peng, Xu-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Xia

    2013-08-27

    This paper reports a novel single-step wafer-level fabrication of superhydrophobic micro/nano dual-scale (MNDS) poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films. The MNDS PDMS films were replicated directly from an ultralow-surface-energy silicon substrate at high temperature without any surfactant coating, achieving high precision. An improved deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process with enhanced passivation steps was proposed to easily realize the ultralow-surface-energy MNDS silicon substrate and also utilized as a post-treatment process to strengthen the hydrophobicity of the MNDS PDMS film. The chemical modification of this enhanced passivation step to the surface energy has been studied by density functional theory, which is also the first investigation of C4F8 plasma treatment at molecular level by using first-principle calculations. From the results of a systematic study on the effect of key process parameters (i.e., baking temperature and time) on PDMS replication, insight into the interaction of hierarchical multiscale structures of polymeric materials during the micro/nano integrated fabrication process is experimentally obtained for the first time. Finite element simulation has been employed to illustrate this new phenomenon. Additionally, hierarchical PDMS pyramid arrays and V-shaped grooves have been developed and are intended for applications as functional structures for a light-absorption coating layer and directional transport of liquid droplets, respectively. This stable, self-cleaning PDMS film with functional micro/nano hierarchical structures, which is fabricated through a wafer-level single-step fabrication process using a reusable silicon mold, shows attractive potential for future applications in micro/nanodevices, especially in micro/nanofluidics.

  12. Observation of transverse patterns in an isotropic microchip laser

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.F.; Lan, Y.P.

    2003-04-01

    An isotropic microchip laser is used to study the characteristics of high-order wave functions in a two-dimensional (2D) quantum harmonic oscillator based on the identical functional forms. With a doughnut pump profile, the spontaneous transverse modes are found to, generally, be elliptic and hyperbolic transverse modes. Theoretical analyses reveal that the elliptic transverse modes are analogous to the coherent states of a 2D harmonic oscillator; the formation of hyperbolic transverse modes is a spontaneous mode locking between two identical Hermite-Gaussian modes.

  13. View northeast of a microchip based computer control system installed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast of a microchip based computer control system installed in the early 1980's to replace Lamokin Tower, at center of photograph; panels 1 and 2 at right of photograph are part of main supervisory board; panel 1 controlled Allen Lane sub-station #7; responsiblity for this portion of the system was transferred to southeast Pennsylvania transit authority (septa) in 1985; panel 2 at extreme right controls catenary switches in a coach storage yard adjacent to the station - Thirtieth Street Station, Power Director Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets in Amtrak Railroad Station, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. Carbon nanotube-based separation columns for microchip electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Mogensen, K B; Delacourt, B; Kutter, J P

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication of the stationary phase for microchip chromatography is most often done by packing of the individual separation channel after fabrication of the microfluidic chip, which is a very time-consuming and costly process (Kutter. J Chromatogr A 1221:72-82, 2012). Here, we describe in detail the fabrication and operation protocols for devices with microfabricated carbon nanotube stationary phases for reverse-phase chromatography. In this protocol, the lithographically defined stationary phase is fabricated in the channel before bonding of a lid, thereby circumventing the difficult packaging procedures used in more conventional protocols.

  15. Challenges of glycoprotein analysis by microchip capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Engel, Nicole; Weiss, Victor U; Wenz, Christian; Rüfer, Andreas; Kratzmeier, Martin; Glück, Susanne; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-08-01

    Glycosylations severely influence a protein's biological and physicochemical properties. Five exemplary proteins with varying glycan moieties were chosen to establish molecular weight (MW) determination (sizing), quantitation, and sensitivity of detection for microchip capillary gel electrophoresis (MCGE). Although sizing showed increasing deviations from literature values (SDS-PAGE or MALDI-MS) with a concomitant higher degree of analyte glycosylation, the reproducibility of MW determination and accuracy of quantitation with high sensitivity and reliability were demonstrated. Additionally, speed of analysis together with the low level of analyte consumption render MCGE attractive as an alternative to conventional SDS-PAGE.

  16. Development of an SDS-gel electrophoresis method on SU-8 microchips for protein separation with LIF detection: Application to the analysis of whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Del Mar Barrios-Romero, Maria; Crevillén, Agustín G; Diez-Masa, José Carlos

    2013-08-01

    This work describes the development of an SDS-gel electrophoresis method for the analysis of major whey proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and BSA) carried out in SU-8 microchips. The method uses a low-viscosity solution of dextran as a sieving polymer. A commercial coating agent (EOTrol LN) was added to the separation buffer to control the EOF of the chips. The potential of this coating agent to prevent protein adsorption on the walls of the SU-8 channels was also evaluated. Additionally, the fluorescence background of the SU-8 material was studied to improve the sensitivity of the method. By selecting an excitation wavelength of 532 nm at which the background fluorescence remains low and by replacing the mercury arc lamp by a laser in the detection system, an LOD in the nanomolar range was achieved for proteins derivatized with the fluorogenic reagent Chromeo P540. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of milk samples, demonstrating the potential of SU-8 microchips for the analysis of proteins in complex food samples.

  17. Physiological and behavioural responses of young horses to hot iron branding and microchip implantation.

    PubMed

    Erber, R; Wulf, M; Becker-Birck, M; Kaps, S; Aurich, J E; Möstl, E; Aurich, C

    2012-02-01

    Branding is the traditional and well-established method used to mark horses, but recently microchip transponders for implantation have become available. In this study, behaviour, physiological stress variables and skin temperature in foals were determined in response to hot-iron branding (n=7) and microchip implantation (n=7). Salivary cortisol concentrations increased in response to branding (1.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL) and microchip implantation (1.4 ± 0.1ng/mL), but cortisol release over time did not differ. In response to both manipulations there was a transient increase in heart rate (P<0.001) and heart rate variability (P<0.01). Branding and microchip implantation induced a comparable aversive behaviour (branding, score 3.86 ± 0.85; microchip, score 4.00 ± 0.82). Both techniques thus caused similar physiological and behavioural changes indicative of stress. Acutely, implantation of a microchip was as stressful as branding in foals. Branding caused a necrotising skin burn lasting at least 7 days. Moreover branding, but not microchip implantation (P<0.001), was accompanied by a generalized increase in skin temperature which was comparable to low degree post-burn hypermetabolism in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of radiation from a radiofrequency identification (RFID) microchip on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Henry C; Chan, Ho Wing; Singh, Narendra P

    2016-01-01

    Radiofrequency identification (RFID) microchips are used to remotely identify objects, e.g. an animal in which a chip is implanted. A passive RFID microchip absorbs energy from an external source and emits a radiofrequency identification signal which is then decoded by a detector. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the radiofrequency energy emitted by a RFID microchip on human cancer cells. Molt-4 leukemia, BT474 breast cancer, and HepG2 hepatic cancer cells were exposed in vitro to RFID microchip-emitted radiofrequency field for 1 h. Cells were counted before and after exposure. Effects of pretreatment with the spin-trap compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone or the iron-chelator deferoxamine were also investigated. Results We found that the energy effectively killed/retarded the growth of the three different types of cancer cells, and the effect was blocked by the spin-trap compound or the iron-chelator, whereas an inactive microchip and energy from the external source had no significant effect on the cells. Conclusions Data of the present study suggest that radiofrequency field from the microchip affects cancer cells via the Fenton Reaction. Implantation of RFID microchips in tumors may provide a new method for cancer treatment.

  19. DNA analysis using an integrated microchip for multiplex PCR amplification and electrophoresis for reference samples.

    PubMed

    Le Roux, Delphine; Root, Brian E; Reedy, Carmen R; Hickey, Jeffrey A; Scott, Orion N; Bienvenue, Joan M; Landers, James P; Chassagne, Luc; de Mazancourt, Philippe

    2014-08-19

    A system that automatically performs the PCR amplification and microchip electrophoretic (ME) separation for rapid forensic short tandem repeat (STR) forensic profiling in a single disposable plastic chip is demonstrated. The microchip subassays were optimized to deliver results comparable to conventional benchtop methods. The microchip process was accomplished in sub-90 min compared with >2.5 h for the conventional approach. An infrared laser with a noncontact temperature sensing system was optimized for a 45 min PCR compared with the conventional 90 min amplification time. The separation conditions were optimized using LPA-co-dihexylacrylamide block copolymers specifically designed for microchip separations to achieve accurate DNA size calling in an effective length of 7 cm in a plastic microchip. This effective separation length is less than half of other reports for integrated STR analysis and allows a compact, inexpensive microchip design. This separation quality was maintained when integrated with microchip PCR. Thirty samples were analyzed conventionally and then compared with data generated by the microfluidic chip system. The microfluidic system allele calling was 100% concordant with the conventional process. This study also investigated allelic ladder consistency over time. The PCR-ME genetic profiles were analyzed using binning palettes generated from two sets of allelic ladders run three and six months apart. Using these binning palettes, no allele calling errors were detected in the 30 samples demonstrating that a microfluidic platform can be highly consistent over long periods of time.

  20. A clinical trial for therapeutic drug monitoring using microchip-based fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Tachi, Tomoya; Hase, Tetsunari; Okamoto, Yukihiro; Kaji, Noritada; Arima, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Masashi; Tokeshi, Manabu; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Baba, Yoshinobu

    2011-10-01

    Microchip analysis is a promising method for therapeutic drug monitoring. This led us to evaluate a microchip-based fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) system for point-of-care testing on patients being treated with theophylline. The sera were collected from 20 patients being treated with theophylline. Fluorescence polarization was measured on the microchip and theophylline concentrations in serum were obtained. Regression analysis of the correlations was done between the results given by the microchip-based FPIA and the conventional cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA), and between the results given by the microchip-based FPIA and the conventional particle-enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay (PETINIA). We successfully carried out a quantitative analysis of theophylline in serum at values near its therapeutic range in 65 s. The results obtained by the microchip-based FPIA correlated well with CEDIA and PETINIA results; the correlation coefficients (R(2)) were 0.986 and 0.989, respectively. The FPIA system is a simple and rapid method for point-of-care testing of drugs in serum, and its accuracy is the same as the conventional CEDIA and PETINIA. It is essential to use real samples from patients and to confirm good correlations with conventional methods for a study on the realization of microchip. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  1. Self-transport and self-alignment of microchips using microscopic rain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bo; Shah, Ali; Zhou, Quan; Ras, Robin H A; Hjort, Klas

    2015-10-09

    Alignment of microchips with receptors is an important process step in the construction of integrated micro- and nanosystems for emerging technologies, and facilitating alignment by spontaneous self-assembly processes is highly desired. Previously, capillary self-alignment of microchips driven by surface tension effects on patterned surfaces has been reported, where it was essential for microchips to have sufficient overlap with receptor sites. Here we demonstrate for the first time capillary self-transport and self-alignment of microchips, where microchips are initially placed outside the corresponding receptor sites and can be self-transported by capillary force to the receptor sites followed by self-alignment. The surface consists of hydrophilic silicon receptor sites surrounded by superhydrophobic black silicon. Rain-induced microscopic droplets are used to form the meniscus for the self-transport and self-alignment. The boundary conditions for the self-transport have been explored by modeling and confirmed experimentally. The maximum permitted gap between a microchip and a receptor site is determined by the volume of the liquid and by the wetting contrast between receptor site and substrate. Microscopic rain applied on hydrophilic-superhydrophobic patterned surfaces greatly improves the capability, reliability and error-tolerance of the process, avoiding the need for accurate initial placement of microchips, and thereby greatly simplifying the alignment process.

  2. UV and circular dichroism thermal lens microscope for integrated chemical systems and HPLC on microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawatari, Kazuma; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2005-09-01

    Thermal lens microscope (TLM) is our original sensitive detector for non-fluorescent molecules in microspace. The principle is based on absorption of light followed by photothermal process. TLM has been successfully applied tosensitive detection on microchip, and TLM enabled various applications combined with microchip technologies. We are now developing HPLC microchips as one of the important separation techniques for analysis and synthesis. For HPLC microchip systems, direct and sensitive UV detection on microchip becomes key technology. Therefore, we extended applicability of TLM from visible to UV light absorbing samples by pulse UV laser excitation (UV-TLM). Quasi- continuous wave (QCW) method was applied for lock-in amplifier detection. By applying UV-TLM for biomolecules separation and detection, about two orders of higher sensitivity was achieved compared with UV spectrophotometer. For synthesis on microchip, recognition and detection of chiral samples become important in pharmaceutical field. Therefore, function of TLM was extended for selective detection of chiral samples by utilizing polarization modulation of excitation beam and resultant circular dichroism of sample (CD-TLM). The chirality of samples was detected selectively on microchip with two orders higher sensitivity than CD spectrophotometer. Finally, we explained the instrumentation using fiber optics and micro lens technology for achieving a miniaturized practical device.

  3. Nanoscale viscoelastic properties and adhesion of polydimethylsiloxane for tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Wright, K. E.; Birch, M. A.

    2014-02-01

    It has shown that altering crosslink density of biopolymers will regulate the morphology of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) and the subsequent MSCs differentiation. These observations have been found in a wide range of biopolymers. However, a recent work published in Nature Materials has revealed that MSCs morphology and differentiation was unaffected by crosslink density of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which remains elusive. To understand such unusual behaviour, we use nanoindentation tests and modelling to characterize viscoelastic properties and surface adhesion of PDMS with different base:crosslink ratio varied from 50:1 (50D) to 10:1 (10D). It has shown that lower crosslink density leads to lower elastic moduli. Despite lower nanoindentation elastic moduli, PDMS with lowest crosslink density has higher local surface adhesion which would affect cell-biomaterials interactions. This work suggests that surface adhesion is likely another important physical cue to regulate cell-biomaterials interactions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  4. Blood-contacting properties of polydimethylsiloxane polyurea-urethanes.

    PubMed

    Hergenrother, R W; Yu, X H; Cooper, S L

    1994-06-01

    A series of polyurethanes was synthesized from amino-terminated polydimethylsiloxane oligomers of two molecular weights. The oligomers had been extended with hexane diisocyanate to give internal urea linkages in the soft segment. These polymers have been shown to have higher tensile properties over similar polymers without the internal urea linkages due to the greater phase mixing and interfacial bonding between the hard and soft segment microdomains. The surface properties of these materials were evaluated by dynamic contact angle measurements and the blood compatibility by a canine ex vivo series shunt. The silicone-urea polyurethanes had favourable blood-contacting properties compared to a polyetherurethane. The polymers composed of the higher molecular weight silicone oligomers had the least platelet and fibrinogen deposition.

  5. Vectorial strain gauge method using single flexible orthogonal polydimethylsiloxane gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hao; Tang, Jun; Qian, Kun; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Binzhen; Chou, Xiujian; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-03-01

    A vectorial strain gauge method using a single sensing element is reported based on the double-sided polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Fraunhofer diffraction gratings structures. Using O2 plasma treatment steps, orthogonal wrinkled gratings were fabricated on both sides of a pre-strained PDMS film. Diffracted laser spots from this structure have been used to experimentally demonstrate, that any applied strain can be quantitatively characterized in both the x and y directions with an error of less than 0.6% and with a gauge factor of approximately 10. This simple and low cost technology which is completely different from the traditional vectorial strain gauge method, can be applied to surface vectorial strain measurement and multi-axis integrated mechanical sensors.

  6. Vectorial strain gauge method using single flexible orthogonal polydimethylsiloxane gratings.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hao; Tang, Jun; Qian, Kun; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Binzhen; Chou, Xiujian; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-03-23

    A vectorial strain gauge method using a single sensing element is reported based on the double-sided polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Fraunhofer diffraction gratings structures. Using O2 plasma treatment steps, orthogonal wrinkled gratings were fabricated on both sides of a pre-strained PDMS film. Diffracted laser spots from this structure have been used to experimentally demonstrate, that any applied strain can be quantitatively characterized in both the x and y directions with an error of less than 0.6% and with a gauge factor of approximately 10. This simple and low cost technology which is completely different from the traditional vectorial strain gauge method, can be applied to surface vectorial strain measurement and multi-axis integrated mechanical sensors.

  7. Elemental and molecular characterization of aged polydimethylsiloxane foams.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Brian M; Havrilla, George J; Schoonover, Jon R

    2006-10-01

    The application and integration of micro X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) imaging to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) foam aging issues have been applied to cross-sectional images. Previous work has shown the tin in the stannous 2-ethylhexanoate catalyst to be highly mobile and it typically migrates to the PDMS foam upper surface. The current paper discusses a method for the integration of full spectral MXRF and FT-IR imaging of aged foams. Solvent extractions have also been performed on both fresh and aged foams to further examine aged foam properties. Combining elemental and molecular imaging techniques and applying them to PDMS aging provides synergistic information that aids in understanding the sample composition and distribution of components. Application of chemometric analysis to the full spectral elemental and molecular maps demonstrates correlations within the foams of the residual tin, organo-tin functional group moieties, and the presence of nitroplasticizer from an exogenous source.

  8. Stretchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Liquid Metal-Filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongseob; Lee, Dongju; Eom, Seunghyun; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-04-11

    A stretchable metamaterial absorber is proposed in this study. The stretchability was achieved by liquid metal and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). To inject liquid metal, microfluidic channels were fabricated using PDMS powers and microfluidic-channel frames, which were built using a three-dimensional printer. A top conductive pattern and ground plane were designed after considering the easy injection of liquid metal. The proposed metamaterial absorber comprises three layers of PDMS substrate. The top layer is for the top conductive pattern, and the bottom layer is for the meandered ground plane. Flat PDMS layers were inserted between the top and bottom PDMS layers. The measured absorptivity of the fabricated absorber was 97.8% at 18.5 GHz, and the absorption frequency increased from 18.5 to 18.65 GHz as the absorber was stretched from its original length (5.2 cm) to 6.4 cm.

  9. Applications of polydimethylsiloxane in analytical chemistry: a review.

    PubMed

    Seethapathy, Suresh; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2012-10-31

    Silicones have innumerable applications in many areas of life. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which belongs to the class of silicones, has been extensively used in the field of analytical chemistry owing to its favourable physicochemical properties. The use of PDMS in analytical chemistry gained importance with its application as a stationary phase in gas chromatographic separations. Since then it has been used in many sample preparation techniques such as solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), thin-film extraction, permeation passive sampling, etc. Further, it is gaining importance in the manufacturing of lab-on-a-chip devices, which have revolutionized bio-analysis. Applications of devices containing PDMS and used in the field of analytical chemistry are reviewed in this paper.

  10. Mechanical characterization of magnetic nanowire-polydimethylsiloxane composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshoju, K.; Sun, L.

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional magnetic nanowires have been introduced into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form polymer based nanocomposites. In contrast to the conventional nanofillers such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, nanoparticles, and layer-structured materials, these well-defined anisotropic metallic nanowires are highly conductive and have much weaker van der Waals interactions. Moreover, composition modulation can be introduced along the wire axis to achieve multifunctionalities. Incorporation of magnetic segment(s) to the nanowire makes it possible to use external magnetic field to manipulate the distribution and alignment of nanowires when they are suspended in liquids. To characterize the mechanical responses of the nanowire-elastomer composite, an approach using microscale rulers has been developed to improve the resolution of strain measurement. Mechanical strengthening effects in PDMS composites with randomly and aligned nickel nanowires have been investigated.

  11. Microstructural organization of polydimethylsiloxane based polyurethane block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Rebeca; Weksler, Jadwiga; Padsalgikar, Ajay; Runt, James

    2007-03-01

    Microphase separation was investigated for polyurethane block copolymers synthesized from MDI and 1,4 butanediol as the hard segments, and poly(hexamethyleneoxide) (MW ˜ 700) and bis(6-hydroxyethoxypropyl) poly(dimethylsiloxane) as soft segments (MW ˜ 1000). The neat PDMS-based diol presents two segmental relaxations corresponding to the principle siloxane repeat unit and to the hydroxyethoxypropyl end group segments, respectively. When incorporated in the polyurethane, the siloxane units form a phase without intermixing with hard segments and the polyether end group segments are mixed with the second macrodiol and some short hard segment sequences. The microdomain morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering, and the scattering data were analyzed using an approach based on a modified core-shell model. The model includes core hard segment particles (MDI-BDO), surrounded by a mixed polyether shell (PHMO and hydroxyethoxypropyl end group segments), and a matrix composed of the siloxane units.

  12. Topographies of plasma-hardened surfaces of poly(dimethylsiloxane)

    SciTech Connect

    Goerrn, Patrick; Wagner, Sigurd

    2010-11-15

    We studied the formation of surface layers hardened by plasma-enhanced oxidation of the silicone elastomer poly(dimethylsiloxane). We explored the largest parameter space surveyed to date. The surface layers may wrinkle, crack, or both, under conditions that at times are controlled by design, but more often have been discovered by trial-and-error. We find four distinct topographies: flat/wrinkled/cracked/cracked and wrinkled. Each topography is clearly separated in the space of plasma dose versus plasma pressure. We analyzed wrinkle amplitude and wavelength by atomic force microscopy in the tapping mode. From these dimensions we calculated the elastic modulus and thickness of the hard surface layer, and inferred a graded hardness, by employing a modified theoretical model. Our main result is the identification of the parameters under which the technologically important pure wrinkled, crack-free topography is obtained.

  13. Rubber elasticity. June 15, 1981-June 14, 1981. [Polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, B.E.

    1981-01-01

    Progress on the following three projects are described: swelling of elastomers by diluents; theoretical analysis of the dynamics and thermodynamics of random networks; and synthesis of elastomers with metal-chelate crosslinkages. Five elastomer-solvent systems were investigated. In all cases polydimethylsiloxane was used with either cyclohexane or benzene or both. The comparison established the general validity of Flory's new constrained junction theory. However a slight revision of the theory was required. Theoretical work on amorphorus systems centered on evaluation of the density states for models (constructed by others) of amorphorus silicon, As/sub 2/O/sub 3/, etc. The utility of these models are being assessed. A batch of styrene-isoprene elastomer was prepared and is undergoing stress-strain measurements.

  14. Stretchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Liquid Metal-Filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyeongseob; Lee, Dongju; Eom, Seunghyun; Lim, Sungjoon

    2016-01-01

    A stretchable metamaterial absorber is proposed in this study. The stretchability was achieved by liquid metal and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). To inject liquid metal, microfluidic channels were fabricated using PDMS powers and microfluidic-channel frames, which were built using a three-dimensional printer. A top conductive pattern and ground plane were designed after considering the easy injection of liquid metal. The proposed metamaterial absorber comprises three layers of PDMS substrate. The top layer is for the top conductive pattern, and the bottom layer is for the meandered ground plane. Flat PDMS layers were inserted between the top and bottom PDMS layers. The measured absorptivity of the fabricated absorber was 97.8% at 18.5 GHz, and the absorption frequency increased from 18.5 to 18.65 GHz as the absorber was stretched from its original length (5.2 cm) to 6.4 cm. PMID:27077861

  15. Design and fabrication of Poly(dimethylsiloxane) arrayed waveguide grating.

    PubMed

    Kee, Jack Sheng; Poenar, Daniel Puiu; Neužil, Pavel; Yobaş, Levent; Chen, Yu

    2010-10-11

    We have designed, fabricated and characterized poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with four-channel output for operation in the visible light wavelength range. The PDMS AWG was realized based on the single-mode PDMS rib waveguide. The device was designed for 1 nm channel spacing with the wavelength ranging from 639 to 644 nm. The measured insertion loss is 11.4 dB at the peak transmission spectrum and the adjacent crosstalk is less than -16 dB. The AWG device occupies an area of 7.5 × 15 mm(2). PDMS AWG has the potential for integration with microfluidics in a monolithic PDMS lab-on-a-chip device for visible light spectroscopy applications.

  16. Fs-laser processing of medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanasov, P. A.; Stankova, N. E.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Fukata, N.; Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B.; Amoruso, S.; Wang, X.; Kolev, K. N.; Valova, E. I.; Georgieva, J. S.; Armyanov, St. A.

    2016-06-01

    Medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is a biomaterial widely used in medicine and high-tech devices, e.g. MEMS and NEMS. In this work, we report an experimental investigation on femtosecond laser processing of PDMS-elastomer with near infrared (NIR), visible (VIS) and ultraviolet (UV) pulses. High definition trenches are produced by varying processing parameters as laser wavelength, pulse duration, fluence, scanning speed and overlap of the subsequent pulses. The sample surface morphology and chemical composition are investigated by Laser Microscopy, SEM and Raman spectroscopy, addressing the effects of the various processing parameters through comparison with the native materials characteristics. For all the laser pulse wavelengths used, the produced tracks are successfully metalized with Ni via electro-less plating method. We observe a negligible influence of the time interval elapsed between laser treatment and metallization process. Our experimental findings suggest promising perspectives of femtosecond laser pulses in micro- and nano-fabrication of hi-tech PDMS devices.

  17. Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane).

    PubMed

    McDonald, J C; Duffy, D C; Anderson, J R; Chiu, D T; Wu, H; Schueller, O J; Whitesides, G M

    2000-01-01

    Microfluidic devices are finding increasing application as analytical systems, biomedical devices, tools for chemistry and biochemistry, and systems for fundamental research. Conventional methods of fabricating microfluidic devices have centered on etching in glass and silicon. Fabrication of microfluidic devices in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) by soft lithography provides faster, less expensive routes than these conventional methods to devices that handle aqueous solutions. These soft-lithographic methods are based on rapid prototyping and replica molding and are more accessible to chemists and biologists working under benchtop conditions than are the microelectronics-derived methods because, in soft lithography, devices do not need to be fabricated in a cleanroom. This paper describes devices fabricated in PDMS for separations, patterning of biological and nonbiological material, and components for integrated systems.

  18. Enhanced sensitivity of piezoelectric pressure sensor with microstructured polydimethylsiloxane layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Wook; Lee, Junwoo; Kyoung Yoo, Yong; Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Jinseok; Hoon Lee, Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Highly sensitive detection tools that measure pressure and force are essential in palpation as well as real-time pressure monitoring in biomedical applications. So far, measurement has mainly been done by force sensing resistors and field effect transistor (FET) sensors for monitoring biological pressure and force sensing. We report a pressure sensor by the combination of a piezoelectric sensor layer integrated with a microstructured Polydimethylsiloxane (μ-PDMS) layer. We propose an enhanced sensing tool to be used for analyzing gentle touches without the external voltage source that is used in FET sensors, by incorporating a microstructured PDMS layer in a piezoelectric sensor. By measuring the directly induced electrical charge from the microstructure-enhanced piezoelectric signal, we observed a 3-fold increased sensitivity in a signal response. Both fast signal relaxation from force removal and wide dynamic range from 0.23 to 10 kPa illustrate the good feasibility of the thin film piezoelectric sensor for mimicking human skin.

  19. Enhanced triboelectrification of the polydimethylsiloxane surface by ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jong Hun; Park, Jeong Young E-mail: jeongypark@kaist.ac.kr; Yun, Byung Kil; Jung, Jong Hoon E-mail: jeongypark@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-03-28

    Study of the triboelectric charging effect has recently gained much attraction by proposing a new potential technical application in the field of energy harvesting. Transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has some advantages in employing the triboelectric effect due to good conformity at nanometer scale and the simple fabrication process. In this study, we demonstrate that UV irradiation can enhance the performance of a PDMS-based nanotribogenerator. Contact atomic force microscopy combined with Kelvin probe force microscopy enables an in-depth investigation of the effect of UV illumination on local triboelectric charge generation and its decay in PDMS. We found that UV exposure not only facilitates triboelectric charge generation but also enhances charge redistribution, which is related to the wettability of the PDMS surface. This study provides insights into the fundamental understanding and design of triboelectric generator devices.

  20. Polydimethylsiloxane-integratable micropressure sensor for microfluidic chips

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limu; Zhang, Mengying; Yang, Min; Zhu, Weiming; Wu, Jinbo; Gong, Xiuqing; Wen, Weijia

    2009-01-01

    A novel microfluidic pressure sensor which can be fully integrated into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is reported. The sensor produces electrical signals directly. We integrated PDMS-based conductive composites into a 30 μm thick membrane and bonded it to the microchannel side wall. The response time of the sensor is approximately 100 ms and can work within a pressure range as wide as 0–100 kPa. The resolution of this micropressure sensor is generally 0.1 kPa but can be increased to 0.01 kPa at high pressures as a result of the quadratic relationship between resistance and pressure. The PDMS-based nature of the sensor ensures its perfect bonding with PDMS chips, and the standard photolithographic process of the sensor allows one-time fabrication of three dimensional structures or even microsensor arrays. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with experimental observations. PMID:20216961

  1. Vectorial strain gauge method using single flexible orthogonal polydimethylsiloxane gratings

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hao; Tang, Jun; Qian, Kun; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Jiangtao; Zhang, Binzhen; Chou, Xiujian; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Wendong

    2016-01-01

    A vectorial strain gauge method using a single sensing element is reported based on the double-sided polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Fraunhofer diffraction gratings structures. Using O2 plasma treatment steps, orthogonal wrinkled gratings were fabricated on both sides of a pre-strained PDMS film. Diffracted laser spots from this structure have been used to experimentally demonstrate, that any applied strain can be quantitatively characterized in both the x and y directions with an error of less than 0.6% and with a gauge factor of approximately 10. This simple and low cost technology which is completely different from the traditional vectorial strain gauge method, can be applied to surface vectorial strain measurement and multi-axis integrated mechanical sensors. PMID:27005493

  2. Polydimethylsiloxane thin film characterization using all-optical photoacoustic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaotian; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Xingwei

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a nondestructive ultrasound testing method for characterization of the resonant frequencies of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) thin film by using a miniature fiber optic photoacoustic (PA) probe. The PA probe was fabricated with an optical fiber and a synthesized gold nanocomposite. During the experiment, a cured PDMS thin film with a thickness of 220 μm was immersed into a water medium using a custom-designed holder to clamp the film. An acoustic pulse was generated by the PA probe and propagated through the water media to excite the fixed film. A fiber optic pressure sensor based on the Fabry-Perot principle was used to collect the excited acoustic signals on the other side of the film. The acquired response of the acoustic pulse was used to compute the resonant frequencies of the PDMS thin film based on a deconvolution method.

  3. Morphologies of strongly-segregated polystyrene - polydimethylsiloxane diblock copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, P.; Adams, J.L., Register, R.A.

    1995-12-31

    Five polystyrene-polydimethylsiloxane (PS/PDMS) diblocks were synthesized by sequential anionic polymerization, and their morphologies characterized by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All materials are microphase-separated in toluene-cast films, and estimates of the interaction parameter {chi} indicate that these materials are all strongly segregated. The strength of segregation is confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, which indicates that the glass transition temperature of the PDMS phase is independent of molecular weight and composition, and essentially identical to that of PDMS homopolymer. The experimentally-determined phase diagram is strongly skewed towards low styrene volume fractions, even more than the styrene-isoprene (SI) diblock phase diagram, even though little conformational asymmetry should exist in the PS/PDMS system. The PS/PDMS diblocks form substantially larger microdomain structures than analogous SI diblocks reflecting the stronger segregation strength.

  4. Bridged polysilsesquioxane-polydimethylsiloxane nanocomposites: A reactivity study

    SciTech Connect

    Ulibarri, T.A.; Loy, D.A.; Bates, S.E.; Black, E.P.; Jamison, G.M.

    1996-10-01

    It has been demonstrated that increased strength and extensibility can be obtained in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) systems through the use of bimodal polymer distributions. In order to further probe short chain and linkage effects in bimodal polymer networks, we are interested in a new class of nanocomposites based on hydroxy-terminated PDMS as the long chain segments and alkylene- or arylene-bridged silsesquioxanes as the short chain segments. We have investigated tin-catalyzed coupling of the terminal hydroxy groups of the PDMS segments with bis(triethoxysilyl)arylene and alkylene monomers. The compatibility of the different silsesquioxane monomers with PDMS, and their activity with the tin-based catalyst, has been explored. A number of different hydrocarbon bridged silsesquioxane monomers have been used to determine the effect that the short segment flexibility and length, and the degree of crosslinking have on the final material properties. Findings from this study will be reported.

  5. Dynamics in polydimethylsiloxane. The effect of solute polarity

    SciTech Connect

    Diachun, N.A.; Marcus, A.H.; Hussey, D.M.; Fayer, M.D. )

    1994-02-09

    The temperature dependent dynamics of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) melts are investigated by measuring orientational relaxation of a dissolved probe molecule, 2-naphthyltriethoxysilane (NTES) using time resolved fluorescence depolarization. The temperature dependent viscosity of PDMS is also reported for two molecular weights. The measurements of nonpolar NTES probe dynamics are compared to previous measurements on the polar probe, N-(triethoxysilylpropyl)dansylamide. The activation energies for the orientational relaxation of the two probes are very different. This is discussed in terms of the influence of the polarity of the solutes on the local structure in the melts. The results have implications for possible modifications of the physical properties of PDMS materials by using solutes or side groups of varying polarity. The synthesis of the NTES probe, which can also be used as a cross-linking reagent for PDMS, is also described. 38 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Magnetite-doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) for phosphopeptide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Sandison, Mairi E; Jensen, K Tveen; Gesellchen, F; Cooper, J M; Pitt, A R

    2014-10-07

    Reversible phosphorylation plays a key role in numerous biological processes. Mass spectrometry-based approaches are commonly used to analyze protein phosphorylation, but such analysis is challenging, largely due to the low phosphorylation stoichiometry. Hence, a number of phosphopeptide enrichment strategies have been developed, including metal oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC). Here, we describe a new material for performing MOAC that employs a magnetite-doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), that is suitable for the creation of microwell array and microfluidic systems to enable low volume, high throughput analysis. Incubation time and sample loading were explored and optimized and demonstrate that the embedded magnetite is able to enrich phosphopeptides. This substrate-based approach is rapid, straightforward and suitable for simultaneously performing multiple, low volume enrichments.

  7. Hollow polydimethylsiloxane beads with a porous structure for cell encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Myeong-Jin; Ryu, Tae-Kyoung; Choi, S-W

    2013-11-01

    Based on a water-in-oil-in-water emulsion system, porous and hollow polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) beads containing cells using a simple fluidic device with three flow channels are fabricated. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in the PDMS oil phase is served as a porogen for pore development. The feasibility of the porous PDMS beads prepared with different PEG concentrations (10, 20, and 30 wt%) for cell encapsulation in terms of pore size, protein diffusion, and cell proliferation inside the PDMS beads is evaluated. The PDMS beads prepared with PEG 30 wt% are exhibited a highly porous structure and facilitated fast diffusion of protein from the core domain to the outer phase, eventually leading to enhanced cell proliferation. The results clearly indicate that hollow PDMS beads with a porous structure could provide a favorable microenvironment for cell survival due to the large porous structure.

  8. Pervaporative removal of acrylonitrile from aqueous streams through polydimethylsiloxane membrane.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi, Majid; Aroujalian, Abdolreza; Raisi, Ahmadreza

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the successful separation of acrylonitrile (ACN) from dilute aqueous streams using pervaporation process. The influences of ACN feed concentration, permeate pressure, operating temperature, feed flow rate and membrane thickness on the membrane separation performance were investigated. The results showed that with an increase in ACN concentration in the feed solution, the permeation flux of ACN increased while the enrichment factor decreased. It was also indicated that increasing the permeate pressure reduced the driving force for mass transfer and consequently the permeation flux dropped while the enrichment factor enhanced. Polydimethylsiloxane membranes used in this study showed very good properties in the separation process, leading to enrichment factors in the range of 70-140. Furthermore, the activation energy for pervaporation of both ACN and water calculated from Arrhenius plot indicated that the permeation of water through the membrane was more temperature dependant than ACN.

  9. Enhanced triboelectrification of the polydimethylsiloxane surface by ultraviolet irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong Hun; Yun, Byung Kil; Jung, Jong Hoon; Park, Jeong Young

    2016-03-01

    Study of the triboelectric charging effect has recently gained much attraction by proposing a new potential technical application in the field of energy harvesting. Transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has some advantages in employing the triboelectric effect due to good conformity at nanometer scale and the simple fabrication process. In this study, we demonstrate that UV irradiation can enhance the performance of a PDMS-based nanotribogenerator. Contact atomic force microscopy combined with Kelvin probe force microscopy enables an in-depth investigation of the effect of UV illumination on local triboelectric charge generation and its decay in PDMS. We found that UV exposure not only facilitates triboelectric charge generation but also enhances charge redistribution, which is related to the wettability of the PDMS surface. This study provides insights into the fundamental understanding and design of triboelectric generator devices.

  10. Selective cell adhesion on femtosecond laser-microstructured polydimethylsiloxane.

    PubMed

    Alshehri, A M; Hadjiantoniou, S; Hickey, R J; Al-Rekabi, Z; Harden, J L; Pelling, A E; Bhardwaj, V R

    2016-02-19

    We show that femtosecond laser irradiation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) enables selective and patterned cell growth by altering the wetting properties of the surface associated with chemical and/or topographical changes. In the low pulse energy regime, the surface becomes less hydrophobic and exhibits a low water contact angle compared to the pristine material. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also reveals an increased oxygen content in the irradiated regions, to which the C2C12 cells and rabbit anti-mouse protein were found to attach preferentially. In the high pulse energy regime, the laser-modified regions exhibit superhydrophobicity and were found to inhibit cell adhesion, whereas cells were found to attach to the surrounding regions due to the presence of nanoscale debris generated by the ablation process.

  11. Process development for dry etching polydimethylsiloxane for neural electrodes.

    PubMed

    Anenden, Melissa P; Svehla, Martin; Lovell, Nigel H; Suaning, Gregg J

    2011-01-01

    In order to create high density electrode arrays, a reactive ion (dry) etching process was developed using sulphur hexafluoride (SF(6)) and oxygen (O(2)) plasma to pattern micro-structures in medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The surface topography and etch performance were analyzed by employing surface profilometry, scanning electron micrographs (SEM) and atomic force miscroscopy (AFM). The maximum etch rate was approximately 0.22 μm/min. The chemical modification of the PDMS structure in SF(6) and O(2) plasma was investigated through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Micro-scale openings in PDMS were achieved using a dry etching method to allow charge injection at the electrode-tissue interface.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of phantoms made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva-Luna, A. E.; Santiago-Alvarado, A.; Castro-Ramos, J.; Licona-Moran, B.; Vazquez-Montiel, S.; Flores-Gil, A.; Delgado-Atencio, J. A.

    2011-03-01

    The transparent elastomer Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Sylgard 184 is increasingly used in optical applications, as in the manufacture of microlens, waveguides (optical fibers) and to elaborated phantoms (simulator of biological tissue); The wide range of applications is due to its excellent physic-chemical properties, its low cost, easy operation and null toxicity. This paper describes the manufacturing process and physic-chemical characterization of Phantoms prepared with PDMS as grid and doped with some elements present as Gliceryl, ink, glucose 10% and melanin provided by sigma aldrich. We made phantoms with different concentrations and elements; we measured their profiles, and thicknesses. Finally, we obtained their Raman Spectra. We present the experimental results obtained of the physic-chemical parameters of the phantoms and the conclusions.

  13. Anomalously high photocurrents in nanostructured electrodes : a new local microchip power source.

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Robert Clark; Dunphy, Darren Robert; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Brozik, Susan Marie

    2004-02-01

    An increase in photocurrent has been observed at silicon electrodes coated with nanostructured porous silica films as compared to bare, unmodified silicon. Ultimately, to utilize this effect in devices such as sensors or microchip power supplies, the physical phenomena behind this observation need to be well characterized. To this end, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) was used to characterize the effect of surfactant-templated mesoporous silica films deposited onto silicon electrodes on the electrical properties of the electrode space-charge region in an aqueous electrolyte solution, as the electrical properties of this space-charge region are responsible for the photobehavior of semiconductor devices. A significant shift in apparent flat-band potential was observed for electrodes modified with the silica film when compared to bare electrodes; the reliability of this data is suspect, however, due to contributions from surface states to the overall capacitance of the system. To assist in the interpretation of this EIS data, a series of measurements at Pt electrodes was performed with the hope of decoupling electrode and film contributions from the EIS spectra. Surprisingly, the frequency-dependent impedance data for Pt electrodes coated with a surfactant-templated film was nearly identical to that observed for bare Pt electrodes, indicating that the mesoporous film had little effect on the transport of small electrolyte ions to the electrode surface. Pore-blocking agents (tetraalkylammonium salts) were not observed to inhibit this transport process. However, untemplated (non-porous) silica films dramatically increased film resistance, indicating that our EIS data for the Pt electrodes is reliable. Overall, our preliminary conclusion is that a shift in electrical properties in the space-charge region induced by the presence of a porous silica film is responsible for the increase in observed photocurrent.

  14. Preparation of iridescent colloidal crystal coatings with variable structural colors.

    PubMed

    Cong, Hailin; Yu, Bing; Wang, Shaopeng; Qi, Limin; Wang, Jilei; Ma, Yurong

    2013-07-29

    Iridescent colloidal crystal coatings with variable structural colors were fabricated by incorporating carbon black nanoparticles (CB-NPs) into the voids of polystyrene (PS) colloidal crystals. The structural color of the colloid crystal coatings was not only greatly enhanced after the composition but also varied with observation angles. By changing the diameter of monodisperse PS colloids in the composites, colloidal crystal coatings with three primary colors for additive or subtractive combination were obtained. After incorporation of the PS/CB-NPs hybrid coatings into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix, manmade opal jewelry with variable iridescent colors was made facilely.

  15. Preparation of superhydrophobic coating using modified CaCO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yansheng; He, Yi; Qing, Yongquan; Hu, Chuanbo; Mo, Qian

    2013-01-01

    CaCO3 nanoparticles were modified from hydrophilic to hydrophobic with oleic acid, hydrophobic coating was formed on the glass substrates with modified nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane via a simple process. The surface wettability and topology of coating were studied by contact angle measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results showed that the coating exhibited self-cleaning property with a water average contact angle of 160° and sliding angle of 6°, coating surface with hierarchical nano and micro structures, this method has good prospect for applications.

  16. Hybridization thermodynamics of DNA oligonucleotides during microchip capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wynne, Thomas M; McCallum, Christopher; Del Bonis-O'Donnell, Jackson Travis; Crisalli, Pete; Pennathur, Sumita

    2015-03-03

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a powerful analytical tool for performing separations and characterizing properties of charged species. For reacting species during a CE separation, local concentrations change leading to nonequilibrium conditions. Interpreting experimental data with such nonequilibrium reactive species is nontrivial due to the large number of variables involved in the system. In this work we develop a COMSOL multiphysics-based numerical model to simulate the electrokinetic mass transport of short interacting ssDNAs in microchip capillary electrophoresis. We probe the importance of the dissociation constant, K(D), and the concentration of DNA on the resulting observed mobility of the dsDNA peak, μ(w), by using a full sweep of parametric simulations. We find that the observed mobility is strongly dependent on the DNA concentration and K(D), as well as ssDNA concentration, and develop a relation with which to understand this dependence. Furthermore, we present experimental microchip capillary electrophoresis measurements of interacting 10 base ssDNA and its complement with changes in buffer ionic strength, DNA concentration, and DNA sequence to vary the system equilibria. We then compare our results to thermodynamically calculated K(D) values.

  17. A microchip for integrated single-cell genotoxicity assay.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hui; Sun, Hao; Zheng, Jianping

    2016-12-01

    With the development of large-scale biologic databases, precision medicine is becoming a frontier in biomedical research. As a main focus of precision medicine study, cancer has been widely accepted as a disease born out of inherited genetic variations or accumulating genomic damage. At the single-cell level, microfluidics or lab-on-a-chip technology for cancer study is an emerging tool for improving risk assessment, diagnostic categories and therapeutic strategies. This work presents a multi-layer microchip for single-cell gene expression profiling. Treated by three drug reagents (i.e. methyl methanesulfonate, docetaxel and colchicine) with varied concentrations and time lengths, individual human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) are then lysed on-chip, and the released mRNA templates are captured and reversely transcribed into cDNA on microbead surface. Three genes (GAPDH, CDKN1A, AURKA) are amplified and quantified simultaneously through triplex real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR). Readout per run is set to be eighteen, and can be further improved following same approach. The microchip is able to integrate all steps of single-cell gene expression profiling, and provide precision study of drug induced genotoxicity with reduced reagents consumption per reaction and instrumental cost.

  18. Quantitative analysis of plasma interleiukin-6 by immunoassay on microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Hashimoto, Y.; Yatsushiro, S.; Yamamura, S.; Tanaka, M.; Ooie, T.; Baba, Y.; Kataoka, M.

    2012-03-01

    Sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) is one of the most frequently employed assays for clinical diagnosis, since this enables the investigator to identify specific protein biomarkers. However, the conventional assay using a 96-well microtitration plate is time- and sample-consuming, and therefore is not suitable for rapid diagnosis. To overcome these drawbacks, we performed a sandwich ELISA on a microchip. We employed the piezoelectric inkjet printing for deposition and fixation of 1st antibody on the microchannnel surface (300 μm width and 100 μm depth). Model analyte was interleukin-6 (IL-6) which was one of the inflammatory cytokine. After blocking the microchannel, antigen, biotin-labeled 2nd antibody, and avidin-labeled peroxidase were infused into the microchannel and incubated for 20 min, 10 min, and 5 min, respectively. This assay could detect 2 pg/ml and quantitatively measure the range of 0-32 pg/ml. Liner regression analysis of plasma IL-6 concentration obtained by microchip and conventional methods exhibited a significant relationship (R2 = 0.9964). This assay reduced the time for the antigen-antibody reaction to 1/6, and the consumption of samples and reagents to 1/50 compared with the conventional method. This assay enables us to determine plasma IL-6 with accuracy, high sensitivity, time saving ability, and low consumption of sample and reagents, and thus will be applicable to clinic diagnosis.

  19. Microchip green laser sources: broad range of possibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essaian, Stepan; Khaydarov, John; Slavov, Slav; Ter-Mikirtychev, Vartan; Gabrielyan, Gevorg; Keroopyan, Meruzhan; Soghomonyan, Suren

    2012-02-01

    Spectralus presents its progress in development of miniature, highly efficient, and versatile diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) green laser source, based on a monolithic cavity microchip laser platform. The use of periodically poled MgO-doped Lithium Niobate (PPMgOLN) as the nonlinear frequency doubler together with gain material Nd3+:YVO4 allows obtaining a significant increase in the overall efficiency of the green microchip laser in comparison with other compact green laser source architectures with comparable output power. Originally, this laser source was designed to be part of the miniature and efficient RGB light source for microdisplay-based (LCOS, DLP or similar) mobile projector devices. Recently, we have extended range of operations for our original laser platform. In particular, we demonstrate the following: high peak power (>500mW), high average power (>200mW), broad temperature range of operation (-30°C - 60°C), and low noise CW operation (<0.5% RMS).

  20. Electro-microchip DNA-biosensor for bacteria detection.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chia Hsien; Chang, Yu Huai; Chang, Tsung Chain; Lin, Hong Ping; Lin, Yu Cheng

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a bacteria biosensor based on DNA hybridization detection with an electro-microchip transducer. Acinetobacter baumannii was chosen as DNA sample source, because the occurrence of bacteremia caused by Acinetobacter baumannii is high in hospitals worldwide. Our strategy is based on DNA hybridization of PCR amplified bacteria DNA with biotin labelled primers and detection enhancement using gold-streptavidin nanoparticles and Ag(+)-hydroquinone solution. Gold nanoparticles catalyze silver ions reduction by hydroquinone. The gradually precipitated silver metal between the two electrodes of the electro-microchip allows electrons to pass. The detection limit for Acinetobacter baumannii genomic DNA sample is 0.825 ng mL(-1) (1.2 fM). Probe specificity was investigated by screening various species of bacteria, various strains of a single species and various species of a single genus. The proposed DNA hybridization method is easy, convenient, and rapid. Moreover, it has potential applications in detection of bacteria causing infections and clinical diagnosis.

  1. Analytical detection of biological thiols in a microchip capillary channel.

    PubMed

    Chand, Rohit; Jha, Sandeep Kumar; Islam, Kamrul; Han, Dawoon; Shin, Ik-Soo; Kim, Yong-Sang

    2013-02-15

    Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as cysteine and homocysteine play crucial roles in biological systems for the diagnosis of medical states. In this regard, this paper deals with separation, aliquot and detection of amino thiols on a microchip capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection in an inverted double Y-shaped microchannel. Unlike the conventional capillary electrophoresis, the modified microchannel design helps in storing the separated thiols in different reservoirs for further analysis, if required; and also eliminates the need of electrodes regeneration. The device was fabricated using conventional photolithographic technique which consisted of gold microelectrodes on a soda lime glass wafer and microchannels in PDMS mold. Multiple detections were performed using in-house fabricated dual potentiostat. Based on amperometric detection, cysteine and homocysteine were analyzed in 105 s and 120 s, respectively after diverting in branched channels. Repeated experiments proved the good reproducibility of the device. The device produced a linear response for both cysteine and homocysteine in electrochemical analysis. To prove the practicality of device, we also analyzed cysteine and homocysteine in real blood samples without any pre-treatment. Upon calculation, the device showed a very low limit of detection of 0.05 μM. The modified microchip design shall find a broad range of analytical applications involving assays of thiols and other biological compounds.

  2. Faster and improved microchip electrophoresis using a capillary bundle.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Kwok, Yien Chian; Nguyen, Nam Trung

    2007-12-01

    Joule heating generated in CE microchips is known to affect temperature gradient, electrophoretic mobility, diffusion of analytes, and ultimately the efficiency and reproducibility of the separation. One way of reducing the effect of Joule heating is to decrease the cross-section area of microchannels. Currently, due to the limit of fabrication technique and detection apparatus, the typical dimensions of CE microchannels are in the range of 50-200 microm. In this paper, we propose a novel approach of performing microchip CE in a bundle of extremely narrow channels by using photonic crystal fiber (PCF) as separation column. The PCF was simply encapsulated in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchannel right after a T-shaped injector. CE was simultaneously but independently carried out in 54 narrow capillaries, each capillary with diameter of 3.7 microm. The capillary bundle could sustain high electric field strength up to 1000 V/cm due to efficient heat dissipation, thus faster and enhanced separation was attained.

  3. A micro surface tension pump (MISPU) in a glass microchip.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xing Yue Larry

    2011-01-07

    A non-membrane micro surface tension pump (MISPU) was fabricated on a glass microchip by one-step glass etching. It needs no material other than glass and is driven by digital gas pressure. The MISPU can be seen working like a piston pump inside the glass microchip under a microscope. The design of the valves (MISVA) and pistons (MISTON) was based on the surface tension theory of the micro surface tension alveolus (MISTA). The digital gas pressure controls the moving gas-liquid interface to open or close the input and output MISVAs to refill or drive the MISTON for pumping a liquid. Without any moving parts, a MISPU is a kind of long-lasting micro pump for micro chips that does not lose its water pumping efficiency over a 20-day period. The volumetric pump output varied from 0 to 10 nl s(-1) when the pump cycle time decreased from 5 min to 15 s. The pump head pressure was 1 kPa.

  4. Integrated self-powered microchip biosensor for endogenous biological cyanide.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liu; Chen, Chaogui; Zhou, Ming; Guo, Shaojun; Wang, Erkang; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-05-15

    In this work we developed a fully integrated biofuel cell on a microchip, which consisted of glucose dehydrogenase supported (carbon nanotubes/thionine/gold nanoparticles)(8) multilayer as the anode, and the (carbon nanotubes/polylysine/laccase)(15) multilayer as the cathode. The as-obtained biofuel cell produced open circuit potential 620 mV and power density 302 microW cm(-2), showing great potential as a small power resource of portable electronics. Most importantly, for the first time we demonstrated the feasibility of developing a self-powered biosensor based on the inhibitive effect on microchip enzyme biofuel cell. With cyanide employed as the model analyte, this method showed a linear range of 3.0 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-4) M and a detection limit with 1.0 x 10(-7) M under the optimal conditions. The detection limit was lower than the acceptable cyanide concentration in drinking water (1.9 x 10(-6) M) according to the World Health Organization (WHO). This self-powered sensor was successfully used to detect the cyanide concentration in a real sample, cassava, which is the main carbohydrate resource in South America and Africa. This presented biosensor combined with a resistor and a multimeter demonstrated the general applicability as a fast and simple detection method in the determination of endogenous biological cyanide.

  5. Pencil graphite leads as simple amperometric sensors for microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Natiele Tiago da Silva, Eiva; Marques Petroni, Jacqueline; Gabriel Lucca, Bruno; Souza Ferreira, Valdir

    2017-08-22

    In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the use of inexpensive commercial pencil graphite leads as simple amperometric sensors for microchip electrophoresis. A PDMS support containing one channel was fabricated through soft lithography and sanded pencil graphite leads were inserted into this channel to be used as working electrodes. The electrochemical and morphological characterization of the sensor was carried out. The graphite electrode was coupled to PDMS microchips in end-channel configuration and electrophoretic experiments were performed using nitrite and ascorbate as probe analytes. The analytes were successfully separated and detected in well-defined peaks with satisfactory resolution using the microfluidic platform proposed. The repeatability of the pencil graphite electrode was satisfactory (RSD values of 1.6% for nitrite and 12.3 % for ascorbate regarding the peak currents) and its lifetime was estimated to be ca. 700 electrophoretic runs over a cost of ca. $ 0.05 per electrode. The limits of detection achieved with the proposed system were 2.8 μM for nitrite and 5.7 μM for ascorbate. For proof of principle, the pencil graphite electrode was employed for the real analysis of well water samples and nitrite was successfully quantified at levels below its maximum contaminant level established in Brazil and US. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy Conversion from Salinity Gradient Using Microchip with Nafion Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Che-Rong; Yeh, Ching-Hua; Yeh, Hung-Chun; Yang, Ruey-Jen

    2016-06-01

    When a concentrated salt solution and a diluted salt solution are separated by an ion-selective membrane, cations and anions would diffuse at different rates depending on the ion selectivity of the membrane. The difference of positive and negative charges at both ends of the membrane would produce a potential, called the diffusion potential. Thus, electrical energy can be converted from the diffusion potential through reverse electrodialysis. This study demonstrated the fabrication of an energy conversion microchip using the standard micro-electromechanical technique, and utilizing Nafion junction as connecting membrane, which was fabricated by a surface patterned process. Through different salinity gradient of potassium chloride solutions, we experimentally investigated the diffusion potential and power generation from the microchip, and the highest value measured was 135 mV and 339 pW, respectively. Furthermore, when the electrolyte was in pH value of 3.8, 5.6, 10.3, the system exhibited best performance at pH value of 10.3; whereas, pH value of 3.8 yielded the worst.

  7. Online preconcentration using monoliths in electrochromatography capillary format and microchips.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Violaine; Proczek, Gaëlle; Dugay, José; Descroix, Stéphanie; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2007-11-01

    Online preconcentration and separation of analytes using an in situ photopolymerized hexyl acrylate-based monolith stationary phase was evaluated using electrochromatography in capillary format and microchip. The band broadening occurring during the preconcentration process by frontal electrochromatography and during the desorption process by elution electrochromatography was studied. The hexyl acrylate-based monolith provides high retention for neutral analytes allowing the handling of large sample volumes and its structure allows rapid mass transfer, thus reducing the band broadening. For moderately polar analytes such as mono-chlorophenols that are slightly retained in water, it was shown that enrichment factors up to 3500 can be obtained by a hydrodynamic injection of several bed volumes for 120 min under 0.8 MPa with a decrease in efficiency of 50% and a decrease of 30% for the resolution between 2- and 3-chlorophenol. An 8 min preconcentration time allows enrichment factors above 100 for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The interest of these monoliths when synthesized in microchip is also demonstrated. A 200-fold enrichment was easily obtained for PAHs with only 1 min as preconcentration time, without decrease in efficiency.

  8. Electrochemistry-based real-time PCR on a microchip.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Stephen S W; Lee, Thomas M H; Hsing, I-Ming

    2008-01-15

    The development of handheld instruments for point-of-care DNA analysis can potentially contribute to the medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring for decentralized applications. In this work, we demonstrate the implementation of a recently developed electrochemical real-time polymerase chain reaction (ERT-PCR) technique on a silicon-glass microchip for simultaneous DNA amplification and detection. This on-chip ERT-PCR process requires the extension of an oligonucleotide in both solution and at solid phases and intermittent electrochemical signal measurement in the presence of all the PCR reagents. Several important parameters, related to the surface passivation and electrochemical scanning of working electrodes, were investigated. It was found that the ERT-PCR's onset thermal cycle ( approximately 3-5), where the analytical signal begins to be distinguishable from the background, is much lower than that of the fluorescence-based counterparts for high template DNA situations (3 x 10(6) copies/microL). By carefully controlling the concentrations of the immobilized probe and the enzyme polymerase, improvements have been made in obtaining a meaningful electrochemical signal using a lower initial template concentration. This ERT-PCR technique on a microchip platform holds significant promise for rapid DNA detection for point-of-care testing applications.

  9. A droplet-based novel approach for viable and low volume consumption surface plasmon resonance bio-sensing inside a polydimethylsiloxane microchip.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, T; Xie, Y; Mastrangelo, C

    2013-01-01

    Over the course of last two decades, surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has emerged as a viable candidate for label-free detection and characterization for a large pool of biological interactions, ranging from hybridization of oligonucleotides to high throughput drug-screening. Conventional SPR bio-sensing involves a step-response method where the SPR sensorgram in response to a switched sequential flow of analyte and buffer is plotted in real-time and fitted to an exponential curve to extract the associative and dissociative reaction rates. Such measurement schemes involve continuous flow conditions where a substantial reagent volume is consumed and is subject to dispersive mixing at flow switching zones. In this paper, we demonstrate a new plug-train SPR technique in a microfluidic chip that separates and singulates solvent plugs in analyte and buffer by an immiscible air phase. Bio-samples are first discretized within plug droplets with volumes in order of few hundred nanoliters or less followed by pressure-driven transport onto SPR sensing sites of this hydrophobically modified SPR microdevise. The kinetic constants ka and kd for a model protein-small molecule interaction pair are extracted from a plug-train signal and are shown to be in reasonable agreement with our previous reports.

  10. Fabrication and functional demonstration of a smart electrode with a built-in CMOS microchip for neural stimulation of a retinal prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Noda, Toshihiko; Fujisawa, Takumi; Kawasaki, Ryohei; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Takehara, Hiroaki; Sasagawa, Kiyotaka; Tokuda, Takashi; Ohta, Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we propose an advanced architecture of a smart electrode for neural stimulation of a retinal prosthesis. A feature of the proposed architecture is embedding CMOS microchips into the core of the stimulus electrodes. Microchip integration without dead space on the array is possible. Additionally, higher durability can be expected because the microchips are protected by the stimulus electrodes like a metal casing. Dedicated circular-shaped CMOS microchips were designed and fabricated. The microchip measured 400 μm in diameter. Stimulus electrodes that had a microcavity for embedding the microchip were also fabricated. In the assembly process, the CMOS microchip was mounted on a flexible substrate, and then the stimulus electrode was mounted to cover the microchip. The microchip was completely built into the inside of the electrode. By performing an ex-vivo experiment using the extracted eyeball of a pig, stimulus function of the electrode was demonstrated successfully.

  11. Bio-functionalisation of polydimethylsiloxane with hyaluronic acid and hyaluronic acid--collagen conjugate for neural interfacing.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhilian; Liu, Xiao; Molino, Paul J; Wallace, Gordon G

    2011-07-01

    In this work, polydimethylsiloxane was activated with oxygen plasma and treated with silanes bearing ethylene imine units. Hyaluronic acid was then grafted covalently onto the aminated surfaces. The influence of silane structure on surface amination was assessed and the influence of the modification on surface physiochemical properties and protein adsorption of modified polydimethylsiloxane were investigated. Collagen type I was conjugated onto the modified polydimethylsiloxane to improve its cyto-compatibility for neural applications. In vitro cultivation of rat pheochromocytoma cells on the bioactive polydimethylsiloxane showed a significant increase in cell growth and differentiation. The potential applications of the bio-functionalized polydimethylsiloxane in cochlear implant electrode arrays were discussed.

  12. R&D 100, 2016: T-Quake – Quantum-Mechanical Transmitter/Receiver Microchip

    SciTech Connect

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Camacho, Ryan; Thayer, Gayle

    2016-11-07

    Applying advanced microfabrication techniques and innovative microdesign, the Sandia Enabled Communications and Authentication Network (SECANT) team has designed and produced photonic microchips capable of sending, receiving, and processing quantum signals for applications in cyber and physical security.

  13. Fibrosarcoma adjacent to the site of microchip implantation in a cat.

    PubMed

    Daly, Meighan K; Saba, Corey F; Crochik, Sonia S; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Kosarek, Carrie E; Cornell, Karen K; Roberts, Royce E; Northrup, Nicole C

    2008-04-01

    A 14-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat presented with an interscapular mass. A computed tomography scan, biopsy, and histological examination revealed a fibrosarcoma adjacent to a pet identification microchip. Because the cat was previously vaccinated at this site, it is not possible to establish definitive causation of the fibrosarcoma, but this is the first report of a tumor in the vicinity of a microchip in a cat. Microchip-associated tumors have been reported in rodents and dogs. Veterinarians should be aware that because inflammation may predispose felines to tumor formation, separation and observation of vaccination and implantation sites are indicated. Adherence to American Association of Feline Practitioners (AAFP) vaccination guidelines and monitoring of microchip implantation sites are recommended.

  14. Coupling Microdialysis Sampling to Microchip Electrophoresis in a Reversibly Sealed Device.

    PubMed

    Mecker, Laura C; Martin, R Scott

    2007-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication and characterization of a reversibly sealed microchip device that is used to couple microdialysis sampling to microchip electrophoresis. The ability to interface microdialysis sampling and microchip electrophoresis in a device that is amenable to reversible sealing is advantageous from a repeated use standpoint. Commercially available tubing coming from the microdialysis probe is directly inserted into the chip and flow from the probe is interfaced to the electrophoresis portion of the device through integrated pneumatic valves. Fluorescence detection was used to characterize the poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based device in terms of injection reproducibility. It was found that the entire system (microdialysis probe and microchip device) has a concentration response lag time of 170 sec. Microdialysis sampling followed by an electrophoretic separation of amino acids derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde/cyanide was also demonstrated.

  15. Rapid amplification of genetically modified organisms using a circular ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Kwok, Yien-Chian; Foo-Peng Lee, Peter; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2009-07-01

    The use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) as food and in food products is becoming more and more widespread. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology is extensively used for the detection of GMOs in food products in order to verify compliance with labeling requirements. In this paper, we present a novel close-loop ferrofluid-driven PCR microchip for rapid amplification of GMOs. The microchip was fabricated in polymethyl methacrylate by CO2 laser ablation and was integrated with three temperature zones. PCR solution was contained in a circular closed microchannel and was driven by magnetic force generated by an external magnet through a small oil-based ferrofluid plug. Successful amplification of genetically modified soya and maize were achieved in less than 13 min. This PCR microchip combines advantages of cycling flexibility and quick temperature transitions associated with two existing microchip PCR techniques, and it provides a cost saving and less time-consuming way to conduct preliminary screening of GMOs.

  16. Kinetic effects on signal normalization in oligonucleotide microchips with labeled immobilized probes.

    PubMed

    Pan'kov, S V; Chechetkin, V R; Somova, O G; Antonova, O V; Moiseeva, O V; Prokopenko, D V; Yurasov, R A; Gryadunov, D A; Chudinov, A V

    2009-10-01

    Among various factors affecting operation of oligonucleotide microchips, the variations in concentration and in homogeneous distribution of immobilized probes over the cells are one of the most important. The labeling of immobilized probes ensures the complete current monitoring on the probe distribution and is reliable and convenient. Using hydrogel-based oligonucleotide microchips, the applicability of Cy3-labeled immobilized probes for quality control and signal normalization after hybridization with Cy5-labeled target DNA was investigated. This study showed that proper signal normalization should be different in thermodynamic conditions and in transient regime with hybridization far from saturation. This kinetic effect holds for both hydrogel-based and surface oligonucleotide microchips. Besides proving basic features, the technique was assessed on a sampling batch of 50 microchips developed for identifying mutations responsible for rifampicin and isoniazid resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  17. Effect of mixing on reaction-diffusion kinetics for protein hydrogel-based microchips.

    PubMed

    Zubtsov, D A; Ivanov, S M; Rubina, A Yu; Dementieva, E I; Chechetkin, V R; Zasedatelev, A S

    2006-03-09

    Protein hydrogel-based microchips are being developed for high-throughput evaluation of the concentrations and activities of various proteins. To shorten the time of analysis, the reaction-diffusion kinetics on gel microchips should be accelerated. Here we present the results of the experimental and theoretical analysis of the reaction-diffusion kinetics enforced by mixing with peristaltic pump. The experiments were carried out on gel-based protein microchips with immobilized antibodies under the conditions utilized for on-chip immunoassay. The dependence of fluorescence signals at saturation and corresponding saturation times on the concentrations of immobilized antibodies and antigen in solution proved to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions. It is shown that the enhancement of transport with peristaltic pump results in more than five-fold acceleration of binding kinetics. Our results suggest useful criteria for the optimal conditions for assays on gel microchips to balance high sensitivity and rapid fluorescence saturation kinetics.

  18. Acupuncture injection for field amplified sample stacking and glass microchip-based capillary gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji Won; Hahn, Jong Hoon

    2017-02-01

    Acupuncture sample injection is a simple method to deliver well-defined nanoliter-scale sample plugs in PDMS microfluidic channels. This acupuncture injection method in microchip CE has several advantages, including minimization of sample consumption, the capability of serial injections of different sample solutions into the same microchannel, and the capability of injecting sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. Herein, we demonstrate that the simple and cost-effective acupuncture sample injection method can be used for PDMS microchip-based field amplified sample stacking in the most simplified straight channel by applying a single potential. We achieved the increase in electropherogram signals for the case of sample stacking. Furthermore, we present that microchip CGE of ΦX174 DNA-HaeⅢ digest can be performed with the acupuncture injection method on a glass microchip while minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware.

  19. Immobilized MutS-Mediated Error Removal of Microchip-Synthesized DNA.

    PubMed

    Wan, Wen; Wang, Dongmei; Gao, Xiaolian; Hong, Jiong

    2017-01-01

    Applications of microchip-synthesized oligonucleotides for de novo gene synthesis are limited primarily by their high error rates. The mismatch binding protein MutS, which can specifically recognize and bind to mismatches, is one of the cheapest tools for error correction of synthetic DNA. Here, we describe a protocol for removing errors in microchip-synthesized oligonucleotides and for the assembly of DNA segments using these oligonucleotides. This protocol can also be used in traditional de novo gene DNA synthesis.

  20. Development of a micro-potentiometric sensor for the microchip analysis of alkali ions.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Adelina; Mawatari, Kazuma; Takahashi, Hiroko; Tanaka, Yo; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Kitamori, Takehiko

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of a micro-potentiometric sensor based on external microelectrodes introduced into a microchip. We miniaturized reference and ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) and embedded them into a plastic (PDMS) microchip; the miniaturization of ISE was attained by using a monolithic capillary-based membrane. This sensor was applied to the detection of alkali ions (Na+, K+ and NH4+) in a microflow on the microg/L level.

  1. Synthesis and morphology characterization of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadley, Maurice

    The thin film morphology characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane-containing block copolymers have been investigated. For this investigation, a commercially available hydroxyl terminated PDMS was purchased from Gelest and attached to a carboxylic acid functional reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) agent by Steglich esterification. This produced macro-RAFT agents to which styrene monomer was polymerized. By using this approach the generation of low polydispersity polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-block-PDMS) copolymers of various molecular weights spanning a wide volume fraction range in which the PDMS block remained the same in each polymerization. Synthesized block copolymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Bulk and thin film characterization of PS-block-PDMS copolymers was done by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), contact angle measurements, scanning force microscopy (SFM), and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The following observations have been made. For PS-rich PS-block -PDMS copolymer thin films the low surface tension of PDMS caused it to migrate to the film surface regardless of solvent choice. The surface morphology was found to depend strongly on the solubility parameter of the solvent and exhibited SFM images consistent with parallel cylinder, perforated lamellar, and lamellar surface layers with increasing solvent solubility parameter. This behavior was due to the selective swelling of the individual blocks under slightly selective, good solvent conditions. A custom solvent annealing apparatus provided similar results in which order-order transitions in the thin films were observed with increasing solvent solubility parameter. Additionally improvements in the long-range order were observed after 1 h of solvent annealing. PS-rich PS-block-PDMS copolymer thin films also displayed PDMS

  2. Determination of calprotectin in gingival crevicular fluid by immunoassay on a microchip.

    PubMed

    Kido, Jun-ichi; Abe, Kaori; Yatsushiro, Shouki; Bando, Mika; Hiroshima, Yuka; Nagata, Toshihiko; Ooie, Toshihiko; Tanaka, Masato; Kataoka, Masatoshi

    2012-10-01

    Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) contains calprotectin, which appears to be a useful biomarker for periodontal diseases because of its high level in GCF from periodontally diseased pockets. To determine calprotectin in GCF that has a very small volume, sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on a microchip was performed and its utility was estimated. Anti-calprotectin primary antibody was discharged on a microchip using a piezoelectric inkjet printing system. Calprotectin standard and calprotectin in GCF samples from eleven subjects were determined by the ELISA method with the prepared microchip and their values were compared with those obtained by conventional ELISA. Using the ELISA on a microchip, a reasonable standard curve of calprotectin protein (1.56-100 ng/mL) was obtained. Calprotectin in GCF samples was quantified and showed reasonable values in accordance with the condition of periodontal diseases. The values determined by the microchip method and conventional ELISA showed a significant linear relationship (R(2)=0.981). Calprotectin in GCF was determined using the ELISA on a microchip with high efficiency and this ELISA method for calprotectin determination may become a useful method for diagnosing periodontal diseases. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of T-Cell Receptor-γ Gene Rearrangements Using Oligonucleotide Microchip

    PubMed Central

    Gra, Olga A.; Sidorova, Julia V.; Nikitin, Eugene A.; Turygin, Alexander Y.; Surzhikov, Sergey A.; Melikyan, Anait L.; Sudarikov, Andrey B.; Zasedatelev, Alexander S.; Nasedkina, Tatyana V.

    2007-01-01

    T-cell clonality estimation is important for the differential diagnosis between malignant and nonmalignant T-cell proliferation. Routinely used methods include polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of T-cell receptor-γ (TCR-γ) gene rearrangements followed by Genescan analysis, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, or heteroduplex analysis to visualize amplification products. Here, we present a new method for the analysis after PCR of TCR-γ rearrangements using hybridization on oligonucleotide microchip. A microchip was designed to contain specific probes for all functional variable (V) and joining (J) gene segments involved in rearrangements of the TCR-γ locus. Fluorescently labeled fragments of rearranged γ-chain from patients and donors were obtained in a multiplex nested PCR and hybridized with a microchip. The results were detected using a portable microchip analyzer. Samples from 49 patients with T-cell lymphomas or leukemias and 47 donors were analyzed for T-cell clonality by microchip and single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, which served as a standard reference method. Comparison of two techniques showed full concordance of the results. The microchip-based approach also allowed the identification of V and J gene segments involved in the particular TCR-γ rearrangement. The sensitivity of the method is sufficient to determine 10% of clonal cells in the sample. PMID:17384218

  4. On-chip immunoassay of a cardiac biomarker in serum using a polyester-toner microchip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Rahn; Kim, Joo Yeon; Choi, Kihwan; Chung, Doo Soo

    2013-05-15

    An on-chip immunoassay to detect C-reactive protein (CRP) was performed using a polyester-toner (PT) microchip. CRP is a highly conserved plasma protein responding to inflammation and is used for clinical purposes to diagnose an inflammatory state. For rapid analysis and specific interactions in immunoassays, extensive studies using microfluidic chips have been carried out. Recently, a simple technique to fabricate a disposable PT microchip by a direct printing process was developed and several applications were introduced. One major drawback of the PT microchip, however, is the poor separation performance due to the quality of the microfluidic structures. This problem for a PT microchip can be overcome using a cleavable tag immunoassay, which requires minimal separation performance. After analytes are conjugated onto antibodies which are immobilized on the surface of microbeads placed on the PT microchip, a second group of fluorescently tagged antibodies are added and complexed with the analytes. The tag is then cleaved and the solution containing the cleaved tag is analyzed by electrophoresis. The time needed for the complete analysis to be carried out on a PT microchip was less than 35 min. The dynamic range of the CRP in 10-fold diluted serum was 0.3-100 mg/L and the limit of detection was 0.3 mg/L, which demonstrated the possibility of a quantitative analysis of CRP in serum in clinical trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microchip micellar electrokinetic chromatography separation of alkaloids with UV-absorbance spectral detection.

    PubMed

    Newman, Carl I D; Giordano, Braden C; Copper, Christine L; Collins, Greg E

    2008-02-01

    A microchip device is demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation and UV-absorbance spectral detection of four toxic alkaloids: colchicine, aconitine, strychnine, and nicotine. A fused-silica (quartz) microchip containing a simple cross geometry is utilized to perform the separations, and a miniature, fiber-optic CCD spectrometer is coupled to the microchip for detection. Sensitive UV-absorbance detection is achieved via the application of online preconcentration techniques in combination with the quartz microchip substrate which contains an etched bubble-cell for increased pathlength. The miniature CCD spectrometer is configured to detect light between 190 and 645 nm and LabView programming written in-house enables absorbance spectra as well as separations to be monitored from 210 to 400 nm. Consequently, the configuration of this microchip device facilitates qualitative and quantitative separations via simultaneous spatial and spectral resolution of solutes. UV-absorbance limits of quantification for colchicine, 20 microM (8 mg/L); strychnine, 50 microM (17 mg/L); aconitine, 50 microM (32 mg/L); and nicotine, 100 microM (16 mg/L) are demonstrated on the microchip. With the exception of aconitine, these concentrations are > or =20-times more sensitive than lethal dose monitoring requirements. Finally, this device is demonstrated to successfully detect each toxin in water, skim milk, and apple juice samples spiked at sublethal dose concentrations after a simple, SPE procedure.

  6. Characterization of ultraviolet light cured polydimethylsiloxane films for low-voltage, dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpper, Tino; Wohlfender, Fabian; Weiss, Florian; Osmani, Bekim; Müller, Bert

    2016-04-01

    The reduction the operation voltage has been the key challenge to realize of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) for many years - especially for the application fields of robotics, lens systems, haptics and future medical implants. Contrary to the approach of manipulating the dielectric properties of the electrically activated polymer (EAP), we intend to realize low-voltage operation by reducing the polymer thickness to the range of a few hundred nanometers. A study recently published presents molecular beam deposition to reliably grow nanometer-thick polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. The curing of PDMS is realized using ultraviolet (UV) radiation with wavelengths from 180 to 400 nm radicalizing the functional side and end groups. The understanding of the mechanical properties of sub-micrometer-thin PDMS films is crucial to optimize DEAs actuation efficiency. The elastic modulus of UV-cured spin-coated films is measured by nano-indentation using an atomic force microscope (AFM) according to the Hertzian contact mechanics model. These investigations show a reduced elastic modulus with increased indentation depth. A model with a skin-like SiO2 surface with corresponding elastic modulus of (2.29 +/- 0.31) MPa and a bulk modulus of cross-linked PDMS with corresponding elastic modulus of (87 +/- 7) kPa is proposed. The surface morphology is observed with AFM and 3D laser microscopy. Wrinkled surface microstructures on UV-cured PDMS films occur for film thicknesses above (510 +/- 30) nm with an UV-irradiation density of 7.2 10-4 J cm-2 nm-1 at a wavelength of 190 nm.

  7. Measurement of Nonlinear Mechanical Properties of Surfactant-Added Poly(dimethylsiloxane)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hea Teak; Jeong, Ok Chan

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a measurement of the nonlinear mechanical property of the surfactant-added poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer. The tension test samples with the different concentrations of the surfactant were prepared using a simple mixing, coating, curing, and cutting process. A 10 times cyclic tension test with a fixed magnitude of applied strain and a single-pull-to-failure tension test were sequentially performed with a micro-tensile tester at room temperature. Compared with the pure PDMS, the surfactant-added PDMS was more flexible and its yield strain also greatly increased. From the measured stress-strain relationship, the stress softening and the residual strain was observed in the first cyclic tension tests. Such a hysteresis was highly related with the concentration of the surfactant in preparing PDMS film. As the concentration of the surfactant increased, the hysteresis increased remarkably. From second cyclic tension test, a hysteresis dramatically reduced and the strain-stress curves were almost converged in 10 times cyclic test. Three nonlinear mechanical models like a Neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, and Ogden were computed from the experimentally measured stress-strain data. The Ogden model for the surfactant-added PDMS showed a good agreement with the experimental data. In the case of the Neo-Hookean and Mooney-Rivlin models, they could be preferable for the structural analysis of the micro device with the surfactant-added PDMS in the small strain region. This could provide the useful and reasonable nonlinear mechanical models of the surfactant-added PDMS for rapid computational prototyping from the hydrophilic PDMS.

  8. Microchip electrophoresis at elevated temperatures and high separation field strengths.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Indranil; Marczak, Steven P; Jacobson, Stephen C

    2014-02-01

    We report free-solution microchip electrophoresis performed at elevated temperatures and high separation field strengths. We used microfluidic devices with 11 cm long separation channels to conduct separations at temperatures between 22 (ambient) and 45°C and field strengths from 100 to 1000 V/cm. To evaluate separation performance, N-glycans were used as a model system and labeled with 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid to impart charge for electrophoresis and render them fluorescent. Typically, increased diffusivity at higher temperatures leads to increased axial dispersion and poor separation performance; however, we demonstrate that sufficiently high separation field strengths offset the impact of increased diffusivity in order to maintain separation efficiency. Efficiencies for these free-solution separations are the same at temperatures of 25, 35, and 45°C with separation field strengths ≥ 500 V/cm.

  9. Electrode substrate innovation for electrochemical detection in microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Randviir, Edward P; Banks, Craig E

    2015-08-01

    Microchip electrophoresis (MCE) represents the next generation of miniaturised electrophoretic devices and carry benefits such as significant improvement in analysis times, lower consumption of reagents and samples, flexibility and procedural simplicity. The devices provide a separation method for complex sample matrices and an on-board detection method for the analytical determination of a target compound. The detection part of MCE is increasingly leaning towards electrochemical methods, thus the selectivity and sensitivity of detection in MCE is dependent upon the chosen working electrode composition in addition to operating conditions of the chip such as separation voltage. Given the current plethora of electrode materials that are available, there exists a possibility to creatively integrate electrodes into MCE. This review will overview the application of several electrode materials, from the old through to the new. A particular recent focus has been the selectivity element of MCEs overcome with the use of enzymes, carbon composites and screen-printed technologies.

  10. Adjustable microchip ring trap for cold atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Paul M.; Stickney, James A.; Squires, Matthew B.; Scoville, James A.; Carlson, Evan J.; Buchwald, Walter R.; Miller, Steven M.

    2009-12-15

    We describe the design and function of a circular magnetic waveguide produced from wires on a microchip for atom interferometry using de Broglie waves. The guide is a two-dimensional magnetic minimum for trapping weak-field seeking states of atoms or molecules with a magnetic dipole moment. The design consists of seven circular wires sharing a common radius. We describe the design, the time-dependent currents of the wires and show that it is possible to form a circular waveguide with adjustable height and gradient while minimizing perturbation resulting from leads or wire crossings. This maximal area geometry is suited for rotation sensing with atom interferometry via the Sagnac effect using either cold atoms, molecules and Bose-condensed systems.

  11. Vacuum membrane distillation by microchip with temperature gradient.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaopeng; Kato, Shinji; Anazawa, Takanori

    2010-04-07

    A multilayered microchip (25 x 95 mm) used for vacuum distillation is designed, fabricated and tested by rectification of a water-methanol mixture. The polymer chip employs a cooling channel to generate a temperature gradient along a distillation channel below, which is separated into a channel (72 microm deep) for liquid phase and a channel (72 microm deep) for vapor phase by an incorporated microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) membrane. The temperature gradient is controlled by adjusting hotplate temperature and flow rate of cooling water to make the temperatures in the stripping section higher than the increasing boiling points of the water-enriched liquids and the temperatures in the rectifying section lower than the decreasing dew points of the methanol-enriched vapors. The effects of temperature gradient, feed composition, feed flow rate and membrane pore size on the micro distillation are also investigated. A theoretical plate number up to 1.8 is achieved at the optimum conditions.

  12. Investigation of temperature effect on cell mechanics by optofluidic microchips

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tie; Nava, Giovanni; Minzioni, Paolo; Veglione, Manuela; Bragheri, Francesca; Lelii, Francesca Demetra; Vazquez, Rebeca Martinez; Osellame, Roberto; Cristiani, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the results of a study concerning the effect of temperature on cell mechanical properties. Two different optofluidic microchips with external temperature control are used to investigate the temperature-induced changes of highly metastatic human melanoma cells (A375MC2) in the range of ~0 – 35 °C. By means of an integrated optical stretcher, we observe that cells’ optical deformability is strongly enhanced by increasing cell and buffer-fluid temperature. This finding is supported by the results obtained from a second device, which probes the cells’ ability to be squeezed through a constriction. Measured data demonstrate a marked dependence of cell mechanical properties on temperature, thus highlighting the importance of including a proper temperature-control system in the experimental apparatus. PMID:26309762

  13. PMMA-based capillary electrophoresis electrochemical detection microchip fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Ray-Hua; Han, Pin; Chen, Hung-Yu; Lin, Kuan-Wen; Tsai, Tung-Mung; Zen, Jyh-Myng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a 50 µm (depth) × 50 µm (width) microfluidic channel is made on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) substrate using thick photoresist. Openings were drilled for buffer reservoirs on an additional piece of PMMA. A final PMMA/patterned photoresist/PMMA sandwich configuration was completed using a bonding process. The thick photoresist was used as the adhesion layer and also as the microfluidic system. Using screen-printed technology for carbon and silver electrode fabrication, the microchip electrophoretic device functions were demonstrated. Successful detection of uric acid and L-ascorbic acid (the main components in human urine) validates the functionality of the proposed system. Successful ascorbic and uric acid separation in a sample from a urine donor who had consumed 500 mg of vitamins verified the proposed biochip.

  14. Investigation of temperature effect on cell mechanics by optofluidic microchips.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tie; Nava, Giovanni; Minzioni, Paolo; Veglione, Manuela; Bragheri, Francesca; Lelii, Francesca Demetra; Vazquez, Rebeca Martinez; Osellame, Roberto; Cristiani, Ilaria

    2015-08-01

    Here we present the results of a study concerning the effect of temperature on cell mechanical properties. Two different optofluidic microchips with external temperature control are used to investigate the temperature-induced changes of highly metastatic human melanoma cells (A375MC2) in the range of ~0 - 35 °C. By means of an integrated optical stretcher, we observe that cells' optical deformability is strongly enhanced by increasing cell and buffer-fluid temperature. This finding is supported by the results obtained from a second device, which probes the cells' ability to be squeezed through a constriction. Measured data demonstrate a marked dependence of cell mechanical properties on temperature, thus highlighting the importance of including a proper temperature-control system in the experimental apparatus.

  15. Affinity Monolith-Integrated Microchips for Protein Purification and Concentration.

    PubMed

    Gao, Changlu; Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Qiao, Wei; Hu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Affinity chromatography is a valuable method to purify and concentrate minute amount of proteins. Monoliths with epoxy groups for affinity immobilization were prepared by direct in-situ photopolymerization of glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in porogenic solvents consisting of 1-dodecanol and cyclohexanol. By integrating affinity monoliths onto a microfluidic system, targeted biomolecules can be captured and retained on affinity column, while other biomolecules having no specific interactions toward the immobilized ligands flow through the microchannel. Therefore, proteins which remain on the affinity column are purified and concentrated, and then eluted by appropriate solutions and finally, separated by microchip capillary electrophoresis. This integrated microfluidic device has been applied to the purification and separation of specific proteins (FITC-labeled human serum albumin and IgG) in a mixture.

  16. Preparation of Glucose Sensor Using Polydimethylsiloxane / Polypyrrole Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuzawa, Mikito; Inoue, Shigeru; Imai, Shinji

    New glucose oxidase (GOD) immobilized glucose sensors were prepared by the electropolymerization of 1-(6-D-gluconamidohexyl) pyrrole (GHP) on the platinum wire electrode precoated with the mixture solution of pyrrole derivative GHP, polydimethylsiloxane (PDS) and Nafion. The addition of Nafion into the precoating mixture solution was essential to obtain suitable sensor sensitivity. However, the sensitivity was about the half of that of the electrode without PDS precoating. Although, the introduction of Nafion was effective to improve the long-term stability of the enzyme-immobilized electrode, the electrode prepared using Nafion, PDS and GHP performed excellent long-term stability even at the measurement and storage temperatures of 40°C. Relatively constant response current was obtained over 30 days under the condition of 40°C and over 9 months measured at 25°C. Moreover, the GOD-immobilized GHP polymer film prepared on the electrode precoated with GHP, PDS and Nafion solution, was found to have excellent hemocompatibility from the result of platelet rich plasma contacting test.

  17. High-grade optical polydimethylsiloxane for microfluidic applications.

    PubMed

    Lovchik, Robert Dean; Wolf, Heiko; Delamarche, Emmanuel

    2011-12-01

    Commercially available polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers, such as Sylgard 184® are widely used in soft lithography and for microfluidic applications. These PDMS elastomers contain fillers to enhance their mechanical stability. The reinforcing fillers, often sub-micrometer small SiO(2) particles, tend to aggregate, swell with water, and thereby become cognoscible in a way that can strongly interfere with the visualization of micro-scale events taking place next to PDMS structures. As PDMS microfluidics are often used for studying cells and micro-/nanoparticles and for creating/handling nanodroplets, it has become highly desirable to employ a PDMS having high optical quality and that allows microscopy observation without artifacts. Here, we present a PDMS formulation that is free of fillers and has sufficiently low viscosity to perform a filtration step of the mixed prepolymers before curing. By molding a bi-layer microfluidic network (MFN), composed of a thin filler-free PDMS layer and a thicker Sylgard 184® backing layer, PDMS MFNs featuring both high optical quality and mechanical stability, can be fabricated.

  18. Modulating molecular and nanoparticle transport in flexible polydimethylsiloxane membranes

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Kexin; Graham, Chase L.; Wolff, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The ability to fabricate flexible filtration membranes that can selectively separate particles of different sizes is of considerable interest. In this article, we describe a facile, reproducible and simple one-step method to produce pores in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes. We embedded micron-sized NaHCO3 particles in 50 micron thick PDMS films. After curing, the membranes were immersed in concentrated HCl acid. Pores were generated in the membrane by the evolution of CO2 gas from the reaction of NaHCO3 and HCl. High resolution Scanning Electron Microscope images clearly reveal the presence of openings on the surface and the cross-section of the membranes. Fluorescence and back-scattered electron imaging of porous PDMS membrane with embedded gold nanoparticles and comparison with non-porous PDMS membranes provided unambiguous evidence of pores in the membrane. Transport studies of molecular fluoresceinate ions, ions (sodium and chloride) and 240 nm polystyrene nanoparticles through these membranes demonstrate passable pores and existence of channels within the body of the membrane. Mechanically stretching the porous PDMS membrane and comparing the flow rates of fluoresceinate ions and the polystyrene beads through the stretched and unstretched membranes allowed a direct proof of the modulation of transport rate in the membranes. We show that stretching the membranes by 10% increases the flow rate of fluorescein molecules by 2.8 times and by a factor of approximately ~40% for the polystyrene nanoparticles. PMID:22942529

  19. Surface Wrinkling on Polydimethylsiloxane Microspheres via Wet Surface Chemical Oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jian; Han, Xue; Cao, Yanping; Lu, Conghua

    2014-01-01

    Here we introduce a simple low-cost yet robust method to realize spontaneously wrinkled morphologies on spherical surfaces. It is based on surface chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase-synthesized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microspheres in the mixed H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solution. Consequently, curvature and overstress-sensitive wrinkles including dimples and labyrinth patterns are successfully induced on the resulting oxidized PDMS microspheres. A power-law dependence of the wrinkling wavelength on the microsphere radius exists. The effects of experimental parameters on these tunable spherical wrinkles have been systematically investigated, when the microspheres are pre-deposited on a substrate. These parameters include the radius and modulus of microspheres, the mixed acid solution composition, the oxidation duration, and the water washing post-treatment. Meanwhile, the complicated chemical oxidation process has also been well studied by in-situ optical observation via the microsphere system, which represents an intractable issue in a planar system. Furthermore, we realize surface wrinkled topographies on the whole microspheres at a large scale, when microspheres are directly dispersed in the mixed acid solution for surface oxidation. These results indicate that the introduced wet surface chemical oxidation has the great potential to apply to other complicated curved surfaces for large-scale generation of well-defined wrinkling patterns, which endow the solids with desired physical properties. PMID:25028198

  20. Asymmetric gold nanoparticle reduction into polydimethylsiloxane thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunklin, Jeremy R.; Forcherio, Gregory T.; Berry, Keith R.; Roper, D. Keith

    2014-09-01

    Polymer thin films embedded with plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are of significant interest in biomedicine, optics, photovoltaic, and nanoelectromechanical systems. Thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films containing 3-7 micron layers of AuNPs that were fabricated with a novel diffusive-reduction synthesis technique attenuated up to 85% of incoming laser light at the plasmon resonance. Rapid diffusive reduction of AuNPs into asymmetric PDMS thin films provided superior optothermal capabilities relative to thicker films in which AuNPs were reduced throughout. A photonto- heat conversion of up to 3000°C/watt was demonstrated, which represents a 3-230-fold increase over previous AuNPfunctionalized systems. Optical attenuation and thermal response increased in proportion to order of magnitude increases in tetrachloroaurate (TCA) solution concentration. Optical and thermoplasmonic responses were observed with and without an adjacent mesh support, which increased attenuation but decreased thermal response. Morphological, optical, and thermoplasmonic properties of asymmetric AuNP-PDMS films varied significantly with diffusive TCA concentration. Gold nanoparticles, networks, and conglomerates were formed via reduction as the amount of dissolved TCA increased across a log10-scale. Increasing TCA concentrations caused polymer surface cratering, leading to a larger effective surface area. This method, utilizing the diffusion of TCA into a single exposed partially cured PDMS interface, could be used to replace expensive lithographic or solution synthesis of plasmon-functionalized systems.

  1. Hybrid silicon/silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) microsystem for cell culture.

    PubMed

    Christen, Jennifer Blain; Andreou, Andreas G

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the design, fabrication and testing of a hybrid microsystem for stand-alone cell culture and incubation. The micro-incubator is engineered through the integration of a silicon CMOS die for the heater and temperature sensor, with multilayer silicone PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) structures namely, fluidic channels and a 4 mm diameter, 30 microL, culture well. A 25 micron thick PDMS membrane covers the top of the culture well, acting as barrier to contaminants while allowing the cells to exchange gases with the ambient environment. The packaging for the microsystem includes a flexible polyimide electronic ribbon cable and four fluidic ports that provide external interfaces to electrical energy, closed loop sensing and electronic control as well as solid and liquid supplies. The complete structure has a size of (2.5x2.5x0.6 cm3). We have employed the device to successfully culture BHK-21 cells autonomously over a sixty hour period in ambient environment.

  2. Study of carbon nanotubes based Polydimethylsiloxane composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, M. I.; Giorcelli, M.; Shahzad, N.; Guastella, S.; Castellino, M.; Jagdale, P.; Tagliaferro, A.

    2013-06-01

    Thanks to their remarkable characteristics, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have fields of applications which are growing every day. Among them, the use of CNTs as filler for polymers is one of the most promising. In this work we report on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composites with different weight percentages (0.0% to 3.0%) of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) having diameter 10-30 nm and length 20-30 μm. To achieve optimum dispersion of CNTs in PDMS matrix, high speed mechanical stirring and ultrasonication were performed. By using the doctor blade technique, 70 μm thick uniform films were produced on glass. They were subsequently thermally cured and detached from the glass to get flexible and self standing films. The surface morphological study done by FESEM, shows that CNTs are well dispersed in the PDMS. Raman spectroscopy and FTIR were used to investigate the possible structural changes in the polymer composite. To examine the optical behavior UV-VIS spectroscopy was employed in both specular and diffused modes. A linear increase in absorption coefficient is found with the increasing percentage of CNTs while the transmittance decreases exponentially. The results confirm the dependence of optical limiting effect on the quantity of MWCNTs. Based on optical study, MWCNTs/PDMS composite films can be a promising material to extend performances of optical limiters against laser pulses, which is often required in lasing systems.

  3. Magnetophoretic manipulation in microsystem using carbonyl iron-polydimethylsiloxane microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Faivre, Magalie; Gelszinnis, Renaud; Degouttes, Jérôme; Terrier, Nicolas; Rivière, Charlotte; Ferrigno, Rosaria; Deman, Anne-Laure

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the use of a recent composite material, noted hereafter i-PDMS, made of carbonyl iron microparticles mixed in a PolyDiMethylSiloxane (PDMS) matrix, for magnetophoretic functions such as capture and separation of magnetic species. We demonstrated that this composite which combine the advantages of both components, can locally generate high gradients of magnetic field when placed between two permanent magnets. After evaluating the magnetic susceptibility of the material as a function of the doping ratio, we investigated the molding resolution offered by i-PDMS to obtain microstructures of various sizes and shapes. Then, we implemented 500 μm i-PDMS microstructures in a microfluidic channel and studied the influence of flow rate on the deviation and trapping of superparamagnetic beads flowing at the neighborhood of the composite material. We characterized the attraction of the magnetic composite by measuring the distance from the i-PDMS microstructure, at which the beads are either deviated or captured. Finally, we demonstrated the interest of i-PDMS to perform magnetophoretic functions in microsystems for biological applications by performing capture of magnetically labeled cells. PMID:25332740

  4. Random lasing action in a polydimethylsiloxane wrinkle induced disordered structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Zhenhua; Wu, Leilei; Zhu, Shu; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-07-14

    This paper presents a chip-scale random lasing action utilizing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wrinkles with random periods as disordered medium. Nanoscale wrinkles with long range disorder structures are formed on the oxidized surface of a PDMS slab and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Light multiply scattered at each PDMS wrinkle-dye interfaces is optically amplified in the presence of pump gain. The shift of laser emission wavelength when pumping at different regions indicates the randomness of the winkle period. In addition, a relatively low threshold of about 27 μJ/mm{sup 2} is realized, which is comparable with traditional optofluidic dye laser. This is due to the unique sinusoidal Bragg-grating-like random structure. Contrast to conventional microfluidic dye laser that inevitably requires the accurate design and implementation of microcavity to provide optical feedback, the convenience in both fabrication and operation makes PDMS wrinkle based random laser a promising underlying element in lab-on-a-chip systems and integrated microfluidic networks.

  5. Thin Films of Polydimethylsiloxane-Containing Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadley, Maurice; Cavicchi, Kevin

    2009-03-01

    The self-assembly of block copolymers into ordered nanostructures such as spheres, cylinders, and lamellae in the range of 10-100 nm makes them interesting materials for patterning surfaces. Thin films of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) containing block copolymers are attractive for patterning due to their high oxygen etch resistance compared to other polymers. The main disadvantage of these polymers for patterning is the low surface tension of PDMS. This causes the preferential migration of PDMS to the air/film interface driving the formation of domains parallel to the interface and surface wetting layers. In this work a series of AB block copolymers containing PDMS have been prepared via RAFT polymerization where the surface tension of the opposing block was varied. Using a macro chain transfer approach, it is possible to isolate the effect of changing the opposing block while keeping the PDMS the same in each different block copolymer. The effect of changing the surface tension mismatch between the blocks on the thin film morphology will be discussed.

  6. Electroosmotic properties of microfluidic channels composed of poly(dimethylsiloxane).

    PubMed

    Ren, X; Bachman, M; Sims, C; Li, G P; Allbritton, N

    2001-10-25

    Microfluidic devices fabricated from polymers exhibit great potential in biological analyses. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) has shown promise as a substrate for rapid prototyping of devices. Despite this, disagreement exists in the literature as to the ability of PDMS to support electroosmotic (EO) flow and the stability of that flow over time. We demonstrate that in low ionic strength solutions near neutral in pH. oxidized PDMS had a four-fold greater EO mobility (mu(eo)) compared to native PDMS. The greater mu(eo) was maintained irrespective of whether glass or PDMS was used as a support forming one side of the channel. This enhanced mu(eo) was preserved as long as the channels were filled with an aqueous solution. Upon exposure of the channels to air, the mobility decreased by a factor of two with a half-life of 9 h. The EO properties of the air-exposed, oxidized PDMS were regenerated by exposure to strong base. High ionic strength, neutral in pH buffers compatible with living eukaryotic cells diminished the EO flow in the oxidized PDMS devices to a much greater extent than in the native PDMS devices. For analyses utilizing intact and living cells, oxidation of PDMS may not be an effective strategy to substantially increase the mu(eo).

  7. Surface wrinkling on polydimethylsiloxane microspheres via wet surface chemical oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian; Han, Xue; Cao, Yanping; Lu, Conghua

    2014-07-16

    Here we introduce a simple low-cost yet robust method to realize spontaneously wrinkled morphologies on spherical surfaces. It is based on surface chemical oxidation of aqueous-phase-synthesized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microspheres in the mixed H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solution. Consequently, curvature and overstress-sensitive wrinkles including dimples and labyrinth patterns are successfully induced on the resulting oxidized PDMS microspheres. A power-law dependence of the wrinkling wavelength on the microsphere radius exists. The effects of experimental parameters on these tunable spherical wrinkles have been systematically investigated, when the microspheres are pre-deposited on a substrate. These parameters include the radius and modulus of microspheres, the mixed acid solution composition, the oxidation duration, and the water washing post-treatment. Meanwhile, the complicated chemical oxidation process has also been well studied by in-situ optical observation via the microsphere system, which represents an intractable issue in a planar system. Furthermore, we realize surface wrinkled topographies on the whole microspheres at a large scale, when microspheres are directly dispersed in the mixed acid solution for surface oxidation. These results indicate that the introduced wet surface chemical oxidation has the great potential to apply to other complicated curved surfaces for large-scale generation of well-defined wrinkling patterns, which endow the solids with desired physical properties.

  8. Polydimethylsiloxane membranes for millimeter-wave planar ultra flexible antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiercelin, Nicolas; Coquet, Philippe; Sauleau, Ronan; Senez, Vincent; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2006-11-01

    We present here the use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes as a new soft polymer substrate (ɛr ap 2.67 at 77 GHz) for the realization of ultra-flexible millimeter-wave printed antennas thanks to the extremely low Young's modulus (EPDMS < 2 MPa). Ultimately this peculiar property enables one to design wide-angle mechanically beam-steering antennas and flexible conformal antennas. The experimental characterization of PDMS material in V- and W-bands highlights high loss tangent values (tanδ ap 0.04 at 77 GHz). Thus micromachining techniques have been developed to reduce dielectric losses for antenna applications at millimeter waves. Here the antenna performance is demonstrated in the 60 GHz band by considering a single microstrip patch antenna supported by a PDMS membrane over an air-filled cavity. After a brief description of the design approach using the method of moments (MoM) and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, the technological processes are described in detail. The input impedance and radiation patterns of the prototype are in good agreement with numerical simulations. The radiation efficiency of the micromachined antenna is equal to 60% and is in the same order as that obtained with conventional polymer bulk substrates such as Duroids. These results confirm the validity of the new technological process and assembly procedure, and demonstrate that PDMS membranes can be used to realize low-loss planar membrane-supported millimeter-wave printed circuits and radiating structures.

  9. Controlled Mechanical Cracking of Metal Films Deposited on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    PubMed Central

    Polywka, Andreas; Stegers, Luca; Krauledat, Oliver; Riedl, Thomas; Jakob, Timo; Görrn, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable large area electronics conform to arbitrarily-shaped 3D surfaces and enables comfortable contact to the human skin and other biological tissue. There are approaches allowing for large area thin films to be stretched by tens of percent without cracking. The approach presented here does not prevent cracking, rather it aims to precisely control the crack positions and their orientation. For this purpose, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is hardened by exposure to ultraviolet radiation (172 nm) through an exposure mask. Only well-defined patterns are kept untreated. With these soft islands cracks at the hardened surface can be controlled in terms of starting position, direction and end position. This approach is first investigated at the hardened PDMS surface itself. It is then applied to conductive silver films deposited from the liquid phase. It is found that statistical (uncontrolled) cracking of the silver films can be avoided at strain below 35%. This enables metal interconnects to be integrated into stretchable networks. The combination of controlled cracks with wrinkling enables interconnects that are stretchable in arbitrary and changing directions. The deposition and patterning does not involve vacuum processing, photolithography, or solvents.

  10. Evaluation of polydimethylsiloxane modification methods for cell response.

    PubMed

    Pakstis, L M; Dunkers, J P; Zheng, A; Vorburger, T V; Quinn, T P; Cicerone, M T

    2010-02-01

    Many methods exist in the literature to modify surfaces with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins prior to cell seeding. However, there are few studies that systematically characterize and compare surface properties and cell response results among modification methods that use different bonding mechanisms. In this work, we compare cell response and physical characterization results from fibronectin or laminin attached to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer surfaces by physical adsorption, chemisorption, and covalent attachment to determine the best method to modify a deformable surface. We evaluate modification methods based on completeness and uniformity of coverage, surface roughness, and hydrophilicity of attached ECM protein. Smooth muscle cell adhesion, proliferation, morphology, and phenotype were also evaluated. We found that chemisorption methods resulted in higher amounts of protein attachment than physical adsorption and covalent bonding of the ECM proteins. Cell response to protein-modified surfaces was similar with respect to cell adhesion, area, aspect ratio, and phenotype. When all the data are considered, the chemisorption methods, most notably silane_70, provide the best surface properties and highest cell proliferation. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Fibroblast extracellular matrix and adhesion on microtextured polydimethylsiloxane scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Morgan M; Parrillo, Allegra; Thomas, Gawain M; McGimpsey, W Grant; Wen, Qi; Bellin, Robert M; Lambert, Christopher R

    2015-05-01

    The immediate physical and chemical surroundings of cells provide important biochemical cues for their behavior. Designing and tailoring biomaterials for controlled cell signaling and extracellular matrix (ECM) can be difficult due to the complexity of the cell-surface relationship. To address this issue, our research has led to the development of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) scaffold with defined microtopography and chemistry for surface driven ECM assembly. When human fibroblasts were cultured on this microtextured PDMS with 2-6 µm wide vertical features, significant changes in morphology, adhesion, actin cytoskeleton, and fibronectin generation were noted when compared with cells cultured on unmodified PDMS. Investigation of cellular response and behavior was performed with atomic force microscopy in conjunction with fluorescent labeling of focal adhesion cites and fibronectin in the ECM. Changes in the surface topography induced lower adhesion, an altered actin cytoskeleton, and compacted units of fibronectin similar to that observed in vivo. Overall, these findings provide critical information of cell-surface interactions with a microtextured, polymer substrate that can be used in the field of tissue engineering for controlling cellular ECM interactions.

  12. Nitric oxide release from polydimethylsiloxane-based polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Evelyne B; Zilla, Peter; Bezuidenhout, Deon

    2014-12-30

    Localized nitric oxide (NO) release from polymeric materials holds much promise for the prevention of coagulation often associated with implantable and extracorporeal blood-contacting devices. Films of polyurethane (PU) containing incorporated polyethyleneimine were thus exposed to NO gas to form diazeniumdiolates (NONOates) in situ. Donor incorporation and NO gas exposure did not affect the mechanical properties of the films. The NO release capacity increased with increasing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) content in the soft segment of the PU: total capacity could be more than doubled (P<0.05) from 0.093 ± 0.028 to 0.225 ± 0.004 mmol/g when the PDMS content was increased from 0 to 100%. Release kinetics were best approximated using a modified Korsemeyer-Peppas power law (R2=0.95-0.99). Despite the resultant rapid initial decrease in NO release rates, values above that observed for quiescent endothelial cells (0.83 pmol·cm(-2)·s(-1)) were maintained for extended periods of 5-10 days, while rates above that of a stimulated endothelium (2.7-6.8 pmol·cm(-2)·s(-1)) were achieved for the first 24 hours. This method of NONOate formation may be advantageous, as potential premature NO release by exposure of diazeniumdiolated donors during incorporation, processing and storage, can be avoided by in situ diazoniumdiolation closer to the time of implantation.

  13. Growth of connective tissue progenitor cells on microtextured polydimethylsiloxane surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mata, Alvaro; Boehm, Cynthia; Fleischman, Aaron J; Muschler, George; Roy, Shuvo

    2002-12-15

    Growth of human connective tissue progenitor cells (CTPs) was characterized on smooth and microtextured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces. Human bone-marrow-derived cells were cultured for 9 days under conditions promoting osteoblastic differentiation on smooth PDMS surfaces and on PDMS post microtextures that were 6 microm high and 5, 10, 20, and 40 microm in diameter, respectively. Glass tissue-culture dishes were used as controls. The number of viable cells was determined, and an alkaline phosphatase stain was used as a marker for osteoblastic phenotype. CTPs attached, proliferated, and differentiated on all surfaces. Cells on the smooth PDMS and control surfaces spread and proliferated as colonies in proximity to other cells and migrated in random directions, with cell process lengths of up to 80 microm. In contrast, cells on the PDMS post microtextures grew as sparsely distributed networks of cells, with processes, occasionally up to 300 microm, that appeared to interact with the posts. Cell counts revealed that there were fewer (50%) CTPs on the smooth PDMS surface than were on the glass control surfaces. However, there were consistently more (>144%) CTPs on the PDMS post textures than on the controls. In particular, the 10-microm-in-diameter posts (268%) exhibited a significantly (p < 0.05) greater cell number than did the smooth PDMS.

  14. [Environmental behavior and ecological effect of polydimethylsiloxane: a review].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shang-Yuan; Li, Xin; Yang, Jia; Shen, Chao-Feng; Yu, Hua-Dong; Lu, Kang

    2012-08-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is widely used in industrial products, medical and health care products, and personal care products. In the treatment process of sewage, PDMS can be hardly biodegraded but enter the environment mainly through the discharge of excess sludge, and only a small amount of PDMS adsorbed on the suspended solids or sludge particle surface is discharged into water body and sediment with treated sewage. There is no enough evidence to verify that PDMS can vertically migrate in sediment. The degradation of PDMS in sediment is very slow, but PDMS can be degraded in different types of soils. PDMS has less risk to aquatic ecosystem, and no apparent acute toxicity to benthos. In soil environment, PDMS and its degradation products have no significant effects on the soil microorganisms, soil animals, and crops. Though a few studies indicated that PDMS and its degradation products have relatively low ecological toxicity in various environments, it is still very important to clarify the potential threat of PDMS to the environment because of the increasingly large number of PDMS being produced and used.

  15. Monitoring Cellular Events in Living Mast Cells Stimulated with an Extremely Small Amount of Fluid on a Microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaka, Tatsuya; Abe, Hirohisa; Kanai, Masaki; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Yamaoka, Tetsuji; Shoji, Shuichi; Murakami, Akira

    2006-07-01

    We successfully developed a measurement system for real-time analysis of cellular function using a newly designed microchip. This microchip was equipped with a micro cell incubation chamber (240 nl) and was stimulated by a very small amount of stimuli (as small as 24 nl). Using the microchip system, cultivation of mast cells was successfully carried out. Monitoring of the cellular events after stimulation with an extremely small amount of fluid on a microchip was performed. This system could be applicable for various types of cellular analysis including real-time monitoring of cellular response by stimulation.

  16. Functionality of veterinary identification microchips following low- (0.5 tesla) and high-field (3 tesla) magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Piesnack, Susann; Frame, Mairi E; Oechtering, Gerhard; Ludewig, Eberhard

    2013-01-01

    The ability to read patient identification microchips relies on the use of radiofrequency pulses. Since radiofrequency pulses also form an integral part of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) process, the possibility of loss of microchip function during MRI scanning is of concern. Previous clinical trials have shown microchip function to be unaffected by MR imaging using a field strength of 1 Tesla and 1.5. As veterinary MRI scanners range widely in field strength, this study was devised to determine whether exposure to lower or higher field strengths than 1 Tesla would affect the function of different types of microchip. In a phantom study, a total of 300 International Standards Organisation (ISO)-approved microchips (100 each of three different types: ISO FDX-B 1.4 × 9 mm, ISO FDX-B 2.12 × 12 mm, ISO HDX 3.8 × 23 mm) were tested in a low field (0.5) and a high field scanner (3.0 Tesla). A total of 50 microchips of each type were tested in each scanner. The phantom was composed of a fluid-filled freezer pack onto which a plastic pillow and a cardboard strip with affixed microchips were positioned. Following an MRI scan protocol simulating a head study, all of the microchips were accurately readable. Neither 0.5 nor 3 Tesla imaging affected microchip function in this study. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  17. Micropatterning of poly(dimethylsiloxane) using a photoresist lift-off technique for selective electrical insulation of microelectrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaewon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Han, Arum

    2009-01-01

    A poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterning method based on a photoresist lift-off technique to make an electrical insulation layer with selective openings is presented. The method enables creating PDMS patterns with small features and various thicknesses without any limitation in the designs and without the need for complicated processes or expensive equipments. Patterned PDMS layers were created by spin-coating liquid phase PDMS on top of a substrate having sacrificial photoresist patterns, followed by a photoresist lift-off process. The thickness of the patterned PDMS layers could be accurately controlled (6.5–24 µm) by adjusting processing parameters such as PDMS spin-coating speeds, PDMS dilution ratios, and sacrificial photoresist thicknesses. PDMS features as small as 15 µm were successfully patterned and the effects of each processing parameter on the final patterns were investigated. Electrical resistance tests between adjacent electrodes with and without the insulation layer showed that the patterned PDMS layer functions properly as an electrical insulation layer. Biocompatibility of the patterned PDMS layer was confirmed by culturing primary neuron cells on top of the layer for up to two weeks. An extensive neuronal network was successfully formed, showing that this PDMS patterning method can be applied to various biosensing microdevices. The utility of this fabrication method was further demonstrated by successfully creating a patterned electrical insulation layer on flexible substrates containing multi-electrode arrays. PMID:19946385

  18. Effect of anti-biofouling potential of multi-walled carbon nanotubes-filled polydimethylsiloxane composites on pioneer microbial colonization.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuan; Lang, Yanhe; Sun, Qian; Liang, Shuang; Liu, Yongkang; Zhang, Zhizhou

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, two carbon nanotube (CNT) nanofillers, namely the multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the carboxyl-modified MWCNTs (cMWCNTs), were introduced into the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix respectively, in order to produce the PDMS composites with reinforced anti-biofouling properties. The anti-biofouling capacity of the silicone-based coatings, including the unfilled PDMS (P0), the MWCNTs-filled PDMS (PM) and the cMWCNTs-filled PDMS (PC), was examined via the field assays conducted in Weihai, China. The effect of different silicone-based coatings on the dynamic variations of the pioneer microbial-community diversity was analyzed using the single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) technique. The PM and PC surfaces have exhibited excellent anti-biofouling properties in contrast to that of the PDMS surface, with extremely low attachment of the early colonizers, such as juvenile invertebrates, seaweeds and algae sporelings. The PM and PC surfaces can effectively prevent biofouling for more than 12 weeks. These combined results suggest that the incorporation of MWCNTs or cMWCNTs into the PDMS matrix can dramatically reinforce its anti-biofouling properties. The SSCP analysis reveals that compared with the PDMS surfaces, the PM and PC surfaces have strong modulating effect on the pioneer prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities, particularly on the colonization of pioneer eukaryotic microbes. The significantly reduced pioneer eukaryotic-community diversity may contribute to the weakening of the subsequent colonization of macrofoulers.

  19. Microchip electrophoresis-SDS methods with high-resolution and silver stain sensitivity for quality screening and quantitation of protein products.

    PubMed

    Han, Hongling; Chen, Xiaoyu

    2012-03-01

    Two microchip electrophoresis (ME)-SDS methods have been developed for high throughput quantitation and quality screening of protein products. Both methods utilize a commercial microchip instrument to separate dodecyl sulfate-coated proteins within 1 min. In the high-resolution ME-SDS method, improved separation selectivity is achieved using a mixture of sieving polymers. Proteins of similar sizes, such as different fragment antigen-binding (Fab) assemblies can be readily resolved and individually quantified. A high-sensitivity ME-SDS method was also developed with sensitivity comparable to that of SDS-PAGE with silver staining. In this method, protein molecules are derivatized with a fluorescence reagent prior to analysis. LIF detection of the covalently attached fluorophore enables accurate quantitation of low-expressing proteins and detection of minor species at 0.04% level (1 ng/mL loading concentration). Both the high-resolution and the high-sensitivity ME-SDS methods can be applied to crude fermentation samples. The utilities of these methods in process development and formulation stability study are presented. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Development of a Real-Time Microchip PCR System for Portable Plant Disease Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Cifci, Osman S.; Vaughn-Diaz, Vanessa L.; Ma, Bo; Kim, Sungman; Abdel-Raziq, Haron; Ong, Kevin; Jo, Young-Ki; Gross, Dennis C.; Shim, Won-Bo; Han, Arum

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of plant pathogens in the field is crucial to prevent the proliferation of infected crops. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process is the most reliable and accepted method for plant pathogen diagnosis, however current conventional PCR machines are not portable and require additional post-processing steps to detect the amplified DNA (amplicon) of pathogens. Real-time PCR can directly quantify the amplicon during the DNA amplification without the need for post processing, thus more suitable for field operations, however still takes time and require large instruments that are costly and not portable. Microchip PCR systems have emerged in the past decade to miniaturize conventional PCR systems and to reduce operation time and cost. Real-time microchip PCR systems have also emerged, but unfortunately all reported portable real-time microchip PCR systems require various auxiliary instruments. Here we present a stand-alone real-time microchip PCR system composed of a PCR reaction chamber microchip with integrated thin-film heater, a compact fluorescence detector to detect amplified DNA, a microcontroller to control the entire thermocycling operation with data acquisition capability, and a battery. The entire system is 25×16×8 cm3 in size and 843 g in weight. The disposable microchip requires only 8-µl sample volume and a single PCR run consumes 110 mAh of power. A DNA extraction protocol, notably without the use of liquid nitrogen, chemicals, and other large lab equipment, was developed for field operations. The developed real-time microchip PCR system and the DNA extraction protocol were used to successfully detect six different fungal and bacterial plant pathogens with 100% success rate to a detection limit of 5 ng/8 µl sample. PMID:24349341

  1. Development of a real-time microchip PCR system for portable plant disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Koo, Chiwan; Malapi-Wight, Martha; Kim, Hyun Soo; Cifci, Osman S; Vaughn-Diaz, Vanessa L; Ma, Bo; Kim, Sungman; Abdel-Raziq, Haron; Ong, Kevin; Jo, Young-Ki; Gross, Dennis C; Shim, Won-Bo; Han, Arum

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and accurate detection of plant pathogens in the field is crucial to prevent the proliferation of infected crops. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process is the most reliable and accepted method for plant pathogen diagnosis, however current conventional PCR machines are not portable and require additional post-processing steps to detect the amplified DNA (amplicon) of pathogens. Real-time PCR can directly quantify the amplicon during the DNA amplification without the need for post processing, thus more suitable for field operations, however still takes time and require large instruments that are costly and not portable. Microchip PCR systems have emerged in the past decade to miniaturize conventional PCR systems and to reduce operation time and cost. Real-time microchip PCR systems have also emerged, but unfortunately all reported portable real-time microchip PCR systems require various auxiliary instruments. Here we present a stand-alone real-time microchip PCR system composed of a PCR reaction chamber microchip with integrated thin-film heater, a compact fluorescence detector to detect amplified DNA, a microcontroller to control the entire thermocycling operation with data acquisition capability, and a battery. The entire system is 25 × 16 × 8 cm(3) in size and 843 g in weight. The disposable microchip requires only 8-µl sample volume and a single PCR run consumes 110 mAh of power. A DNA extraction protocol, notably without the use of liquid nitrogen, chemicals, and other large lab equipment, was developed for field operations. The developed real-time microchip PCR system and the DNA extraction protocol were used to successfully detect six different fungal and bacterial plant pathogens with 100% success rate to a detection limit of 5 ng/8 µl sample.

  2. Capillary liquid chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ostman, Pekka; Jäntti, Sirkku; Grigoras, Kestas; Saarela, Ville; Ketola, Raimo A; Franssila, Sami; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2006-07-01

    A miniaturized nebulizer chip for capillary liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (capillary LC-microchip APCI-MS) is presented. The APCI chip consists of two wafers, a silicon wafer and a Pyrex glass wafer. The silicon wafer has a DRIE etched through-wafer nebulizer gas inlet, an edge capillary insertion channel, a stopper, a vaporizer channel and a nozzle. The platinum heater electrode and pads for electrical connection were patterned on to the Pyrex glass wafer. The two wafers were joined by anodic bonding, creating a microchip version of an APCI-source. The sample inlet capillary from an LC column is directly connected to the vaporizer channel of the APCI chip. The etched nozzle in the microchip forms a narrow sample plume, which is ionized by an external corona needle, and the formed ions are analyzed by a mass spectrometer. The nebulizer chip enables for the first time the use of low flow rate separation techniques with APCI-MS. The performance of capillary LC-microchip APCI-MS was tested with selected neurosteroids. The capillary LC-microchip APCI-MS provides quantitative repeatability and good linearity. The limits of detection (LOD) with a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3 in MS/MS mode for the selected neurosteroids were 20-1000 fmol (10-500 nmol l(-1)). LODs (S/N = 3) with commercial macro APCI with the same compounds using the same MS were about 10 times higher. Fast heat transfer allows the use of the optimized temperature for each compound during an LC run. The microchip APCI-source provides a convenient and easy method to combine capillary LC to any API-MS equipped with an APCI source. The advantages and potentials of the microchip APCI also make it a very attractive interface in microfluidic APCI-MS.

  3. The moisture outgassing kinetics of a silica reinforced polydimethylsiloxane

    DOE PAGES

    Sharma, H. N.; McLean, W.; Maxwell, R. S.; ...

    2016-09-21

    We investigated a silica-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite M9787 for potential outgassing in a vacuum/dry environment with the temperature programmed desorption/reaction method. The outgassing kinetics of 463 K vacuum heat-treated samples, vacuum heat-treated samples which were subsequently re-exposed to moisture, and untreated samples were extracted using the isoconversional and constrained iterative regression methods in a complementary fashion. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of water interactions with a silica surface were also performed to provide insight into the structural motifs leading to the obtained kinetic parameters. Kinetic analysis/model revealed that no outgassing occurs from the vacuum heat-treated samples in subsequent vacuum/dry environmentmore » applications at room temperature (~300 K). Moreover, the main effect of re-exposure of the vacuum heat-treated samples to a glove box condition (~30 ppm by volume of H2O) for even a couple of days was the formation, on the silica surface fillers, of ~60 ppm by weight of physisorbed and loosely bonded moisture, which subsequently outgasses at room temperature in a vacuum/dry environment in a time span of 10 yr. However, without any vacuum heat treatment and even after 1 h of vacuum pump down, about 300 ppm by weight of H2O would be released from the PDMS in the next few hours. Thereafter the outgassing rate slows down substantially. Our presented methodology of using the isoconversional kinetic analysis results and some appropriate nature of the reaction as the constraints for more accurate iterative regression analysis/deconvolution of complex kinetic spectra, and of checking the so-obtained results with first principle calculations such as DFT can serve as a template for treating other complex physical/chemical processes as well.« less

  4. Culture of bovine embryos on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell plate.

    PubMed

    Akagi, Satoshi; Hosoe, Misa; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Takahashi, Seiya

    2010-08-01

    We fabricated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microwell plate (PDMS-MP) containing 100 microwells with a rounded bottom and examined whether it can be used for culture of individual in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos or parthenogenetically activated zona-free embryos in cattle. In Experiment 1, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of IVF embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. After IVF, 20 embryos were transferred into 100 microl drops on PDMS-MP and cultured individually in each well of PDMS-MP (PDMS group). After 7 days of culture, the embryos in the PDMS group developed to the blastocyst stage at the same rate of those in the control group cultured in a group of 20 embryos without PDMS-MP. There were no differences in total number of cells and the ratio of inner cell mass to total cells between the PDMS and control groups. In Experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of parthenogenetically activated zona-free bovine embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. The zona-free embryos were cultured individually in each well of a PDMS-MP or in each well produced by pressing a darning needle onto the bottom of a culture dish (WOW group). After 7 days of culture, the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts in the PDMS group did not differ from those of the zona-intact embryos in the control group. Also, there were no differences in the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts between the WOW and PDMS groups. These results suggest that the culture system using PDMS-MP is useful for individual embryos or zona-free embryos in cattle.

  5. The moisture outgassing kinetics of a silica reinforced polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, H. N.; McLean, W.; Maxwell, R. S.; Dinh, L. N.

    2016-09-21

    We investigated a silica-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite M9787 for potential outgassing in a vacuum/dry environment with the temperature programmed desorption/reaction method. The outgassing kinetics of 463 K vacuum heat-treated samples, vacuum heat-treated samples which were subsequently re-exposed to moisture, and untreated samples were extracted using the isoconversional and constrained iterative regression methods in a complementary fashion. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of water interactions with a silica surface were also performed to provide insight into the structural motifs leading to the obtained kinetic parameters. Kinetic analysis/model revealed that no outgassing occurs from the vacuum heat-treated samples in subsequent vacuum/dry environment applications at room temperature (~300 K). Moreover, the main effect of re-exposure of the vacuum heat-treated samples to a glove box condition (~30 ppm by volume of H2O) for even a couple of days was the formation, on the silica surface fillers, of ~60 ppm by weight of physisorbed and loosely bonded moisture, which subsequently outgasses at room temperature in a vacuum/dry environment in a time span of 10 yr. However, without any vacuum heat treatment and even after 1 h of vacuum pump down, about 300 ppm by weight of H2O would be released from the PDMS in the next few hours. Thereafter the outgassing rate slows down substantially. Our presented methodology of using the isoconversional kinetic analysis results and some appropriate nature of the reaction as the constraints for more accurate iterative regression analysis/deconvolution of complex kinetic spectra, and of checking the so-obtained results with first principle calculations such as DFT can serve as a template for treating other complex physical/chemical processes as well.

  6. Flow lithography in ultraviolet-curable polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chips.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junbeom; An, Heseong; Seo, Yoojin; Jung, Youngmee; Lee, Jong Suk; Choi, Nakwon; Bong, Ki Wan

    2017-03-01

    Flow Lithography (FL) is the technique used for the synthesis of hydrogel microparticles with various complex shapes and distinct chemical compositions by combining microfluidics with photolithography. Although polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been used most widely as almost the sole material for FL, PDMS microfluidic chips have limitations: (1) undesired shrinkage due to the thermal expansion of masters used for replica molding and (2) interfacial delamination between two thermally cured PDMS layers. Here, we propose the utilization of ultraviolet (UV)-curable PDMS (X-34-4184) for FL as an excellent alternative material of the conventional PDMS. Our proposed utilization of the UV-curable PDMS offers three key advantages, observed in our study: (1) UV-curable PDMS exhibited almost the same oxygen permeability as the conventional PDMS. (2) The almost complete absence of shrinkage facilitated the fabrication of more precise reverse duplication of microstructures. (3) UV-cured PDMS microfluidic chips were capable of much stronger interfacial bonding so that the burst pressure increased to ∼0.9 MPa. Owing to these benefits, we demonstrated a substantial improvement of productivity in synthesizing polyethylene glycol diacrylate microparticles via stop flow lithography, by applying a flow time (40 ms) an order of magnitude shorter. Our results suggest that UV-cured PDMS chips can be used as a general platform for various types of flow lithography and also be employed readily in other applications where very precise replication of structures on micro- or sub-micrometer scales and/or strong interfacial bonding are desirable.

  7. Biological implications of polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic cell culture†

    PubMed Central

    Regehr, Keil J.; Domenech, Maribella; Koepsel, Justin T.; Carver, Kristopher C.; Ellison-Zelski, Stephanie J.; Murphy, William L.; Schuler, Linda A.; Alarid, Elaine T.; Beebe, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has become a staple of the microfluidics community by virtue of its simple fabrication process and material attributes, such as gas permeability, optical transparency, and flexibility. As microfluidic systems are put toward biological problems and increasingly utilized as cell culture platforms, the material properties of PDMS must be considered in a biological context. Two properties of PDMS were addressed in this study: the leaching of uncured oligomers from the polymer network into microchannel media, and the absorption of small, hydrophobic molecules (i.e. estrogen) from serum-containing media into the polymer bulk. Uncured PDMS oligomers were detectable via MALDI-MS in microchannel media both before and after Soxhlet extraction of PDMS devices in ethanol. Additionally, PDMS oligomers were identified in the plasma membranes of NMuMG cells cultured in PDMS microchannels for 24 hours. Cells cultured in extracted microchannels also contained a detectable amount of uncured PDMS. It was shown that MCF-7 cells seeded directly on PDMS inserts were responsive to hydrophilic prolactin but not hydrophobic estrogen, reflecting its specificity for absorbing small, hydrophobic molecules; and the presence of PDMS floating in wells significantly reduced cellular response to estrogen in a serum-dependent manner. Quantification of estrogen via ELISA revealed that microchannel estrogen partitioned rapidly into the surrounding PDMS to a ratio of approximately 9:1. Pretreatments such as blocking with serum or pre-absorbing estrogen for 24 hours did not affect estrogen loss from PDMS-based microchannels. These findings highlight the importance of careful consideration of culture system properties when determining an appropriate environment for biological experiments. PMID:19606288

  8. The moisture outgassing kinetics of a silica reinforced polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, H. N.; McLean, W.; Maxwell, R. S.; Dinh, L. N.

    2016-09-21

    We investigated a silica-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite M9787 for potential outgassing in a vacuum/dry environment with the temperature programmed desorption/reaction method. The outgassing kinetics of 463 K vacuum heat-treated samples, vacuum heat-treated samples which were subsequently re-exposed to moisture, and untreated samples were extracted using the isoconversional and constrained iterative regression methods in a complementary fashion. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of water interactions with a silica surface were also performed to provide insight into the structural motifs leading to the obtained kinetic parameters. Kinetic analysis/model revealed that no outgassing occurs from the vacuum heat-treated samples in subsequent vacuum/dry environment applications at room temperature (~300 K). Moreover, the main effect of re-exposure of the vacuum heat-treated samples to a glove box condition (~30 ppm by volume of H2O) for even a couple of days was the formation, on the silica surface fillers, of ~60 ppm by weight of physisorbed and loosely bonded moisture, which subsequently outgasses at room temperature in a vacuum/dry environment in a time span of 10 yr. However, without any vacuum heat treatment and even after 1 h of vacuum pump down, about 300 ppm by weight of H2O would be released from the PDMS in the next few hours. Thereafter the outgassing rate slows down substantially. Our presented methodology of using the isoconversional kinetic analysis results and some appropriate nature of the reaction as the constraints for more accurate iterative regression analysis/deconvolution of complex kinetic spectra, and of checking the so-obtained results with first principle calculations such as DFT can serve as a template for treating other complex physical/chemical processes as well.

  9. The moisture outgassing kinetics of a silica reinforced polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, H. N.; McLean, W.; Maxwell, R. S.; Dinh, L. N.

    2016-09-01

    A silica-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite M9787 was investigated for potential outgassing in a vacuum/dry environment with the temperature programmed desorption/reaction method. The outgassing kinetics of 463 K vacuum heat-treated samples, vacuum heat-treated samples which were subsequently re-exposed to moisture, and untreated samples were extracted using the isoconversional and constrained iterative regression methods in a complementary fashion. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of water interactions with a silica surface were also performed to provide insight into the structural motifs leading to the obtained kinetic parameters. Kinetic analysis/model revealed that no outgassing occurs from the vacuum heat-treated samples in subsequent vacuum/dry environment applications at room temperature (˜300 K). The main effect of re-exposure of the vacuum heat-treated samples to a glove box condition (˜30 ppm by volume of H2O) for even a couple of days was the formation, on the silica surface fillers, of ˜60 ppm by weight of physisorbed and loosely bonded moisture, which subsequently outgasses at room temperature in a vacuum/dry environment in a time span of 10 yr. However, without any vacuum heat treatment and even after 1 h of vacuum pump down, about 300 ppm by weight of H2O would be released from the PDMS in the next few hours. Thereafter the outgassing rate slows down substantially. The presented methodology of using the isoconversional kinetic analysis results and some appropriate nature of the reaction as the constraints for more accurate iterative regression analysis/deconvolution of complex kinetic spectra, and of checking the so-obtained results with first principle calculations such as DFT can serve as a template for treating other complex physical/chemical processes as well.

  10. Polydimethylsiloxane SlipChip for mammalian cell culture applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Wen; Peng, Chien-Chung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Tung, Yi-Chung

    2015-11-07

    This paper reports a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) SlipChip for in vitro cell culture applications, multiple-treatment assays, cell co-cultures, and cytokine detection assays. The PDMS SlipChip is composed of two PDMS layers with microfluidic channels on each surface that are separated by a thin silicone fluid (Si-fluid) layer. The integration of Si-fluid enables the two PDMS layers to be slid to different positions; therefore, the channel patterns can be re-arranged for various applications. The SlipChip design significantly reduces the complexity of sample handling, transportation, and treatment processes. To apply the developed SlipChip for cell culture applications, human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (A549) and lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) were cultured to examine the biocompatibility of the developed PDMS SlipChip. Moreover, embryonic pluripotent stem cells (ES-D3) were also cultured in the device to evaluate the retention of their stemness in the device. The experimental results show that cell morphology, viability and proliferation are not affected when the cells are cultured in the SlipChip, indicating that the device is highly compatible with mammalian cell culture. In addition, the stemness of the ES-D3 cells was highly retained after they were cultured in the device, suggesting the feasibility of using the SlipChip for stem cell research. Various cell experiments, such as simultaneous triple staining of cells and co-culture of MRC-5 with A549 cells, were also performed to demonstrate the functionalities of the PDMS SlipChip. Furthermore, we used a cytokine detection assay to evaluate the effect of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) treatment on the cytokine secretion of A549 cells using the SlipChip. The developed PDMS SlipChip provides a straightforward and effective platform for various on-chip in vitro cell cultures and consequent analysis, which is promising for a number of cell biology studies and biomedical applications.

  11. Biological implications of polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic cell culture.

    PubMed

    Regehr, Keil J; Domenech, Maribella; Koepsel, Justin T; Carver, Kristopher C; Ellison-Zelski, Stephanie J; Murphy, William L; Schuler, Linda A; Alarid, Elaine T; Beebe, David J

    2009-08-07

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has become a staple of the microfluidics community by virtue of its simple fabrication process and material attributes, such as gas permeability, optical transparency, and flexibility. As microfluidic systems are put toward biological problems and increasingly utilized as cell culture platforms, the material properties of PDMS must be considered in a biological context. Two properties of PDMS were addressed in this study: the leaching of uncured oligomers from the polymer network into microchannel media, and the absorption of small, hydrophobic molecules (i.e. estrogen) from serum-containing media into the polymer bulk. Uncured PDMS oligomers were detectable via MALDI-MS in microchannel media both before and after Soxhlet extraction of PDMS devices in ethanol. Additionally, PDMS oligomers were identified in the plasma membranes of NMuMG cells cultured in PDMS microchannels for 24 hours. Cells cultured in extracted microchannels also contained a detectable amount of uncured PDMS. It was shown that MCF-7 cells seeded directly on PDMS inserts were responsive to hydrophilic prolactin but not hydrophobic estrogen, reflecting its specificity for absorbing small, hydrophobic molecules; and the presence of PDMS floating in wells significantly reduced cellular response to estrogen in a serum-dependent manner. Quantification of estrogen via ELISA revealed that microchannel estrogen partitioned rapidly into the surrounding PDMS to a ratio of approximately 9:1. Pretreatments such as blocking with serum or pre-absorbing estrogen for 24 hours did not affect estrogen loss from PDMS-based microchannels. These findings highlight the importance of careful consideration of culture system properties when determining an appropriate environment for biological experiments.

  12. Optical properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) during nanosecond laser processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankova, N. E.; Atanasov, P. A.; Nikov, Ru. G.; Nikov, R. G.; Nedyalkov, N. N.; Stoyanchov, T. R.; Fukata, N.; Kolev, K. N.; Valova, E. I.; Georgieva, J. S.; Armyanov, St. A.

    2016-06-01

    This article presents experimental investigations of effects of the process parameters on the medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer processed by laser source with irradiation at UV (266 and 355 nm), VIS (532 nm) and NIR (1064 nm). Systematic experiments are done to characterize how the laser beam parameters (wavelength, fluence, and number of pulses) affect the optical properties and the chemical composition in the laser treated areas. Remarkable changes of the optical properties and the chemical composition are observed. Despite the low optical absorption of the native PDMS for UV, VIS and NIR wavelengths, successful laser treatment is accomplished due to the incubation process occurring below the polymer surface. With increasing of the fluence and the number of the pulses chemical transformations are revealed in the entire laser treated area and hence decreasing of the optical transmittance is observed. The incubation gets saturation after a certain number of pulses and the laser ablation of the material begins efficiently. At the UV and VIS wavelengths the number of the initial pulses, at which the optical transmittance begins to reduce, decreases from 16 up to 8 with increasing of the laser fluence up to 1.0, 2.5 and 10 J cm-2 for 266, 355 and 532 nm, respectively. In the case of 1064 nm the optical transmittance begins to reduce at 11th pulse incident at a fluence of 13 J cm-2 and the number of the pulses decreases to 8 when the fluence reaches value of 16 J cm-2. The threshold laser fluence needed to induce incubation process after certain number of pulses of 8 is different for every wavelength irradiation as the values increase from 1.0 for 266 nm up to 16 J cm-2 for 1064 nm. The incubation and the ablation processes occur in the PDMS elastomer material during its pulsed laser treatment are a complex function of the wavelength, fluence, number of pulses and the material properties as well.

  13. Highly Transparent and Flexible Triboelectric Nanogenerators with Subwavelength-Architectured Polydimethylsiloxane by a Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template.

    PubMed

    Dudem, Bhaskar; Ko, Yeong Hwan; Leem, Jung Woo; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yu, Jae Su

    2015-09-23

    Highly transparent and flexible triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) were fabricated using the subwavelength-architectured (SWA) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template as a replica mold. The SWA PDMS could be utilized as a multifunctional film for a triboelectric layer, an antireflection coating, and a self-cleaning surface. The nanopore arrays of AAO were formed by a simple, fast, and cost-effective electrochemical oxidation process of aluminum, which is relatively impressive for fabrication of the TENG device. For electrical contacts, the SWA PDMS was laminated on the indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) as a bottom electrode, and the bare ITO-coated PET (i.e., ITO/PET) was used for the top electrode. Compared to the ITO/PET, the SWA PDMS on the ITO/PET improved the transmittance from 80.5 to 83% in the visible wavelength region and also had high transmittances of >85% at wavelengths of 430-455 nm. The SWA PDMS also exhibited the hydrophobic surface with a water contact angle (θCA) of ∼115°, which can be useful for self-cleaning applications. The average transmittance (Tavg) of the entire TENG device was observed to be ∼70% over a broad wavelength range. At an external pushing frequency of 0.5 Hz, for the TENG device with the ITO top electrode, open-circuit voltage (VOC) and short-circuit current (ISC) values of ∼3.8 V and ∼0.8 μA were obtained instantaneously, respectively, which were higher than those (i.e., VOC ≈ 2.2 V, and ISC ≈ 0.4 μA) of the TENG device with a gold top electrode. The effect of external pushing force and frequency on the output device performance of the TENGs was investigated, including the device robustness. A theoretical optical analysis of SWA PDMS was also performed.

  14. Fluorometric flow-immunoassay for alkylphenol polyethoxylates on a microchip containing a fluorescence detector comprised of an organic light emitting diode and an organic photodiode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-03-01

    A compact fluorescence detector was constructed on a microchip from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) as the light source and an organic photodiode (OPD) as the photo-detector and was used in an immunoassay for alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APE). The OLED based on a terbium complex emitted a sharp light at the main wavelength of 546 nm with a full width at half maximum of 9 nm. The incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of the OPD fabricated with Fullerene 70 (C70) and tris[4-(5-phenylthiopen-2-yl)phenyl]-amine (TPTPA) was approximately 44% for light at a wavelength of 586 nm. The performance of the fluorescence detector was evaluated for the determination of resorufin (λ(em)=586 nm) and the photocurrent of the OPD due to the fluorescence of resorufin was proportional to the concentration of resorufin in the range from 0 to 18 µM with a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.6 µM. The fluorescence detector was successfully utilized in a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for APE, where an anti-APE antibody was immobilized on the surface of the channel of the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip or on the surface of magnetic microbeads. After an immunoreaction with a sample solution of APE containing a horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled APE, the fluorescence of resorufin generated just after introduction of a mixed solution of Amplex Red and H2O2 was measured using the fluorescence detector. The calibration curve for the photocurrent signals of the OPD due to the fluorescence of resorufin against the logarithmic concentration of APE was sigmoidal in shape. The detection limits defined as IC80 were ca. 1 ppb and ca. 2 ppb, respectively, for the methods using the anti-APE antibody immobilized on the surface of the microchannel and in the case where the antibody was immobilized on the surface of magnetic microbeads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Monolithic thermally bonded Er3+, Yb3+:glass/Co2+:MgAl2O4 microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, Jaroslaw; Belghachem, Nabil

    2015-12-01

    The highest ever reported 10 kW peak power in monolithic thermally bonded Er3+, Yb3+:glass/Co2+:MgAl2O4 microchip laser was achieved. To show the superiority of monolithic microchip lasers over those with external mirrors the laser generation characteristics of the same samples in both cases were compared.

  16. A high-speed, high-performance on-chip integrated reverse transcription (RT)-microchip.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwanyong; Han, Nari; Choi, In-Hak; Han, Ki-Ho

    2013-02-01

    This report introduces an on-chip integrated reverse transcription (RT)-microchip, which includes two genetic functionalities of RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. In the RNA extraction compartment, RNA is extracted from peripheral blood lysate within 1 min, by lateral magnetophoresis using magnetic oligo-dT beads. The extracted RNA is then collected and used directly to produce cDNA in the cDNA synthesis microchamber, which is monolithically integrated with the RNA extraction compartment. To verify the superiority of the proposed RT-microchip, RT-PCR amplification was performed using cDNA harvested from the RT-microchip, and the results were compared with those obtained using typical RNA extraction methods such as a silica matrix column and magnetic oligo-dT beads. The RT-PCR amplification results using 100 μl of blood showed that the intensity of the bands in gel electrophoresis of the RT-microchip was 2-fold stronger than that of the silica matrix column and 2.65-fold stronger than that of the magnetic oligo-dT beads. The results demonstrate that the RT-microchip technique is the most sensitive of the tested methods.

  17. Integration of nanoparticle cell lysis and microchip PCR for one-step rapid detection of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wan, Weijie; Yeow, John T W

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes an integrated microchip system as an efficient and cost-effective solution involving Nanotechnology and Lab-on-a-Chip technology for the rapid detection of bacteria. The system is based on using surface-modified gold nanoparticles for efficient cell lysis followed by microchip PCR without having to remove the nanoparticles from the PCR solution. Poly(quaternary ammonium) modified gold nanoparticles are used to provide a novel and efficient cell lysis method without the need to go through time-consuming, expensive and complicated microfabrication processes as most of current cell lysis methods for Lab-on-a-Chip applications do. It also facilitates the integration of cell lysis and PCR by sharing the same reaction chamber as PCR uses. It is integrated with a prototype microchip PCR system consisting of a physical microchip PCR device and an automated temperature control mechanism. The research work explores solutions for the problem of PCR inhibition caused by gold nanoparticles as well as for the problem of non-specific PCR amplification in the integrated microchip system. It also explores the possibility of greatly reducing PCR cycling time to achieve the same result compared to the protocol for a regular PCR machine. The simplicity of the setup makes it easy to be integrated with other Lab-on-a-Chip functional modules to create customized solutions for target applications.

  18. Gas chromatography-microchip atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ostman, Pekka; Luosujärvi, Laura; Haapala, Markus; Grigoras, Kestas; Ketola, Raimo A; Kotiaho, Tapio; Franssila, Sami; Kostiainen, Risto

    2006-05-01

    An atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) microchip is presented for combining a gas chromatograph (GC) to a mass spectrometer (MS). The chip includes capillary insertion channel, stopper, vaporizer channel, nozzle and nebulizer gas inlet fabricated on the silicon wafer, and a platinum heater sputtered on a glass wafer. These two wafers are joined by anodic bonding creating a two-dimensional version of an APCI microchip. The sample from GC is directed via heated transfer line capillary to the vaporizer channel of the APCI chip. The etched nozzle forms narrow sample plume, which is ionized by an external corona discharge needle, and the ions are analyzed by a mass spectrometer. The GC-microchip APCI-MS combination provides an efficient method for qualitative and quantitative analysis. The spectra produced by microchip APCI show intensive protonated molecule and some fragmentation products as in classical chemical ionization for structure elucidation. In quantitative analysis the GC-microchip APCI-MS showed good linearity (r(2) = 0.9989) and repeatability (relative standard deviation 4.4%). The limits of detection with signal-to-noise ratio of three were between 0.5 and 2 micromol/L with MS mode using selected ion monitoring and 0.05 micromol/L with MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring.

  19. Microchip-based multiplex electro-immunosensing system for the detection of cancer biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yong-Jun; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Yong; Cho, Nahm-Gyoo; Lee, Seoung-Hwan

    2008-08-01

    Microfluidic-based microchips have become the focus of research interest for immunoassays and biomarker diagnostics. This is due to their aptitude for high-throughput processing, small sample volume, and short analysis times. In this paper, we describe the development of a microchip-based multiplex electro-immunosensing system for simultaneous detection of cancer biomarkers using gold nanoparticles and silver enhancer. Our microchip is composed of biocompatible poly(PDMS) and glass substrates. To fix the antibody-immobilized microbeads, we used pillar-type microfilters within a reaction chamber. An immunogold silver staining (IGSS) method was used to amplify the electrical signal that corresponded to the immune complex. To demonstrate this approach, we simultaneously assayed three cancer biomarkers, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) on the microchip. The electrical signal generated from the result of the immunoreaction was measured and monitored by a PC-based system. The overall assay time was reduced from 3-8 h to about 55 min when compared to conventional immunoassays. The working range of the proposed microchip was from 10(-3) to 10(-1) microg/mL of the target antigen.

  20. A Sol-Gel-Modified Poly(methyl methacrylate) Electrophoresis Microchip with a Hydrophilic Channel Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Xu, Xuejiao; Lin, Yuehe; Wang, Joseph

    2007-07-27

    A sol-gel method was employed to fabricate a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) electrophoresis microchip that contains a hydrophilic channel wall. To fabricate such a device, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was injected into the PMMA channel and was allowed to diffuse into the surface layer for 24 h. After removing the excess TEOS, the channel was filled with an acidic solution for 3 h. Subsequently, the channel was flushed with water and was pretreated in an oven to obtain a sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip. The water contact angle for the sol-gel-modified PMMA was 27.4° compared with 66.3° for the pure PMMA. In addition, the electro-osmotic flow increased from 2.13×10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the native-PMMA channel to 4.86×10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 for the modified one. The analytical performance of the sol-gel-modified PMMA microchip was demonstrated for the electrophoretic separation of several purines, coupled with amperometric detection. The separation efficiency of uric acid increased to 74 882.3 m-1 compared with 14 730.5 m-1 for native-PMMA microchips. The result of this simple modification is a significant improvement in the performance of PMMA for microchip electrophoresis and microfluidic applications.

  1. Biocompatible coatings for CMUTs in a harsh, aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, X.; Nikoozadeh, A.; Beasley, M. A.; Yaralioglu, G. G.; Khuri-Yakub, B. T.; Pruitt, B. L.

    2007-05-01

    The results of coating capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays with two different biocompatible materials, parylene-c and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), are reported. These materials were characterized for use with CMUTs to enable direct contact transcutaneous and in vivo imaging. A passivation coating is required to provide electrical isolation to the active areas of the device and to protect it from a corrosive environment. It must also provide good mechanical characteristics to void imaging artifacts. The coated devices were compared side by side with uncoated devices for testing in air. The resonant frequency, collapse voltage and crosstalk were sampled. Parylene coated CMUTs were also tested underwater using pulse excitation. The parylene coating provided electrical insulation to the aqueous solution for 14 days. Both coatings showed a decrease in device resonant frequency and an increase in collapse voltage, as expected from the proposed theory.

  2. Comparison of noncontact infrared thermometry and 3 commercial subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Brunell, Marla K

    2012-07-01

    This study compared a noncontact infrared laser thermometer and 3 different brands of subcutaneous temperature transponding microchips with rectal thermometry in 50 rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). The data were analyzed by using intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. In addition, the technical capabilities and practicality of the thermometers in the clinical setting were reviewed. None of the alternative techniques investigated was equivalent to rectal thermometry in rhesus macaques. Temperatures obtained by using microchips had higher correlation and agreed more closely with rectal temperatures than did those obtained by the noncontact infrared method. However, transponding microchips did not yield consistent results. Due to difficulty in positioning nonsedated macaques in their homecage, subcutaneous microchips were not practical in the clinical setting. Furthermore, pair-housed macaques may be able to break or remove microchips from their cagemates.

  3. Polydopamine-collagen complex to enhance the biocompatibility of polydimethylsiloxane substrates for sustaining long-term culture of L929 fibroblasts and tendon stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Sun, Lihong; Zhang, Lei; Xu, Zhigang; Kang, Yuejun; Xue, Peng

    2017-10-03

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a commercialized polymer extensively used in the fabrication of versatile microfluidic microdevices for studies in cell biology and tissue engineering. However, the inherent surface hydrophobicity of PDMS is not optimal for cell culture and thus restrains its applications for investigation of long-term behaviors of fibroblasts and stem cells. To improve the surface biocompatibility of PDMS, a facile technique was developed by modifying the PDMS surface with polydopamine-collagen (COL/PDA) complex. The successful synthesis of COL/PDA was verified through proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H NMR). Compared to surface coating solely with COL or PDA, the surface wettability was significantly improved on COL/PDA-modified PDMS substrates based on water contact angle characterizations. The modified PDMS surface remarkably enhanced the initial adhesion and long-term proliferation of L929 fibroblasts and tendon stem cells (TSCs). Additionally, the effects of COL/PDA coating on cell viability and apoptosis were further investigated under prolonged incubation. We found that the COL/PDA coating on PDMS resulted in a substantial increase of cell viability compared to native PDMS, and the cell apoptosis was considerably impeded on the modified PDMS. This study demonstrated that COL/PDA coating can effectively enhance the surface biocompatibility of PDMS as verified by the enhanced adhesion and long-term proliferation of L929 fibroblasts and TSCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Implementation of microchip electrophoresis instrumentation for future spaceflight missions.

    PubMed

    Willis, Peter A; Creamer, Jessica S; Mora, Maria F

    2015-09-01

    We present a comprehensive discussion of the role that microchip electrophoresis (ME) instrumentation could play in future NASA missions of exploration, as well as the current barriers that must be overcome to make this type of chemical investigation possible. We describe how ME would be able to fill fundamental gaps in our knowledge of the potential for past, present, or future life beyond Earth. Despite the great promise of ME for ultrasensitive portable chemical analysis, to date, it has never been used on a robotic mission of exploration to another world. We provide a current snapshot of the technology readiness level (TRL) of ME instrumentation, where the TRL is the NASA systems engineering metric used to evaluate the maturity of technology, and its fitness for implementation on missions. We explain how the NASA flight implementation process would apply specifically to ME instrumentation, and outline the scientific and technology development issues that must be addressed for ME analyses to be performed successfully on another world. We also outline research demonstrations that could be accomplished by independent researchers to help advance the TRL of ME instrumentation for future exploration missions. The overall approach described here for system development could be readily applied to a wide range of other instrumentation development efforts having broad societal and commercial impact.

  5. Recent applications of microchip electrophoresis to biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Nuchtavorn, Nantana; Suntornsuk, Worapot; Lunte, Susan M; Suntornsuk, Leena

    2015-09-10

    Many separation methods have been developed for biomedical analysis, including chromatographic (e.g. high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC)) and electrophoretic methods (e.g. gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis (CE)). Among these techniques, CE provides advantages in terms of high separation efficiency, simplicity, low sample and solvent volume consumption, short analysis time and applicability to a wide range of biomedically important substances. Microchip electrophoresis (ME) is a miniaturized platform of CE and is now considered as a simpler and more convenient alternative, which has demonstrated potential in analytical chemistry. High-throughput, cost-effective and portable analysis systems can be developed using ME. The current review describes different separation modes and detectors that have been employed in ME to analyze various classes of biomedical analytes (e.g. pharmaceuticals and related substances, nucleic acids, amino acids, peptides, proteins, antibodies and antigens, carbohydrates, cells, cell components and lysates). Recent applications (during 2010-2014) in these areas are presented in tables and some significant findings are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microchip-based ultrafast serodiagnostic assay for tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Vigneshwaran; Paleja, Bhairav; Larbi, Karima; Kumar, Pavanish; Tay, Jo Ann; Siew, Jie Yee; Inci, Fatih; Wang, ShuQi; Chee, Cynthia; Wang, Yee Tang; Demirci, Utkan; De Libero, Gennaro; Singhal, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Access to point-of-care (POC), rapid, inexpensive, sensitive, and instrument-free tests for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge. Here, we report a simple and low-cost microchip-based TB ELISA (MTBE) platform for the detection of anti-mycobacterial IgG in plasma samples in less than 15 minutes. The MTBE employs a flow-less, magnet-actuated, bead-based ELISA for simultaneous detection of IgG responses against multiple mycobacterial antigens. Anti-trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) IgG responses were the strongest predictor for differentiating active tuberculosis (ATB) from healthy controls (HC) and latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI). The TDM-based MTBE demonstrated superior sensitivity compared to sputum microscopy (72% vs. 56%) with 80% and 63% positivity among smear-positive and smear-negative confirmed ATB samples, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated good accuracy for differentiating ATB from HC (AUC = 0.77). Thus, TDM-based MTBE can be potentially used as a screening device for rapid diagnosis of active TB at the POC. PMID:27775039

  7. Competitive immunoassay of progesterone by microchip electrophoresis with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fanggui; Liu, Jinwen; Huang, Yong; Li, Shutin; Zhao, Shulin

    2013-10-01

    A sensitive and rapid homogeneous immunoassay method based on microchip electrophoresis-chemiluminescence detection (MCE-CL) using luminol-hydrogen peroxide as chemiluminescence system catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was developed for the determination of progesterone (P). The assay was based on the competitive immunoreactions between HRP-labeled P antigen (HRP-P) and P with a limited amount of anti-P mouse monoclonal antibody (Ab), and MCE separation of free HRP-P and HRP-P-Ab immunocomplex followed by CL detection. The effect of various factors such as conditions for the CL reaction, MCE and incubation time for the immunoreactions were examined and optimized. Under optimal assay conditions, the MCE separation was accomplished within 80s. The linear range of detection for P was 8-800nM with a detection limit of 3.8nM (signal/noise ratio=3). This present method has been applied to determine P in human serum samples from normal and pregnant women. The result indicates that the proposed MCE-CL based homogeneous immunoassay method can serve as an alternative tool for clinical assay of P. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Microchip separations of neutral species via micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A.W. Jr.; Jacobson, S.C.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1995-11-15

    Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) of three neutral coumarin dyes was performed on glass microchips. Manifolds of channels for analyte injection and separation were machined into one surface of the glass substrates using standard photolithographic, etching, and deposition techniques. Cover plates were then directly bonded over these channels to form capillary networks, with fluid flow in these networks controlled by varying the applied high-voltage potentials at the outlets. The separation capillary was 16.5 cm long for a serpentine channel chip and 1.3 cm long for a straight channel chip. Detection of analyte zones was accomplished by laser-induced fluorescence using the UV lines (nearly 350 nm) of an argon ion laser. At low applied electric field strengths, MECC analyses with on-chip injections gave high reproducibilities in peak areas and migration times (<1% for two of the three coumarins) and near constant separation efficiencies throughout the analysis. At high fields (>400 V/cm), analysis times were shorter, but separation efficiency decreased at later migration times. These peaks showed significant broadening, consistent with mass transfer effects. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Microchip-based flow cytometry for effective detection and count

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Canjun; Zhang, Zhiyi; Lin, Min; Cao, Xudong; Zhang, Feiling

    2009-06-01

    High-throughput detection and identification of foodborne pathogens are in increasing demand for rapid bacteria detections in food safety and quality monitoring. As an effective method, microchip-based flow cytometry (microcytometery) has a potential to be less expensive and high throughout, and requires less bulky instrumentation than conventional methods. In this work, a low-cost and robust microcytometer with a simple optical setup was developed for demonstrating the high-throughput identification of foodborne bacterial pathogens that integrate sample flow focusing and detection into one testing procedure. High performance identification capability was achieved through simultaneously detecting the fluorescence and scatter light emitted from micro-fabricated channel, after designing and optimizing the laser shaping optical system and the micro-channel structure to improve the excitation light intensity as well as the detection sensitivity. In our configuration, the simple testing configuration with the collection angle of 42° in the orthogonal plane to micro chip presents the best SNR for both signals through simulation and systematic measurements. As a result, the maximum throughput of 83particles/s for the fluorescence-labelled bead with diameter of 1.013μm was obtained as well as the high detection efficiency (above 99%) and the correlation percentage (above 99.5%). Apart from the high detection sensitivity and identification power, this microcytometer also has the advantages of simple optical structure, compactness and ease in building.

  10. Microchip-Based Organophosphorus Detection Using Bienzyme Bioelectrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yong Duk; Jeong, Chi Yong; Lee, Jun Hee; Lee, Dae-Sik; Yoon, Hyun C.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a microsystem for the detection of organophosphorus (OP) compounds using acetylcholine esterase (AchE) and choline oxidase (ChOx) bienzyme bioelectrocatalysis. Because AchE is irreversibly inhibited by OP pesticides, the change in AchE activity with OP treatment can be traced to determine OP concentration. Polymer-associated ChOx immobilization on the working electrode surface and magnetic microparticle (MP)-assisted AchE deposition methods were employed to create an AchE-ChOx bienzyme-modified biosensing system. ChOx was immobilized on the micropatterned electrodes using poly(L-lysine), glutaraldehyde, and amine-rich interfacial surface. AchE was immobilized on the MP surface via Schiff's base formation, and the enzyme-modified MPs were deposited on the working electrode using a magnet under the microfluidic channel. The bioelectrocatalytic reaction between AchE-ChOx bienzyme cascade and the ferrocenyl electron shuttle was successfully used to detect OP with the developed microchip. This provides a self-contained and relatively easy method for OP detection. It requires minimal time and a small sample size, and has potential analytic applications in pesticides and chemical warfare agents.

  11. A Contactless Capacitance Detection System for Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Peter

    2008-05-01

    The design, construction and operation of a simple, inexpensive and compact high voltage power supply for use in conjunction with a simple cross, capillary electrophoresis microchip is presented. The detection system utilizes a single high voltage power supply (15 kV), a voltage divider network for obtaining the required voltages for enabling a gated injection valve, and two high voltage relays for switching between the open and closed gate sequences of the injection. The system is used to determine sodium monofluoroacetate (MFA) concentration in diluted fruit juices and tap water. A separation buffer consisting of 20 mM citric acid and histidine at pH 3.5 enabled the detection of the anion in diluted apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice without lengthy sample pretreatments. Limit of detection in diluted juices and tap water were determined to be 125, 167, 138, and 173 mg/L for tap water, apple juice, cranberry juice, and orange juice, respectively, based upon an S/N of 3:1. The total analysis time for detecting the MFA anion in fruit juices was less than 5 min, which represents a considerable reduction in analysis time compared to other analytical methods currently used in food analysis.

  12. Electrochemical methods in conjunction with capillary and microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mark, Jonas J P; Scholz, Rebekka; Matysik, Frank-Michael

    2012-12-07

    Electromigrative techniques such as capillary and microchip electrophoresis (CE and MCE) are inherently associated with various electrochemical phenomena. The electrolytic processes occurring in the buffer reservoirs have to be considered for a proper design of miniaturized electrophoretic systems and a suitable selection of buffer composition. In addition, the control of the electroosmotic flow plays a crucial role for the optimization of CE/MCE separations. Electroanalytical methods have significant importance in the field of detection in conjunction with CE/MCE. At present, amperometric detection and contactless conductivity detection are the predominating electrochemical detection methods for CE/MCE. This paper reviews the most recent trends in the field of electrochemical detection coupled to CE/MCE. The emphasis is on methodical developments and new applications that have been published over the past five years. A rather new way for the implementation of electrochemical methods into CE systems is the concept of electrochemically assisted injection which involves the electrochemical conversions of analytes during the injection step. This approach is particularly attractive in hyphenation to mass spectrometry (MS) as it widens the range of CE-MS applications. An overview of recent developments of electrochemically assisted injection coupled to CE is presented.

  13. Multiplexed detection of biological agents using optical microchip sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, D.; McDonnell, M. B.; Perkins, E.

    2010-10-01

    A multi-channel optical microchip sensor system suitable for real-time, label-free detection of a wide range of biological agents is presented. SpectroSensTM chips containing multiple high-precision planar Bragg gratings are exploited as lowcost, robust refractive index sensors. Sensitivity to biological agents is conferred by functionalising individual sensing regions with different antibodies selected against numerous targets of interest. Antigen binding to the surfaceimmobilised antibodies results in localised changes in refractive index; upon laser-induced interrogation of the sensing region via optical fibres, these antibody-antigen interactions manifest as increases in wavelength of light reflected from the sensor chip. Real-time detection of multiple biological agents including bacterial cells/spores, viruses and toxins has been demonstrated. Further improvements to sensor performance including physical and chemical methods are also investigated. This multi-analyte capability highlights the potential use of this sensing technology in applications ranging from bio-hazard detection for defence purposes to point-of-care clinical diagnostics.

  14. Impact of conduit geometry on the performance of typical particulate microchip packings.

    PubMed

    Jung, Stephanie; Höltzel, Alexandra; Ehlert, Steffen; Mora, Jose-Angel; Kraiczek, Karsten; Dittmann, Monika; Rozing, Gerard P; Tallarek, Ulrich

    2009-12-15

    This work investigates the impact of conduit geometry on the chromatographic performance of typical particulate microchip packings. For this purpose, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/UV-microchips with separation channels of quadratic, trapezoidal, or Gaussian cross section were fabricated by direct laser ablation and lamination of multiple polyimide layers and then slurry-packed with either 3 or 5 microm spherical porous C8-silica particles under optimized packing conditions. Experimentally determined plate height curves for the empty microchannels are compared with dispersion coefficients from theoretical calculations. Packing densities and plate height curves for the various microchip packings are presented and conclusively explained. The 3 microm packings display a high packing density irrespective of their conduit geometries, and their performance reflects the dispersion behavior of the empty channels. Dispersion in 5 microm packings correlates with the achieved packing densities, which are limited by the number and accessibility of corners in a given conduit shape.

  15. Rectangular pulsed LD pumped saturable output coupler (SOC) Q-switched microchip laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-biao; Wang, Sha; Feng, Guo-ying; Zhou, Shou-huan

    2017-02-01

    We studied the cw LD and rectangular pulsed LD pumped saturable output coupler (SOC) passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 transmission microchip laser experimentally. We demonstrated that the SOC passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4 transmission microchip laser pumped by a highly stabilized narrow bandwidth pulsed LD has a much lower timing jitter than pumped by a continuous wave (CW) LD, especially at low output frequency regime. By changing the pump beam size in the rectangular shape pulsed pump scheme, the output frequency can be achieved from 333.3 kHz to 71.4 kHz, while the relative timing jitter decreased from 0.09865% to 0.03115% accordingly. Additionally, the microchip laser has a good stability of output power, the power fluctuation below 2%.

  16. A review of microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis for monitoring biological events

    PubMed Central

    Saylor, Rachel A.; Lunte, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Microdialysis is a powerful sampling technique that enables monitoring of dynamic processes in vitro and in vivo. The combination of microdialysis with chromatographic or electrophoretic methods yields along with selective detection methods yields a “separation-based sensor” capable of monitoring multiple analytes in near real time. Analysis of microdialysis samples requires techniques that are fast (<1 min), have low volume requirements (nL–pL), and, ideally, can be employed on-line. Microchip electrophoresis fulfills these requirements and also permits the possibility of integrating sample preparation and manipulation with detection strategies directly on-chip. Microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis has been employed for monitoring biological events in vivo and in vitro. This review discusses technical considerations for coupling microdialysis sampling and microchip electrophoresis, including various interface designs, and current applications in the field. PMID:25637011

  17. Assessment of the use of temperature-sensitive microchips to determine core body temperature in goats.

    PubMed

    Torrao, N A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L C R; Fick, L G

    2011-03-26

    Body temperature was measured at five different body sites (retroperitoneum, groin, semimembranosus muscle, flank and shoulder) using temperature-sensitive microchips implanted in five female goats, and compared with the core body and rectal temperatures. Body temperature was measured while the goats were kept in different ambient temperatures, with and without radiant heat, as well as during a fever induced experimentally by injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Bland-Altman limit of agreement analysis was used to compare the temperature measurements at the different body sites during the different interventions. Temperatures measured by the microchip implanted in the retroperitoneum showed the closest agreement (mean 0.2 °C lower) with core and rectal temperatures during all interventions, whereas temperatures measured by the microchips implanted in the groin, muscle, flank and shoulder differed from core body temperature by up to 3.5 °C during the various interventions.

  18. In situ fabrication of a temperature- and ethanol-responsive smart membrane in a microchip.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi-Meng; Wang, Wei; Wei, Yun-Yan; Deng, Nan-Nan; Liu, Zhuang; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2014-07-21

    Here we report a simple and versatile strategy for the in situ fabrication of nanogel-containing smart membranes in microchannels of microchips. The fabrication approach is demonstrated by the in situ formation of a chitosan membrane containing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nanogels in a microchannel of a microchip. The PNIPAM nanogels, that allow temperature- and ethanol-responsive swelling-shrinking volume transitions, serve as smart nanovalves for controlling the diffusional permeability of solutes across the membrane. Such self-regulation of the membrane permeability is investigated by using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) as a tracer molecule. This approach provides a promising strategy for the in situ fabrication of versatile nanogel-containing smart membranes within microchips via simply changing the functional nanogels for developing micro-scale detectors, sensors, separators and controlled release systems.

  19. A review of microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis for monitoring biological events.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Rachel A; Lunte, Susan M

    2015-02-20

    Microdialysis is a powerful sampling technique that enables monitoring of dynamic processes in vitro and in vivo. The combination of microdialysis with chromatographic or electrophoretic methods with selective detection yields a "separation-based sensor" capable of monitoring multiple analytes in near real time. For monitoring biological events, analysis of microdialysis samples often requires techniques that are fast (<1 min), have low volume requirements (nL-pL), and, ideally, can be employed on-line. Microchip electrophoresis fulfills these requirements and also permits the possibility of integrating sample preparation and manipulation with detection strategies directly on-chip. Microdialysis coupled to microchip electrophoresis has been employed for monitoring biological events in vivo and in vitro. This review discusses technical considerations for coupling microdialysis sampling and microchip electrophoresis, including various interface designs, and current applications in the field. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of colloids transport during two-phase flow using a novel polydimethylsiloxane micro-model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiulan; Karadimitriou, N K; Hassanizadeh, S M; Kleingeld, P J; Imhof, A

    2013-07-01

    As a representation of a porous medium, a closed micro-fluidic device made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), with uniform wettability and stable hydrophobic properties, was designed and fabricated. A flow network, with a mean pore size of 30 μm, was formed in a PDMS slab, covering an area of 1 mm × 10 mm. The PDMS slab was covered and bonded with a 120-μm-thick glass plate to seal the model. The glass plate was first spin-coated with a thin layer, roughly 10 μm, of PDMS. The micro-model was treated with silane in order to make it uniformly and stably hydrophobic. Fluorescent particles of 300 μm in diameter were used as colloids. It is known that more removal of colloids occurs under unsaturated conditions, compared to saturated flow in soil. At the same time, the change of saturation has been observed to cause remobilization of attached colloids. The mechanisms for these phenomena are not well understood. This is the first time that a closed micro-model, made of PDMS with uniform and stable wettability, has been used in combination with confocal microscopy to study colloid transport under transient two-phase flow conditions. With confocal microscopy, the movement of fluorescent particles and flow of two liquids within the pores can be studied. One can focus at different depths within the pores and thus determine where the particles exactly are. Thus, remobilization of attached colloids by moving fluid-fluid interfaces was visualized. In order to allow for the deposition and subsequent remobilization of colloids during two-phase flow, three micro-channels for the injection of liquids with and without colloids were constructed. An outlet channel was designed where effluent concentration breakthrough curves can be quantified by measuring the fluorescence intensity. A peak concentration also indicated in the breakthrough curve with the drainage event. The acquired images and breakthrough curve successfully confirmed the utility of the combination of such a PDMS

  1. Microchips fabricated by femtosecond laser micromachining in glass for observation of aquatic microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Y.; Sugioka, K.; Kawano, H.; Ishikawa, I.; Miyawaki, A.; Midorikawa, K.

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) hollow microstructures embedded in photostructurable glass by a nonlinear multiphoton absorption process using a femtosecond (fs) laser. Fs laser direct writing followed by annealing and successive wet etching in dilute hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution resulted in the rapid manufacturing of microchips with 3-D hollow microstructures for the dynamic observation of living microorganisms in fresh water. The embedded microchannel structure enables us to analyze the continuous motion of Euglena gracilis and Dinoflagellate. Such microchips, referred to as nano-aquariums realize the efficient and highly functional observation of microorganisms.

  2. Nonlinear photochemistry and 3D microfabrication with Q-switched Nd:YAG microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldeck, Patrice L.; Scheul, Teodora; Bouriau, Michel; Stephan, Olivier; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Lin, Chih-Lang; Lin, Chin-Te; Tseng, Chang-Li; Huang, Cheng; Chung, Tien-Tung

    2011-10-01

    We review our recent advances in two-photon induced photochemistry to fabricate three-dimensional micro-objects made in polymers, proteins and noble metals using Q-switched Nd:YAG microchip lasers. We have synthesized a new photoinitiator that is about 4 times more sensitive for two-photon polymerisation with sub-nanosecond pulses at 532 nm. We describe the improvement of our fabrication process and strategies to obtain solid microstructures that correspond to their models. We report on our progress to make silver microstructures by the photoreduction of silver nitrate with microchip lasers at 1064nm.

  3. Microchip-laser polarization control by destructive-interference resonant-grating mirror.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, F; Pommier, J C; Reynaud, S; Parriaux, O; Abdou Ahmed, M; Tonchev, S; Landru, N; Fève, J P

    2007-03-05

    An output coupler comprising a resonant grating submirror monolithically associated with a standard multilayer submirror polarizes the emission of a Nd:YAG microchip laser linearly over its full emission bandwidth by intra-mirror destructive interference for the undesired polarization. A polarization extinction ratio of more than 25 dB is obtained up to 6.1microJ pulse energy. This passively Q-switched laser performance is almost identical to that of a gratingless non-polarized microchip laser. The design and fabrication of the resonant grating mirror are described.

  4. Integrated multilayer microfluidic device with a nanoporous membrane interconnect for online coupling of solid-phase extraction to microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhicheng; Shen, Zheng; Wu, Dapeng; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2007-12-01

    An integrated microfluidic device was developed for online coupling of solid-phase extraction to microchip electrophoresis (chip SPE-CE). With a nanoporous membrane sandwiched between two PDMS substrates, SPE preconcentration and electrophoretic separation can be carried out in upper and lower fluidic layers, separately and sequentially. During the SPE process, the thin membrane can act as a fluid isolator to prevent intermixing between two fluidic channels. However, when a pulse voltage is applied, the membrane becomes a gateable interconnect so that a small plug of concentrated analytes can be online injected into the lower channel for subsequent separations. This multilayer design provides a universal solution to online SPE-CE hyphenation. Both electroosmotic flow and hydrodynamic pumps have been adopted for SPE operation. SPE was performed on a 2.5 mm long microcolumn, with two weirs on both sides to retain the C(18)-coated silica beads. Rhodamine 123 and FITC-labelled ephedrine were used to test the operational performance of the hyphenation system. High separation efficiency and thousand-fold signal enhancement were achieved.

  5. DNA sequence analysis by hybridization with oligonucleotide microchips : MALDI mass spectrometry identification of 5mers contiguously stacked to microchip oligonucleotides.

    SciTech Connect

    Stomakhin, A. A.; Vasiliskov, V. A.; Timofeev, E.; Schulga, D.; Cotter, R. J.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center; Engelhardt Inst. of Molecular Biology; Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology; Middle Atlantic Mass Spectrometry Lab.; Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine

    2000-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) has been applied to increase the informational output from DNA sequence analysis. It has been used to analyze DNA by hybridization with microarrays of gel-immobilized oligonucleotides extended with stacked 5mers. In model experiments, a 28 nt long DNA fragment was hybridized with 10 immobilized, overlapping 8mers. Then, in a second round of hybridization DNA-8mer duplexes were hybridized with a mixture of 10 5mers. The stability of the 5mer complex with DNA was increased to raise the melting temperature of the duplex by 10-15{sup o}C as a result of stacking interaction with 8mers. Contiguous 13 bp duplexes containing an internal break were formed. MALDI MS identified one or, in some cases, two 5mers contiguously stacked to each DNA-8mer duplex formed on the microchip. Incorporating a mass label into 5mers optimized MALDI MS monitoring. This procedure enabled us to reconstitute the sequence of a model DNA fragment and identify polymorphic nucleotides. The application of MALDI MS identification of contiguously stacked 5mers to increase the length of DNA for sequence analysis is discussed.

  6. DNA sequence analysis by hybridization with oligonucleotide microchips: MALDI mass spectrometry identification of 5mers contiguously stacked to microchip oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Stomakhin, Andrey A.; Vasiliskov, Vadim A.; Timofeev, Edward; Schulga, Dennis; Cotter, Richard J.; Mirzabekov, Andrei D.

    2000-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) has been applied to increase the informational output from DNA sequence analysis. It has been used to analyze DNA by hybridization with microarrays of gel-immobilized oligonucleotides extended with stacked 5mers. In model experiments, a 28 nt long DNA fragment was hybridized with 10 immobilized, overlapping 8mers. Then, in a second round of hybridization DNA–8mer duplexes were hybridized with a mixture of 10 5mers. The stability of the 5mer complex with DNA was increased to raise the melting temperature of the duplex by 10–15°C as a result of stacking interaction with 8mers. Contiguous 13 bp duplexes containing an internal break were formed. MALDI MS identified one or, in some cases, two 5mers contiguously stacked to each DNA–8mer duplex formed on the microchip. Incorporating a mass label into 5mers optimized MALDI MS monitoring. This procedure enabled us to reconstitute the sequence of a model DNA fragment and identify polymorphic nucleotides. The application of MALDI MS identification of contiguously stacked 5mers to increase the length of DNA for sequence analysis is discussed. PMID:10666462

  7. Characterization of Silylated Silicas by Inverse Gas Chromatography: Modelization of the Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Monomer Unit/Surface Interactions Using Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Oligomers as Probes

    PubMed

    Khalfi; Papirer; Balard; Barthel; Heinemann

    1996-12-25

    Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) at infinite dilution was used to characterize the fumed silica surface. The silica was modified by chemical treatment with either dimethyldichlorosilane or trimethylchlorosilane. To observe the silica and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) interactions, we used apolar (alkanes) and polar probes (chloroform, benzene, tetrahydrofuran, etc.), but also model molecules of PDMS such as linear and cyclic oligomers of PDMS with two to five monomer units. It is shown that PDMS oligomers are very appropriate to discriminate the silylated silicas.

  8. The fabrication of microfluidic structures by means of full-wafer adhesive bonding using a poly(dimethylsiloxane) catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samel, Björn; Kamruzzaman Chowdhury, M.; Stemme, Göran

    2007-08-01

    In this work, we present the use of a PDMS (poly(dimethylsiloxane)) curing-agent as the intermediate layer for adhesive full-wafer bonding suitable for fabrication of microfluidic structures. The curing-agent of the two-component silicone rubber (Sylgard 184) is spin coated on a substrate, brought into contact with another PDMS layer and heat cured to create an irreversible seal which is as strong as or even stronger than plasma-assisted PDMS bonding. The maximum bond strength is measured to 800 kPa when bonding together PDMS and silicon. The applicability of the new PDMS adhesive bonding method is verified by means of fabricating microfluidic structures. Using this method allows for wafer-level bonding of PDMS to various materials such as PDMS, glass or silicon and more importantly to selectively bond different layers by using a patterned adhesive bonding technique. Moreover, precise alignment of the structural layers is facilitated since curing is initiated upon heat which is an advantage when fabricating multilayer microfluidic devices.

  9. Rubber-elasticity and electrochemical activity of iron(ii) tris(bipyridine) crosslinked poly(dimethylsiloxane) networks.

    PubMed

    Williams, Zachary H; Burwell, Emily D; Chiomento, Ambre E; Demsko, Kyle J; Pawlik, Jacob T; Harris, Shannon O; Yarolimek, Mark R; Whitney, Megan B; Hambourger, Michael; Schwab, Alexander D

    2017-09-27

    2,2'-Bipyridine-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane)s (bpyPDMS) with number average molecular weights, MN, of 3300, 6100, 26 200, and 50 000 g mol(-1) were synthesized. When mixed with Fe(BF4)2 at low concentrations, red solutions formed with UV-vis spectra that match those of iron(ii) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) (Fe(bpy)3(2+)). Upon solvent evaporation, Fe(bpy)3(2+) crosslinked PDMS networks (bpyPDMS/Fe(ii)) formed, and were studied using oscillating shear rheometry. The shear storage moduli (0.084 to 2.6 MPa) were found to be inversely proportional to the MN of the PDMS, though the storage moduli at low molecular weights greatly exceeded the storage moduli of comparable covalently crosslinked PDMS networks. The shear storage moduli exhibited the characteristic rubbery plateau up to ∼135 °C. Films of bpyPDMS/Fe(ii) coated onto electrodes were found to be electrochemically active, especially so when the PDMS MN is low. The Fe(bpy)3(2+) crosslinks can be reversibly oxidized over ∼500 nm away from the electrode surface in the presence of a suitable electrolyte.

  10. Self-assembly of polydimethylsiloxane structures from 2D to 3D for bio-hybrid actuation.

    PubMed

    Vannozzi, L; Ricotti, L; Cianchetti, M; Bearzi, C; Gargioli, C; Rizzi, R; Dario, P; Menciassi, A

    2015-08-20

    This work aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel approach for the development of 3D self-assembled polydimethylsiloxane structures, to be used as engineered flexible matrices for bio-hybrid actuation. We described the fabrication of engineered bilayers, organized in a 3D architecture by means of a stress-induced rolling membrane technique. Such structures were provided with ad hoc surface topographies, for both cell alignment and cell survival after membrane rolling. We reported the results of advanced finite element model simulations, predicting the system behavior in terms of overall contraction, induced by the contractile activity of muscle cells seeded on the membrane. Then, we tested in vitro the structure with primary cardiomyocytes to evaluate the real bio-actuator contraction, thus validating the simulation results. At a later stage, we provided the samples with a stable fibronectin coating, by covalently binding the protein on the polymer surface, thus enabling long-term cultures with C2C12 skeletal muscle cells, a more controllable cell type. These tests revealed cell viability and alignment on the rolled structures, but also the ability of cells to differentiate and to form multinucleated and oriented myotubes on the polymer surface, also supported by a fibroblast feeder layer. Our results highlighted the possibility of developing 3D rolled PDMS structures, characterized by different mechanical properties, as novel bio-hybrid actuators.

  11. Preparation of metal nanoband microelectrode on poly(dimethylsiloxane) for chip-based amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Peng; Wu, Jian; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2010-04-30

    We proposed herein a novel approach for fabricating nanoband microelectrodes for electrochemical detection on an electrophoresis microchip. The metal films were first obtained via region-selective electroless deposition of gold or copper films on PDMS substrates by selective region plasma oxidation through shadow masking. Both metal films show uniform surfaces with the thickness at the level of 100 nm. By casting another PDMS layer on the metal films, the cross section of the sandwich structures can be used as nanoband microelectrodes, which can be renewed just by cutting. These nanoband microelectrodes are successfully used as electrochemical detectors in microchip electrophoresis for the detection of amino acids, proteins and neurotransmitter molecules. Moreover, integrating an Au-Cu double-metal detector with a double-channel electrophoresis system, we can easily distinguish electroactive amino acids from that of non-electroactive amino acids.

  12. Assessing the clinical severity of type 1 von Willebrand disease patients with a microchip flow-chamber system.

    PubMed

    Nogami, K; Ogiwara, K; Yada, K; Shida, Y; Takeyama, M; Yaoi, H; Minami, H; Furukawa, S; Hosokawa, K; Shima, M

    2016-04-01

    The clinical phenotype of von Willebrand disease (VWD) is heterogeneous, and von Willebrand factor ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo) does not always reflect clinical severity, especially in VWD type 1. We have reported the potential of a microchip flow-chamber system (Total-Thrombus Formation Analysis System [T-TAS®]) for assessing physiologic hemostasis in VWD. Aim To evaluate the relationship between T-TAS, bleeding score (BS) and laboratory test results in type 1 VWD patients. Microchips coated with collagen (platelet chip [PL-chip]) or collagen/thromboplastin (AR-chip) were used to assess platelet thrombus formation (PTF) at high shear rates or fibrin-rich PTF at low shear rates, respectively, in whole blood from 50 patients. The times needed for the flow pressure to increase by 10 kPa and 30 kPa (T10 and T30 ) from baseline were calculated from flow pressure curves. BS was determined by the use of a standardized questionnaire. PL-T10 values correlated with BS (R(2) ~ 0.45) better than VWF:RCo (R(2) ~ 0.36), irrespective of the flow rate, whereas AR-T10 showed only a weak correlation with BS (R(2) ~ 0.18). Patients with PL-T10 > 10 min or AR-T10 > 30 min had lower VWF levels and higher BS than those with PL-T10 ≤ 10 min or AR-T10 ≤ 30 min, and the greatest differences were observed with PL-T10. Clinical severity appeared to correlate best with PL-T10 > 8 min. BS was significantly higher in patients with VWF:RCo of < 10 IU dL(-1) than in those with VWF:RCo of 10 IU dL(-1) to < 25 IU dL(-1) and 25-40 IU dL(-1). In patients with VWF:RCo of < 10 IU dL(-1) , BS was significantly higher in those with PL-T10 > 8 min than in those with PL-T10 ≤ 8 min. T-TAS could be a useful technique for discriminating and predicting BS in VWD type 1 patients. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. Method of producing an electronic unit having a polydimethylsiloxane substrate and circuit lines

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James Courtney [Livermore, CA; Krulevitch, Peter A [Pleasanton, CA; Maghribi, Mariam N [Livermore, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Hamilton, Julie K [Tracy, CA; Tovar, Armando R [San Antonio, TX

    2012-06-19

    A system of metalization in an integrated polymer microsystem. A flexible polymer substrate is provided and conductive ink is applied to the substrate. In one embodiment the flexible polymer substrate is silicone. In another embodiment the flexible polymer substrate comprises poly(dimethylsiloxane).

  14. Electrical Properties of Syntactic Foams Based on Hollow Carbon Microspheres and Polydimethylsiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukhlanov, V. Yu.; Selivanov, O. G.

    2016-11-01

    The present research focuses on the effect that hollow carbon microspheres embedded into the polydimethylsiloxane elastomer have on the electroconductive properties of the composite material. The percolation point was experimentally determined. The dependence of electrical resistance of the syntactic foam on the content of semiconducting filler in the binder was revealed. The effect of the filler on the radarabsorbing properties was studied.

  15. Application of polydimethylsiloxane-based optical system for measuring optical density of microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yurika

    2016-12-01

    The performance of recently developed polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based optical system was tested for measuring optical density of microbial culture. The data showed that PDMS-based spectrometer is superior to "one drop" spectrometers in the accuracy, and has an advantage over conventional spectrometers in measuring dense culture without dilution.

  16. [THE POSSIBILITIES OF APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY PROTEIN MICROARRAY (MICROCHIPS) FOR ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF BLOOD SERUM].

    PubMed

    Gumanova, N G; Klimushina, M V; Metelskaya, V A; Boitsov, S A

    2015-10-01

    The microchip technology represents convenient and relatively economic tool of analyzing specific biomarkers with the purpose to diagnose diseases, to evaluate effectiveness of therapy and to investigate signaling pathways. To analyze protein composition of blood serum certain types of finished microchips which were not applied previously on the territory of Russia. The detection from 2% to 5% out of matrix of chips depending on their variety was managed without preliminary depletion of serum (removal of proteins of major fractions). Hence, partial protein composition of blood serum can be analyzed with microchips even without preliminary removal of proteins of major fractions.

  17. Hyperbranched fluoropolymer-polydimethylsiloxane-poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linked terpolymer networks designed for marine and biomedical applications: heterogeneous nontoxic antibiofouling surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pollack, Kevin A; Imbesi, Philip M; Raymond, Jeffery E; Wooley, Karen L

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of terpolymer coatings composed of hyperbranched fluoropolymers cross-linked with bisamino-propyl poly(ethylene glycol) and bisamino-propyl polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was performed to generate antibiofouling surfaces. Nanoscale imaging and surface spectroscopy confirmed that this system possessed complex surface topographies and chemical compositions. Surface complexity was determined to be due to molecular interactions, phase segregation, and compositional gradients arising between the three components. A clear difference in surface behavior was observable before and after exposure to water. Antibiofouling characteristics were investigated by bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption studies; the terpolymer coating displayed a 60% greater resistance to protein adsorption in comparison to the fouling of a commercial antibiofouling silicone coating. The unique surface topography, topology, and chemical heterogeneity expressed at a variety of scales provide a robust regime for the generation of hardy, complex surfaces known to incorporate characteristics appropriate for antibiofouling applications. Thorough assessment of thermal responses and mechanical properties in relevant environments demonstrated a formulation platform immediately appropriate for consideration in marine and in vivo applications.

  18. Highly-efficient multi-watt Yb:CaLnAlO4 microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, Pavel; Serres, Josep Maria; Mateos, Xavier; Xu, Xiaodong; Xu, Jun; Yumashev, Konstantin; Griebner, Uwe; Petrov, Valentin; Aguiló, Magdalena; Díaz, Francesc; Major, Arkady

    2017-02-01

    Tetragonal rare-earth calcium aluminates, CaLnAlO4 where Ln = Gd or Y (CALGO and CALYO, respectively), are attractive laser crystal hosts due to their locally disordered structure and high thermal conductivity. In the present work, we report on highly-efficient power-scalable microchip lasers based on 8 at.% Yb:CALGO and 3 at.% Yb:CALYO crystals grown by the Czochralski method. Pumped by an InGaAs laser diode at 978 nm, the 6 mm-long Yb:CALGO microchip laser generated 7.79 W at 1057-1065 nm with a slope efficiency of η = 84% (with respect to the absorbed pump power) and an optical-to-optical efficiency of ηopt = 49%. The 3 mm-long Yb:CALYO microchip laser generated 5.06 W at 1048-1056 nm corresponding to η = 91% and ηopt = 32%. Both lasers produced linearly polarized output (σ- polarization) with an almost circular beam profile and beam quality factors M2 x,y <1.1. The output performance of the developed lasers was modeled yielding a loss coefficient as low as 0.004-0.007 cm-1. The results indicate that the Yb3+- doped calcium aluminates are very promising candidates for high-peak-power passively Q-switched microchip lasers.

  19. Determination of metabolic organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid by microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Danč, Ladislav; Bodor, Róbert; Troška, Peter; Horčičiak, Michal; Masár, Marián

    2014-08-01

    A new MCE method for the determination of oxalic, citric, glycolic, lactic, and 2- and 3-hydroxybutyric acids, indicators of some metabolic and neurological diseases, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was developed. MCE separations were performed on a PMMA microchip with coupled channels at lower pH (5.5) to prevent proteins interference. A double charged counter-ion, BIS-TRIS propane, was very effective in resolving the studied organic acids. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 μM were obtained with the aid of contact conductivity detector implemented directly on the microchip. RSDs for migration time and peak area of organic acids in artificial and CSF samples were <0.8 and <9.7%, respectively. Recoveries of organic acids in untreated CSF samples on the microchip varied from 91 to 104%. Elimination of chloride interference, a major anionic constituent of CSF, has been reached by two approaches: (i) the use of coupled channels microchip in a column switching mode when approximately 97-99% of chloride was removed electrophoretically in the first separation channel and (ii) the implementation of micro-SPE with silver-form resin prior to the MCE analysis, which selectively removed chloride from undeproteinized CSF samples.

  20. Massive parallel analysis of DNA - Hoechst 33258 binding specificity with a generic oligonucleotide microchip.

    SciTech Connect

    Drobyshev, A. L.; Zasedatelev, A. S.; Yershov, G. M.; Mirzabekov, A. D.; Biochip Technology Center

    1999-10-15

    A generic oligodeoxyribonucleotide microchip was used to determine the sequence specificity of Hoechst 33258 binding to double-stranded DNA. The generic microchip contained 4096 oxctadeoxynucleo-tides in which all possible 4(6)= 4096 hexadeoxy-nucleotide sequences are flanked on both the 3'- and 5'-ends with equimolar mixtures of four bases. The microchip was manufactured by chemical immobilization of presynthesized 8mers within polyacrylamide gel pads. A selected set of immobilized 8mers was converted to double-stranded form by hybridization with a mixture of fluorescently labeled complementary 8mers. Massive parallel measurements of melting curves were carried out for the majority of 2080 6mer duplexes, in both the absence and presence of the Hoechst dye. The sequence-specific affinity for Hoechst 33258 was calculated as the increase in melting temperature caused by ligand binding. The dye exhibited specificity for A:T but not G:C base pairs. The affinity is low for two A:T base pairs, increases significantly for three, and reaches a plateau for four A:T base pairs. The relative ligand affinity for all trinucleotide and tetranucleotide sequences (A/T)(3)and (A/T)(4)was estimated. The free energy of dye binding to several duplexes was calculated from the equilibrium melting curves of the duplexes formed on the oligonucleotide microchips. This method can be used as a general approach for massive screening of the sequence specificity of DNA-binding compounds.