Science.gov

Sample records for polyester rayon polypropylene

  1. Effect of a depilatory agent on cotton, polyester, and rayon versus human hair in a laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Plesa, Jocelyn A; Shoup, Kelly; Manole, Mioara D; Hickey, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    We examine the ability of a depilatory agent, Nair, to dissolve strands of hair, cotton, polyester, and rayon. We conducted a bench laboratory study in which we tested single strands of hair and natural and synthetic fibers under static tension with a 10.8-g weight and application of Nair. The dependent variable, time until breakage, was recorded. If the strand did not break within 8 hours, the experiment was discontinued. Three types of hair were tested (thin, medium, and thick, as recorded per diameter). Three types of natural and synthetic fibers were tested (cotton, polyester, and rayon). All types of hair had breakage within 10 minutes of the Nair application. Synthetic materials had no breakage after 8 hours with application of Nair. Depilatory agents dissolve hair under tension within minutes. However, they do not dissolve cotton, polyester, and rayon even after many hours of application. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicomechanical evaluation of polypropylene, polyester, and polytetrafluoroethylene meshes for inguinal hernia repair.

    PubMed

    Deeken, Corey R; Abdo, Michael S; Frisella, Margaret M; Matthews, Brent D

    2011-01-01

    For meshes to be used effectively for hernia repair, it is imperative that engineers and surgeons standardize the terminology and techniques related to physicomechanical evaluation of these materials. The objectives of this study were to propose standard techniques, perform physicomechanical testing, and classify materials commonly used for inguinal hernia repair. Nine meshes were evaluated: 4 polypropylene, 1 polyester, 1 polytetrafluoroethylene, and 3 partially absorbable. Physical properties were determined through image analysis, laser micrometry, and density measurements. Biomechanical properties were determined through suture retention, tear resistance, uniaxial, and ball burst testing with specimens tested in 2 different orientations. A 1-way ANOVA with Tukey's post-test or a t-test were performed, with p < 0.05. Significant differences were observed due to both mesh type and orientation. Areas of interstices ranged from 0.33 ± 0.01 mm² for ProLite (Atrium Medical Corp) and C-QUR Lite (Atrium Medical Corp) Large to 4.10 ± 0.06 mm² for ULTRAPRO (Ethicon), and filament diameters ranged from 99.00 ±8.1 μm for ProLite Ultra (Atrium Medical Corp) and C-QUR Lite Small to 338.8 ± 3.7 μm for Parietex Flat Sheet TEC (Covidien). These structural characteristics influenced biomechanical properties such as tear resistance and tensile strength. ProLite Ultra, C-QUR Lite Small, ULTRAPRO and INFINIT (WL Gore & Associates) did not resist tearing as effectively as the others. All meshes exhibited supraphysiologic burst strengths except INFINIT and ULTRAPRO. Significant differences exist between the physicomechanical properties of polypropylene, polyester, polytetrafluoroethylene, and partially absorbable mesh prostheses commonly used for inguinal hernia repair. Orientation of the mesh was also shown to be critical for the success of meshes, particularly those demonstrating anisotropy. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Poly(ester urea)-Based Adhesives: Improved Deployment and Adhesion by Incorporation of Poly(propylene glycol) Segments.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinjun; Bhagat, Vrushali; Becker, Matthew L

    2016-12-14

    The adhesive nature of mussels arises from the catechol moiety in the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) amino acid, one of the many proteins that contribute to the unique adhesion properties of mussels. Inspired by these properties, many biomimetic adhesives have been developed over the past few years in an attempt to replace adhesives such as fibrin, cyanoacrylate, and epoxy glues. In the present work, we synthesized ethanol soluble but water insoluble catechol functionalized poly(ester urea) random copolymers that help facilitate delivery and adhesion in wet environments. Poly(propylene glycol) units incorporated into the polymer backbone impart ethanol solubility to these polymers, making them clinically relevant. A catechol to cross-linker ratio of 10:1 with a curing time of 4 h exceeded the performance of commercial fibrin glue (4.8 ± 1.4 kPa) with adhesion strength of 10.6 ± 2.1 kPa. These adhesion strengths are significant with the consideration that the adhesion studies were performed under wet conditions.

  4. Biocompatibility of a polyether urethane, polypropylene oxide, and a polyether polyester copolymer. A qualitative and quantitative study of three alloplastic tympanic membrane materials in the rat middle ear.

    PubMed

    Bakker, D; van Blitterswijk, C A; Hesseling, S C; Koerten, H K; Kuijpers, W; Grote, J J

    1990-04-01

    The biocompatibility of porous implants made of Estane 5714 F1 polyether urethane, polypropylene oxide, and a poly(ethylene oxide hydantoin) and poly(tetramethylene terephthalate) segmented polyether polyester copolymer (HPOE/PBT copolymer), which were selected as candidates for an alloplastic tympanic membrane, was assessed after implantation in rat middle ears for periods of up to 1 year. Implantation of the materials led to tissue reactions initially associated with the wound-healing process, whereas after 1 month not only the presence of macrophages and foreign-body giant cells surrounding the implant materials but also implant degradation were characteristic for a foreign-body reaction. Macrophages and foreign-body giant cells dominated the picture of the tissue surrounding polypropylene oxide. The altered morphology of these cells, the persistent infiltration of the implantation sites by exudate cells, and the premature death of five rats in the 1-year group suggest that polypropylene oxide degradation was accompanied by the release of toxic substances. Estane and copolymer degradation did not induce tissue responses reflecting implant toxicity, and tympanic membranes given these alloplasts showed a normal healing pattern. Inclusions in the cytoplasm of macrophages associated with degradation and phagocytosis of all of the polymers under study were found to contain iron, silicon, titanium, and aluminum. Growth of fibrous tissue and bone, the latter into Estane and HPOE/PBT copolymer implants, indicated appropriate implant fixation by tissue, although macrophages and foreign-body giant cells were present as well. Especially the fixation of copolymer by ingrowth of bone seems promising in terms of the amount of bone in the pores and the electron-dense bone/copolymer interface. The latter is indicative for bonding osteogenesis. The HPOE/PBT copolymer is a better candidate for alloplastic tympanic membrane than Estane, and the use of polypropylene oxide cannot be

  5. Enhancing the value of commodity polymers: Part 1. Structure-property relationships in composite materials based on maleated polypropylene/inorganic phosphate glasses. Part 2. New value-added applications for polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Mohit

    The first part of the thesis (Chapters 2 & 3) describes a new class of organic polymer/inorganic glass composite materials with property improvements that are impossible to achieve with classical polymer blends or composites. These materials exhibit good processability, superior mechanical performance, good thermal stability, and have excellent gas barrier properties. Low glass transition temperature phosphate glasses (Pglass) are used as inorganic fillers and slightly maleated polypropylene is used as the organic polymer matrix. The Pglass, which was dispersed as spherical droplets in the unoriented composites can be elongated into high aspect ratio platelets during the biaxial stretching process. Biaxially oriented films exhibited a brick wall type microstructure with highly aligned inorganic platelets in a ductile organic matrix and the oxygen barrier properties are significantly improved due to presence of Pglass platelets as impermeable inclusions. Mechanical properties of the biaxially oriented films showed significant improvements compared to neat polymer due to uniform dispersion of the Pglass platelets. Properly dispersed and aligned platelets have proven to be very effective for increasing the composite modulus. These developed materials therefore show promise to help fulfill the ever increasing demand for new advanced materials for a wide variety of advanced packaging applications because of their gas barrier properties, flexibility, transparency, mechanical strength and performance under humid conditions. The second part of the thesis (Chapters 4 & 5) describes new value-added applications for polyesters. Chapter 4 reports a novel process for the decolorization of green and blue colored PET bottle flakes using hydrogen peroxide. The decolorized flakes were characterized for color, intrinsic viscosity values. Decolorized flakes exhibited color values similar to those of colorless recycled PET and even though IV values decreased, bleached flakes still

  6. RECYCLING ZINC IN VISCOSE RAYON PLANTS BY TWO STAGE PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In an EPA demonstration grant, a process for precipitating a dense sludge of high zinc assay was proven. The zinc in the sludge was recovered and recycled to the rayon manufacturing plant. This recycling of zinc was shown to have no ill effects on rayon yarn. This process greatly...

  7. Polyester Resin Hazards

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, L. B.; Milner, F. J. M.

    1963-01-01

    Polyester resins are being increasingly used in industry. These resins require the addition of catalysts and accelerators. The handling of polyester resin system materials may give rise to skin irritations, allergic reactions, and burns. The burns are probably due to styrene and organic peroxides. Atmospheric pollution from styrene and explosion and fire risks from organic peroxides must be prevented. Where dimethylaniline is used scrupulous cleanliness and no-touch technique must be enforced. Handling precautions are suggested. Images PMID:14014495

  8. Polyesters from microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y B; Lenz, R W

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial polyesters have been found to have useful properties for applications as thermoplastics, elastomers, and adhesives and are biodegradable and biocompatible. Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) and poly(beta-malate) are the most representative polyesters synthesized by microorganisms. PHAs containing a wide variety of repeating units can be produced by bacteria, including those containing many types of pendant functional groups which can be synthesized by microorganisms that are grown on unnatural organic substrates. Poly(beta-malate) is of interest primarily for medical applications, especially for drug delivery systems. In this chapter, the bacterial production and properties of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) and poly(beta-malate) are described with emphasis on the former.

  9. Polyester polymer concrete overlay.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-01-01

    Polyester polymer concrete (PPC) was used in a trial application on a section of pavement that suffers from extensive studded tire wear. The purpose of the trial section is to determine if PPC is a possible repair strategy for this type of pavement d...

  10. Modified bamboo rayon-copper nanoparticle composites as antibacterial textiles.

    PubMed

    Teli, M D; Sheikh, Javed

    2013-10-01

    In the current study the bamboo rayon fabric grafted with acrylamide was utilized as a backbone to immobilize copper nanoprticles. The grafted bamboo rayon was first treated with CuSO4 followed by chemical reduction. The modified product was characterized using FTIR, TGA and SEM. The characteristic color developed after reduction was measured spectrophotometrically. The grafted bamboo rayon with Cu nanoparticles was then evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and the durability of their antibacterial activity after washing. The product showed antibacterial activity against both types of bacterias which was found to be durable till 50 washes. The material can be claimed as suitable candidate for medical textile applications to prevent cross-infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reactive modification of polyesters and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chen

    2004-12-01

    As part of a broader research effort to investigate the chemical modification of polyesters by reactive processing a low molecular weight (MW) unsaturated polyester (UP) and a higher MW saturated polyester, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), alone or blended with polypropylene (PP) were melt processed in a batch mixer and continuous twin screw extruders. Modification was monitored by on-line rheology and the products were characterized primarily by off-line rheology, morphology and thermal analysis. Efforts were made to establish processing/property relationships and provide an insight of the accompanying structural changes. The overall response of the reactively modified systems was found to be strongly dependent on the component characteristics, blend composition, type and concentrations of reactive additives and processing conditions. The work concluded that UP can be effectively modified through reactive melt processing. Its melt viscosity and MW can be increased through chemical reactions between organic peroxides (POX) and chain unsaturation or between MgO and carboxyl/hydroxyl end groups. Reactive blending of PP/UP blends through peroxide modification gave finer and more uniform morphology than unreacted blends and at a given PP/UP weight ratio more thermoplastic elastomers-like rheological behavior. This is due to the continuously decreasing viscosity ratio of PP/UP towards unity by the competing reactions between POX and the blend components and formation of PP-UP copolymers which serve as in-situ compatibilizers to promote better interfacial adhesion. Kinetics of the competing reactions were analyzed through a developed model. In addition to POX concentration and mixing efficiency, rheology and morphology of UP/PP bends were significantly affected by the addition of inorganic and organic coagents. Addition of coagents such as a difunctional maleimide, MgO and/or an anhydride functionalized PP during reactive blending offers effective means for tailoring

  12. Degradation of microbial polyesters.

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P

    2004-08-01

    Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), one of the largest groups of thermoplastic polyesters are receiving much attention as biodegradable substitutes for non-degradable plastics. Poly(D-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is the most ubiquitous and most intensively studied PHA. Microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various PHB-degrading microorganisms and PHB depolymerases have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. Distributions of PHB-degrading microorganisms, factors affecting the biodegradability of PHB, and microbial and enzymatic degradation of PHB are discussed in this review. We also propose an application of a new isolated, thermophilic PHB-degrading microorganism, Streptomyces strain MG, for producing pure monomers of PHA and useful chemicals, including D-3-hydroxycarboxylic acids such as D-3-hydroxybutyric acid, by enzymatic degradation of PHB.

  13. Stabilized unsaturated polyesters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogl, O.; Borsig, E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An unsaturated polyester, such as propylene glycolmaleic acid phthalic acid prepolymer dissolved in styrene is interpolymerized with an ultraviolet absorber and/or an antioxidant. The unsaturated chain may be filled with H or lower alkyl such as methyl and tertiary alkyl such as tertiary butyl. A polymer stable to exposure to the outdoors without degradation by ultraviolet radiation, thermal and/or photooxidation is formed.

  14. Water requirements of the rayon- and acetate-fiber industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mussey, Orville Durey

    1957-01-01

    Water is required for several purposes in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. These water requirements, as indicated by a survey of the water used by the plants operating in 1953, are both quantitative and qualitative. About 300 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was used in 1953 in the preparation of purified wood cellulose and cotton linters, the basic material from which the rayon and acetate fiber is made. An additional 620 mgd was used in the process of converting the cellulose to rayon and acetate fiber. The total, 920 mgd, is about 1 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1953. The rayon- and acetate-fiber plants are scattered through eastern United States and generally are located in small towns or rural areas where there are abundant supplies of clean, soft water. Water use at a typical rayon-fiber plant was about 9 mgd, and at a typical acetate-fiber plant about 38 mgd. About 110 gallons of water was used to produce a pound of rayon fiber 32 gallons per pound was process water and the remainder was used largely for cooling in connection with power production and air conditioning. For the manufacture of a pound of acetate fiber about 170 gallons of water was used. However, the field survey on which this report is based indicated a wide range in the amount of water used per pound of product. For example, in the manufacture of viscose rayon, the maximum unit water use was 8 times the minimum unit water use. Water use in summer was about 22 percent greater than average annual use. About 8 mgd of water was consumed by evaporation in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. More than 90 percent of the water used by the rayon and acetate industry was withdrawn from surface-water sources, about 8 percent from ground water, and less than 2 percent from municipal water supplies. All available analyses of the untreated waters used by the rayon and acetate industry were collected and studied. The

  15. Renewable unsaturated polyesters from muconic acid

    DOE PAGES

    Rorrer, Nicholas A.; Dorgan, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.; ...

    2016-09-27

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid that can be produced in high yields via biological conversion of sugars and lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Muconic acid is often targeted as an intermediate to direct replacement monomers such as adipic or terephthalic acid. However, the alkene groups in muconic acid provide incentive for its direct use in polymers, for example, in the synthesis of unsaturated polyester resins. Here, biologically derived muconic acid is incorporated into polyesters via condensation polymerization using the homologous series of poly(ethylene succinate), poly(propylene succinate), poly(butylene succinate), and poly(hexylene succinate). Additionally, dimethyl cis,cis-muconate is synthesized and subsequently incorporated intomore » poly(butylene succinate). NMR measurements demonstrate that alkene bonds are present in the polymer backbones. In all cases, the glass transition temperatures are increased whereas the melting and degradation temperatures are decreased. In the case of poly(butylene succinate), utilization of neat muconic acid yields substoichiometric incorporation consistent with a tapered copolymer structure, whereas the muconate diester exhibits stoichiometric incorporation and a random copolymer structure based on thermal and mechanical properties. Prototypical fiberglass panels were produced by infusing a mixture of low molecular weight poly(butylene succinate-co-muconate) and styrene into a woven glass mat and thermally initiating polymerization resulting in thermoset composites with shear moduli in excess of 30 GPa, a value typical of commercial composites. The increased glass transition temperatures with increasing mucconic incorporation leads to improved composites properties. We find that the molecular tunability of poly(butylene succinate-co-muconate) as a tapered or random copolymer enables the tunability of composite properties. Altogether, this study demonstrates the utility of muconic acid as a

  16. Renewable unsaturated polyesters from muconic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Rorrer, Nicholas A.; Dorgan, John R.; Vardon, Derek R.

    cis,cis-Muconic acid is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid that can be produced in high yields via biological conversion of sugars and lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Muconic acid is often targeted as an intermediate to direct replacement monomers such as adipic or terephthalic acid. However, the alkene groups in muconic acid provide incentive for its direct use in polymers, for example, in the synthesis of unsaturated polyester resins. Here, biologically derived muconic acid is incorporated into polyesters via condensation polymerization using the homologous series of poly(ethylene succinate), poly(propylene succinate), poly(butylene succinate), and poly(hexylene succinate). Additionally, dimethyl cis,cis-muconate is synthesized and subsequently incorporated intomore » poly(butylene succinate). NMR measurements demonstrate that alkene bonds are present in the polymer backbones. In all cases, the glass transition temperatures are increased whereas the melting and degradation temperatures are decreased. In the case of poly(butylene succinate), utilization of neat muconic acid yields substoichiometric incorporation consistent with a tapered copolymer structure, whereas the muconate diester exhibits stoichiometric incorporation and a random copolymer structure based on thermal and mechanical properties. Prototypical fiberglass panels were produced by infusing a mixture of low molecular weight poly(butylene succinate-co-muconate) and styrene into a woven glass mat and thermally initiating polymerization resulting in thermoset composites with shear moduli in excess of 30 GPa, a value typical of commercial composites. The increased glass transition temperatures with increasing mucconic incorporation leads to improved composites properties. We find that the molecular tunability of poly(butylene succinate-co-muconate) as a tapered or random copolymer enables the tunability of composite properties. Altogether, this study demonstrates the utility of muconic acid as a

  17. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    DOEpatents

    Benicewicz, Brian C.; Hoyt, Andrea E.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides (1) curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 where R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are radicals selected from the group consisting of maleimide, substituted maleimide, nadimide, substituted naimide, ethynyl, and (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 where R.sup.3 is hydrogen with the proviso that the two carbon atoms of (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 are bound on the aromatic ring of A.sup.1 or A.sup.3 to adjacent carbon atoms, A.sup.1 and A.sup.3 are 1,4-phenylene and the same where said group contains one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, or propyl, alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, A.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of 1,4-phenylene, 4,4'-biphenyl, 2,6-naphthylene and the same where said groups contain one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro, lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, and propyl, lower alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl or fluoroalkoxy, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, and B.sup.1 and B.sup.2 are selected from the group consisting of --C(O)--O-- and --O--C(O)--, (2) thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions comprised of heat-cured segments derived from monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 as described above, (3) curable blends of at least two of the polyester monomers and (4) processes of preparing the curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1590 - Polyester elastomers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyester elastomers. 177.1590 Section 177.1590... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1590 Polyester elastomers. The polyester...) For the purpose of this section, polyester elastomers are those produced by the ester exchange...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1590 - Polyester elastomers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyester elastomers. 177.1590 Section 177.1590... Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1590 Polyester elastomers. The polyester...) For the purpose of this section, polyester elastomers are those produced by the ester exchange...

  20. Pressure polymerization of polyester

    DOEpatents

    Maurer, Charles J.; Shaw, Gordon; Smith, Vicky S.; Buelow, Steven J.; Tumas, William; Contreras, Veronica; Martinez, Ronald J.

    2000-08-29

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of a polyester polymer or polyester copolymer under superatmospheric pressure conditions in a pipe or tubular reaction under turbannular flow conditions. Reaction material having a glycol equivalents to carboxylic acid equivalents mole ratio of from 1.0:1 to 1.2:1, together with a superatmospheric dense gaseous medium are fed co-currently to the reactor. Dicarboxylic acid and/or diol raw materials may be injected into any of the reaction zones in the process during operation to achieve the overall desired mole ratio balance. The process operates at temperatures of from about 220.degree. C. to about 320.degree. C., with turbannular flow achieved before the polymer product and gas exit the reactor process. The pressure in the reaction zones can be in the range from 15 psia to 2500 psia. A polymer product having a DP of a greater than 40, more preferably at least about 70, is achieved by the transfer of water from the reacting material polymer melt to the gaseous medium in the reactor.

  1. Polyester projects for India, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, R.

    1993-02-10

    India's Indo Rama Synthetics (Bombay) is planning a $186-million integrated polyester fiber and filament complex at Nagpur, Maharashtra. The complex will have annual capacities for 38,000 m.t. of polyester chips by polycondensation, 25,000 m.t. of polyester staple fiber, and 12,000 m.t. of polyester blended yarn. The company is negotiating with the main world suppliers of polycondensation technology. The first stage of the project is slated to begin production by the end of this year and be fully completed by 1994. In Pakistan, National Fibers Ltd. (PNF; Karachi) has signed a deal with Zimmer (Frankfurt) for technology, procurement, construction, and supportmore » work to expand polyester staple fiber capacity from 14,000 m.t./year to 52,000 m.t./year. The technology involves a continuous polymerization process. The project also calls for improvements to PNF's existing batch plant. It is scheduled for completion by the end of 1994. Total cost of the project is estimated at Rs1.745 billion ($70 million), out of which the foreign exchange component is Rs1.05 billion. The Islamic Development Bank (Jeddah; Saudi Arabia) has already approved a $27-million slice of the financing, while the balance of the foreign exchange loan is being arranged through suppliers credit. Local currency loans will be provided by other financial institutions in Pakistan.« less

  2. 40 CFR 414.20 - Applicability; description of the rayon fibers subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the rayon fibers subcategory. 414.20 Section 414.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers...

  3. 40 CFR 414.20 - Applicability; description of the rayon fibers subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the rayon fibers subcategory. 414.20 Section 414.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers...

  4. 40 CFR 414.20 - Applicability; description of the rayon fibers subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the rayon fibers subcategory. 414.20 Section 414.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers...

  5. 40 CFR 414.20 - Applicability; description of the rayon fibers subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the rayon fibers subcategory. 414.20 Section 414.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS Rayon Fibers...

  6. Characterization and Oxidation Behavior of Rayon-Derived Carbon Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan; Hull, David

    2010-01-01

    Rayon-derived fibers are the central constituent of reinforced carbon/ carbon (RCC) composites. Optical, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the as-fabricated fibers and the fibers after oxidation. Oxidation rates were measured with weight loss techniques in air and oxygen. The as-received fibers are approximately 10 micron in diameter and characterized by grooves or crenulations around the edges. Below 800 C, in the reaction-controlled region, preferential attack began in the crenulations and appeared to occur down fissures in the fibers.

  7. 40 CFR 721.9507 - Polyester silane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyester silane. 721.9507 Section 721... Polyester silane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a polyester silane (P-95-1022) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9507 - Polyester silane.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester silane. 721.9507 Section 721... Polyester silane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as a polyester silane (P-95-1022) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  9. Synthesis of improved polyester resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, A. H.; Delano, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    Eighteen aromatic unsaturated polyester prepolymers prepared by a modified interfacial condensation technique were investigated for their solubility in vinyl monomers and ability to provide high char yield forming unsaturated polyester resins. The best resin system contained a polyester prepolymer of phthalic, fumaric and diphenic acids reacted with 2,7-naphthalene diol and 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene. This prepolymer is very soluble in styrene, divinyl benzene, triallyl cyanurate, diallyl isophthalate and methylvinylpyridine. It provided anaerobic char yields as high as 41 percent at 800 C. The combination of good solubility and char yield represents a significant improvement over state-of-the-art unsaturated polyester resins. The majority of the other prepolymers had only low or no solubility in vinyl monomers. Graphite composites from this prepolymer with styrene were investigated. The cause for the observed low shear strengths of the composites was not determined, however 12-week aging of the composites at 82 C showed that essentially no changes in the composites had occurred.

  10. Polyester synthases: natural catalysts for plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Bernd H A

    2003-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biopolyesters composed of hydroxy fatty acids, which represent a complex class of storage polyesters. They are synthesized by a wide range of different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as by some Archaea, and are deposited as insoluble cytoplasmic inclusions. Polyester synthases are the key enzymes of polyester biosynthesis and catalyse the conversion of (R)-hydroxyacyl-CoA thioesters to polyesters with the concomitant release of CoA. These soluble enzymes turn into amphipathic enzymes upon covalent catalysis of polyester-chain formation. A self-assembly process is initiated resulting in the formation of insoluble cytoplasmic inclusions with a phospholipid monolayer and covalently attached polyester synthases at the surface. Surface-attached polyester synthases show a marked increase in enzyme activity. These polyester synthases have only recently been biochemically characterized. An overview of these recent findings is provided. At present, 59 polyester synthase structural genes from 45 different bacteria have been cloned and the nucleotide sequences have been obtained. The multiple alignment of the primary structures of these polyester synthases show an overall identity of 8-96% with only eight strictly conserved amino acid residues. Polyester synthases can been assigned to four classes based on their substrate specificity and subunit composition. The current knowledge on the organization of the polyester synthase genes, and other genes encoding proteins related to PHA metabolism, is compiled. In addition, the primary structures of the 59 PHA synthases are aligned and analysed with respect to highly conserved amino acids, and biochemical features of polyester synthases are described. The proposed catalytic mechanism based on similarities to alpha/beta-hydrolases and mutational analysis is discussed. Different threading algorithms suggest that polyester synthases belong to the alpha/beta-hydrolase superfamily, with

  11. NARC Rayon Replacement Program for the RSRM Nozzle, Phase IV Qualification and Implementation Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddock, M. Reed; Wendel, Gary M.; Cook, Roger V.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle NARC Rayon Replacement Program has down-selected Enka rayon as a replacement for the obsolete NARC rayon in the nozzle carbon cloth phenolic (CCP) ablative insulators. Full qualification testing of the Enka rayon-based carbon cloth phenolic is underway, including processing, thmal/structural properties, and hot-fire subscale tests. Required thermal-structural capabilities, together with confidence in erosio/char performance in simulated and subscale hot fire tests such as Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Laser Hardened Materials Evaluation Laboratory testing, NASA-MSFC 24-inch motor tests, NASA-MSFC Solid Fuel Torch - Super Sonic Blast Tube, NASA-MSFC Plasma Torch Test Bed, ATK Thiokol Forty Pound Charge and NASA-MSFC MNASA justified the testing of the new Enka-rayon candidate on full-scale static test motors. The first RSRM full-scale static test motor nozzle, fabricated using the new Enka rayon-based CCP, was successfully demonstrated in June 2004. Two additional static test motors are planned with the new Enka rayon in the next two years along with additional A-basis property characterization. Process variation or "corner-of-the-box" testing together with cured and uncured aging studies are also planned as some of the pre-flight implementation activities with 5-year cured aging studies over-lapping flight hardware fabrication.

  12. Properties of honeycomb polyester knitted fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, A. F.

    2016-07-01

    The properties of honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics were studied to understand their advantages. Seven honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics and one common polyester weft-knitted fabric were selected for testing. Their bursting strengths, fuzzing and pilling, air permeability, abrasion resistance and moisture absorption and perspiration were studied. The results show that the honeycomb polyester weft-knitted fabrics have excellent moisture absorption and liberation. The smaller their thicknesses and area densities are, the better their moisture absorption and liberation will be. Their anti-fuzzing and anti-pilling is good, whereas their bursting strengths and abrasion resistance are poorer compared with common polyester fabric's. In order to improve the hygroscopic properties of the fabrics, the proportion of the honeycomb microporous structure modified polyester in the fabrics should not be less than 40%.

  13. RHEOLOGY OF CONCENTRATED SOLUTIONS OF HYPERBRANCHED POLYESTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The solution rheology of different generations of hyperbranched polyesters in N-methyl-2- pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent was examined in this study. The solutions exhibited Newtonian behavior over a wide range of polyester concentrations. Also, the relative viscosities of poly(amido...

  14. NARC Rayon Replacement Program for the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Nozzle: Screening Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, R. V.; Fairbourn, M. W.; Wendel, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Thiokol Corporation and NASA MSFC are jointly developing a replacement for North American Rayon Corporation (NARC) Aerospace Grade Rayon (1650/720 continuous filament), the precursor for the Carbon Cloth Phenolic (CCP) ablatives used in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) Nozzles. NARC discontinued production of Aerospace Grade Rayon in September 1997. NASA maintains a stockpile of NARC Rayon to support RSRM production through the summer of 2005. The program plan for selection and qualification of a replacement for NARC rayon was approved in August 1998. Screening activities began in February 1999. The intent of this paper is to provide a summary of the data generated during the screening phase of the NARC Rayon Replacement Program. Twelve cellulose based fibers (rayon and lyocell) were evaluated. These fibers were supplied by three independent vendors. Many of these fibers were carbonized by two independent carbonizers. Each candidate was tested according to standard acceptance test methods at each step of the manufacturing process. Additional testing was performed with the candidate CCPS, including hot fire tests, Process studies and mechanical and thermal characterization. Six of the twelve fiber candidates tested were dropped at the conclusion of Phase 1. The reasons for the elimination of these candidates included; difficulties in processing the material in the whitegoods, carbon and CCP forms; poor composite mechanical performance; and future availability concerns. The remaining six fibers demonstrated enough promise to merit continued evaluation and optimization of the CCP fabrication process. Note: Certain CCP data falls under the restrictions of US export laws, (ITAR, etc.) and will not be included in this paper.

  15. Surface Modification of Polyester Fiber with Perfluorooctyltrimethoxysilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangcheng; Liu, Yadong; Li, Dan; Tie, Zihan

    2018-05-01

    An excellent modified polyester fiber was prepared via chemical grafting between polyester fiber and perfluorooctyltrimethoxysilane (FAS-17), or silane coupler (KH-570), or Titanate coupler (DN-101) in isopropyl alcohol aqueous solution. Volume ratio of isopropyl alcohol in aqueous solution was 50:50, the mass concentration of FAS-17 is 2%, reacting on polyester fiber modified for 24h at 60 °C, the polyester fiber contact angle to water was 145 °, and the contact angle to peanut oil was 118 °, with excellent performance of amphiphobic property. KH-570 and DN-101 modified polymer fiber to be hydrophobic properties nearly as FAS-17, but modified polyester fiber have no amphiphobic property.

  16. Torrefied biomass-polypropylene composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Torrefied almond shells and wood chips were incorporated into polypropylene as fillers to produce torrefied biomass-polymer composites. Response surface methodology was used to examine the effects of filler concentration, filler size, and lignin factor (relative lignin to cellulose concentration) on...

  17. Method for making thin polypropylene film

    DOEpatents

    Behymer, R.D.; Scholten, J.A.

    1985-11-21

    An economical method is provided for making uniform thickness polypropylene film as thin as 100 Angstroms. A solution of polypropylene dissolved in xylene is formed by mixing granular polypropylene and xylene together in a flask at an elevated temperature. A substrate, such as a glass plate or microscope slide is immersed in the solution. When the glass plate is withdrawn from the solution at a uniform rate, a thin polypropylene film forms on a flat surface area of the glass plate as the result of xylene evaporation. The actual thickness of the polypropylene film is functional of the polypropylene in xylene solution concentration, and the particular withdrawal rate of the glass plate from the solution. After formation, the thin polypropylene film is floated from the glass plate onto the surface of water, from which it is picked up with a wire hoop.

  18. 49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section 173.165... Polyester resin kits. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft, polyester resin kits consisting of a base... will not interact dangerously in the event of leakage. (b) For transportation by aircraft, polyester...

  19. Carbon disulfide exposure and neurotoxic sequelae among viscose rayon workers

    SciTech Connect

    Aaserud, O.; Hommeren, O.J.; Tvedt, B.

    1990-01-01

    In Norway's only viscose rayon plant, carbon disulfide (CS2) concentrations in ambient air usually were between 30 and 50 mg/m3 during the first 23 years of production. From 1970/1971 until the factory was closed in 1982, corresponding values were 10-25 mg/m3. Through all of these years, high peak exposures of CS2 and H2S occurred. In 1986, 16 of the 24 men still at work in 1982 and with at least 10 years' experience in the spinning room agreed to participate in this study. Clinical neurological examination demonstrated abnormalities in 15; neuropsychological tests showed impairments of probable organic origin in 14.more » Thirteen had cerebral atrophy demonstrated by cerebral computed tomography (CT). Electromyography (EMG) was abnormal in six, neurography in 11. Regional cerebral blood flow measurements indicated flow asymmetries in eight, whereas Doppler investigation of the extracranial carotid and vertebral arteries, electroencephalography (EEG), and evoked response investigations were mostly normal. Based on these results and the exposure data, a diagnosis of CS2-induced encephalopathy was reached in eight workers; another six had an encephalopathy in which CS2 exposure was regarded as a partial cause. Correspondingly, seven had a neuropathy probably caused by CS2 exposure alone; in three others, CS2 was found to be the partial cause of a neuropathy. This indicates that long-term, relatively moderate exposure to CS2 in association with high peak exposures to CS2 and H2S involves a substantial risk of developing neurotoxic disease.« less

  20. Heatshield material selection for advanced ballistic reentry vehicles. [rayon fiber cloth impregnated with phenolic resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legendre, P. J.; Holtz, T.; Sikra, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The Performance of staple rayon fiber and AVTEX continuous rayon fiber was evaluated as precursor materials for heatshields. The materials studied were referenced to the IRC FM5055A heatshield materials flown during the past decade. Three different arc jet facilities were used to simulate portions of the reentry environment. The IRC FM5055A and the AVTEX FM5055G, both continuous rayon fiber woven materials having the phenolic impregnant filled with carbon particles were compared. The AVTEX continuous fiber, unfilled material FM5822A was also examined to a limited extent. Test results show that the AVTEX FM5055G material provided a close substitute for the IRC FM5055A material both in terms of thermal protection and roll torque performance.

  1. Extraction of chitosan from shrimp shells waste and application in antibacterial finishing of bamboo rayon.

    PubMed

    Teli, M D; Sheikh, Javed

    2012-06-01

    Chitosan can be best utilized as safe antibacterial agent for textiles but there is always a limitation of its durability. The chitin containing shellfish waste is available in huge quantities, but very low quantities are utilized for extraction of high value products like chitosan. In the current work chitosan was extracted from shrimp shells and then used as antibacterial exhaust finishing agent for grafted bamboo rayon. Chitosan bound bamboo rayon was then evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The product showed antibacterial activity against both types of bacterias which was durable till 30 washes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Additive manufacturing with polypropylene microfibers.

    PubMed

    Haigh, Jodie N; Dargaville, Tim R; Dalton, Paul D

    2017-08-01

    The additive manufacturing of small diameter polypropylene microfibers is described, achieved using a technique termed melt electrospinning writing. Sequential fiber layering, which is important for accurate three-dimensional fabrication, was achieved with the smallest fiber diameter of 16.4±0.2μm obtained. The collector speed, temperature and melt flow rate to the nozzle were optimized for quality and minimal fiber pulsing. Of particular importance to the success of this method is appropriate heating of the collector plate, so that the electrostatically drawn filament adheres during the direct-writing process. By demonstrating the direct-writing of polypropylene, new applications exploiting the favorable mechanical, stability and biocompatible properties of this polymer are envisaged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. 40 CFR 414.20 - Applicability; description of the rayon fibers subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicability; description of the rayon fibers subcategory. 414.20 Section 414.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORGANIC CHEMICALS, PLASTICS, AND SYNTHETIC FIBERS...

  4. 77 FR 47363 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ..., polyester, rayon, polypropylene, and polyethylene teraphthalate), metal threads and/or metalized yarns, or... original length as defined in the (HTSUS, Section XI, Note 13) or rubber thread; (4) Narrow woven ribbons... comprised at least 85 percent by weight of threads having a denier of 225 or higher; (9) Narrow woven...

  5. 75 FR 7244 - Narrow Woven Ribbons with Woven Selvedge from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    .... (``Guangzhou Complacent''); Ningbo Huarui Import & Export Co., Ltd.; Ningbo Jinfeng Thread & Ribbon Co. Ltd... limited to nylon, polyester, rayon, polypropylene, and polyethylene teraphthalate), metal threads and/or... 13) or rubber thread; (4) narrow woven ribbons of a kind used for the manufacture of typewriter or...

  6. A pilot-scale nonwoven roll goods manufacturing process reduces microbial burden to pharmacopeia acceptance levels for nonsterile hygiene applications

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A total of seven source fiber types were selected for use in the manufacturing of nonwoven roll goods: polyester; polypropylene; rayon; greige cotton from two sources; mechanically cleaned greige cotton; and scoured and bleached cotton. The microbial burden of each source fiber was measured as a pr...

  7. Permeation Tests on Polypropylene Fiber Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-03-16

    Engineering at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) evaluated polypropylene nanofiber materials for their potential in air filtration to remove toxic......The Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) evaluated polypropylene nanofiber materials provided by

  8. 21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... following prescribed conditions: (a) The cross-linked polyester resins are produced by the condensation of... fiber Polyester fiber produced by the condensation of one or more of the acids listed in paragraph (a)(1...

  9. 21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... polyester resins are produced by the condensation of one or more of the acids listed in paragraph (a)(1) of.... Reinforcements: Asbestos Glass fiber Polyester fiber produced by the condensation of one or more of the acids...

  10. 21 CFR 177.2420 - Polyester resins, cross-linked.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... polyester resins are produced by the condensation of one or more of the acids listed in paragraph (a)(1) of.... Reinforcements: Asbestos Glass fiber Polyester fiber produced by the condensation of one or more of the acids...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10213 - Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyether polyester copolymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10213 Polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical... as polyether polyester copolymer phosphate (PMN P-09-253) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6485 - Hydroxy terminated polyester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hydroxy terminated polyester. 721.6485... Substances § 721.6485 Hydroxy terminated polyester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydroxy terminated polyester...

  13. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane acrylate...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6485 - Hydroxy terminated polyester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydroxy terminated polyester. 721.6485... Substances § 721.6485 Hydroxy terminated polyester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a hydroxy terminated polyester...

  15. 49 CFR 173.165 - Polyester resin kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Polyester resin kits. 173.165 Section 173.165... Polyester resin kits. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft, polyester resin kits consisting of a base... resin kits consisting of a base material component (Class 3, Packing Group II or III) and an activator...

  16. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane acrylate...

  17. (Citric acid–co–polycaprolactone triol) polyester

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Lynda V.; Nair, Prabha D.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds enormous challenges for materials science, wherein the ideal scaffold to be used is expected to be biocompatible, biodegradable and possess mechanical and physical properties that are suitable for target application. In this context, we have prepared degradable polyesters in different ratios by a simple polycondensation technique with citric acid and polycaprolactone triol. Differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the materials were amorphous based the absence of a crystalline melting peak and the presence of a glass transition temperature below 37°C. These polyesters were found to be hydrophilic and could be tailor-made into tubes and films. Porosity could also be introduced by addition of porogens. All the materials were non-cytotoxic in an in vitro cytotoxicity assay and may degrade via hydrolysis to non-toxic degradation products. These polyesters have potential implications in the field of soft tissue engineering on account of their similarity of properties. PMID:23507730

  18. Studies on wettability of polypropylene/methyl-silicone composite film and polypropylene monolithic material.

    PubMed

    Hou, Weixin; Mu, Bo; Wang, Qihua

    2008-11-01

    A polypropylene/methyl-silicone superhydrophobic surface was prepared using a simple casting method. Varying the ratio of polypropylene and methyl-silicone results in different surface microstructure. The wetting behavior of the as-prepared surface was investigated. A polypropylene monolithic material was also prepared. Its superhydrophobicity still retains when the material was cut or abraded. The as-prepared material can also be used to separate some organic solvents from water.

  19. Selecting the best rayon in customer’s perspective using fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonjaya, E. G.; Paulus, E.; Hidayat, A.

    2018-03-01

    Annually, the best Rayon selection is conducted by the assessment team of PT.PLN (Persero) Cirebon with the goal to increase the spirit of company members in providing an improved service for customers. However, there is a problem in multiple criteria decision making in this case, which is the importance intensity of each criterion in the selection are often assessed subjectively. To solve this problem, Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process are used to cover AHP scale deficiency in the form of ‘crisp’ numbers. So, it should be considered to use Fuzzy logic approach to handle uncertainty. Fuzzy approach, especially triangular fuzzy number towards AHP scale, are expected to minimize the handling of subjective input, which then will make a more objective result. Thus, this research was conducted to help the management or assessment team in the selection of the best Rayon with a more objective selection in according to the company criteria.

  20. Ethnobotany in Rayones, Nuevo León, México.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Garza-López, Miriam; Villarreal-Quintanilla, José Ángel; Salinas-Rodríguez, María Magdalena; Soto-Mata, Brianda Elizabeth; González-Rodríguez, Humberto; González-Uribe, Dino Ulises; Cantú-Silva, Israel; Carrillo-Parra, Artemio; Cantú-Ayala, César

    2014-09-01

    Trough collections of plants and interviews with 110 individuals, an ethnobotanical study was conducted in order to determine the knowledge and use plant species in Rayones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The aim of this study was to record all useful plants and their uses, to know whether differences exist in the knowledge about the number of species and uses between women and men, and to know if there is a correlation between the age of individuals and knowledge of species and their uses. A total of 110 persons were interviewed (56 men, 56 women). Semistructured interviews were carried out. The data were analyzed by means of Student t test and the Pearson Correlation Coeficient. A total of 252 species, 228 genera and 91 families of vascular plants were recorded. Astraceae, Fabaceae and are the most important families with useful species and Agave and Opuntia are the genera with the highest number of useful species. One hundred and thirty six species are considered as medicinal. Agave, Acacia and Citrus are the genera with the highest number of medicinal species. Other uses includes edible, spiritual rituals, construction and ornamentals. There was a non-significant correlation between the person's age and number of species, but a significant very low negative correlation between the person's age and number of uses was found. Knowing their medicinal uses is an important issue for the people of Rayones. Boiling and preparing infusions are the main ways of using plants by residents. The leaves, the branches, and the fruits are the most commonly used parts. Almost 18% of the flora is used for wood and construction purposes. Several uses such as cosmetic, shampoo, firming skin tonics and health hair products recorded in Rayones has not been reported for other areas in the state of Nuevo León. In Rayones, women have a greater knowledge about plants and their uses than men, particularly, medicinal plants, but, men have a greater knowledge about wood and construction species.

  1. Diffraction de rayons X sur les plaquettes de fer durcies par cyanuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, M.; Hoyer, W.; Stegarescu, M.; Cornet, A.; Broll, N.

    2004-11-01

    Une méthode de cyanuration a été developpée pour les surfaces des plaquettes de fer, basée sur une réaction thermochimique qui conduit à la formation des couches dures sur le métal. Les échantillons ont été analysés, pour de temps différents de traitement, par diffraction de rayons X et par mesures de dureté.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester / Montmorillonite Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-11-01

    Montmorillonite Composites DISTRIBUTION: Approved for public release, distribution unlimited This paper is part of the following report: TITLE: Nanophase and...Mechanical Properties of Unsaturated Polyester / Montmorillonite Composites A. Baran Inceoglu and Ulku Yilmazer Middle East Technical University, Chemical...analysed the nature of the curing agent on structure. Kornmann, Berglund and Giannelis [8] studied nanocomposites based on montmorillonite modified

  3. Joining of polypropylene/polypropylene and glass fiber reinforced polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianguang

    Joining behavior of polypropylene (PP) to PP and long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene (LFT) to LFT were investigated. Adhesive bonding was used to join PP/PP. Both adhesive bonding and ultrasonic welding were used to join LFT/LFT. Single-lap shear testing and low velocity impact (LVI) testing were used to evaluate the performance of bonded structures. The two-part acrylic adhesive DP8005 was determined to be the best among the three adhesive candidates, which was attributed to its low surface energy. The impact resistance of LFT/LFT joints, normalized with respect to thickness, was higher than that of PP/PP joints because of higher stiffness of LFT/LFT joints. The stress states in the adhesive layer of adhesively bonded structures were analyzed using ANSYS and LS-DYNA to simulate the single-lap shear testing and LVI testing, respectively. The shear and peel stresses peaked at the edges of the adhesive layer. Compared to LFT/LFT joints, higher peel stress occurred in the adhesive layer in the PP/PP joints in tension. Impact response of adhesively bonded structures as evaluated by LS-DYNA showed good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of weld time and weld pressure on the shear strength of ultrasonically welded LFT/LFT was evaluated. With higher weld pressure, less time was required to obtain a complete weld. At longer weld times, lower weld pressure was required. From the 15 weld conditions studied, a weld map was obtained that provides conditions to achieve a complete weld. Nanoindentation was used to evaluate the effect of ultrasonic weld on the modulus and hardness of the PP matrix. Modulus and hardness of the PP matrix were slightly decreased by ultrasonic welding possibly due to the decrease in the molecular weight. The temperature profile in LFT/LFT in the transverse direction during ultrasonic welding was analyzed by two ANSYS-based thermal models: (a) one in which heat generated by interfacial friction was treated as a heat flux and (b

  4. Bacterial polyesters: biosynthesis, biodegradable plastics and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Robert W; Marchessault, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    The discovery and chemical identification, in the 1920s, of the aliphatic polyester: poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), PHB, as a granular component in bacterial cells proceeded without any of the controversies which marked the recognition of macromolecules by Staudinger. Some thirty years after its discovery, PHB was recognized as the prototypical biodegradable thermoplastic to solve the waste disposal challenge. The development effort led by Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd., encouraged interdisciplinary research from genetic engineering and biotechnology to the study of enzymes involved in biosynthesis and biodegradation. From the simple PHB homopolyester discovered by Maurice Lemoigne in the mid-twenties, a family of over 100 different aliphatic polyesters of the same general structure has been discovered. Depending on bacterial species and substrates, these high molecular weight stereoregular polyesters have emerged as a new family of natural polymers ranking with nucleic acids, polyamides, polyisoprenoids, polyphenols, polyphosphates, and polysaccharides. In this historical review, the chemical, biochemical and microbial highlights are linked to personalities and locations involved with the events covering a discovery timespan of 75 years.

  5. Ethnobotany in Rayones, Nuevo León, México

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trough collections of plants and interviews with 110 individuals, an ethnobotanical study was conducted in order to determine the knowledge and use plant species in Rayones, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. The aim of this study was to record all useful plants and their uses, to know whether differences exist in the knowledge about the number of species and uses between women and men, and to know if there is a correlation between the age of individuals and knowledge of species and their uses. Methods A total of 110 persons were interviewed (56 men, 56 women). Semistructured interviews were carried out. The data were analyzed by means of Student t test and the Pearson Correlation Coeficient. Results A total of 252 species, 228 genera and 91 families of vascular plants were recorded. Astraceae, Fabaceae and are the most important families with useful species and Agave and Opuntia are the genera with the highest number of useful species. One hundred and thirty six species are considered as medicinal. Agave, Acacia and Citrus are the genera with the highest number of medicinal species. Other uses includes edible, spiritual rituals, construction and ornamentals. There was a non-significant correlation between the person’s age and number of species, but a significant very low negative correlation between the person’s age and number of uses was found. Conclusions Knowing their medicinal uses is an important issue for the people of Rayones. Boiling and preparing infusions are the main ways of using plants by residents. The leaves, the branches, and the fruits are the most commonly used parts. Almost 18% of the flora is used for wood and construction purposes. Several uses such as cosmetic, shampoo, firming skin tonics and health hair products recorded in Rayones has not been reported for other areas in the state of Nuevo León. In Rayones, women have a greater knowledge about plants and their uses than men, particularly, medicinal plants, but, men have a greater

  6. Study of the chain conformation of thermotropic nematic main chain polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. H.; Brûlet, A.; Cotton, J. P.; Davidson, P.; Strazielle, C.; Keller, P.

    1994-10-01

    The conformation of main chain mesomorphic polyesters is studied by small angle neutron scattering (SANS) in the isotropic and in the nematic phases, by using mixtures of deuterated and undeuterated polymers. Particular attention is given to neglect the transesterification effects occurring mainly at high temperature for these LC polymers. In the isotropic phase, despite the presence of long rigid mesogenic groups, the LC polyester chains have a Gaussian conformation shown by the variation of the radius of gyration as a function of the molecular weight. This result is confirmed from the scattering variation in the intermediate range of the scattering vector. In the nematic phase, the SANS data are well fitted to a model of cylinder, in which the main chain polymer is confined. In the unoriented phase, the measurements in the intermediate range give the values of the radii of cylinders : they lie in between 10 Å and 19 Å depending on the degree of polymerization of chains. In the oriented nematic phase, the scattering patterns are highly anisotropic : they correspond to very long, thin and well-oriented cylinders. We have calculated the fully extended chain lengths using for the monomer length that measured in situ by X-ray diffraction. Then the comparison of this length with the measured height of the cylinders gives the existence of hairpins and their number per chain. For the short chain, the conformation is almost completely elongated in the nematic direction, whereas hairpin defects appear in longer chains. Their number decreases slightly with decreasing temperature. The orientational fluctuations of cylinders relatively to the nematic director are weak as shown from the high values of their order parameter (P_2 > 0.9). These results are discussed for two spacer lengths as a function of the molecular weight and of the temperature. La conformation de polyesters linéaires mésomorphes est étudiée par diffusion de neutrons aux petits angles (DNPA) dans les

  7. 77 FR 60720 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Fiber From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review... certain polyester staple fiber from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... (September 2012), entitled Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-1104 (Review...

  8. Degradation rates of glycerol polyesters at acidic and basic conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Polyesters prepared from glycerol with mixtures of adipic and citric acids were evaluated in the laboratory to estimate degradation rates over a range of pH conditions. These renewable polymers provide a market for glycerol that is generated during biodiesel production. The polyesters were prepared...

  9. 75 FR 42784 - Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-101 (Third Review)] Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Termination of... revocation of the antidumping duty order on greige polyester/cotton printcloth from China would be likely to...

  10. 75 FR 23300 - Greige Polyester/Cotton Printcloth From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    .../Cotton Printcloth From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on greige polyester/cotton printcloth from... antidumping duty order on greige polyester/cotton printcloth from China would be likely to lead to...

  11. Microbial degradation of polyurethane, polyester polyurethanes and polyether polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Nakajima-Kambe, T; Shigeno-Akutsu, Y; Nomura, N; Onuma, F; Nakahara, T

    1999-02-01

    Polyurethane (PUR) is a polymer derived from the condensation of polyisocyanate and polyol and it is widely used as a base material in various industries. PUR, in particular, polyester PUR, is known to be vulnerable to microbial attack. Recently, environmental pollution by plastic wastes has become a serious issue and polyester PUR had attracted attention because of its biodegradability. There are many reports on the degradation of polyester PUR by microorganisms, especially by fungi. Microbial degradation of polyester PUR is thought to be mainly due to the hydrolysis of ester bonds by esterases. Recently, polyester-PUR-degrading enzymes have been purified and their characteristics reported. Among them, a solid-polyester-PUR-degrading enzyme (PUR esterase) derived from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35 had unique characteristics. This enzyme has a hydrophobic PUR-surface-binding domain and a catalytic domain, and the surface-binding domain was considered as being essential for PUR degradation. This hydrophobic surface-binding domain is also observed in other solid-polyester-degrading enzymes such as poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) depolymerases. There was no significant homology between the amino acid sequence of PUR esterase and that of PHA depolymerases, except in the hydrophobic surface-binding region. Thus, PUR esterase and PHA depolymerase are probably different in terms of their evolutionary origin and it is possible that PUR esterases come to be classified as a new solid-polyester-degrading enzyme family.

  12. "No fertile soil for pathogens": rayon, advertising, and biopolitics in late Weimar Germany.

    PubMed

    Lane, Yvette Florio

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on twentieth-century German history has begun to re-examine the centrality of race as a category of analysis. While not discounting its importance in the shaping and enacting of Nazi policies and practices, race is seen instead as one among many factors leading to the crimes of the Nazi regime. In this paper, the author considers the role consumerist desires and fantasies played in the wider context of the inter-war European fascination with notions of technology, "hygiene," democracy, and modernity. Using advertisements that were created to promote manufactured-fiber (rayon) apparel, this article suggests that continuities across cultures and time periods necessitate a re-evaluation of race as the signal organizing principal. Instead, the author argues that by complicating the intersections between class, science and technology, and an emerging, but troubling, modernity, 1920s rayon advertising offers an especially rich site for analysis of the ways in which biopolitics and nascent consumerism both sold products and constructed ideologies before 1933, and influenced the post-war welfare state.

  13. Stability of cyclosporine solutions stored in polypropylene-polyolefin bags and polypropylene syringes.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengqing; Forest, Jean-Marc; Coursol, Christian; Leclair, Grégoire

    2011-09-01

    The stability of cyclosporine diluted to 0.2 or 2.5 mg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in polypropylene-polyolefin containers or polypropylene syringes was evaluated. Intravenous cyclosporine solutions (0.2 and 2.5 mg/mL) were aseptically prepared and transferred to 250-mL polypropylene-polyolefin bags or 60-mL polypropylene syringes. Chemical stability was measured using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay. Physical stability was assessed by visual inspection and a dynamic light scattering (DLS) method. After 14 days, HPLC assay showed that the samples of i.v. cyclosporine stored in polypropylene-polyolefin bags remained chemically stable (>98% of initial amount remaining); the physical stability of the samples was confirmed by DLS and visual inspection. The samples stored in polypropylene syringes were found to contain an impurity (attributed to leaching of a syringe component by the solution) that could be detected by HPLC after 1 day; on further investigation, no leaching was detected when the syringes were exposed to undiluted i.v. cyclosporine 50 mg/mL for 10 minutes. Samples of i.v. cyclosporine solutions of 0.2 and 2.5 mg/mL diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at 25 °C in polypropylene-polyolefin bags were physically and chemically stable for at least 14 days. When stored in polypropylene syringes, the samples were contaminated by an impurity within 1 day; however, the short-term (i.e., ≤10 minutes) use of the syringes for the preparation and transfer of i.v. cyclosporine solution is considered safe.

  14. Plant growth responses to polypropylene--biocontainers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The influence of bio-fillers incorporated into polypropylene (PP) on the growth of plants was evaluated. Biocontainers were created by injection molding of PP with 25-40% by weight of Osage orange tree, Paulownia tree, coffee tree wood or dried distillers grain and 5% by weight of maleated polypropy...

  15. Water, moisture and ash content of mechanically cleaned greige cotton, naturally colored brown cotton, flax and rayon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This exploratory research evaluated the Karl Fischer Titration reference method (KFT, ASTM D7785) to accurately measure water content of mechanically cleaned greige cotton, a naturally colored brown cotton, flax and rayon at moisture equilibrium. Each sample was analyzed by KFT, standard oven dryin...

  16. 78 FR 51707 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-839] Certain Polyester Staple... certain polyester staple fiber (polyester staple fiber) from the Republic of Korea (Korea) for the period..., 2013, the Department initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyester...

  17. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section... prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester...

  18. 75 FR 43921 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple... certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan. The period of review is May 1, 2008, through April 30, 2009... polyester staple fiber (PSF) from Taiwan. See Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary...

  19. Micro-thermal analysis of polyester coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Hartmut R.

    2010-04-01

    The application and suitability of micro-thermal analysis to detect changes in the chemical and physical properties of coating due to ageing and especially photo-degradation is demonstrated using a model polyester coating based on neopentyl glycol isophthalic acid. The changes in chemical structure like chain scission and cross-linking are manifested by a shift of the LTA detectable Tg and by a change of the slope of the part of the LTA graph responsible for the penetration of the hot sensor into the material after passing the glass transition temperature. As such LTA is a valuable tool to have a quick look into coating surfaces and especially their ageing. The photo-degradation of polyester in air leads to the formation of a cross-linked network at a surface layer of about 3-4 μm coupled with an increase in hardness and of the glass transition temperature by ˜90 K, the effect is less drastic for a photo-degradation in a nitrogen environment. Moreover, the presence of a non-equilibrium dense surface layer with a higher Tg formed during the drying of the coating formulation and the film solidification can be shown.

  20. Protoenzymes: the case of hyperbranched polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamajanov, Irena; Cody, George D.

    2017-11-01

    Enzymes are biopolymeric complexes that catalyse biochemical reactions and shape metabolic pathways. Enzymes usually work with small molecule cofactors that actively participate in reaction mechanisms and complex, usually globular, polymeric structures capable of specific substrate binding, encapsulation and orientation. Moreover, the globular structures of enzymes possess cavities with modulated microenvironments, facilitating the progression of reaction(s). The globular structure is ensured by long folded protein or RNA strands. Synthesis of such elaborate complexes has proven difficult under prebiotically plausible conditions. We explore here that catalysis may have been performed by alternative polymeric structures, namely hyperbranched polymers. Hyperbranched polymers are relatively complex structures that can be synthesized under prebiotically plausible conditions; their globular structure is ensured by virtue of their architecture rather than folding. In this study, we probe the ability of tertiary amine-bearing hyperbranched polyesters to form hydrophobic pockets as a reaction-promoting medium for the Kemp elimination reaction. Our results show that polyesters formed upon reaction between glycerol, triethanolamine and organic acid containing hydrophobic groups, i.e. adipic and methylsuccinic acid, are capable of increasing the rate of Kemp elimination by a factor of up to 3 over monomeric triethanolamine. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  1. Applicability of electrospun polypropylene carbonate polymers as a drug carrier for sirolimus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hourong; Gu, Xinghua; Liu, Kai; Fang, Changcun; Tang, Mengmeng

    2017-06-01

    Polypropylene carbonate (PPC), a biodegradable aliphatic polyester, exhibits one particular advantage over other polyesters, which is that following degradation in vivo, it primarily produces H2O and CO2, causing minimal side effects. Although PPC exhibits limited mechanical strength, and is therefore not able to serve as a scaffold to support tissue regeneration, it may be suitable for drug delivery; however, this requires further investigation. In the present study, electrospinning was applied to generate PPC polymers containing sirolimus, a cell growth‑inhibiting drug which is used to treat restenosis. The properties of PPC‑sirolimus polymers were examined using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and in vitro degradation assays. Drug loading and entrapment efficiency were determined, and in vitro sirolimus‑release from the polymer was assessed. Furthermore, the effect of PPC‑sirolimus polymers on cell growth was measured using an MTT assay in vitro. The results of the present study demonstrated that electrospun PPC polymers formed a uniform three‑dimensional, grid‑intertwined, net‑like structure; the surface of the polymers was smooth and the diameter was ~3 µm. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis demonstrated that sirolimus existed in an amorphous state in the polymer. Following soaking in PBS for 4 weeks, the polymer swelled and the net‑like structure broke down and fragmented. Sirolimus loading and entrapment efficiency were 10.3±3.2 and 95.1±10.6%, respectively. Sirolimus‑release from PPC‑sirolimus polymers continued for 28 days in PBS. PPC‑sirolimus markedly inhibited the growth of rat aortic adventitial fibroblast cells, an effect which was not observed with PPC alone. The results of the present study suggest that PPC polymers are a promising alternative drug carrier for sirolimus.

  2. Variation in Phenometric Lapse Rates in Pasture Resources across Four Rayons in Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henebry, G. M.; Tomaszewska, M. A.; Kelgenbaeva, K.

    2017-12-01

    High elevation pasture resources form the foundation of agro-pastoralist livelihoods in Kyrgyzstan and elsewhere in montane Central Asia. We explore the temporal and the topographical variation in phenometric lapse rates (PLRs: the change in a phenometric as a function of elevation) across four rayons in two oblasts of the Kyrgyz Republic—Alay, At-Bashy, Chong Alay, and Naryn—with the aim of identifying and quantifying robust generic patterns in the PLRs. We evaluate two fundamental phenometrics derived from the downward convex quadratic model of land surface phenology that links the NDVI to accumulated growing degree-day (AGDD). The peak height (PH) is the maximum NDVI value obtained from the fitted model. The thermal time to peak (TTP) is the amount of AGDD required to reach the PH. We fitted sixteen years of Landsat NDVI data at 30 m spatial resolution to annual AGDD progressions derived from MODIS land surface temperature time series at 1 km spatial resolution, yielding maps for each phenometric. If the coefficient of determination was less than 0.5, then the model fit was deemed a failure. We classified the reliability of pasture resources into five classes based on the number of years of successful model fit: very persistent (14-16 y); persistent (11-13 y); marginal (7-10 y); occasional (4-6); and rare (1-3). We explore the interactive roles of elevation, slope, aspect, latitude, and rayon on the PLRs and pasture resource persistence to identify critical areas for resource management.

  3. Evaluation of rayon swab surface sample collection method for Bacillus spores from nonporous surfaces.

    PubMed

    Brown, G S; Betty, R G; Brockmann, J E; Lucero, D A; Souza, C A; Walsh, K S; Boucher, R M; Tezak, M S; Wilson, M C; Rudolph, T; Lindquist, H D A; Martinez, K F

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended swab surface sample collection method for recovery efficiency and limit of detection for powdered Bacillus spores from nonporous surfaces. Stainless steel and painted wallboard surface coupons were seeded with dry aerosolized Bacillus atrophaeus spores and surface concentrations determined. The observed mean rayon swab recovery efficiency from stainless steel was 0.41 with a standard deviation (SD) of +/-0.17 and for painted wallboard was 0.41 with an SD of +/-0.23. Evaluation of a sonication extraction method for the rayon swabs produced a mean extraction efficiency of 0.76 with an SD of +/-0.12. Swab recovery quantitative limits of detection were estimated at 25 colony forming units (CFU) per sample area for both stainless steel and painted wallboard. The swab sample collection method may be appropriate for small area sampling (10 -25 cm2) with a high agent concentration, but has limited value for large surface areas with a low agent concentration. The results of this study provide information necessary for the interpretation of swab environmental sample collection data, that is, positive swab samples are indicative of high surface concentrations and may imply a potential for exposure, whereas negative swab samples do not assure that organisms are absent from the surfaces sampled and may not assure the absence of the potential for exposure. It is critical from a public health perspective that the information obtained is accurate and reproducible. The consequence of an inappropriate public health response founded on information gathered using an ineffective or unreliable sample collection method has the potential for undesired social and economic impact.

  4. Texturing of polypropylene (PP) with nanosecond lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Soto, R.; del Val, J.; Comesaña, R.; Boutinguiza, M.; Quintero, F.; Lusquiños, F.; Pou, J.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a biocompatible and biostable polymer, showing good mechanical properties that has been recently introduced in the biomedical field for bone repairing applications; however, its poor surface properties due to its low surface energy limit their use in biomedical applications. In this work, we have studied the topographical modification of polypropylene (PP) laser textured with Nd:YVO4 nanosecond lasers emitting at λ = 1064 nm, 532 nm, and 355 nm. First, optical response of this material under these laser wavelengths was determined. The application of an absorbing coating was also studied. The influence of the laser processing parameters on the surface modification of PP was investigated by means of statistically designed experiments. Processing maps to tailor the roughness, and wettability, the main parameters affecting cell adhesion characteristics of implants, were also determined. Microhardness measurements were performed to discern the impact of laser treatment on the final mechanical properties of PP.

  5. Fracture behavior of polypropylene/clay nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Wang, Ke; Kotaki, Masaya; Hu, Charmaine; He, Chaobin

    2006-12-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/clay nanocomposites have been prepared via a reactive compounding approach with an epoxy based masterbatch. Compared with PP and common PP/organoclay nanocomposites, the PP/clay nanocomposites based on epoxy/clay masterbatch have higher impact strength. The phenomenon can be attributed to the epoxy phase dispersed uniformly in the PP matrix, which may act as impact energy absorber and helps to form a large damage zone, thus a higher impact strength value is achieved.

  6. High strain rate behaviour of polypropylene microfoams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-del Río, T.; Garrido, M. A.; Rodríguez, J.; Arencón, D.; Martínez, A. B.

    2012-08-01

    Microcellular materials such as polypropylene foams are often used in protective applications and passive safety for packaging (electronic components, aeronautical structures, food, etc.) or personal safety (helmets, knee-pads, etc.). In such applications the foams which are used are often designed to absorb the maximum energy and are generally subjected to severe loadings involving high strain rates. The manufacture process to obtain polymeric microcellular foams is based on the polymer saturation with a supercritical gas, at high temperature and pressure. This method presents several advantages over the conventional injection moulding techniques which make it industrially feasible. However, the effect of processing conditions such as blowing agent, concentration and microfoaming time and/or temperature on the microstructure of the resulting microcellular polymer (density, cell size and geometry) is not yet set up. The compressive mechanical behaviour of several microcellular polypropylene foams has been investigated over a wide range of strain rates (0.001 to 3000 s-1) in order to show the effects of the processing parameters and strain rate on the mechanical properties. High strain rate tests were performed using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar apparatus (SHPB). Polypropylene and polyethylene-ethylene block copolymer foams of various densities were considered.

  7. Synthetic polyester-hydrolyzing enzymes from thermophilic actinomycetes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Thermophilic actinomycetes produce enzymes capable of hydrolyzing synthetic polyesters such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET). In addition to carboxylesterases, which have hydrolytic activity predominantly against PET oligomers, esterases related to cutinases also hydrolyze synthetic polymers. The production of these enzymes by actinomycetes as well as their recombinant expression in heterologous hosts is described and their catalytic activity against polyester substrates is compared. Assays to analyze the enzymatic hydrolysis of synthetic polyesters are evaluated, and a kinetic model describing the enzymatic heterogeneous hydrolysis process is discussed. Structure-function and structure-stability relationships of actinomycete polyester hydrolases are compared based on molecular dynamics simulations and recently solved protein structures. In addition, recent progress in enhancing their activity and thermal stability by random or site-directed mutagenesis is presented. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydrolyzable polyester resins, varnishes and coating compositions containing the same

    DOEpatents

    Yamamori, Naoki; Yokoi, Junji; Yoshikawa, Motoyoshi

    1984-01-01

    Preparation of hydrolyzable polyester resin comprising reacting polycarboxylic acid and polyhydric alcohol components, which is characterized by using, as at least part of said polyhydric alcohol component, a metallic salt of hydroxy carboxylic acid of the formula defined and effecting the polycondensation at a temperature which is no more than the decomposition temperature of said metallic salt. The polyester resins are useful as resinous vehicle of varnishes and antifouling paints.

  9. Structure development in melt processing isotactic polypropylene, polypropylene blends/compounds and dynamically vulcanized polyolefin TPEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yishan

    The influence of various fillers, nucleating agents and ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) additive on crystalline modification (alpha-, beta- and smectic forms) and crystalline orientation of polypropylene in die extrudates, melt spun filaments, thick rods, blow molded bottles and injection molded parts of isotactic polypropylene (PP), its blends/compounds and dynamically vulcanized polypropylene thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs) were experimentally studied under a range of cooling and processing conditions. The phenomena of crystallization, polymorphism and orientation in processing of both thin and thick samples (filaments, rods, bottles and injection molded parts) were simulated through transport laws incorporating polymer crystallization kinetics. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) curves for the various material systems investigated were developed under quiescent and uniaxial stress conditions. We applied experimental data on polymorphism of thin sections to predict crystalline structure variation in thick parts. The predictions were consistent with experiments. For filaments, the polypropylene crystalline orientation-spinline stress relationship is generally similar for the neat PP, blends/compounds and TPEs. However, the blends and TPEs have much lower birefringence apparently due to a lack of orientation in the rubber phase. It was shown that the polypropylene contribution to the birefringence for the neat PP and its blends is the same at the same spinline stress. For bottles, the inflation pressures used have little effect on orientation of either polypropylene crystals or disc-shaped talc filler. The talc discs are highly oriented parallel to the bottle surface. For the bottles without talc, the orientation of polypropylene crystallographic axes are low. The polypropylene crystallographic b-axes in the talc filled bottles are more highly oriented. For injection molded parts, it was found that a low orientation layer exists between the part

  10. Effects of moisture on aspen-fiber/polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell

    2002-01-01

    Aspen fiber/polypropylene composites were made using several different levels of aspen fiber (0 to 60% by weight) with and without the addition of a compatibilizer (maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene, MAPP). These composites were tested under various relative humidity conditions and in water soaking, boiling water, cyclic liquid water and oven drying tests. In all...

  11. Properties of antibacterial polypropylene/nanometal composite fibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Melt spinning of polypropylene fibers containing silver and zinc nanoparticles was investigated. The nanometals were generally uniformly dispersed in polypropylene, but aggregation of these materials was observed on fiber surface and in fiber cross-sections. The mechanical properties of the resulted...

  12. Melt rheological properties of natural fiber-reinforced polypropylene

    Treesearch

    Jarrod J. Schemenauer; Tim A. Osswald; Anand R. Sanadi; Daniel F. Caulfield

    2000-01-01

    The melt viscosities and mechanical properties of 3 different natural fiber-polypropylene composites were investigated. Coir (coconut), jute, and kenaf fibers were compounded with polypropylene at 30% by weight content. A capillary rheometer was used to evaluate melt viscosity. The power-law model parameters are reported over a shear rate range between 100 to 1000 s–1...

  13. Antifriction basalt-plastics based on polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashtannik, P. I.; Ovcharenko, V. G.

    1997-05-01

    A study is made of the dependence of the mechanical and friction-engineering properties of polypropylene reinforced with basalt fibers on the viscosity of the polymer matrix. It is established that the main factors that determine the mechanical properties of the plastics are the quality of impregnation of the fibers by the binder and the residual length of the reinforcing filler in the composite after extrusion and injection molding. The material that was developed has a low friction coefficient and low rate of wear within a relatively brood range of friction conditions. The basalt-plastics can be used in the rubbing parts of machines and mechanisms subjected to dry friction.

  14. Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi▿

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Jonathan R.; Huang, Jeffrey; Anand, Pria; Kucera, Kaury; Sandoval, Amanda G.; Dantzler, Kathleen W.; Hickman, DaShawn; Jee, Justin; Kimovec, Farrah M.; Koppstein, David; Marks, Daniel H.; Mittermiller, Paul A.; Núñez, Salvador Joel; Santiago, Marina; Townes, Maria A.; Vishnevetsky, Michael; Williams, Neely E.; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol; Strobel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastic, we screened several dozen endophytic fungi for their ability to degrade the synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Several organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus. Two Pestalotiopsis microspora isolates were uniquely able to grow on PUR as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Molecular characterization of this activity suggests that a serine hydrolase is responsible for degradation of PUR. The broad distribution of activity observed and the unprecedented case of anaerobic growth using PUR as the sole carbon source suggest that endophytes are a promising source of biodiversity from which to screen for metabolic properties useful for bioremediation. PMID:21764951

  15. Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Russell, Jonathan R; Huang, Jeffrey; Anand, Pria; Kucera, Kaury; Sandoval, Amanda G; Dantzler, Kathleen W; Hickman, DaShawn; Jee, Justin; Kimovec, Farrah M; Koppstein, David; Marks, Daniel H; Mittermiller, Paul A; Núñez, Salvador Joel; Santiago, Marina; Townes, Maria A; Vishnevetsky, Michael; Williams, Neely E; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol; Strobel, Scott A

    2011-09-01

    Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastic, we screened several dozen endophytic fungi for their ability to degrade the synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Several organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus. Two Pestalotiopsis microspora isolates were uniquely able to grow on PUR as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Molecular characterization of this activity suggests that a serine hydrolase is responsible for degradation of PUR. The broad distribution of activity observed and the unprecedented case of anaerobic growth using PUR as the sole carbon source suggest that endophytes are a promising source of biodiversity from which to screen for metabolic properties useful for bioremediation.

  16. SOLUTION RHEOLOGY OF HYPERBRANCHED POLYESTERS AND THEIR BLENDS WITH LINEAR POLYMERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, the rheological properties of different generations of hyperbranched polyesters in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone solvent and their blends with poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) have ben investigated. All the hyperbranched polyester solutions exhibited Newtonian behavior...

  17. Development of Advanced Conformal Ablative TPS Fabricated from Rayon- and PAN-Based Carbon Felts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasch, Matthew; Stackpoole, Margaret; White, Susan; Boghozian, Tane

    2016-01-01

    The conformal ablative TPS first developed under NASA's Hypersonics Project in the early 2000's demonstrated very low through the thickness conductivity compared to state-ofthe- art PICA. However, in initial arcjet testing of Conformal-1, surface recession rates were 2x higher than PICA. Because commercial carbon felts are currently available as very thin substrates, this was a concern if conformal TPS were to be considered for a mission that required thicker material. Discussed in this paper are the results of the development of an Advanced Conformal TPS derived from thicker, higher density carbon felt. Two substrate systems were evaluated, the first material was a needled rayon-based carbon felt and the other a needled PAN-based carbon felt. Both substrates were impregnated with phenolic resin following the PICA/CPICA process to add a low density phenolic matrix to the system prior to aerothermal screening at the LaRC HyMETS facility and larger scale testing in the NASA ARC Interaction Heating Facility (IHF) at heating fluxes ranging from 250-1700 W/cm2.

  18. Interior microelectrolysis oxidation of polyester wastewater and its treatment technology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoyi

    2009-09-30

    This paper has investigated the effects of interior microelectrolysis pretreatment on polyester wastewater treatment and analyzed its mechanism on COD and surfactant removal. The efficiency of interior microelectrolysis is mainly influenced by solution pH, aeration and reaction time. Contaminants can be removed not only by redox reaction and flocculation in the result of ferrous and ferric hydroxides but also by electrophoresis under electric fields created by electron flow. pH confirms the chemical states of surfactants, Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio and the redox potential, and thus influences the effects of electrophoresis, flocculation and redox action on contaminant removal. Anaerobic and aerobic batch tests were performed to study the degradation of polyester wastewater. The results imply that interior microelectrolysis and anaerobic pretreatment are lacking of effectiveness if applied individually in treating polyester wastewater in spite of their individual advantages. The interior microelectrolysis-anaerobic-aerobic process was investigated to treat polyester wastewater with comparison with interior microelectrolysis-aerobic process and anaerobic-aerobic process. High COD removal efficiencies have been gotten by the combination of interior microelectrolysis with anaerobic technology and aerobic technology. The results also imply that only biological treatment was less effective in polyester wastewater treatment.

  19. Recent advances in aliphatic polyesters for drug delivery applications.

    PubMed

    Washington, Katherine E; Kularatne, Ruvanthi N; Karmegam, Vasanthy; Biewer, Michael C; Stefan, Mihaela C

    2017-07-01

    The use of aliphatic polyesters in drug delivery applications has been a field of significant interest spanning decades. Drug delivery strategies have made abundant use of polyesters in their structures owing to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The properties afforded from these materials provide many avenues for the tunability of drug delivery systems to suit individual needs of diverse applications. Polyesters can be formed in several different ways, but the most prevalent is the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters. When used to form amphiphilic block copolymers, these materials can be utilized to form various drug carriers such as nanoparticles, micelles, and polymersomes. These drug delivery systems can be tailored through the addition of targeting moieties and the addition of stimuli-responsive groups into the polymer chains. There are also different types of polyesters that can be used to modify the degradation rates or mechanical properties. Here, we discuss the reasons that polyesters have become so popular, the current research focuses, and what the future holds for these materials in drug delivery applications. WIREs Nanomed Nanobiotechnol 2017, 9:e1446. doi: 10.1002/wnan.1446 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 75 FR 30373 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple... results of the administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the PRC. See...

  1. 75 FR 47795 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from Korea: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-839] Certain Polyester Staple... Polyester staple fiber (``PSF'') covered by the scope of the order is defined as synthetic staple fibers, not carded, combed or otherwise processed for spinning, of polyesters measuring 3.3 decitex (3 denier...

  2. 75 FR 39208 - Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Final Results of Changed-Circumstances Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber from... Eastern Textile Limited with regard to the antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber from Taiwan... on polyester staple fiber from Taiwan to determine whether FENC was the successor-in-interest to FET...

  3. 75 FR 51442 - Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review in Part

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber from... antidumping duty order on polyester staple fiber from Taiwan. The period of review is May 1, 2009, through... duty order on polyester staple fiber from Taiwan with respect to respondents Nan Ya Plastics...

  4. 78 FR 38938 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber From... duty order on polyester staple fiber (PSF) from Taiwan. The period of review is May 1, 2011, through... Results. None were received. \\1\\ See Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...

  5. 76 FR 58040 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan would be likely to lead to...), entitled Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-825 and 826...

  6. 75 FR 6352 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple... results of the administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the PRC. See...

  7. 77 FR 62217 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple... International Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester... antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c)(2) of the...

  8. 76 FR 7532 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple... results of the administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic of China... initiation of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from...

  9. 77 FR 19619 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple... results of the administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic of China... polyester staple fiber from the PRC.\\1\\ On February 9, 2012 the Department partially extended the deadline...

  10. 75 FR 4044 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber From... Commerce is initiating a changed- circumstances review of the antidumping duty order on polyester staple... previously accorded to Far Eastern Textile Limited with regard to the antidumping duty order on polyester...

  11. 77 FR 6783 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple... results of the administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic of China... polyester staple fiber from the PRC. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative...

  12. 76 FR 52935 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-839] Certain Polyester Staple... on polyester staple fiber from Korea. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or..., 76 FR 37781 (June 28, 2011). Scope of the Order Polyester staple fiber covered by the scope of the...

  13. Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by Aspergillus tubingensis.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sehroon; Nadir, Sadia; Shah, Zia Ullah; Shah, Aamer Ali; Karunarathna, Samantha C; Xu, Jianchu; Khan, Afsar; Munir, Shahzad; Hasan, Fariha

    2017-06-01

    The xenobiotic nature and lack of degradability of polymeric materials has resulted in vast levels of environmental pollution and numerous health hazards. Different strategies have been developed and still more research is being in progress to reduce the impact of these polymeric materials. This work aimed to isolate and characterize polyester polyurethane (PU) degrading fungi from the soil of a general city waste disposal site in Islamabad, Pakistan. A novel PU degrading fungus was isolated from soil and identified as Aspergillus tubingensis on the basis of colony morphology, macro- and micro-morphology, molecular and phylogenetic analyses. The PU degrading ability of the fungus was tested in three different ways in the presence of 2% glucose: (a) on SDA agar plate, (b) in liquid MSM, and (c) after burial in soil. Our results indicated that this strain of A. tubingensis was capable of degrading PU. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we were able to visually confirm that the mycelium of A. tubingensis colonized the PU material, causing surface degradation and scarring. The formation or breakage of chemical bonds during the biodegradation process of PU was confirmed using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The biodegradation of PU was higher when plate culture method was employed, followed by the liquid culture method and soil burial technique. Notably, after two months in liquid medium, the PU film was totally degraded into smaller pieces. Based on a comprehensive literature search, it can be stated that this is the first report showing A. tubingensis capable of degrading PU. This work provides insight into the role of A. tubingensis towards solving the dilemma of PU wastes through biodegradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Poly(Neopentyl Glycol Furanoate): A Member of the Furan-Based Polyester Family with Smart Barrier Performances for Sustainable Food Packaging Applications

    PubMed Central

    Munari, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been an increased interest from the food packaging industry toward the development and application of bioplastics, to contribute to the sustainable economy and to reduce the huge environmental problem afflicting the planet. In the present work, we focus on a new furan-based polyester, poly(neopentyl glycol 2,5-furanoate) (PNF) to be used for sustainable food packaging applications. The aromatic polyester was successfully synthesized with high molecular weight, through a solvent-free process, starting directly from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid. PNF was revealed to be a material with good thermal stability, characterized by a higher Tg and Tm and a lower RAF fraction compared to poly(propylene 2,5-furanoate) (PPF), ascribable to the two methyl side groups present in PNF glycol-sub-unit. PNF’s mechanical characteristics, i.e., very high elastic modulus and brittle fracture, were found to be similar to those of PPF and PEF. Barrier properties to different gases, temperatures and relative humidity were evaluated. From the results obtained, PNF was showed to be a material with very smart barrier performances, significantly superior with respect to PEF’s ones. Lastly, PNF’s permeability behavior did not appreciably change after contact with food simulants, whereas it got worse with increasing RH, due to the polar nature of furan ring. PMID:28869555

  15. Poly(Neopentyl Glycol Furanoate): A Member of the Furan-Based Polyester Family with Smart Barrier Performances for Sustainable Food Packaging Applications.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Laura; Lotti, Nadia; Siracusa, Valentina; Munari, Andrea

    2017-09-04

    In the last decade, there has been an increased interest from the food packaging industry toward the development and application of bioplastics, to contribute to the sustainable economy and to reduce the huge environmental problem afflicting the planet. In the present work, we focus on a new furan-based polyester, poly(neopentyl glycol 2,5-furanoate) (PNF) to be used for sustainable food packaging applications. The aromatic polyester was successfully synthesized with high molecular weight, through a solvent-free process, starting directly from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid. PNF was revealed to be a material with good thermal stability, characterized by a higher T g and T m and a lower RAF fraction compared to poly(propylene 2,5-furanoate) (PPF), ascribable to the two methyl side groups present in PNF glycol-sub-unit. PNF's mechanical characteristics, i.e., very high elastic modulus and brittle fracture, were found to be similar to those of PPF and PEF. Barrier properties to different gases, temperatures and relative humidity were evaluated. From the results obtained, PNF was showed to be a material with very smart barrier performances, significantly superior with respect to PEF's ones. Lastly, PNF's permeability behavior did not appreciably change after contact with food simulants, whereas it got worse with increasing RH, due to the polar nature of furan ring.

  16. Radiation cured polyester compositions containing metal-properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalińska, H.; Pietrzak, M.; Gonerski, A.

    The subject of the studies was unsaturated polyester resin, Polimal-109 and its compositions containing acrylates of: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, barium, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and acrylic acid. Polyester resin modified with acrylic acid salts was cured with 60Co gamma radiation. Measurements of Vicat softening temperature, water absorption, creep current resistance, volume and surface resistivity, the tangent of dielectric loss angle and permittivity of radiation cured compositions were carried out. The results of the studies presented testify to the fact that the properties of cross-linked polymers alter after ionogenic compounds have been introduced into them.

  17. Autoclaved Sand-Lime Products with a Polypropylene Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrzewa, Paulina; Stępień, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of the research on modifications of silicate bricks with a polypropylene mesh and their influence on physical, mechanical and microstructural properties of such bricks. The main goal of the paper was to determine effects of the polypropylene mesh on sand-lime product parameters. The analysis has focused on compressive strength, water absorption, bulk density and structural features of the material. The obtained product is characterized by improved basic performance characteristics compared to traditional silicate products. Using the polypropylene mesh increased compressive strength by 25% while decreasing the product density. The modified products retain their form and do not disintegrate after losing their bearing capacity.

  18. Strength of laser welded joints of polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votrubec, V.; Hisem, P.; Vinšová, L.; Lukášová, V.

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with experimental tests of laser welded polypropylene composites. Polymers, such as polypropylene, are often filled with fibres in order to increase their mechanical properties. The welding procedure can also influence material properties nearby weld joints. Therefore the strength of weld joints is lower than strength of primary materials. This effect is proved by realized shear tests. Polymer specimens were filled with 20 % and 40 % of glass fibres and all possible combinations of specimens were welded for experiments. There is also discussed influence of volume fraction of glass fibres in polypropylene on the strength of weld joint.

  19. Cryogenic performance of single polymer polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atli-Veltin, Bilim

    2018-03-01

    The main objective of the experimental study detailed in this paper is to investigate the performance of fully recyclable, lightweight, low-cost, thermoplastic Polypropylene (PP) composite tapes at low temperatures. Coupons made of [±45] and [0/90] laminates are subjected to tensile and 3-point bending tests at room temperature as well as at -196 °C. In addition to that, cryogenic low velocity impact tests at 268 J and 777 J impact energies are performed on tubular structures. The results are indicating that the laminates made of PP tapes have sufficient ductility for cryogenic applications. Low velocity impact tests showed that the viscoelastic behavior of the material is preserved, even at such low temperatures and more than 72% of impact energy is absorbed by the material.

  20. Synthesis of Poly(Propylene Fumarate)

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, F. Kurtis; Tanahashi, Kazuhiro; Fisher, John P.; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2010-01-01

    This protocol describes the synthesis of 500 – 4000 Da poly(propylene fumarate) by a two-step reaction of diethyl fumarate and propylene glycol through a bis(hydroxypropyl) fumarate diester intermediate. Purified PPF can be covalently crosslinked to form degradable polymer networks, which have been widely explored for biomedical applications. The properties of crosslinked PPF networks depend upon the molecular properties of the constituent polymer, such as the molecular weight. The purity of the reactants and the exclusion of water from the reaction system are of utmost importance in the generation of high-molecular-weight PPF products. Additionally, the reaction time and temperature influence the molecular weight of the PPF product. The expected time required to complete this protocol is 3 d. PMID:19325548

  1. Flexural creep behaviour of jute polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandekar, Harichandra; Chaudhari, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Present study is about the flexural creep behaviour of jute fabric reinforced polypropylene (Jute-PP) composites. The PP sheet and alkali treated jute fabric is stacked alternately and hot pressed in compression molding machine to get Jute-PP composite laminate. The flexural creep study is carried out on dynamic mechanical analyzer. The creep behaviour of the composite is modeled using four-parameter Burgers model. Short-term accelerated creep testing is conducted which is later used to predict long term creep behaviour. The feasibility of the construction of a master curve using the time-temperature superposition (TTS) principle to predict long term creep behavior of unreinforced PP and Jute-PP composite is investigated.

  2. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL STUDIES OF IRRADIATED POLYPROPYLENE

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, J.A.; Merrill, L.J.; Woodward, A.E.

    1962-04-01

    The internal friction and the dynamic modulus of isotactic polypropylene samples subject to varying degrees of pile irradiation were studied at low audio frequencies and over the temperature range from 100 to over 400 deg K. The radiation dosages used varied from 5.4 x lO/sup 17/ to 14 x lO/sup 18/ nvt. For irradiation doses up to about 3 x lO/sup 18/ nvt, one observed change is a decrease in the temperature at which the final upswing in damping and drop in modulus occurs, presumably as a result of defects produced in the crystallites by the irradiation. As the irradiationmore » dose increases above 3 x lO/sup 18/ nvt, all evidence of crystallinity is lost, and the internal friction peak which occurs in the neighborhood of 300 deg K and which is associated with the glass transition of the amorphous regions moves to higher temperatures as a result of the increasing chain-stiffening effect due to crosslinking. The secondary loss peak at 250 deg K attributed to the motion of a small number of segraents in the amorphous regions is found to increase in magnitude with increasing dose. The results of density determinations raade before and after irradiation and also after subsequent exposure of the irradiated samples to melting temperatures and of solvent extraction studies of the irradiated samples confirm the simultaneous occurrence of crosslinking and of crystalline degradation upon pile irradiation of polypropylene samples. (auth)« less

  3. Polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete detention ponds : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1995-09-01

    In 1991, two Durafiber polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete lined detention ponds were constructed. The detention ponds are located on the north side of the 181st Avenue Interchange, on the Columbia River Highway (I-84), approximately ten miles ea...

  4. Altering surface characteristics of polypropylene mesh via sodium hydroxide treatment.

    PubMed

    Regis, Shawn; Jassal, Manisha; Mukherjee, Nilay; Bayon, Yves; Scarborough, Nelson; Bhowmick, Sankha

    2012-05-01

    Incisional hernias represent a serious and common complication following laparotomy. The use of synthetic (e.g. polypropylene) meshes to aid repair of these hernias has considerably reduced recurrence rates. While polypropylene is biocompatible and has a long successful clinical history in treating hernias and preventing reherniation, this material may suffer some limitations, particularly in challenging patients at risk of wound failure due to, for example, an exaggerated inflammation reaction, delayed wound healing, and infection. Surface modification of the polypropylene mesh without sacrificing its mechanical properties, critical for hernia repair, represents one way to begin to address these clinical complications. Our hypothesis is treatment of a proprietary polypropylene mesh with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) will increase in vitro NIH/3T3 cell attachment, predictive of earlier and improved cell colonization and tissue integration of polypropylene materials. Our goal is to achieve this altered surface functionality via enhanced removal of chemicals/oils used during material synthesis without compromising the mechanical properties of the mesh. We found that NaOH treatment does not appear to compromise the mechanical strength of the material, despite roughly a 10% decrease in fiber diameter. The treatment increases in vitro NIH/3T3 cell attachment within the first 72 h and this effect is sustained up to 7 days in vitro. This research demonstrates that sodium hydroxide treatment is an efficient way to modify the surface of polypropylene hernia meshes without losing the mechanical integrity of the material. This simple procedure could also allow the attachment of a variety of biomolecules to the polypropylene mesh that may aid in reducing the complications associated with polypropylene meshes today. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Microfabricated polyester conical microwells for cell culture applications†

    PubMed Central

    Selimović, Šeila; Piraino, Francesco; Bae, Hojae; Rasponi, Marco; Redaelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years there has been a great deal of interest in reducing experimental systems to a lab-on-a-chip scale. There has been particular interest in conducting high-throughput screening studies using microscale devices, for example in stem cell research. Microwells have emerged as the structure of choice for such tests. Most manufacturing approaches for microwell fabrication are based on photolithography, soft lithography, and etching. However, some of these approaches require extensive equipment, lengthy fabrication process, and modifications to the existing microwell patterns are costly. Here we show a convenient, fast, and low-cost method for fabricating microwells for cell culture applications by laser ablation of a polyester film coated with silicone glue. Microwell diameter was controlled by adjusting the laser power and speed, and the well depth by stacking several layers of film. By using this setup, a device containing hundreds of microwells can be fabricated in a few minutes to analyze cell behavior. Murine embryonic stem cells and human hepatoblastoma cells were seeded in polyester microwells of different sizes and showed that after 9 days in culture cell aggregates were formed without a noticeable deleterious effect of the polyester film and glue. These results show that the polyester microwell platform may be useful for cell culture applications. The ease of fabrication adds to the appeal of this device as minimal technological skill and equipment is required. PMID:21614380

  6. Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.; Horn, William H.

    1985-01-01

    Quick setting polymer concrete compositions with excellent structural properties are disclosed; these polymer concrete compositions are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate, which may be wet, and with a source of bivalent metallic ions.

  7. Microcellular processing of polylactide-hyperbranched polyester-nanoclay composites

    Treesearch

    Srikanth Pilla; Adam Kramschuster; Jungjoo Lee; Craig Clemons; Shaoqin Gong; Lih-Sheng Turng

    2010-01-01

    The effects of addition of hyperbranched polyesters (HBPs) and nanoclay on the material properties of both solid and microcellular polylactide (PLA) produced via a conventional and microcellular injection-molding process, respectively, were investigated. The effects of two different types of HBPs (i.e., Boltorn H2004® and Boltorn H20®) at the same...

  8. Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Horn, W.H.

    1983-05-13

    Quick setting polymer concrete compositions are described which are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate which may be wet and a source of bivalent metallic ions which will set to polymer concrete with excellent structural properties.

  9. Electropositive bivalent metallic ion unsaturated polyester complexed polymer concrete

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.; Horn, W.H.

    1981-11-04

    Quick setting polymer concrete compositions which are mixtures of unsaturated polyesters and crosslinking monomers together with appropriate initiators and promoters in association with aggregate which may be wet and a source of bivalent metallic ions which will set to polymer concrete with excellent structural properties.

  10. Selective laser vaporization of polypropylene sutures and mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, David; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Kennelly, Michael J.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-02-01

    Complications from polypropylene mesh after surgery for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) may require tedious surgical revision and removal of mesh materials with risk of damage to healthy adjacent tissue. This study explores selective laser vaporization of polypropylene suture/mesh materials commonly used in SUI. A compact, 7 Watt, 647-nm, red diode laser was operated with a radiant exposure of 81 J/cm2, pulse duration of 100 ms, and 1.0-mm-diameter laser spot. The 647-nm wavelength was selected because its absorption by water, hemoglobin, and other major tissue chromophores is low, while polypropylene absorption is high. Laser vaporization of ~200-μm-diameter polypropylene suture/mesh strands, in contact with fresh urinary tissue samples, ex vivo, was performed. Non-contact temperature mapping of the suture/mesh samples with a thermal camera was also conducted. Photoselective vaporization of polypropylene suture and mesh using a single laser pulse was achieved with peak temperatures of 180 and 232 °C, respectively. In control (safety) studies, direct laser irradiation of tissue alone resulted in only a 1 °C temperature increase. Selective laser vaporization of polypropylene suture/mesh materials is feasible without significant thermal damage to tissue. This technique may be useful for SUI procedures requiring surgical revision.

  11. Flow-induced crystallization in isotactic polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Fawzi Ghassan

    Brief intervals of strong flow stretch chains in a semicrystalline polymer melt, which results in an increase in the nuclei number density and a transformation of the crystal structure. This flow-induced crystallization (FIC) phenomenon is explored in this study using highly isotactic polypropylene (iPP) samples. Using one synthesized and five commercial linear isotactic polypropylene samples, we investigate the FIC behavior by imposing shear onto these samples in a rotational rheometer. Equipped with a good temperature control and flexible shear protocol, we apply different temperature and flow conditions. The magnitude of the FIC effect varies with basic processing parameters (shear rate, specific work, crystallization temperature, and shearing temperature) and material properties (totalistic, molecular weight distribution, and particle concentration in the polymer). The scope of this study is to systematically investigate the influences of these parameters on FIC. The FIC effects that are investigated in this dissertation are: crystallization kinetics, persistence time of flow-induced nuclei, and crystal morphology. The crystallization time was measured in the rheometer by monitoring the onset of crystallization after quenching samples sheared above Tm. These samples were subsequently used to study their flow-induced nuclei persistence time and crystal morphology. The lifetime of flow-induced nuclei was determined by measuring the time required to return from FIC back to quiescent crystallization using a differential scanning calorimeter. The crystal morphology was imaged using polarized optical microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We investigated the influence of specific work on the three FIC characteristics, and found three regimes that are separated by the critical work ( Wc) and the saturation work (Wsat) thresholds. Below the critical work threshold, the morphology is composed of mostly spherulite crystals, which keep a constant volume, and a small

  12. Digital micromirror device (DMD)-based 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mott, Eric J; Busso, Mallory; Luo, Xinyi; Dolder, Courtney; Wang, Martha O; Fisher, John P; Dean, David

    2016-04-01

    Our recent investigations into the 3D printing of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF), a linear polyester, using a DMD-based system brought us to a resin that used titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an ultraviolet (UV) filter for controlling cure depth. However, this material hindered the 3D printing process due to undesirable lateral or "dark" curing (i.e., in areas not exposed to light from the DMD chip). Well known from its use in sunscreen, another UV filter, oxybenzone, has previously been used in conjunction with TiO2. In this study we hypothesize that combining these two UV filters will result in a synergistic effect that controls cure depth and avoids dark cure. A resin mixture (i.e., polymer, initiator, UV filters) was identified that worked well. The resin was then further characterized through mechanical testing, cure testing, and cytotoxicity testing to investigate its use as a material for bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Results show that the final resin eliminated dark cure as shown through image analysis. Mechanically the new scaffolds proved to be far weaker than those printed from previous resins, with compressive strengths of 7.8 ± 0.5 MPa vs. 36.5 ± 1.6 MPa, respectively. The new scaffolds showed a 90% reduction in elastic modulus and a 74% increase in max strain. These properties may be useful in tissue engineering applications where resorption is required. Initial cytotoxicity evaluation was negative. As hypothesized, the use of TiO2 and oxybenzone showed synergistic effects in the 3D printing of PPF tissue engineering scaffolds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact fragmentation of polyurethane and polypropylene cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishimura, Hiroaki; Noguchi, Daisuke; Preechasupanya, Worrayut; Matsumoto, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    The impact fragmentation of a bulk polyurethane elastomer (PU) and polypropylene (PP) cylinder have been investigated using a Cu plate projectile launched by a propellant gun at a velocity of 0.53-1.4 km/s. A projectile drills into a PU sample and forms a cavity in the sample. A small number of tiny fragments are formed. When the projectile smashes in at 1.4 km/s, the PU cylinder bursts and PU fragments form. On the other hand, a brittle fracture occurs on the PP cylinder. The mass of fragments from the PU sample generated at a lower impact velocity is distributed in the lognormal form, whereas the mass of fragments from the PU sample generated by a 1.4 km/s impact follows a power-law distribution. The fragment mass distribution of the PP sample generated at a lower impact velocity obeys the power-law form, whereas that generated at a higher impact velocity follows the lognormal form.

  14. Optical Properties of Polypropylene upon Recycling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity) are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites. PMID:24288478

  15. Surface modification of polypropylene based particle foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, P.; Trassl, C.; Altstädt, V.

    2014-05-01

    This paper deals with the modification of the surface properties of expanded polypropylene (EPP). EPP is a semi-hard to soft elastic thermoplastic foam. The characteristic surface of EPP shows process-related steam nozzle imprints and gussets. Therefore EPP does not satisfy the quality requirements for visible automotive applications. In order to meet these demands, plastic surfaces are usually enhanced with functional or decorative coatings, e.g. textiles, plastic films or paint. The coating of plastics with low surface energies such as PP often leads to adhesion problems by reason of the missing polar and functional groups. This paper gives an evaluation of activation and pre-treatment methods of EPP, with the aim to identify the most suitable pre-treatment method. For this purpose five typical surface treatment methods - flame treatment, corona, fluorination, atmospheric and low-pressure plasma - were performed on EPP samples. As a comparison criterion the maximum increase in the adhesion force between a polyurethane-based coating and the modified EPP substrate was selected. Moreover the influence of the selected pre-treatment method on the increase in the total surface energy and its polar component was investigated by the drop shape analysis method. The results showed that the contact angle measurement is a suitable method to determine the polar and disperse fractions of the surface tension of EPP. Furthermore, all performed methods increased the adhesion of EPP.

  16. Optical properties of polypropylene upon recycling.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Felice; Pantani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years there has been an increasing interest in the possibility of recycling polymeric materials, using physical recycling. However, is it well known that polymers experience a depletion of all the properties upon recycling. These effects have been widely characterized in the literature for what concerns the mechanical or rheological properties. The changes of optical properties after recycling have been much less studied, even if, especially in food packaging, optical characteristics (above all the opacity) are of extreme importance, and thus it is quite significant to assess the effect of recycling on these properties. In this work, the influence of recycling steps on the opacity of films of a commercial grade of isotactic polypropylene (i-PP) was studied. The material was extruded several times to mimic the effect of recycling procedures. After extrusion, films were obtained by cooling samples of material at different cooling rates. The opacity of the obtained films was then measured and related to their crystallinity and morphology. It was found that opacity generally increases on increasing the amount of α phase and for the same amount of α phase on increasing the size of the spherulites.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and properties of carbon nanotubes microspheres from pyrolysis of polypropylene and maleated polypropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Junhao, E-mail: jhzhang6@mail.ustc.edu.cn; Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Heifei, Anhui 230026; Du, Jin

    Microspheres assembled from carbon nanotubes (MCNTs), with the diameters ranging from 5.5 to 7.5 {mu}m, were synthesized by means of pyrolysis of polypropylene and maleated polypropylene in an autoclave. The characterization of structure and morphology was carried out by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), (high resolution) transmission electron microscope [(HR)TEM)], selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and Raman spectrum. As a typical morphology, the possible growth process of MCNTs was also investigated and discussed. The results of nitrogen adsorption-desorption indicate that the Brunauer-Emett-Teller (BET) surface area (140.6 m{sup 2}/g) of the MCNTs obtained at 600 {sup o}C is aboutmore » twice as that (74.5 m{sup 2}/g) of carbon nanotubes obtained at 700 {sup o}C. The results of catalytic experiment show that MCNTs based catalyst has higher catalytic activity than the carbon nanotubes based catalyst for the preparation of methanol and dimethoxy-ethane by oxidation of dimethyl ether.« less

  18. Macrophage polarization in response to ECM coated polypropylene mesh

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, MT; Dearth, CL; Ranallo, CA; LoPresti, S; Carey, LE; Daly, KA; Brown, BN; Badylak, SF

    2015-01-01

    The host response to implanted biomaterials is a highly regulated process that influences device functionality and clinical outcome. Non-degradable biomaterials, such as knitted polypropylene mesh, frequently elicit a chronic foreign body reaction with resultant fibrosis. Previous studies have shown that an extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel coating of polypropylene mesh reduces the intensity of the foreign body reaction, though the mode of action is unknown. Macrophage participation plays a key role in the development of the foreign body reaction to biomaterials, and therefore the present study investigated macrophage polarization following mesh implantation. Spatiotemporal analysis of macrophage polarization was conducted in response to uncoated polypropylene mesh and mesh coated with hydrated and dry forms of ECM hydrogels derived from either dermis or urinary bladder. Pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages (CD86+/CD68+), alternatively activated M2 macrophages (CD206+/CD68+), and foreign body giant cells were quantified between 3-35 days. Uncoated polypropylene mesh elicited a dominant M1 response at the mesh fiber surface, which was decreased by each ECM coating type beginning at 7 days. The diminished M1 response was accompanied by a reduction in the number of foreign body giant cells at 14 and 35 days, though there was a minimal effect upon the number of M2 macrophages at any time. These results show that ECM coatings attenuate the M1 macrophage response and increase the M2/M1 ratio to polypropylene mesh in vivo. PMID:24856104

  19. Isohexide and Sorbitol-Derived, Enzymatically Synthesized Renewable Polyesters with Enhanced Tg.

    PubMed

    Gustini, Liliana; Lavilla, Cristina; de Ilarduya, Antxon Martínez; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián; Koning, Cor E

    2016-10-10

    Sugar-based polyesters derived from sorbitol and isohexides were obtained via solvent-free enzymatic catalysis. Pendant hydroxyl groups, coming from the sorbitol units, were present along the polyester backbone, whereas the two isohexides, namely, isomannide and isoidide dimethyl ester monomers, were selected to introduce rigidity into the polyester chains. The feasibility of incorporating isomannide as a diol compared to the isoidide dimethyl ester as acyl-donor via lipase-catalyzed polycondensation was investigated. The presence of bicyclic units resulted in enhanced T g with respect to the parent sorbitol-containing polyester lacking isohexides. The different capability of the two isohexides to boost the thermal properties confirmed the more flexible character provided by the isoidide diester derivative. Solvent-borne coatings were prepared by cross-linking the sugar-based polyester polyols with polyisocyanates. The increased rigidity of the obtained sugar-based polyester polyols led to an enhancement in hardness of the resulting coatings.

  20. Study on moisture absorption and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Aifen; Zhang, Yongjiu

    2015-07-01

    The moisture absorption and liberation properties of honeycomb polyester fiber were studied in order to understand its moisture absorption and sweat discharge. Through testing moisture absorption and liberation regains of honeycomb polyester fiber and normal polyester fiber in standard atmospheric conditions, their moisture absorption and liberation curves were depicted, and the regression equations of moisture regains to time during their reaching the balance of moisture absorption and moisture liberation were obtained according to the curves. Their moisture absorption and liberation rate curves were analyzed and the regression equations of the rates to time were obtained. The results shows that the moisture regain of honeycomb polyester fiber is much bigger than the normal polyester fiber's, and the initial moisture absorption and moisture liberation rates of the former are much higher than the latter's, so that the moisture absorbance and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber are excellent.

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in melts of amphiphilic polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylyev, S.; Damm, C.; Segets, D.; Hanisch, M.; Taccardi, N.; Wasserscheid, P.; Peukert, W.

    2013-03-01

    The current work presents a one-step procedure for the synthesis of amphiphilic silver nanoparticles suitable for production of silver-filled polymeric materials. This solvent free synthesis via reduction of Tollens’ reagent as silver precursor in melts of amphiphilic polyesters consisting of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) blocks and hydrophobic alkyl chains allows the production of silver nanoparticles without any by-product formation. This makes them especially interesting for the production of medical devices with antimicrobial properties. In this article the influences of the chain length of the hydrophobic block in the amphiphilic polyesters and the process temperature on the particle size distribution (PSD) and the stability of the particles against agglomeration are discussed. According to the results of spectroscopic and viscosimetric investigations the silver precursor is reduced to elemental silver nanoparticles by a single electron transfer process from the poly(ethylene glycol) chain to the silver ion.

  2. A study on the quality control of slow burning polyester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Yinglei; Yan, Zhengfeng; Yu, Tao

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the influence of the alcohol/acid mole ratio, reaction temperature, warm-up mode, end-capping, vacuity to the quality of slow burning polyester was studied. The hydroxyl value will increase when the alcohol/acid mole ratio increase, but the acid value and molecular weight will decrease. The molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of the polyester consistent with the designed one can be obtained by stepped heating up. Monobasic alcohol end-capping can be used to control the molecular weight effectively and reduce acid value. Stripping process narrow the molecular weight distribution and reduce the hydroxyl value. Decompression is in favor of the decrease of acid value and increase of the reaction speed to get qualified production.

  3. Fiber Reinforced Polyester Resins Polymerized by Microwave Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visco, A. M.; Calabrese, L.; Cianciafara, P.; Bonaccorsi, L.; Proverbio, E.

    2007-12-01

    Polyester resin based composite materials are widely used in the manufacture of fiberglass boats. Production time of fiberglass laminate components could be strongly reduced by using an intense energy source as well as microwaves. In this work a polyester resin was used with 2% by weight of catalyst and reinforced with chopped or woven glass fabric. Pure resin and composite samples were cured by microwaves exposition for different radiation times. A three point bending test was performed on all the cured samples by using an universal testing machine and the resulting fracture surfaces were observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of mechanical and microscopy analyses evidenced that microwave activation lowers curing time of the composite while good mechanical properties were retained. Microwaves exposition time is crucial for mechanical performance of the composite. It was evidenced that short exposition times suffice for resin activation while long exposure times cause fast cross linking and premature matrix fracture. Furthermore high-radiation times induce bubbles growth or defects nucleation within the sample, decreasing composite performance. On the basis of such results microwave curing activation of polyester resin based composites could be proposed as a valid alternative method for faster processing of laminated materials employed for large-scale applications.

  4. The effect of autoclave resterilisation on polyester vascular grafts.

    PubMed

    Riepe, G; Whiteley, M S; Wente, A; Rogge, A; Schröder, A; Galland, R B; Imig, H

    1999-11-01

    polyester grafts are expensive, single-use items. Some manufacturers of uncoated, woven grafts include instructions for autoclave resterilisation to be performed at the surgeon's own request. Others warn against such manipulation. Theoretically, the glass transition point of polyester at 70-80 degrees C and the possible acceleration of hydrolysis suggest that autoclave resterilisation at 135 degrees C might be a problem. a DeBakey Soft Woven Dacron Vascular Prosthesis (Bard) and a Woven Double Velour Dacron Graft (Meadox) were autoclave-resterilised 0 to 20 times, having been weighed before and after sterilisation. Tactile testing was performed. Mechanical properties were examined by probe puncture and single-filament testing, the surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy and the degree of hydrolysis by infra-red spectroscopy. tactile testing revealed a change of feeling with increasing cycles of resterilisation. Investigation of weight, textile strength, single-filament strength, electron microscopy of the surface and infra-red spectroscopy showed no change of the material. changes felt are presumably a surface phenomenon, not measurably affecting strength or chemistry of material after autoclave resterilisation. We therefore feel that it is safe to use once-autoclave-resterilised surplus uncoated polyester grafts, provided that sterility is guaranteed. Copyright 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  5. Polyester: simulating RNA-seq datasets with differential transcript expression.

    PubMed

    Frazee, Alyssa C; Jaffe, Andrew E; Langmead, Ben; Leek, Jeffrey T

    2015-09-01

    Statistical methods development for differential expression analysis of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) requires software tools to assess accuracy and error rate control. Since true differential expression status is often unknown in experimental datasets, artificially constructed datasets must be utilized, either by generating costly spike-in experiments or by simulating RNA-seq data. Polyester is an R package designed to simulate RNA-seq data, beginning with an experimental design and ending with collections of RNA-seq reads. Its main advantage is the ability to simulate reads indicating isoform-level differential expression across biological replicates for a variety of experimental designs. Data generated by Polyester is a reasonable approximation to real RNA-seq data and standard differential expression workflows can recover differential expression set in the simulation by the user. Polyester is freely available from Bioconductor (http://bioconductor.org/). jtleek@gmail.com Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Blends of polyester ionomers with polar polymers: Interactions, reactions, and compatibilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boykin, Timothy Lamar

    The compatibility of amorphous and semicrystalline polyester ionomers with various polar polymers (i.e., polyesters and polyamides) has been investigated for their potential use as minor component compatibilizers. The degree of compatibility (i.e., ranging from incompatible to miscible) between the polyester ionomers and the polar polymers was determined by evaluating the effect of blend composition on the melting behavior and phase behavior of binary blends. In addition, the origin of compatibility and/or incompatibility for each of the binary blends (i.e., polyamide/ionomer and polyester/ionomer) was determined by evaluating blends prepared by both solution and melt mixed methods. Subsequent to investigation of the binary blends, the effect of polyester ionomer addition on the compatibility of polyamide/polyester blends was investigated by evaluating the mechanical properties and phase morphology of ionomer compatibilized polyamide/polyester blends. Polyester ionomers (amorphous and semicrystalline) were shown to exhibit a high degree of compatibility (even miscibility) with polyamides, such as nylon 6,6 (N66). Compatibility was attributed to specific interactions between the metal counterion of the polyester ionomer and the amide groups of N66. The degree of compatibility (or miscibility) was shown to be dependent on the counterion type of the ionomer, with the highest degree exhibited by blends containing the divalent form of the polyester ionomers. Although polyester ionomers were shown to exhibit incompatibility with both poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), increasing the time of melt processing significantly enhanced the compatibility of the polyester ionomers with both PET and PBT. The observed enhancement in compatibility was attributed to ester-ester interchange between the polyester blend components, which was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy. The addition of polyester ionomers as a minor component compatibilizer (i

  7. Thermal Degradation Mechanism of a Thermostable Polyester Stabilized with an Open-Cage Oligomeric Silsesquioxane

    PubMed Central

    Gozalbo, Ana; Mestre, Sergio; Sanz, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    A polyester composite was prepared through the polymerization of an unsaturated ester resin with styrene and an open-cage oligomeric silsesquioxane with methacrylate groups. The effect of the open-cage oligomeric silsesquioxane on the thermal stability of the thermostable polyester was studied using both thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis. The results showed that the methacryl oligomeric silsesquioxane improved the thermal stability of the polyester. The decomposition mechanism of the polyester/oligomer silsesquioxane composite was proposed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the volatiles. PMID:29295542

  8. Study of rheological properties of polypropylene/organoclay hybrid materials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Suzhu; Liu, Songlin; Zhao, Jianhong; Yong, Ming Shyan

    2006-12-01

    Polypropylene nanocomposites reinforced with organic modified montmorillonite clay have been fabricated by melt compounding using extrusion. The morphology of the composites is studied with transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The melt-state rheological properties of the nanocomposites have been investigated as a function of temperature and organoclay loading. It is found that the organoclays are intercalated and dispersed evenly in the matrix. The storage and loss moduli of the hybrid composites decrease with temperature and increase with organoclay concentration. Both polypropylene and its composites demonstrate a melt-like rheological behavior, indicating the low degree of exfoliation of the organoclay. A shear thinning behavior is found for both polypropylene and its composites, but the onset of shear thinning for organoclay composites occurs at lower shear rates.

  9. Crystallization behavior of polypropylene and its effect on woodfiber composite properties

    Treesearch

    Suzhou Yin; Timothy G. Rials; Michael P. Wolcott

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an approach where polarizing optical microscopy is used to observe the crystallization process of different polypropylenes in the presence of wood fiber. The crystallization behavior was found to be related to the chemical composition of the polymer systems and the addition of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) to polypropylene...

  10. 78 FR 78748 - 2,5-Furandione, polymer With ethenylbenzene, Reaction Products With polyethylene-polypropylene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ..., polymer With ethenylbenzene, Reaction Products With polyethylene-polypropylene glycol 2-aminopropyl Me...-furandione, polymer with ethenylbenzene, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol 2... residues of 2,5-furandione, polymer with ethenylbenzene, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene...

  11. [INFLUENCE OF TITANIUM COATING ON THE BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF POLYPROPYLENE IMPLANTS].

    PubMed

    Babichenko, I I; Kazantsev, A A; Titarov, D L; Shemyatovsky, K A; Ghevondian, N M; Melchenko, D; Alekhin, A I

    2016-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the proliferative activity of inflammatory cells and distribution of collagen types I and III was carried out around the net materials of polypropylene and titanium coating polypropylene using im- munohistochemical method and polarization microscopy. Experimental modeling of implanted mesh material were made in the soft tissues of the lumbar region of rats. On the 7th postoperative day, quantitative analysis of proliferating cells delected using antibodies to the Ki-67 protein showed, a significant decrease (p < 0.001) in the number of proliferating cells around the network elements of the polypropylene (29.1 ± 5.7 %), when com- pared to similar figures of infiltrates in titanium coating polypropylene (33.6 ± 3.1 %). Similar patterns were found on the 30th day of the experiment--15.9 ± 4.3 and 26.9 ± 3.6%--respectively (p < 0.001). Different types of collagen fibers in the granulomas around various types of implanted mesh material were detected on sections stained with Sirius red at polarizing light. On the 7th day after surgery, the ratio of collagen fibers ty- pe I and III in granulomas around the mesh material made of polypropylene was 1.085 ± 0.022 and this rati around materials of titanium coated polypropylene was higher--1.107 ± 0.013 (p = 0.017). On the 30th posto- perative day in the interface area ratio I/III collagen significantly increased and amounted to 1.174 ± 0.036 and 1.246 ± 0.102, respectively (p = 0.045). Assessing the impact of the use of titanium as a coating on the po- lypropylene, it can be argued that it promotes the formation of collagen I type and a more mature connective tis- sue around the mesh of the implants.

  12. Comparison of polypropylene and silicone Ahmed Glaucoma Valves.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kyoko; Netland, Peter A; Costa, Vital P; Shiroma, Lineu; Khan, Baseer; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate and compare the clinical outcomes after implantation of the silicone plate and the polypropylene plate Ahmed Glaucoma Valves. Prospective, multicenter, comparative series. A total of 132 patients with uncontrolled glaucoma were treated with either the silicone or polypropylene Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implant. Success was defined according to 2 criteria: (1) intraocular pressure (IOP) of 6 mmHg or more or 21 mmHg or less, and (2) IOP reduction of at least 30% relative to preoperative values. Eyes requiring further glaucoma surgery, including cyclophotocoagulation, or showing loss of light perception were classified as failures. Average follow-up was 12.8 months (range, 6-30 months) for the silicone plate group and 14.5 months (range, 6-30 months) for the polypropylene plate group (P = 0.063). At the last follow-up examination, the mean IOP was 13.8+/-3.9 mmHg and 17.3+/-6.5 mmHg (P<0.0001) and the mean number of antiglaucoma medications was 1.9+/-1.3 and 2.1+/-1.4 (P = 0.48) in the silicone plate and polypropylene plate groups, respectively. The life-table success rates for the silicone plate and polypropylene plate groups were 94.2% and 83.2% at 12 months and 82.4% and 56.7% at 24 months by definition 1, respectively (P = 0.035). When an IOP reduction of at least 30% was used for success criterion (definition 2), probabilities of success were 89.5% and 71.7% at 12 months and 78.3% and 68.5% at 24 months in the silicone and the polypropylene plate groups, respectively (P = 0.012). Visual outcomes were comparable between the 2 groups. However, complications including Tenon's cyst were observed more frequently in the polypropylene plate than in the silicone plate group (P<0.05). The silicone Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (model FP7) showed improved IOP reduction compared with the polypropylene (model S2) implant. Differences observed in mean IOP, success rate, and complications suggest that plate material may influence clinical outcome.

  13. Polypropylene Mesh Sling for Stress Urinary Incontinence: Does Memory Shaping of the Polypropylene Mesh Matter?

    PubMed

    Doering, Andrew; Azadi, Ali; Doering, David; Ostergard, Donald R

    2017-12-22

    We report a case of a mid-urethral sling (Advantage Fit™, Boston Scientific Corporation, Marlborough, Massachusetts) freshly removed from its original package. Upon removal from the packaging, the sling was noted to have a deformation in positioning at the midpoint, with curvature opposite the natural curve of the sling in the body. The images show the comparison to a sling with the desired positioning. Mid-urethral slings are commonly made from polypropylene mesh which has memory properties. It is important that manufacturers ensure that any steps in the processing or packaging of slings do not result in changes in the shape of the sling that may have unknown impacts on its clinical outcome.

  14. Preparation and Characterization of Extruded Composites Based on Polypropylene and Chitosan Compatibilized with Polypropylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco-Guigón, Fernando Javier; Rodríguez-Félix, Dora Evelia; Castillo-Ortega, María Mónica; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila C.; Burruel-Ibarra, Silvia E.; Encinas-Encinas, Jose Carmelo; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Herrera-Franco, Pedro Jesus; Madera-Santana, Tomas Jesus

    2017-01-01

    The preparation of composites of synthetic and natural polymers represent an interesting option to combine properties; in this manner, polypropylene and chitosan extruded films using a different proportion of components and polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PPgMA) as compatibilizer were prepared. The effect of the content of the biopolymer in the polypropylene (PP) matrix, the addition of compatibilizer, and the particle size on the properties of the composites was analyzed using characterization by fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength, and contact angle, finding that in general, the addition of the compatibilizer and reducing the particle size of the chitosan, favored the physicochemical and morphological properties of the films. PMID:28772464

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Extruded Composites Based on Polypropylene and Chitosan Compatibilized with Polypropylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Guigón, Fernando Javier; Rodríguez-Félix, Dora Evelia; Castillo-Ortega, María Mónica; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila C; Burruel-Ibarra, Silvia E; Encinas-Encinas, Jose Carmelo; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Herrera-Franco, Pedro Jesus; Madera-Santana, Tomas Jesus

    2017-01-25

    The preparation of composites of synthetic and natural polymers represent an interesting option to combine properties; in this manner, polypropylene and chitosan extruded films using a different proportion of components and polypropylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PPgMA) as compatibilizer were prepared. The effect of the content of the biopolymer in the polypropylene (PP) matrix, the addition of compatibilizer, and the particle size on the properties of the composites was analyzed using characterization by fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength, and contact angle, finding that in general, the addition of the compatibilizer and reducing the particle size of the chitosan, favored the physicochemical and morphological properties of the films.

  16. PLASTIC SHRINKAGE CONTROLLING EFFECT BY POLYPROPYLENE SHORT FIBER WITH HYDROPHILY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosoda, Akira; Sadatsuki, Yoshitomo; Oshima, Akihiro; Ishii, Akina; Tsubaki, Tatsuya

    The aim of this research is to clarify the mechanism of controlling plastic shrinkage crack by adding small amout of synthetic short fiber, and to propose optimum polypropylene short fiber to control plastic shrinkage crack. In this research, the effect of the hydrophily of polypropylene fiber was investigated in the amount of plastic shrinkage of mortar, total area of plastic shrinkage crack, and bond properties between fiber and mortar. The plastic shrinkage test of morar was conducted under high temperature, low relative humidity, and constant wind velocity. When polypropylene fiber had hydrophily, the amount of plastic shrinkage of mortar was restrained, which was because cement paste in morar was captured by hydrophilic fiber and then bleeding of mortar was restrained. With hydrophily, plastic shrinkage of mortar was restrained and bridging effect was improved due to better bond, which led to remarkable reduction of plastic shrinkage crack. Based on experimental results, the way of developing optimum polypropylene short fiber for actual construction was proposed. The fiber should have large hydrophily and small diameter, and should be used in as small amount as possible in order not to disturb workability of concrete.

  17. Environmental aging and degradation of multiwalled carbon nanotube reinforced polypropylene

    EPA Science Inventory

    The degradation of polypropylene (PP) and PP-multiwalled carbon nanotube (PP-MWCNT) panels during environmental weathering resulted in an increased degree of crystallinity, making them brittle, and creating surface cracks. The degradation led to a breakdown of the panels and incr...

  18. 21 CFR 878.5010 - Nonabsorbable polypropylene surgical suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonabsorbable polypropylene surgical suture. 878.5010 Section 878.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...: Surgical Sutures; Guidance for Industry and FDA.” See § 878.1(e) for the availability of this guidance...

  19. Maleated polypropylene film and wood fiber handsheet laminates

    Treesearch

    Sangyeob Lee; Todd F. Shupe; Leslie H. Groom; Chung Y. Hse

    2008-01-01

    The grafting effect of maleic anhydride (MA) as an interfacial bonding agent and its influence on the tensile strength properties of thermomechanical pulp handsheet-isotactic polypropylene (iPP) film laminates was studied. For the MA treated with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator, tensile strength properties increased 76% with PP film over untreated laminates. The...

  20. Effects of moisture on aspen-fiber/polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Roger M. Rowell; Sandra E. Lange; Rodney E. Jacobson

    2004-01-01

    Moisture sorption in fiber-thermoplastic composites leads to dimensional instability and biological attack. To determine the pick up of moisture this type of composite, aspen fiber/polypropylene composites were made using several different levels of aspen fiber (30 to 60% by weight) with and without the addition of a compatibilizer (maleic anhydride grafted...

  1. Coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composite panel for automotive interior applications

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Songklod Jarusombuti; Vallayuth Fueangvivat; Piyawade Bauchongkol; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    In this study, physical, mechanical, and flammability properties of coconut fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composite panels were evaluated. Four levels of the coir fiber content (40, 50, 60, and 70 % based on the composition by weight) were mixed with the PP powder and a coupling agent, 3 wt % maleic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) powder. The water resistance and the...

  2. 21 CFR 878.5010 - Nonabsorbable polypropylene surgical suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonabsorbable polypropylene surgical suture. 878.5010 Section 878.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.5010...

  3. 21 CFR 878.5010 - Nonabsorbable polypropylene surgical suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonabsorbable polypropylene surgical suture. 878.5010 Section 878.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.5010...

  4. 21 CFR 878.5010 - Nonabsorbable polypropylene surgical suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonabsorbable polypropylene surgical suture. 878.5010 Section 878.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.5010...

  5. 21 CFR 878.5010 - Nonabsorbable polypropylene surgical suture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonabsorbable polypropylene surgical suture. 878.5010 Section 878.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.5010...

  6. Adsorption of polypropylene from dilute solutions on a zeolite column packing.

    PubMed

    Macko, Tibor; Pasch, Harald; Denayer, Joeri F

    2005-01-01

    Faujasite type zeolite CBV-780 was tested as adsorbent for isotactic polypropylene by liquid chromatography. When cyclohexane, cyclohexanol, n-decanol, n-dodecanol, diphenylmethane, or methylcyclohexane was used as mobile phase, polypropylene was fully or partially retained within the column packing. This is the first series of sorbent-solvent systems to show a pronounced retention of isotactic polypropylene. According to the hydrodynamic volumes of polypropylene in solution, macromolecules of polypropylene should be fully excluded from the pore volume of the sorbent. Sizes of polypropylene macromolecules in linear conformations, however, correlate with the pore size of the column packing used. It is presumed that the polypropylene chains partially penetrate into the pores and are retained due to the high adsorption potential in the narrow pores.

  7. 77 FR 54562 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-839] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the Republic of Korea (``the Order''). The...

  8. 78 FR 14512 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results and Rescission in Part of the 2011-2012... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic... Industries (``Far Eastern'') and Huvis Sichuan Chemical Fiber Corp. and Huvis Sichuan Polyester Fiber Ltd...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10298 - MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10298 Section 721.10298 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10298 MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic). (a... generically as MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (P-11-662) is subject to reporting under this...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10298 - MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10298 Section 721.10298 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10298 MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic). (a... generically as MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (P-11-662) is subject to reporting under this...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10298 - MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polymer (generic). 721.10298 Section 721.10298 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10298 MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (generic). (a... generically as MDI terminated polyester polyurethane polymer (P-11-662) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 76 FR 2886 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Partial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple... duty order on certain polyester staple fiber (``PSF'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Results...

  13. 77 FR 21733 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple... Department) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan for the period May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011.\\1\\ In Certain Polyester Staple...

  14. 76 FR 60802 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea and Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-839, A-583-833] Certain Polyester... Commission (ITC) that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on certain polyester staple fiber from the... and the ITC instituted sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on polyester staple fiber from...

  15. 75 FR 34097 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of the Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from Taiwan. See Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR...

  16. 78 FR 38939 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple... Preliminary Results of the 2011-2012 administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester... dumping margin is listed in the ``Final Results of Review'' section below. \\1\\ See Certain Polyester...

  17. 76 FR 28420 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Full Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple... results of the administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic of China... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the PRC. See...

  18. 76 FR 37830 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan; Scheduling of Expedited Five-Year Reviews...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-825 and 826 (Second Review)] Polyester... Duty Orders on Polyester Staple Fiber From Korea and Taiwan AGENCY: United States International Trade... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on polyester staple fiber from Korea and Taiwan...

  19. 75 FR 76954 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple... administrative review of certain polyester staple fiber (``PSF'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''), covering the period June 1, 2008--May 31, 2009. See Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's...

  20. 76 FR 38612 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the Republic of Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-580-839, A-583-833] Certain Polyester... sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on polyester staple fiber (PSF) from the Republic of Korea... polyesters measuring 3.3 decitex (3 denier, inclusive) or more in diameter. This merchandise is cut to...

  1. 75 FR 38463 - Greige Polyester Cotton Printcloth From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Sunset...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-101] Greige Polyester Cotton... duty order on greige polyester cotton printcloth from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). Because..., 1983, the Department issued an antidumping duty order on greige polyester cotton printcloth from the...

  2. The influence of solvent processing on polyester bioabsorbable polymers.

    PubMed

    Manson, Joanne; Dixon, Dorian

    2012-01-01

    Solvent-based methods are commonly employed for the production of polyester-based samples and coatings in both medical device production and research. The influence of solvent casting and subsequent drying time was studied using thermal analysis, spectroscopy and weight measurement for four grades of 50 : 50 poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) produced by using chloroform, dichloromethane, and acetone. The results demonstrate that solvent choice and PLGA molecular weight are critical factors in terms of solvent removal rate and maintaining sample integrity, respectively. The protocols widely employed result in high levels of residual solvent and a new protocol is presented together with solutions to commonly encountered problems.

  3. Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Supported Polyester Dendrimers

    PubMed Central

    Redón, Rocío; Carreón-Castro, M. Pilar; Mendoza-Martínez, F. J.

    2012-01-01

    Amphiphiles with a dendritic structure are attractive materials as they combine the features of dendrimers with the self-assembling properties and interfacial behavior of water-air affinities. We have synthesized three generations of polyester dendrimers and studied their interfacial properties on the Langmuir films. The behavior obtained was, as a rule, the lowest generation dendrimers behaving like traditional amphiphiles and the larger molecules presenting complicated isotherms. The Langmuir films of these compounds have been characterized by their surface pressure versus molecular area (π/A) and Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) observations. PMID:24052855

  4. Effect of poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer and two different poly(ethylene oxide-b-poly(propylene oxide)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) triblock copolymers on morphological, optical, and mechanical properties of nanostructured unsaturated polyester.

    PubMed

    Builes, Daniel H; Hernández-Ortiz, Juan P; Corcuera, Ma Angeles; Mondragon, Iñaki; Tercjak, Agnieszka

    2014-01-22

    Novel nanostructured unsaturated polyester resin-based thermosets, modified with poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), and two poly(ethylene oxide-b-propylene oxide-b-ethylene oxide) block copolymers (BCP), were developed and analyzed. The effects of molecular weights, blocks ratio, and curing temperatures on the final morphological, optical, and mechanical properties were reported. The block influence on the BCP miscibility was studied through uncured and cured mixtures of unsaturated polyester (UP) resins with PEO and PPO homopolymers having molecular weights similar to molecular weights of the blocks of BCP. The final morphology of the nanostructured thermosetting systems, containing BCP or homopolymers, was investigated, and multiple mechanisms of nanostructuration were listed and explained. By considering the miscibility of each block before and after curing, it was determined that the formation of the nanostructured matrices followed a self-assembly mechanism or a polymerization-induced phase separation mechanism. The miscibility between PEO or PPO blocks with one of two phases of UP matrix was highlighted due to its importance in the final thermoset properties. Relationships between the final morphology and thermoset optical and mechanical properties were examined. The mechanisms and physics behind the morphologies lead toward the design of highly transparent, nanostructured, and toughened thermosetting UP systems.

  5. Thermal Cyclic Resistance Polyester Resin Composites Reinforce Fiber Nut Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, Hendriwan

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of study is to determine the effect of fiber length and thermal cyclic of the bending strength of polyester resin composite reinforced by fibers nut shell. The materials used in this study is a nut shell fibers with fiber length of 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm and polyester resin with composition 70-30%wt. Fiber nut shell treated soaking in NaOH 30% for 30 minutes, then rinse with clean water so that the fiber free of alkali and then dried. Furthermore, the composite is heated in an oven to a temperature of 100°C for 1 hour and then cooled in the open with a variety of thermal cyclic 30, 40, and 50 times. Bending properties of composites known through the testing process using a three-point bending test equipment universal testing machine. The test results show that the bending strength bending highest in fiber length of 3 cm with 30 treatment cycles of thermal to the value of 53.325 MPa, while the lowest occurred in bending strength fiber length of 1 cm with no cycles of thermal treatment to the value of 30.675 MPa.

  6. Studies on thermo-mechanical properties of chemically treated jute-polyester composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Vikas; Chandekar, Harichandra; Saboo, Jayesh; Mascarenhas, Adlete

    2018-03-01

    The effect of chemical treatments on jute-polyester composites is studied in this paper. The jute fabrics are chemically treated with NaOH and benzoyl chloride and its tensile and visco-elastic properties are compared with untreated jute composite. The NaOH treated jute-polyester composite show superior tensile strength and modulus compared to other jute-polyester composites. The glass transition temperature obtained from DMA shift to higher temperature for composites in comparison to polyester resin, this is due to restriction of mobility in chains due to introduction of jute reinforcement. The DMA results also show favourable results towards NaOH treatment i.e. higher storage modulus and lower tan δ values relative to untreated jute-polyester composite. The benzoyl treated jute-polyester composite however do not show promising results which may be attributed to the fact that the adhesion properties associated with similar ester functional groups in the benzoyl treated jute fabric and polyester resin were not obtained.

  7. Microbial degradation of aliphatic and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters.

    PubMed

    Shah, Aamer Ali; Kato, Satoshi; Shintani, Noboru; Kamini, Numbi Ramudu; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki

    2014-04-01

    Biodegradable plastics (BPs) have attracted much attention since more than a decade because they can easily be degraded by microorganisms in the environment. The development of aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has combined excellent mechanical properties with biodegradability and an ideal replacement for the conventional nondegradable thermoplastics. The microorganisms degrading these polyesters are widely distributed in various environments. Although various aliphatic, aromatic, and aliphatic-aromatic co-polyester-degrading microorganisms and their enzymes have been studied and characterized, there are still many groups of microorganisms and enzymes with varying properties awaiting various applications. In this review, we have reported some new microorganisms and their enzymes which could degrade various aliphatic, aromatic, as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters like poly(butylene succinate) (PBS), poly(butylene succinate)-co-(butylene adipate) (PBSA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydoxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalterate) (PHB/PHBV), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), poly(butylene terephthalate) (PBT), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT), poly(butylene succinate-co-terephthalate) (PBST), and poly(butylene succinate/terephthalate/isophthalate)-co-(lactate) (PBSTIL). The mechanism of degradation of aliphatic as well as aliphatic-aromatic co-polyesters has also been discussed. The degradation ability of microorganisms against various polyesters might be useful for the treatment and recycling of biodegradable wastes or bioremediation of the polyester-contaminated environments.

  8. Effects of glass scraps powder and glass fiber on mechanical properties of polyester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonsakul, K.; Boongsood, W.

    2017-11-01

    One concern in bus manufacturing is the high cost of glass fiber reinforced in polyester composites parts. The composites of glass fiber and polyester are low elongation and high strength, and glass scraps powder displays high hardness and good chemical compatibility with the polymer matrix and glass fiber. This research aimed to study the effects of glass scraps powder and glass fiber on mechanical performance of polyester composites. Glass fiber was randomly oriented fiber and used as new. Glass scraps were obtained from a bus factory and crushed to powder sizes of 120 and 240 μm by a ball mill. Polyester composites were prepared using Vacuum Infusion Process (VIP).Polyester reinforced with 3 layers of glass fiber was an initial condition. Then, one layer of glass fiber was replaced with glass scraps powder. Flexural strength, tensile strength, impact strength and hardness of the polyester composites were determined. Hardness was increased with a combination of smaller size and higher volume of glass scraps powder. Pictures of specimens obtained by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) confirmed that the powder of glass scraps packed in the layers of glass fiber in polyester composites.

  9. Static properties and moisture content properties of polyester fabrics modified by plasma treatment and chemical finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, C. W.; Yuen, C. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    Low temperature plasma treatment has been conducted in textile industry and has some success in the dyeing and finishing processes. In this paper, an attempt was made to apply low temperature plasma treatment to improve the anti-static property of polyester fabric. The polyester fabrics were treated under different conditions using low temperature plasma. An Orthogonal Array Testing Strategy was employed to determine the optimum treatment condition. After low temperature plasma treatment, the polyester fabrics were evaluated with different characterisation methods. Under the observation of scanning electron microscope, the surface structure of low temperature plasma-treated polyester fabric was seriously altered. This provided more capacity for polyester to capture moisture and hence increase the dissipation of static charges. The relationship between moisture content and half-life decay time for static charges was studied and the results showed that the increment of moisture content would result in shortening the time for the dissipation of static charges. Moreover, there was a great improvement in the anti-static property of the low temperature plasma-treated polyester fabric after comparing with that of the polyester fabric treated with commercial anti-static finishing agent.

  10. Effects of environmental ageing on HMS-polypropylene/Cloisite nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Komatsu, L. G. H., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br; Oliani, W. L., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br; Ferreto, H. F. R., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br

    High melt strength polypropylene Nanocomposites (NC-HMSPP) were obtained with concentrations of 0.1 and 5 wt% of Cloisite 20A. The melt intercalation, using twin screw extruder was done to homogenize the nanocomposite in presence of polypropylene graft maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) compatibilizer agent. In this work, the manufactured dumbbell samples were settled in device for natural ageing assay. The period of exposition was January to December of 2012. The effects of environmental ageing was determined by carbonyl index (FT-IR) and the results showed that nanocomposites were more stable than HMSPP. The mechanical properties (elongation and rupture strength) were evaluated and the thermalmore » behavior was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X ray diffraction (DRX). The morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in which the nanocomposites showed intense cracks on the surface.« less

  11. Radiation resistant polypropylene blended with mobilizer,. antioxidants and nucleating agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamshad, A.; Basfar, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    Post-irradiation storage of medical disposables prepared from isotactic polypropylene renders them brittle due to degradation. To avoid this, isotactic polypropylene [(is)PP] was blended with a mobilizer, dioctyl pthallate (DOP), three antioxidants (hindered amines and a secondary antioxidant) and benzoic acid to obtain radiation-resistant, thermally-stable and transparent material. Different formulations prepared were subjected to gamma radiation to doses of 25 and 50 kGy. Tests of breakage on bending after ageing in an oven at 70°C up to 12 months have shown that the addition of DOP and the antioxidants imparts improved radiation and thermal stability as compared to (is)PP alone or its blend with DOP. All the formulations irradiated or otherwise demonstrated excellent colour stability even after accelerated ageing at 70°C for prolonged periods.

  12. Comparison of occupational exposure to carbon disulphide in a viscose rayon factory before and after technical adjustments.

    PubMed

    Bulat, Petar; Daemen, Edgard; Van Risseghem, Marleen; De Bacquer, Dirk; Tan, Xiaodong; Braeckman, Lutgart; Vanhoorne, Michel

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this follow-up study was to verify the efficacy of the technical adjustments gradually introduced in departments of a viscose rayon factory from 1989 onward. Personal exposure to carbon disulphide was assessed by means of personal monitoring through active sampling. Six job titles in three departments of the factory were sampled. Geometric means were calculated and used as estimates of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations. The results from the present study were compared with similar measurements from a previous study in the same factory. Due to organizational changes, only three job titles (spinner, first spinner, and viscose preparator) could be compared directly. Two new job titles were identified, although tasks performed in these two job titles already existed. The measurements from one job title could not be compared, due to a substantial reorganization and automation of the tasks carried out in the department. The comparison before and after technical improvements shows that personal exposure of spinner and first spinner has been substantially reduced. Even the geometric means of measurements outside the fresh air mask are below the TWA-TLV (Threshold Limit Value). Despite the difficulties in comparing the results from the two studies, it is concluded that the technical measures reduced up to tenfold personal exposure to carbon disulphide and personal protection reduced it further by a factor two.

  13. Étude de la structure des alliages vitreux Ag-As2S3 par diffraction de rayons X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, M.; Sava, F.; Cornet, A.; Broll, N.

    2002-07-01

    The structure of several silver alloyed arsenic chalocgenide has been determined by X-ray diffraction. For low silver doping the disordered layer structure, characteristic to the glassy AS2S3 is retained as demonstrated by the well developed first sharp diffraction peak in the X-ray diffraction pattern. For high amount of silver introduced in the As2S3 matrix, the disoredered layer configurations disappear, as shown by the diminishing and even disappearance of the first sharp diffraction peak in the X-ray patterns. A three-dimensional structure based on Ag2S -type configuration is formed. La structure de quelques alliages sulfure d'arsenic - argent a été determinée par diffraction de rayons X. Pour de faibles dopages à l'argent on conserve la structure desordonnées caractéristique des couches atomique d'As2S3 vitreux ; ceci est prouvé par la forte intensité du premier pic étroit de diffraction. Pour des plus grandes proportions d'argent la structure de l'alliage vitreux fait apparaître des unités structurales caractéristiques du cristal d'Ag2S et la configuration atomique avec des couches desordonnées disparaît (le premier pic étroit de diffraction s'évanouit) en faisant place à une structure tridimensionelle.

  14. Mixing of Isotactic and Syndiotactic Polypropylenes in the Melt

    SciTech Connect

    CLANCY,THOMAS C.; PUTZ,MATHIAS; WEINHOLD,JEFFREY D.

    2000-07-14

    The miscibility of polypropylene (PP) melts in which the chains differ only in stereochemical composition has been investigated by two different procedures. One approach used detailed local information from a Monte Carlo simulation of a single chain, and the other approach takes this information from a rotational isomeric state model devised decades ago, for another purpose. The first approach uses PRISM theory to deduce the intermolecular packing in the polymer blend, while the second approach uses a Monte Carlo simulation of a coarse-grained representation of independent chains, expressed on a high-coordination lattice. Both approaches find a positive energy change uponmore » mixing isotactic PP (iPP) and syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP) chains in the melt. This conclusion is qualitatively consistent with observations published recently by Muelhaupt and coworkers. The size of the energy chain on mixing is smaller in the MC/PRISM approach than in the RIS/MC simulation, with the smaller energy change being in better agreement with the experiment. The RIS/MC simulation finds no demixing for iPP and atactic polypropylene (aPP) in the melt, consistent with several experimental observations in the literature. The demixing of the iPP/sPP blend may arise from attractive interactions in the sPP melt that are disrupted when the sPP chains are diluted with aPP or iPP chains.« less

  15. Property Relationship in Organosilanes and Nanotubes Filled Polypropylene Hybrid Composites

    PubMed Central

    Monsiváis-Barrón, Alejandra J.; Bonilla-Rios, Jaime; Sánchez-Fernández, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Polypropylene composites with different filler contents were prepared by creating a masterbatch containing 3 wt%. filler. A variety of silanol groups were used to synthetized three compounds in different media trough a sol-gel process with acetic acid, formic acid and ammonium hydroxide as catalysts. Besides, four different nanotubular fillers were also used to analyze their behavior and compare it with the effect caused by the silanol groups. These tubular structures comprise: unmodified halloysite, carbon nanotubes and functionalized halloysite and carbon nanotubes. Morphological characterization in SEM and STEM/TEM showed dispersion in the polypropylene matrix. According to TGA and DSC measurements thermal behavior remain similar for all the composites. Mechanical test in tension demonstrate that modulus of the composites increases for all samples with a major impact for materials containing silanol groups synthetized in formic acid. Rheological measurements show a significantly increment in viscosity for samples containing unmodified and modified carbon nanotubes. No difference was found for samples containing silanol groups and halloysite when compared to neat polypropylene. Finally, the oxygen transmission rate increased for all samples showing high barrier properties only for samples containing natural and functionalized halloysite nanotubes. PMID:28788233

  16. Quality evaluation of polypropylene packaged corn yogurt during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aini, Nur; Prihananto, V.; Sustriawan, B.; Astuti, Y.; Maulina, M. R.

    2018-01-01

    Packaging is an important factor to control the process of quality decrease of any food product, including to determine the shelf life. The objective of this study was to determine changes quality of corn yogurt packaged using polypropylene. The method were using was package yogurt polypropylene, then it was stored in a refrigerator at 5, 10, or 15°C during 21 days. The yogurt was analysed every 7 days over a 21-day period. The results indicate that protein content decreased during storage, while the lactic acid bacteria, total acid, pH, viscosity, and total solids were increased. At the end of storage, the amount of lactic acid bacteria still fulfil the minimum requirements of a probiotic food, with a count of 6.407 log CFU/g. Overal scoring by panelist (scores ranged from 0 to 5) have a 4.78 at the beginning of storage. By the 21st day of storage, yogurt was packaging using transparent polypropylene having a score of 3.85, and that stored in opaque white packaging having a value of 3.95.

  17. Property Relationship in Organosilanes and Nanotubes Filled Polypropylene Hybrid Composites.

    PubMed

    Monsiváis-Barrón, Alejandra J; Bonilla-Rios, Jaime; Sánchez-Fernández, Antonio

    2014-10-20

    Polypropylene composites with different filler contents were prepared by creating a masterbatch containing 3 wt%. filler. A variety of silanol groups were used to synthetized three compounds in different media trough a sol-gel process with acetic acid, formic acid and ammonium hydroxide as catalysts. Besides, four different nanotubular fillers were also used to analyze their behavior and compare it with the effect caused by the silanol groups. These tubular structures comprise: unmodified halloysite, carbon nanotubes and functionalized halloysite and carbon nanotubes. Morphological characterization in SEM and STEM/TEM showed dispersion in the polypropylene matrix. According to TGA and DSC measurements thermal behavior remain similar for all the composites. Mechanical test in tension demonstrate that modulus of the composites increases for all samples with a major impact for materials containing silanol groups synthetized in formic acid. Rheological measurements show a significantly increment in viscosity for samples containing unmodified and modified carbon nanotubes. No difference was found for samples containing silanol groups and halloysite when compared to neat polypropylene. Finally, the oxygen transmission rate increased for all samples showing high barrier properties only for samples containing natural and functionalized halloysite nanotubes.

  18. Radiation-induced changes affecting polyester based polyurethane binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierpoint, Sujita Basi

    The application of thermoplastic polyurethane elastomers as binders in the high energy explosives particularly when used in weapons presents a significantly complex and challenging problem due to the impact of the aging of this polymer on the useful service life of the explosive. In this work, the effects of radiation on the aging of the polyester based polyurethane were investigated using both electron beam and gamma irradiation at various dose rates in the presence and absence of oxygen. It was found by means of GPC that, in the presence and absence of oxygen, the poly (ester urethane) primarily undergoes cross-linking, by means of a carbon-centered secondary alkyl radical. It was also concluded that the polymer partially undergoes scission of the backbone of the main chain at C-O, N-C, and C-C bonds. Substantial changes in the conditions of irradiation and in dose levels did not affect the cross-linking and scission yields. Experiments were also performed with EPR spectroscopy for the purpose of identifying the initial carbon-centered free radicals and for studying the decay mechanisms of these radicals. It was found that the carbon-centered radical which is produced via C-C scission (primary alkyl radical) is rapidly converted to a long-lived allylic species at higher temperatures; more than 80% radicals are converted to allyl species in 2.5 hours. In the presence of oxygen, the allyl radical undergoes a fast reaction to produce a peroxyl radical; this radical decays with a 1.7 hour half-life by pseudo first-order kinetics to negligible levels in 13 hours. FTIR measurements were conducted to identify the radiation-induced changes to the functional groups in the polyester polyurethane. These measurements show an increase in carbonyl, amine and carboxylic groups as a result of reaction of H atoms with R-C-O·, ·NH-R and R-COO·. The FTIR results also demonstrate the production of the unsaturation resulting from hydrogen atom transfer during intrachain conversion

  19. Production, characterization, and modeling of mineral filled polypropylene filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Brian Robert

    1999-11-01

    This research produced mineral filled polypropylene filaments using a variety of fillers, characterized these filaments, and attempted to model their mechanical properties with current composite models. Also, these filaments were compared with bone to determine if they are suitable for modeling the mechanical properties of bone. Fillers used consist of wollastonite, talc, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, and hydroxyapatite. Fillers and polypropylene chips were combined and extruded into rods with the use of a mixer. The rods were chipped up and then formed into filaments through melt extrusion utilizing a piston extruder. Filaments with volume fractions of filler of 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 were produced. Additionally, some methods of trying to improve the properties of these filaments were attempted, but did not result in any significant property improvements. The fillers and filaments were visually characterized with a scanning electron microscope. Cross-sections, filament outer surfaces, fracture surfaces, and longitudinal cut open surfaces were viewed in this manner. Those filaments with anisotropic filler had some oriented filler particles, while all filaments suffered from poor adhesion between the polypropylene and the filler as well as agglomerations of filler particles. Twenty specimens of each filament were tensile tested and the average tenacity, strain, and modulus were calculated. Filaments containing talc, talc and wollastonite, titanium dioxide, or hydroxyapatite suffered from a drastic transition from ductile to brittle with the addition of 0.05 volume fraction of filler. This is evidenced by the sharp decrease in strain at this volume fraction of filler when compared to the strain of the unfilled polypropylene filament. Additionally, these same filaments suffered a sharp decrease in tenacity at the same volume fraction. These instant decreases are attributed to the agglomerations of filler in the filament. Generally, the modulus of the

  20. The Plant Polyester Cutin: Biosynthesis, Structure, and Biological Roles.

    PubMed

    Fich, Eric A; Segerson, Nicholas A; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2016-04-29

    Cutin, a polyester composed mostly of oxygenated fatty acids, serves as the framework of the plant cuticle. The same types of cutin monomers occur across most plant lineages, although some evolutionary trends are evident. Additionally, cutins from some species have monomer profiles that are characteristic of the related polymer suberin. Compositional differences likely have profound structural consequences, but little is known about cutin's molecular organization and architectural heterogeneity. Its biological importance is suggested by the wide variety of associated mutants and gene-silencing lines that show a disruption of cuticular integrity, giving rise to numerous physiological and developmental abnormalities. Mapping and characterization of these mutants, along with suppression of gene paralogs through RNA interference, have revealed much of the biosynthetic pathway and several regulatory factors; however, the mechanisms of cutin polymerization and its interactions with other cuticle and cell wall components are only now beginning to be resolved.

  1. Study of the indoor decontamination using nanocoated woven polyester fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memon, Hafeezullah; Kumari, Naveeta; Jatoi, Abdul Wahab; Khoso, Nazakat Ali

    2017-11-01

    This research primarily deals with the photocatalytic degradation of methanol in indoor air using nanocoated indoor textiles used for curtains as household textiles. The woven polyester was coated by titanium dioxide by sol gel method, using silicon-based binder. The characterization of the coating has been done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image analysis, energy dispersive analysis using X-ray (EDAX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The DIY instrument providing the similar environment as of indoor was designed to assess the performance of the degradation of formaldehyde under UV light. The photocatalytic degradation rate was measured using the absorption value of the solutions obtained in the result of liquid chromatography of test solution and reagent solution. Different amount of dosages (1-3 %) and different time period of coatings (half hour to 3 h) have been evaluated for optimization.

  2. Degradation Mechanisms of Poly(ester urethane) Elastomer

    SciTech Connect

    Edgar, Alexander S.

    This report describes literature regarding the degradation mechanisms associated with a poly(ester urethane) block copolymer, Estane® 5703 (Estane), used in conjunction with Nitroplasticizer (NP), and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane, also known as high molecular weight explosive (HMX) to produce polymer bonded explosive PBX 9501. Two principal degradation mechanisms are reported: NO2 oxidative reaction with the urethane linkage resulting in crosslinking and chain scission events, and acid catalyzed hydrolysis of the ester linkage. This report details future work regarding this PBX support system, to be conducted in late 2017 and 2018 at Engineered Materials Group (MST-7), Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos Nationalmore » Laboratory. This is the first of a series of three reports on the degradation processes and trends of the support materials of PBX 9501.« less

  3. Optical properties of three-dimensional P(St-MAA) photonic crystals on polyester fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guojin; Zhou, Lan; Wu, Yujiang; Wang, Cuicui; Fan, Qinguo; Shao, Jianzhong

    2015-04-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystals with face-centered cubic (fcc) structure was fabricated on polyester fabrics, a kind of soft textile materials quite different from the conventional solid substrates, by gravitational sedimentation self-assembly of monodisperse P(St-MAA) colloidal microspheres. The optical properties of structural colors on polyester fabrics were investigated and the position of photonic band gap was characterized. The results showed that the color-tuning ways of the structural colors from photonic crystals were in accordance with Bragg's law and could be modulated by the size of P(St-MAA) colloidal microspheres and the viewing angles. The L∗a∗b∗ values of the structural colors generated from the assembled polyester fabrics were in agreement with their reflectance spectra. The photonic band gap position of photonic crystals on polyester fabrics could be consistently confirmed by reflectance and transmittance spectra.

  4. [Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Mindêllo, Marcela Maria Aguiar; Martins, Yasmin de Oliveira; da Silva Filho, Antônio Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the use of polyester resin in preserving anatomical specimens for the study of human anatomy. We used 150 anatomical specimens, comprised of unfixed (fresh), fixed in 10% formalin and vascular casts of organs injected with vinyl acetate and polyester resin. The solution used consisted of polyester resin with the diluent styrene monomer and catalyst (peroxol). After embedding in this solution, models in transparent resin were obtained, allowing full observation of structures and conservation of the specimens used. upon evaluation of the specimens, we observed a high degree of transparency, which promoted a complete visualization of structures with perfect preservation of the anatomy. The average time for the completion of the embedding was 48 hours. Only 14 specimens (9.3%) were lost during the preparation. Polyester resin can be used for preserving anatomical specimens for teaching human anatomy in a practical, aesthetic and durable way.

  5. Characterization of Polyester Matrix Reinforced with Banana Fibers Thermal Properties by Photoacoustic Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Assis, Foluke S.; Netto, Pedro A.; Margem, Frederico M.; Monteiro, Artur R. P. Junior Sergio N.

    Synthetic fibers are being replaced gradually by natural materials such as lignocellulosic fibers. Compared to synthetic fibers, natural fibers have shown advantages in technical aspects such as environmental and economic. So there is a growing international interest in the use of those fibers. The banana fiber presents significant properties to be studied, but until now few thermal properties on banana fiber as reinforcement of polyester matrix were performed. The present work had as its objective to investigate, by photoacoustic spectroscopy and photothermal techniques the thermal properties of diffusivity, specific heat capacity and conductivity for polyester composites reinforced with banana fibers. In the polyester matrix will be added up to 30% in volume of continuous and aligned banana fibers. These values show that the incorporation of banana fibers in the polyester matrix changes its thermal properties.

  6. Eco-friendly surface modification on polyester fabrics by esterase treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jindan; Cai, Guoqiang; Liu, Jinqiang; Ge, Huayun; Wang, Jiping

    2014-03-01

    Currently, traditional alkali deweighting technology is widely used to improve the hydrophilicity of polyester fabrics. However, the wastewater and heavy chemicals in the effluent cause enormous damage to the environment. Esterase treatment, which is feasible in mild conditions with high selectivity, can provide a clean and efficient way for polyester modification. Under the optimum conditions, the polyester fabric hydrolysis process of esterase had a linear kinetics. X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) results showed that hydroxyl and carboxyl groups were produced only on the surface of modified fiber without changing the chemical composition of the bulk. These fibers exhibited much improved fabric wicking, as well as greatly improved oily stain removal performance. Compared to the harsh alkali hydrolysis, the enzyme treatment led to smaller weight loss and better fiber integrity. The esterase treatment technology is promising to produce higher-quality polyester textiles with an environmental friendly approach.

  7. Effect of structural parameters on burning behavior of polyester fabrics having flame retardancy property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çeven, E. K.; Günaydın, G. K.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study is filling the gap in the literature about investigating the effect of yarn and fabric structural parameters on burning behavior of polyester fabrics. According to the experimental design three different fabric types, three different weft densities and two different weave types were selected and a total of eighteen different polyester drapery fabrics were produced. All statistical procedures were conducted using the SPSS Statistical software package. The results of the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests indicated that; there were statistically significant (5% significance level) differences between the mass loss ratios (%) in weft and mass loss ratios (%) in warp direction of different fabrics calculated after the flammability test. The Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) results for mass loss ratios (%) both in weft and warp directions revealed that the mass loss ratios (%) of fabrics containing Trevira CS type polyester were lower than the mass loss ratios of polyester fabrics subjected to washing treatment and flame retardancy treatment.

  8. A kinetic study of hydrolysis of polyester elastomer in magnetic tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Watanabe, H.

    1994-01-01

    A useful method for kinetic study of the hydrolysis of polyester elastomer is established which uses the number-average molecular weight. The reasonableness of this method is confirmed and the effect of magnetic particles on hydrolysis is considered.

  9. Initial studies of a flexural member composed of glass-fiber reinforced polyester resin.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted of the structural behavior of a flexural member composed entirely of glass-fiber reinforced polyester resin. Three experimental girders were fabricated and load-tested in the laboratory. The physical characteristics of ...

  10. [Quantification of Wood Flour and Polypropylene in Chinese Fir/Polypropylene Composites by FTIR].

    PubMed

    Lao, Wan-li; Li, Gai-yun; Zhou, Qun; Qin, Te-fu

    2015-06-01

    The ratio of wood and plastic in Wood Plastic Composites (WPCss) influences quality and price, but traditional thermochemical methods cannot rapidly and accurately quantify the ratio of wood/PP in WPCss. This paper was addressed to investigate the feasibility of quantifying the wood flour content and plastic content in WPCss by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. With Chinese fir, polypropylene (PP) and other additives as raw materials, 13 WPCs samples with different wood flour contents, ranging from 9.8% to 61.5%, were prepared by modifying wood flour, mixing materials and extrusion pelletizing. The samples were analyzed by FTIR with the KBr pellets technique. The absorption peaks of WPCss at 1059, 1 033 and 1 740 cm(-1) are considered as characteristic of Chinese fir, and the absorption peaks at 1 377, 2 839 and 841 cm(-1) are typical of PP by comparing the spectra of WPCss with that of Chinese fir, PP and other additives. The relationship between the wood flour content, PP content in WPCss and their characteristic IR peaks height ratio was established. The results show that there is a strong linear correlation between the wood flour content in WPCss and I1 059/l 1 377/I1 033, /I1377, R2 are 0.992 and 0.993 respectively; there is a high linear correlation between the PP content in WPCss and I1 377/I1 740, I2 839 /I1 740 R2 are 0.985 and 0.981, respectively. Quantitative methods of the wood flour content and PP content in WPCss by FTIR were developed, the predictive equations of the wood flour content in WPCss are y = 53.297x-9. 107 and y = 55.922x-10.238, the predictive equations of the PP content in WPCss are y = 6.828 5x+5.403 6 and y = 8.719 7x+3.295 8. The results of the accuracy test and precision test show that the method has strong repeatability and high accuracy. The average prediction relative deviations of the wood flour content and PP content in WPCss are about 5%. The prediction accuracy has been improved remarkably, compared to

  11. The identification of cutin synthase: formation of the plant polyester cutin

    PubMed Central

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Martin, Laetitia B. B.; Viart, Hélène M.-F.; Isaacson, Tal; He, Yonghua; Zhao, Lingxia; Matas, Antonio J.; Buda, Gregory J.; Domozych, David S.; Clausen, Mads H.; Rose, Jocelyn K. C.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrophobic cuticle consisting of waxes and the polyester cutin covers the aerial epidermis of all land plants, providing essential protection from desiccation and other stresses. We have determined the enzymatic basis of cutin polymerization through characterization of a tomato extracellular acyltransferase, CD1, and its substrate, 2-mono(10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoyl)glycerol (2-MHG). CD1 has in vitro polyester synthesis activity and is required for cutin accumulation in vivo, indicating that it is a cutin synthase. PMID:22610035

  12. The identification of cutin synthase: formation of the plant polyester cutin.

    PubMed

    Yeats, Trevor H; Martin, Laetitia B B; Viart, Hélène M-F; Isaacson, Tal; He, Yonghua; Zhao, Lingxia; Matas, Antonio J; Buda, Gregory J; Domozych, David S; Clausen, Mads H; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2012-07-01

    A hydrophobic cuticle consisting of waxes and the polyester cutin covers the aerial epidermis of all land plants, providing essential protection from desiccation and other stresses. We have determined the enzymatic basis of cutin polymerization through characterization of a tomato extracellular acyltransferase, CD1, and its substrate, 2-mono(10,16-dihydroxyhexadecanoyl)glycerol. CD1 has in vitro polyester synthesis activity and is required for cutin accumulation in vivo, indicating that it is a cutin synthase.

  13. Polyester-Based (Bio)degradable Polymers as Environmentally Friendly Materials for Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Rydz, Joanna; Sikorska, Wanda; Kyulavska, Mariya; Christova, Darinka

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on the polyesters such as polylactide and polyhydroxyalkonoates, as well as polyamides produced from renewable resources, which are currently among the most promising (bio)degradable polymers. Synthetic pathways, favourable properties and utilisation (most important applications) of these attractive polymer families are outlined. Environmental impact and in particular (bio)degradation of aliphatic polyesters, polyamides and related copolymer structures are described in view of the potential applications in various fields. PMID:25551604

  14. A study on effect of ATH on Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester banana fiber composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Sanju; Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan

    2018-02-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used for building and structural applications due to their high strength. In conventional composites both the binder and the reinforcing fibers are synthetic or either one of the material is natural. In the present study coagulum of Euphorbia royleana has been used for replacing polyester resinas binder in polyester banana composite. Euphorbia coagulum (driedlatex) is rich in resinous mass (60-80%), which are terpenes and polyisoprene (10-20%). Effect of varying percentage of coagulum content on various physico-mechanical properties of polyester-banana composites has been studied. Since banana fiber is sensitive to water due to presence of polar group, banana composite undergoes delamination and deterioration under humid condition. Alkali treated banana fiber along with coagulum content has improved overall mechanical properties and reduction in water absorption. The best physico-mechanical properties have been achieved on replacing 40% of polyester resin by coagulum. An increase of 50% in bending strength, 30% bending modulus and 45% impact strength as well as 68% decrease in water absorption was observed. Incorporation of 20% ATH as flame retardant in coagulum modified banana polyester composite enhanced limiting oxygen index from 20.6 to 26.8% and smoke density reduced up to 40%. This study presents the possibility of utilization of renewable materials for environmental friendly composite development as well as to find out alternative feedstock for petroleum products. Developed Euphorbia latex modified banana polyester composites can have potential utility in hardboard, partition panel, plywood and automotive etc.

  15. A comparative study on the graft copolymerization of acrylic acid onto rayon fibre by a ceric ion redox system and a γ-radiation method.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Neelam

    2010-10-13

    Functionalization of rayon fibre has been carried out by grafting acrylic acid (AAC) both by a chemical method using a Ce(4+)-HNO(3) redox initiator and by a mutual irradiation (γ-rays) method. The reaction conditions affecting the grafting percentage have been optimized for both methods, and the results are compared. The maximum percentage of grafting (50%) by the chemical method was obtained utilizing 18.24 × 10(-3) moles/L of ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN), 39.68 × 10(-2) moles/L of HNO(3), and 104.08 × 10(-2) moles/L of AAc in 20 mL of water at 45°C for 120 min. For the radiation method, the maximum grafting percentage (60%) was higher, and the product was obtained under milder reaction conditions using a lower concentration of AAc (69.38 × 10(-2) moles/L) in 10 mL of water at an optimum total dose of 0.932 kGy. Swelling studies showed higher swelling for the grafted rayon fibre in water (854.54%) as compared to the pristine fibre (407%), while dye uptake studies revealed poor uptake of the dye (crystal violet) by the grafted fibre in comparison with the pristine fibre. The graft copolymers were characterized by IR, TGA, and scanning electron micrographic methods. Grafted fibre, prepared by the radiation-induced method, showed better thermal behaviour. Comparison of the two methods revealed that the radiation method of grafting of acrylic acid onto rayon fibre is a better method of grafting in comparison with the chemical method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. In vivo response to polypropylene following implantation in animal models: a review of biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michelle; Macdougall, Katherine; Olabisi, Oluwafisayo; McGuire, Neil

    2017-02-01

    Polypropylene is a material that is commonly used to treat pelvic floor conditions such as pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Owing to the nature of complications experienced by some patients implanted with either incontinence or prolapse meshes, the biocompatibility of polypropylene has recently been questioned. This literature review considers the in vivo response to polypropylene following implantation in animal models. The specific areas explored in this review are material selection, impact of anatomical location, and the structure, weight and size of polypropylene mesh types. All relevant abstracts from original articles investigating the host response of mesh in vivo were reviewed. Papers were obtained and categorised into various mesh material types: polypropylene, polypropylene composites, and other synthetic and biologically derived mesh. Polypropylene mesh fared well in comparison with other material types in terms of host response. It was found that a lightweight, large-pore mesh is the most appropriate structure. The evidence reviewed shows that polypropylene evokes a less inflammatory or similar host response when compared with other materials used in mesh devices.

  17. Dynamic fracture toughness of cellulose-fiber-reinforced polypropylene : preliminary investigation of microstructural effects

    Treesearch

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caulfield; A. Jeffrey Giacomin

    1999-10-01

    In this study, the microstructure of injection-molded polypropylene reinforced with cellulose fiber was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surfaces and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate fiber orientation. The polypropylene matrix was removed by solvent extraction, and the lengths of the residual fibers were optically determined. Fiber...

  18. Instrumented impact testing of kenaf fiber reinforced polypropylene composites: effects of temperature and composition

    Treesearch

    Craig Merrill Clemons; Anand R. Sanadi

    2007-01-01

    An instrumented Izod test was used to investigate the effects of fiber content, coupling agent, and temperature on the impact performance of kenaf fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP). Composites containing 0-60% (by weight) kenaf fiber and 0 or 2% maleated polypropylene (MAPP) and PP/wood flour composites were tested at room temperature and between -50 °C and +...

  19. Influence of gamma irradiation on carbon nanotube-reinforced polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Castell, P; Medel, F J; Martinez, M T; Puértolas, J A

    2009-10-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) have been incorporated into a polypropylene (PP) matrix in different concentrations (range: 0.25-2.5 wt%). The nanotubes were blended with PP particles (approximately 500 microm in size) before mixing in an extruder. Finally, rectangular plates were obtained by compression moulding. PP-SWNT composites were gamma irradiated at different doses, 10 and 20 kGy, to promote crosslinking in the matrix and potentially enhance the interaction between nanotubes and PP. Extensive thermal, structural and mechanical characterization was conducted by means of DSC, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, uniaxial tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal (DMTA) techniques. DSC thermograms reflected higher crystallinity with increasing nanotube concentration. XRD analysis confirmed the only presence of a monoclinic crystals and proved unambiguously that CNTs generated a preferred orientation. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the intercalation of the polymer between bundles is favored at low CNTs contents. Elastic modulus results confirmed the reinforcement of the polypropylene matrix with increasing SWNT concentration, although stiffness saturation was observed at the highest concentration. Loss tangent DMTA curves showed three transitions for raw polypropylene. While gamma relaxation remained practically unchanged in all the samples, beta relaxation temperatures showed an increase with increasing CNT content due to the reduced mobility of the system. Gamma-irradiated PP exhibited an increase in the beta relaxation temperature, associated with changes in glass transition due to radiation-induced crosslinking. On the contrary, gamma-irradiated nanocomposites did not show this effect probably due to the reaction of radiative free radicals with CNTs.

  20. Effect of wet-dry cycling on the decay properties of aspen fiber high-density polypropylene composites.

    Treesearch

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Roger M. Rowell; Sandra E. Lange; Rebecca L. Schumann

    2002-01-01

    Aspen fiber-polypropylene composites were prepared with various levels of fiber (0,30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%), polypropylene (PP) (100%, 98%, 70%, 68%, 60%, 58%, 50%, 48%, 40%, and 38%), and the compatibilizer maleated polypropylene (MAPP) (0 and 2%). Specimens were either subjected to 10 cycles of 1 week room temperature water soaking-oven drying or 2-hr. boiling...

  1. Tough and Reinforced Polypropylene/Kaolin Composites using Modified Kaolin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, J. L.; Zhu, H. X.; Qi, Y. B.; Guo, M. J.; Hu, Q.; Gao, L.

    2018-05-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/kaolin composites have been prepared by filling modified kaolin with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) into the PP matrix. The surface modification of kaolin particles effectively improves the compatibility between kaolin and PP matrix. It is conducive for uniform dispersion of inorganic particles in the matrix, and enhances the mechanical performance of the composites. Compared with plain kaolin, the mechanical properties of the modified composites exhibit higher tensile strength, bending strength, impact strength and melt index simultaneously. The DTPA modification of kaolin overall enhances the mechanical properties of PP composites. It meets the requirements in various applications, and makes the modified experiment interesting in modern teaching.

  2. Crystallization of isotactic polypropylene in different shear regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, Roberto; Spekowius, Marcel; Hopmann, Christian

    2017-10-01

    The investigation of the shear-induced crystallization of isotactic polypropylene in isothermal conditions in different shear regimes is the aim of the present research. A multiscale framework is developed and implemented to compute the nucleation and growth of spherulites, based on material parameters needed to connect crystallization kinetics to the molecular material properties. The framework consists of a macro-model based on a Finite Element Method linked to a micro-model based on Cellular Automata. The main results are the evolution of the crystallization degree and spherulite space filling as a function of imposed temperature ash shear rate.

  3. Laser welding of polypropylene using two different sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolfino, Chiara; Brabazon, Dermot; McCarthy, Éanna; Lertora, Enrico; Gambaro, Carla; Ahad, Inam Ul

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, laser weldability of neutral polypropylene has been investigated using fibre and carbon dioxide lasers. A design of experiment (DoE) was conducted in order to establish the influence of the main working parameters on the welding strength of the two types of laser. The welded samples were characterized by carrying out visual and microscopic inspection for the welding morphology and cross-section, and by distinguishing the tensile strength. The resulting weld quality was investigated by means of optical microscopy at weld cross-sections. The tensile strength of butt-welded materials was measured and compared to that of a corresponding bulk material.

  4. Fracture Toughness of Polypropylene-Based Particulate Composites

    PubMed Central

    Arencón, David; Velasco, José Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The fracture behaviour of polymers is strongly affected by the addition of rigid particles. Several features of the particles have a decisive influence on the values of the fracture toughness: shape and size, chemical nature, surface nature, concentration by volume, and orientation. Among those of thermoplastic matrix, polypropylene (PP) composites are the most industrially employed for many different application fields. Here, a review on the fracture behaviour of PP-based particulate composites is carried out, considering the basic topics and experimental techniques of Fracture Mechanics, the mechanisms of deformation and fracture, and values of fracture toughness for different PP composites prepared with different particle scale size, either micrometric or nanometric.

  5. Co-pyrolysis of polypropylene waste with Brazilian heavy oil.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Luiz C F N; Carbonell, Montserrat M; Marques, Mônica R C

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the chemical recycling of plastic residues, co-pyrolysis of polypropylene (PP) waste with Brazilian crude oil was evaluated varying the temperature (400°C to 500°C) and the amount of PP fed to the reactor. The co-pyrolysis of plastic waste in an inert atmosphere provided around 80% of oil pyrolytic, and of these, half represent the fraction of diesel oil. This study can be used as a reference in chemical recycling of plastics, specially associated with plastics co-pyrolysis.

  6. Bioengineering of Bacteria To Assemble Custom-Made Polyester Affinity Resins

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Iain D.; Du, Jinping; Burr, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Proof of concept for the in vivo bacterial production of a polyester resin displaying various customizable affinity protein binding domains is provided. This was achieved by engineering various protein binding domains into a bacterial polyester-synthesizing enzyme. Affinity binding domains based on various structural folds and derived from molecular libraries were used to demonstrate the potential of this technique. Designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins), engineered OB-fold domains (OBodies), and VHH domains from camelid antibodies (nanobodies) were employed. The respective resins were produced in a single bacterial fermentation step, and a simple purification protocol was developed. Purified resins were suitable for most lab-scale affinity chromatography purposes. All of the affinity domains tested produced polyester beads with specific affinity for the target protein. The binding capacity of these affinity resins ranged from 90 to 600 nmol of protein per wet gram of polyester affinity resin, enabling purification of a recombinant protein target from a complex bacterial cell lysate up to a purity level of 96% in one step. The polyester resin was efficiently produced by conventional lab-scale shake flask fermentation, resulting in bacteria accumulating up to 55% of their cellular dry weight as polyester. A further proof of concept demonstrating the practicality of this technique was obtained through the intracellular coproduction of a specific affinity resin and its target. This enables in vivo binding and purification of the coproduced “target protein.” Overall, this study provides evidence for the use of molecular engineering of polyester synthases toward the microbial production of specific bioseparation resins implementing previously selected binding domains. PMID:25344238

  7. Characterization of carbon nanofibre-reinforced polypropylene foams.

    PubMed

    Antunes, M; Velasco, J I; Realinho, V; Arencón, D

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, carbon-nanofibre-reinforced polypropylene foams were prepared and characterized regarding their foaming behaviour, cellular structure and both thermo-mechanical as well as electrical properties. Polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites containing 5, 10 and 20 wt% of carbon nanofibres (CNF) and a chemical blowing agent were prepared by melt-mixing inside a twin-screw extruder and subsequently water-cooled and pelletized. The extruded nanocomposites were later foamed using a one-step compression-moulding process. The thermo-mechanical properties of the CNF-reinforced PP foams were studied, analyzing the influence of the carbon nanofibres on the cellular structure and subsequent thermo-mechanical behaviour of the foams. Carbon nanofibres not only seemed to act as nucleating agents, reducing the average cell size of the foams and increasing their cell density for similar expansion ratios, but also helped produce mechanically-improved foams, even reaching for the 20 wt% CNF-reinforced ones a specific modulus around 1.2 GPa x cm3/g for densities as low as 300 kg/m3. An increasingly higher electrical conductivity was assessed for both the solids as well as the foams with increasing the amount of carbon nanofibres.

  8. Stability of erythropoietin repackaging in polypropylene syringes for clinical use.

    PubMed

    Marsili, Angela; Puorro, Giorgia; Pane, Chiara; de Rosa, Anna; Defazio, Giovanni; Casali, Carlo; Cittadini, Antonio; de Michele, Giuseppe; Florio, Brunello Ettore; Filla, Alessandro; Saccà, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    Introduction: Epoetin alfa (Eprex®) is a subcutaneous, injectable formulation of short half-life recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO). To current knowledge there are no published studies regarding the stability of rHuEPO once repackaging occurs (r-EPO) for clinical trial purposes. Materials and methods: We assessed EPO concentration in Eprex® and r-EPO syringes at 0, 60, 90, and 120 days after repackaging in polypropylene syringes. R-EPO was administered to 56 patients taking part in a clinical trial in Friedreich Ataxia. Serum EPO levels were measured at baseline and 48 h after r-EPO administration. Results: No differences were found between r-EPO and Eprex® syringes, but both globally decreased in total EPO content during storage at 4 °C. Patients receiving r-EPO had similar levels in EPO content as expected from previous trials in Friedreich Ataxia and from pharmacokinetics studies in healthy volunteers. Discussion: We demonstrate that repackaging of EPO does not alter its concentration if compared to the original product (Eprex®). This is true both for repackaging procedures and for the stability in polypropylene tubes. The expiration date of r-EPO can be extended from 1 to 4 months after repackaging, in accordance with pharmacopeia rules.

  9. A study on polypropylene encapsulation and solidification of textile sludge.

    PubMed

    Kumari, V Krishna; Kanmani, S

    2011-10-01

    The textile sludge is an inevitable solid waste from the textile wastewater process and is categorised under toxic substances by statutory authorities. In this study, an attempt has been made to encapsulate and solidify heavy metals and dyes present in textile sludge using polypropylene and Portland cement. Sludge samples (2 Nos.) were characterized for pH (8.5, 9.5), moisture content (1.5%, 1.96%) and chlorides (245mg/L, 425.4mg/L). Sludge samples were encapsulated into polypropylene with calcium carbonate (additive) and solidified with cement at four different proportions (20, 30, 40, 50%) of sludge. Encapsulated and solidified cubes were made and then tested for compressive strength. Maximum compressive strength of cubes (size, 7.06cm) containing sludge (50%) for encapsulation (16.72 N/mm2) and solidification (18.84 N/mm2) was more than that of standard M15 mortar cubes. The leachability of copper, nickel and chromium has been effectively reduced from 0.58 mg/L, 0.53 mg/L and 0.07 mg/L to 0.28mg/L, 0.26mg/L and BDL respectively in encapsulated products and to 0.24mg/L, BDL and BDL respectively in solidified products. This study has shown that the solidification process is slightly more effective than encapsulation process. Both the products were recommended for use in the construction of non-load bearing walls.

  10. Interfacial properties of aluminum/glass-fiberreinforced polypropylene sandwich composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baştürk, S. B.; Guruşçu, A.; Tanoğlu, M.

    2013-07-01

    Aluminum/glass-fiber-reinforced polypropylene (Al/GFPP) laminates were manufactured by using various surface pretreatment techniques. Adhesion at the composite/metal interface was achieved by a surface pretreatment of Al sheets with amino-based silane coupling agents, incorporation of a polyolefin-based adhesive film and modification with a PP-based film containing 20 wt.% of maleic-anhydride-modified polypropylene (PP-g-MA). In order to increase the effect of bonding between components of the laminates, the combination of silane treatment and the addition of the PP-based film was also investigated. The mechanical properties (shear, peel, and bending strengths) of adhesively bonded Al/GFPP laminates were examined to evaluate the effects of the surface treatments mentioned. It was revealed that the adhesion in the laminated Al/GFPP systems could be improved by the treatment of aluminum surface with an amino-based silane coupling agent. Judging from the results of peel and bending strength, with incorporation of polyolefin-based films, adhesion in the Al/GFPP laminates increased significantly. The modification of Al/GFPP interfaces with a PP-g-MA/PP layer led to the highest improvement in their adhesion properties. The combination of surface modification with silane and addition of PP-based films did not yield the high bending strength desired. This may be due to the insufficient bonding between silane groups and PP-based films.

  11. Nano-Charged Polypropylene Application: Realistic Perspectives for Enhancing Durability

    PubMed Central

    Naddeo, Carlo; Vertuccio, Luigi; Barra, Giuseppina; Guadagno, Liberata

    2017-01-01

    Isotactic polypropylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube (iPP/MWCNTs) films have been exposed to accelerated weathering in a UV device for increasing times. The effect of UV irradiation on the structural and chemical changes has been investigated. The resistance to accelerated photooxidation of (iPP/MWCNTs) films has been compared to the photooxidation behaviour of unfilled polypropylene films with the same structural organization. The chemical and structural modifications resulting from photooxidation have been followed using infrared spectroscopy, calorimetric and diffractometric analysis. MWCNTs embedded in the polymeric matrix are able to strongly contrast the degradation mechanisms and the structural and morphological rearrangements caused by the UV treatment on the unfilled polymer. MWCNTs determine an induction period (IP) before the increase of the carbonyl and hydroxyl groups. The extent of the IP is strictly correlated to the amount of MWCNTs. The low electrical percolation threshold (EPT) and the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites, together with their excellent thermal and photooxidative stability, make them promising candidates to fulfill many industrial requirements. PMID:28805728

  12. Structural characterization and mechanical properties of polypropylene reinforced natural fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, M. A. A.; Zaman, I.; Rozlan, S. A. M.; Berhanuddin, N. I. C.; Manshoor, B.; Mustapha, M. S.; Khalid, A.; Chan, S. W.

    2017-10-01

    Recently the development of natural fiber composite instead of synthetics fiber has lead to eco-friendly product manufacturing to meet various applications in the field of automotive, construction and manufacturing. The use of natural fibers offer an alternative to the reinforcing fibers because of their good mechanical properties, low density, renewability, and biodegradability. In this present research, the effects of maleic anhydride polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical properties and material characterization behaviour of kenaf fiber and coir fiber reinforced polypropylene were investigated. Different fractions of composites with 10wt%, 20wt% and 30wt% fiber content were prepared by using brabender mixer at 190°C. The 3wt% MAPP was added during the mixing. The composites were subsequently molded with injection molding to prepare the test specimens. The mechanical properties of the samples were investigated according to ISO 527 to determine the tensile strength and modulus. These results were also confirmed by the SEM machine observations of fracture surface of composites and FTIR analysis of the chemical structure. As the results, the presence of MAPP helps increasing the mechanical properties of both fibers and 30wt% kenaf fiber with 3wt% MAPP gives the best result compare to others.

  13. Effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the electrochemical performance of the rayon and polyacrylonitrile based carbon felt for the vanadium redox flow battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, D.; Babu, D. J.; Langner, J.; Bruns, M.; Pfaffmann, L.; Bhaskar, A.; Schneider, J. J.; Scheiba, F.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2016-11-01

    Oxygen plasma treatment was applied on commercially available graphite felt electrodes based on rayon (GFA) and polyacrylonitrile (GFD). The formation of functional groups on the surface of the felt was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The BET studies of the plasma treated electrodes showed no significant increase in surface area for both the rayon as well as the PAN based felts. Both plasma treated electrodes showed significantly enhanced V3+/V2+ redox activity compared to the pristine electrodes. Since an increase of the surface area has been ruled out for plasma treated electrode the enhanced activity could be attributed to surface functional groups. Interestingly, plasma treated GFD felts showed less electrochemical activity towards V5+/V4+ compared to the pristine electrode. Nevertheless, an overall increase of the single cell performance was still observed as the negative electrode is known to be the performance limiting electrode. Thus, to a great extent the present work helps to preferentially understand the importance of functional groups on the electrochemical activity of negative and positive redox reaction. The study emphasizes the need of highly active electrodes especially at the negative electrode side as inactive electrodes can still facilitate hydrogen evolution and degrade the electrolyte in VRFBs.

  14. Recent Advances in 3D Printing of Aliphatic Polyesters

    PubMed Central

    Frone, Adriana Nicoleta; Brandabur, Călin

    2017-01-01

    3D printing represents a valuable alternative to traditional processing methods, clearly demonstrated by the promising results obtained in the manufacture of various products, such as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, artificial tissues and organs, electronics, components for the automotive industry, art objects and so on. This revolutionary technique showed unique capabilities for fabricating complex structures, with precisely controlled physical characteristics, facile tunable mechanical properties, biological functionality and easily customizable architecture. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main 3D-printing technologies currently employed in the case of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), two of the most important classes of thermoplastic aliphatic polyesters. Moreover, a short presentation of the main 3D-printing methods is briefly discussed. Both PLA and PHA, in the form of filaments or powder, proved to be suitable for the fabrication of artificial tissue or scaffolds for bone regeneration. The processability of PLA and PHB blends and composites fabricated through different 3D-printing techniques, their final characteristics and targeted applications in bioengineering are thoroughly reviewed. PMID:29295559

  15. Polyester polymer alloy as a high-performance membrane.

    PubMed

    Igoshi, Tadaaki; Tomisawa, Narumi; Hori, Yoshinori; Jinbo, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    Polyester polymer alloy (PEPA) membrane is developed as a synthetic polymermembrane. It consists of two polymers - polyethersulfone (PES) and polyarylate (PAR).The pore size in membrane can be controlled by a blend ratio of PES and PAR. One unique characteristic is that PEPA membrane has three layers of a skin layer on the inner surface, a porous layer in the membrane, and a skin layer on the outer surface, respectively. The permeability of water and substances is controlled by the skin layer on the inner surface. PEPA membrane dialyzer can be adequately considered as a high-performance dialyzer. Furthermore, the skin layer on the outer surface can block endotoxin from the dialysis fluid side. PEPA membrane can therefore be used as an endotoxin-retentive filter. The other unique characteristic is that each amount of albumin loss or β2-microglobulin removal can be controlled by an additive amount of polyvinylpyrrolidone. This means that the PEPA dialyzer can be clinically used to meet the conditions of the patient. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Photocrosslinkable biodegradable elastomers based on cinnamate-functionalized polyesters.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Congcong; Kustra, Stephen R; Bettinger, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    Synthetic biodegradable elastomers are an emerging class of materials that play a critical role in supporting innovations in bioabsorbable medical implants. This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of poly(glycerol-co-sebacate)-cinnamate (PGS-CinA), a biodegradable elastomer based on hyperbranched polyesters derivatized with pendant cinnamate groups. PGS-CinA can be prepared via photodimerization in the absence of photoinitiators using monomers that are found in common foods. The resulting network exhibits a Young's modulus of 50.5-152.1kPa and a projected in vitro degradation half-life time between 90 and 140days. PGS-CinA elastomers are intrinsically cell-adherent and support rapid proliferation of fibroblasts. Spreading and proliferation of fibroblasts are loosely governed by the substrate stiffness within the range of Young's moduli in PGS-CinA networks that were prepared. The thermo-mechanical properties, biodegradability and intrinsic support of cell attachment and proliferation suggest that PGS-CinA networks are broadly applicable for use in next generation bioabsorable materials including temporary medical devices and scaffolds for soft tissue engineering. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent Advances in 3D Printing of Aliphatic Polyesters.

    PubMed

    Chiulan, Ioana; Frone, Adriana Nicoleta; Brandabur, Călin; Panaitescu, Denis Mihaela

    2017-12-24

    3D printing represents a valuable alternative to traditional processing methods, clearly demonstrated by the promising results obtained in the manufacture of various products, such as scaffolds for regenerative medicine, artificial tissues and organs, electronics, components for the automotive industry, art objects and so on. This revolutionary technique showed unique capabilities for fabricating complex structures, with precisely controlled physical characteristics, facile tunable mechanical properties, biological functionality and easily customizable architecture. In this paper, we provide an overview of the main 3D-printing technologies currently employed in the case of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), two of the most important classes of thermoplastic aliphatic polyesters. Moreover, a short presentation of the main 3D-printing methods is briefly discussed. Both PLA and PHA, in the form of filaments or powder, proved to be suitable for the fabrication of artificial tissue or scaffolds for bone regeneration. The processability of PLA and PHB blends and composites fabricated through different 3D-printing techniques, their final characteristics and targeted applications in bioengineering are thoroughly reviewed.

  18. Rheological and Thermal Properties of Bio-based Hyperbranched Polyesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubeck, Robert; Dumitrascu, Adina; Zhang, Tracy; Smith, Patrick

    Hyperbranched poly(ester)s (HBPEs) of designed molecular structures and targeted molecular weight can be prepared from a variety of multi-functional acids and alcohols. These polymers find application in the areas of coatings and rheology modifiers for coatings. These functional polymers can be synthesized in variety of architectures, possessing either hydroxyl or carboxyl reactive end-groups suitable for the attachment of active entities. The rheological characteristics as related to variation in molecular structure were determined using cone and plate or couette geometries. Viscosities of the HBPEs were found to be near Newtonian. HB polymers permit the control of Tg that is not as readily attained with linear polymers. Accordingly, Tg and viscosity are affected little as a function of Mw but vary dramatically with the nature of the end-groups, are highly dependent on hydrogen bonding of the hydroxyl end groups, and decrease dramatically with the incorporation of aliphatic end-caps. The thermal properties and the degradation characteristics of the HBPEs were determined. Thermal degradation of the hydroxyl-terminal HBPEs is initiated by dehydrative ether formation (crosslinking) while decarboxylation is the initial decomposition event for the carboxyl-terminal polymers. Midland, MI Campus.

  19. Sugar-based bicyclic monomers for aliphatic polyesters: a comparative appraisal of acetalized alditols and isosorbide

    PubMed Central

    Zakharova, Elena; Martínez de Ilarduya, Antxon; León, Salvador; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Three series of polyalkanoates (adipates, suberates and sebacates) were synthesized using as monomers three sugar-based bicyclic diols derived from D-glucose (Glux-diol and isosorbide) and D-mannose (Manx-diol). Polycondensations were conducted in the melt applying similar reaction conditions for all cases. The aim was to compare the three bicyclic diols regarding their suitability to render aliphatic polyesters with enhanced thermal and mechanical properties. The ensuing polyesters had molecular weights (M w) in the 25,000–50,000 g mol−1 range with highest values being attained for Glux-diol. All the polyesters started to decompose above 300 °C and most of them did not display perceivable crystallinity. On the contrary, they had glass transition temperatures much higher than usually found in homologous polyesters made of alkanediols, and showed a stress–strain behavior consistent with their T g values. Glux-diol was particularly effective in increasing the T g and to render therefore polyesters with high elastic modulus and considerable mechanical strength. PMID:29491789

  20. A high-throughput assay for enzymatic polyester hydrolysis activity by fluorimetric detection.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Billig, Susan; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2012-12-01

    A fluorimetric assay for the fast determination of the activity of polyester-hydrolyzing enzymes in a large number of samples has been developed. Terephthalic acid (TPA) is a main product of the enzymatic hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a synthetic polyester. Terephthalate has been quantified following its conversion to the fluorescent 2-hydroxyterephthalate by an iron autoxidation-mediated generation of free hydroxyl radicals. The assay proved to be robust at different buffer concentrations, reaction times, pH values, and in the presence of proteins. A validation of the assay was performed by analyzing TPA formation from PET films and nanoparticles catalyzed by a polyester hydrolase from Thermobifida fusca KW3 in a 96-well microplate format. The results showed a close correlation (R(2) = 0.99) with those obtained by a considerably more tedious and time-consuming HPLC method, suggesting the aptness of the fluorimetric assay for a high-throughput screening for polyester hydrolases. The method described in this paper will facilitate the detection and development of biocatalysts for the modification and degradation of synthetic polymers. The fluorimetric assay can be used to quantify the amount of TPA obtained as the final degradation product of the enzymatic hydrolysis of PET. In a microplate format, this assay can be applied for the high-throughput screening of polyester hydrolases. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Mechanical performance of hybrid polyester composites reinforced Cloisite 30B and kenaf fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnia, N. N.; Surip, S. N.; Ratim, S.; Mahat, M. M.

    2012-06-01

    Hybridization of rubber toughened polyester-kenaf nanocomposite was prepared by adding various percentage of kenaf fiber with 4% Cloisite 30B in unsaturated polyester resin. Composite were prepared by adding filler to modified polyester resin subsequently cross-linked using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide and the accelerator cobalt octanoate 1%. Three per hundred rubbers (phr) of liquid natural rubber (LNR) were added in producing this composite. This composite expected to be applied in the interior of passenger cars and truck cabins. This is a quality local product from a combination of good properties polyester and high performance natural fiber, kenaf that is suitable for many applications such as in automotive sector and construction sector. The mechanical and thermal properties of composite were characterized using Durometer Shore-D hardness test, Izod impact test, Scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Result shows that addition of LNR give good properties on impact, flexural and hardness compare to without LNR composite. DSC curve shows that all composition of composites is fully cured and good in thermal properties. Addition of higher percentage of kenaf will lead the composite to elastic behavior and decrease the toughened properties of the composite. Hybrid system composite showed the flexural properties within the flexural properties of kenaf - polyester and Cloisite 30B.

  2. Liquefaction of corn stover and preparation of polyester from the liquefied polyol.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Liu, Yuhuan; Pan, Xuejun; Lin, Xiangyang; Liu, Chengmei; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This research investigated a novel process to prepare polyester from corn stover through liquefaction and crosslinking processes. First, corn stover was liquefied in organic solvents (90 wt% ethylene glycol and 10 wt% ethylene carbonate) with catalysts at moderate temperature under atmospheric pressure. The effect of liquefaction temperature, biomass content, and type of catalyst, such as H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4, and ZnCl2, was evaluated. Higher liquefaction yield was achieved in 2 wt% sulfuric acid, 1/4 (w/w) stover to liquefying reagent ratio; 160 degrees C temperature, in 2 h. The liquefied corn stover was rich in polyols, which can be directly used as feedstock for making polymers without further separation or purification. Second, polyester was made from the liquefied corn stover by crosslinking with multifunctional carboxylic acids and/or cyclic acid anhydrides. The tensile strength of polyester is about 5 MPa and the elongation is around 35%. The polyester is stable in cold water and organic solvents and readily biodegradable as indicated by 82% weight loss when buried in damp soil for 10 mo. The results indicate that this novel polyester could be used for the biodegradable garden mulch film production.

  3. Precision Aliphatic Polyesters with Alternating Microstructures via Cross-Metathesis Polymerization: An Event of Sequence Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Long; Zeng, Fu-Rong; Ma, Ji-Mei; Sun, Lin-Hao; Zeng, Zhen; Jiang, Hong

    2017-06-01

    Sequence-regulated polymerization is realized upon sequential cross-metathesis polymerization (CMP) and exhaustive hydrogenation to afford precision aliphatic polyesters with alternating sequences. This strategy is particularly suitable for the arrangement of well-known monomer units including glycolic acid, lactic acid, and caprolactic acid on polymer chain in a predetermined sequence. First of all, structurally asymmetric monomers bearing acrylate and α-olefin terminuses are generated in an efficient and straightforward fashion. Subsequently, cross-metathesis (co)polymerization of M1 and M2 using the Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation catalyst (HG-II) furnishes P1-P3, respectively. Finally, hydrogenation yields the desired saturated polyesters HP1-HP3. It is noteworthy that the ε-caprolactone-derived unit is generated in situ rather than introduced to tailor-made monomers prior to CMP. NMR and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) results verify the microstructural periodicity of these precision polyesters. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results reflect that polyesters without methyl side groups exhibit crystallinity, and unsaturated polyester samples show higher glass transition temperatures than their hydrogenated counterparts owing to structural rigidity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Improving amphiphilic polypropylenes by grafting poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate segments on a polypropylene microporous membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huirong; Ma, Wenzhong; Xia, Yanping; Gu, Yi; Cao, Zheng; Liu, Chunlin; Yang, Haicun; Tao, Shengxi; Geng, Haoran; Tao, Guoliang; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2017-10-01

    An amphiphilic polypropylene-g-poly[vinylpyrrolidone-co-poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate] (PP-g-(NVP-co-PEGMA)) modifier was prepared by melt grafting polymerization using N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) as the grafting monomer and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEGMA) as the comonomer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and elemental analysis showed that the hydrophilic branched chains (NVP-g-PEGMA) were successfully grafted to polypropylene (PP) macromolecular chains. The largest NVP grafting degree for PP-g-(NVP-co-PEGMA) (up to 20.4%) was obtained when the mass ratio of PP/NVP/PEGMA was 100/30/15. Hydrophilic PP microporous membranes were prepared by stretching cast films of PP/PP-g-(NVP-co-PEGMA) blends. The membrane thermostability (including the modifier) was better than that of the pure PP membrane with a similar surface pore structure. The porosity of the modified membranes was only slightly lower than that of the pure PP membranes. Contact angle measurements were used to examine the hydrophilicity of the membranes. The water contact angle of the membranes decreased when PP-g-(NVP-co-PEGMA) was added, and the minimum contact angle was 64.5°. Therefore, this work provides a good application for stretched hydrophilic PP membrane fabrication.

  5. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene film and its biodegradability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dev K.; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Dubey, K. A.; Varshney, L.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene based commodity polyolefins are widely used in packaging, manufacturing, electrical, pharmaceutical and other applications. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of grafting of acrylic acid on the biodegradability of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene. The effect of different conditions showed that grafting percentage increased with increase in monomer concentration, radiation dose and inhibitor concentration but decreased with increase in radiation dose rate. The maximum grafting of 159.4% could be achieved at optimum conditions. The structure of grafted polypropylene films at different degree of grafting was characterized by EDS, FTIR, TGA, DSC, SEM and XRD. EDS studies showed that the increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the hydrophilicity of the grafted films. FTIR studies indicated the presence of acrylic acid on the surface of polypropylene film. TGA studies revealed that thermal stability decreased with increase in grafting percentage. DSC studies showed that melting temperature and crystallinity of the grafted polypropylene films lower than polypropylene film. SEM studies indicated that increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the wrinkles in the grafted films. The maximum biodegradability could be achieved to 6.85% for 90.5% grafting. This suggested that microorganisms present in the compost could biodegrade acrylic acid grafted polypropylene.

  6. 75 FR 70906 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-905] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of the Third Antidumping Duty... Request Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber (``PSF...

  7. 76 FR 5331 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from...

  8. 77 FR 4543 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from...

  9. 77 FR 50530 - Polyester Staple Fiber From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1104 (Review)] Polyester Staple Fiber... Polyester Staple Fiber From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice... CONTACT: Joanna Lo (202-205-1888), Office of Investigations, U.S. International Trade Commission, 500 E...

  10. Synthesis of amphiphilic alternating polyesters with oligo(ethylene glycol) side chains and potential use for sustained release drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Jianxun; Xiao, Chunsheng; Tang, Zhaohui; Li, Di; Chen, Jie; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2011-07-11

    Novel amphiphilic alternating polyesters, poly((N-phthaloyl-l-glutamic anhydride)-co-(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)methyl)oxirane) (P(PGA-co-ME(2)MO)), were synthesized by alternating copolymerization of PGA and ME(2)MO. The structures of the synthesized polyesters were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, FT-IR, and GPC analyses. Because of the presence of oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) side chains, the polyesters could self-assemble into thermosensitive micelles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) showed that these micelles underwent thermoinduced size decrease without intermicellar aggregation. In vitro methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay demonstrated that the polyesters were biocompatible to Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) cells, rendering their potential for drug delivery applications. Two hydrophobic drugs, rifampin and doxorubicin (DOX), were loaded into the polyester micelles and observed to be released in a zero-order sustained manner. The sustained release could be accelerated in lower pH or in the presence of proteinase K, due to the degradation of the polyester under these conditions. Remarkably, in vitro cell experiments showed that the polyester micelles accomplished fast release of DOX inside cells and higher anticancer efficacy as compared with the free DOX. With enhanced stability during circulation condition and accelerated drug release at the target sites (e.g., low pH or enzyme presence), these novel polyesters with amphiphilic structures are promising to be used in sustained release drug delivery systems.

  11. 75 FR 5763 - Notice of Correction to the First Administrative Review of Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... First Administrative Review of Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Final... the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). See First Administrative Review of Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75...

  12. 75 FR 1336 - First Administrative Review of Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... System. Jianxin Fuda Chemical Fibre Factory. Comment 6: Correction of Name in Federal Register Notice... of Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping... duty order on certain polyester staple fiber (``PSF'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC...

  13. 77 FR 39990 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... calls into question the reliability of this information. \\27\\ See Polyester Staple Fiber Final... Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping Duty Administrative... duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the...

  14. 75 FR 33783 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the 2008 - 2009...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Fiber from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of the 2008 - 2009 Antidumping Duty Administrative... antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the Republic of Korea. The period of review is May 1, 2008, through April 30, 2009. This review covers imports of certain polyester staple fiber from...

  15. 77 FR 54898 - Certain Polyester Staple Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Fiber From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping... (``sunset'') review of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the People's... Department finds that revocation of the antidumping duty order on certain polyester staple fiber from the PRC...

  16. The Study on the Mechanical Properties of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/Polypropylene Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssefi, Mostafa; Safaie, Banafsheh

    2018-06-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is an important semicrystalline polymer with various applications. Polypropylene fibers containing 1 wt% of multi-walled carbon nanotube was spun using a conventional melt spinning apparatus. The produced fibers were drawn with varying levels of draw ratio. The mechanical properties of the composites were studied. Tensile strength and modulus of the composite fibers were increased with the increase in draw ratio. Molecular orientation and helical content of the composite fibers were increased after drawing. To conclude, tensile properties and molecular orientation of the composite fibers were higher than those of neat polypropylene fibers with the same draw ratio.

  17. The Study on the Mechanical Properties of Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube/Polypropylene Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssefi, Mostafa; Safaie, Banafsheh

    2018-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is an important semicrystalline polymer with various applications. Polypropylene fibers containing 1 wt% of multi-walled carbon nanotube was spun using a conventional melt spinning apparatus. The produced fibers were drawn with varying levels of draw ratio. The mechanical properties of the composites were studied. Tensile strength and modulus of the composite fibers were increased with the increase in draw ratio. Molecular orientation and helical content of the composite fibers were increased after drawing. To conclude, tensile properties and molecular orientation of the composite fibers were higher than those of neat polypropylene fibers with the same draw ratio.

  18. The Effect of Structural Modifications on Ionic Conductivity in Newly-Designed Polyester Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesko, Danielle; Jung, Yuki; Coates, Geoff; Balsara, Nitash

    2015-03-01

    Gaining a fundamental understanding of the relationship between molecular structure and ionic conductivity of polymer electrolytes is an essential step toward designing next generation materials for battery applications. In this study, we use a systematic set of newly-designed polyesters with varying side-chain lengths and oxygen functional groups to elucidate the effects of structural modifications on the conductive properties of the corresponding electrolytes. Mixtures of polyesters and lithium bis(trifluromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) were characterized using ac impedance spectroscopy to measure the ionic conductivity at various temperatures and salt concentrations. The relative conductivities of these electrolytes in the dilute limit are directly comparable to results of molecular dynamics simulations performed using the same polymers. The simulations correspond well with the experimental results, and provide molecular level insight about the solvation environment of the lithium ions and how the ions transport through these polyesters.

  19. A new polyester based on allyl α-hydroxy glutarate as shell for magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Alexandrina; Feher, Ioana Coralia

    2017-12-01

    Allyl side-chain-functionalized lactide was synthesized from commercially available glutamic acid and polymerized by ring opening polymerization using 4-dimethylaminopyridine as an organocatalyst in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles. The resulting magnetic nanostructures coated with the allyl-containing polyester were then functionalized with cysteine by thiol-ene click reaction leading to highly functionalized magnetic nano-platforms of practical interest. The polyester precursors were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry. The morphology of magnetic nanostructures based on the functionalized polyester was determined by transmission electron microscopy TEM, while the chemical structure was investigated by FT-IR. TGA investigations and the magnetic properties of the magnetic nanostructures are also described.

  20. Influence of nanosize clay platelets on the mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polyester composites.

    PubMed

    Jawahar, P; Balasubramanian, M

    2006-12-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polyester composite and hybrid nanoclay-fiber reinforced composites were prepared by hand lay-up process. The mechanical behavior of these materials and the changes as a result of the incorporation of both nanosize clay and glass fibers were investigated. Composites were prepared with a glass fibre content of 25 vol%. The proportion of the nanosize clay platelets was varied from 0.5 to 2.5 vol%. Hybrid clay-fiber reinforced polyester composite posses better tensile, flexural, impact, and barrier properties. Hybrid clay-fiber reinforced polyester composites also posses better shear strength, storage modulus, and glass transition temperature. The optimum properties were found to be with the hybrid laminates containing 1.5 vol% nanosize clay.

  1. Recovery of polypropylene from spent lead-acid batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    The recovery of the constituent components of spent lead-acid batteries was pioneered in the early 1970`s by M.A. Industries, Inc. M.A.`s main reason for research and development in this area was to recover the polypropylene casings for use as feed stock in their injection molding plants. At that time spent and reject casings were either disposed of or being fed with the lead bearing materials into the smelting process. M.A. has since developed, built and operated a plant for the conversion of scrap casing into reusable copolymer resins. The system is composed of washing, sizing, extrusion and pelletizing the polymermore » into a form which is ready to be injection molded into new products.« less

  2. Thermal Degradation and Combustion Behavior of Polypropylene/MWCNT Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaikov, G. E.; Rakhimkulov, A. D.; Lomakin, S. M.; Dubnikova, I. L.; Shchegolikhin, A. N.; Davidov, E. Ya.

    2010-06-01

    Studies of thermal and fire-resistant properties of the polypropylene/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites (PP/MWCNT) prepared by means of melt intercalation are discussed. The sets of the data acquired with the aid of non-isothermal TG experiments have been treated by the model kinetic analysis. The thermal-oxidative degradation behavior of PP/MWCNT and stabilizing effect caused by addition of MWCNT has been investigated by means of TGA and EPR spectroscopy. The results of cone calorimetric tests lead to the conclusion that char formation plays a key role in the mechanism of flame retardation for nanocomposites. This could be explained by the specific antioxidant properties and high thermal conductivity of MWCNT which determine high-performance carbonization during thermal degradation process. Comparative analysis of the flammability characteristics for PP-clay/MWCNT nanocomposites was provided in order to emphasize the specific behavior of the nanocomposites under high-temperature tests.

  3. Histologic Inflammatory Response to Transvaginal Polypropylene Mesh: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Dominique; Demetres, Michelle; Anger, Jennifer T; Chughtai, Bilal

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the inflammatory response following transvaginal implantation of polypropylene (PP) mesh. A comprehensive literature search was performed in the following databases from inception in April 2017: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, and The Cochrane Library (Wiley). The studies retrieved were screened for eligibility against predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-three articles were included in this review. Following the implantation of PP mesh, there are immediate and local inflammatory responses. PP mesh elicits an inflammatory response that decreases over time; however, no studies documented a complete resolution. Further studies are needed to determine if there is a complete resolution of inflammation or if it persists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Laser surface texturing of polypropylene to increase adhesive bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolfino, Chiara; Pizzorni, Marco; Lertora, Enrico; Gambaro, Carla

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the main parameters of laser surface texturing of polymeric substrates have been studied. The final aim of the texturing is to increase the performance of bonded joints of grey-pigmented polypropylene substrates. The experimental investigation was carried out starting from the identification of the most effective treatment parameters, in order to achieve a good texture without compromising the characteristics of the bulk material. For each of these parameters, three values were individuated and 27 sets of samples were realised. The surface treatment was analysed and related to the mechanical characteristics of the bonded joints performing lap-shear tests. A statistical analysis in order to find the most influential parameter completed the work.

  5. Properties of lightweight cement-based composites containing waste polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Záleská, Martina; Pavlíková, Milena; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2016-07-01

    Improvement of buildings thermal stability represents an increasingly important trend of the construction industry. This work aims to study the possible use of two types of waste polypropylene (PP) for the development of lightweight cement-based composites with enhanced thermal insulation function. Crushed PP waste originating from the PP tubes production is used for the partial replacement of silica sand by 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mass%, whereas a reference mixture without plastic waste is studied as well. First, basic physical and thermal properties of granular PP random copolymer (PPR) and glass fiber reinforced PP (PPGF) aggregate are studied. For the developed composite mixtures, basic physical, mechanical, heat transport and storage properties are accessed. The obtained results show that the composites with incorporated PP aggregate exhibit an improved thermal insulation properties and acceptable mechanical resistivity. This new composite materials with enhanced thermal insulation function are found to be promising materials for buildings subsoil or floor structures.

  6. Processing-property relationships of polypropylene/ciprofloxacin fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, L.; Scaffaro, R.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we prepared polypropylene (PP) fibers incorporating an antibiotic, i.e. ciprofloxacin (CFX), by melt spinning. In particular, PP has been compounded with CFX at different concentrations by using a counter-rotating twin screw compounder. The PP/CFX fibers have been spun by using a capillary rheometer operating under a constant extrusion speed. The effect of "online" hot drawing during the melt spinning or of an "offline" cold drawing on the properties of PP/CFX fibers were evaluated. In particular, the influence of the drawing conditions on the mechanical properties and the release kinetics were studied. Moreover, the rheological behavior in non-isothermal elongation flow has been assessed.

  7. [Treatment of postoperative abdominal hernias with polypropylene endoprosthesis].

    PubMed

    Chakhvadze, B Iu; Nakashidze, D Kh

    2009-06-01

    The results of the surgical treatment of 82 patients with postoperative abdominal hernias were analysed. All of the patients underwent surgery with polypropylene endoprosthesis. The choice of a hernioplasty method depended on relative volume of postoperative hernia. Middle-sized hernias were indications for reconstructive surgery (complete adaptation of muscular and aponeurotic layers was maintained). The large and gigantic hernias were indications for correcting surgery (specified diastasis of muscular and aponeurotic layers was maintained). In case of lacking of peritoneum (30 patients) greater omentum was used for isolation of the net from intestinal loops. It is concluded that greater omentum provides good extraperitonisation of transplant from intestinal loop and prevents complications due to contact of net with abdominal organs. Postoperative complications mainly were local and seen in 29% cases. There were no lethal outcomes.

  8. Biocomposites from co-polypropylene and distillers' grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarrinbakhsh, Nima; Mohanty, Amar K.; Misra, Manjusri

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, we have explored the polymeric composites of distillers' grains with co-polypropylene (co-PP). The effect of maleated-PP compatibilizer on mechanical, thermomechanical and physical properties was evaluated. The composite materials were produced by melt extrusion in a micro-compounder followed by injection molding in a micro-injection machine. The composites were characterized for their tensile, flexural and impact properties. Also, melt flow index and heat deflection temperature were measured. The results showed more than 30 % improvement in modulus when comparing the compatibilized biocomposite with neat co-PP. Also, the strength of the compatibilized biocomposite measured in tensile and flexural tests was comparable to or even better than that of the neat matrix. On the other hand, the reduced flexibility and toughness as a result of compatibilization were in an acceptable range. The biocomposites showed more rigidity at elevated temperatures. The produced distillers' grain biocomposites showed promises for industrial applications.

  9. Evaluation of Environmental Aging of Polypropylene Irradiated Versus Pristine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Rebeca S. Grecco; Oliani, Washington Luiz; Parra, Duclerc Fernandes; Lugao, Ademar Benevolo

    Polypropylene (PP) is the most common thermoplastic resin of the plastic market due to its very interesting physical, chemical and processing properties at very low market price, however after its use the resin does not degrade in the environment or it degrades at very low rate. This study has the objective of comparing the environmental exposure of PP irradiated with 20 kGy and pristine PP. Dumbbell samples were manufactured by injection molding and exposed to the environment during 90 days; another one set was subjected to gamma irradiation at 20 kGy total dose and exposed at the same conditions too. The samples were characterized by mechanical testing, visual inspection, infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The irradiated samples, after environmental aging, showed oxidation and presence of cracks in samples of the PP 20 kGy.

  10. The axial crushes behaviour on foam-filled round Jute/Polyester composite tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A.; Ismail, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    The present paper investigates the effect of axial loading compression on jute fibre reinforced polyester composite round tubes. The specimen of composite tube was fabricated by hand lay-up method of 120 mm length with fix 50.8 mm inner diameter to determine the behaviour of energy absorption on number of layers of 450 angle fibre and internally reinforced with and without foam filler material. The foam filler material used in this studies were polyurethane (PU) and polystyrene (PE) with average of 40 and 45 kg/m3 densities on the axial crushing load against displacement relations and on the failure modes. The number of layers of on this study were two; three and four were selected to calculate the crush force efficiency (CFE) and the specific energy absorption (SEA) of the composite tubes. Result indicated that the four layers’ jute/polyester show significant value in term of crushing load compared to 2 and 3 layers higher 60% for 2 layer and 3% compared to 3 layers. It has been found that the specific energy absorption of the jute/polyester tubes with polystyrene foam-filled is found higher respectively 10% to 12% than empty and polyurethane (PU) foam tubes. The increase in the number of layers from two to four increases the mean axial load from 1.01 KN to 3.60 KN for empty jute/polyester and from 2.11 KN to 4.26 KN for the polyurethane (PU) foam-filled jute/polyester tubes as well as for 3.60 KN to 5.58 KN for the polystyrene (PE) foam-filled jute/polyester. The author’s found that the failure of mechanism influence the characteristic of curve load against displacement obtained and conclude that an increasing number of layers and introduce filler material enhance the capability of specific absorbed energy.

  11. Comparison of polyester, film-yarn composite, balloon materials subjected to shear and biaxial loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niccum, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A series of candidate materials for use in large balloons was tested and their tensile and shear strength capabilities were compared. The tests were done in a cold box at -68 C (-90 F). Some of these materials were fabricated on a special machine called the flying thread loom. This machine laminates various patterns of polyester yarn to a thin polyester film. The results show that the shear strength of materials changes with the angle selected for the transverse yarns, and substantial increases in biaxial load carrying capabilities, compared to materials formerly used, are possible. The loom capabilities and the test methods are discussed.

  12. Antifungal activity of fabrics knitted by metalized Silver/Polyester composite yarn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özkan, İ.; Duru Baykal, P.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, antifungal properties of fabric knitted from metalized silver/polyester composite yarn were investigated. Intermingling is an alternative technique for yarn blending process. Yarns having different features can be combined by feeding the same intermingling jet. This process is defined as commingling. In the study, intermingling process was used to produce metalized silver/polyester composite yarn. Commingled yarns were knitted to single jersey fabrics by IPM brand sample type circular knitting machine. Antifungal activity test was applied to samples against Aspergillus Niger according to AATCC 30 test procedure. It has been identified that the application provides antifungal activity to fabric.

  13. Radioluminescence of polyester resin modified with acrylic acid and its salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalińska, H.; Wypych, M.; Pietrzak, M.; Szadkowska-Nicze, M.

    Polimal-109 polyester resin and its compounds containing acrylic acid and its salts such as: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, barium, iron, cobalt, copper and manganese acrylates were studied by the radioluminescence method, including isothermal luminescence (ITL) at a radiation temperature of 77 K, thermoluminescence (RTL) and spectral distributions of isothermal luminescence. Measurements of optical absorption at 77 K before and after irradiation of the investigated samples were also carried out. The results obtained have shown that metal ions play a significant part in the processes taking place in the polyester matrix under the influence of γ 60Co radiation.

  14. Experimental Investigation on Thermal Physical Properties of an Advanced Polyester Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangfa, Gao; Shujie, Yuan; Ruiyuan, Huang; Yongchi, Li

    Polyester materials were applied widely in aircraft and space vehicles engineering. Aimed to an advanced polyester material, a series of experiments for thermal physical properties of this material were conducted, and the corresponding performance curves were obtained through statistic analyzing. The experimental results showed good consistency. And then the thermal physical parameters such as thermal expansion coefficient, engineering specific heat and sublimation heat were solved and calculated. This investigation provides an important foundation for the further research on the heat resistance and thermodynamic performance of this material.

  15. Synthesis of lipase-catalysed silicone-polyesters and silicone-polyamides at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Mark B; Zelisko, Paul M

    2013-10-18

    More and more enzymes are being explored as alternatives to conventional catalysts in chemical reactions. To utilize these biocatalysts to their fullest, it is incumbent on researchers to gain a complete understanding of the reaction conditions that particular enzymes will tolerate. To this end siloxane-containing polyesters and polyamides have been produced via N435-mediated catalysis at temperatures well above the normal denaturation temperature for free CalB. Low molecular weight disiloxane-based acceptors release the enzyme from its acylated state with equal proficiency while longer chain siloxanes favours polyester synthesis. The thermal tolerance of the enzyme catalyst is increased using longer chain diesters and generally more hydrophobic substrates.

  16. Polypropylene fiber reinforced microsilica concrete bridge deck overlay at Link River Bridge

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-02-01

    In 1997 ODOT overlaid the Link River Bridge with microsilica concrete, reinforced with polypropylene fibers (FMC). The manufacturer claimed the fibers would reduce plastic shrinkage cracks and settlement cracking during the early life of the concrete...

  17. Raman structural study of melt-mixed blends of isotactic polypropylene with polyethylene of various densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhorov, K. A.; Nikolaeva, G. Yu; Sagitova, E. A.; Pashinin, P. P.; Guseva, M. A.; Shklyaruk, B. F.; Gerasin, V. A.

    2018-04-01

    We report a Raman structural study of melt-mixed blends of isotactic polypropylene with two grades of polyethylene: linear high-density and branched low-density polyethylenes. Raman methods, which had been suggested for the analysis of neat polyethylene and isotactic polypropylene, were modified in this study for quantitative analysis of polyethylene/polypropylene blends. We revealed the dependence of the degree of crystallinity and conformational composition of macromolecules in the blends on relative content of the blend components and preparation conditions (quenching or annealing). We suggested a simple Raman method for evaluation of the relative content of the components in polyethylene/polypropylene blends. The degree of crystallinity of our samples, evaluated by Raman spectroscopy, is in good agreement with the results of analysis by differential scanning calorimetry.

  18. Fluid handling and fabric handle profiles of hydroentangled greige cotton and spunbond polypropylene nonwoven topsheets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Absorbent nonwoven topsheets are traditionally spunbond (or spunbond-meltblown (SM)) polypropylene nonwoven fabrics, and are used for a wide range of incontinence applications. Here we describe how nonwoven greige cotton demonstrates positive incontinence performance indices suitable for top sheet ...

  19. Morphology and crystalline-phase-dependent electrical insulating properties in tailored polypropylene for HVDC cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Jun-Wei; Yan, Hong-Da; Li, Wei-Kang; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2016-11-01

    Polypropylene (PP) has become one promising material to potentially replace the cross-link polyethylene used for high voltage direct current cables. Besides the isotactic polypropylene, the block polypropylene (b-PP) and random polypropylene (r-PP) can be synthesized through the copolymerization of ethylene and propylene molecules. In this letter, the effect of morphology and crystalline phases on the insulating electrical properties of PP was investigated. It was found that the introduction of polyethylene monomer resulted in the formation of β and γ phases in b-PP and r-PP. The results from the characteristic trap energy levels indicated that the β and γ phases could induce deep electron traps which enable to capture the carriers. And the space charge accumulation was obviously suppressed. Besides, the decreased electrical conductivity was observed in b-PP and r-PP. It is attributed to the existence of deep traps which can effectively reduce the carrier mobility and density in materials.

  20. Finite element investigation of temperature dependence of elastic properties of carbon nanotube reinforced polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Masoud; Ansari, Reza; Rouhi, Saeed

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to investigate the elastic modulus of the polypropylene matrix reinforced by carbon nanotubes at different temperatures. To this end, the finite element approach is employed. The nanotubes with different volume fractions and aspect ratios (the ratio of length to diameter) are embedded in the polymer matrix. Besides, random and regular algorithms are utilized to disperse carbon nanotubes in the matrix. It is seen that as the pure polypropylene, the elastic modulus of carbon nanotube reinforced polypropylene decreases by increasing the temperature. It is also observed that when the carbon nanotubes are dispersed parallelly and the load is applied along the nanotube directions, the largest improvement in the elastic modulus of the nanotube/polypropylene nanocomposites is obtained.

  1. Effects of Surface Modification on the Mechanical Properties of Flax/β-Polypropylene Composites

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chang-Mou; Lai, Wen-You; Wang, Chen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    The effects of surface treatment of flax fibers featuring vinyltrimethoxy silane (VTMO) and maleic anhydride-polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical properties of flax/PP composites were investigated. α-polypropylene (α-PP) and β-polypropylene (β-PP) were used as matrices for measuring the mechanical properties of the flax fiber/polypropylene (flax/PP) composites. Flax/PP composites composed of double-covered uncommingled yarn (DCUY) were prepared using a film-stacking technique. The influence of surface treatment on the tensile, flexural, impact, and water uptake properties of Flax/PP composites were investigated. MAPP treatment was suitable for flax/PP composites in terms of superior tensile and impact properties. VTMO treatment showed superior flexural properties and less influence on the impact properties after moisture absorption. PMID:28773439

  2. ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE STUDIES ON PEROXIDE RADICALS IN IRRADIATED POLYPROPYLENE (in German)

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, H.; Hellwege, K.-H.; Neudoerfl, P.

    1963-06-01

    Peroxide radicals are formed by oxidation of carbon radicals in irradiated isotactic polypropylene. An interpretation of their ESR spectra is given. The recombination of the peroxide radicals follows a chain reaction mechanism, which is derived from the reversibility of formation of peroxide radicals, the time dependence of their concentration, and from the oxygen consumption of samples containing peroxide radicals. The reactions are discussed in view of the radiation induced oxidative degradation of polypropylene. (auth)

  3. Tensile properties of wood flour/kenaf fiber polypropylene hybrid composites

    Treesearch

    Jamal Mirbagheri; Mehdi Tajvidi; John C. Hermanson; Ismaeil Ghasemi

    2007-01-01

    Hybrid composites of wood flour/kenaf fiber and polypropylene were prepared at a fixed fiber to plastic ratio of 40 : 60 and variable ratios of the two reinforcements namely 40 : 0, 30 : 10, 20 : 20, 10 : 30, and 0 : 40 by weight. Polypropylene was used as the polymer matrix, and 40–80 mesh kenaf fiber and 60–100 mesh wood flour were used as the...

  4. Photo-oxidative degradation of TiO{sub 2}/polypropylene films

    SciTech Connect

    García-Montelongo, X.L.; Martínez-de la Cruz, A., E-mail: azael70@yahoo.com.mx; Vázquez-Rodríguez, S.

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photo-oxidative degradation of polypropylene is accelerated by TiO{sub 2} incorporation. • Weight loss, FTIR, SEM and GPC shown high degree of degradation of polypropylene. • A mechanism of the photo-degradation of polypropylene by TiO{sub 2} is proposed. - Abstract: Photo-oxidative degradation of polypropylene films with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles incorporated was studied in a chamber of weathering with Xenon lamps as irradiation source. TiO{sub 2} powder with crystalline structure of anatase was synthesized by thermal treatments at 400 and 500 °C starting from a precursor material obtained by sol–gel method. Composites of TiO{sub 2}/polypropylene were preparedmore » with 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 wt% of TiO{sub 2}. The mixture of components was performed using a twin screw extruder, the resulting material was pelletized by mechanical fragmenting and then hot-pressed in order to form polypropylene films with TiO{sub 2} dispersed homogeneously. Photo-oxidative degradation process was followed by visual inspection, weight loss of films, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy with Fourier transformed (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC)« less

  5. Influence of the grade on the variability of the mechanical properties of polypropylene waste.

    PubMed

    Jmal, Hamdi; Bahlouli, Nadia; Wagner-Kocher, Christiane; Leray, Dimitri; Ruch, Frédéric; Munsch, Jean-Nicolas; Nardin, Michel

    2018-05-01

    The prior properties of recycled polypropylene depend on the origin of waste deposits and its chemical constituents. To obtain specific properties with a predefine melt flow index of polypropylene, the suppliers of polymer introduce additives and fillers. However, the addition of additives and/or fillers can modify strongly the mechanical behaviour of recycled polypropylene. To understand the impact of the additives and fillers on the quasi-static mechanical behaviour, we consider, in this study, three different recycled polypropylenes with three different melt flow index obtained from different waste deposits. The chemical constituents of the additives and filler contents of the recycled polypropylenes are determined through thermo-physico-chemical analysis. Tensile and bending tests performed at different strain rates allow identifying the mechanical properties such as the elastic modulus, the yield stress, the maximum stress, and the failure mechanisms. The results obtained are compared with non-recycled polypropylene and with few researches to explain the combined effect of additives. Finally, a post-mortem analysis of the samples was carried out to make the link between the obtained mechanical properties and microstructure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The usefulness of a stretch-polyester pouch to encase implanted pacemakers and defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Parsonnet, V; Bernstein, A D; Neglia, D; Omar, A

    1994-12-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the effects of enclosing permanent pacemaker and ICD pulse generators in a stretch-polyester pouch prior to implantation. Follow-up of 223 patients with oversized pacemakers and with ICDs and 344 with standard-sized pacemaker pulse generators showed that the pouch was effective in decreasing the frequency of pulse generator migration and extrusion.

  7. Semi-aromatic polyesters based on a carbohydrate-derived rigid diol for engineering plastics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Eduard, Pieter; Thiyagarajan, Shanmugam; Noordover, Bart A J; van Es, Daan S; Koning, Cor E

    2015-01-01

    New carbohydrate-based polyesters were prepared from isoidide-2,5-dimethanol (extended isoidide, XII) through melt polymerization with dimethyl esters of terephthalic acid (TA) and furan-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (FDCA), yielding semi-crystalline prepolymers. Subsequent solid-state post-condensation (SSPC) gave high molecular weight (Mn =30 kg mol(-1) for FDCA) materials, the first examples of high Mn , semi-aromatic homopolyesters containing isohexide derivatives obtained via industrially relevant procedures. NMR spectroscopy showed that the stereo-configuration of XII was preserved under the applied conditions. The polyesters are thermally stable up to 380 °C. The TA- and FDCA-based polyesters have high Tg (105 °C and 94 °C, resp.) and Tm (284 °C and 250 °C, resp.) values. Its reactivity, stability, and ability to afford high Tg and Tm polyesters make XII a promising diol for the synthesis of engineering polymers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Physico-mechanical and wear properties of novel sustainable sour-weed fiber reinforced polyester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Vinay Kumar; Chauhan, Shivani; Katiyar, Jitendra Kumar

    2018-04-01

    In this study, a novel natural fiber i.e. Sour-weed botanically known as ‘Rumex acetosella’ has been first time introduced as natural reinforcements to polyester matrix. The natural fiber based polyester composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique using different sizes and different weight percentages. In Sour-weed/Polyester composites, physical (density, water absorption and hardness), mechanical properties (tensile and impact properties) and wear properties (sand abrasion and sliding wear) were investigated for different sizes of sour weed of 0.6 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm at 3, 6 and 9 weight percent loading, respectively in polyester matrix. Furthermore, on average value of results, the multi-criteria optimization technique i.e. TOPSIS was employed to decide the ranking of the composites. From the optimized results, it was observed that Sour-weed composite reinforced with fiber’s size of 15 mm at 6 wt% loading demonstrated the best ranked composite exhibiting best overall properties as average tensile strength of 34.33 MPa, average impact strength of 10 Joule, average hardness of 12 Hv, average specific sand abrasion wear rate of 0.0607 mm3 N‑1m‑1, average specific sliding wear rate of 0.002 90 mm3 N‑1m‑1, average percentage of water absorption of 3.446% and average density of 1.013 among all fabricated composites.

  9. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... section, partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins are prepared by the reaction of trimellitic anhydride with 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-propanediol followed by reaction of the resin thus produced with phosphoric... characterizing the type of food and under the conditions of time and temperature characterizing the conditions of...

  10. 3D printing of new biobased unsaturated polyesters by microstereo-thermallithography.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Filipa A M M; Costa, Cátia S M F; Fabela, Inês G P; Farinha, Dina; Faneca, Henrique; Simões, Pedro N; Serra, Arménio C; Bártolo, Paulo J; Coelho, Jorge F J

    2014-09-01

    New micro three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using biobased unsaturated polyesters (UPs) were prepared by microstereo-thermal-lithography (μSTLG). This advanced processing technique offers indubitable advantages over traditional printing methods. The accuracy and roughness of the 3D structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and infinite focus microscopy, revealing a suitable roughness for cell attachment. UPs were synthesized by bulk polycondensation between biobased aliphatic diacids (succinic, adipic and sebacic acid) and two different glycols (propylene glycol and diethylene glycol) using fumaric acid as the source of double bonds. The chemical structures of the new oligomers were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. The thermal and mechanical properties of the UPs were evaluated to determine the influence of the diacid/glycol ratio and the type of diacid in the polyester's properties. In addition an extensive thermal characterization of the polyesters is reported. The data presented in this work opens the possibility for the use of biobased polyesters in additive manufacturing technologies as a route to prepare biodegradable tailor made scaffolds that have potential applications in a tissue engineering area.

  11. Polyester composites reinforced with corona-treated fibers from pine, eucalyptus and sugarcane bagasse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study aims to evaluate plant fibers that were surface activated with NaOH and corona discharge before incorporating in ortho unsaturated polyester-based fiber composites. It demonstrates the potential use of lignocellulosic particles, especially eucalyptus that presented the higher values for a...

  12. Comparison of storage stability of odorous VOCs in polyester aluminum and polyvinyl fluoride tedlar bags

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole air sampling using containers such as flexible bags or rigid canisters is commonly used to collect samples of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air. The objective of this study was to compare the stability of polyester aluminum (PEA) and polyvinyl fluoride (PVF, brand name Tedlar®) bags for ...

  13. 78 FR 17637 - Polyester Staple Fiber From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-583-833] Polyester Staple Fiber From... staple fiber (PSF) from Taiwan. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through April 30, 2012. The.... DATES: Effective Date: March 22, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Bryan Hansen or Minoo Hatten, AD...

  14. Polyester Fabric's Fluorescent Dyeing in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and its Fluorescence Imaging.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaoqing; Xu, Yanyan; Zheng, Laijiu; Yan, Jun; Zhao, Hongjuan; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Yanfeng

    2017-03-01

    As one of the most important coumarin-like dyes, disperse fluorescent Yellow 82 exhibits exceptionally large two-photon effects. Here, it was firstly introduced into the supercritical CO 2 dyeing polyester fabrics in this work. Results of the present work showed that the dyeing parameters such as the dyeing time, pressure and temperature had remarkable influences on the color strength of fabrics. The optimized dyeing condition in supercritical CO 2 dyeing has been proposed that the dyeing time was 60 min; the pressure was 25 MPa and the temperature was 120 °C. As a result, acceptable products were obtained with the wash and rub fastness rating at 5 or 4-5. The polyester fabrics dyed with fluorescent dyes can be satisfied for the requirement of manufacturing warning clothing. Importantly, the confocal microscopy imaging technology was successfully introduced into textile fields to observe the distribution and fluorescence intensity of disperse fluorescent Yellow 82 on polyester fabrics. As far as we know, this is the first report about supercritical CO 2 dyeing polyester fabrics based on disperse fluorescent dyes. It will be very helpful for the further design of new fluorescent functional dyes suitable for supercritical CO 2 dyeing technique.

  15. Dipeptide-based polyphosphazene and polyester blends for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Deng, Meng; Nair, Lakshmi S; Nukavarapu, Syam P; Jiang, Tao; Kanner, William A; Li, Xudong; Kumbar, Sangamesh G; Weikel, Arlin L; Krogman, Nicholas R; Allcock, Harry R; Laurencin, Cato T

    2010-06-01

    Polyphosphazene-polyester blends are attractive materials for bone tissue engineering applications due to their controllable degradation pattern with non-toxic and neutral pH degradation products. In our ongoing quest for an ideal completely miscible polyphosphazene-polyester blend system, we report synthesis and characterization of a mixed-substituent biodegradable polyphosphazene poly[(glycine ethyl glycinato)(1)(phenyl phenoxy)(1)phosphazene] (PNGEG/PhPh) and its blends with a polyester. Two dipeptide-based blends namely 25:75 (Matrix1) and 50:50 (Matrix2) were produced at two different weight ratios of PNGEG/PhPh to poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLAGA). Blend miscibility was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Both blends resulted in higher tensile modulus and strength than the polyester. The blends showed a degradation rate in the order of Matrix2

  16. Dipeptide-based Polyphosphazene and Polyester Blends for Bone Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Meng; Nair, Lakshmi S.; Nukavarapu, Syam P.; Jiang, Tao; Kanner, William A.; Li, Xudong; Kumbar, Sangamesh G.; Weikel, Arlin L.; Krogman, Nicholas R.; Allcock, Harry R.; Laurencin, Cato T.

    2010-01-01

    Polyphosphazene-polyester blends are attractive materials for bone tissue engineering applications due to their controllable degradation pattern with non-toxic and neutral pH degradation products. In our ongoing quest for an ideal completely miscible polyphosphazene-polyester blend system, we report synthesis and characterization of a mixed-substituent biodegradable polyphosphazene poly[(glycine ethyl glycinato)1(phenyl phenoxy)1phosphazene] (PNGEG/PhPh) and its blends with a polyester. Two dipeptide-based blends namely 25:75 (Matrix1) and 50:50 (Matrix2) were produced at two different weight ratios of PNGEG/PhPh to poly(lactic acid-glycolic acid) (PLAGA). Blend miscibility was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Both blends resulted in higher tensile modulus and strength than the polyester. The blends showed a degradation rate in the order of Matrix2 < Matrix1 < PLAGA in phosphate buffered saline at 37°C over 12 weeks. Significantly higher pH values of degradation media were observed for blends compared to PLAGA confirming the neutralization of PLAGA acidic degradation by polyphosphazene hydrolysis products. The blend components PLAGA and polyphosphazene exhibited a similar degradation pattern as characterized by the molecular weight loss. Furthermore, blends demonstrated significantly higher osteoblast growth rates compared to PLAGA while maintaining osteoblast phenotype over a 21-day culture. Both blends demonstrated improved biocompatibility in a rat subcutaneous implantation model compared to PLAGA over 12 weeks. PMID:20334909

  17. Evaluation of foaming polypropylene modified with ramified polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demori, Renan; de Azeredo, Ana Paula; Liberman, Susana A.; Mauler, Raquel S.

    2015-05-01

    Polypropylene foams have great industrial interest because of balanced physical and mechanical properties, recyclability as well as low material cost. During the foaming process, the elongational forces applied to produce the expanded polymer are strong enough to rupture cell walls. As a result, final foam has a high amount of coalesced as well as opened cells which decreases mechanical and also physical properties. To increase melt strength and also avoid the coalescence effect, one of the current solution is blend PP with ramified polymers as well as branched polypropylene (LCBPP) or ethylene-octene copolymer (POE). In this research to provide extensional properties and achieve uniform cellular structures of expanded PP, 20 phr of LCBPP or POE was added into PP matrix. The blend of PP with ramified polymers was prepared by twin-screw extrusion. Injection molding process was used to produce PP foams using azodicarbonamide (ACA) as chemical blowing agent. The morphological results of the expanded PP displayed a non-uniform geometrical cell, apparent density of 0.48 g/cm3 and cell density of 13.9.104 cell/cm3. Otherwise, the expanded PP blended with LCBPP or POE displayed a homogeneous cell structure and increased the amount of smaller cells (50-100 μm of size). The apparent density slightly increased with addition of LCBPP or POE, 0.64 and 0.57 g/cm3, respectively. Thus, the cell density reduced to 65% in PP/LCBPP 100/20 and 75% in the sample PP/POE 100/20 compared to expanded PP. The thermo-mechanical properties (DMTA) of PP showed specific stiffness of 159 MPa.cm-3.g-1, while the sample PP/LCBPP 100/20 increased the stiffness values of 10%. Otherwise, the expanded PP/POE 100/20 decreased the specific stiffness values at -30%, in relation to expanded PP. In summary, blending PP with ramified polymers showed increasing of the homogenous cellular structure as well as the amount of smaller cells in the expanded material.

  18. Flexural strength of self compacting fiber reinforced concrete beams using polypropylene fiber: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisantono, Ade; Praja, Baskoro Abdi; Hermawan, Billy Nouwen

    2017-11-01

    One of the methods to increase the tensile strength of concrete is adding a fiber material into the concrete. While to reduce a noise in a construction project, a self compacting concrete was a good choices in the project. This paper presents an experimental study of flexural behavior and strength of self compacting fiber reinforced concrete (RC) beams using polypropylene fiber. The micro monofilament polypropylene fibers with the proportion 0.9 kg/m3 of concrete weight were used in this study. Four beam specimens were cast and tested in this study. Two beams were cast of self compacting reinforced concrete without fiber, and two beams were cast of self compacting fiber reinforced concrete using polypropylene. The beams specimen had the section of (180×260) mm and the length was 2000 mm. The beams had simple supported with the span of 1800 mm. The longitudinal reinforcements were using diameter of 10 mm. Two reinforcements of Ø10 mm were put for compressive reinforcement and three reinforcements of Ø10 mm were put for tensile reinforcement. The shear reinforcement was using diameter of 8 mm. The shear reinforcements with spacing of 100 mm were put in the one fourth near to the support and the spacing of 150 mm were put in the middle span. Two points loading were used in the testing. The result shows that the load-carrying capacity of the self compacting reinforced concrete beam using polypropylene was a little bit higher than the self compacting reinforced concrete beam without polypropylene. The increment of load-carrying capacity of self compacting polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete was not so significant because the increment was only 2.80 % compare to self compacting non fiber reinforced concrete. And from the load-carrying capacity-deflection relationship curves show that both the self compacting polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete beam and the self compacting non fiber reinforced concrete beam were ductile beams.

  19. Morphological, rheological and mechanical characterization of polypropylene nanocomposite blends.

    PubMed

    Rosales, C; Contreras, V; Matos, M; Perera, R; Villarreal, N; García-López, D; Pastor, J M

    2008-04-01

    In the present work, the effectiveness of styrene/ethylene-butylene/styrene rubbers grafted with maleic anhydride (MA) and a metallocene polyethylene (mPE) as toughening materials in binary and ternary blends with polypropylene and its nanocomposite as continuous phases was evaluated in terms of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), oscillatory shear flow and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMA). The flexural modulus and heat distortion temperature values were determined as well. A metallocene polyethylene and a polyamide-6 were used as dispersed phases in these binary and ternary blends produced via melt blending in a corotating twin-screw extruder. Results showed that the compatibilized blends prepared without clay are tougher than those prepared with the nanocomposite of PP as the matrix phase and no significant changes in shear viscosity, melt elasticity, flexural or storage moduli and heat distortion temperature values were observed between them. However, the binary blend with a nanocomposite of PP as matrix and metallocene polyethylene phase exhibited better toughness, lower shear viscosity, flexural modulus, and heat distortion temperature values than that prepared with polyamide-6 as dispersed phase. These results are related to the degree of clay dispersion in the PP and to the type of morphology developed in the different blends.

  20. Polypropylenes foam consisting of thermally expandable microcapsule as blowing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeoung, Sun Kyung; Hwang, Ye Jin; Lee, Hyun Wook; Kwak, Sung Bok; Han, In-Soo; Ha, Jin Uk

    2016-03-01

    The structure of thermally expandable microcapsule (TEMs) is consisted of a thermoplastic shell which is filled with liquid hydrocarbon at core. The shell of TEMs becomes soft when the temperature is higher than boiling temperature of liquid hydrocarbon. The shell of TEMs is expanded under the high temperature because the inner pressure of TEMs is increased by vaporization of hydrocarbon core. Therefore, the TEMs are applicable for blowing agents and light weight fillers. In this research, we fabricated the polypropylene (PP) foam by using the TEMs and chemical blowing agents and compared to their physical properties. The density of the specimen was decreased when the contents of chemical blowing agents and TEMs were increased. In addition, the mechanical properties (i.e. tensile strength and impact strength) of specimens were deteriorated with increasing amount of chemical blowing agents and TEMs. However, PP foam produced with TEMs showed higher impact strength than the one with the chemical blowing agent. In order to clarify the dependence of impact strength of PP foam as the blowing agent, the morphology difference of the PP foams was investigated. Expanding properties of PP foams produced with TEMs was changed with TEMs content of PP foams. Processing conditions also influenced the mechanical properties of PP foam containing TEMs.

  1. Polypropylene Biocomposites with Boron Nitride and Nanohydroxyapatite Reinforcements

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kai Wang; Wong, Hoi Man; Yeung, Kelvin Wai Kwok; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we develop binary polypropylene (PP) composites with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanoplatelets and ternary hybrids reinforced with hBN and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA). Filler hybridization is a sound approach to make novel nanocomposites with useful biological and mechanical properties. Tensile test, osteoblastic cell culture and dimethyl thiazolyl diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay were employed to investigate the mechanical performance, bioactivity and biocompatibility of binary PP/hBN and ternary PP/hBN-nHA composites. The purpose is to prepare biocomposite nanomaterials with good mechanical properties and biocompatibility for replacing conventional polymer composites reinforced with large hydroxyapatite microparticles at a high loading of 40 vol%. Tensile test reveals that the elastic modulus of PP composites increases, while tensile elongation decreases with increasing hBN content. Hybridization of hBN with nHA further enhances elastic modulus of PP. The cell culture and MTT assay show that osteoblastic cells attach and proliferate on binary PP/hBN and ternary PP/hBN-20%nHA nanocomposites. PMID:28787984

  2. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of polypropylene/conducting fiber composites

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan, E-mail: pclee@katech.re.kr; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung

    Electromagnetic released from the automotive electronic parts is harmful to human body. Electromagnetic interference (EMT) shielding refers to the reflection and/or adsorption of electromagnetic radiation by a material, which thereby acts as a shield against the penetration of the radiation through the shield. Polypropylene (PP)/conductive micro fiber composites containing various fiber contents and fiber length were injection-molded. The effect of fiber content and length on electrical properties of the composites was studied by electrical resistivity and EMT shielding measurements. The through-plane electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity were obtained by measuring dielectric properties. The EMT shielding effectiveness (SE) was investigated bymore » using S-parameter in the range of 100 ~ 1500 MHz. Reflection, absorption and multiple-reflection are the EMT attenuation mechanisms. From the measurement of S-Parameters, the absorption coefficient, reflection coefficient, and the shielding efficiency of the materials were calculated. The EMT SE of PP/conducing fiber composites is 40 dB over a wide frequency range up to 1.5 GHz, which is higher than that of PP/talc composite used automotive parts, viz. 0 dB.« less

  3. Microstructure and Properties of Polypropylene/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Bikiaris, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    In the last few years, great attention has been paid to the preparation of polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) due to the tremendous enhancement of the mechanical, thermal, electrical, optical and structural properties of the pristine material. This is due to the unique combination of structural, mechanical, electrical, and thermal transport properties of CNTs. However, it is well-known that the properties of polymer-based nanocomposites strongly depend on the dispersion of nanofillers and almost all the discussed properties of PP/CNTs nanocomposites are strongly related to their microstructure. PP/CNTs nanocomposites were, mainly, prepared by melt mixing and in situ polymerization. Young’s modulus, tensile strength and storage modulus of the PP/CNTs nanocomposites can be increased with increasing CNTs content due to the reinforcement effect of CNTs inside the polymer matrix. However, above a certain CNTs content the mechanical properties are reduced due to the CNTs agglomeration. The microstructure of nanocomposites has been studied mainly by SEM and TEM techniques. Furthermore, it was found that CNTs can act as nucleating agents promoting the crystallization rates of PP and the addition of CNTs enhances all other physical properties of PP. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the existing literature related to PP/CNTs nanocomposite preparation methods and properties studies.

  4. Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Mechanical Properties Enhancement by Adhesion Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, Mariana; Barbosa, Silvia E.

    2012-01-01

    Glass fibers (GF) are the reinforcement agent most used in polypropylene (PP) based composites, as they have good balance between properties and costs. However, their final properties are mainly determined by the strength and stability of the polymer-fiber interphase. Fibers do not act as an effective reinforcing material when the adhesion is weak. Also, the adhesion between phases can be easily degraded in aggressive environmental conditions such as high temperatures and/or elevated moisture, and by the stress fields to which the material may be exposed. Many efforts have been done to improve polymer-glass fiber adhesion by compatibility enhancement. The most used techniques include modifications in glass surface, polymer matrix and/or both. However, the results obtained do not show a good costs/properties improvement relationship. The aim of this work is to perform an accurate analysis regarding methods for GF/PP adhesion improvement and to propose a new route based on PP in-situ polymerization onto fibers. This route involves the modification of fibers with an aluminum alkyl and hydroxy-α-olefin and from there to enable the growth of the PP chains using direct metallocenic copolymerization. The adhesion improvements were further proved by fragmentation test, as well as by mechanical properties measurements. The strength and toughness increases three times and the interfacial strength duplicates in PP/GF composites prepared with in-situ polymerized fibers. PMID:28817025

  5. Bacterial Growth on Chitosan-Coated Polypropylene Textile

    PubMed Central

    Erben, D.; Hola, V.; Jaros, J.; Rahel, J.

    2012-01-01

    Biofouling is a problem common in all systems where microorganisms and aqueous environment meet. Prevention of biofouling is therefore important in many industrial processes. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the ability of material coating to inhibit biofilm formation. Chitosan-coated polypropylene nonwoven textile was prepared using dielectric barrier discharge plasma activation. Resistance of the textile to biofouling was then tested. First, the textile was submerged into a growth medium inoculated with green fluorescein protein labelled Pseudomonas aeruginosa. After overnight incubation at 33°C, the textile was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy for bacterial enumeration and biofilm structure characterisation. In the second stage, the textile was used as a filter medium for prefiltered river water, and the pressure development on the in-flow side was measured to quantify the overall level of biofouling. In both cases, nontreated textile samples were used as a control. The results indicate that the chitosan coating exhibits antibacterial properties. The developed method is applicable for the evaluation of the ability to inhibit biofilm formation. PMID:23724330

  6. Dielectric relaxation of near-percolated carbon nanofiber polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paleo, A. J.; Zille, A.; Van Hattum, F. W.; Ares-Pernas, A.; Agostinho Moreira, J.

    2017-07-01

    In this work, the morphological, structural and dielectric analysis of near-percolated polypropylene (PP) composites containing carbon nanofibers (CNF) processing by melt-mixing are investigated. Whereas the morphological analysis shows that CNF exhibit some tendency to agglomerate within the PP matrix, the structural analysis showed first a general decrease in the intensity of the IR bands as a consequence of the interaction between carbon nanofibers and PP matrix and second an increase of the crystallinity degree of the PP/CNF composites when compared to the pure PP. The dielectric analysis demonstrates enhanced dielectric constants (from 2.97 for neat polymer to 9.7 for 1.9 vol% loaded composites at 200 Hz) and low dielectric losses. Furthermore, the dielectric relaxation for composites with concentrations in the vicinity of percolation is evidenced and well described by the generalized polydispersive Cole-Cole model from which the values of static dielectric constant (εs) , high frequency dielectric constant (ε∞) , distribution of relaxation time (α) and mean relaxation time (τo), are determined, suggesting that this latter analysis constitutes a strong tool for understanding the relationships between microstructure and dielectric properties in this type of polymer composites.

  7. Light weight polarized polypropylene foam for noise shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelfer, Travis J.; Warne, Derik S.; Korde, Umesh A.

    2009-03-01

    The high levels of noise generated during launch can destroy sensitive equipment on space craft. Passive damping systems, like acoustic blankets, work to reduce the high frequency noise but do little to the low frequency noise (<400 Hz). While wall mounted transducers can reduce the low frequency noise during a launch, they also can create areas of higher increased sound pressure in the payload fairings. Ferroelectret cellular polymer foams with high piezoelectric coupling constants are being used as new types of actuators and sensors. Further impedance control through the inverse piezoelectric effect will lead to a new "semi-active" approach that will reduce low frequency noise levels. Combining layers of conventional nonpiezoelectric foam and ferroelectret materials with a multiple loop feedback system will give a total damping effect that is adaptable over a wide band of low frequencies. This paper covers the manufacturing methods that were used to make polarized polypropylene foam, to test the foam for its polarized response and its noise shielding ability.

  8. Energy harvesting from vibration with cross-linked polypropylene piezoelectrets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Institute for Telecommunications Technology, Merckstrasse 25, 64283 Darmstadt; Wu, Liming

    Piezoelectret films are prepared by modification of the microstructure of polypropylene foam sheets cross-linked by electronic irradiation (IXPP), followed by proper corona charging. Young’s modulus, relative permittivity, and electromechanical coupling coefficient of the fabricated films, determined by dielectric resonance spectra, are about 0.7 MPa, 1.6, and 0.08, respectively. Dynamic piezoelectric d{sub 33} coefficients up to 650 pC/N at 200 Hz are achieved. The figure of merit (FOM, d{sub 33} ⋅ g{sub 33}) for a more typical d{sub 33} value of 400 pC/N is about 11.2 GPa{sup −1}. Vibration-based energy harvesting with one-layer and two-layer stacks of these films is investigatedmore » at various frequencies and load resistances. At an optimum load resistance of 9 MΩ and a resonance frequency of 800 Hz, a maximum output power of 120 μW, referred to the acceleration g due to gravity, is obtained for an energy harvester consisting of a one-layer IXPP film with an area of 3.14 cm{sup 2} and a seismic mass of 33.7 g. The output power can be further improved by using two-layer stacks of IXPP films in electric series. IXPP energy harvesters could be used to energize low-power electronic devices, such as wireless sensors and LED lights.« less

  9. Fertility outcome following transvaginal cervicoisthmic cerclage using a polypropylene sling.

    PubMed

    Deffieux, Xavier; Faivre, Erika; Senat, Marie Victoire; Fuchs, Florent; Gervaise, Amélie; Fernandez, Hervé

    2010-04-01

    To report fertility and pregnancy outcomes following transvaginal cervicoisthmic cerclage with a polypropylene sling during a previous pregnancy. A continuous series of 57 women who underwent prophylactic cervicoisthmic cerclage during a previous (reference) pregnancy were enrolled. Telephone interviews were carried out to evaluate each patient's subsequent fertility. Among the 57 women interviewed, 8 had an inadequate follow-up, 13 women were lost to follow-up, 1 woman required a hemostatic hysterectomy, and 2 women required removal of the sling. Nineteen women did not desire a subsequent pregnancy. Of the 14 women who did desire a subsequent pregnancy, 1 woman had previously known tubal infertility. Of the 13 remaining women, 7 subsequently became pregnant. One woman had a spontaneous abortion (11 weeks of pregnancy); 1 woman delivered at 22 weeks of pregnancy, after a spontaneous premature membrane rupture; 1 woman had a cesarean delivery at 25 weeks of pregnancy; and 4 patients had a cesarean delivery after 37 weeks of pregnancy. Median duration of the 4 subsequent pregnancies at delivery was 37 weeks (interquartile range [IQR], 37-38 weeks). Median birth weight was 3040 g (IQR, 2500-3250 g). Subsequent pregnancy is possible after transvaginal cervicoisthmic cerclage using a synthetic sling. Copyright 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surface treated polypropylene (PP) fibres for reinforced concrete

    SciTech Connect

    López-Buendía, Angel M., E-mail: buendia@uv.es; Romero-Sánchez, María Dolores; Climent, Verónica

    Surface treatments on a polypropylene (PP) fibre have contributed to the improvement of fibre/concrete adhesion in fibre-reinforced concrete. The treatments to the PP fibre were characterized by contact angle measurements, ATR-IR and XPS to analyse chemical alterations. The surface topography and fibre/concrete interaction were analysed by several microscopic techniques, namely optical petrographic, and scanning electron microscopy. Treatment modified the surface chemistry and topography of the fibre by introducing sodium moieties and created additional fibre surface roughness. Modifications in the fibre surface led to an increase in the adhesion properties between the treated fibres and concrete and an improvement in themore » mechanical properties of the fibre-reinforced concrete composite as compared to the concrete containing untreated PP fibres. Compatibility with the concrete and increased roughness and mineral surface was also improved by nucleated portlandite and ettringite mineral association anchored on the alkaline PP fibre surface, which is induced during treatment.« less

  11. Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness of polypropylene/conducting fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pyoung-Chan; Kim, Bo-Ram; Jeoung, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Yeung Keun

    2016-03-01

    Electromagnetic released from the automotive electronic parts is harmful to human body. Electromagnetic interference (EMT) shielding refers to the reflection and/or adsorption of electromagnetic radiation by a material, which thereby acts as a shield against the penetration of the radiation through the shield. Polypropylene (PP)/conductive micro fiber composites containing various fiber contents and fiber length were injection-molded. The effect of fiber content and length on electrical properties of the composites was studied by electrical resistivity and EMT shielding measurements. The through-plane electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity were obtained by measuring dielectric properties. The EMT shielding effectiveness (SE) was investigated by using S-parameter in the range of 100 ~ 1500 MHz. Reflection, absorption and multiple-reflection are the EMT attenuation mechanisms. From the measurement of S-Parameters, the absorption coefficient, reflection coefficient, and the shielding efficiency of the materials were calculated. The EMT SE of PP/conducing fiber composites is 40 dB over a wide frequency range up to 1.5 GHz, which is higher than that of PP/talc composite used automotive parts, viz. 0 dB.

  12. Wear resistance of polypropylene-SiC composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abenojar, J.; Enciso, B.; Martínez, MA; Velasco, F.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, the wear resistance of thermoplastic composites with a high amount of ceramic is evaluated. Composites made of polypropylene (PP) and silicon carbide (SiC) powder at 50 wt% were used with the final objective of manufacturing ablative materials. This is the first part of a project studying the wear resistance and the mechanical properties of those composites, to be used in applications like habitat industry. In theory, the exposure to high temperature of ablative materials involves the elimination of thermal energy by the sacrifice of surface polymer. In our case, PP will act as a heat sink, up to the reaction temperature (melting or sublimation), where endothermic chemical decomposition into charred material and gaseous products occurs. As the surface is eroded, it is formed a SiC like-foam with improved insulation performance. Composites were produced by extrusion and hot compression. The wear characterization was performed by pin-on-disk test. Wear test was carried out under standard ASTM G99. The parameters were 120 rpm speed, 15 N load, a alumina ball with 6 mm as pin and 1000 m sliding distance. The tracks were also observed by opto-digital microscope.

  13. Functional behaviour of polypropylene/ZnO soluble starch nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandramouleeswaran, Subramani; Mhaske, S. T.; Kathe, A. A.; Varadarajan, P. V.; Prasad, Virendra; Vigneshwaran, Nadanathangam

    2007-09-01

    ZnO-polypropylene nanocomposites (nano-PP) were prepared using nanoparticles of ZnO stabilized by soluble starch (nano-ZnO) as filler in PP by the melt mixing process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and other spectroscopic analysis—ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and photoluminescence—revealed the presence and characteristics of nano-ZnO in the composites. The presence of ZnO imparts whiteness, while starch increased the yellowing of polymers. The nanocomposites were analyzed for changes in optical, mechanical, electrical and rheological properties, as influenced by the increasing concentration of nano-ZnO. The mechanical properties were marginally increased and the dielectric strength of the nano-PP increased to a notable level. By monitoring the evolution of the carbonyl absorption bands from FTIR analysis, the efficacy of nano-ZnO in the reduction of photo-degradation due to UV irradiation was demonstrated. The excellent antibacterial activity exhibited by nano-ZnO impregnated PP against two human pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae, makes it a suitable candidate for food packaging applications.

  14. Extensional Flow-Induced Dynamic Phase Transitions in Isotactic Polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Ju, Jianzhu; Wang, Zhen; Su, Fengmei; Ji, Youxin; Yang, Haoran; Chang, Jiarui; Ali, Sarmad; Li, Xiangyang; Li, Liangbin

    2016-09-01

    With a combination of fast extension rheometer and in situ synchrotron radiation ultra-fast small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering, flow-induced crystallization (FIC) of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) is studied at temperatures below and above the melting point of α crystals (Tmα). A flow phase diagram of iPP is constructed in strain rate-temperature space, composing of melt, non-crystalline shish, α and α&β coexistence regions, based on which the kinetic and dynamic competitions among these four phases are discussed. Above Tmα , imposing strong flow reverses thermodynamic stabilities of the disordered melt and the ordered phases, leading to the occurrence of FIC of β and α crystals as a dynamic phase transition. Either increasing temperature or stain rate favors the competiveness of the metastable β over the stable α crystals, which is attributed to kinetic rate rather than thermodynamic stability. The violent competitions among four phases near the boundary of crystal-melt may frustrate crystallization and result in the non-crystalline shish winning out. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. A simple model for heterogeneous nucleation of isotactic polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Michael; Milner, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Flow-induced crystallization (FIC) is of interest because of its relevance to processes such as injection molding. It has been suggested that flow increases the homogeneous nucleation rate by reducing the melt state entropy. However, commercial polypropylene (iPP) exhibits quiescent nucleation rates that are much too high to be consistent with homogeneous nucleation in carefully purified samples. This suggests that heterogeneous nucleation is dominant for typical samples used in FIC experiments. We describe a simple model for heterogeneous nucleation of iPP, in terms of a cylindrical nucleus on a flat surface with the critical size and barrier set by the contact angle. Analysis of quiescent crystallization data with this model gives reasonable values for the contact angle. We have also employed atomistic simulations of iPP crystals to determine surface energies with vacuum and with Hamaker-matched substrates, and find values consistent with the contact angles inferred from heterogeneous nucleation experiments. In future work, these results combined with calculations from melt rheology of entropy reduction due to flow can be used to estimate the heterogeneous nucleation barrier reduction due to flow, and hence the increase in nucleation rate due to FIC for commecial iPP.

  16. Flexural properties untreated and treated kenaf fiber reinforced polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husin, Muhammad Muslimin; Mustapa, Mohammad Sukri; Wahab, Md Saidin; Arifin, Ahmad Mubarak Tajul; Masirin, Mohd Idrus Mohd; Jais, Farhana Hazwanee

    2017-05-01

    Today natural fiber polymer composites are being extensively used as alternatives in producing furniture to fulfill society demand instead of saving cost and environmentally friendly. The objective of this search is to investigate the untreated fine and rough kenaf fiber (KF) as well as treated KF reinforced with polypropylene (PP) on the flexural strength. Flexural strengths of pure PP, 10%, and 20% of untreated fine and rough KF by weight to PP have been recorded. In addition, flexural strengths of treated KF soaked with 5% and 10% of Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) have also been recorded. KF reinforced PP (PP/KF) untreated and treated composites were melt blended and then injection molded to observe their flexural strengths by measuring their threshold. Three point bending test was apply to determine the flexural stress of the composites. The result show treated fine KF produce better flexural performance at 20% PP/KF. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used to observe the morphological surface PP/KF. Overall 5% NaOH with 20% PP/KF (Fine KF) show good interfacial bonding PP/KF and best result with flexural stress value 30.25MPa.

  17. California State Implementation Plan; San Diego County Air Pollution Control District; VOC Emissions from Polyester Resin Operations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is taking final action to approve revisions to the San Diego County Air Pollution Control District (SDCAPCD) portion of the California SIP concerning volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from polyester resin operations.

  18. Polypropylene Production Optimization in Fluidized Bed Catalytic Reactor (FBCR): Statistical Modeling and Pilot Scale Experimental Validation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Jakir Hossain; Hussain, Mohd Azlan; Mujtaba, Iqbal Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Propylene is one type of plastic that is widely used in our everyday life. This study focuses on the identification and justification of the optimum process parameters for polypropylene production in a novel pilot plant based fluidized bed reactor. This first-of-its-kind statistical modeling with experimental validation for the process parameters of polypropylene production was conducted by applying ANNOVA (Analysis of variance) method to Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Three important process variables i.e., reaction temperature, system pressure and hydrogen percentage were considered as the important input factors for the polypropylene production in the analysis performed. In order to examine the effect of process parameters and their interactions, the ANOVA method was utilized among a range of other statistical diagnostic tools such as the correlation between actual and predicted values, the residuals and predicted response, outlier t plot, 3D response surface and contour analysis plots. The statistical analysis showed that the proposed quadratic model had a good fit with the experimental results. At optimum conditions with temperature of 75°C, system pressure of 25 bar and hydrogen percentage of 2%, the highest polypropylene production obtained is 5.82% per pass. Hence it is concluded that the developed experimental design and proposed model can be successfully employed with over a 95% confidence level for optimum polypropylene production in a fluidized bed catalytic reactor (FBCR). PMID:28788576

  19. Tensile Properties and Deflection Temperature of Polypropylene/Sumberejo Kenaf Fiber Composites with Fiber Content Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollivia, S. L.; Juwono, A. L.; Roseno, Seto

    2017-05-01

    The use of synthetic fibers as reinforcement in composites has disadvantage which are unsustainable and an adverse impact on the environment. An alternative reinforcement for composites is natural fiber. Polypropylene and Sumberejo kenaf fibers were used respectively as the matrix and reinforcement. The aim of this research was to obtain the optimum tensile properties and deflection temperature with the variation of kenaf fiber fractions. Polypropylene/kenaf fiber composites were fabricated by hot press method. The kenaf fiber was soaked in NaOH solution before being used as the reinforcement and polypropylene was extruded before being used as the matrix. The weight fractions were varied to produce composites and pristine polypropylene samples were also prepared for comparison. The optimum tensile strength, modulus and deflection temperature were found in the composites with the 40 wt% kenaf fiber fraction with an increase up to 80% and 170% compared to the pristine polypropylene with the values of (60.3 ± 4,3) MPa and (159.1 ± 1,8) °C respectively. The Scanning Electron Microscope observation results in the fracture surface of the composites with the 40 wt% fiber fraction showed a relatively good bonding interface between fibers and the matrix and the failure modes were fiber breakage and matrix failures.

  20. Selective removal of polyethylene or polypropylene from their blends based on difference in their adsorption behaviour.

    PubMed

    Macko, Tibor; Pasch, Harald; Brüll, Robert

    2006-05-19

    The adsorption of polyethylene and polypropylene on zeolites depends on the nature of zeolite, the solvent as well as the molar mass of the polymer sample. For example, linear polyethylene is strongly retained on zeolite SH-300 from decalin, while isotactic, syndiotactic or atactic polypropylene is fully eluted in this system. On the other hand, polypropylene is retained on zeolite CBV-780 from diphenylether, while linear polyethylene is eluted. These differences in the elution behaviour have been utilised for selective removal of either linear polyethylene or polypropylene from blends of both polymers. The desorption of the retained polymer is difficult, or at times impossible. However, the selected adsorption systems have complimentary character, i.e. either one or second component is eluted or fully retained. Thus these sorbent/solvent systems, identified herein, are the first isocratic chromatographic systems, which enable selectively to remove polyethylene or polypropylene from their mixture. Moreover, decalin/SH-300 enables the removal of both linear and branched polyethylene from mixtures with random ethylene/propylene copolymers (polyethylene fully retained, ethylene/propylene copolymers eluted).

  1. Multi response optimization of sheet forming of Kenaf-Polypropylene composites using grey based fuzzy algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktariani, Erfina; Istikowati, Rita; Tomo, Hendro Sat Setijo; Rizal, Rafliansyah; Pratama, Yosea

    2018-02-01

    Composites from natural fiber reinforcement are developed as the alternative sheet materials of plastic composite for small-size bodywork parts in automotive industries. Kenaf fiber is selected as the reinforcement of plastic composite. Press forming of Kenaf-Polypropylene is experimentally produced in this study. The aim of this study is to obtain the optimal factor of the process of sheet forming of Kenaf-Polypropylene. The Kenaf delignified is cut into 5 cm lengths and distributed on the surface of Polypropylene sheet for 3 and 5 ply layers. The layers of Kenaf-Polypropylene then pressed by hot press at 190 and 210°C, 40 and 50 bar, for 3 and 5 minutes. However, there are limitations in handling multi responses in design of experiments. The application of the fuzzy logic theory to the grey relational analysis may further develop its performance in solving multi-response problems for process parameter optimization. The layer of Kenaf and Polypropylene, temperature, the duration of hot press and pressure are factors that affect the process. The result of experimental investigation and as well as analysis, shows that the best combination values were 3 ply layer, 210°C, 5 minutes of hot press and 50 bar.

  2. Polypropylene Oil as a Fuel for Ni-YSZ | YSZ | LSCF Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, Andini W.; Rahmawati, Fitria; Rochman, Refada A.; Syahputra, Rahmat J. E.; Prameswari, Arum P.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to convert polypropylene plastic to polypropylene oil through pyrolysis method and use the polypropylene oil as fuel for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, SOFC, to produce electricity. The material for SOFC single cell are Ni-YSZ, YSZ, and LSCF as anode, electrolyte and cathode, respectively. YSZ is yttria-stabilized-zirconia. Meanwhile, LSCF is a commercial La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3. The Ni-YSZ is a composite of YSZ with nickel powder. LSCF and Ni-YSZ slurry coated both side of YSZ electrolyte pellet through screen printing method. The result shows that, the produced polypropylene oil consist of C8 to C27 hydrocarbon chain. Meanwhile, a single cell performance test at 673 K, 773 K and 873 K with polypropylene oil as fuel, found that the maximum power density is 1.729 μW. cm-2 at 673 K with open circuit voltage value of 9.378 mV.

  3. Polyester Wax: A New Embedding Medium for the Histopathologic Study of Human Temporal Bones

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Saumil N.; Burgess, Barbara; O'Malley, Jennifer; Jones, Diane; Adams, Joe C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Celloidin and paraffin are the two common embedding mediums used for histopathologic study of the human temporal bone by light microscopy. Although celloidin embedding permits excellent morphologic assessment, celloidin is difficult to remove, and there are significant restrictions on success with immunostaining. Embedding in paraffin allows immunostaining to be performed, but preservation of cellular detail within the membranous labyrinth is relatively poor. Objectives/Hypothesis Polyester wax is an embedding medium that has a low melting point (37°C), is soluble in most organic solvents, is water tolerant, and sections easily. We hypothesized that embedding in polyester wax would permit good preservation of the morphology of the membranous labyrinth and, at the same time, allow the study of proteins by immunostaining. Methods Nine temporal bones from individuals aged 1 to 94 years removed 2 to 31 hours postmortem, from subjects who had no history of otologic disease, were used. The bones were fixed using 10% formalin, decal-cified using EDTA, embedded in polyester wax, and serially sectioned at a thickness of 8 to 12 μm on a rotary microtome. The block and knife were cooled with frozen CO2 (dry ice) held in a funnel above the block. Sections were placed on glass slides coated with a solution of 1% fish gelatin and 1% bovine albumin, followed by staining of selected sections with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Immunostaining was also performed on selected sections using antibodies to 200 kD neurofilament and Na-K-ATPase. Results Polyester wax–embedded sections demonstrated good preservation of cellular detail of the organ of Corti and other structures of the membranous labyrinth, as well as the surrounding otic capsule. The protocol described in this paper was reliable and consistently yielded sections of good quality. Immuno-staining was successful with both antibodies. Conclusion The use of polyester wax as an embedding medium for human temporal

  4. Quasi-static axial crushes on woven jute/polyester AA6063T52 composite tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, A.; Ismail, AE

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-static axial loading have been studied in this paper to determine the behaviour of jute/polyester wrapped on aluminium alloy 6063T52. The filler material also was include into crush box specimen, which is polyurethane (PU) and polystyrene (PE) rigid foam at ranging 40 and 45 kg/m3 densities. All specimen profile was fabricated using hand layup techniques and the length of each specimen were fixed at 100 mm as well as diameter and width of the tube at 50.8 mm. The two types of tubular cross-section were studied of round and square thin-walled profiles and the angle of fibre at 450 were analysed for four layers. Thin walled of aluminium was 1.9 mm and end frontal of each specimen of composite were chamfered at 450 to prevent catastrophic failure mode. The specific absorbed energy (SEA) and crush force efficiency (CFE) were analyses for each specimen to see the behaviour on jute/polyester wrapped on metallic structure can give influence the energy management for automotive application. Result show that the four layers’ jute/polyester with filler material show significant value in term of specific absorbed energy compared empty and polyurethane profiles higher 26.66% for empty and 15.19% compared to polyurethane profiles. It has been found that the thin walled square profile of the jute/polyester tubes with polystyrene foam-filled is found higher respectively 27.42% to 13.13% than empty and polyurethane (PU) foam tubes. An introduce filler material onto thin walled composite profiles gave major advantage increases the mean axial load of 31.87% from 32.94 kN to 48.35 kN from empty to polystyrene thin walled round jute/polyester profiles and 31.7% from 23.11 KN to 33.84 kN from empty to polystyrene thin walled square jute/polyester profiles. Failure mechanisms of the axially loaded composite tubes were also observed and discussed.

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite coated polyester fabric under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zoufei; Cheng, Cheng; Tan, Lin; Lan, Jianwu; Jiang, Shouxiang; Zhao, Ludan; Guo, Ronghui

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a visible-light-driven photocatalyst Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite was reported using one-step hydrothermal method and then coated on the polyester fabric. The samples were systematically characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The photocatalytic activity of Bi2WO6/TiO2 coated polyester fabric was evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and Methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The self-cleaning property of the fabrics was assessed through removing red wine stain. The results reveal that the Bi2WO6/TiO2 composites with irregular shape are coated on the polyester fabric successfully. The UV-vis absorption spectra show a broad absorption band in the visible region, which extends the scope of absorption spectrum and helps to improve the photocatalytic degradation efficiency. Photocatalytic activities of the Bi2WO6/TiO2 composite polyester fabric are associated with the content of TiO2. Bi2WO6/15%TiO2 coated polyester fabric exhibits the degradation efficiency for RhB and MB up to 98% and 95.1%, respectively, which is much higher than that of pure Bi2WO6 and TiO2 coated polyester fabric. Moreover, Bi2WO6/15%TiO2 coated polyester fabric shows good cycle stability toward continuous three cycles of photocatalytic experiment for dyes degradation. In addition, the Bi2WO6/TiO2 coated polyester fabric shows good self-cleaning property. This work could be extended to design of other composite photocatalyst coating on the fabric for enhancing activity by coupling suitable wide and narrow band-gap semiconductors.

  6. Laser-induced selective copper plating of polypropylene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratautas, K.; Gedvilas, M.; Stankevičiene, I.; JagminienÄ--, A.; Norkus, E.; Li Pira, N.; Sinopoli, S.; Emanuele, U.; Račiukaitis, G.

    2016-03-01

    Laser writing for selective plating of electro-conductive lines for electronics has several significant advantages, compared to conventional printed circuit board technology. Firstly, this method is faster and cheaper at the prototyping stage. Secondly, material consumption is reduced, because it works selectively. However, the biggest merit of this method is potentiality to produce moulded interconnect device, enabling to create electronics on complex 3D surfaces, thus saving space, materials and cost of production. There are two basic techniques of laser writing for selective plating on plastics: the laser-induced selective activation (LISA) and laser direct structuring (LDS). In the LISA method, pure plastics without any dopant (filler) can be used. In the LDS method, special fillers are mixed in the polymer matrix. These fillers are activated during laser writing process, and, in the next processing step, the laser modified area can be selectively plated with metals. In this work, both methods of the laser writing for the selective plating of polymers were investigated and compared. For LDS approach, new material: polypropylene with carbon-based additives was tested using picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses. Different laser processing parameters (laser pulse energy, scanning speed, the number of scans, pulse durations, wavelength and overlapping of scanned lines) were applied in order to find out the optimal regime of activation. Areal selectivity tests showed a high plating resolution. The narrowest width of a copper-plated line was less than 23 μm. Finally, our material was applied to the prototype of the electronic circuit board on a 2D surface.

  7. Photoinduced Reactions of Benzophenone in Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Levin, Peter P; Efremkin, Alexei F; Krivandin, Aleksey V; Lomakin, Sergei M; Shatalova, Olga V; Khudyakov, Igor V

    2018-05-03

    The photoinduced reactions of benzophenone (B) in biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) were studied with nanosecond laser photolysis (N 2 laser, λ337.1 nm). The first observed transient was a triplet state 3 B*. Decay of 3 B* led to formation of a radical pair (RP) of BH • and R • , where R • is a radical formed by hydrogen abstraction from BOPP (RH) by 3 B*. We studied BOPP after the preheating for a short time in a temperature range 298-423 K, which is essentially lower than its melting point of 453 K. All measurements with not-heated and with preheated (annealed) BOPP were made at 298 K. A radical pair (RP) apparently decays as a contact pair 3 [BH • , R • ] in nonheated BOPP. A critical phenomenon takes place: dissociation of RP with a formation of free radicals in the polymer bulk is observed at preheating temperature T crit ≈ 403 K and at a higher T. The physical process of heating and cooling of BOPP apparently resulted in the restructuring of crystallites, their agglomeration, shrinking of the distribution of crystallites according to their sizes in BOPP. Overall BOPP becomes softer which manifests itself in the radical kinetics. The decay kinetics of 3 B* and RP in the cage fits well the first-order law. Rate constants were obtained. Radicals BH • , which exit into the polymer bulk at temperatures of preheating T ≥ 403 K, decay by cross-termination according to the second-order law. A relatively high rate constant ∼10 8 M -1 ·s -1 for this reaction was obtained due to diffusion of BH • enclosed in the soft amorphous phase of BOPP. Properties of BOPP containing B were studied with ESR, DSC, IR, and WAXD.

  8. Estimation of crystallinity in isotropic isotactic polypropylene with Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Minogianni, Chrysa; Gatos, Konstantinos G; Galiotis, Costas

    2005-09-01

    The Raman spectrum of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) has been found to exhibit vibrational peaks in the region of 750 to 880 cm(-1) that are sensitive to the degree of crystallinity. These features are broadly assigned to various modes of methyl group rocking, rho(CH2), and there have been various attempts to assess crystallinity based on the integrated intensities of these bands. Various vibrational analyses performed in the past in combination with experimental studies have concluded that the presence of crystalline order with trans-gauche conformation gives rise to a peak at 809 cm(-1), which is assigned to a rho(CH2) mode coupled with the skeletal stretching mode. However, the presence of additional peaks at 830 cm(-1), 841 cm(-1), and 854 cm(-1), within the same envelope, have been the subject of controversy. In this work isotropic films of iPP derived from the same precursor of identical tacticity have been subjected to various degrees of annealing and the integrated intensities of the Raman bands were measured. The results showed that true 3d crystallinity in isotropic iPP can only be expressed by the 809 cm(-1) band whereas the band at 841 cm(-1) corresponds to an uncoupled rho(CH2) fundamental mode and thus is a measure of the amorphous content. The less intense satellite bands at 830 cm(-1) and 854 cm(-1) of solid iPP cannot be distinguished from the 841 cm(-1) band in the melt and are generally considered as intermediate phases possibly related to non-crystalline components with 3(1)-helical conformations. Independent differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) crystallinity measurements were in broad agreement with the Raman measurements based on the normalized intensity of the 809 cm(-1) Raman band. By comparing the Raman with the DSC data a new value for the theoretical heat of fusion for the 100% crystalline iPP has been proposed.

  9. Suture versus preperitoneal polypropylene mesh for elective umbilical hernia repairs.

    PubMed

    Berger, Rachel L; Li, Linda T; Hicks, Stephanie C; Liang, Mike K

    2014-12-01

    Repair of primary ventral hernias (PVH) such as umbilical hernias is a common surgical procedure. There is a paucity of risk-adjusted data comparing suture versus mesh repair of these hernias. We compared preperitoneal polypropylene (PP) repair versus suture repair for elective umbilical hernia repair. A retrospective review of all elective open PVH repairs at a single institution from 2000-2010 was performed. Only patients with suture or PP repair of umbilical hernias were included. Univariate analysis was conducted and propensity for treatment-adjusted multivariate logistic regression. There were 442 elective open PVH repairs performed; 392 met our inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 126 (32.1%) had a PP repair and 266 (67.9%) underwent suture repair. Median (range) follow-up was 60 mo (1-143). Patients who underwent PP repair had more surgical site infections (SSIs; 19.8% versus 7.9%, P < 0.01) and seromas (14.3% versus 4.1%, P < 0.01). There was no difference in recurrence (5.6% versus 7.5%, P = 0.53). On propensity score-adjusted multivariate analysis, we found that body mass index (odds ratio [OR], 1.10) and smoking status (OR, 2.3) were associated with recurrence. Mesh (OR, 2.34) and American Society of Anesthesiologists (OR, 1.95) were associated with SSI. Only mesh (OR, 3.41) was associated with seroma formation. Although there was a trend toward more recurrence with suture repair in our study, this was not statistically significant. Mesh repair was associated with more SSI and seromas. Further prospective randomized controlled trial is needed to clarify the role of suture and mesh repair in PVH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Current and historical individual data about exposure of workers in the rayon industry to carbon disulfide and their validity in calculating the cumulative dose.

    PubMed

    Göen, Thomas; Schramm, Axel; Baumeister, Thomas; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how exposure to carbon disulfide (CS2) in a rayon-manufacturing plant has changed within two decades and whether it is possible to calculate valid data for the individual cumulative exposure. The data for CS2 concentration in air and biological exposure monitoring (2-thio-1,3-thiaxolidine-4-carboxylic acid (TTCA) in urine) from two cross-sectional studies, performed in 1992 (n = 362) and 2009 (n = 212) in a German rayon-manufacturing plant, were compared to data obtained from company-internal measurements between the studies. Using the data from the cross-sectional studies and company-internal data, cumulative external exposure and the cumulative internal exposure were calculated for each worker. External and internal CS2 exposure of the employees decreased from 1992 (medians 4.0 ppm and 1.63 mgTTCA/g creatinine) to 2009 (medians 2.5 ppm and 0.86 mg/g). However, company-internal CS2 data do not show a straight trend for this period. The annual medians of the company-internal measurement of external exposure to CS2 have varied between 2.7 and 8.4 ppm, in which median values exceeded 5 ppm generally since 2000. The annual medians for the company-internal biomonitoring assessment ranged between 1.2 and 2.8 mg/g creatinine. The cumulative CS2 exposure ranged from 8.5 to 869.5 ppm years for external exposure and between 1.30 and 176.2 mg/g creatinine years for the internal exposure. Significant correlations were found between the current air pollution and the internal exposure in 2009 but also between the cumulative external and internal CS2 exposure. Current exposure data, usually collected in cross-sectional studies, rarely allow a reliable statement on the cumulative dose, because of higher exposure in the past and of fluctuating courses of exposure. On the other hand, company-internal exposure data may be affected by non-representative measurement strategies. Some verification of the reliability of

  11. Polypropylene vs silicone Ahmed valve with adjunctive mitomycin C in paediatric age group: a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Y; Awadein, A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the results of silicone and polypropylene Ahmed glaucoma valves (AGV) implanted during the first 10 years of life. Methods A prospective study was performed on 50 eyes of 33 patients with paediatric glaucoma. Eyes were matched to either polypropylene or silicone AGV. In eyes with bilateral glaucoma, one eye was implanted with polypropylene and the other eye was implanted with silicone AGV. Results Fifty eyes of 33 children were reviewed. Twenty five eyes received a polypropylene valve, and 25 eyes received a silicone valve. Eyes implanted with silicone valves achieved a significantly lower intraocular pressure (IOP) compared with the polypropylene group at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. The average survival time was significantly longer (P=0.001 by the log-rank test) for the silicone group than for the polypropylene group and the cumulative probability of survival by the log-rank test at the end of the second year was 80% (SE: 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 64–96%) in the silicone group and 56% (SE: 9.8, 95% CI: 40–90%) in the polypropylene group. The difference in the number of postoperative interventions and complications between both groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion Silicone AGVs can achieve better IOP control, and longer survival with less antiglaucoma drops compared with polypropylene valves in children younger than 10 years. PMID:23579403

  12. Effect of boron and phosphate compounds on physical, mechanical, and fire properties of wood-polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Turgay Akbulut; Turker Dundar; Robert H. White; Fatih Mengeloglu; Umit Buyuksari; Zeki Candan; Erkan Avci

    2012-01-01

    Physical, mechanical, and fire properties of the injection-molded wood flour/polypropylene composites incorporated with different contents of boron compounds; borax/boric acid and zinc borate, and phosphate compounds; mono and diammonium phosphates were investigated. The effect of the coupling agent content, maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene, on the properties of...

  13. Analysis of Nanodomain Composition in High-Impact Polypropylene by Atomic Force Microscopy-Infrared.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fuguang; Bao, Peite; Su, Zhaohui

    2016-05-03

    In this paper, compositions of nanodomains in a commercial high-impact polypropylene (HIPP) were investigated by an atomic force microscopy-infrared (AFM-IR) technique. An AFM-IR quantitative analysis method was established for the first time, which was then employed to analyze the polyethylene content in the nanoscopic domains of the rubber particles dispersed in the polypropylene matrix. It was found that the polyethylene content in the matrix was close to zero and was high in the rubbery intermediate layers, both as expected. However, the major component of the rigid cores of the rubber particles was found to be polypropylene rather than polyethylene, contrary to what was previously believed. The finding provides new insight into the complicated structure of HIPPs, and the AFM-IR quantitative method reported here offers a useful tool for assessing compositions of nanoscopic domains in complex polymeric systems.

  14. Biocomposites from abaca strands and polypropylene. Part I: Evaluation of the tensile properties.

    PubMed

    Vilaseca, Fabiola; Valadez-Gonzalez, Alex; Herrera-Franco, Pedro J; Pèlach, M Angels; López, Joan Pere; Mutjé, Pere

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, abaca strands were used as reinforcement of polypropylene matrix and their tensile mechanical properties were studied. It was found relevant increments on the tensile properties of the abaca strand-PP composites despite the lack of good adhesion at fiber-matrix interface. Afterwards, it was stated the influence of using maleated polypropylene (MAPP) as compatibilizer to promote the interaction between abaca strands and polypropylene. The intrinsic mechanical properties of the reinforcement were evaluated and used for modeling both the tensile strength and elastic modulus of the composites. For these cases, the compatibility factor for the ultimate tensile strength was deduced from the modified rule of mixtures. Additionally, the experimental fiber orientation coefficient was measured, allowing determining the interfacial shear strengths of the composites and the critical fiber length of the abaca strand reinforcement. The mechanical improvement was compared to that obtained for fiberglass-reinforced PP composites and evaluated under an economical and technical point of view.

  15. Interfacial enhancement of polypropylene composites modified with sorbitol derivatives and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzyńska-Mizera, Monika; Dutkiewicz, Michał; Sterzyński, Tomasz; Di Lorenzo, Maria Laura

    2015-12-01

    Composites based on polypropylene (iPP) modified with a sorbitol derivative (NX8000) and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin (SiOPh) containing maleated polypropylene (MAPP) as compatibilizer were prepared by melt extrusion. Calorimetric investigations were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), whereas the morphological and mechanical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static tensile tests. DSC measurements revealed no influence of SiOPh and a slight effect of MAPP addition on the crystallization kinetics of polypropylene. Additionally, the introduction of MAPP into the iPP+NX8000+SiOPh composites increased plastic properties of the samples. All the above was attributed to the compatibilizing effect of MAPP which improved interfacial adhesion between iPP, NX8000 and SiOPh. This phenomenon was also confirmed by the SEM images illustrating more homogenous distribution of the filler in the compatibilized samples.

  16. Interfacial enhancement of polypropylene composites modified with sorbitol derivatives and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrzyńska-Mizera, Monika, E-mail: monika.dobrzynska-mizera@doctorate.put.poznan.pl; Sterzyński, Tomasz; Dutkiewicz, Michał

    Composites based on polypropylene (iPP) modified with a sorbitol derivative (NX8000) and siloxane-silsesquioxane resin (SiOPh) containing maleated polypropylene (MAPP) as compatibilizer were prepared by melt extrusion. Calorimetric investigations were carried out using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), whereas the morphological and mechanical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and static tensile tests. DSC measurements revealed no influence of SiOPh and a slight effect of MAPP addition on the crystallization kinetics of polypropylene. Additionally, the introduction of MAPP into the iPP+NX8000+SiOPh composites increased plastic properties of the samples. All the above was attributed to the compatibilizing effect of MAPP whichmore » improved interfacial adhesion between iPP, NX8000 and SiOPh. This phenomenon was also confirmed by the SEM images illustrating more homogenous distribution of the filler in the compatibilized samples.« less

  17. Vibration behaviour of foamed concrete floor with polypropylene and rise husk ash fibre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azaman, N. A. Mohd; Ghafar, N. H. Abd; Ayub, N.; Ibrahim, M. Z.

    2017-11-01

    In the history of the construction industry, lightweight concrete or foamed concrete is a special concrete which can very useful in the construction sector because it is very lightweight and it can compact by itself at each angle of foamwork. Foamed concrete is one of lightweight concrete which widely used for floor construction due to its light weight and economic. The significant challenges in the floor design process are considering the vibration that needs improvements for the poor dynamic behaviour insulation. An alternative material to replace sand with certain amount of rice husk ash (RHA) and polypropylene was introduced. Research was determine the dynamic behavior of foam-polypropylene and foam-RHA concrete by using impact hammer test. The natural frequency for normal foamed concrete, 0.5 % of Polypropylene and 15% of RHA is 29.8 Hz, 29.3 Hz and 29.5 Hz respectively.

  18. Analysis and optimization of machining parameters of laser cutting for polypropylene composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, A.; Padmanabhan, K.; Kuppan, P.

    2017-11-01

    Present works explains about machining of self-reinforced Polypropylene composite fabricated using hot compaction method. The objective of the experiment is to find optimum machining parameters for Polypropylene (PP). Laser power and Machining speed were the parameters considered in response to tensile test and Flexure test. Taguchi method is used for experimentation. Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) is used for multiple process parameter optimization. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) is used to find impact for process parameter. Polypropylene has got the great application in various fields like, it is used in the form of foam in model aircraft and other radio-controlled vehicles, thin sheets (∼2-20μm) used as a dielectric, PP is also used in piping system, it is also been used in hernia and pelvic organ repair or protect new herrnis in the same location.

  19. Gamma irradiation assisted fungal degradation of the polypropylene/biomass composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnaru, Elena; Darie-Niţă, Raluca Nicoleta; Zaharescu, Traian; Balaeş, Tiberius; Tănase, Cătălin; Hitruc, Gabriela; Doroftei, Florica; Vasile, Cornelia

    2016-08-01

    White-rot fungus Bjerkandera adusta has been tested for its ability to degrade some biocomposites materials based on polypropylene and biomass (Eucalyptus globulus, pine cones, and Brassica rapa). γ-irradiation was applied to initiate the degradation of relatively inert polypropylene matrix. The degradation process has been studied by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, rheological and chemiluminescence tests. These analyses showed that the polypropylene/biomass composites properties are worsen under the action of the selected microorganism. The formation of cracks and scrap particles over the entire matrix surface and the decrease of the complex viscosity values, as well as the dynamic moduli of gamma irradiated PP/biomass composite and exposed to Bjerkandera adusta fungus, indicate fungal efficiency in composite degradation.

  20. Microcrystalline-cellulose and polypropylene based composite: A simple, selective and effective material for microwavable packaging.

    PubMed

    Ummartyotin, S; Pechyen, C

    2016-05-20

    Cellulose based composite was successfully designed as active packaging with additional feature of microwavable properties. Small amount of cellulose with 10 μm in diameter was integrated into polypropylene matrix. The use of maleic anhydride was employed as coupling agent. Thermal and mechanical properties of cellulose based composite were superior depending on polypropylene matrix. Crystallization temperature and compressive strength were estimated to be 130 °C and 5.5 MPa. The crystal formation and its percentage were therefore estimated to be 50% and it can be predicted on the feasibility of microwavable packaging. Morphological properties of cellulose based composite presented the good distribution and excellent uniformity. It was remarkable to note that cellulose derived from cotton can be prepared as composite with polypropylene matrix. It can be used as packaging for microwave application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nickel-titanium wire in circumferential suture of a flexor tendon repair: a comparison to polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, T; He, M; Chong, A K S; Lim, A Y T; Ryhanen, J

    2010-07-01

    Nickel-titanium (NiTi) has been proposed as an alternative material for flexor tendon core suture. To our knowledge, its suitability as a circumferential suture of flexor tendon repair has not been investigated before. The purpose of this ex vivo study was to investigate the biomechanical properties of NiTi circumferential repairs and to compare them with commonly used polypropylene. Forty porcine flexor tendons were cut and repaired by simple running or interlocking mattress technique using 100 microm NiTi wire or 6-0 polypropylene. The NiTi circumferential repairs showed superior stiffness, gap resistance, and load to failure when compared to polypropylene repairs with both techniques. Nickel-titanium wire seems to be a potential material for circumferential repair of flexor tendons. Copyright 2010 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    SciTech Connect

    Fahmi, I., E-mail: fahmi-unimap@yahoo.com; Majid, M. S. Abdul, E-mail: shukry@unimap.edu.my; Afendi, M., E-mail: afendirojan@unimap.edu.my

    2016-07-19

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energymore » levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.« less

  3. Impact behaviour of Napier/polyester composites under different energy levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahmi, I.; Majid, M. S. Abdul; Afendi, M.; Haslan, M.; Helmi E., A.; M. Haameem J., A.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of different energy levels on the impact behaviour of Napier fibre/polyester reinforced composites were investigated. Napier fibre was extracted using traditional water retting process to be utilized as reinforcing materials in polyester composite laminates. 25% fibre loading composite laminates were prepared and impacted at three different energy levels; 2.5,5 and 7.5 J using an instrumented drop weight impact testing machine (IMATEK IM10). The outcomes show that peak force and contact time increase with increased impact load. The energy absorption was then calculated from the force displacement curve. The results indicated that the energy absorption decreases with increasing energy levels of the impact. Impacted specimens were observed visually for fragmentation fracture using an optical camera to identify the failure mechanisms. Fracture fragmentation pattern from permanent dent to perforation with radial and circumferential was observed.

  4. Optical, colloidal and biological properties of up-converting nanoparticles embedded in polyester nanocarriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzyńczyk, Dominika; Kulbacka, Julita; Bazylińska, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    We have investigated the change in optical properties and biocompatibility of up-converting NaYF4 nanoparticles (NPs) upon encapsulation inside the polyester nanocarriers (NCs) stabilized by Crempophor RH40 (CRH40), poly(D,L-lactide) (PLA), Pluronic P123 (P123). NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+ NPs showed intense green and red emission, and upon encapsulation the increase of red band in respect to green one was observed, with no luminescence lifetime shortening. Obtained NCs showed prolonged colloidal stability and protective effect of the polymer shell simultaneously preserving the high emission efficiency of nanoparticles embedded within the silicon oil (SO) core. Based on emission spectra, kinetic measurements and cytotoxicity studies upon human malignant melanoma Me45 cell line we have shown the advantages of using polyester NCs as containers for the up-converting NPs. Due to the possibility of co-encapsulation of photosensitizers the obtained nanocarriers showed potential for application in theranostics.

  5. Mechanical and Physical Properties of Polyester Polymer Concrete Using Recycled Aggregates from Concrete Sleepers

    PubMed Central

    Carrión, Francisco; Montalbán, Laura; Real, Julia I.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate), and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone) coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density, and water absorption) was analyzed based on the modification of different variables: nature of the recycled aggregates, resin contents (11 wt%, 12 wt%, and 13 wt%), and particle-size distributions of microfillers used. The results show the influence of these variables on mechanical performance of polymer concrete. Compressive and flexural strength of recycled polymer concrete were improved by increasing amount of polyester resin and by optimizing the particle-size distribution of the microfillers. Besides, the results show the feasibility of developing a polymer concrete with excellent mechanical behavior. PMID:25243213

  6. Mechanical and physical properties of polyester polymer concrete using recycled aggregates from concrete sleepers.

    PubMed

    Carrión, Francisco; Montalbán, Laura; Real, Julia I; Real, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Currently, reuse of solid waste from disused infrastructures is an important environmental issue to study. In this research, polymer concrete was developed by mixing orthophthalic unsaturated polyester resin, artificial microfillers (calcium carbonate), and waste aggregates (basalt and limestone) coming from the recycling process of concrete sleepers. The variation of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer concrete (compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, density, and water absorption) was analyzed based on the modification of different variables: nature of the recycled aggregates, resin contents (11 wt%, 12 wt%, and 13 wt%), and particle-size distributions of microfillers used. The results show the influence of these variables on mechanical performance of polymer concrete. Compressive and flexural strength of recycled polymer concrete were improved by increasing amount of polyester resin and by optimizing the particle-size distribution of the microfillers. Besides, the results show the feasibility of developing a polymer concrete with excellent mechanical behavior.

  7. Development auxiliaries for dyeing polyester with disperse dyes at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrion-Fite, F. J.; Radei, S.

    2017-10-01

    High-molecular weight organic compounds known as carriers are widely used to expedite polyester dyeing at atmospheric pressure at 100 °C. However, carriers are usually poorly biodegradable and can partially plasticize fibres. Also, dyeing at temperatures above 100 °C in the absence of a carrier entails using expensive equipment. In this work, we developed an alternative method for dyeing polyester at temperatures below 100 °C that reduces energy expenses, dispenses with the need to invest in new equipment and avoids the undesirable effects of non-biodegradable carriers. The method uses disperse dyes in a microemulsion containing a low proportion of a non-toxic organic solvent and either of two alternative development auxiliaries (coumarin and o-vanillin) that is prepared with the aid of ultrasound.

  8. Thermal and mechanical behaviour of sub micron sized fly ash reinforced polyester resin composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nantha Kumar, P.; Rajadurai, A.; Muthuramalingam, T.

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of particles reinforced resin matrix composites is being increased owing to its lower density and high strength to weight ratio. In the present study, an attempt has been made to synthesize fly ash particles reinforced polyester resin composite for engine cowling application. The thermal stability and mechanical behaviours such as hardness and flexural strength of the composite with 2, 3 and 4 weight % of reinforcement is studied and analyzed. The thermo gravimetric analysis indicates that the higher addition of reinforcement increases the decomposition temperature due to its refractory nature. It is also observed that the hardness increases with higher filler addition owing to the resistance of FA particles towards penetration. The flexural strength is found to increase up to the addition of 3% of FA particles, whereas the polyester resin composite prepared with 4% FA particles addition is observed to have low flexural strength owing to agglomeration of particles.

  9. The effect of modified ijuk fibers to crystallinity of polypropylene composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabowo, I.; Nur Pratama, J.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, plastics becomes concern associated with its degradation and environmental issues. It has led studies to develop an environmental-friendly material. To minimize the impact of those problems, recently the usage of natural fibers as a filler are introduced because of biodegradability and availability. The promising natural fiber is “ijuk” fiber from Arenga pinnata plant as a filler and polypropylene (PP) polymer as a matrix. Unfortunately, the natural fibers and polymers have the different properties on which polymers are polar while natural fibers are non-polar so that reducing the compatibility and resulting the poor crystallinity. To enhance the compatibility and crystallinity, ijuk fibers were prepared by multistage treatments including alkalinization with 5 and 10% sodium hydroxide (NaOH), oxidation with 3 and 6% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and hydrolysis with 20% sulphuric acid (H2SO4) in sequences. The purposes of multistage treatments are to remove the components such as lignin, wax, hemicellulose, to cause an oxidative fragmentation of remaining lignin and to annihilate the amorphous parts respectively. Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) confirms the compatibility meanwhile Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) reveals the crystallinity and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) displays surface morphology of polypropylene. The experiments were revealing that the effects of “ijuk” fibers by the multistage treatments of 5 and 10% NaOH resulting the crystallinity of polypropylene around 31.2 and 27.64% respectively compared to the crystallinity before adding the “ijuk” fibers for 16.8%. It indicates that the entire treatments increasing the compatibility and crystallinity of polypropylene. In addition, the use of 5% NaOH offers the better crystallinity than non-treated polypropylene. The experiments conclude that by adding alkalinized “ijuk” fibers of multistage treatments can increase the compatibility and crystallinity of polypropylene.

  10. Reduced toxicity polyester resins and microvascular pre-preg tapes for advanced composites manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poillucci, Richard

    Advanced composites manufacturing broadly encapsulates topics ranging from matrix chemistries to automated machines that lay-up fiber-reinforced materials. Environmental regulations are stimulating research to reduce matrix resin formulation toxicity. At present, composites fabricated with polyester resins expose workers to the risk of contact with and inhalation of styrene monomer, which is a potential carcinogen, neurotoxin, and respiratory irritant. The first primary goal of this thesis is to reduce the toxicity associated with polyester resins by: (1) identification of potential monomers to replace styrene, (2) determination of monomer solubility within the polyester, and (3) investigation of approaches to rapidly screen a large resin composition parameter space. Monomers are identified based on their ability to react with polyester and their toxicity as determined by the Globally Harmonized System (GHS) and a green screen method. Solubilities were determined by the Hoftyzer -- Van Krevelen method, Hansen solubility parameter database, and experimental mixing of monomers. A combinatorial microfluidic mixing device is designed and tested to obtain distinct resin compositions from two input chemistries. The push for safer materials is complemented by a thrust for multifunctional composites. The second primary goal of this thesis is to design and implement the manufacture of sacrificial fiber materials suitable for use in automated fiber placement of microvascaular multifunctional composites. Two key advancements are required to achieve this goal: (1) development of a roll-to-roll method to place sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber pre-preg tape; and (2) demonstration of feasible manufacture of microvascular carbon fiber plates with automated fiber placement. An automated method for placing sacrificial fibers onto carbon fiber tapes is designed and a prototype implemented. Carbon fiber tows with manual placement of sacrificial fibers is implemented within an

  11. Hygrothermomechanical evaluation of transverse filament tape epoxy/polyester fiberglass composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lark, R. F.; Chamis, C. C.

    1984-01-01

    Transverse filament tape (TFT) fiberglass/epoxy and TFT polyester composites intended for low cost wind turbine blade fabrication have been subjected to static and cyclic load behavior tests whose results are presently evaluated on the basis of an integrated hygrothermomechanical response theory. Laminate testing employed simulated filament winding procedures. The results obtained show that the predicted hygrothermomechanical environmental effects on TFT composites are in good agreement with measured data for various properties, including fatigue at different R-ratio values.

  12. Mechanical properties of three layer glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester filled with P84 Polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Nik Noor Idayu Nik; Mamauod, Siti Nur Liyana; Romli, Ahmad Zafir

    2017-12-01

    The glass fibre reinforced orthophthalic unsaturated polyester composite was widely used in the pipeline industry as a replacement to the corroded steel pipes. A filler which possesses high mechanical performance at high temperature; P84 Polyimide used as the particulate reinforcement in the unsaturated polyester matrix system to increase the mechanical performance of the glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester. The glass fibre composite laminates were prepared through a hand lay-up technique and fabricated into three layer laminate. Prior to be used as the matrix system in the lamination process, the unsaturated polyester resin was mixed with masterbatch P84 Polyimide at three loadings amount of 1, 3, and 5 wt%. The addition of P84 Polyimide at 1, 3, and 5 wt% increased the tensile properties and flexural properties especially at 1 wt% filler loading. As the filler loading increased, the tensile properties and flexural properties showed decreasing pattern. In the dynamic mechanical analysis, the values of storage modulus were taken at two points; 50 °C and 150 °C which were the storage modulus before and after the glass transition temperature. All storage modulus showed fluctuation trend for both before and after Tg. However, the storage modulus of the filled composite laminates after Tg showed higher values than unfilled composite laminates at all filler loading. Since the P84 Polyimide possesses high thermal stability, the presence of P84 Polyimide inside the composite system had assisted in delaying the Tg. In terms of the filler dispersion, the Cole-Cole plot showed an imperfect semi-circular shape which indicated good filler dispersion.

  13. Biomimetic polyesters and their role in ion transport across cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Jedliński, Z; Kurcok, P; Adamus, G; Juzwa, M

    2000-01-01

    Syntheses of biomimetic low-molecular weight poly-(R)-3-hydroxybutanoate mediated by three types of supramolecular catalysts are presented. The utility of these synthetic polyesters for preparation of artificial channels in phospholipid bilayers capable of sodium and calcium ion transport across cell membranes, is discussed. Further studies on possible applications of these bio-polymers for manufacturing drugs of prolonged activity are under way.

  14. Observation of hairpin defects in a nematic main-chain polyester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. H.; Brûlet, A.; Davidson, P.; Keller, P.; Cotton, J. P.

    1993-04-01

    The conformation of a main-chain liquid crystalline polyester in its oriented nematic phase has been determined by small-angle neutron scattering. The data are fitted by a model of rigid cylinder with orientational fluctuations. For a low degree of polymerization (~9) the chain is almost completely elongated in the direction of the nematic field. For a polymer 3 times longer, the existence of two hairpins is shown at high temperature; this number decreases with decreasing temperature.

  15. Biochemical and Structural Insights into Enzymatic Depolymerization of Polylactic Acid and Other Polyesters by Microbial Carboxylesterases.

    PubMed

    Hajighasemi, Mahbod; Nocek, Boguslaw P; Tchigvintsev, Anatoli; Brown, Greg; Flick, Robert; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Hai, Tran; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Golyshin, Peter N; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Elizabeth A; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2016-06-13

    Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable polyester derived from renewable resources, which is a leading candidate for the replacement of traditional petroleum-based polymers. Since the global production of PLA is quickly growing, there is an urgent need for the development of efficient recycling technologies, which will produce lactic acid instead of CO2 as the final product. After screening 90 purified microbial α/β-hydrolases, we identified hydrolytic activity against emulsified PLA in two uncharacterized proteins, ABO2449 from Alcanivorax borkumensis and RPA1511 from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Both enzymes were also active against emulsified polycaprolactone and other polyesters as well as against soluble α-naphthyl and p-nitrophenyl monoesters. In addition, both ABO2449 and RPA1511 catalyzed complete or extensive hydrolysis of solid PLA with the production of lactic acid monomers, dimers, and larger oligomers as products. The crystal structure of RPA1511 was determined at 2.2 Å resolution and revealed a classical α/β-hydrolase fold with a wide-open active site containing a molecule of polyethylene glycol bound near the catalytic triad Ser114-His270-Asp242. Site-directed mutagenesis of both proteins demonstrated that the catalytic triad residues are important for the hydrolysis of both monoester and polyester substrates. We also identified several residues in RPA1511 (Gln172, Leu212, Met215, Trp218, and Leu220) and ABO2449 (Phe38 and Leu152), which were not essential for activity against soluble monoesters but were found to be critical for the hydrolysis of PLA. Our results indicate that microbial carboxyl esterases can efficiently hydrolyze various polyesters making them attractive biocatalysts for plastics depolymerization and recycling.

  16. Enhancing the Dyeability of Polypropylene Fibers by Melt Blending with Polyethylene Terephthalate

    PubMed Central

    Moradian, Siamak; Ameri, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Attempts were made to modify polypropylene fibers by melt blending with polyethylene terephthalate in order to enhance the dyeability of the resultant fiber. Five blends of polypropylene/polyethylene terephthalate/compatibilizer were prepared and subsequently spun into fibers. Three disperse dyes were used to dye such modified fibers at boiling and 130°C. The dyeing performance of the blend fibers, as well as the morphological, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties, of the corresponding blends was characterized by means of spectrophotometry, polarized optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and tensile testing. PMID:24288485

  17. Assessment of adhesion formation to intra-abdominal polypropylene mesh and polytetrafluoroethylene mesh.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Brent D; Pratt, Broc L; Pollinger, Harrison S; Backus, Charles L; Kercher, Kent W; Sing, R F; Heniford, B Todd

    2003-10-01

    The development of intra-abdominal adhesions, bowel obstruction, and enterocutaneous fistulas are potentially severe complications related to the intraperitoneal placement of prosthetic biomaterials. The purpose of this study was to determine the natural history of adhesion formation to polypropylene mesh and two types of polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) mesh when placed intraperitoneally in a rabbit model that simulates laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were used for this study. A 10-cm midline incision was performed for intra-abdominal access and a 2 cm x 2 cm piece of mesh (n = 60) was sewn to an intact peritoneum on each side of the midline. Two types of ePTFE mesh (Dual Mesh and modified Dual Mesh, W.L. Gore & Assoc., Flagstaff, AZ) and polypropylene mesh were compared. The rate of adhesion formation was evaluated by direct visualization using microlaparoscopy (2-mm endoscope/trocar) at 7 days, 3 weeks, 9 weeks, and 16 weeks after mesh implantation. Adhesions to the prosthetic mesh were scored for extent (%) using the Modified Diamond Scale (0 = 0%, 1 50%). At necropsy the mesh was excised en bloc with the anterior abdominal wall for histological evaluation of mesothelial layer growth. The mean adhesion score for the polypropylene mesh was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than Dual Mesh at 9 weeks and 16 weeks and modified Dual Mesh at 7 days, 9 weeks, and 16 weeks. Fifty-five percent (n = 11) of the polypropylene mesh had adhesions to small intestine or omentum at necropsy compared to 30% (n = 6) of the Dual Mesh and 20% (n = 4) of the modified Dual Mesh. There was a significantly greater percentage (P < 0.003) of ePTFE mesh mesothelialized at explant (modified Dual Mesh 44.2%; Dual Mesh 55.8%) compared to the polypropylene mesh (12.9%). Serial microlaparoscopic evaluation of intraperitoneally implanted polypropylene mesh and ePTFE mesh in a rabbit model revealed a progression of adhesions to

  18. Surface quality of unsaturated polyester resin processed via continuous multi-shot rotational molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogila, K. O.; Yang, W.; Shao, M.; Tan, J.

    2017-05-01

    Unsaturated Polyester Resin is a versatile and cost efficient thermosetting plastic whose application in rotational molding is currently limited by its relatively high initial viscosity and heat of reaction. These material characteristics result in uneven material distribution, poor surface finish and imperfections in the moldings especially when large wall thicknesses are required. The current work attempts to remedy these shortcomings through the development of a continuous multi-shot system which adds predetermined loads of unsaturated polyester resin into a rotating mold at various intervals. As part of this system, a laboratory-scale uniaxial rotational molding machine was used to produce Unsaturated Polyester Resin moldings in single and double shots. Optimal processing conditions were determined through visual studies, three dimensional microscopic studies, thickness distribution analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Volume filling fractions of 0.049-0.065, second shot volumes of 0.5-0.75 from the first shot, rotational speeds of 15-20 rpm and temperatures of 30-50 °C resulted in moldings of suitable quality on both the inner and outer surfaces.

  19. Analytical approaches to identify potential migrants in polyester-polyurethane can coatings.

    PubMed

    Louise Bradley, Emma; Driffield, Malcolm; Guthrie, James; Harmer, Nick; Thomas Oldring, Peter Kenneth; Castle, Laurence

    2009-12-01

    The safety of a polyester-polyurethane can coating has been assessed using a suite of complementary analytical methods to identify and estimate the concentrations of potential chemical migrants. The polyester was based on phthalic acids and aliphatic diols. The polyisocyanate cross-linking agent was 1-isocyanato-3-isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethyl cyclohexane homopolymer (IPDI) blocked with methylethylketone oxime (MEKO) to make a one-part formulation. The overall migrate, obtained using solvent extraction of cured films, comprised almost completely of 12 cyclic and one linear polyester oligomer up to molecular weight 800 and containing up to six monomer units. These 13 oligomers covered a total of 28 isomeric forms. Other minor components detected were plasticisers and surfactants as well as impurities present in the starting materials. There was no detectable residue of either the blocked isocyanate (<0.01 microg/dm(2)) used as the starting substance or the unblocked isocyanate (<0.02 microg/dm(2)). The level of extractable IPDI was used as an indicator of the completeness of cure in experimental coatings. These studies revealed that there was an influence of time, temperature and catalyst content. Polymerisation was also influenced by the additives used and by the ageing of the wet coating formulation over several months. These studies allow parameters to be specified to ensure that commercial production coatings receive a full cure giving low migration characteristics.

  20. Development of sugar palm yarn/glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Khalina, A.; Sapuan, S. Mohd; Rahmah, M.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of fibre hybridization for sugar palm yarn fibre with glass fibre reinforced with unsaturated polyester composites. In this work, unsaturated polyester resin are reinforced with fibre at a ratio of 70:30 wt% and 60:40 wt%. The hybrid composites were characterized in terms of physical (density and water absorption), mechanical (tensile, flexural and compression) and thermal properties through thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA). Density determination showed that density increased with higher wt% of glass fibre. The inherently higher density of glass fibre increased the density of hybrid composite. Resistance to water absorption is improved upon the incorporation of glass fibre and the hybrid composites were found to reach equilibrium absorption at days 4 and 5. As for mechanical performance, the highest tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus and compression strength were obtained from 40 wt% of fibres reinforcement with ratio of 50:50 wt% of sugar palm yarn fibre and glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. The increase of glass fibre loading had a synergistic effect on the mechanical properties to the composites structure due to its superior strength and modulus. The thermal stability of hybrid composites was improved by the increase of onset temperature and the reduction of residues upon increase in temperature.

  1. Tandem mass spectrometry characteristics of polyester anions and cations formed by electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Arnould, Mark A; Buehner, Rita W; Wesdemiotis, Chrys; Vargas, Rafael

    2005-01-01

    Electrospray ionization of polyesters composed of isophthalic acid and neopentyl glycol produces carboxylate anions in negative mode and mainly sodium ion adducts in positive mode. A tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) study of these ions in a quadrupole ion trap shows that the collisionally activated dissociation pathways of the anions are simpler than those of the corresponding cations. Charge-remote fragmentations predominate in both cases, but the spectra obtained in negative mode are devoid of the complicating cation exchange observed in positive mode. MS/MS of the Na(+) adducts gives rise to a greater number of fragments but not necessarily more structural information. In either positive or negative mode, polyester oligomers with different end groups fragment by similar mechanisms. The observed fragments are consistent with rearrangements initiated by the end groups. Single-stage ESI mass spectra also are more complex in positive mode because of extensive H/Na substitutions; this is also true for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectra. Hence, formation and analysis of anions might be the method of choice for determining block length, end group structure and copolymer sequence, provided the polyester contains at least one carboxylic acid end group that is ionizable to anions.

  2. Soil-release behaviour of polyester fabrics after chemical modification with polyethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, T. M. R.; Santos, J.; Soares, G. M. B.

    2017-10-01

    The fibres cleanability depends, among other characteristics, on their hydrophilicity. Hydrophilic fibres are easy-wash materials but hydrophobic fibres are difficult to clean due to their higher water-repellent surfaces. This type of surfaces, like polyester (PET), produce an accumulation of electrostatic charges, which favors adsorption and retention of dirt. Thus, the polyester soil-release properties can be increased by finishing processes that improve fiber hydrophilicity. In present study, PET fabric modification was described by using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and N,N´-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU) chemically modified resin. Briefly, the modification process was carried out in two steps, one to hydrolyse the polyester and create hydroxyl and carboxylic acid groups on the surface and other to crosslink the PEG chains. The resulting materials were characterized by contact angle, DSC and FTIR-ATR methods. Additionally, the soil release behavior and the mechanical properties of modified PET were evaluated. For the best process conditions, the treated PET presented 0° contact angle, grade 5 stain release and acceptable mechanical performance.

  3. Thread angle dependency on flame spread shape over kenaf/polyester combined fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azahari Razali, Mohd; Sapit, Azwan; Nizam Mohammed, Akmal; Nor Anuar Mohamad, Md; Nordin, Normayati; Sadikin, Azmahani; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Jaat, Norrizam; Khalid, Amir

    2017-09-01

    Understanding flame spread behavior is crucial to Fire Safety Engineering. It is noted that the natural fiber exhibits different flame spread behavior than the one of the synthetic fiber. This different may influences the flame spread behavior over combined fabric. There is a research has been done to examined the flame spread behavior over kenaf/polyester fabric. It is seen that the flame spread shape is dependent on the thread angle dependency. However, the explanation of this phenomenon is not described in detail in that research. In this study, explanation about this phenomenon is given in detail. Results show that the flame spread shape is dependent on the position of synthetic thread. For thread angle, θ = 0°, the polyester thread is breaking when the flame approach to the thread and the kenaf thread tends to move to the breaking direction. This behavior produces flame to be ‘V’ shape. However, for thread angle, θ = 90°, the polyester thread melts while the kenaf thread decomposed and burned. At this angle, the distance between kenaf threads remains constant as flame approaches.

  4. The effect of mechanical loads on the degradation of aliphatic biodegradable polyesters.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Chu, Zhaowei; Li, Xiaoming; Ding, Xili; Guo, Meng; Zhao, Haoran; Yao, Jie; Wang, Lizhen; Cai, Qiang; Fan, Yubo

    2017-06-01

    Aliphatic biodegradable polyesters have been the most widely used synthetic polymers for developing biodegradable devices as alternatives for the currently used permanent medical devices. The performances during biodegradation process play crucial roles for final realization of their functions. Because physiological and biochemical environment in vivo significantly affects biodegradation process, large numbers of studies on effects of mechanical loads on the degradation of aliphatic biodegradable polyesters have been launched during last decades. In this review article, we discussed the mechanism of biodegradation and several different mechanical loads that have been reported to affect the biodegradation process. Other physiological and biochemical factors related to mechanical loads were also discussed. The mechanical load could change the conformational strain energy and morphology to weaken the stability of the polymer. Besides, the load and pattern could accelerate the loss of intrinsic mechanical properties of polymers. This indicated that investigations into effects of mechanical loads on the degradation should be indispensable. More combination condition of mechanical loads and multiple factors should be considered in order to keep the degradation rate controllable and evaluate the degradation process in vivo accurately. Only then can the degradable devise achieve the desired effects and further expand the special applications of aliphatic biodegradable polyesters.

  5. Microbial Odor Profile of Polyester and Cotton Clothes after a Fitness Session

    PubMed Central

    Callewaert, Chris; De Maeseneire, Evelyn; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Verliefde, Arne; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts were collected from 26 healthy individuals after an intensive bicycle spinning session and incubated for 28 h before analysis. A trained odor panel determined significant differences between polyester versus cotton fabrics for the hedonic value, the intensity, and five qualitative odor characteristics. The polyester T-shirts smelled significantly less pleasant and more intense, compared to the cotton T-shirts. A dissimilar bacterial growth was found in cotton versus synthetic clothing textiles. Micrococci were isolated in almost all synthetic shirts and were detected almost solely on synthetic shirts by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting. A selective enrichment of micrococci in an in vitro growth experiment confirmed the presence of these species on polyester. Staphylococci were abundant on both cotton and synthetic fabrics. Corynebacteria were not enriched on any textile type. This research found that the composition of clothing fibers promotes differential growth of textile microbes and, as such, determines possible malodor generation. PMID:25128346

  6. Cationization and gamma irradiation effects on the dyeability of polyester fabric towards disperse dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohdy, Maged H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of hydrazine hydrate (HZH) treatment and/or gamma irradiation on the dyeing, mechanical and thermal properties of polyester fabrics (PET) was studied. The different factors that may affect the dyeing performance, such as concentrations of HZH, benzyl alcohol and pH values, were investigated. In this regard, the colour strength of untreated polyester fabrics dyed with the dyestuffs Dispersol blue BR, Dispersol orange B2R and Dispersol red B2B was found to be 10.34, 10.76 and 10.12 compared to 24.61, 24.90 and 23.00 in the case of irradiated and HZH-treated polyester fabrics, respectively. These colour strength values were achieved by preirradiation at a dose of 75 kGy followed by treatment with 15 ml l-1 of HZH. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the thermal decomposition stability was improved by using gamma irradiation and the treatment with HZH as indicated by the calculated activation energies. FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the treatment with HZH acts as cationizer prior to dyeing with disperse dyes.

  7. Release of polyester and cotton fibers from textiles in machine washings.

    PubMed

    Sillanpää, Markus; Sainio, Pirjo

    2017-08-01

    Microplastics are widely spread in the environment, which along with still increasing production have aroused concern of their impacts on environmental health. The objective of this study is to quantify the number and mass of two most common textile fibers discharged from sequential machine washings to sewers. The number and mass of microfibers released from polyester and cotton textiles in the first wash varied in the range 2.1 × 10 5 to 1.3 × 10 7 and 0.12 to 0.33% w/w, respectively. Amounts of released microfibers showed a decreasing trend in sequential washes. The annual emission of polyester and cotton microfibers from household washing machines was estimated to be 154,000 (1.0 × 10 14 ) and 411,000 kg (4.9 × 10 14 ) in Finland (population 5.5 × 10 6 ). Due to the high emission values and sorption capacities, the polyester and cotton microfibers may play an important role in the transport and fate of chemical pollutants in the aquatic environment.

  8. Microbial odor profile of polyester and cotton clothes after a fitness session.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Chris; De Maeseneire, Evelyn; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Verliefde, Arne; Van de Wiele, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-11-01

    Clothing textiles protect our human body against external factors. These textiles are not sterile and can harbor high bacterial counts as sweat and bacteria are transmitted from the skin. We investigated the microbial growth and odor development in cotton and synthetic clothing fabrics. T-shirts were collected from 26 healthy individuals after an intensive bicycle spinning session and incubated for 28 h before analysis. A trained odor panel determined significant differences between polyester versus cotton fabrics for the hedonic value, the intensity, and five qualitative odor characteristics. The polyester T-shirts smelled significantly less pleasant and more intense, compared to the cotton T-shirts. A dissimilar bacterial growth was found in cotton versus synthetic clothing textiles. Micrococci were isolated in almost all synthetic shirts and were detected almost solely on synthetic shirts by means of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting. A selective enrichment of micrococci in an in vitro growth experiment confirmed the presence of these species on polyester. Staphylococci were abundant on both cotton and synthetic fabrics. Corynebacteria were not enriched on any textile type. This research found that the composition of clothing fibers promotes differential growth of textile microbes and, as such, determines possible malodor generation. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. A facile fabrication of multifunctional knit polyester fabric based on chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiaoning; Tian, Mingwei; Qu, Lijun; Zhu, Shifeng; Guo, Xiaoqing; Han, Guangting; Sun, Kaikai; Hu, Xili; Wang, Yujiao; Xu, Xiaoqi

    2014-10-01

    Knit polyester fabric was successively modified and decorated with chitosan layer and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer in this paper. The fabric was firstly treated with chitosan to form a stable layer through the pad-dry-cure process, and then the polyaniline polymer nanocomposite layer was established on the outer layer by in situ chemical polymerization method using ammonium persulfate as oxidant and chlorhydric acid as dopant. The surface morphology of coated fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the co-existence of chitosan layer and granular polyaniline polymer nanocomposite was confirmed and well dispersed on the fabric surface. The resultant fabric was endowed with remarkable electrical conductivity properties and efficient water-repellent capability, which also have been found stable after water laundering. In addition, the photocatalytic decomposition activity for reactive red dye was observed when the multifunctional knit polyester fabric was exposed to the illumination of ultraviolet lamp. These results indicated that chitosan and polyaniline polymer nanocomposite could form ideal multifunctional coatings on the surface of knit polyester fabric.

  10. A functionalizable polyester with free hydroxyl groups and tunable physiochemical and biological properties

    PubMed Central

    You, Zhengwei; Cao, Haiping; Gao, Jin; Shin, Paul H.; Day, Billy W.; Wang, Yadong

    2010-01-01

    Polyesters with free functional groups allow facile modifications with biomolecules, which can lead to versatile biomaterials that afford controlled interactions with cells and tissues. Efficient synthesis of functionalizable polyesters is still a challenge that greatly limits the availability and widespread applications of biofunctionalized synthetic polymers. Here we report a simple route to prepare a functionalizable polyester, poly(sebacoyl diglyceride) (PSeD) bearing free hydroxyl groups. The key synthetic step is an epoxide ring-opening polymerization, instead of the traditional polycondensation, that produces poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) [1]. PSeD has a more defined structure with mostly linear backbone, more free hydroxyl groups, higher molecular weight, and lower polydispersity than PGS. Crosslinking PSeD with sebacic acid yields a polymer five times tougher and more elastic than cured PGS. PSeD exhibits good cytocompatibility in vitro. Furthermore, functionalization by glycine proceeds with high efficiency. This versatile synthetic platform can offer a large family of biodegradable, functionalized polymers with tunable physiochemical and biological properties useful for a wide range of biomedical applications. PMID:20149441

  11. Syntrophic co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Klebsiella pneumonia for degradation of kraft lignin discharged from rayon grade pulp industry.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sangeeta; Chandra, Ram

    2015-07-01

    In order to search the degradability of kraft lignin, the potential bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis (GU193980) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (GU193981) were isolated, screened and applied in axenic and co-culture conditions. Results revealed that mixed culture showed better decolorization efficiency (80%) and reduction of pollution parameters (COD 73% and BOD 62%) than axenic culture. This indicated syntrophic growth of these two bacteria rather than any antagonistic effect. The HPLC analysis of degraded samples of kraft lignin has shown the reduction in peak area compared to control, suggesting that decrease in color intensity might be largely attributed to the degradation of lignin by isolated bacteria. Further, the GC-MS analysis showed that most of the compounds detected in control were diminished after bacterial treatment. Further, the seed germination test using Phaseolus aureus has supported the detoxification of bacterial decolorized kraft lignin for environmental safety. All these observations have revealed that the developed bacterial co-culture was capable for the effective degradation and decolorization of lignin containing rayon grade pulp mill wastewater for environmental safety. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Polypropylene-based composite mesh versus standard polypropylene mesh in the reconstruction of complicated large abdominal wall hernias: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Kassem, M I; El-Haddad, H M

    2016-10-01

    To compare polypropylene mesh positioned onlay supported by omentum and/or peritoneum versus inlay implantation of polypropylene-based composite mesh in patients with complicated wide-defect ventral hernias. This was a prospective randomized study carried out on 60 patients presenting with complicated large ventral hernia in the period from January 2012 to January 2016 in the department of Gastrointestinal Surgery unit and Surgical Emergency of the Main Alexandria University Hospital, Egypt. Large hernia had an abdominal wall defect that could not be closed. Patients were divided into two groups of 30 patients according to the type of mesh used to deal with the large abdominal wall defect. The study included 38 women (63.3 %) and 22 men (37.7 %); their mean age was 46.5 years (range, 25-70). Complicated incisional hernia was the commonest presentation (56.7 %).The operative and mesh fixation times were longer in the polypropylene group. Seven wound infections and two recurrences were encountered in the propylene group. Mean follow-up was 28.7 months (2-48 months). Composite mesh provided, in one session, satisfactory results in patients with complicated large ventral hernia. The procedure is safe and effective in lowering operative time with a trend of low wound complication and recurrence rates.

  13. Spatially Resolved Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystal-Polypropylene Composite by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Treesearch

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Ronald Sabo; Richard S. Reiner; Craig M. Clemons; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)–polypropylene (PP) composites and to investigate the spatial distribution of CNCs in extruded composite filaments. Three composites were made from two forms of nanocellulose (CNCs from wood pulp and the nanoscale fraction of microcrystalline cellulose) and two of the three composites investigated used...

  14. Chapter 1.4: Spatially Resolved Characterization of CNC-Polypropylene composite by Confocal Raman Microscopy

    Treesearch

    Umesh Agarwal; Ronald Sabo; Richard Reiner; Craig Clemons; Alan Rudie

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy was used to analyze cellulose nanocrystal (CNC)-polypropylene (PP) composites and to investigate the spatial distribution of CNCs in extruded composite filaments. Three composites were made from two forms of nanocellulose (CNCs from wood pulp and the nanoscale fraction of microcrystalline cellulose), and two of the three composites...

  15. Evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of coffee tree wood flour - polypropylene composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Columbian coffee trees are subject to frequent replacement plantings due to disease and local climate changes which makes them an ideal source of wood fibers for wood plastic composites (WPC). Composites of polypropylene (PP) consisting of 25% and 40% by weight of coffee wood flour (CF) and 0% or 5%...

  16. Morphology Evolution of Polypropylene in Immiscible Polymer Blends for Fabrication of Nanofibers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Immiscible blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and isotactic polypropylenes (iPPs) with different melting index were extruded through a two-strand rod die. The extrudates were hot-drawn at the die exit at different draw ratios by controlling the drawing speed. The morphologies of iPP fibers e...

  17. Nanoindentation of the interphase region of a wood-reinforced polypropylene composite

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Jakes; John C. Hermanson; Donald S. Stone

    2007-01-01

    The interphase region of a wood-reinforced polypropylene (PP) composite was investigated with nanoindentation techniques capable of separating intrinsic properties of PP in the interphase region from the effect of elastic discontinuity caused by the nearby wood cell wall. From data collected in this experiment, no differences in hardness or Young’s modulus for PP were...

  18. Influence of moisture absorption on mechanical properties of wood flour- polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Nicole Stark

    2001-09-01

    Wood-plastic composites are being examined for a greater number of structural-type applications that may be exposed to different environments, some of them adverse. This paper discusses the influence of moisture absorption on the mechanical proper-ties of wood flour-polypropylene composites. Composites filled with 20% or 40% wood flour (by weight) were placed in...

  19. Effect of tetraethoxysilane coating on the improvement of plasma treated polypropylene adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, M.; Encinas, N.; Abenojar, J.; Martínez, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Polypropylene is one of the most used polymers due to its lightweight and recyclability properties, among others. However, its poor characteristics regarding surface energy and lack of polar functional groups have to be overcome to perform adhesion processes. The main objective of this work is to improve the adhesion behavior of polypropylene by combining atmospheric pressure plasma surface activation and silane adhesion promoter. Tetraethoxysilane hydrolysis and condensation are followed through infrared spectroscopy by attenuated total reflectance in order to set the coating conditions. Contact angle measurements and surface energy calculations as well as infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to evaluate polymer chemical modifications. Morphological changes are studied through scanning electron and atomic force microscopy. Results show the ability of plasma treatment to create active oxydised functional groups on the polypropylene surface. These groups lead to a proper wetting of the polymer by the silane. Shear strength of single-lap bonding of polypropylene with a polyurethane adhesive suffers a significant improvement when the silane coating is applied on previously plasma activated samples. It has been also demonstrated that the silane curing conditions play a decisive role on the adhesion response. Finally, the stability of the silane solution is tested up to 30 days, yielding diminished but still acceptable adhesion strength values.

  20. Mechanical performance of hemp fiber polypropylene composites at different operating temperatures

    Treesearch

    Mehdi Tajvidi; Nazanin Motie; Ghonche Rassam; Robert H. Falk; Colin Felton

    2010-01-01

    In order to quantify the effect of temperature on the mechanical properties of hemp fiber polypropylene composites, formulations containing 25% and 40% (by weight) hemp fiber were produced and tested at three representative temperatures of 256, 296, and 336 K. Flexural, tensile, and impact tests, as well as dynamic mechanical analysis, were performed and the reduction...

  1. A novel approach in organic waste utilization through biochar addition in wood/polypropylene composites

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Oisik; Sarmah, Ajit K., E-mail: a.sarmah@auckland.ac.nz; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    Highlights: • Biochar made from waste wood was added with wood polypropylene composites. • 24% biochar gave the best mechanical properties. • 6% biochar had no effect on physico-mechanical properties of composites. • Coupling agent remained unreacted in composites having higher amount of biochar. - Abstract: In an attempt to concurrently address the issues related to landfill gas emission and utilization of organic wastes, a relatively novel idea is introduced to develop biocomposites where biochar made from pyrolysis of waste wood (Pinus radiata) is added with the same wood, plastic/polymer (polypropylene) and maleated anhydride polypropylene (MAPP). Experiments were conducted bymore » manufacturing wood and polypropylene composites (WPCs) mixed with 6 wt%, 12 wt%, 18 wt%, 24 wt%, and 30 wt% biochar. Though 6 wt% addition had similar properties to that of the control (composite without biochar), increasing biochar content to 24 wt% improved the composite’s tensile/flexural strengths and moduli. The biochar, having high surface area due to fine particles and being highly carbonised, acted as reinforcing filler in the biocomposite. Composites having 12 wt% and 18 wt% of biochar were found to be the most ductile and thermally stable, respectively. This study demonstrates that, WPCs added with biochar has good potential to mitigate wastes while simultaneously producing biocomposites having properties that might be suited for various end applications.« less

  2. Repair of a deep digital tendon deficit in a horse using a polypropylene implant.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, W H; Ingle, J E

    1997-01-01

    A yearling horse was treated for a chronic wound with a 4 cm deficit in the deep digital tendon. The gap in the tendon was bridged with paired polypropylene braided implants designed for use as a ligament augmentation device. Uncomplicated healing and return to function occurred. Images Figure 1. PMID:9167878

  3. Polypropylene Darning: A New Alternative for Reconstruction of Orbital Floor after Total Maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prashant

    2015-06-01

    Removal of orbital floor is an integral part of total (radical) maxillectomy (type IIIa), which if not managed properly, may lead to some eye related distressing complications like diplopia, eyelid malposition, epiphora, dacryocystitis, enopthalmos and ectoprion. Among all, diplopia is the most distressing complication which hampers daily activity. Various options for orbital floor reconstruction are available like titanium sheet, polypropylene mesh, non-vascularized or vascularized bone graft, pedicled flaps, micro-vascular free flaps, prosthesis placement, and split skin graft followed by obturator placement. Till date no-body has tried stabilization of eye ball by 'darning' the orbital floor using non-absorbable suture. 'Polypropylene suture darning' is an easy to learn, novel method with equally good results. Five patients with potentially resectable tumors underwent total maxillectomy. I used polypropylene 3-0 round body suture and 'darning' was done at orbital floor, incorporating periosteum (if remaining) and peri-orbital fat into the sutures. Muscle flaps were done to provide bulk and palatal reconstruction. Assessment of patients was done post-operatively at day-5 i.e., before discharge and at 1 month after surgery, and also in further follow up visits. The results were very good in terms of clear vision & eye movements (directly related to 'darning'), and the aesthetic look of patients and bilateral symmetry were satisfactory (not related to darning). Darning of orbital floor by polypropylene after total maxillectomy is an easy to learn and cost-effective method of reconstruction with good results.

  4. Effects of wood fiber characteristics on mechanical properties of wood/polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Nicole M. Stark; Robert E. Rowlands

    2003-01-01

    Commercial wood flour, the most common wood-derived filler for thermoplastics, is produced in a mixture of particle sizes and generally has a lower aspect ratio than wood and other natural fibers. To understand how wood flour and fiber characteristics influence the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites, we first investigated the effect of different sizes of...

  5. Environmental effects on the mechanical and thermomechanical properties of aspen fiber–polypropylene composites

    Treesearch

    Y. Xue; D.R. Veazie; C. Glinsey; M.F. Horstemeyer; R.M. Rowell

    2007-01-01

    The mechanical properties of newly developed aspen fiber–polypropylene composites (APC) were experimentally explored and numerically predicted at the temperatures and humidity that are typical for domestic housing applications. The mechanical properties of APCs with five different fiber-loadings were evaluated at the room temperature, 4 [degrees] C, and 40 [degrees] C...

  6. Thermosets as compatibilizers at the isotactic polypropylene film and thermomechanical pulp fiber interphase

    Treesearch

    Sangyeob Lee; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve interfacial adhesion properties at the interface of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fiber and isotactic polypropylene (iPP) using thermoset adhesives such as phenol formaldehyde (PF) and urea formaldehyde (UF). This study also attempted to achieve fiber-to-fiber adhesion using thermoset adhesives before the molten iPP would flow...

  7. Thermomechanical pulp fiber surface modification for enhancing the interfacial adhesion with polypropylene

    Treesearch

    Sangyeob Lee; Todd F. Shupe; Leslie H. Groom; Chung Y. Hse

    2007-01-01

    Chemical coupling on the thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fiber improved tensile strength of the TMP fiber handsheet and isotactic polypropylene film laminates (TPL). For the maleic anhydride W) with benzoyl peroxide (BPO)a an initiator, tensile strength increaded 52: with the TMP fiber treatment over untreated laminates. The optimum strength properties were obtained with...

  8. 21 CFR 870.3470 - Intracardiac patch or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Intracardiac patch or pledget made of... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3470 Intracardiac patch or pledget made of... or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or polytetrafluoroethylene is a fabric...

  9. 21 CFR 870.3470 - Intracardiac patch or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Intracardiac patch or pledget made of... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3470 Intracardiac patch or pledget made of... or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or polytetrafluoroethylene is a fabric...

  10. 21 CFR 870.3470 - Intracardiac patch or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Intracardiac patch or pledget made of... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3470 Intracardiac patch or pledget made of... or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or polytetrafluoroethylene is a fabric...

  11. Evaluating penetration ability of Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae into multilayer polypropylene packages

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), can invade or penetrate packaging materials and infest food products. Energy bars with three polypropylene packaging types were challenged with eggs (first instars), third, and fifth instars of P. interpunctella to determine package res...

  12. 21 CFR 870.3470 - Intracardiac patch or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Intracardiac patch or pledget made of... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3470 Intracardiac patch or pledget made of... or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or polytetrafluoroethylene is a fabric...

  13. 21 CFR 870.3470 - Intracardiac patch or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intracardiac patch or pledget made of... CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Prosthetic Devices § 870.3470 Intracardiac patch or pledget made of... or pledget made of polypropylene, polyethylene terephthalate, or polytetrafluoroethylene is a fabric...

  14. Upcycling of polypropylene waste by surface modification using radiation-induced grafting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Muhammad Inaam ul; Taimur, Shaista; Yasin, Tariq

    2017-11-01

    In this work, upcycling of polypropylene waste into amidoxime functionalized polypropylene adsorbent was studied using radiation-induced grafting technique. Polypropylene waste (PPw) was resulted from accelerated thermal ageing of polypropylene (PP). Bulk grafting of acrylonitrile (AN) onto PPw was achieved by simultaneous radiation grafting method using gamma rays. Degree of grafting of AN on PPw is affected by absorbed dose and dose rate. The acrylonitrile groups of grafted PPw were chemically converted into amidoxime functionality. Both the acrylonitrile-grafted PP waste and its amidoxime product were investigated by FTIR, XRD, SEM-EDX and TGA techniques. The prepared amidoxime adsorbent with amidoxime group density of 8.06 mmol/g was used for removal of copper ions from aqueous solutions. The effects of various physicochemical conditions such as: solution pH, adsorbent content, initial metal ion concentration and time on adsorption were studied to maximize adsorption of metal ion. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models were applied to study the kinetics of adsorption. Maximum Langmuir adsorption capacity of 208.3 mg/g at pH 5.0 with optimum contact time of 120 min was observed. Utilization of PP waste and its comparable adsorption capacity with existing radiation grafted polymer-based adsorbents provide a new, cheap and cost effective system.

  15. Study on Welding Mechanism Based on Modification of Polypropylene for Improving the Laser Transmission Weldability to PA66

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huixia; Jiang, Hairong; Guo, Dehui; Chen, Guochun; Yan, Zhang; Li, Pin; Zhu, Hejun; Chen, Jun; Wang, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene and PA66 are widely used in our daily life, but they cannot be welded by laser transmission welding (LTW) because of polar differences and poor compatibility. In this paper, grafting modification technology is used to improve the welding performance between polypropylene and PA66. Firstly, the strong reactive and polar maleic-anhydride (MAH) is grafted to polypropylene and infrared spectrometer is used to prove that MAH has been grafted to polypropylene. At the same time, the mechanical and thermal properties of the graft modified polypropylene (TGMPP) are tested. The results prove that the grafting modification has little influence on them. Also, the optical properties of TGMPP are measured. Then, the high welding strength between TGMPP and PA66 is found and the mechanism of the weldability is researched, which shows that there are two reasons for the high welding strength. By observing the micro morphology of the welding zone, one reason found is that the modification of polypropylene can improve the compatibility between polypropylene and PA66 and make them easy to diffuse mutually, which causes many locking structures formed in the welding region. The other reason is that there are chemical reactions between TGMPP and PA66 proved by the X-ray photoelectron spectrometer. PMID:28793484

  16. Preparation and properties of high storage stability polyester polyol dispersion for two-component waterborne polyurethane coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, H.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, F.; Tu, W. P.

    2017-01-01

    A new type of polyester polyol dispersion with good storage stability was prepared based on a hydrophilic monomer 5-sodium sulfodimethyl isophthalate (5-SIPM), and frequently-used monomers such as neopentyl glycol (NPG), dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) by the transpolycondensation and polycondensation method. The polyester polyol dispersion was characterized by FTIR and GPC. The proper content of these monomers were determined by the performance of polyester dispersion: the content of TMP was 15wt%, the content of NPG was 7.5wt% and the hydrophilic monomer 5-SIPM content was 5wt%. Two-component waterborne polyurethane (2K-WPU) coatings were prepared by Bayhydur® XP2487/1 and polyester polyol dispersions, which were stored before and after at 40 ° for 6 weeks, the prepared films have no differences in drying time, adhesion, pencil hardness, gloss and chemical resistance, the result also reveals that the polyester polyol dispersion have excellent storage stability resistance.

  17. Simulation on the Performance of a Driven Fan Made by Polyester/Epoxy interpenetrate polymer network (IPN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Jamri, Azmil; Nawawi, Azli; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad; Fauzi Ahmad, Md; Adzila, Sharifah; Nasrull Abdol Rahman, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the performance of a driven fan design made by Polyester/Epoxy interpenetrate polymer network (IPN) material that specifically used for turbocharger compressor. Polyester/Epoxy IPN is polymer plastics that was used as replacements for traditional polymers and has been widely used in a variety of applications because of their limitless conformations. Simulation based on several parameters which are air pressure, air velocity and air temperature have been carried out for a driven fan design performance of two different materials, aluminum alloy (existing driven fan design) and Polyester/Epoxy IPN using SolidWorks Flow Simulation software. Results from both simulations were analyzed and compared where both materials show similar performance in terms of air pressure and air velocity due to similar geometric and dimension, but Polyester/Epoxy IPN produces lower air temperature than aluminum alloy. This study shows a preliminary result of the potential Polyester/Epoxy IPN to be used as a driven fan design material. In the future, further studies will be conducted on detail simulation and experimental analysis.

  18. Study on Energy Absorption Capacity of Steel-Polyester Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete Under Uni-axial Compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chella Gifta, C.; Prabavathy, S.

    2018-05-01

    This work presents the energy absorption capacity of hybrid fiber reinforced concrete made with hooked end steel fibers (0.5 and 0.75%) and straight polyester fibers (0.5, 0.8, 1.0 and 2.0%). Compressive toughness (energy absorption capacity) under uni-axial compression was evaluated on 100 × 200 mm size cylindrical specimens with varying steel and polyester fiber content. Efficiency of the hybrid fiber reinforcement is studied with respect to fiber type, size and volume fractions in this investigation. The vertical displacement under uni-axial compression was measured under the applied loads and the load-deformation curves were plotted. From these curves the toughness values were calculated and the results were compared with steel and polyester as individual fibers. The hybridization of 0.5% steel + 0.5% polyester performed well in post peak region due to the addition of polyester fibers with steel fibers and the energy absorption value was 23% greater than 0.5% steel FRC. Peak stress values were also higher in hybrid series than single fiber and based on the results it is concluded that hybrid fiber reinforcement improves the toughness characteristics of concrete without affecting workability.

  19. A novel polyester composite nanofiltration membrane formed by interfacial polymerization of pentaerythritol (PE) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jun; Shi, Wenxin; Zhang, Lanhe; Zhang, Ruijun

    2017-09-01

    A novel polyester thin film composite nanofiltration (NF) membrane was prepared by interfacial polymerization of pentaerythritol (PE) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) on polyethersulfone (PES) supporting membrane. The performance of the polyester composite NF membrane was optimized by regulating the preparation parameters, including reaction time, pH of the aqueous phase solution, pentaerythritol concentration and TMC concentration. A series of characterization, including permeation experiments, attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), zeta potential analyzer and chlorine resistance experiments, were employed to study the properties of the optimized membrane. The results showed that the optimized polyester composite NF membrane exhibited very high rejection of Na2SO4 (98.1%), but the water flux is relatively low (6.1 L/m2 h, 0.5 MPa, 25 °C). The order of salt rejections is Na2SO4 > MgSO4 > MgCl2 > NaCl, which indicated the membrane was negatively charged, just consistent with the membrane zeta potential results. After treating by NaClO solutions with different concentrations (100 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 2000 ppm, 3000 ppm) for 48 h, the results demonstrated that the polyester NF membrane had good chlorine resistance. Additionally, the polyester TFC NF membrane exhibits good long-term stability.

  20. Design and fabrication of an E-shaped wearable textile antenna on PVB-coated hydrophobic polyester fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babu Roshni, Satheesh; Jayakrishnan, M. P.; Mohanan, P.; Peethambharan Surendran, Kuzhichalil

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we investigated the simulation and fabrication of an E-shaped microstrip patch antenna realized on multilayered polyester fabric suitable for WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) applications. The main challenges while designing a textile antenna were to provide adequate thickness, surface uniformity and water wettability to the textile substrate. Here, three layers of polyester fabric were stacked together in order to obtain sufficient thickness, and were subsequently dip coated with polyvinyl butyral (PVB) solution. The PVB-coated polyester fabric showed a hydrophobic nature with a contact angle of 91°. The RMS roughness of the uncoated and PVB-coated polyester fabric was about 341 nm and 15 nm respectively. The promising properties, such as their flexibility, light weight and cost effectiveness, enable effortless integration of the proposed antenna into clothes like polyester jackets. Simulated and measured results in terms of return loss as well as gain were showcased to confirm the usefulness of the fabricated prototype. The fabricated antenna successfully operates at 3.37 GHz with a return loss of 21 dB and a maximum measured gain of 3.6 dB.

  1. Investigating interfacial phenomena in polypropylene/glass fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toke, Jeffrey Michael

    The adhesion in polypropylene (PP)/glass composites is low due to the non-polar, non-reactive characteristics of PP. When maleated PP (mPP) is added to the matrix, adhesion is improved. Understanding the mechanisms of this phenomenon is critical in maximizing the adhesion in PP/glass composites. The strength of adhesion in PP/glass composites was investigated using glass bead composites. A Near-IR spectroscopic technique was used to evaluate the chemical reactions in the interphase. Twelve different commercial grades of maleated PP (mPP) were tested. The range of maleic anydride (MAH) content was from 0.3 weight percent (wt%) to 2.4 wt%, with one sample at 10 wt%. These mPPs were blended with a commercial PP from Huntsman, P4C5Z-027 (PP), a 20 MFI (melt flow index) polymer with minimal additives, in concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 wt%. Bead composites of non-coated (NON) and gamma-APS-coated beads (APS) were made to compare the strength of the interphase in the composite systems. The bead volume fraction used was 25 volume percent (vol%). Three polymers with different MAH content and different viscosities were tested at 1, 5, 10 and 20 wt%. All of the mPPs were tested at 5 wt%. In general, the mPP composites all exhibited higher strength compared to the PP. Pukanszky's model for tensile strength was applied that included the strength of the unfilled matrix and the volume percent of the beads in a single factor, B. Comparison of all of the polymers at 5 wt% showed that there were four groupings of the mPPs. The polymers with MAH content greater than 1.5 wt% showed the strongest adhesion with B values of ˜2.5. All of these polymers had viscosities less than 100 Pa-s (180°C, 1 Hz angular frequency). The next group of polymers, with B ˜ 2, had MAH contents ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 wt%, with viscosities ranging from the 21 Pa-s to greater than 2300 Pa-s (180°C, 1 Hz angular frequency). The following group, with B ˜ 0.9, had anhydride concentrations of 0.6 and 0

  2. Synthesis, Properties and Applications of Biodegradable Polymers Derived from Diols and Dicarboxylic Acids: From Polyesters to Poly(ester amide)s

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Angélica; Katsarava, Ramaz; Puiggalí, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Poly(alkylene dicarboxylate)s constitute a family of biodegradable polymers with increasing interest for both commodity and speciality applications. Most of these polymers can be prepared from biobased diols and dicarboxylic acids such as 1,4-butanediol, succinic acid and carbohydrates. This review provides a current status report concerning synthesis, biodegradation and applications of a series of polymers that cover a wide range of properties, namely, materials from elastomeric to rigid characteristics that are suitable for applications such as hydrogels, soft tissue engineering, drug delivery systems and liquid crystals. Finally, the incorporation of aromatic units and α-amino acids is considered since stiffness of molecular chains and intermolecular interactions can be drastically changed. In fact, poly(ester amide)s derived from naturally occurring amino acids offer great possibilities as biodegradable materials for biomedical applications which are also extensively discussed. PMID:24776758

  3. Analyse de l'état mécanique et microstructural de films minces supraconducteurs YBa_2 Cu_3O_7 par diffraction des rayons X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzary, S.; Badawi, K. F.; Bimbault, L.; Rabier, J.; Gaboriaud, R. J.; Goudeau, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    Mechanical and microstructural analysis in a 100nm thin film is presented in this study. Using X-ray diffraction with a tensorial approach, we have determined stresses, strains, stress-free lattice parameters, microdistorsions and diffracting coherent domains size. Stress-free lattice parameters are higher than the bulk values. A high value of stresses is explained as a combination of coherent stresses, thermal stresses and intrinsic ones. Diffraction peaks line profiles analysis suggests grain boundaries presence as well as high lattice elastic microdistorsions. Cette étude présente une analyse de l'état mécanique et microstructurale dans un film mince de 100nm d'épaisseur d'YBCO déposé sur un substrat de MgO. En utilisant la diffraction des rayons X couplée à une approche tensorielle, nous avons déterminé les déformations, les contraintes, les paramètres libres de contraintes, les microdistorsions élastiques ainsi que la taille des domaines cohérents de diffraction. Les paramètres libres de contrainte sont supérieurs à ceux du massif. Une valeur élevée des contraintes est expliquée à partir des contraintes de cohérence, des contraintes thermiques et intrinsèques. L'analyse des profils des pics de diffraction suggère la présence de sous-joints et de distorsions élastiques élevées au niveau des mailles cristallographiques.

  4. Mechanical characterization of glass fiber (woven roving/chopped strand mat E-glass fiber) reinforced polyester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, V. Vijaya; Srinivas, Kolla

    2017-07-01

    Polymer reinforced composites have been replacing most of the engineering material and their applications become more and more day by day. Polymer composites have been analyzing from past thirty five years for their betterment for adapting more applications. This paper aims at the mechanical properties of polyester reinforced with glass fiber composites. The glass fiber is reinforced with polyester in two forms viz Woven Rovings (WRG) and Chopped Strand Mat (CSMG) E-glass fibers. The composites are fabricated by hand lay-up technique and the composites are cut as per ASTM Standard sizes for corresponding tests like flexural, compression and impact tests, so that flexural strength, compression strength, impact strength and inter laminar shear stress(ILSS) of polymer matrix composites are analyzed. From the tests and further calculations, the polyester composites reinforced with Chopped Strand Mat glass fiber have shown better performance against flexural load, compression load and impact load than that of Woven Roving glass fiber.

  5. Chemical Resistance of Ornamental Compound Stone Produced with Marble Waste and Unsaturated Polyester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Carlos E. Gomes; Rodriguez, Rubén J. Sánchez; Vieira, Carlos M. Fontes

    Ornamental compound stone are produced by industry for decades, however, few published studies describe these materials. Brazil has many deposits of stone wastes and a big potential to produce these materials. This work aims to evaluate the chemical resistance of ornamental compound stones produced with marble waste and unsaturated polyester. An adaptation of Annex H of ABNT NBR 13818:97 standard, with reagents commonly used in household products, was used. The results were compared with those obtained for natural stone used in composite production.

  6. Early Wound Morbidity after Open Ventral Hernia Repair with Biosynthetic or Polypropylene Mesh.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Sambit; Haskins, Ivy N; Huang, Li-Ching; Krpata, David M; Derwin, Kathleen A; Poulose, Benjamin K; Rosen, Michael J

    2017-10-01

    Recently introduced slow-resorbing biosynthetic and non-resorbing macroporous polypropylene meshes are being used in hernias with clean-contaminated and contaminated wounds. However, information about the use of biosynthetic meshes and their outcomes compared with polypropylene meshes in clean-contaminated and contaminated cases is lacking. Here we evaluate the use of biosynthetic mesh and polypropylene mesh in elective open ventral hernia repair (OVHR) and investigate differences in early wound morbidity after OVHR within clean-contaminated and contaminated cases. All elective, OVHR with biosynthetic mesh or uncoated polypropylene mesh from January 2013 through October 2016 were identified within the Americas Hernia Society Quality Collaborative. Association of mesh type with 30-day wound events in clean-contaminated or contaminated wounds was investigated using a 1:3 propensity-matched analysis. Biosynthetic meshes were used in 8.5% (175 of 2,051) of elective OVHR, with the majority (57.1%) used in low-risk or comorbid clean cases. Propensity-matched analysis in clean-contaminated and contaminated cases showed no significant difference between biosynthetic mesh and polypropylene mesh groups for 30-day surgical site occurrences (20.7% vs 16.7%; p = 0.49) or unplanned readmission (13.8% vs 9.8%; p = 0.4). However, surgical site infections (22.4% vs 10.9%; p = 0.03), surgical site occurrences requiring procedural intervention (24.1% vs 13.2%; p = 0.049), and reoperation rates (13.8% vs 4.0%; p = 0.009) were significantly higher in the biosynthetic group. Biosynthetic mesh appears to have higher rates of 30-day wound morbidity compared with polypropylene mesh in elective OVHR with clean-contaminated or contaminated wounds. Additional post-market analysis is needed to provide evidence defining best mesh choices, location, and surgical technique for repairing contaminated ventral hernias. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc

  7. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polypropylene Composites Reinforced with Lignocellulose Nanofibers Dried in Melted Ethylene-Butene Copolymer

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Shinichiro; Yamamoto, Shigehiro; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Ito, Hirokazu; Endo, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose nanofibers were prepared by the wet disk milling of wood flour. First, an ethylene-butene copolymer was pre-compounded with wood flour or lignocellulose nanofibers to prepare master batches. This process involved evaporating the water of the lignocellulose nanofiber suspension during compounding with ethylene-butene copolymer by heating at 105 °C. These master batches were compounded again with polypropylene to obtain the final composites. Since ethylene-butene copolymer is an elastomer, its addition increased the impact strength of polypropylene but decreased the stiffness. In contrast, the wood flour- and lignocellulose nanofiber-reinforced composites showed significantly higher flexural moduli and slightly higher flexural yield stresses than did the ethylene-butene/polypropylene blends. Further, the wood flour composites exhibited brittle fractures during tensile tests and had lower impact strengths than those of the ethylene-butene/polypropylene blends. On the other hand, the addition of the lignocellulose nanofibers did not decrease the impact strength of the ethylene-butene/polypropylene blends. Finally, the addition of wood flour and the lignocellulose nanofibers increased the crystallization temperature and crystallization rate of polypropylene. The increases were more remarkable in the case of the lignocellulose nanofibers than for wood flour. PMID:28788222

  8. Aliphatic hyperbranched polyester: A new building block in the construction of multifunctional nanoparticles and nanocomposites**

    PubMed Central

    Santra, Santimukul; Kaittanis, Charalambos; Perez, J. Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Herein we report the design and synthesis of multifunctional hyperbranched polyester-based nanoparticles and nanocomposites with properties ranging from magnetic, fluorescence, antioxidant and X-ray contrast. The fabrication of these nanostructures was achieved using a novel aliphatic and biodegradable hyperbranched polyester (HBPE) synthesized from readily available diethylmalonate. The polymer’s globular structure with functional surface carboxylic groups and hydrophobic cavities residing in the polymer’s interior allows for the formation of multifunctional polymeric nanoparticles, which are able to encapsulate a diversity of hydrophobic cargos. Via simple surface chemistry modifications, the surface carboxylic acid groups were modified to yield nanoparticles with a variety of surface functionalizations, such as amino, azide and propargyl groups, which mediated the conjugation of small molecules. This capability achieved the engineering of the HBPE nanoparticle surface for specific cell internalization studies and the formation of nanoparticle assemblies for the creation of novel nanocomposites that retained, and in some cases enhanced, the properties of the parental nanoparticle building blocks. Considering these results, the HBPE polymer, nanoparticles and composites should be ideal for biomedical, pharmaceutical, nanophotonics and material applications. PMID:19957939

  9. The role of the substrate in micro-scale scratching of epoxy-polyester films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, M.; Gisario, A.

    2011-02-01

    The present investigation analyzes the deformation response of electrostatically sprayed epoxy-polyester powder coatings by 'in situ' micro-mechanical tests. The characterization of the performance of the coatings was carried out by micro-scale scratching, by varying the indenter type, the applied load and the sliding speed. The tests were carried out on polymeric coatings deposited on as-received, micro and macro-corrugated AISI 304 stainless steel substrates and 'rigidly adhered' to them. Further tests were performed on 'free-standing' coatings, that is, on the as-received metal substrates pre-coated with an intermediate layer of silicon-based heat curable release coating. Experimental data allow us to evaluate the influence of the contact conditions between substrate and indenter and the role of the loading conditions on the scratch and penetration resistance of the epoxy-polyester coatings. The different responses of the polymeric coatings when deposited on untreated or pre-treated substrates as well as on an intermediate layer of release coating, contribute to a better understanding of the intrinsic roles of the polymeric material and substrate as well as the influence of the interfacial adhesion between coating and substrate.

  10. The storage stability of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jeong-Hyeon; Deep, Akash; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the sorptive loss properties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in polyester aluminum bags were investigated as a function of storage duration. To this end, the relative recovery of gas phase standards of BVOCs, obtained via vaporization of liquid phase standards, was computed by calibrating their standards (response factors: RF) represnting each phase. Accordingly, the results indicated either slight loss (-5.59% (isoprene), -2.39% (camphene), -1.69% ((R)-(+)-limonene), -0.88% (p-cymene)) or gain (1.47% (γ-terpinene), 2.27% (α-terpinene), 2.63% (α-phellandrene), 2.73% ((+)-3-carene), 3.93% ((+)-β-pinene), and 5.98% ((+)-α-pinene)). Through comparison of the calibration results across storage time, the temporal stability of BVOCs was assessed. Longer BVOC storage time in polyester aluminum (PEA) bags lowered the relative recovery of BVOCs. The relative loss of BVOCs, if calculated in terms of mean bag standard RF ratios (relative to liquid standard) across elapsed time, decreased systematically: 0.99 ± 0.05 (0 h), 0.88 ± 0.06 (24 h), 0.66 ± 0.11 (72 h), and 0.62 ± 0.14 (120 h). It is thus recommended to complete the analysis of BVOC in PEA bags within 24 h of sample acquisition. As such, it is important to apply appropriate sampling approaches with a proper storage plan when measuring ambient BVOCs collected by bag sampling methods.

  11. Characterization of polyesters by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mize, Todd H; Simonsick, William J; Amster, I Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Two homopolyesters, poly(neopentyl glycol-alt-isophthalic acid) and poly(hexanediol-alt-azelaic acid), and two copolyesters, poly(dipropoxylated bisphenol-A-alt-(isophthalic acid-co-adipic acid)) and poly(neopentyl glycol-alt-(adipic acid-co-isophthalic acid)) were analyzed by internal source matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTMS). The high resolution and high mass accuracy provided by FTMS greatly facilitate the characterization of the polyester and copolyester samples. Isobaric resolution allows the ion abundances of overlapping isotopic envelopes to be assessed. Repeat units were confirmed and end functionality assigned. Single shot mass spectra of the entire polymeric distribution demonstrate that the dynamic range of this internal MALDI source instrument and the analyzer cell exceeds performance of those previously reported for higher field instruments. Corrections of space charge mass shift effects are demonstrated for the analytes using an external calibrant and (subsequent to confirmation of structure) via internal calibration which removes ambiguity due to space charge differences in calibrant and analyte spectra. Capillary gel permeation chromatography was used to prepare low polydispersity samples from a high polydispersity polyester, improving the measurement of molecular weight distribution two-fold while retaining the benefits of high resolution mass spectrometry for elucidation of oligomer identity.

  12. Novel polyester/SiO2 nanocomposite membranes: Synthesis, properties and morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadizadegan, Hashem; Esmaielzadeh, Sheida

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, a new type of soluble polyester/silica (PE/SiO2) hybrid was prepared by the ultrasonic irradiation process. The coupling agent γ-glycidyloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GOTMS) was chosen to enhance the compatibility between the polyester (PE) and silica (SiO2). Furthermore, the effects of the coupling agent on the morphologies and properties of the PE/SiO2 hybrids were investigated using UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopies and FE-SEM. The densities and solubilities of the PE/SiO2 hybrids were also measured. The results show that the size of the silica particle was markedly reduced by the introduction of the coupling agent, which made the PE/SiO2 hybrid films become transparent. Furthermore, thermal stability, residual solvent in the membrane film and structural ruination of membranes were analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effects of SiO2 nanoparticles on the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the prepared nanocomposites were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Moreover, their mechanical properties were also characterized. It can be observed that the Young's moduli (E) of the hybrid films increase linearly with the silica content. The results obtained from gas permeation experiments with a constant pressure setup showed that adding SiO2 nanoparticles to the polymeric membrane structure increased the permeability of the membranes.

  13. A microbial factory for lactate-based polyesters using a lactate-polymerizing enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Taguchi, Seiichi; Yamada, Miwa; Matsumoto, Ken'ichiro; Tajima, Kenji; Satoh, Yasuharu; Munekata, Masanobu; Ohno, Katsuhiro; Kohda, Katsunori; Shimamura, Takashi; Kambe, Hiromi; Obata, Shusei

    2008-01-01

    Polylactate (PLA) is synthesized as a representative bio-based polyester by the chemo-bio process on the basis of metal catalyst-mediated chemical polymerization of lactate (LA) supplied by microbial fermentation. To establish the one-step microbial process for synthesis of LA-based polyesters, we explored whether polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase would exhibit polymerizing activity toward a LA-coenzyme A (CoA), based on the fact that PHA monomeric constituents, especially 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), are structurally analogous to LA. An engineered PHA synthase was discovered as a candidate by a two-phase in vitro polymerization system previously developed. An LA-CoA producing Escherichia coli strain with a CoA transferase gene was constructed, and the generation of LA-CoA was demonstrated by capillary electrophoresis/MS analysis. Next, when the engineered PHA synthase gene was introduced into the resultant recombinant strain, we confirmed the one-step biosynthesis of the LA-incorporated copolyester, P(6 mol% LA-co-94 mol% 3HB), with a number-average molecular weight of 1.9 × 105, as revealed by gel permeation chromatography, gas chromatography/MS, and NMR. PMID:18978031

  14. Transparent Composites Made from Tunicate Cellulose Membranes and Environmentally Friendly Polyester.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yadong; Moser, Carl; Henriksson, Gunnar

    2018-05-25

    A series of optically transparent composites were made by using tunicate cellulose membranes, in which the naturally organized cellulose microfibrillar network structure of tunicate tunics was preserved and used as the template and a solution of glycerol and citric acid at different molar ratios was used as the matrix. Polymerization through ester bond formation occurred at elevated temperatures without any catalyst, and water was released as the only byproduct. The obtained composites had a uniform and dense structure. Thus, the produced glycerol citrate polyester improved the transparency of the tunicate cellulose membrane while the cellulose membrane provided rigidity and strength to the prepared composite. The interaction between cellulose and polyester afforded the composites high thermal stability. Additionally, the composites were optically transparent and their shape, strength, and flexibility were adjustable by varying the formulation and reaction conditions. These composites of cellulose, glycerol, and citric acid are renewable and biocompatible and have many potential applications as structural materials in packaging, flexible displays, and solar cells. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Dry entrapment of enzymes by epoxy or polyester resins hardened on different solid supports.

    PubMed

    Barig, Susann; Funke, Andreas; Merseburg, Andrea; Schnitzlein, Klaus; Stahmann, K-Peter

    2014-06-10

    Embedding of enzymes was performed with epoxy or polyester resin by mixing in a dried enzyme preparation before polymerization was started. This fast and low-cost immobilization method produced enzymatically active layers on different solid supports. As model enzymes the well-characterized Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase and a new threonine aldolase from Ashbya gossypii were used. It was shown that T. lanuginosus lipase recombinantly expressed in Aspergillus oryzae is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 34kDa, while A. gossypii threonine aldolase expressed in Escherichia coli is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate binding homotetramer with a mass of 180kDa. The enzymes were used freeze dried, in four different preparations: freely diffusing, adsorbed on octyl sepharose, as well as cross-linked enzyme aggregates or as suspensions in organic solvent. They were mixed with standard two-component resins and prepared as layers on solid supports made of different materials e.g. metal, glass, polyester. Polymerization led to encapsulated enzyme preparations showing activities comparable to literature values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Assessing of the Failure Behavior of Glass/Polyester Composites Subject to Quasi Static Stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, M. D.; Savin, A.; Teodorescu-Drăghicescu, H.

    2017-06-01

    Using glass fabric reinforced composites for structure of wind turbine blades requires high mechanical strengths especially to cyclic stresses. Studies have shown that approximately 50% of composite material failure occurs because of fatigue. Composites behavior to cyclic stresses involves three stages regarding to stiffness variation: the first stage is characterized by the accelerated decline of stiffness with micro-cracks, the second stage - a slight decrease of stiffness characterized by the occurrence of delamination and third stage characterized by higher decreases of resistance and occurrence of fracture thereof. The aim of the paper is to analyzed the behavior of composites reinforced with glass fibers fabric type RT500 and polyester resin subjected to tensile cyclic loading with pulsating quasi-static regime with asymmetry coefficient R = 0. The samples were tested with the universal tensile machine LS100 Lloyd Instruments Plus, with a load capacity of 100 kN. The load was applied with different speeds of 1 mm/min, 10 mm/min and 20 mm/min. After tests, it was observed that the greatest permanent strains were recorded in the first load cycles when the total energy storage by material was lost due to internal friction. With increasing number of cycles, the glass/polyester composites ability to store energy of deformation decreases, the flow phenomenon characterized by large displacements to smaller loading forces appearing.

  17. Influence of magnetite, ilmenite and boron carbide on radiation attenuation of polyester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sarraf, M. A.; El-Sayed Abdo, A.

    2013-07-01

    This work is concerned with studying polyester/ magnetite CUP/Mag (ρ=2.75 g cm-3) and polyester/ ilmenite CUP/Ilm (ρ=2.7 g cm-3) composites for shielding of medical facilities, laboratory hot cells and for various purposes. Mechanical and physical properties such as compressive, flexural and impact strengths, as well as, a.c. electrical conductivity, specific heat, water absorption and porosity have been performed to evaluate the composite capabilities for radiation shielding. A collimated beam from fission 252Cf (100 µg) neutron source and neutron-gamma spectrometer with stilbene scintillator based on the zero cross over method and pulse shape discrimination (P.S.D.) technique have been used to measure neutron and gamma ray spectra. Fluxes of thermal neutrons have been measured using the BF3 detector and thermal neutron detection system. The attenuation parameters, namely macroscopic effective removal cross-section ΣR, total attenuation coefficient µ and macroscopic cross-section Σ of fast neutrons, gamma rays and thermal neutrons respectively have been evaluated. Theoretical calculations using MCNP-4C2 code was used to calculate ΣR,μ and Σ. Also, MERCSF-N program was used to calculate macroscopic effective removal cross-section ΣR. Measured and calculated results were compared and reasonable agreement was found.

  18. Chemical and enzymatic catalytic routes to polyesters and oligopeptides biobased materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhui

    My Ph.D research focuses on the synthesis and property studies of different biobased materials, including polyesters, polyurethanes and oligopeptides. The first study describes the synthesis, crystal structure and physico-mechanical properties of a bio-based polyester prepared from 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) and 1,4-butanediol. Melt-polycondensation experiments were conducted by a two-stage polymerization using titanium tetraisopropoxide (Ti[OiPr] 4) as catalyst. Polymerization conditions (catalyst concentration, reaction time and 2nd stage reaction temperature) were varied to optimize poly(butylene furan dicarboxylate), PBF, molecular weight. A series of PBFs with different Mw were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA), X-Ray diffraction and tensile testing. Influence of molecular weight and melting/crystallization enthalpy on PBF material tensile properties was explored. Cold-drawing tensile tests at room temperature for PBF with Mw 16K to 27K showed a brittle-to-ductile transition. When Mw reaches 38K, the Young's Modulus of PBF remains above 900 MPa, and the elongation at break increases to above 1000%. The mechanical properties, thermal properties and crystal structures of PBF were similar to petroleum derived poly(butylenes terephthalate), PBT. Fiber diagrams of uniaxially stretched PBF films were collected, indexed, and the unit cell was determined as triclinic (a=4.78(3) A, b=6.03(5) A, c=12.3(1) A, alpha=110.1(2)°, beta=121.1(3)°, gamma=100.6(2)°). A crystal structure was derived from this data and final atomic coordinates are reported. We concluded that there is a close similarity of the PBF structure to PBT alpha- and beta-forms. In the second study, a biobased long chain polyester polyol (PC14-OH) was synthesized from o-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (o-HOC14) and 1,4-butanediol. The first section about polyester polyurethanes describes the synthesis

  19. Effect of liquid immersion of PEDOT: PSS-coated polyester fabric on surface resistance and wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getnet Tadesse, Melkie; Loghin, Carmen; Chen, Yan; Wang, Lichuan; Catalin, Dumitras; Nierstrasz, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Coating of textile fabrics with poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly (styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is one of the methods used for obtaining functional or smart applications. In this work, we prepared PEDOT:PSS polymer with certain additives such as polyethylene glycol, methanol (MeOH), and ethylene glycol on polyester fabric substrates by a simple immersion process. Surface resistance was measured and analyzed with analysis of variance to determine the coating parameters at 95% confidence level. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study of the samples were performed. Contact angle and washing fastness measurements were conducted, to observe the wettability and washing fastness of the samples, respectively. Surface resistance values were decreased by a factor of 100, due to conductive enhancers. As the immersion time and temperature condition varies, surface resistance showed no difference, statistically. FTIR analysis supports the idea that the mechanism responsible for the conductivity enhancement is the partial replacement of PSS from PEDOT chain by forming a hydrogen bond with hydroxyl ion (OH) of the conductive enhancers. A SEM images showed that PEDOT:PSS is well distributed to the surface of the fabrics. Contact angle measurements showed morphology change in the samples. The conductivity was reasonably stable after 10 washing cycles. Altogether, an effective simple immersion of coated polyester fabric is presented to achieve functional textiles that offer a broad range of possible applications.

  20. The Evolution of Silica Nanoparticle-polyester Coatings on Surfaces Exposed to Sunlight.

    PubMed

    Truong, Vi Khanh; Stefanovic, Miljan; Maclaughlin, Shane; Tobin, Mark; Vongsvivut, Jitraporn; Al Kobaisi, Mohammad; Crawford, Russell J; Ivanova, Elena P

    2016-10-11

    Corrosion of metallic surfaces is prevalent in the environment and is of great concern in many areas, including the military, transport, aviation, building and food industries, amongst others. Polyester and coatings containing both polyester and silica nanoparticles (SiO2NPs) have been widely used to protect steel substrata from corrosion. In this study, we utilized X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, attenuated total reflection infrared micro-spectroscopy, water contact angle measurements, optical profiling and atomic force microscopy to provide an insight into how exposure to sunlight can cause changes in the micro- and nanoscale integrity of the coatings. No significant change in surface micro-topography was detected using optical profilometry, however, statistically significant nanoscale changes to the surface were detected using atomic force microscopy. Analysis of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflection infrared micro-spectroscopy data revealed that degradation of the ester groups had occurred through exposure to ultraviolet light to form COO·, -H2C·, -O·, -CO· radicals. During the degradation process, CO and CO2 were also produced.

  1. [A novel method based on Y-shaped cotton-polyester thread microfluidic channel].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Shi, Yan-ru; Yan, Hong-tao

    2014-08-01

    A novel method based on Y-shaped microfluidic channel was firstly proposed in this study. The microfluidic channel was made of two cotton-polyester threads based on the capillary effect of cotton-polyester threads for the determination solutions. A special device was developed to fix the Y-shaped microfluidic channel by ourselves, through which the length and the tilt angle of the channel can be adjusted as requested. The spectrophotometry was compared with Scan-Adobe Photoshop software processing method. The former had a lower detection limit while the latter showed advantages in both convenience and fast operations and lower amount of samples. The proposed method was applied to the determination of nitrite. The linear ranges and detection limits are 1.0-70 micromol x L(-1), 0.66 micromol x L(-1) (spectrophotometry) and 50-450 micromol x L(-1), 45.10 micromol x L(-1) (Scan-Adobe Photoshop software processing method) respectively. This method has been successfully used to the determination of nitrite in soil samples and moat water with recoveries between 96.7% and 104%. It was proved that the proposed method was a low-cost, rapid and convenient analytical method with extensive application prospect.

  2. Red blood cell transport mechanisms in polyester thread-based blood typing devices.

    PubMed

    Nilghaz, Azadeh; Ballerini, David R; Guan, Liyun; Li, Lizi; Shen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    A recently developed blood typing diagnostic based on a polyester thread substrate has shown great promise for use in medical emergencies and in impoverished regions. The device is easy to use and transport, while also being inexpensive, accurate, and rapid. This study used a fluorescent confocal microscope to delve deeper into how red blood cells were behaving within the polyester thread-based diagnostic at the cellular level, and how plasma separation could be made to visibly occur on the thread, making it possible to identify blood type in a single step. Red blood cells were stained and the plasma phase dyed with fluorescent compounds to enable them to be visualised under the confocal microscope at high magnification. The mechanisms uncovered were in surprising contrast with those found for a similar, paper-based method. Red blood cell aggregates did not flow over each other within the thread substrate as expected, but suffered from a restriction to their flow which resulted in the chromatographic separation of the RBCs from the liquid phase of the blood. It is hoped that these results will lead to the optimisation of the method to enable more accurate and sensitive detection, increasing the range of blood systems that can be detected.

  3. Surface modification of metallic cardiovascular stents by strongly adhering aliphatic polyester coatings.

    PubMed

    Jérôme, Christine; Aqil, Abdelhafid; Voccia, Samuël; Labaye, David-Emmanuel; Maquet, Véronique; Gautier, Sandrine; Bertrand, Olivier F; Jérôme, Robert

    2006-03-01

    This article reports on a novel two-step strategy for the coating of cardiovascular stents by strongly adhering biocompatible and biodegradable aliphatic polyesters. First, a precoating of poly(ethylacrylate) (PEA) was electrografted onto the metallic substrate by cathodic reduction of the parent monomer in dimethylformamide (DMF). The electrodeposition of PEA, in a good solvent of it, was confirmed by both Infra-red and Raman spectroscopies. The pendant ester groups of PEA were then chemically reduced into aluminum alkoxides, able to initiate the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of either D,L-lactide (LA) or epsilon-caprolactone (CL). Growth of biodegradable PLA or PCL coatings from the adhering precoating was confirmed by both Infra-red and Raman spectroscopies, and directly observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). This type of coating can act as an anchoring layer for the subsequent casting of drug-loaded polyester films allowing the controlled release of antiproliferative agents for the treatment of in-stent restenosis. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Chemical cross-linking of polypropylenes towards new shape memory polymers.

    PubMed

    Raidt, Thomas; Hoeher, Robin; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-04-01

    In this work, syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP) as well as isotactic polypropylene (iPP) are cross-linked to gain a shape memory effect. Both prepared PP networks exhibit maximum strains of 700%, stored strains of up to 680%, and recoveries of nearly 100%. While x-iPP is stable for many cycles, x-sPP ruptures after the first shape-memory cycle. It is shown by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments that cross-linked iPP exhibits homoepitaxy in the temporary, stretched shape but in contrast to previous reports it contains a higher amount of daughter than mother crystals. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. New Polymer Materials for the Laser Sintering Process: Polypropylene and Others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Andreas

    Laser sintering of polymers gets more and more importance for small series production. However, there is only a little number of materials available for the process. In most cases parts are build up using polyamide 12 or polyamide 11. Reasons for that are high prices, a restricted availability, poor mechanical part properties or an insufficient understanding of the processing of other materials. These problems result from the complex processing conditions in laser sintering with high requirements on the material's characteristics. Within this area, at the chair for manufacturing technology fundamental knowledge was established. Aim of the presented study was to qualify different polymers for the laser sintering process. Polyethylene, polypropylene, polyamide 6, polyoxymethylene as well as polybutylene terephthalate were analyzed. Within the study problems of qualifying new materials are discussed using some examples. Furthermore, the processing conditions as well as mechanical properties of a new polypropylene compound are shown considering also different laser sintering machines.

  6. Development of novel nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Yuliia; Kuzenko, Svetlana; Han, Do-Hung; Cho, Hyun-Kug

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric was synthesized for selective removal of Cs ions from contaminated waters by a two-stage synthesis: radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid monomer onto the nonwoven polypropylene fabric surface with subsequent in situ formation of potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate (KNiHCF) nanoparticles within the grafted chains. Data of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of KNiHCF homogeneous phase on the fabric surface, which consisted of crystalline cubic-shaped nanoparticles (70 to 100 nm). The efficiency of the synthesized adsorbent for removal of cesium ions was evaluated under various experimental conditions. It has demonstrated a rapid adsorption process, high adsorption capacity over a wide pH range, and selectivity in Cs ion removal from model solutions with high concentration of sodium ions.

  7. Recycling of asbestos tailings used as reinforcing fillers in polypropylene based composites.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Wensi; Wang, Yao; Deng, Yuan; Gao, Hongli; Lin, Zhen; Li, Mao

    2014-04-15

    In this work, asbestos tailings were recycled and used as reinforcing fillers to enhance the mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP). A silane coupling agent was used to chemically modify the asbestos tailings to increase the compatibility between asbestos tailings and polypropylene matrix. Both raw and chemically treated asbestos tailings with different loading levels (from 3 to 30 wt%) were utilized to fabricate composites. Mechanical properties of these composites have been investigated by dynamic mechanical analysis, tensile test and notched impact test. Results showed that hybridization of asbestos tailings in the composites enhanced the mechanical properties of neat PP evidently, and treated asbestos tailings/PP composites yielded even better mechanical properties compared with those of raw asbestos tailings/PP composites. This recycling method of asbestos tailings not only reduces disposal costs and avoids secondary pollution but also produces a new PP-based composite material with enhanced mechanical properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Eco-friendly Fibre from Recycled Polypropylene of Bottle Cap Waste and Lignin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soekoco, A. S.; Basuki, A.; Mardiyati

    2016-01-01

    Ecofriendly fibre is one of potential alternatives to fulfill the rising demand in textile material supply which is limited due to the decreasing reserve of oil. Large amount of polypropylene waste from bottle cap and lignin as a byproduct from pulp industry are potential solutions. Grinded polypropylene bottle cap was blended with lignin powder in concentration of 5 wt. % processed by melt spinning at 170° C temperature. The fibres produced have an average diameter 170 and 250 micrometres. In view of the mechanical properties. the tensile strength is 11.9 MPa for fibre with 170 micrometres diameter and 14.7 MPa for fibre with 250 micrometres diameter. Fibre surface morphology was further studied using micron microscope. and the result shows black flocks spread in the fibre. indicating that the lignin does not blend evenly.

  9. Electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene films: Spectra reconstruction from elementary components and underlying mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, B.; Teyssedre, G.; Laurent, C.

    The mechanisms of electroluminescence from large band gap polymers used as insulation in electric components are still under debate. It becomes important to unravel the underlying physics of the emission because of increasing thermo-electric stress and a possible relationship between electroluminescence and field withstand. We report herein on the cathodoluminescence spectra of polyethylene and polypropylene films as a way to uncover the nature of its contributions to electroluminescence emission. It is shown that spectra from the two materials are structured around four elementary components, each of them being associated with a specific process contributing to the overall emission with differentmore » weights depending on excitation conditions and on materials. The cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of each material are reconstructed from the four spectral components and their relative contribution are discussed. It is shown that electroluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene has the same origin pointing towards generic mechanisms in both.« less

  10. Visible light photoactivity of Polypropylene coated Nano-TiO2 for dyes degradation in water

    PubMed Central

    Giovannetti, R.; Amato, C. A. D’; Zannotti, M.; Rommozzi, E.; Gunnella, R.; Minicucci, M.; Di Cicco, A.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Polypropylene as support material for nano-TiO2 photocatalyst in the photodegradation of Alizarin Red S in water solutions under the action of visible light was investigated. The optimization of TiO2 pastes preparation using two commercial TiO2, Aeroxide P-25 and Anatase, was performed and a green low-cost dip-coating procedure was developed. Scanning electron microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction analysis were used in order to obtain morphological and structural information of as-prepared TiO2 on support material. Equilibrium and kinetics aspects in the adsorption and successive photodegradation of Alizarin Red S, as reference dye, are described using polypropylene-TiO2 films in the Visible/TiO2/water reactor showing efficient dyes degradation. PMID:26627118

  11. Development of novel nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A nanocomposite adsorbent based on potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate-loaded polypropylene fabric was synthesized for selective removal of Cs ions from contaminated waters by a two-stage synthesis: radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylic acid monomer onto the nonwoven polypropylene fabric surface with subsequent in situ formation of potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate (KNiHCF) nanoparticles within the grafted chains. Data of scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of KNiHCF homogeneous phase on the fabric surface, which consisted of crystalline cubic-shaped nanoparticles (70 to 100 nm). The efficiency of the synthesized adsorbent for removal of cesium ions was evaluated under various experimental conditions. It has demonstrated a rapid adsorption process, high adsorption capacity over a wide pH range, and selectivity in Cs ion removal from model solutions with high concentration of sodium ions. PMID:24725367

  12. Facile preparation in two steps of highly hydrophobic coatings on polypropylene surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petcu, Cristian; Nistor, Cristina Lavinia; Purcar, Violeta; Cinteză, Ludmila Otilia; Spătaru, Cătălin-Ilie; Ghiurea, Marius; Ianchiş, Raluca; Anastasescu, Mihai; Stoica, Mihai

    2015-08-01

    Monolayer and bilayer coatings deposited on polypropylene (PP) surface were prepared by sol-gel process at room temperature. Monolayer coatings were produced from sol-gel acidic solutions, containing tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and different co-precursors such as phenyltriethoxysilane (PhTES), octylmethyldimethoxysilane (OMDMS) and dodecyltriethoxysilane (DOTES). Bilayer coatings consist of one layer prepared in a similar way described for monolayer coatings, followed by a second layer, obtained from fluorinated silica nanoparticles dispersion. The fluorinated group has been confirmed by the presence of Csbnd F bonds along with network Sisbnd Osbnd Si vibrational mode. Water contact angle values registered for bilayer-coated polypropylene are higher, comparing with the reference (pristine PP) and with the monolayer-coated substrate, and varies as a function of the hydrophobic functional groups of the silica co-precursors: phenyl < octyl < dodecyl. The fluorooctyl functions lead to a significant decrease in the surface energy values for bilayer coating, with very small values of polar component.

  13. Compressive and flexural strength of concrete containing palm oil biomass clinker and polypropylene fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, M. H. Wan; Mangi, Sajjad Ali; Burhanudin, M. K.; Ridzuan, M. B.; Jamaluddin, N.; Shahidan, S.; Wong, YH; Faisal, SK; Fadzil, M. A.; Ramadhansyah, P. J.; Ayop, S. S.; Othman, N. H.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the effects of using palm oil biomass (POB) clinker with polypropylene (PP) fibres in concrete on its compressive and flexural strength performances. Due to infrastructural development works, the use of concrete in the construction industry has been increased. Simultaneously, it raises the demand natural sand, which causes depletion of natural resources. While considering the environmental and economic benefits, the utilization of industrial waste by-products in concrete will be the alternative solution of the problem. Among the waste products, one of such waste by-product is the palm oil biomass clinker, which is a waste product from burning processes of palm oil fibres. Therefore, it is important to utilize palm oil biomass clinker as partial replacement of fine aggregates in concrete. Considering the facts, an experimental study was conducted to find out the potential usage of palm oil fibres in concrete. In this study, total 48 number of specimens were cast to evaluate the compressive and flexural strength performances. Polypropylene fibre was added in concrete at the rate of 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%, and sand was replaced at a constant rate of 10% with palm oil biomass clinker. The flexural strength of concrete was noticed in the range of 2.25 MPa and 2.29 MPa, whereas, the higher value of flexural strength was recorded with 0.4% polypropylene fibre addition. Hence, these results show that the strength performances of concrete containing POB clinker could be improved with the addition of polypropylene fibre.

  14. Improving the environment for weaned piglets using polypropylene fabrics above the animals in cold periods.

    PubMed

    Dolz, Noé; Babot, Daniel; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Javier; Forcada, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the use of polypropylene fabrics in weaned pig facilities (5-10 weeks of age) during the winter period to improve thermal environment and energy saving for heating. Two experiments were conducted to validate the effects of fabrics (F) compared to control (C) in three 2-week periods using natural ventilation (assay 1, 2013) and forced ventilation (assay 2, 2014). Air temperature was greater in F than in C compartments in both years, particularly during the first 2-week periods (2 °C of mean difference). Natural ventilation was not enough to maintain relative humidity levels below 70 % at the end of the postweaning period (9-10 weeks of age) in both groups (F and C), whereas forced ventilation allowed controlling daily mean relative humidity levels <60 %. About 12-26 % of the radiant heat was transmitted through the fabrics cover, depending on the wavelength. There were no differences on growth performance of piglets in the two compartments in both years. The use of polypropylene fabrics was associated with a significant electric energy saving for heating during the first (data available only in 2014) and second 2-week period in both years. In conclusion, polypropylene fabrics may be an interesting tool to provide optimal environmental conditions for weaned piglets in winter, especially during the two first weeks after weaning. Their transmittance properties allow trapping infrared emission produced by the piglets and heating, avoiding heat losses through the roof, and therefore saving heating energy.

  15. The effect of temperature and drawing ratio on the mechanical properties of polypropylene monofilaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri, Hesam; Nóbrega, João Miguel; Samyn, Pieter; Covas, José Antonio

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the simultaneous effect of both temperature and drawing ratio during processing of polypropylene monofilaments has been investigated. The basis of this work specifically aims at emphasizing the conditions of temperature and drawing ratio applied in the cooling bath, in order to find out under which conditions the named parameters can be applied in a processing line under continuous extrusion. The effects of temperature are studied for a constant total drawing ratio to analyze the influences on mechanical properties and structural differences of the final polypropylene monofilament. The quenched monofilaments were drawn around an adjustable guide assembly in the quench bath and first drawing stage, imparting thermal and mechanical treatments to the filaments. In the heating stage, monofilaments are affected to high-speed draw rolls while passing through the oven. As such, the best conditions to produce a polypropylene monofilament with high tenacity strength were determined. Results of this study show that the monofilament properties are significantly affected by temperature in the cooling zone. The nature of the first drawing had a significant effect on the end properties and monofilaments with modulus of 637 MPa have finally been manufactured. We have also proposed a new hypothesis, which is termed "gap nucleation" and determine this phenomenon in the gap between die and cooling bath.

  16. Stability of thiopental sodium and propofol in polypropylene syringes at 23 and 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Chernin, E L; Stewart, J T; Smiler, B

    1996-07-01

    The stability of thiopental sodium and propofol in an admixture stored in polypropylene syringes at room temperature and under refrigeration was studied. Propofol injection 10 mg/ mL and thiopental sodium 25 mg/mL were mixed to final concentrations of 5 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively. The admixture was put into 60-mL polypropylene syringes, and two syringes were stored at 23 degrees C and two at 4 degrees C. For solutions stored at 23 degrees C, samples were taken at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, 240, and 264 hours, and for samples stored at 4 degrees C, samples were taken at 0, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72, 120, 168, 216, and 312 hours. Drug concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Thiopental sodium and propofol retained > 90% of their initial concentrations for up to 312 hours at 4 degrees C. At 23 degrees C, > 90% of the initial concentration was retained by propofol for up to 120 hours and by thiopental sodium for up to 240 hours. No visual changes or significant change in pH occurred in any sample. When mixed and stored in polypropylene syringes, propofol 5 mg/mL and thiopental sodium 12.5 mg/mL were stable for up to 312 hours at 4 degrees C and for up to 120 hours at 23 degrees C.

  17. Water Absorption and Thickness Swelling Behavior of Polypropylene Reinforced with Hybrid Recycled Newspaper and Glass Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Alireza; Ghasemian, Ali

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the moisture absorption of recycled newspaper fiber and recycled newspaper-glass fiber hybrid reinforced polypropylene composites to study their suitability in outdoor applications. In this work composite materials were made from E-glass fiber (G), recycled newspaper (NP) and polypropylene (PP), by using internal mixing and hot-pressing molding. Long-term water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) kinetics of the composites was investigated with water immersion. It was found that the WA and TS increase with NP content in composite and water immersion time before an equilibrium condition was reached. Composites made from the NP show comparable results as those made of the hybrid fiber. The results suggest that the water absorption and thickness swelling composite decrease with increasing glass fiber contents in hybrid fiber composite. It is interesting to find that the WA and TS can be reduced significantly with incorporation of a coupling agent (maleated polypropylene) in the composite formulation. Further studies were conducted to model the water diffusion and thickness swelling of the composites. Diffusion coefficients and swelling rate parameters in the models were obtained by fitting the model predictions with the experimental data.

  18. Study of Tensile Properties and Deflection Temperature of Polypropylene/Subang Pineapple Leaf Fiber Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafizhah, R.; Juwono, A. L.; Roseno, S.

    2017-05-01

    The development of eco-friendly composites has been increasing in the past four decades because the requirement of eco-friendly materials has been increasing. Indonesia has a lot of natural fiber resources and, pineapple leaf fiber is one of those fibers. This study aimed to determine the influence of weight fraction of pineapple leaf fibers, that were grown at Subang, to the tensile properties and the deflection temperature of polypropylene/Subang pineapple leaf fiber composites. Pineapple leaf fibers were pretreated by alkalization, while polypropylene pellets, as the matrix, were extruded into sheets. Hot press method was used to fabricate the composites. The results of the tensile test and Heat Deflection Temperature (HDT) test showed that the composites that contained of 30 wt.% pineapple leaf fiber was the best composite. The values of tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and deflection temperature were (64.04 ± 3.91) MPa; (3.98 ± 0.55) GPa and (156.05 ± 1.77) °C respectively, in which increased 187.36%, 198.60%, 264.72% respectively from the pristine polypropylene. The results of the observation on the fracture surfaces showed that the failure modes were fiber breakage and matrix failure.

  19. Graft polymerization of styryl bisphosphonate monomer onto polypropylene films for inhibition of biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Hanna P; Rudnick-Glick, Safra; Natan, Michal; Banin, Ehud; Margel, Shlomo

    2016-11-01

    There has been increased concern during the past few decades over the role bacterial biofilms play in causing a variety of health problems, especially since they exhibit a high degree of resistance to antibiotics and are able to survive in hostile environments. Biofilms consist of bacterial aggregates enveloped by a self-produced matrix attached to the surface. Ca(2+) ions promote the formation of biofilms, and enhance their stability, viscosity, and strength. Bisphosphonates exhibit a high affinity for Ca(2+) ions, and may inhibit the formation of biofilms by acting as sequestering agents for Ca(2+) ions. Although the antibacterial activity of bisphosphonates is well known, research into their anti-biofilm behavior is still in its early stages. In this study, we describe the synthesis of a new thin coating composed of poly(styryl bisphosphonate) grafted onto oxidized polypropylene films for anti-biofilm applications. This grafting process was performed by graft polymerization of styryl bisphosphonate vinylic monomer onto O2 plasma-treated polypropylene films. The surface modification of the polypropylene films was confirmed using surface measurements, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and water contact angle goniometry. Significant inhibition of biofilm formation was achieved for both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Catalytic copyrolysis of particle board and polypropylene over Al-MCM-48

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hannah; Choi, Suek Ju; Kim, Ji Man

    Highlights: • Al-MCM-48 was used for catalytic copyrolysis of particle board and polypropylene. • Catalytic produced mainly hydrocarbons. • The hydrocarbons produced were mainly in the diesel range. - Abstract: Particle board and polypropylene (PP) at a mixing ratio of 1:1 were copyrolyzed over two Al-MCM-48 catalysts with Si/Al ratios of 20 and 80. The catalyst characteristics were examined by measuring the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, temperature programmed desorption of ammonia, and X-ray diffraction. The main pyrolysis products of particle board were oxygenates, acids, and phenolics, whereas a large quantity of hydrocarbons within the diesel fuel range was produced from copyrolysismore » with polypropylene. The catalytic copyrolysis of particle board and PP over the Al-MCM-48 catalysts produced bio-oil with a much larger hydrocarbon content than that from the catalytic pyrolysis of particle board only. The hydrocarbons produced were mainly in the diesel range, highlighting the potential for the production of high-quality fuel.« less

  1. Temperature-mediated absorption of phenylmercuric nitrate on polyethylene and polypropylene containers in chloramphenicol eye drops.

    PubMed

    Charoo, Naseem; Chiew, Magdalene; Tay, Amelia; Lian, Lai

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to find the effect of temperature and manufacturing source of phenylmercuric nitrate (PMN) on PMN absorption on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene containers in chloramphenicol eye drops. Two factorial experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature on PMN assay in chloramphenicol eye drops stored in LDPE and prepared from two different PMN sources. PMN source had no effect on PMN assay at 2-8 °C, however at stress conditions (30 °C/75%RH) for 3 weeks, the effect of PMN source on PMN assay was found significant (p < 0.05) in formulations stored in LDPE bottles. Temperature was the major contributor to decreased PMN assay. In formulations stored in polypropylene containers, PMN source had significant effect on PMN assay at 2-8 °C and 30 °C/75%RH. Overall, new PMN and polypropylene bottles performed better. The eye drops complied with preservative efficacy test both initially and at the end of shelf life. The concentration exponent of PMN is very low and in spite of its high absorption by container/closure, PMN was still able to protect the eye drops at the end of shelf life. It can be inferred that preservative efficacy test is the better indicator of preservative activity.

  2. Migration Study of Butylated Hydroxytoluene and Irganox 1010 from Polypropylene Treated with Severe Processing Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyungmo; Chang, Yoonjee; Choi, Jae Chun; Park, Se-Jong; Han, Jaejoon

    2018-04-01

    Safety concerns have emerged over the increased use of polypropylene (PP) in food-packaging markets. Some antioxidants in PP can migrate to foods and cause undesirable effects in humans. In this study, migration behaviors of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Irganox 1010 (I-1010) in PP sheets were determined according to the US FDA migration test conditions. In particular, we tested the effects of severe conditions of food processing and storage, such as autoclave heating (sterilization at about 121 °C), microwave radiation (700 W), and deep freezing (-30 °C) on migration of antioxidants. Migrant concentrations were higher in 95% ethanol as lipid food simulant, because of the hydrophobic nature of both PP and antioxidants. Autoclave heating treatment increased migrant concentrations compared with other processing conditions. Moreover, increased migrant concentrations by deep freezing condition were attributed to the brittleness of PP at freezing temperature. Regardless of processing conditions, BHT which has a lower molecular weight, migrated faster than I-1010. The antioxidants with hydrophobic nature such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and Irganox 1010 (I-1010) in polypropylene sheets would be migrated to foods, which is an important issue for industrial production food packaging materials. Migration behavior was promoted by severe processing conditions such as autoclave heating, microwave radiation, freezing, and especially autoclave heating treatment led the highest migration among them. Therefore, control of chemical additive migration from polypropylene food packaging is needed for safe food processing. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Effect of polypropylene maleic anhydride (PPMAH) on mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene (PP)/recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr)/empty fruit bunch (EFB) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Nurul Syazwani; Santiagoo, Ragunathan; Abdillahi, Khalid Mohamed; Ismail, Hanafi

    2017-07-01

    The fabrication of polypropylene (PP)/ recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr)/ empty fruit bunch (EFB) composites were investigated. The effects of polypropylene maleic anhydride (PPMAH) as a compatibilizer on the mechanical and morphological properties of PP/NBRr/EFB composites were studied. Composites were prepared through melt mixing using heated two roll mill at 180 °C for 9 minutes and rotor speed of 15 rpm. NBRr loading were varied from 0 to 60 phr and PPMAH was fixed for 5 phr. The composites were moulded into a 1 mm thin sheet using hot press machine and then cut into dumbbell shape. The mechanical and morphological properties of composites were examined using universal tensile machine (UTM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of PP/NBRr/EFB composites decreased with increasing NBRr loading, whilst increasing the elongation at break. However, PPMAH compatibilized composites have resulted 27% to 40% and 25% to 42% higher tensile strength and Young's modulus, respectively, higher compared to uncompatibilized composites. This was due to the better adhesion between PP/NBRr matrices and EFB filler with the presence of maleic anhydride moieties. From the morphological study, the micrograph of PPMAH compatibilized composites has proved the well bonded and good attachments of EFB filler with PP/NBRr matrices which results better tensile strength to the PP/NBRr/EFB composites.

  4. Étude par diffraction des rayons X de la nitruration plasma d'un acier 304L Influence sur l'oxydation à 1000 ^{circ}C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marot, L.; Buscail, H.; Straboni, A.; Riffard, F.; Caudron, E.; Cueff, R.

    2002-07-01

    This work presents the influence of various nitridation parameters on the 304L steel oxidation at 1000 ^{circ}C, in air under atmospheric pressure. Nitridation temperatures were ranging between 300 ^{circ}C and 430 ^{circ}C with exposure times lasting from 2 to 8 hours. At 300 and 430 ^{circ}C, the nitridation treatment leads to the solid solution surface formation γ-N without any nitride formation. After oxidation at 1000 ^{circ}C of blank specimens, X ray diffraction reveals the FeCr2O4 spinel formation. This oxide does not act as a good diffusion barrier. With nitrogen treated specimens, the higher the nitridation temperature is and the longer the exposure time is, better is the oxidation behaviour at 1000 ^{circ}C. We then observe that the Cr{1,3}Fe{0,7}O3 oxide is more present in the oxide sale from the very beginning of the oxidation test which is correlated to a final lower mass gain. Cette étude porte sur l'influence des paramètres de nitruration plasma sur l'oxydation de l'acier 304L à 1000 ^{circ}C, sous air, à la pression atmosphérique. Les températures employées lors de la nitruration ont été de 300 ^{circ}C et 430 ^{circ}C pour des durées de nitruration variant entre 2 et 8 heures. A 300 et 430 ^{circ}C, la nitruration conduit à la formation d'une solution solide γ-N en surface sans provoquer la formation de nitrures. Après oxydation à 1000 ^{circ}C du 304L non nitruré, la diffraction des rayons X révèle la formation d'une couche de type spinelle FeCr2O4 qui ne semble pas jouer le rôle de barrière de diffusion. Pour les échantillons préalablement nitrurés, plus la température de nitruration est élevée et plus la durée du traitement est longue, meilleur est le comportement en oxydation. Nous observons alors l'oxyde Cr{1,3}Fe{0,7}O3 en proportion importante dès le début de l'oxydation et une prise de masse finale plus faible.

  5. The effect of woven and non-woven fiber structure on mechanical properties polyester composite reinforced kenaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratim, S.; Bonnia, N. N.; Surip, S. N.

    2012-07-01

    The effects of woven and non-woven kenaf fiber on mechanical properties of polyester composites were studied at different types of perform structures. Composite polyester reinforced kenaf fiber has been prepared via hand lay-up process by varying fiber forms into plain weave, twill and mats structure. The reinforcing efficiency of different fiber structure was compared with control of unreinforced polyester sample. It was found that the strength and stiffness of the composites are largely affected by fiber structure. A maximum value for tensile strength of composite was obtained for twill weave pattern of fiber structure while no significant different for plain weave and mat structure. The elastic modulus of composite has shown some improvement on plain and twill weave pattern. Meanwhile, lower value of modulus elasticity achieved by mats structure composite as well as control sample. The modulus of rupture and impact resistance were also analyzed. The improvement of modulus of rupture value can be seen on plain and twill weave pattern. However impact resistance doesn't show significant improvement in all types of structure except for mat fiber. The mechanical properties of kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composite found to be increased with woven and non-woven fiber structures in composite.

  6. One-pot preparation of unsaturated polyester nanocomposites containing functionalized graphene sheets via a novel solvent-exchange method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper reports a convenient one-pot method integrating a novel solvent-exchange method into in situ melt polycondensation to fabricate unsaturated polyester nanocomposites containing functionalized graphene sheets (FGS). A novel solvent-exchange method was first developed to prepare graphene oxi...

  7. Green and selective polycondensation methods toward linear sorbitol-based polyesters: enzymatic versus organic and metal-based catalysis.

    PubMed

    Gustini, Liliana; Lavilla, Cristina; Janssen, William W T J; Martínez de Ilarduya, Antxon; Muñoz-Guerra, Sebastián; Koning, Cor E

    2016-08-23

    Renewable polyesters derived from a sugar alcohol (i.e., sorbitol) were synthesized by solvent-free polycondensation. The aim was to prepare linear polyesters with pendant hydroxyl groups along the polymer backbone. The performance of the sustainable biocatalyst SPRIN liposorb CALB [an immobilized form of Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB); SPRIN technologies] and the organo-base catalyst 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4,4,0]dec-5-ene (TBD) were compared with two metal-based catalysts: dibutyl tin oxide (DBTO) and scandium trifluoromethanesulfonate [also known as scandium triflate, Sc(OTf)3 ]. For the four catalytic systems, the efficiency and selectivity for the incorporation of sorbitol were studied, mainly using (13) C and (31) P NMR spectroscopies, whereas side reactions, such as ether formation and dehydration of sorbitol, were evaluated using MALDI-TOF-MS. Especially the biocatalyst SPRIN liposorb CALB succeeded in incorporating sorbitol in a selective way without side reactions, leading to close-to-linear polyesters. By using a renewable hydroxyl-reactive curing agent based on l-lysine, transparent and glossy poly(ester urethane) networks were successfully synthesized offering a tangible example of bio-based coatings. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Interactions between F-111 Fuselage Fuel Tank Sealants. Part I. Characterisation of Polyester Sealants and their Hydrolytic Degradation Products,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    maleic acid , adipic acid , azelaic acid and suberic acid . To ensure complete esterification during the exhaustive degradation reactions, an...spectroscopic techniques. Major components were shown to be sebacic acid and neopentyl glycol. The most significant difference between the two polyester...and acid equivalent weights of the prepolymers, their hydrolysis products and hydrolysed cured sealants were determined to assess extent of degradation

  9. Elucidation of non-intentionally added substances migrating from polyester-polyurethane lacquers using automated LC-HRMS data processing.

    PubMed

    Omer, Elsa; Cariou, Ronan; Remaud, Gérald; Guitton, Yann; Germon, Hélène; Hill, Paul; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2018-03-08

    An untargeted strategy aiming at identifying non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) migrating from coatings was developed. This innovative approach was applied to two polyester-polyurethane lacquers, for which suppliers previously provided the identity of the monomers involved. Lacquers were extracted with acetonitrile and analyzed by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Data, acquired in the full scan mode, were processed using an open-source R-environment (xcms and CAMERA packages) to list the detected features and deconvolute them in groups related to individual compounds. The most intense groups, accounting for more than 85% of cumulated feature intensities, were then investigated. A homemade database, populated with predicted polyester oligomer combinations from a relevant selection of diols and diacids, enabled highlighting the presence of 14 and 17 cyclic predicted polyester oligomers in the two lacquers, including three mutual combinations explained by common known monomers. Combination hypotheses were strengthened by chromatographic considerations and by the investigation of fragmentation patterns. Regarding unpredicted migrating substances, four monomers were hypothesised to explain several polyester or caprolactam oligomer series. Finally, considering both predicted and tentatively elucidated unpredicted oligomers, it was possible to assign hypotheses to features representing up to 82% and 90% of the cumulated intensities in the two lacquers, plus 9% and 3% (respectively) originating from the procedural blank. Graphical abstract Elucidation of non-intentionally added substances.

  10. THE PHASE BEHAVIOR OF FLUORINATED DIOLS, DIVINYL ADIPATE, AND A FLUORINATED POLYESTER IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE. (R828131)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of supercritical carbon dioxide as a reaction medium for polyester synthesis is hindered by the low solubility of diols in CO2. However, it has been previously demonstrated that fluorinated compounds can exhibit greater miscibility with carbon dioxide than t...

  11. Mulching effects of plant fiber and plant fiber-polyester mats combined with fertilizer on loblslly pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    James D. Haywood; John A. Youngquist

    1991-01-01

    In this preliminary study, several mattings, combined with and without fertilizer application, were tested around newly planted loblolly, pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings. After 9 months in the field, jute- polyester and jute mats had similar survival rates relitive to controls, but hemlock-po1yvester mats had depressed survival when used in...

  12. Non-destructive and fast identification of cotton-polyester blend fabrics by the portable near-infrared spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-xia; Li, Feng; Zhao, Guo-liang; Tang, Shi-jun; Liu, Xiao-ying

    2014-12-01

    A series of 376 cotton-polyester (PET) blend fabrics were studied by a portable near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer. A NIR semi-quantitative-qualitative calibration model was established by Partial Least Squares (PLS) method combined with qualitative identification coefficient. In this process, PLS method in a quantitative analysis was used as a correction method, and the qualitative identification coefficient was set by the content of cotton and polyester in blend fabrics. Cotton-polyester blend fabrics were identified qualitatively by the model and their relative contents were obtained quantitatively, the model can be used for semi-quantitative identification analysis. In the course of establishing the model, the noise and baseline drift of the spectra were eliminated by Savitzky-Golay(S-G) derivative. The influence of waveband selection and different pre-processing method was also studied in the qualitative calibration model. The major absorption bands of 100% cotton samples were in the 1400~1600 nm region, and the one for 100% polyester were around 1600~1800 nm, the absorption intensity was enhancing with the content increasing of cotton or polyester. Therefore, the cotton-polyester's major absorption region was selected as the base waveband, the optimal waveband (1100~2500 nm) was found by expanding the waveband in two directions (the correlation coefficient was 0.6, and wave-point number was 934). The validation samples were predicted by the calibration model, the results showed that the model evaluation parameters was optimum in the 1100~2500 nm region, and the combination of S-G derivative, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and mean centering was used as the pre-processing method. RC (relational coefficient of calibration) value was 0.978, RP (relational coefficient of prediction) value was 0.940, SEC (standard error of calibration) value was 1.264, SEP (standard error of prediction) value was 1.590, and the sample's recognition accuracy was up to 93

  13. Cellulose Dressing Versus Rayon Dressing in Skin Graft Donor Sites: Aspects of Patients' Health-related Quality of Life and Self-esteem .

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lydia M; Blanes, Leila; Gragnani, Alfredo; Veiga, Daniela F; Veiga, Frederico; Nery, Gilka B; Rocha, Gustavo H; Gomes, Heitor C; Rocha, Mario G; Okamoto, Regina

    2009-06-01

     Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-esteem of patients who underwent split-thickness skin grafting, when either cellulose dressings or rayon dressings were applied to the donor sites. A total of 25 patients, who were enrolled at five participant hospitals and required split-thickness skin grafting for various clinical reasons, were randomized into two treatment groups, the rayon dressing group (n = 13), or the cellulose dressing group (n = 12). All patients were assessed preoperatively and 60 days postoperatively. The HRQoL was assessed with the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire, and self-esteem was evaluated using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE)/UNIFESP-EPM (Brazilian versions). There were no surgery-related complications during the study period. In both treatment groups, SF-36 scores for emotional role, mental health, vitality, and general health decreased from baseline. RSE scores increased from baseline in both treatment groups, showing a reduction in self-esteem after treatment. There was a statistical difference (P = 0.024) in the SF-36 bodily pain domain for the rayon group. There were no significant differences in HRQoL and self-esteem between treatment groups. In the rayon-dressing group, there was a significant decrease in bodily pain from baseline .

  14. Biocidal Polyester

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    chlorinated sample having antibacterial activity ; absence of “Cl” indicates an unchlorinated control. bThe challenge of S. aureus was 1.3 109 CFU (9.1...Table 1 show that when a very high challenge load of S. aureus (9.1 logs) was employed, the chlorinated samples showed rea- sonable antibacterial ...Table IV Regeneration of Antibacterial Activity Sample Chlorination Microbiological Performance (Log Reduction)a PETHCl-1 First: 50% Clorox 9.0 PETH None

  15. Flammability and thermal properties studies of nonwoven flax reinforced acrylic based polyester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasyid, M. F. Ahmad; Salim, M. S.; Akil, H. M.; Ishak, Z. A. Mohd.

    2017-12-01

    In the pursuit of green and more sustainable product, natural fibre reinforced composites originating from renewable resources has gained interest in recent years. These natural fibres exhibit good mechanical properties, low production costs, and good environmental properties. However, one of the disadvantages of natural fibre reinforced composites is their high flammability that limits their application in many fields. Within this research, the effect of sodium silicate on the flammability and thermal properties of flax reinforced acrylic based polyester composites has been investigated. Sodium silicate is applied as binder and flame retardant system in impregnation process of the natural flax fiber mats. The addition of sodium silicate significantly improved the flame retardant efficiency but reduced the degree of crosslinking of the composites.

  16. On the suitability of fiberglass reinforced polyester as building material for mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Berghahn, R; Brandsch, J; Piringer, O; Pluta, H J; Winkler, T

    1999-07-01

    Gel- and topcoat surface layers on fiberglass [glass-reinforced plastic (GRP)] made of unsaturated resin based on isophthalic acid polyester and neopentyl glycol (ISO-NPG) were tested for leaching, ecotoxicity of water eluates, and abrasion by river sediments at a current speed of 0.5 m * s-1. Leaching from topcoat tempered at low temperature was significant, whereas it was negligible from highly tempered gelcoat. Water eluates from both gel-and topcoat were nontoxic in routinely employed biotests (bacteria, algae, daphnids). No abrasion by river sediments was detectable. Based on these results, GRP with gelcoat made of ISO-NPG is considered a suitable building material for mesocosms. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  17. Biodegradable polyester-based eco-composites containing hemp fibers modified with macrocyclic oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conzatti, Lucia; Utzeri, Roberto; Hodge, Philip; Stagnaro, Paola

    2016-05-01

    An original compatibilizing pathway for hemp fibers/poly(1,4-butylene adipate-co-terephtalate) (PBAT) eco-composites was explored exploiting the capability of macrocyclic oligomers (MCOs), obtained by cyclodepolymerization (CDP) of PBAT at high dilution, of being re-converted into linear chains by entropically-driven ring-opening polymerization (ED-ROP) that occurs simply heating the MCOS in the bulk. CDP reaction of PBAT was carried out varying solvent, catalyst and reaction time. Selected MCOs were used to adjust the conditions of the ED-ROP reaction. The best experimental conditions were then adopted to modify hemp fibers. Eco-composites based on PBAT and hemp fibers as obtained or modified with PBAT macrocyclics or oligomers were prepared by different process strategies. The best fiber-PBAT compatibility was observed when the fibers were modified with PBAT oligomers before incorporation in the polyester matrix.

  18. Co-precipitation of protein and polyester as a method to isolate high molecular weight DNA.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Jamie D

    2005-02-01

    DNA isolation is often the limiting step in genetic analysis using PCR and automated fragment analysis due to low quality or purity of DNA, the need to determine and adjust DNA concentrations after isolation etc. Several protocols have been developed which are either safe and provide good quality DNA or hazardous and provide excellent quality DNA. In this brief communication I describe a new and rapid method of DNA isolation which employs the co-precipitation of protein and polyester, in the presence of acetone, to remove contaminating proteins from a lysed-tissue sample, thus leaving high quality pure DNA. The advantages of this method are increased safety over the phenol:chloroform and the chaotrophic salt methods and increased purity over the salting-out method. Since the concentrations of DNA isolated using this method are relatively consistent regardless of the amount of starting tissue (within limits), adjustments of the DNA concentrations before use as templates in PCR's are not necessary.

  19. Effect of alkaline treatment on mechanical properties of kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Bijjam Ramgopal; Dhoria, Sneha H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper focuses on the study of the effect of chemical treatment on mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and impact properties of kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. Adhesion between the fiber and polymer is one of factors affecting the mechanical properties of composites. In order to increase the adhesion, the fibers are chemically treated with 5% of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The composite specimens are prepared in both untreated and treated forms of kenaf fibers with five levels of fiber volume fractions. The specimens are prepared according to ASTM standards. Mechanical tests such as tensile, flexural and impact are conducted to determine ultimate tensile strength, bending strength and impact strength of composites. The effect of change in volume fraction on the mechanical properties of the composites is studied for both untreated (raw) and chemically treated kenaf fibers. It has been found that the composites made of chemically treated fibers have good mechanical properties compared to untreated fibers.

  20. Lipase-catalyzed ring-opening polymerization of lactones to polyesters and its mechanistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Namekawa, S; Suda, S; Uyama, H; Kobayashi, S

    1999-01-01

    Lipase catalysis induced a ring-opening polymerization of lactones with different ring-sizes. Small-size (four-membered) and medium-size lactones (six- and seven-membered) as well as macrolides (12-, 13-, 16-, and 17-membered) were subjected to lipase-catalyzed polymerization. The polymerization behaviors depended primarily on the lipase origin and the monomer structure. The macrolides showing much lower anionic polymerizability were enzymatically polymerized faster than epsilon-caprolactone. The granular immobilized lipase derived from Candida antartica showed extremely efficient catalysis in the polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone. Single-step terminal functionalization of the polyester was achieved by initiator and terminator methods. The enzymatic polymerizability of lactones was quantitatively evaluated by Michaelis-Menten kinetics.

  1. Isolation and characterization of a bacterium that degrades various polyester-based biodegradable plastics.

    PubMed

    Teeraphatpornchai, T; Nakajima-Kambe, T; Shigeno-Akutsu, Y; Nakayama, M; Nomura, N; Nakahara, T; Uchiyama, H

    2003-01-01

    Microorganisms isolated from soil samples were screened for their ability to degrade various biodegradable polyester-based plastics. The most active strain, designated as strain TB-13, was selected as the best strain for degrading these plastics. From its phenotypic and genetic characteristics, strain TB-13 was closely related to Paenibacillus amyloyticus. It could degrade poly(lactic acid), poly(butylene succinate), poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate), poly(caprolactone) and poly(ethylene succinate) but not poly(hydroxybutylate-co-valerate). However, it could not utilize these plastics as sole carbon sources. Both protease and esterase activities, which may be involved in the degradation of plastic, were constitutively detected in the culture broth.

  2. Toughening epoxy acrylate with polyurethane acrylates and hyper-branched polyester in three dimensional printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Chao; Li, Ning; Liu, Yang; Lu, Gang

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the toughness of epoxy acrylate (EA) in three dimensional printing (3D-printing), bifunctional polyurethane acrylate (PUA) and trifunctional PUA were firstly blended with EA. The multi-indicators orthogonal experiment, designed with the indicators of tensile strength, elongation at break and impact strength, was used to find out the optimal formulation. Then, hyper-branched polyesters (HBPs) was added to improve the toughness of the photocurable system. The microstructures of the cured specimens were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. By analyzing their mechanical properties and microstructures, it was revealed that the best addition amounts of HBP are 10 wt%. Results indicated that their toughness improved a lot comparing with pure EA. The changes of mechanical properties were characterized by DMA. The addition of HBP could cause a loss in stiffness, elasticity modulus and thermostability.

  3. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, Biswajit; Boruah, Bosanta R., E-mail: brboruah@iitg.ernet.in; Kumar, Suraj

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing framemore » rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.« less

  4. Physical Properties of Polyester Fabrics Treated with Nano, Micro and Macro Emulsion Silicones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvinzadeh, M.; Hajiraissi, R.

    2007-08-01

    The processing of textile to achieve a particular handle is one of the most important aspects of finishing technology. Fabrics softeners are liquid composition added to washing machines during the rinse cycle to make clothes feel better to the touch. The first fabric softeners were developed by the textile industry during the early twentieth century. In this research polyester fabrics were treated with nano, micro and macro emulsion silicone softeners. Some of the physical properties of the treated fabric samples are discussed. The drapeability of treated samples was improved after treatment with nano silicone softeners. The colorimetric measurement of softener-treated fabrics is evaluated with a reflectance spectrophotometer. Moisture regain of treated samples is increased due to coating of silicone softeners. There is some increase in the weight of softener-treated samples. Samples treated with nano emulsion silicones gave better results compared to micro- and macro-emulsion treated ones.

  5. Zonal wavefront sensing using a grating array printed on a polyester film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Biswajit; Kumar, Suraj; Boruah, Bosanta R.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of a zonal wavefront sensor that comprises an array of binary diffraction gratings realized on a transparent sheet (i.e., polyester film) followed by a focusing lens and a camera. The sensor works in a manner similar to that of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. The fabrication of the array of gratings is immune to certain issues associated with the fabrication of the lenslet array which is commonly used in zonal wavefront sensing. Besides the sensing method offers several important advantages such as flexible dynamic range, easy configurability, and option to enhance the sensing frame rate. Here, we have demonstrated the working of the proposed sensor using a proof-of-principle experimental arrangement.

  6. Hemp-Fiber-Reinforced Unsaturated Polyester Composites: Optimization of Processing and Improvement of Interfacial Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Qui, Renhui; Ren, Xiaofeng; Fifield, Leonard S.

    2011-02-25

    The processing variables for making hemp-fiber-reinforced unsaturated polyester (UPE) composites were optimized through orthogonal experiments. It was found that the usage of initiator, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, had the most significant effect on the tensile strength of the composites. The treatment of hemp fibers with a combination of 1, 6-diisocyanatohexane (DIH) and 2-hydroxylethyl acrylate (HEA) significantly increased tensile strength, flexural modulus of rupture and flexural modulus of elasticity, and water resistance of the resulting hemp-UPE composites. FTIR spectra revealed that DIH and HEA were covalently bonded to hemp fibers. Scanning electronic microscopy graphs of the fractured hemp-UPE composites demonstrated thatmore » treatment of hemp fibers with a combination of DIH and HEA greatly improved the interfacial adhesion between hemp fibers and UPE. The mechanism of improving the interfacial adhesion is proposed.« less

  7. Dynamic-mechanical and thermomechanical properties of cellulose nanofiber/polyester resin composites.

    PubMed

    Lavoratti, Alessandra; Scienza, Lisete Cristine; Zattera, Ademir José

    2016-01-20

    Composites of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) obtained from dry cellulose waste of softwood (Pinus sp.) and hardwood (Eucalyptus sp.) were developed. The fiber properties and the influence of the CNFs in the dynamic-mechanical and thermomechanical properties of the composites were evaluated. CNFs with a diameter of 70-90 nm were obtained. Eucalyptus sp. has higher α-cellulose content than Pinus sp. fibers. The crystallinity of the cellulose pulps decreased after grinding. However, high values were still obtained. The chemical composition of the fibers was not significantly altered by the grinding process. Eucalyptus sp. CNF composites had water absorption close to the neat resin at 1 wt% filler. The dynamic-mechanical properties of Eucalyptus sp. CNFs were slightly increased and the thermal stability was improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Surface modification of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane by atmospheric pressure plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, C. W.; Kwong, C. H.; Ng, S. P.

    2015-08-01

    Much works have been done on synthetic materials but scarcely on synthetic leather owing to its surface structures in terms of porosity and roughness. This paper examines the use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment for improving the surface performance of polyester synthetic leather by use of a precursor, tetramethylsilane (TMS). Plasma deposition is regarded as an effective, simple and single-step method with low pollution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirm the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. The results showed that under a particular combination of treatment parameters, a hydrophobic surface was achieved on the APP treated sample with sessile drop static contact angle of 138°. The hydrophobic surface is stable without hydrophilic recovery 30 days after plasma treatment.

  9. Characterization of a resorbable poly(ester urethane) with biodegradable hard segments.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, David K; Robinson, Jennifer L; Iyer, Ananth V; Parakka, James P; Bezwada, Rao S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth M

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth of regenerative medicine and drug delivery fields has generated a strong need for improved polymeric materials that degrade at a controlled rate into safe, non-cytotoxic by-products. Polyurethane thermoplastic elastomers offer several advantages over other polymeric materials including tunable mechanical properties, excellent fatigue strength, and versatile processing. The variable segmental chemistry in developing resorbable polyurethanes also enables fine control over the degradation profile as well as the mechanical properties. Linear aliphatic isocyanates are most commonly used in biodegradable polyurethane formulations; however, these aliphatic polyurethanes do not match the mechanical properties of their aromatic counterparts. In this study, a novel poly(ester urethane) (PEsU) synthesized with biodegradable aromatic isocyanates based on glycolic acid was characterized for potential use as a new resorbable material in medical devices. Infrared spectral analysis confirmed the aromatic and phase-separated nature of the PEsU. Uniaxial tensile testing displayed stress-strain behavior typical of a semi-crystalline polymer above its Tg, in agreement with calorimetric findings. PEsU outperformed aliphatic PCL-based polyurethanes likely due to the enhanced cohesion of the aromatic hard domains. Accelerated degradation of the PEsU using 0.1 M sodium hydroxide resulted in hydrolysis of the polyester soft segment on the surface, reduced molecular weight, surface cracking, and a 30% mass loss after four weeks. Calorimetric studies indicated a disruption of the soft segment crystallinity after incubation which corresponded with a drop in initial modulus of the PEsU. Finally, cytocompatibility testing with 3T3 mouse fibroblasts exhibited cell viability on PEsU films comparable to a commercial poly(ether urethane urea) after 24 h followed by 85% cell viability at 72 h. Overall, this new resorbable polyurethane shows strong potential for use in wide

  10. Enzymatic Degradation of Aromatic and Aliphatic Polyesters by P. pastoris Expressed Cutinase 1 from Thermobifida cellulosilytica

    PubMed Central

    Gamerith, Caroline; Vastano, Marco; Ghorbanpour, Sahar M.; Zitzenbacher, Sabine; Ribitsch, Doris; Zumstein, Michael T.; Sander, Michael; Herrero Acero, Enrique; Pellis, Alessandro; Guebitz, Georg M.

    2017-01-01

    To study hydrolysis of aromatic and aliphatic polyesters cutinase 1 from Thermobifida cellulosilytica (Thc_Cut1) was expressed in P. pastoris. No significant differences between the expression of native Thc_Cut1 and of two glycosylation site knock out mutants (Thc_Cut1_koAsn and Thc_Cut1_koST) concerning the total extracellular protein concentration and volumetric activity were observed. Hydrolysis of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was shown for all three enzymes based on quantification of released products by HPLC and similar concentrations of released terephthalic acid (TPA) and mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (MHET) were detected for all enzymes. Both tested aliphatic polyesters poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were hydrolyzed by Thc_Cut1 and Thc_Cut1_koST, although PBS was hydrolyzed to significantly higher extent than PHBV. These findings were also confirmed via quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) analysis; for PHBV only a small mass change was observed while the mass of PBS thin films decreased by 93% upon enzymatic hydrolysis with Thc_Cut1. Although both enzymes led to similar concentrations of released products upon hydrolysis of PET and PHBV, Thc_Cut1_koST was found to be significantly more active on PBS than the native Thc_Cut1. Hydrolysis of PBS films by Thc_Cut1 and Thc_Cut1_koST was followed by weight loss and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Within 96 h of hydrolysis up to 92 and 41% of weight loss were detected with Thc_Cut1_koST and Thc_Cut1, respectively. Furthermore, SEM characterization of PBS films clearly showed that enzyme tretment resulted in morphological changes of the film surface. PMID:28596765

  11. Repair of osteochondral defects with hyaluronan- and polyester-based scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Solchaga, Luis A; Temenoff, Johnna S; Gao, Jizong; Mikos, Antonios G; Caplan, Arnold I; Goldberg, Victor M

    2005-04-01

    The natural repair of osteochondral defects can be enhanced with biocompatible, biodegradable materials that support the repair process. It is our hypothesis that hyaluronan-based scaffolds are superior to synthetic scaffolds because they provide biological cues. We tested this thesis by comparing two hyaluronan-based scaffolds [auto cross-linked polysaccharide polymer (ACP) and HYAFF-11] to polyester-based scaffolds [poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA)] with similar pore size, porosity and degradation times. Fifty-four rabbits received bilateral osteochondral defects. One defect received a hyaluronan-based scaffold and the contralateral defect received the corresponding polyester-based scaffold. Rabbits were euthanized 4, 12 and 20 weeks after surgery and the condyles dissected and processed for histology. Only ACP-treated defects presented bone at the base of the defect at 4 weeks. At 12 weeks, only defects treated with rapidly dissolving implants (ACP and PLGA) presented bone reconstitution consistently, while bone was present in only one third of those treated with slowly dissolving scaffolds (HYAFF-11 and PLLA). After 20 weeks, the articular surface of PLGA-treated defects presented fibrillation more frequently than in ACP-treated defects. The surface of defects treated with slowly dissolving scaffolds presented more cracks and fissures. The degradation rate of the scaffolds is critical for the repair process. Slowly dissolving scaffolds sustain thicker cartilage at the surface but, it frequently presents cracks and discontinuities. These scaffolds also delay bone formation at the base of the defects. Hyaluronan-based scaffolds appear to allow faster cell infiltration leading to faster tissue formation. The degradation of ACP leads to rapid bone formation while the slow degradation of HYAFF-11 prolongs the presence of cartilage and delays endochondral bone formation.

  12. Friction and wear performance of some thermoplastic polymers and polymer composites against unsaturated polyester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, H.; Mimaroglu, A.; Arda, T.

    2006-09-01

    Wear experiments have been carried out with a range of unfilled and filled engineering thermoplastic polymers sliding against a 15% glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester polymer under 20, 40 and 60 N loads and 0.5 m/s sliding speed. Pin materials used in this experimental investigation are polyamide 66 (PA 66), poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) and aliphatic polyketone (APK), glass fibre reinforced polyamide 46 (PA 46 + 30% GFR), glass fibre reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE + 17% GFR), glass fibre reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK + 20% GFR), glass fibre reinforced poly-phylene-sulfide (PPS + 30% GFR), polytetrafluoroethylene filled polyamide 66 (PA 66 + 10% PTFE) and bronze filled pofytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE + 25% bronze) engineering polymers. The disc material is a 15% glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester thermoset polymer produced by Bulk Moulding Compound (BMC). Sliding wear tests were carried out on a pin-on-disc apparatus under 0.5 m/s sliding speed and load values of 20, 40 and 60 N. The results showed that the highest specific wear rate is for PPS + 30% GFR with a value of 1 × 10 -11 m 2/N and the lowest wear rate is for PTFE + 17% GFR with a value of 9.41 × 10 -15 m 2/N. For the materials and test conditions of this investigation, apart from polyamide 66 and PA 46 + 30% GFR polymers, the coefficient of friction and specific wear rates are not significantly affected by the change in load value. For polyamide 66 and PA 46 + 30% GFR polymers the coefficient of friction and specific wear rates vary linearly with the variation in load values.

  13. Tensile Properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy Resin Reinforced with Recycled Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Yuta

    2018-06-01

    To better understand the mechanical properties of recycled carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (rCFRP), CFRP crushed into small pieces was mixed randomly in different proportions (0-30 wt%) with two different resins: unsaturated polyester and epoxy resin. Two different sizes of crushed CFRP were used: 0.1 mm × 0.007 mm (milled CFRP) and 30 mm × 2 mm (chopped CFRP). The tensile strength of rCFRP was found to depend on both the proportion and the size of the CFRP pieces. It increased with increasing proportion of chopped CFRP, but decreased with increasing proportion of milled CFRP. There was no clear dependence of the tensile strength on the resin that was used. A low fracture strain was found for rCFRP samples made with chopped CFRP, in contrast to those made with milled CFRP. The fracture strain was found to increase with increasing content of milled CFRP up to 20 wt%, at which point, coalescence of existing microvoids occurred. However, there was a reduction in fracture strain for rCFRP with 30 wt% of milled CFRP, owing to the formation of defects (blow holes). Overall, the fracture strain was higher for rCFRPs based on epoxy resin than for those based on unsaturated polyester with the same CFRP content, because of the high ductility of the epoxy resin. The different tensile properties reflected different failure characteristics, with the use of chopped CFRP leading to a complicated rough fracture surface and with milled CFRP causing ductile failure through the presence of tiny dimple-like fractures. However, for a high content of milled CFRP (30 wt%), large blow holes were observed, leading to low ductility.

  14. Fungal Communities Associated with the Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane Buried under Compost at Different Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future. PMID:24056469

  15. Tensile Properties of Unsaturated Polyester and Epoxy Resin Reinforced with Recycled Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okayasu, Mitsuhiro; Kondo, Yuta

    2017-08-01

    To better understand the mechanical properties of recycled carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (rCFRP), CFRP crushed into small pieces was mixed randomly in different proportions (0-30 wt%) with two different resins: unsaturated polyester and epoxy resin. Two different sizes of crushed CFRP were used: 0.1 mm × 0.007 mm (milled CFRP) and 30 mm × 2 mm (chopped CFRP). The tensile strength of rCFRP was found to depend on both the proportion and the size of the CFRP pieces. It increased with increasing proportion of chopped CFRP, but decreased with increasing proportion of milled CFRP. There was no clear dependence of the tensile strength on the resin that was used. A low fracture strain was found for rCFRP samples made with chopped CFRP, in contrast to those made with milled CFRP. The fracture strain was found to increase with increasing content of milled CFRP up to 20 wt%, at which point, coalescence of existing microvoids occurred. However, there was a reduction in fracture strain for rCFRP with 30 wt% of milled CFRP, owing to the formation of defects (blow holes). Overall, the fracture strain was higher for rCFRPs based on epoxy resin than for those based on unsaturated polyester with the same CFRP content, because of the high ductility of the epoxy resin. The different tensile properties reflected different failure characteristics, with the use of chopped CFRP leading to a complicated rough fracture surface and with milled CFRP causing ductile failure through the presence of tiny dimple-like fractures. However, for a high content of milled CFRP (30 wt%), large blow holes were observed, leading to low ductility.

  16. Fighting cancer with nanomedicine---drug-polyester nanoconjugates for targeted cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Qian

    The aim of my Ph. D. research is to develop drug-polyester nanoconjugates (NCs) as a novel translational polymeric drug delivery system that can successfully evade non-specific uptake by reticuloendothelial system (RES) and facilitate targeted cancer diagnosis and therapy. By uniquely integrating well-established chemical reaction-controlled ring opening polymerization (ROP) with nanoprecipitation technique, I successfully developed a polymeric NC system based on poly(lactic acid) and poly(O-carboxyanhydrides) (OCA) that allows for the quantitative loading and controlled release of a variety of anticancer drugs. The developed NC system could be easily modified with parmidronate, one of bisphosphonates commonly used as the treatment for disease characterized by osteolysis, to selectively deliver doxorubicin (Doxo) to the bone tissues and substantially to improve their therapeutic efficiency in inhibiting the growth of osteosarcoma in both murine and canine models. More importantly, the developed NCs could avidly bind to human serum albumin, a ubiquitous protein in the blood, to bypass the endothelium barrier and penetrate into tumor tissues more deeply and efficiently. When compared with PEGylated NCs, these albumin-bound NCs showed significantly reduced accumulation in RES and enhanced tumor accumulation, which consequently contributed to higher their tumor inhibition capabilities. In addition, the developed NC system allows easy incorporation of X-ray computed tomography (CT) contrast agents to largely facilitate personalized therapy by improving diagnosis accuracy and monitoring therapeutic efficacy. Through the synthetic and formulation strategy I developed, a large quantity (grams or larger-scale) of drug-polyester NCs can be easily obtained, which can be used as a model drug delivery system for fundamental studies as well as a real drug delivery system for disease treatment in clinical settings.

  17. Fungal communities associated with the biodegradation of polyester polyurethane buried under compost at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2013-12-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future.

  18. Contribution of soil esterase to biodegradation of aliphatic polyester agricultural mulch film in cultivated soils.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto-Tamura, Kimiko; Hiradate, Syuntaro; Watanabe, Takashi; Koitabashi, Motoo; Sameshima-Yamashita, Yuka; Yarimizu, Tohru; Kitamoto, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between degradation speed of soil-buried biodegradable polyester film in a farmland and the characteristics of the predominant polyester-degrading soil microorganisms and enzymes were investigated to determine the BP-degrading ability of cultivated soils through characterization of the basal microbial activities and their transition in soils during BP film degradation. Degradation of poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) film was evaluated in soil samples from different cultivated fields in Japan for 4 weeks. Both the degradation speed of the PBSA film and the esterase activity were found to be correlated with the ratio of colonies that produced clear zone on fungal minimum medium-agarose plate with emulsified PBSA to the total number colonies counted. Time-dependent change in viable counts of the PBSA-degrading fungi and esterase activities were monitored in soils where buried films showed the most and the least degree of degradation. During the degradation of PBSA film, the viable counts of the PBSA-degrading fungi and the esterase activities in soils, which adhered to the PBSA film, increased with time. The soil, where the film was degraded the fastest, recorded large PBSA-degrading fungal population and showed high esterase activity compared with the other soil samples throughout the incubation period. Meanwhile, esterase activity and viable counts of PBSA-degrading fungi were found to be stable in soils without PBSA film. These results suggest that the higher the distribution ratio of native PBSA-degrading fungi in the soil, the faster the film degradation is. This could be due to the rapid accumulation of secreted esterases in these soils.

  19. Kenaf/PP and EFB/PP: Effect of fibre loading on the mechanical properties of polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuar, N. I. S.; Zakaria, S.; Harun, J.; Wang, C.

    2017-07-01

    Kenaf and empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibre which are the important natural fibres in Malaysia were studied as nonwoven polymer composites. The effect of fibre loading on kenaf polypropylene and EFB polypropylene nonwoven composite was studied at different mixture ratio. Kenaf polypropylene nonwoven composite (KPNC) and EFB polypropylene nonwoven composite (EPNC) were prepared by carding and needle-punching techniques, followed by a compression moulding at 6 mm thickness. This study was conducted to identify the optimum fibre loading of nonwoven polypropylene composite and their effect on the mechanical strength. The study was designed at 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of fibre content in nonwoven mat and composite. The tensile strength, flexural strength and compression strength were tested to evaluate the composite mechanical properties. It was found that the mechanical properties for both kenaf and EFB nonwoven composites were influenced by the fibre content. KPNC showed higher mechanical strength than EPNC. The highest flexural strength was obtained at 60% KPNC and the lowest value was showed by 40% EPNC. The tensile and flexural strength for both KPNC and EPNC decreased after the fibre loading of 60%.

  20. Polypropylene mesh augmentation for complete quadriceps rupture after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nodzo, Scott R; Rachala, Sridhar R

    2016-01-01

    Polypropylene mesh has previously been shown to be an effective treatment for failed patellar tendon repairs after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), but there have been few reports of this synthetic mesh used in complete quadriceps rupture after TKA. We retrospectively reviewed seven consecutive cases in six patients with complete quadriceps tears after TKA who had their quadriceps tendon repaired with suture and polypropylene mesh augmentation. All but two patients had previously failed primary suture repair. Patient outcomes were evaluated using the Knee Society Score. Standardized anterior-posterior (AP), lateral and merchant radiographs were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up. Seven knees in six patients were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 34±10 (range 24 to 49months) months. There were only four clinical successes defined as an extensor lag less than 30°. Of the functioning knees at final follow-up (n=5) the overall extensor lag in this group did significantly improve from 50±13° to 20±15° (range 5 to 40°) (p=.01). Mean postoperative flexion at final follow-up was 115±8°. Mean Knee Society Score for function improved from 20±30 to 45±54 (p=.03) as did the mean Knee Society Score for pain (44±18 vs. 74±78, p=.02). Polypropylene mesh offered limited postoperative functional results when used as an augment to the multiply operated knee that sustains a complete quadriceps rupture after TKA, but did allow for significant improvement in postoperative pain outcomes. IV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Some Exploitation Properties of Wood Plastic Hybrid Composites Based on Polypropylene and Plywood Production Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajaks, Janis; Kalnins, Karlis; Uzulis, Sandris; Matvejs, Juris

    2015-12-01

    During the last 20-30 years many researchers have paid attention to the studies of properties of thewood polymer composites (WPC). A lot of works are closely related to investigations of exploitation properties of wood fibres or wood flour containing polyolefine composites [1, 2]. The most useful from wide selection of polyolefines are polypropylenes, but timber industry waste materials comprising lignocellulose fibres are often used as reinforcement of WPC [3-12]. Plywood industry is not an exception - part of waste materials (by-products) are used for heat energy, i.e. burned. In this work we have approbated reinforcing of polypropylene (PP) with one of the plywood industry by-products, such as birch plywood sawdust (PSWD),which containswood fibre fractions with different length [13]. The main fraction (50%) includes fibres with length l = 0.5 - 1 mm. Our previous study [13] has confirmed that PSWD is a promising filler for PP reinforcing. Addition of PSWD up to 40-50 wt.% has increased WPC tensile and flexural modulus, but decreased deformation ability of PP matrix, impact strength, water resistance and fluidity of composite melts. It was shown [13] that modification of the composites with interfacial modifier - coupling agent maleated polypropylene (MAPP content up to 5-7 wt.%) considerably improved all the abovementioned properties. SEM investigations also confirmed positive action of coupling agent on strengthening of adhesion interaction between components wood and PP matrix. Another way how to make better properties of the WPC is to form hybridcomposites [1, 14-24]. Very popular WPC modifiers are nanoparticle additions like organonanoclays, which increase WPC physical-mechanical properties - microhardness, water resistance and diminish barrier properties and combustibility [1, 2, 14-17, 19, 20]. The goal of this study was to investigate organonanoclays influence on plywood production industry by-product birch plywood sawdust (PSWD) containing

  2. Polypropylene Surgical Mesh Coated with Extracellular Matrix Mitigates the Host Foreign Body Response

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Matthew T.; Carruthers, Christopher A.; Dearth, Christopher L.; Crapo, Peter M.; Huber, Alexander; Burnsed, Olivia A.; Londono, Ricardo; Johnson, Scott A.; Daly, Kerry A.; Stahl, Elizabeth C.; Freund, John M.; Medberry, Christopher J.; Carey, Lisa E.; Nieponice, Alejandro; Amoroso, Nicholas J.; Badylak, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    Surgical mesh devices composed of synthetic materials are commonly used for ventral hernia repair. These materials provide robust mechanical strength and are quickly incorporated into host tissue; factors which contribute to reduced hernia recurrence rates. However, such mesh devices cause a foreign body response with the associated complications of fibrosis and patient discomfort. In contrast, surgical mesh devices composed of naturally occurring extracellular matrix (ECM) are associated with constructive tissue remodeling, but lack the mechanical strength of synthetic materials. A method for applying a porcine dermal ECM hydrogel coating to a polypropylene mesh is described herein with the associated effects upon the host tissue response and biaxial mechanical behavior. Uncoated and ECM coated heavy-weight BARD™ Mesh were compared to the light-weight ULTRAPRO™ and BARD™ Soft Mesh devices in a rat partial thickness abdominal defect overlay model. The ECM coated mesh attenuated the pro-inflammatory response compared to all other devices, with a reduced cell accumulation and fewer foreign body giant cells. The ECM coating degraded by 35 days, and was replaced with loose connective tissue compared to the dense collagenous tissue associated with the uncoated polypropylene mesh device. Biaxial mechanical characterization showed that all of the mesh devices were of similar isotropic stiffness. Upon explantation, the light-weight mesh devices were more compliant than the coated or uncoated heavy-weight devices. The present study shows that an ECM coating alters the default host response to a polypropylene mesh, but not the mechanical properties in an acute in vivo abdominal repair model. PMID:23873846

  3. Dispersion and reaggregation of nanoparticles in the polypropylene copolymer foamed by supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyunghwan; Seo, Youngwook P; Hong, Soon Man; Takahara, Atsushi; Lee, Kyoung Hwan; Seo, Yongsok

    2013-07-14

    For the preparation of nanocomposites, we conducted environmentally benign foaming processing on polypropylene (PP) copolymer/clay nanocomposites via a batch process in an autoclave. We investigated the dispersion and the exfoliation of the nanoclay particles. Full exfoliation was achieved by the foamability of the matrix PP copolymer using supercritical carbon dioxide (sc CO2) and subcritical carbon dioxide (sub CO2). More and smaller cells were observed when the clay was blended as heterogeneous nuclei and sc CO2 was used. Small angle X-ray scattering showed that highly dispersed states (exfoliation) of the clay particles were obtained by the foaming process. Since the clay particles provided more nucleating sites for the foaming of the polymer, a well dispersed (or fully exfoliated) nanocomposite exhibited a higher cell density and a smaller cell size at the same clay particle concentration. Expansion of the adsorbed CO2 facilitated the exfoliation of the clay platelets; thus, sc CO2 at lower temperature was more efficient for uniform foaming-cell production. Fully dispersed clay platelets were, however, re-aggregated when subjected to a further melting processing. The reprocessed nanocomposites still had some exfoliated platelets as well as some aggregated intercalates. The dual role of the nanoclay particles as foaming nucleus and a crystallization nucleus was confirmed by cell growth observation and nonisothermal crystallization kinetics analysis. A low foaming temperature and a high saturation pressure were more favorable for obtaining a uniform foam. The PP copolymer was found to be foamed more easily than polypropylene. A small amount of other olefin moieties in the backbone of the polymer facilitated better foamability than the neat polypropylene.

  4. Effect of Curing Period on Properties of Steel and Polypropylene Fibre Reinforced Ultra-High Performance Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smarzewski, Piotr

    2017-10-01

    This study has investigated the effect of curing period on the mechanical properties of straight polypropylene and hooked-end steel fibre reinforced ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC). Various physical properties are evaluated, i.e. absorbability, apparent density and open porosity. Compressive strength, tensile splitting strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity were determined at 28, 56 and 730 days. Comparative strength development of fibre reinforced mixes at 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% by volume fractions in relation to the mix without fibres was observed. Good correlations between the compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity are established. Steel and polypropylene fibres significantly increased the compressive strength, tensile splitting strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of UHPC after two years curing period when fibre content volume was at least 1%. It seems that steel fibre reinforced UHPC has better properties than the polypropylene fibre reinforced UHPC.

  5. Materials characterization and histological analysis of explanted polypropylene, PTFE, and PET hernia meshes from an individual patient

    PubMed Central

    Wood, A. J.; Cozad, M. J.; Grant, D. A.; Ostdiek, A. M.; Bachman, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    During its tenure in vivo, synthetic mesh materials are exposed to foreign body responses, which can alter physicochemical properties of the material. Three different synthetic meshes comprised of polypropylene, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) materials were explanted from a single patient providing an opportunity to compare physicochemical changes between three different mesh materials in the same host. Results from infrared spectroscopy demonstrated significant oxidation in polypropylene mesh while ePTFE and PET showed slight chemical changes that may be caused by adherent scar tissue. Differential scanning calorimetry results showed a significant decrease in the heat of enthalpy and melt temperature in the polypropylene mesh while the ePTFE and PET showed little change. The presence of giant cells and plasma cells surrounding the ePTFE and PET were indicative of an active foreign body response. Scanning electron micrographs and photo micrographs displayed tissue entrapment and distortion of all three mesh materials. PMID:23371769

  6. Stability of nitroglycerin 110 mcg/mL stored in polypropylene syringes.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Vu, Nicole; Rueter, John

    2013-01-01

    Various angiography procedures at Mayo Clinic (Rochester campus) require small bolus doses of injectable nitroglycerin. Commercially acquired containers of injectable nitroglycerin provide excessive amounts of drug for these procedural needs, so syringes were chosen as a container for dispensing of the dose needed. Due to nitroglycerin's known chemical attributes of volatility and sorption to plastic surfaces, careful consideration of the stability needs to be taken into account when storing in a syringe. Since there is a lack of stability information in the literature, we studied the stability of nitroglycerin in polypropylene syringes over 90 days. Methods used for this study consisted of a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic assay, visual appearance, and pH. Samples were stored protected from light at ambient controlled temperature and consisted of nitroglycerin 110 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose injection 10.1 mL in 12 mL Terumo polypropylene syringes. Samples were tested at intervals up to 90 days. Results from the visual portion of the study showed clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the 90-day study period. The pH results started at 4.27 +/- 0.13 (day 0) and ranged from 4.19 +/- 0.17 to 4.92 +/- 0.43 throughout the study period. Potency test results revealed a day 0 concentration of 104.242 +/- 0.193 mcg/mL (batch 1) and 122.483 +/- 0.168 mcg/mL (batch 2). Results trended downward with percentage of day 0 concentration of 92.2% +/- 2.4% at day 14 and of 81.4% +/- 4.9% at day 90. Chromatographic profiles of the samples exhibited insignificant changes over the study period. The nitroglycerin peak was spectrally pure based on peak-purity analysis, suggesting that sorption to the polypropylene syringe is one possible reason for the concentration decline over time, but nitroglycerin is a volatile compound and loss through vaporization cannot be ruled out. Nitroglycerin 110 mcg/mL in 5% dextrose injection, packaged

  7. Thermal degradation and tensile strength of sansevieria trifasciata-polypropylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abral, H.; Kenedy, E.

    2015-07-01

    The paper exhibits thermal degradation and tensile strength of Sansevieria Trifasciata (ST) fibers and polypropylene (PP) composites. Thermal degradation of ST fibers PP composites was conducted by using thermogravimetry (TGA) instrument, meanwhile tensile strength of the composite was done by using tensile equipment. The results show that the thermal resistance of ST fibers PP composites was higher than that of virgin PP only. Increases in volume fraction of fibers in the composites enhance the tensile strength. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) observation exhibits good interface bonding between ST fibers and PP matrix.

  8. 3D printing of polypropylene using the fused filament fabrication technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. F.; Carneiro, O. S.; Gomes, R.

    2017-10-01

    This work addresses the potential of polypropylene, neat (PP) and reinforced with short glass fibers (GRPP), as a candidate for the Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF)-based 3D printing technique. The entire production chain was evaluated, i.e., starting with PP and GRPP pellets, filaments were produced by extrusion and test samples were printed in different process conditions (different layers' thicknesses, deposition orientation and infill) with the in-house produced filaments. This strategy enabled a true comparison between parts printed (FFF) with parts manufactured by compression molding (CM), using exactly the same grade of raw material.

  9. Influence of injection molding process parameters on fiber concentration distribution in long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scantamburlo, Andrea; Gazzola, Luca; Sorgato, Marco; Lucchetta, Giovanni

    2018-05-01

    In parts manufactured by injection molding of long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene, the local fiber orientation, fiber concentration and fiber length distribution varies along both the thickness direction and the flow path. This heterogeneous microstructure significantly influences the mechanical properties variability in the molded parts. The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of the matrix viscosity, the injection speed and the mold geometry on the fiber concentration distribution. In particular, the factors involved in fiber-matrix separation and fiber pull-out during the injection phases were analyzed in order to understand the phenomenon.

  10. Studies on thermal decomposition behaviors of polypropylene using molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jinbao; He, Chao; Tong, Hong; Pan, Guiying

    2017-11-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is one of the main components of waste plastics. In order to understand the mechanism of PP thermal decomposition, the pyrolysis behaviour of PP has been simulated from 300 to 1000 K in periodic boundary conditions by molecular dynamic method, based on AMBER force field. The simulation results show that the pyrolysis process of PP can mostly be divided into three stages: low temperature pyrolysis stage, intermediate temperature stage and high temperature pyrolysis stage. PP pyrolysis is typical of random main-chain scission, and the possible formation mechanism of major pyrolysis products was analyzed.

  11. Microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau : faisabilité et intérêt pour la biologie d'un instrument de laboratoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J. F.; Moy, J. P.

    2005-06-01

    La biologie étudie des structures ou des phénomènes sub-cellulaires. Pour cela la microscopie est la technique d'observation privilégiée. La résolution spatiale de la microscopie optique s'avère bien souvent insuffisante pour de telles observations. Les techniques plus résolvantes, comme la microscopie électronique par transmission sont souvent destructrices et d'une complexité peu adaptée aux besoins des biologistes. La microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau permet l'imagerie rapide de cellules dans leur milieu naturel, nécessite peu de préparation et offre des résolutions de quelques dizaines de nanomètres. De plus, il existe un bon contraste naturel entre les structures carbonées (protéines, lipides) et l'eau. Actuellement cette technique est limitée aux centres de rayonnement synchrotron, ce qui impose une planification et des déplacements incompatibles avec les besoins de la biologie. Un tel microscope fonctionnant avec uns source de laboratoire serait d'une grande utilité. Ce document présente un état de l'art de la microscopie par rayons X dans la fenêtre de l'eau. Un cahier des charges détaillé pour un appareil de laboratoire ayant les performances optiques requises par les biologistes est présenté et confronté aux microscopes X de laboratoire déjà existants. Des solutions concernant la source et les optiques sont également discutées.

  12. Study of the effect of surface treatment of kenaf fibre on mechanical properties of kenaf filled unsaturated polyester composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salem, I. A. S.; Rozyanty, A. R.; Betar, B. O.; Adam, T.; Mohammed, M.; Mohammed, A. M.

    2017-10-01

    In this research, unsaturated polyester/kenaf fiber (UP/KF) composites was prepared by using hand lay-up process. The effect of surface treatment of kenaf fiber on mechanical properties of kenaf filled unsaturated polyester composites were studied. Different concentrationsof stearic acid (SA) were applied, i.e. 0, 0.4, and 0.8 wt%. Tensile strength of untreated UP/KF composites was found to be higher for 40 wt% loading of kenaf fiber. The highest tensile strength value was obtained after treatment with 0.4 wt% concentration of stearic acid at 56 MPa and tensile modulus was at 2409 MPa. From the flexural strength result obtained, it is clearly seen that 40 wt% loading of kenaf fiber and treatment with 0.4 wt% concentration of stearic acid give the highest value at 72 MPa and flexural modulus at 3929 MPa.

  13. Effect OF NaOH Treatment on Bending Strength Of The Polyester Composite Reinforce By Sugar Palm Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arif Irfai, Mochamad; Wulandari, Diah; Sutriyono; Marsyahyo, Eko

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the effect of NaOH treatment on bending strength of lamina composite reinforced by sugar palm fiber. To know of mechanism fracture can be done with visual inspection of the fracture surface. The Materials used are random sugar palm fibers that have been in the treatment of NaOH, polyester resin and hardener. Sugar palm fibers after washed and dried then soaked NaOH with a long time soaking 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours. The bending test specimens were produced according to ASTM D 790. All specimens were post cured at 62°C for 4 hours. The Bending test was carried out on a universal testing machine. The SEM analysis has conducted to provide the analysis on interface adhesion between the surfaces of fiber with the matrix. The result shows that polyester composite reinforced by sugar palm fiber has highest bending stress 176.77 N/mm2 for 2 hours of a long time soaking NaOH, the highest flexural strain 0.27 mm for 2 hours of a long time soaking NaOH, elongation 24.05% for 2 hours of a long time soaking NaOH and the highest bending modulus 1.267 GPa for 2 hours of a long time soaking NaOH. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the polyester composite reinforced by sugar palm fiber has the optimum bending properties for a long time soaking 2 hours. The fracture surface shows that the polyester composite reinforced by sugar palm fiber pull out that indicate weakens the bond between fiber and matrix.

  14. Multiwalled carbon nanotube coated polyester fabric as textile based flexible counter electrode for dye sensitized solar cell.

    PubMed

    Arbab, Alvira Ayoub; Sun, Kyung Chul; Sahito, Iftikhar Ali; Qadir, Muhammad Bilal; Jeong, Sung Hoon

    2015-05-21

    Textile wearable electronics offers the combined advantages of both electronics and textile characteristics. The essential properties of these flexible electronics such as lightweight, stretchable, and wearable power sources are in strong demand. Here, we have developed a facile route to fabricate multi walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) coated polyester fabric as a flexible counter electrode (CE) for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A variety of MWCNT and enzymes with different structures were used to generate individual enzyme-dispersed MWCNT (E-MWCNT) suspensions by non-covalent functionalization. A highly concentrated colloidal suspension of E-MWCNT was deposited on polyester fabric via a simple tape casting method using an air drying technique. In view of the E-MWCNT coating, the surface structure is represented by topologically randomly assembled tubular graphene units. This surface morphology has a high density of colloidal edge states and oxygen-containing surface groups which execute multiple catalytic sites for iodide reduction. A highly conductive E-MWCNT coated fabric electrode with a surface resistance of 15 Ω sq(-1) demonstrated 5.69% power conversion efficiency (PCE) when used as a flexible CE for DSSCs. High photo voltaic performance of our suggested system of E-MWCNT fabric-based DSSCs is associated with high sheet conductivity, low charge transfer resistance (RCT), and excellent electro catalytic activity (ECA). Such a conductive fabric demonstrated stable conductivity against bending cycles and strong mechanical adhesion of E-MWCNT on polyester fabric. Moreover, the polyester fabric is hydrophobic and, therefore, has good sealing capacity and retains the polymer gel electrolyte without seepage. This facile E-MWCNT fabric CE configuration provides a concrete fundamental background towards the development of textile-integrated solar cells.

  15. Systematic computational and experimental investigation of lithium-ion transport mechanisms in polyester-based polymer electrolytes

    DOE PAGES

    Webb, Michael A.; Jung, Yukyung; Pesko, Danielle M.; ...

    2015-07-10

    Understanding the mechanisms of lithium-ion transport in polymers is crucial for the design of polymer electrolytes. We combine modular synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and molecular simulation to investigate lithium-ion transport in a new family of polyester-based polymers and in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Theoretical predictions of glass-transition temperatures and ionic conductivities in the polymers agree well with experimental measurements. Interestingly, both the experiments and simulations indicate that the ionic conductivity of PEO, relative to the polyesters, is far higher than would be expected from its relative glass-transition temperature. The simulations reveal that diffusion of the lithium cations in the polyesters proceeds viamore » a different mechanism than in PEO, and analysis of the distribution of available cation solvation sites in the various polymers provides a novel and intuitive way to explain the experimentally observed ionic conductivities. This work provides a platform for the evaluation and prediction of ionic conductivities in polymer electrolyte materials.« less

  16. Damage of polyesters by the atmospheric free radical oxidant NO3 •: a product study involving model systems

    PubMed Central

    Goeschen, Catrin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Manufactured polymer materials are used in increasingly demanding applications, but their lifetime is strongly influenced by environmental conditions. In particular, weathering and ageing leads to dramatic changes in the properties of the polymers, which results in decreased service life and limited usage. Despite the heavy reliance of our society on polymers, the mechanism of their degradation upon exposure to environmental oxidants is barely understood. In this work, model systems of important structural motifs in commercial high-performing polyesters were used to study the reaction with the night-time free radical oxidant NO3 • in the absence and presence of other radical and non-radical oxidants. Identification of the products revealed ‘hot spots’ in polyesters that are particularly vulnerable to attack by NO3 • and insight into the mechanism of oxidative damage by this environmentally important radical. It is suggested that both intermediates as well as products of these reactions are potentially capable of promoting further degradation processes in polyesters under environmental conditions. PMID:24204400

  17. Bio-modification of Cotton and Micro-denier Polyester with Sericin to Develop Potent Antibacterial and Antifungal Textile Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajalakshmi, M.; Uddandrao, V. V. Sathibabu; Saravanan, G.; Vadivukkarasi, S.; Koushik, C. V.

    2018-06-01

    The present study was aimed to develop a novel textile product through bio modification of cotton and micro-denier polyester with sericin (Sn) against bacterial and fungal growth. The authors extracted and purified Sn from silk yellow cocoons. Sn solution (10 g/L) was incorporated into the 100% cotton (C), 100% micro-denier polyester (MDP) and 65/35 micro-denier polyester/cotton (MDP/C) in a padding mangle by a 2-dip/2-nip process and fabrics were analysed by Field-Emission scanning electron microscope. Fabrics were divided into six groups such as untreated groups (C, MDP and MDP/C) and Sn-treated groups (Sn + C, Sn + MDP and Sn + MDP/C) and then underwent organoleptic evaluation and as well as anti-bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and anti-fungal (Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma harzianum) activities. Sn treated fabrics were found to show the presence of Sn by scanning electron micrographs and also attained high organoleptic score from the panel members. In addition, the Sn-treated fabrics displayed outstanding anti bacterial and anti fungal properties in terms of both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Sn + MDP/C fabrics have shown potential reduction in bacterial and fungal growth when compared with other treated and untreated fabrics. Hence, this study suggests that bio modification of C, MDP and MDP/C with Sn may make them ideal candidate for their application in medical textiles against pathogens.

  18. Loading of chitosan - Nano metal oxide hybrids onto cotton/polyester fabrics to impart permanent and effective multifunctions.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nabil A; Eid, Basma M; El-Aziz, Eman Abd; Elmaaty, Tarek M Abou; Ramadan, Shaimaa M

    2017-12-01

    New and durable multifunctional properties of cotton/polyester blended fabrics were developed through loading of chitosan (Cs) and various metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) namely ZnO, TiO 2 , and SiO 2 onto fabric surface using citric acid/Sodium hypophosphite for ester-crosslinking and creating new anchoring and binding sites, COOH groups, onto the ester-crosslinked fabrics surface. The surface morphology and the presence of active ingredients (Cs & MONPs) onto selected - coated fabric samples were analyzed by SEM images and confirmed by EDS spectrums. The influence of various finishing formulations on some performance and functional properties such as wettability, antibacterial activity, UV-protection, self-cleaning, resiliency and durability to wash were studied. The obtained results revealed that the extent of improvement in the imparted functional properties is governed by type of loaded-hybrid and follows the decreasing order: Cs-TiO 2 NPs>Cs-ZnONPs>SiO 2 NP s >Cs alone, as well as kind of substrate cotton/polyester (65/35)>cotton/polyester (50/50). Moreover, after 15 washing cycles, the durability of the imparted functional properties of Cs/TiO 2 NP s - loaded substrates marginally decreased indicating the strong fixation of the hybrid components onto the ester-crosslinked substrates. The obtained bioactive multifunctional textiles can be used for producing eco-friendly protective textile materials for numerous applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Systematic computational and experimental investigation of lithium-ion transport mechanisms in polyester-based polymer electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Michael A.; Jung, Yukyung; Pesko, Danielle M.

    Understanding the mechanisms of lithium-ion transport in polymers is crucial for the design of polymer electrolytes. We combine modular synthesis, electrochemical characterization, and molecular simulation to investigate lithium-ion transport in a new family of polyester-based polymers and in poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Theoretical predictions of glass-transition temperatures and ionic conductivities in the polymers agree well with experimental measurements. Interestingly, both the experiments and simulations indicate that the ionic conductivity of PEO, relative to the polyesters, is far higher than would be expected from its relative glass-transition temperature. The simulations reveal that diffusion of the lithium cations in the polyesters proceeds viamore » a different mechanism than in PEO, and analysis of the distribution of available cation solvation sites in the various polymers provides a novel and intuitive way to explain the experimentally observed ionic conductivities. This work provides a platform for the evaluation and prediction of ionic conductivities in polymer electrolyte materials.« less

  20. Surface modification of polyester fabrics by atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma for color strength and adhesion enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunming; Zhao, Meihua; Wang, Libing; Qu, Lijun; Men, Yajing

    2017-04-01

    Surface properties of water-based pigmented inks for ink-jet printed polyester fabrics were modified with atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma to improve the color strength and pigment adhesion of the treated surfaces. The influence of various parameters, including the surface morphology, chemical compositions, surface energy and dynamic contact angles of the control and plasma treated samples was studied. Color strength and edge definition were used to evaluate the ink-jet printing performance of fabrics. The change in pigment adhesion to polyester fibers was analyzed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). AFM (Atomic force microscope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses indicated the increase in surface roughness and the oxygen-containing polar groups(Cdbnd O, Csbnd OH and COOH) reinforced the fixation of pigments on the fiber surface. The result from this study suggested that the improved pigment color yield was clearly affected by alteration of pigment adhesion enhanced by plasma surface modification. Polyester fabrics exhibited better surface property and ink-jet printing performance after the air/He mixture plasma treatment comparing with those after air plasma treatment.