Science.gov

Sample records for polyethylene pe films

  1. The characterisation of two different degradable polyethylene (PE) sacks

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G. . E-mail: gudavis@cytanet.com.cy

    2006-12-15

    The compostability of two different polyethylene (PE) products on the UK market under open-windrow composting conditions is explored within this paper. Chemical analysis of the PE bags has established their constituents in order to examine how the PE bags have an increased degradability depending on additives. Weight loss of the two different PE products within open-windrow composting conditions was recorded in order to establish the percentage weight loss as an indication of the degradability of the two products and their relative suitability for open-windrow composting. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the PE products over the composting duration established the degradation processes for the PE products within the compost. These analyses concluded that one of the PE product mixes was more degradable than the other. However, neither product completed degraded within the timeframe of 12-14 weeks generally accepted for open-windrow composting in the UK.

  2. Development and antilisterial activity of PE-based biological preservative films incorporating plantaricin BM-1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Gao, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Hongxing; Liu, Hui; Jin, Junhua; Yang, Wenge; Xie, Yuanhong

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, bacteriocin, as a natural antimicrobial compound, provides enormous promise to be used in food safety preservation. In this work, the polyethylene(PE)-based biological preservative films incorporating plantaricin BM-1, a typical IIa bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum BM-1, were developed and characterized. The results showed that PE, low-density PE (LDPE) and high-density PE (HDPE) films soaked in plantaricin BM-1 solution had obvious antimicrobial activities against Listeria monocytogenes. And the volume of plantaricin BM-1 solution absorbed by PE, LDPE and HDPE films continued to increase and reached the maximum during exposure for up to 10, 6 and 16 h, respectively. And the maximum absorption volumes of plantaricin BM-1 solution had no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the PE, LDPE and HDPE films. When soaking in water, the release amount of plantaricin BM-1 from active PE, LDPE and HDPE films reached the maximum potency at 16, 12 and 20 h, respectively. And the maximum release amount of plantaricin BM-1 from PE and LDPE active films was dramatically more than the HDPE active film (P < 0.05). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of active films incorporating plantaricin BM-1 maintained stability for at least 120 days against L. monocytogenes stored at 25°C, which suggest a potential application of the biological preservative films on the control of foodborne pathogen L. monocytogenes. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The adhesion of oxygen-plasma treated poly(ethylene) and poly(ethylene terephthlate) films

    SciTech Connect

    Holton, S.L.; Kinloch, A.J.; Watts, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    The effects of low-pressure oxygen-plasma treatment on the surfaces of poly(ethylene) (PE) and poly(ethylene terephthlate) (PET) films and its influence on the adhesion of PE/PET laminates were assessed. The 90{degree} peel test was used to estimate the adhesive fracture energy, G{sub c} for the laminates. XPS, SEM and AFM were used to analyse the treated films and fracture surfaces. Significant improvements in bond strength occurred within very short treatment times (5s at 50W) with the maximum adhesion occurring after 300s. For longer treatment times the bond strengths decrease slightly. G{sub c} values were found to be low when PET was the peel arm. When PE was the peel arm, the G{sub c} values were substantially larger using the current analysis.

  4. Surface modification of a polyethylene film for anticoagulant and anti-microbial catheter

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yingying; Miao, Jianjun; Zhang, Fuming; Cai, Chao; Koh, Amanda; Simmons, Trevor J.; Mousa, Shaker A.; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    A functional anticoagulant and anti-bacterial coating for polyethylene (PE) films is described. The stepwise preparation of this nanocomposite surface coating involves O2 plasma etching of PE film, carbodiimide coupling of cysteamine to the etched PE film, binding of Ag to sulfhydryl groups of cysteamine, and assembly of heparin capped AgNPs on the PE film. The nanocomposite film and its components were characterized by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and field emission-scanning electron microscopy. The resulting PE films demonstrate anticoagulant activity using a hemoglobin whole blood clotting assay, and anti-bacterial activity against Bacillus cereus 3551 (Gram-positive) and Escherichia coli BL21 (Gram-negative) bacteria. The hydrophilicity of the heparin coated PE was determined by contact angle measurements; and the stability of the nanocomposite film, with respect to Ag leaching, was assessed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. PMID:26900340

  5. Combining polyethylene and polypropylene: Enhanced performance with PE/iPP multiblock polymers.

    PubMed

    Eagan, James M; Xu, Jun; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Thurber, Christopher M; Macosko, Christopher W; LaPointe, Anne M; Bates, Frank S; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2017-02-24

    Polyethylene (PE) and isotactic polypropylene (iPP) constitute nearly two-thirds of the world's plastic. Despite their similar hydrocarbon makeup, the polymers are immiscible with one another. Thus, common grades of PE and iPP do not adhere or blend, creating challenges for recycling these materials. We synthesized PE/iPP multiblock copolymers using an isoselective alkene polymerization initiator. These polymers can weld common grades of commercial PE and iPP together, depending on the molecular weights and architecture of the block copolymers. Interfacial compatibilization of phase-separated PE and iPP with tetrablock copolymers enables morphological control, transforming brittle materials into mechanically tough blends.

  6. Swelling, ion uptake and biodegradation studies of PE film modified through radiation induced graft copolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Inderjeet; Gupta, Nitika; Kumari, Vandna

    2011-09-01

    An attempt to develop biodegradable polyethylene film grafting of mixture of hydrophilic monomers methacrylic acid (MAAc) and acrylamide (AAm) onto PE film has been carried out by preirradiation method using benzoyl peroxide as the radical initiator. Since ether linkages are susceptible to easy cleavage during degradation process, PE film was irradiated before the grafting reactions by γ-rays to introduce peroxidic linkages (PE-OO-PE) that offer sites for grafting. The effect of irradiation dose, monomer concentration, initiator concentration, temperature, time and amount of water on the grafting percent was determined. Maximum percentage of grafting of binary mixture (MAAc+AAm), (1792%) was obtained at a total concentration of binary monomer mixture=204.6×10 -2 mol/L ([MAAc]=176.5×10 -2 mol/L, [AAm]=28.1×10 -2 mol/L), [BPO]=8.3×10 -2 mol/L at 100 °C in 70 min. The grafted PE film was characterized by the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) methods. Some selective properties of grafted films such as swelling studies, ion uptake and biodegradation studies have been investigated. The grafted films show good swelling in water, ion uptake studies shows promising results for desalination of brackish water and the soil burial test shows that PE film grafted with binary monomer mixture degrades up to 47% within 50 days.

  7. Surface modification by γ-ray-induced grafting of PDMAEMA/PEGMEMA onto PE films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titaux, G. A.; Contreras-García, A.; Bucio, E.

    2009-07-01

    Radiation grafting of poly[2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMEMA) onto polyethylene (PE) films was synthesized using gamma radiation from a 60Co source. PE was modified by the PDMAEMA and PEGMEMA by pre-irradiation and one-step method. Grafting as a function of the pre-irradiation dose between 50 and 200 kGy, dose rate of 9 kGy h -1, and monomer concentration 50% of PDMAEMA/PEGMEMA (1/1) in toluene. The characterization of the graft copolymer obtained was carried out by FTIR-ATR, TGA, and DSC. Stimuli-responsive behavior and critical pH point were studied by swelling in water, pH and thermo-responsive films of PE-g-(DMAEMA/PEGMEMA) presented a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 55 °C and critical pH point around 8.5.

  8. Study on the oriented recrystallization of carbon-coated polyethylene oriented ultrathin films.

    PubMed

    Chang, Haibo; Guo, Qipeng; Shen, Deyan; Li, Lin; Qiu, Zhaobin; Wang, Feng; Yan, Shouke

    2010-10-21

    It is confirmed that a layer of vacuum-evaporated carbon on the surface of a preoriented ultrathin polymer film can lead to an oriented recrystallization of the polymer film. This has been attributed to a strong fixing effect of vacuum-evaporated carbon layer on the film surface of the polymer. To study the origin of the strong fixing effect of vacuum-evaporated carbon layer on the polymer films, the melting and recrystallization behaviors of the preoriented ultrathin PE film with a vacuum-evaporated carbon layer were studied by using atomic force microscopy, electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. We found that there exists some extent of chain orientation of carbon-coated polyethylene (PE) preoriented ultrathin film above its melting temperature. These oriented PE chain sequences act as nucleation sites and induce the oriented recrystallization of preoriented PE film from melt. Raman spectroscopy results suggest that new carbon-carbon bonds between the carbon layer and the oriented PE film are created during the process of vacuum carbon evaporation. As a result, some of the PE chain stems are fixed to the coated carbon substrate via covalent bond. Such a bonding has retarded the relaxation of the PE chains at the spot and, therefore, preserves the original orientation of the PE stems at high temperature, which in turn derives the recrystallization of the PE chains in an oriented structure.

  9. Surface modification of polyethylene film by acrylamide graft and alcoholysis for improvement of antithrombogenicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guowei; Chen, Yashao; Wang, Xiaoli

    2007-03-01

    To improve antithrombogenicity of polyethylene (PE) films, the films pretreated by Ar plasma were radiated by ultraviolet light to initiate grafting polymerization with acrylamide (AAm) in absence of photo-initiator, then the AAm-grafted PE films (PE-g-AAm) were alcoholized with octadecyl alcohol. Effects of Ar plasma composite parameter ( W/ FM), pretreated time, AAm monomer concentration, and UV irradiation time on grafting rate were investigated systematically. AAm-grafted PE film and alcoholized PE film (PE-g-SAAm) were characterized by contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transfer infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM), respectively. The results indicated that the moieties of AAm and stearyl were successively immobilized onto the PE surface. The platelet adhesion experiment showed that antithrombogenicity of the modified PE films was improved in comparison with PE films. The change in antithrombogenicity is attributed to the surface of the modified film in presence of tail-like structure which consists of polyacrylamide as spacer and stearyl as end groups.

  10. Study on ternary low density polyethylene/linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blend films.

    PubMed

    Sabetzadeh, Maryam; Bagheri, Rouhollah; Masoomi, Mahmood

    2015-03-30

    In this work, low-density polyethylene/linear low-density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LDPE/LLDPE/TPS) films are prepared with the aim of obtaining environmentally friendly materials containing high TPS content with required packaging properties. Blending of LDPE/LLDPE (70/30 wt/wt) with 5-20 wt% of TPS and 3 wt% of PE-grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA) is performed in a twin-screw extruder, followed by the blowing process. Differential scanning calorimetric results indicate starch has more pronounced effect on crystallization of LLDPE than LDPE. Scanning electron micrograph shows a fairly good dispersion of TPS in PE matrices. Fourier transfer infrared spectra confirm compatibility between polymers using PE-g-MA as the compatibilizer. Storage modulus, loss modulus and complex viscosity increase with incorporation of starch. Tensile strength and elongation-at-break decrease from 18 to 10.5 MPa and 340 to 200%, respectively when TPS increases from 5 to 20%. However, the required mechanical properties for packaging applications are attained when 15 wt% starch is added, as specified in ASTM D4635. Finally 12% increase in water uptake is achieved with inclusion of 15 wt% starch. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. One year monitoring by FTIR of γ-irradiated multilayer film PE/EVOH/PE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaston, Fanny; Dupuy, Nathalie; Marque, Sylvain R. A.; Barbaroux, Magali; Dorey, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    The multilayer films made of polyethylene/polyethylene-co-vinyl alcohol/polyethylene are γ-irradiated for biopharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. The radiations generate changes in the polymer films. In this study, we focused on the modifications produced on the surface of materials by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) allows the ordering of the surface modifications according to absorbed doses and the natural ageing. Results show the rising of the acid band and the variation of unsaturated compounds.

  12. Oxidized polyethylene films for orienting polar molecules for linear dichroism spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Razmkhah, Kasra; Chmel, Nikola Paul; Gibson, Matthew I; Rodger, Alison

    2014-03-21

    Stretched polyethylene (PE) films have been used to orient small molecules for decades by depositing solutions on their surface and allowing the solvent to evaporate leaving the analyte absorbed on the polymer film. However, the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE is an obstacle to aligning polar molecules and biological samples. In this work PE film was treated with oxygen plasma in order to increase surface hydrophilicity. Different treatment conditions were evaluated using contact angle measurement and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Treated PE (PE(OX)) films are shown to be able to align molecules of different polarities including progesterone, 1-pyrenecarboxaldehyde, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and anthracene. The degree of alignment of each molecule was studied by running series of linear dichroism (LD) experiments and the polarizations of electronic transition moments were determined. For the first time optimal conditions (such as stretching factor and concentration of the sample) for stretched film LD were determined. PE(OX) aligning ability was compared to that of normal PE films. Progesterone showed a slightly better alignment on PE(OX) than PE. 1-Pyrenecarboxaldehyde oriented differently on the two different films which enabled transition moment assignment for this low symmetry molecule. DAPI (which does not align on PE) aligned well on PE(OX) and enabled us to obtain better LD data than had previously been collected with polyvinyl alcohol. Anthracene alignment and formation of dimers and higher order structures were studied in much more detail than previously possible, showing a variety of assemblies on PE and PE(OX) films.

  13. Effect of ultraviolet radiation in the photo-oxidation of High Density Polyethylene and Biodegradable Polyethylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Romo, A.; González Mota, R.; Bernal, J. J. Soto; Frausto Reyes, C.; Rosales Candelas, I.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most widely used plastics in the world is the High density polyethylene (HDPE), it is a stable material due to its carbon-carbon bonds, causing their slow degradation; which is why we are looking for alternative ways to accelerate the degradation process of this polymer. An alternative is the addition of oxidized groups in its molecular structure, which results in the development of polymers susceptible to biodegradation (PE-BIO). In this paper, HDPE and PE-BIO films were exposed to UV-B radiation (320-280 nm) at different exposure times, 0-60 days. The effects of UV radiation in samples of HDPE and PE-BIO were characterized using infrared spectroscopy with attenuated total reflectance (ATR). The results show that the exposed materials undergo changes in their molecular structure, due to the infrared bands formed which corresponds to the photo-oxidation of HDPE and PE films when submitted to UV-B radiation.

  14. Preparation of chitosan-coated polyethylene packaging films by DBD plasma treatment.

    PubMed

    Theapsak, Siriporn; Watthanaphanit, Anyarat; Rujiravanit, Ratana

    2012-05-01

    Polyethylene (PE) packaging films were coated with chitosan in order to introduce the antibacterial activity to the films. To augment the interaction between the two polymers, we modified the surfaces of the PE films by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma before chitosan coating. After that the plasma-treated PE films were immersed in chitosan acetate solutions with different concentrations of chitosan. The optimum plasma treatment time was 10 s as determined from contact angle measurement. Effect of the plasma treatment on the surface roughness of the PE films was investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM) while the occurrence of polar functional groups was observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscope (FTIR). It was found that the surface roughness as well as the occurrence of oxygen-containing functional groups (i.e., C═O, C-O, and -OH) of the plasma-treated PE films increased from those of the untreated one, indicating that the DBD plasma enhanced hydrophilicity of the PE films. The amounts of chitosan coated on the PE films were determined after washing the coated films in water for several number of washing cycles prior to detection of the chitosan content by the Kjaldahl method. The amounts of chitosan coated on the PE films were constant after washing for three times and the chitosan-coated PE films exhibited appreciable antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, the obtained chitosan-coated PE films could be a promising candidate for antibacterial food packaging.

  15. Effect of nanoclay on the properties of low density polyethylene/linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blend films.

    PubMed

    Sabetzadeh, Maryam; Bagheri, Rouhollah; Masoomi, Mahmood

    2016-05-05

    The aim of this work is to study effect of nanoclay (Cloisite(®)15A) on morphology and properties of low-density polyethylene/linear low-density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LDPE/LLDPE/TPS) blend films. LDPE/LLDPE blend (70/30wt/wt) containing 15wt.% TPS in the presence of PE-grafted maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA, 3wt.%) with 1, 3 and 5phr of nanoclay are compounded in a twin-screw extruder and then film blown using a blowing machine. Nanocomposites with intercalated structures are obtained, based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. However, some exfoliated single platelets in the samples are also observable. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) images confirm the ability of both exfoliated nanoclay and PE-g-MA to reduce the size of TPS domains and deform their particles within the PE matrices. As the nanoclay content increases from 1 to 5phr, the tensile strength, tear resistance and impact strength of the films increase, whereas a slight decrease in the elongation at break is observed. The film samples with 5phr nanoclay possess the required packaging properties, as specified by ASTM D4635. These films provide desired optical transparency and surface roughness which are more attractive for packaging applications.

  16. Solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene film with manganese oxide OMS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guanglong; Liao, Shuijiao; Zhu, Duanwei; Cui, Jingzhen; Zhou, Wenbing

    2011-01-01

    Solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene (PE) film with cryptomelane-type manganese oxide (OMS-2) as photocatalyst was investigated in the ambient air under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The properties of the composite films were compared with those of the pure PE film through performing weight loss monitoring, IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoinduced degradation of PE-OMS-2 composite films was higher than that of the pure films, while there has been little change under the visible light irradiation. The weight loss of PE-OMS-2 (1.0 wt%) composite films steadily decreased and reached 16.5% in 288 h under UV light irradiation. Through SEM observation there were some cavities on the surface of composite films, but few change except some surface chalking phenomenon occurred in pure PE film. The degradation rate with ultraviolet irradiation is controllable by adjusting the content of OMS-2 particles in PE plastic. Finally, the mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of the composite films was briefly discussed.

  17. Polyethylene terephthalate thin films; a luminescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Téllez, S.; Alarcón-Flores, G.; Meza-Rocha, A.; Zaleta-Alejandre, E.; Aguilar-Futis, M.; Murrieta S, H.; Falcony, C.

    2015-04-01

    Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) films doped with Rare Earths (RE3+) have been deposited on glass by spray pyrolysis technique at 240 °C, using recycled PET and (RE3+) chlorides as precursors. Cerium, terbium, dysprosium and europium were used as dopants materials, these dopants normally produce luminescent emissions at 450, 545, 573 and 612 nm respectively; the doped films also have light emissions at blue, green, yellow and red respectively. All RE3+ characteristic emissions were observed at naked eyes. Every deposited films show a high transmission in the visible range (close 80% T), films surfaces are pretty soft and homogeneous. Films thickness is around 3 μm.

  18. 76 FR 54791 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film from Korea would not be likely to lead to... contained in USITC Publication 4254 (August 2011), entitled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film from Korea...

  19. Development of tailored indigenous marine consortia for the degradation of naturally weathered polyethylene films

    PubMed Central

    Syranidou, Evdokia; Karkanorachaki, Katerina; Amorotti, Filippo; Repouskou, Eftychia; Kroll, Kevin; Kolvenbach, Boris; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Fava, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of bacterial-mediated polyethylene (PE) degradation in a two-phase microcosm experiment. During phase I, naturally weathered PE films were incubated for 6 months with the indigenous marine community alone as well as bioaugmented with strains able to grow in minimal medium with linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) as the sole carbon source. At the end of phase I the developed biofilm was harvested and re-inoculated with naturally weathered PE films. Bacteria from both treatments were able to establish an active population on the PE surfaces as the biofilm community developed in a time dependent way. Moreover, a convergence in the composition of these communities was observed towards an efficient PE degrading microbial network, comprising of indigenous species. In acclimated communities, genera affiliated with synthetic (PE) and natural (cellulose) polymer degraders as well as hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were enriched. The acclimated consortia (indigenous and bioaugmented) reduced more efficiently the weight of PE films in comparison to non-acclimated bacteria. The SEM images revealed a dense and compact biofilm layer and signs of bio-erosion on the surface of the films. Rheological results suggest that the polymers after microbial treatment had wider molecular mass distribution and a marginally smaller average molar mass suggesting biodegradation as opposed to abiotic degradation. Modifications on the surface chemistry were observed throughout phase II while the FTIR profiles of microbially treated films at month 6 were similar to the profiles of virgin PE. Taking into account the results, we can suggest that the tailored indigenous marine community represents an efficient consortium for degrading weathered PE plastics. PMID:28841722

  20. Development of tailored indigenous marine consortia for the degradation of naturally weathered polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Syranidou, Evdokia; Karkanorachaki, Katerina; Amorotti, Filippo; Repouskou, Eftychia; Kroll, Kevin; Kolvenbach, Boris; Corvini, Philippe F-X; Fava, Fabio; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of bacterial-mediated polyethylene (PE) degradation in a two-phase microcosm experiment. During phase I, naturally weathered PE films were incubated for 6 months with the indigenous marine community alone as well as bioaugmented with strains able to grow in minimal medium with linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) as the sole carbon source. At the end of phase I the developed biofilm was harvested and re-inoculated with naturally weathered PE films. Bacteria from both treatments were able to establish an active population on the PE surfaces as the biofilm community developed in a time dependent way. Moreover, a convergence in the composition of these communities was observed towards an efficient PE degrading microbial network, comprising of indigenous species. In acclimated communities, genera affiliated with synthetic (PE) and natural (cellulose) polymer degraders as well as hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were enriched. The acclimated consortia (indigenous and bioaugmented) reduced more efficiently the weight of PE films in comparison to non-acclimated bacteria. The SEM images revealed a dense and compact biofilm layer and signs of bio-erosion on the surface of the films. Rheological results suggest that the polymers after microbial treatment had wider molecular mass distribution and a marginally smaller average molar mass suggesting biodegradation as opposed to abiotic degradation. Modifications on the surface chemistry were observed throughout phase II while the FTIR profiles of microbially treated films at month 6 were similar to the profiles of virgin PE. Taking into account the results, we can suggest that the tailored indigenous marine community represents an efficient consortium for degrading weathered PE plastics.

  1. Cell-compatible properties of calcium carbonates and hydroxyapatite deposited on ultrathin poly(vinyl alcohol)-coated polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Serizawa, Takeshi; Tateishi, Taishi; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) was coated onto polyethylene (PE) films by a repetitive adsorption and drying process, and then the PVA-coated PE films were alternately immersed into aqueous solutions of Ca2+ and CO3(2-) ions (alternate soaking cycles), to deposit calcium carbonate (CaCO3) onto the films. The PVA coating was essential for the CaCO3 deposition. The amount of CaCO3 deposited increased with an increasing number of cycles. Scanning electron microscopic observations and attenuated total reflection spectra revealed the presence of both calcite and aragonite as the crystal structures of CaCO3 on the film. L929 fibroblast cells adhered and proliferated on these CaCO3-deposited PE films, as well as the hydroxyapatite-coated PE films previously prepared. It was found that the PVA coating and the subsequent deposition of calcium salts on certain films facilitated cell compatibility.

  2. Preparation of enzyme nanoparticles and studying the catalytic activity of the immobilized nanoparticles on polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Meridor, David; Gedanken, Aharon

    2013-01-01

    Using high-intensity ultrasound, in situ generated α-amylase nanoparticles (NPs) were immobilized on polyethylene (PE) films. The α-amylase NP-coated PE films have been characterized by E-SEM, FTIR, DLS, XPS and RBS. The PE was reacted with HNO(3) and NPs of the α-amylase were also deposited on the activated PE. The PE impregnated with α-amylase (4 μg per 1mg PE) was used for hydrolyzing soluble potato starch to maltose. The immobilization improved the catalytic activity of α-amylase at all the reaction conditions studied. The kinetic parameters, K(m) (5 and 4 g L(-1) for the regular and activated PE, respectively) and V(max) (5 × 10(-7) mol ml(-1) min(-1), almost the same numbers were obtained for the regular and activated PEs) for the immobilized amylase were found to slightly favor the respective values obtained for the free enzyme (K(m) = 6.6 g L(-1), V(max) = 3.7 × 10(-7) mol ml(-1) min(-1)). The enzyme remained bound to PE even after soaking the PE in a starch solution for 72 h and was still found to be weakly active. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of plasma-polymerized poly(ethylene glycol) film with superior biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Choi, Changrok; Hwang, Inseong; Cho, Young-Lai; Han, Sang Y; Jo, Dong H; Jung, Donggeun; Moon, Dae W; Kim, Eun J; Jeon, Chang S; Kim, Jeong H; Chung, Taek D; Lee, Tae G

    2013-02-01

    A newly fabricated plasma-polymerized poly(ethylene glycol) (PP-PEG) film shows extremely low toxicity, low fouling, good durability, and chemical similarity to typical PEG polymers, enabling live cell patterning as well as various bioapplications using bioincompatible materials. The PP-PEG film can be overlaid on any materials via the capacitively coupled plasma chemical vapor deposition (CCP-CVD) method using nontoxic PEG200 as a precursor. The biocompatibility of the PP-PEG-coated surface is confirmed by whole blood flow experiments where no thrombi and less serum protein adsorption are observed when compared with bare glass, polyethylene (PE), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) surfaces. Furthermore, unlike bare PE films, less fibrosis and inflammation are observed when the PP-PEG-coated PE film is implanted into subcutaneous pockets of mice groin areas. The cell-repellent property of PP-PEG is also verified via patterning of mammalian cells, such as fibroblasts and hippocampal neurons. These results show that our PP-PEG film, generated by the CCP-CVD method, is a biocompatible material that can be considered for broad applications in biomedical and functional materials fields.

  4. Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of thin polyethylene film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbeck, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    In order to understand the state of stress and strain in a typical balloon fabricated from thin polyethylene film, experiment data in the literature reviewed. It was determined that the film behaves as a nonlinear viscoelasticity material and should be characterized accordingly. A simple uniaxial, nonlinear viscoelastic model was developed for predicting stress given a certain strain history. The simple model showed good qualitative agreement with results of constant rate, uniaxial accurately predicting stresses for cyclic strain histories typical of balloon flights. A program was outlined which will result in the development of a more complex nonlinear viscoelastic model.

  5. 76 FR 8770 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film From Korea AGENCY: United States International Trade... full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film... whether revocation of the antidumping order on PET film from Korea would be likely to lead to a...

  6. Polyethylene-Carbon Nanotube Composite Film Deposited by Cold Spray Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata, Nobuhisa; Ohtake, Naoto; Akasaka, Hiroki

    2017-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are high-performance materials because of their superior electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and self-lubrication, and they have been studied for application to polymer composite materials as fillers. However, the methods of fabricating polymer composites with CNTs, such as injection molding, are too complicated for industrial applications. We propose a simple cold spray (CS) technique to obtain a polymer composite of polyethylene (PE) and CNTs. The composite films were deposited by CS on polypropylene and nano-porous structured aluminum substrates. The maximum thickness of the composite film was approximately 1 mm. Peaks at G and D bands were observed in the Raman spectra of the films. Scanning electron microscopy images of the film surface revealed that PE particles were melted by the acceleration gas and CNTs were attached with melted PE. The PE particles solidified after contact with the substrate. These results indicate that PE-CNT composite films were successfully deposited on polypropylene and nano-porous structured aluminum substrates by CS.

  7. Bio-based biodegradable film to replace the standard polyethylene cover for silage conservation.

    PubMed

    Borreani, Giorgio; Tabacco, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    The research was aimed at studying whether the polyethylene (PE) film currently used to cover maize silage could be replaced with bio-based biodegradable films, and at determining the effects on the fermentative and microbiological quality of the resulting silages in laboratory silo conditions. Biodegradable plastic film made in 2 different formulations, MB1 and MB2, was compared with a conventional 120-μm-thick PE film. A whole maize crop was chopped; ensiled in MB1, MB2, and PE plastic bags, 12.5kg of fresh weight per bag; and opened after 170d of conservation. At silo opening, the microbial and fermentative quality of the silage was analyzed in the uppermost layer (0 to 50mm from the surface) and in the whole mass of the silo. All the silages were well fermented with little differences in fermentative quality between the treatments, although differences in the mold count and aerobic stability were observed in trial 1 for the MB1 silage. These results have shown the possibility of successfully developing a biodegradable cover for silage for up to 6mo after ensiling. The MB2 film allowed a good silage quality to be obtained even in the uppermost part of the silage close to the plastic film up to 170d of conservation, with similar results to those obtained with the PE film. The promising results of this experiment indicate that the development of new degradable materials to cover silage till 6mo after ensiling could be possible.

  8. Recyclability of PET/WPI/PE Multilayer Films by Removal of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Coatings with Enzymatic Detergents.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Patrizia; Schmid, Markus; Bugnicourt, Elodie; Coltelli, Maria Beatrice; Lazzeri, Andrea

    2016-06-14

    Multilayer plastic films provide a range of properties, which cannot be obtained from monolayer films but, at present, their recyclability is an open issue and should be improved. Research to date has shown the possibility of using whey protein as a layer material with the property of acting as an excellent barrier against oxygen and moisture, replacing petrochemical non-recyclable materials. The innovative approach of the present research was to achieve the recyclability of the substrate films by separating them, with a simple process compatible with industrial procedures, in order to promote recycling processes leading to obtain high value products that will beneficially impact the packaging and food industries. Hence, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET)/polyethylene (PE) multi-layer film was prepared based on PET coated with a whey protein layer, and then the previous structure was laminated with PE. Whey proteins, constituting the coating, can be degraded by enzymes so that the coating films can be washed off from the plastic substrate layer. Enzyme types, dosage, time, and temperature optima, which are compatible with procedures adopted in industrial waste recycling, were determined for a highly-efficient process. The washing of samples based on PET/whey and PET/whey/PE were efficient when performed with enzymatic detergent containing protease enzymes, as an alternative to conventional detergents used in recycling facilities. Different types of enzymatic detergents tested presented positive results in removing the protein layer from the PET substrate and from the PET/whey/PE multilayer films at room temperature. These results attested to the possibility of organizing the pre-treatment of the whey-based multilayer film by washing with different available commercial enzymatic detergents in order to separate PET and PE, thus allowing a better recycling of the two different polymers. Mechanical properties of the plastic substrate, such as stress at yield, stress and

  9. Viscoplastic tearing of polyethylene thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegyi, Dezso; Pellegrino, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in noncontact strain measurement techniques and large-strain constitutive modeling of the linear low-density polyethylene film used in NASA superpressure balloons StratoFilm 420 are combined to provide a novel measurement technique for the tear propagation critical value of the J-integral. Previously these measurements required complex test configurations and procedures. It is found that the critical value of the J-integral increases by approximately 50 % when the strain rate is decreased from 1.33×10-4 s-1 to 1.33×10-5 s-1. It is shown that there is good correlation between measurements made on uniaxially loaded dogbone samples and circular diaphragms loaded by pressure, both with a 2-mm-wide slit in the middle. This result indicates that more extensive studies of strain-rate dependence may be made with the simpler, uniaxial test configuration.

  10. Effect of ethanol on the sorption of four targeted wine volatile compounds in a polyethylene film.

    PubMed

    Peyches-Bach, Aurelie; Dombre, Clara; Moutounet, Michel; Peyron, Stephane; Chalier, Pascale

    2012-07-11

    The objectives of this study were to demonstrate that the presence of ethanol in a solution containing two esters and two aromatic alcohols has several consequences on the sorption of these compounds into polyethylene (PE) film. First, sorption of ethanol into the PE film occurred at the same time as water and reached 8 kg m(-3) using 12% v/v of ethanol. This sorption was associated with an increase in PE crystallinity, which may have prevented the sorption of volatile compounds despite their strong affinity with PE film, as evaluated by Hansen solubility parameters. Moreover, increasing the ethanol concentration increased the solubility of the four volatile compounds. In the case of aromatic alcohols, the sorption was decreased in the presence of ethanol as expected. In the case of esters, as their hydrolysis was substantial in the presence of water, the consequence was a higher sorption into the PE film in the presence of ethanol than in its absence. Nevertheless, the sorption also depended on the concentration of ethanol and the heterogeneity of the ethanol-water mixture as well as the presence of other volatile compounds, as in the case of 4-ethylphenol. In conditions simulating wine packaging, losses of volatile compound by sorption and by permeation estimated after only 5 days of contact varied between 0.08 and 25% for 2-phenylethanol and ethyl hexanoate, respectively.

  11. A flexible transparent Ag-NC@PE film as a cut-and-paste SERS substrate for rapid in situ detection of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ningning; Meng, Guowen; Huang, Zhulin; Ke, Yan; Zhou, Qitao; Hu, Xiaoye

    2016-10-21

    This report presents a simple and inexpensive fabrication approach to a flexible transparent composite film as a "cut-and-paste" surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate for in situ detection of organic pollutants. First, a self-assembled monolayer of Ag-nanocubes (Ag-NCs) is obtained at the air/water interface. Then, the Ag-NC monolayer is retrieved onto a flexible transparent polyethylene (PE) film to achieve an Ag-NC@PE composite film as a flexible SERS substrate. As the Ag-NCs in the monolayer are closely and uniformly packed on the PE film, the Ag-NC@PE composite film shows high SERS-activity with good signal homogeneity and reproducibility. Furthermore, the flexible transparent Ag-NC@PE composite film is "cut into" small pieces and directly "pasted" onto contaminated fruits for in situ SERS detection, as a result 10 nM thiram, 1 μM 4-polychlorinated biphenyl and 10 nM methyl parathion contaminants on oranges are detected, respectively. Therefore the Ag-NC@PE composite film is an inexpensive and effective SERS substrate for rapid in situ detection of organic pollutants in aqueous solutions, on fruits and other solid objects.

  12. Effect of degrading yellow oxo-biodegradable low-density polyethylene films to water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requejo, B. A.; Pajarito, B. B.

    2017-05-01

    Polyethylene (PE) contributes largely to plastic wastes that are disposed in aquatic environment as a consequence of its widespread use. In this study, yellow oxo-biodegradable low-density PE films were immersed in deionized water at 50°C for 49 days. Indicators of water quality: pH, oxidation-reduction potential, turbidity, and total dissolved solids (TDS), were monitored at regular intervals. It was observed that pH initially rises and then slowly decreases with time, oxidation-reduction potential decreases then slowly increases with time, turbidity rises above the control at varied rates, and TDS increases abruptly and rises at a hindered rate. Moreover, the films potentially leach out lead chromate. The results imply that degrading oxo-biodegradable LDPE films results to significant reduction of water quality.

  13. Microbial dynamics during aerobic exposure of corn silage stored under oxygen barrier or polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-11-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of sealing forage corn with a new oxygen barrier film with those obtained by using a conventional polyethylene film. This comparison was made during both ensilage and subsequent exposure of silage to air and included chemical, microbiological, and molecular (DNA and RNA) assessments. The forage was inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium and ensiled in polyethylene (PE) and oxygen barrier (OB) plastic bags. The oxygen permeability of the PE and OB films was 1,480 and 70 cm³ m⁻² per 24 h at 23°C, respectively. The silages were sampled after 110 days of ensilage and after 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 days of air exposure and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, conventional microbial enumeration, and bacterial and fungal community fingerprinting via PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. The yeast counts in the PE and OB silages were 3.12 and 1.17 log₁₀ CFU g⁻¹, respectively, with corresponding aerobic stabilities of 65 and 152 h. Acetobacter pasteurianus was present at both the DNA and RNA levels in the PE silage samples after 2 days of air exposure, whereas it was found only after 7 days in the OB silages. RT-PCR-DGGE revealed the activity of Aspergillus fumigatus in the PE samples from the day 7 of air exposure, whereas it appeared only after 14 days in the OB silages. It has been shown that the use of an oxygen barrier film can ensure a longer shelf life of silage after aerobic exposure.

  14. Fluorescence properties of dansyl groups covalently bonded to the surface of oxidatively functionalized low-density polyethylene film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes-Farley, S. R.; Whitesides, G. M.

    1985-12-01

    Brief oxidation of low-density polyethylene film with chromic acid in aqueous sulfuric acid introduced carboxylic acid and ketone and/or aldehyde groups onto the surface of the film. The carboxylic acid moieties can be used to attach more complex functionality to the polymer surface. We are developing this surface-functionalized polyethylene (named polyethylene carboxylic acid, PE-CO2H, to emphasize the functional group that dominates its surface properties) as a substrate with which to study problems in organic surface chemistry--especially wetting, polymer surface reconstruction, and adhesion--using physical-organic techniques. This document describes the preparation, characterization, and fluorescence properties of derivatives of PE-CO2H in which the Dansyl (5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-1-sulfonyl) group has been covalently attached by amide links to the surface carbonyl moieties.

  15. Polyethylene film incorporation into the horticultural soil of small periurban production units in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Laura; Berenstein, Giselle; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2015-08-01

    Horticulture makes intensive use of soil and extensive use of polyethylene (PE) sheeting and pesticides, producing an environment where the dynamics between soil and plastics can affect pesticide fate. We have determined that the presence of plastic residues in the horticultural soil of small production units equals 10% of the soil area, being meso and macro-sections the predominant fragment sizes. All soil samples were taken from different plots located in Cuartel V, Moreno district, in the suburbs of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Laboratory experiments were conducted to see the relations among pesticide, soil and PE film. Endosulfan recovery from LDPE films (25μm and 100μm) was studied, observing evidence that indicated migration to the inside of the plastic matrix. To further analyze the dynamics of pesticide migration to soil and atmosphere, experiments using chlorpyrifos, procymidone and trifluralin were performed in soil-plastic-atmosphere microenvironments, showing that up to 24h significant amounts of pesticides moved away from the PE film. To determine whether PE residues could act as potential pesticide collector in soil, column elution experiments were done using chlorpyrifos, procymidone and trifluralin. Results showed an important pesticide accumulation in the mulch film (584μg-2284μg pesticide/g plastic) compared to soil (13μg-32μg pesticide/g soil). Finally, chemical and photochemical degradation of deltamethrin adsorbed in PE film was studied, finding a protective effect on hydrolysis but no protective effect on photodegradation. We believe that a deeper understanding of the dynamics among soil, plastic and pesticides in horticultural productive systems may contribute to alert for the implications of PE use for plastic sheeting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 77 FR 73010 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene...- treated, or primed polyethylene terephthalate film, whether extruded or co-extruded. Excluded...

  17. 76 FR 76365 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab...) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate... from the UAE. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil, the People's...

  18. 75 FR 53711 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Review)] Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on PET film from... antidumping duty order on PET film from Korea would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  19. Creep behavior of 6 micrometer linear low density polyethylene film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. M.; Schur, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    Creep tests were performed to provide material characteristics for a 6.4-micron polyethylene film used to construct high altitude balloons. Results suggest simple power law relationships are adequate for stresses below about 4.83 MPa.

  20. Determination of oleamide and erucamide in polyethylene films by pressurised fluid extraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Garrido-López, Alvaro; Esquiu, Vanesa; Tena, María Teresa

    2006-08-18

    A pressurized fluid extraction (PFE) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) method is proposed to determine the slip agents in polyethylene (PE) films. The study of PFE variables was performed using a fractional factorial design (FFD) for screening and a central composite design (CCD) for optimizing the main variables obtained from the Pareto charts. The variables that were studied include temperature, static time, percentage of cyclohexane and the number of extraction cycles. The final condition selected was pure isopropanol (two times) at 105 degrees C for 16min. The recovery of spiked oleamide and erucamide was around 100%. The repeatability of the method was between 9.6% for oleamide and 8% for erucamide, expressed as relative standard deviation. Finally, the method was applied to determine oleamide and erucamide in several polyethylene films and the results were statistically equal to those obtained by pyrolysis and gas-phase chemiluminescence (CL).

  1. Evolution of fungal populations in corn silage conserved under polyethylene or biodegradable films.

    PubMed

    Spadaro, D; Bustos-Lopez, M P; Gullino, M L; Piano, S; Tabacco, E; Borreani, G

    2015-08-01

    To identify cultivable filamentous fungi before ensiling, after silage conservation, in farm-silos covered with two different plastic films (polyethylene (PE) vs biodegradable (MB)), as well as after aerobic exposure of whole-crop corn silage. Molecular techniques coupled with traditional microbial counting were utilized to identify the predominant fungal species. The cultivable fungal population changed remarkably from harvesting to silo opening. Anaerobiosis and low pH reduced mould count and the presence of Fusarium species both under PE and MB film. However, in the peripheral areas of the silo, where air penetration could not be completely prevented, the fungal population did not decrease. The predominant fungal species after aerobic exposure of silage was Aspergillus fumigatus, without differences between the two plastic films. Maintenance of anaerobiosis and a low pH also in the upper layer of the silo reduce the risk of mould growth during corn silage feed-out. Even if the new MB plastic film did not completely maintain the anaerobiosis in the upper layer of silage, the overall silage quality was not compromised and was similar to that observed under PE, indicating that the development and use of MB film to cover silage is promising, but needs some improvement. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Adsorption of Polyethylene from Solution onto Starch Film Surfaces

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Starch films were prepared by jet cooking aqueous dispersions of high-amylose starch and then allowing the jet cooked dispersions to air-dry on Teflon surfaces. When the starch films were immersed in 1 % solutions of PE in 1-dodecanol, dodecane and xylene at 120º C and the solutions were allowed to...

  3. Recyclability of PET/WPI/PE Multilayer Films by Removal of Whey Protein Isolate-Based Coatings with Enzymatic Detergents

    PubMed Central

    Cinelli, Patrizia; Schmid, Markus; Bugnicourt, Elodie; Coltelli, Maria Beatrice; Lazzeri, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Multilayer plastic films provide a range of properties, which cannot be obtained from monolayer films but, at present, their recyclability is an open issue and should be improved. Research to date has shown the possibility of using whey protein as a layer material with the property of acting as an excellent barrier against oxygen and moisture, replacing petrochemical non-recyclable materials. The innovative approach of the present research was to achieve the recyclability of the substrate films by separating them, with a simple process compatible with industrial procedures, in order to promote recycling processes leading to obtain high value products that will beneficially impact the packaging and food industries. Hence, polyethyleneterephthalate (PET)/polyethylene (PE) multi-layer film was prepared based on PET coated with a whey protein layer, and then the previous structure was laminated with PE. Whey proteins, constituting the coating, can be degraded by enzymes so that the coating films can be washed off from the plastic substrate layer. Enzyme types, dosage, time, and temperature optima, which are compatible with procedures adopted in industrial waste recycling, were determined for a highly-efficient process. The washing of samples based on PET/whey and PET/whey/PE were efficient when performed with enzymatic detergent containing protease enzymes, as an alternative to conventional detergents used in recycling facilities. Different types of enzymatic detergents tested presented positive results in removing the protein layer from the PET substrate and from the PET/whey/PE multilayer films at room temperature. These results attested to the possibility of organizing the pre-treatment of the whey-based multilayer film by washing with different available commercial enzymatic detergents in order to separate PET and PE, thus allowing a better recycling of the two different polymers. Mechanical properties of the plastic substrate, such as stress at yield, stress and

  4. 78 FR 77649 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates; Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from the United Arab... primed polyethylene terephthalate film, whether extruded or co-extruded. Excluded are metallized...

  5. Effect of POLYURETHANE/NANO-SiO2 Composites Coating on Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Polyethylene Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Yern Chee; Yaacob, Iskandar Idris

    2011-06-01

    Polyethylene (PE) film was coated with polyurethane/nanosilica composite layer using rod Mayer process. The polyurethane/nanosilica system was prepared by dispersing nanosilica powder into solvent borne polyurethane (PU) binder under vigorous stirring. The silica nanoparticle used has an average diameter of 16 nm, and their weight fraction were varied from 0 % to 14 %. Two different thicknesses of the PU/nanosilica coating layer were fabricated which were about 4 μm and 8 μm. The structure and thermal mechanical features of the nanocomposite coated PE film were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) as well as tensile tests. The results showed that thin layer coating of the PU/nanosilica composite reduced tensile strength of PE substrate slightly. However, the nanocomposite coating of up to 8 μm reduced the elongation % of PE substrate significantly. PU/nanosilica composite coating layer increased the tensile modulus and stiffness of PE substrate. There was no influence of the PU/nanosilica composite coating to the thermal degradation rate of PE film.

  6. Ultraviolet-C Light Sanitization of English Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Packaged in Polyethylene Film.

    PubMed

    Tarek, Abdussamad R; Rasco, Barbara A; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-06-01

    Food safety is becoming an increasing concern in the United States. This study investigated the effects of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light as a postpackaging bactericidal treatment on the quality of English cucumber packaged in polyethylene (PE) film. Escherichia coli k-12 was used as a surrogate microbe. The microbial growth and physical properties of packaged cucumbers were analyzed during a 28-d storage period at 5 °C. Inoculating packaged cucumbers treated at 23 °C for 6 min with UV-C (560 mJ/cm(2) ) resulted in a 1.60 log CFU/g reduction. However, this treatment had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on the water vapor transmission rate or oxygen transmission rate of the PE film. Results show that UV-C light treatment delayed the loss of firmness and yellowing of English cucumber up to 28 d at 5 °C. In addition, UV-C light treatment extended the shelf life of treated cucumber 1 wk longer compared to untreated cucumbers. Electron microscopy images indicate that UV-C light treatment influences the morphology of the E. coli k-12 cells. Findings demonstrate that treating cucumbers with UV-C light following packaging in PE film can reduce bacterial populations significantly and delay quality loss. This technology may also be effective for other similarly packaged fresh fruits and vegetables. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. 77 FR 3730 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in Part, of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in... administrative review of the antidumping duty (AD) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from... respect to Vacmet and Polypacks on September 20, 2011. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and...

  8. 77 FR 19634 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission of... an administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on polyethylene terephthalate film... administrative review with respect to Vacmet and Polypacks. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip...

  9. 77 FR 14501 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of...) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period July 1, 2010... respect to Vacmet and Polypacks on September 20, 2011. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and...

  10. 76 FR 75870 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Notice of... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, ] and strip from Korea on July 28, 2011.\\1\\ This review covers one... the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip from Korea with regard...

  11. 77 FR 9892 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Preliminary Intent to Rescind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Preliminary... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period January 1, 2010, through... Vacmet and Polypacks. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, In...

  12. 78 FR 35245 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic... review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film... review (``POR'') is November 1, 2010, through October 31, 2011. \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate...

  13. 75 FR 78968 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab...) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate... on PET Film from the UAE. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil,...

  14. 75 FR 65450 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of... the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India for the period July 1, 2009 through December 31, 2009. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip...

  15. Solvent effect in the polyethylene recovery from multilayer postconsumer aseptic packaging.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Reyes, Alejandro; Núñez-Pineda, Alejandra; Barrera-Díaz, Carlos; Varela-Guerrero, Víctor; Martínez-Barrera, Gonzalo; Cuevas-Yañez, Erick

    2015-04-01

    Polyethylene films were separated and recovered from polyethylene-aluminum composites derived from recycling multilayer postconsumer aseptic packaging. A brief study about the separation process by dissolving PE-aluminum (PE-Al) composites into a series of organic solvents with a combination of time and temperature is presented. Through this procedure, 56% polyethylene is recovered from this kind of composites in optimized conditions. DSC and TGA studies were performed to determine the thermal stability of recovered polyethylene films and to establish a comparison with a PE reference commercial product, demonstrating that recovered polyethylene films kept their thermal properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of amine and aldehyde surface densities: application to the study of aged plasma treated polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Mahsa; Minier, Michel; Tatoulian, Michaël; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2007-11-06

    The aim of this work was to test and to compare different methods reported in the literature to quantify amine and aldehyde functions on the surface of polyethylene (PE) films treated by ammonia plasma and to specify their stability against time. A low pressure ammonia plasma reactor was used to functionalize PE films with amine groups, which could be subsequently used for further immobilization of biomolecules. In order to determine the density of amine groups on the surface of treated films, various molecule probes and spectrophotometric analytical methods have been investigated. Two methods using (i) sulfosuccinimidyl 6-[3'-(2-pyridyldithio)-propionamido] hexanoate (sulfo-LC-SPDP) and (ii) 2-iminothiolane (ITL) associated with bicinchoninic acid (BCA) have been proved to be reliable and sensitive enough to estimate the surface concentration of primary amine functions. The amount of primary amino groups on the functionalized polyethylene films was found to be between 1.2 and 1.4 molecules/nm2. In a second step, the surface concentration of glutaraldehyde (GA), which is currently used as a spacer arm before immobilization of biomolecules, has been assessed: two methods were used to determine the surface density of available aldehyde functions, after the reaction of GA with the aminated polyethylene film. The concentration of GA was found to be in the same range as primary amine concentration. The influence of aging time on the density of available amino and aldehyde groups on the surfaces were evaluated under different storage conditions. The results showed that 50% of the initial density of primary amine functions remained available after storage during 6 days of the PE samples in PBS (pH 7.6) at 4 degrees C. In the case of aldehyde groups, the same percentage of the initial density (50%) remained active after storage in air at RT over a longer period, i.e., 15 days.

  17. Surface studies of albumin immobilized onto PE and PVC films.

    PubMed

    de Queiroz, A A; Barrak, E R; Gil, H A; Higa, O Z

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the thrombogenic behaviour of the low density polyethylene and poly(vinyl chloride) modified by radiation-grafting technique. After copolymerization with acrylic acid by gamma-rays from a 60Co source, BSA was immobilized onto functionalized graft copolymers. The biological interaction between these materials and blood was studies by in vitro methods. The BSA immobilization effectively suppressed the adhesion and activation of platelets when it contacted whole blood.

  18. Covalent attachment of lactase to low-density polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Goddard, J M; Talbert, J N; Hotchkiss, J H

    2007-01-01

    Polymer films to which bioactive compounds such as enzymes are covalently attached offer potential for in-package processing of food. Beta-galactosidase (lactase) was covalently attached to surface-functionalized low-density polyethylene films. A two-step wet chemical functionalization introduced 15.7 nmol/cm2 primary amines to the film surface. Contact angle, dye assays, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and appropriate protein assays were used to characterize changes in film surface chemistry after each step in the process of attachment. Glutaraldehyde was used to covalently attach lactase to the surface at a density of 6.0 microg protein per cm2 via reductive amination. The bond between the covalently attached lactase and the functionalized polyethylene withstood heat treatment in the presence of an ionic denaturant with 74% enzyme retention, suggesting that migration of the enzyme into the food product would be unlikely. The resulting polyethylene had an enzyme activity of 0.020 lactase units (LU)/cm2 (approximately 4500 LU/g). These data suggest that enzymes that may have applications in foods can be covalently attached to inert polymer surfaces, retain significant activity, and thus have potential as a nonmigratory active packaging materials.

  19. 76 FR 48122 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary... film) from Brazil. This administrative review covers one respondent, Terphane, Inc. (Terphane) and the... Department published the antidumping duty order on PET film from Brazil. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film...

  20. 75 FR 14423 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan: Extension of... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from Taiwan for the period July 1, 2008 through June 30, 2009... time that the Department conducted an administrative review of the antidumping order on polyethylene...

  1. 77 FR 1668 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in Part, of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in... administrative review of the countervailing duty (CVD) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip... administrative review with respect to Vacmet and Polypacks on September 20, 2011. See Polyethylene Terephthalate...

  2. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) in a Polyethylene (PE) Framework: A Simple Model for Simulation Studies of a Soluble Polymer in an Open Framework.

    PubMed

    Xie, Liangxu; Chan, Kwong-Yu; Quirke, Nick

    2017-08-16

    Canonical molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the behavior of single-chain and multiple-chain poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) contained within a cubic framework spanned by polyethylene (PE) chains. This simple model is the first of its kind to study the chemical physics of polymer-threaded organic frameworks, which are materials with potential applications in catalysis and separation processes. For a single-chain 9-mer, 14-mer, and 18-mer in a small framework, the PEG will interact strongly with the framework and assume a more linear geometry chain with an increased radius of gyration Rg compared to that of a large framework. The interaction between PEG and the framework decreases with increasing mesh size in both vacuum and water. In the limit of a framework with an infinitely large cavity (infinitely long linkers), PEG behavior approaches simulation results without a framework. The solvation of PEG is simulated by adding explicit TIP3P water molecules to a 6-chain PEG 14-mer aggregate confined in a framework. The 14-mer chains are readily solvated and leach out of a large 2.6 nm mesh framework. There are fewer water-PEG interactions in a small 1.0 nm mesh framework, as indicated by a smaller number of hydrogen bonds. The PEG aggregate, however, still partially dissolves but is retained within the 1.0 nm framework. The preliminary results illustrate the effectiveness of the simple model in studying polymer-threaded framework materials and in optimizing polymer or framework parameters for high performance.

  3. An assessment of athrombogenic properties of electret polyethylene film.

    PubMed

    Lowkis, B; Szymonowicz, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper shows the results of an investigation into the effect of an electric charge on blood platelet adhesion. All of the experiments were made on a polyethylene film. The electrets were formed using the electron beam method. The assessment of the electret effect on blood platelet adhesion was performed microscopically. It was found out that an electric charge plays a major role in the process of adhesion of blood morphological elements.

  4. 76 FR 42113 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of... notice of initiation of the second administrative review of the antidumping duty order on PET film from...

  5. 76 FR 61085 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of... notice of initiation of the second administrative review of the antidumping duty order on PET film from...

  6. 78 FR 48147 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... the countervailing duty (CVD) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET film... resinous or inorganic layer of more than 0.00001 inches thick. Imports of PET film are classifiable in the...

  7. Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of binary monomer mixture containing acrylonitrile onto polyethylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seong-Ho; Nho, Young Chang

    2000-04-01

    Graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN)/acrylic acid (AA), acrylonitrile (AN)/methacrylic acid (MA), and acrylonitrile (AN)/glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto pre-irradiated polyethylene (PE) films were studied. The effect of reaction conditions such as solvents, additives, and monomer composition on the grafting yields was investigated. The extent of grafting was found to increase with increasing sulfuric acid concentration when sulfuric acid as an additive was added to the grafting solution. In AN/AA mixture, the proportion of acrylonitrile in the copolymer increased with an increasing AN component in feed monomers. On the other hand, in AN/MA mixture, acrylonitrile component in copolymer was very slight in spite of the increase AN component in feed monomers. In the AN/GMA mixture, the proportion of acrylonitrile in the copolymer increased with increasing acrylonitrile component in AN/GMA feed monomer.

  8. 78 FR 47276 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final... of the countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film, sheet, and strip (``PET... PET film from India was published on July 1, 2002. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order...

  9. 76 FR 58248 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, In Part, of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, In... (CVD) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period January... companies: Ester Industries Limited, Garware Polyester Ltd., Jindal Poly Films Limited of India, Polyplex...

  10. 76 FR 58244 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in Part, of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in...) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period July 1, 2010... Limited, Garware Polyester Ltd., Jindal Poly Films Limited of India, Polyplex Corporation Ltd., and SRF...

  11. 78 FR 67113 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India and Taiwan: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India and Taiwan...'') initiated the second sunset review of the antidumping duty orders on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip (``PET Film'') from India and Taiwan. The Department determined that it was appropriate to...

  12. 75 FR 80457 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of... terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India for the period July 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty and...

  13. 75 FR 69400 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of... terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India for the period January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty and...

  14. 76 FR 76948 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ..., Mitsubishi Polyester Film, Inc., SKC, Inc., and Toray Plastics (America), Inc., timely filed case briefs on... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results...) issued the preliminary results of the administrative review of polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and...

  15. 75 FR 40784 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET film... the antidumping duty order on PET film from Korea. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order... PET film from Korea. On June 30, 2009, DuPont Teijin Films (DuPont), Mitsubishi Polyester Film, Inc...

  16. Electron beam induced modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiljeva, I. V.; Mjakin, S. V.; Makarov, A. V.; Krasovsky, A. N.; Varlamov, A. V.

    2006-10-01

    Electron beam processing of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films is found to promote significant changes in the melting heat, intrinsic viscosity and polymer film-liquid (water, isooctane and toluene) boundary surface tension. These properties are featured with several maximums depending on the absorbed dose and correlating with the modification of PET surface functionality. Studies using adsorption of acid-base indicators and IR-spectroscopy revealed that the increase of PET surface hydrophilicity is determined by the oxidation of methylene and methyne groups. Electron beam treatment of PET films on the surface of N-vinylpyrrolidone aqueous solution provided graft copolymerization with this comonomer at optimum process parameters (energy 700 keV, current 1 mA, absorbed dose 50 kGy).

  17. Recovery of polypropylene and polyethylene from packaging plastic wastes without contamination of chlorinated plastic films by the combination process of wet gravity separation and ozonation.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2011-08-01

    Wet gravity separation technique has been regularly practiced to separate the polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) (light plastic films) from chlorinated plastic films (CP films) (heavy plastic films). The CP films including poly vinyl chloride (PVC) and poly vinylidene chloride (PVDC) would float in water even though its density is more than 1.0g/cm(3). This is because films are twisted in which air is sometimes entrapped inside the twisted CP films in real existing recycling plant. The present research improves the current process in separating the PP and PE from plastic packaging waste (PPW), by reducing entrapped air and by increasing the hydrophilicity of the CP films surface with ozonation. The present research also measures the hydrophilicity of the CP films. In ozonation process mixing of artificial films up to 10min reduces the contact angle from 78° to 62°, and also increases the hydrophilicity of CP films. The previous studies also performed show that the artificial PVDC films easily settle down by the same. The effect of ozonation after the wet gravity separation on light PPW films obtained from an actual PPW recycling plant was also evaluated. Although actual light PPW films contained 1.3% of CP films however in present case all the CP films were removed from the PPW films as a settled fraction in the combination process of ozonation and wet gravity separation. The combination process of ozonation and wet gravity separation is the more beneficial process in recovering of high purity PP and PE films from the PPW films.

  18. 78 FR 29700 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates.\\1\\ This review... ``Final Results of Review.'' \\1\\ See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the...

  19. 76 FR 22867 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates. This review... preliminary results, the following events have taken place. See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet,...

  20. 76 FR 72676 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil for the period November 1, 2009 through October 31... duty order covering PET film from Brazil and invited interested parties to comment. See Polyethylene...- treated, or primed PET film, whether extruded or co-extruded. Excluded are metallized films and other...

  1. 75 FR 6634 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from India for the period January 1, 2007 through December 31.... Tillman, Director, AD/CVD Operations, Office 6: Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip (PET film... performance-enhancing resinous or inorganic layer of more than 0.00001 inches thick. Imports of PET film are...

  2. 78 FR 9670 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from India.\\1\\ This review covers three respondents... and exporters of PET Film from India. Based on the results of our analysis of the comments received... Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip (PET film) from India: Post-Preliminary Analysis and Calculation Memorandum...

  3. 75 FR 75172 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ... terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Brazil for the period November 6, 2008, through October 31... covering PET film from Brazil and invited interested parties to comment. See Polyethylene Terephthalate...- treated, or primed PET film, whether extruded or co-extruded. Excluded are metallized films and other...

  4. Influence of different factors on the destruction of films based on polylactic acid and oxidized polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podzorova, M. V.; Tertyshnaya, Yu. V.; Pantyukhov, P. V.; Shibryaeva, L. S.; Popov, A. A.; Nikolaeva, S.

    2016-11-01

    Influence of different environmental factors on the degradation of film samples based on polylactic acid and low density polyethylene with the addition of oxidized polyethylene was studied in this work. Different methods were used to find the relationship between degradation and ultraviolet, moisture, oxygen. It was found that the addition of oxidized polyethylene, used as a model of recycled polyethylene, promotes the degradation of blends.

  5. 76 FR 18156 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period January 1, 2009, through...

  6. 78 FR 2369 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Partial Rescission of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Partial... (CVD) order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India covering the period January... Department has exercised its discretion to toll deadlines for the duration of the closure of the Federal...

  7. 76 FR 45508 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From the United Arab... of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from the...

  8. 76 FR 13128 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan... Department) initiated the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on PET Film from Taiwan... administrative review of PET Film from Taiwan within this time limit. Specifically, the Department granted an...

  9. 77 FR 18206 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip (PET Film) From Taiwan... Department) initiated the administrative review regarding the antidumping duty order on PET Film from Taiwan... it is not practicable to complete the preliminary results of the administrative review of PET Film...

  10. 77 FR 73428 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from... the order are all gauges of raw, pre- treated, or primed PET film, whether extruded or co-extruded.\\1\\ PET film is classifiable under subheading 3920.62.00.90 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

  11. 75 FR 10758 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...) orders on Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip (PET Film) from India. The Department.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The notice announcing the antidumping duty order on PET Film from India... duty order on PET Film from India was also published on July 1, 2002. See Notice of Countervailing Duty...

  12. 78 FR 42105 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India and Taiwan; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET'' film) from India and the antidumping duty orders on PET film from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or... concerning PET film from Taiwan. The Commission found that the respondent interested party group response...

  13. 78 FR 48143 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from... covered by the antidumping duty order are all gauges of raw, pretreated, or primed PET Film, whether... of more than 0.00001 inches thick. Imports of PET Film are currently classifiable in the Harmonized...

  14. 76 FR 27005 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Initiation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET film) from the Republic of Korea (Korea... with respect to the antidumping duty order on PET film from Korea. Interested parties are invited to... value (LTFV) on PET film from Korea. See Antidumping Duty Order and Amendment to Final Determination of...

  15. 76 FR 71512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from... is revoking the antidumping order on PET film from Korea with respect to Kolon. DATES: Effective Date... results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order covering PET film from Korea for the...

  16. Antibacterial Performance of Alginic Acid Coating on Polyethylene Film

    PubMed Central

    Karbassi, Elika; Asadinezhad, Ahmad; Lehocký, Marian; Humpolíček, Petr; Vesel, Alenka; Novák, Igor; Sáha, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Alginic acid coated polyethylene films were examined in terms of surface properties and bacteriostatic performance against two most representative bacterial strains, that is, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Microwave plasma treatment followed by brush formation in vapor state from three distinguished precursors (allylalcohol, allylamine, hydroxyethyl methacrylate) was carried out to deposit alginic acid on the substrate. Surface analyses via various techniques established that alginic acid was immobilized onto the surface where grafting (brush) chemistry influenced the amount of alginic acid coated. Moreover, alginic acid was found to be capable of bacterial growth inhibition which itself was significantly affected by the brush type. The polyanionic character of alginic acid as a carbohydrate polymer was assumed to play the pivotal role in antibacterial activity. The cell wall composition of two bacterial strains along with the substrates physicochemical properties accounted for different levels of bacteriostatic performance. PMID:25196604

  17. Antibacterial performance of alginic acid coating on polyethylene film.

    PubMed

    Karbassi, Elika; Asadinezhad, Ahmad; Lehocký, Marian; Humpolíček, Petr; Vesel, Alenka; Novák, Igor; Sáha, Petr

    2014-08-21

    Alginic acid coated polyethylene films were examined in terms of surface properties and bacteriostatic performance against two most representative bacterial strains, that is, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Microwave plasma treatment followed by brush formation in vapor state from three distinguished precursors (allylalcohol, allylamine, hydroxyethyl methacrylate) was carried out to deposit alginic acid on the substrate. Surface analyses via various techniques established that alginic acid was immobilized onto the surface where grafting (brush) chemistry influenced the amount of alginic acid coated. Moreover, alginic acid was found to be capable of bacterial growth inhibition which itself was significantly affected by the brush type. The polyanionic character of alginic acid as a carbohydrate polymer was assumed to play the pivotal role in antibacterial activity. The cell wall composition of two bacterial strains along with the substrates physicochemical properties accounted for different levels of bacteriostatic performance.

  18. Characterization and inventory of PBDD/F emissions from deca-BDE, polyethylene (PE) and metal blends during the pyrolysis process.

    PubMed

    Mei, Jun; Wang, Xiuji; Xiao, Xiao; Cai, Ying; Tang, Yuhui; Chen, Pei

    2017-02-16

    The thermal treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is regarded as the largest potential contributor to the environmental release of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Herein, the pyrolysis of decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE), polyethylene (PE) and metal blends was conducted to investigate the emission characteristics of PBDD/Fs at different thermal treatment conditions. The total yield of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) was less than that of polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs) during the pyrolysis of the PE matrix and metal blends. 2,3,7,8-TBDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PBDF were the dominant congeners emitted from the pyrolysis. Temperature, presence of oxygen and type of added metal were the critical influencing factors for the PBDD/F formation rates and speciation in the pyrolysis process.

  19. The role of UHMW-PE in microporous PE separators

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.C.; Harvey, M.K.; Stein, H.L.; Scheunemann, U.

    1997-12-01

    Microporous PE separators have gained large popularity in the lead acid battery industry, particularly in SLI (Starting, Lighting and Ignition) Automotive Applications. The PE (Polyethylene) in battery separator is actually UHMW-PE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene). UHMW-PE has a molecular weight more than ten times that of conventional HDPE (High Density Polyethylene). This paper gives an overview of the UHMW-PE`s contributions to the PE battery separator process, assembly, and performance, in comparison to other conventional separators, such as PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride), cellulose, and glass fiber.

  20. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) grafted polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) nonwoven fabric by γ-initiation: Synthesis, characterization and benefits of RAFT mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Yasko; Barsbay, Murat; Güven, Olgun

    2014-12-01

    Polyethylene/polypropylene (PE/PP) nonwoven fabrics were functionalized by γ-initiated RAFT mediated grafting of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and the characterization of the grafted samples was carried out using various techniques. FTIR and XPS analysis showed an increase in the oxygenated content till a certain degree of grafting. The results implied a grafting process following the concept of ‘front mechanism’. The initial grafting occurred on the topmost surface layer, and then moved further into the bulk of the polymer matrix. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) mediated grafting yielded a better controlled grafting when compared to those obtained in conventional grafting.

  1. 78 FR 14266 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Notice of Correction to the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Notice of... antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET Film) from Taiwan.\\1\\ The... contained a clerical error, in that it identified an incorrect case number associated with PET Film...

  2. 76 FR 18155 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of... a notice of initiation of an administrative review under the antidumping duty order on polyethylene...

  3. 77 FR 46687 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET... Corporation Ltd. (Polyplex), and SRF Limited (SRF), producers and exporters of PET Film from India. The Department preliminarily determines that Jindal and Polyplex did not make sales of PET Film from India at...

  4. 76 FR 47540 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET... exporters of PET Film from Taiwan. The Department preliminarily determines that Shinkong and Nan Ya made sales of PET Film below normal value (NV) during the POR. The preliminary results are listed below in...

  5. 77 FR 46704 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET...), producers and exporters of PET Film from Taiwan. The Department preliminarily determines that Nan Ya made and Shinkong did not make sales of PET Film from Taiwan below normal value (NV). The preliminary...

  6. 78 FR 50029 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From Brazil: Preliminary... response to requests from respondent Terphane Ltda. and from DuPont Teijin Films, Mitsubishi Polyester Film, Inc., SKC, Inc., and Toray Plastics (America), Inc. (collectively, Petitioners), the Department of...

  7. 77 FR 31833 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: In response to a request from DuPont Teijin Films, Mitsubishi Polyester Film, Inc., SKC, Inc., and Toray Plastics (America), Inc. (collectively, petitioners), the... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil: Notice of...

  8. 76 FR 47558 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... International Monetary Fund's publication International Financial Statistics (IMF Statistics). Ester received... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  9. Influence of high doses γ-irradiation on oxygen permeability of linear low-density polyethylene and cast polypropylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepac, Damir; Ščetar, Mario; Baranović, Goran; Galić, Kata; Valić, Srećko

    2014-04-01

    Linear low density polyethylene (PE-LLD) and cast polypropylene (PPcast) films were irradiated in a 60Co γ-source. The total irradiation dose varied from 0 kGy (unirradiated samples) to 200 kGy. Oxygen transport was investigated by a manometric method and the structural changes were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Free radicals decay as a function of time was monitored by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The results show that the γ-irradiation reduces oxygen permeability coefficient in both films. The reduction was associated with an increase in crystallinity. DSC thermograms revealed a decrease in PPcast melting point with increasing irradiation dose, indicating higher degradation compared to PE-LLD. The observed peak in FTIR spectra for both samples at 1716 cm-1 corresponds to the stretching of the carbonyl and carboxylic groups which arise from the reaction of oxygen with the free radicals produced in the polymer matrix as a result of irradiation.

  10. Surface modification on polyethylene terephthalate films with 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhiwen; Ren, Li; Zhai, Zhichen; Wang, Yingjun; Hang, Fei

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was modified to improve the protein and cell adhesion behavior with low temperature ammonia plasma treatment followed by 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) grafting. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that the -COO(-), -N-C=O and -P-O-H groups were successfully incorporated onto the sample surface after MPC grafting. Furthermore, formation of new bonds, -N= and N-H on the sample surface grafted with MPC was recorded by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A large number of spherical particles at submicron to nanometer scale were also observed on the surface by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cell adhesion experiments on PET film surfaces were evaluated and the highly hydrophilic surfaces could not promote cell adhesion and spreading. All results achieved in this study have clearly indicated that the method combining low temperature ammonia plasma treatment and MPC grafting is an effective way of producing a suitably hydrophilic PET surface with the capability of weakening the protein adsorption greatly.

  11. Influence of polyethylene glycol-300 addition on nanostructured lead sulfide thin films properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaci, S.; Keffous, A.; Trari, M.; Menari, H.; Manseri, A.; Mahmoudi, B.; Guerbous, L.

    2010-09-01

    The concentration of polyethylene glycol-300 was found to play a crucial role in the formation of nanoparticles in PbS-chemical bath deposition process. We report here an endeavor to set up a relation between the variation of lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystalline thin film properties, grown by (CBD) process at room temperature on corning glass and Si(100) substrates, with amount fluctuations of polyethylene glycol-300 in the solution. The transmittance of the films, for a fixed reaction time, increased up to ˜ 80% with the increase of % polyethylene glycol-300 in the solution, indicating the formation of very thin films due to the decrease of reaction rate with the increase of the concentration of polyethylene glycol-300. The optical band gaps were found to strongly rely on the composition of the bath deposition and increase with the increase of the polyethylene glycol-300 amount in the solution. Particle sizes between 2.8 and 8.7 nm were obtained by varying the % of polyethylene glycol-300 from 0.2 to 1.5. The concentration of polyethylene glycol-300 not only affects the reaction rate but also the morphology of the obtained films. PbS nanoparticles were found to be oriented preferentially along the < 200> plane. The absorption shifts towards short wavelength indicating a blue-shifting as a consequence of quantum confinement.

  12. Determination of microplastic polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in environmental samples using thermal analysis (TGA-DSC).

    PubMed

    Majewsky, Marius; Bitter, Hajo; Eiche, Elisabeth; Horn, Harald

    2016-10-15

    Microplastics are increasingly detected in the environment and the consequences on water resources and ecosystems are not clear to date. The present study provides a cost-effective and straightforward method to determine the mass concentrations of polymer types using thermal analysis. Characteristic endothermic phase transition temperatures were determined for seven plastic polymer types using TGA-DSC. Based on that, extracts from wastewater samples were analyzed. Results showed that among the studied polymers, only PE and PP could be clearly identified, while the phase transition signals of the other polymers largely overlap each other. Subsequently, calibration curves were run for PE and PP for qualitative measurements. 240 and 1540mg/m(3) of solid material (12µm to 1mm) was extracted from two wastewater effluent samples of a municipal WWTP of which 34% (81mg/m(3)) and 17% (257mg/m(3)) could be assigned to PE, while PP was not detected in any of the samples. The presented application of TGA-DSC provides a complementary or alternative method to FT-IR analyses for the determination of PE and PP in environmental samples.

  13. Effects of prosthetic materials on the host immune response: evaluation of polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA), polyethylene (PE), and polystyrene (PS) particles.

    PubMed

    Frick, Chris; Dietz, Andrew C; Merritt, Katharine; Umbreit, Thomas H; Tomazic-Jezic, Vesna J

    2006-01-01

    The main causes for the long-term prosthetic implants' failure are the body's reaction to the implanted material or mechanical stress on the device resulting in the formation of wear particles. Particulate wear debris attracts macrophages, and depending on the chemical composition of the material and particle size, various levels of inflammatory response may occur. While transient inflammation is common, development of chronic inflammation may have serious consequences, leading to implant failure. Such a process may also cause systemic changes to immune functions and long-term effects on the host immune responses. In this study, we evaluated the effects of polystyrene (PS), polyethylene (PE), and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles on macrophage function and the generation of T-cell responses. Particles of various diameters were injected intraperitoneally into Balb/c mice, and immune functions were examined at 3, 10, and 21 days after the injection. The intensity of phagocytosis by peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) and the proliferative response of spleen cells from treated mice were evaluated. Enumeration of PECs revealed an increase in the total number of cells. Mice injected with PS or PE particles had a higher percentage of cells containing particles than PMMA-injected mice. Macrophages with PS or PE particles tended to adhere to and/or infiltrate peritoneal fibro-fatty tissues surrounding the spleen and pancreas, while the PMMA-carrying macrophages infiltrated the spleen, resulting in an increase of spleen size and "weight. The spleen cell proliferation assay revealed only mild and transient effects on the mitogen response in both PE and PS particle-injected mice. However, in the PMMA-injected mice we observed a lasting increase of the Con A response and a decrease of the LPS response. In vitro exposure of PECs from untreated mice showed a dose-response pattern in nitric oxide (NO) and TNFalpha production. While exposure to either PMMA or PE induced

  14. 76 FR 12937 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of... under the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India for SRF... Film, Sheet and Strip from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 75...

  15. 76 FR 12938 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of... under the countervailing duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip from India for... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty New Shipper...

  16. 77 FR 20357 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the United Arab... duty order on polyethylene terephthalate film (PET Film) from the United Arab Emirates.\\1\\ This review... final dumping margins, see the ``Final Results of Review'' section below. \\1\\ See...

  17. Reconstruction of the Interface of Oxidatively Functionalized Polyethylene (PE-CO2H) and Derivatives on Heating. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    interfacial free energy. A slower process--probably driven simply by the entropy of dilution of the concentrated interfacial functionality into the polymer...itself reconstruct the interface: If reaction 4’tn the annydride had Drought the hydroxyl moiety up into the "qterpnase, then upon hydrolysis the...study the reconstruction of PE[dansyl] during heating: the fluorescence emission maximum and the quenching of fluorescence upon protonation of its

  18. Improvement in mechanical and barrier properties of polyethylene blown films using atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gyeong Beom; Hak Song, Seung; Wook Moon, Sung; Woo Kim, Jun; Hyung Shim, Joon; Choi, Byoung-Ho; Moo Heo, Young

    2014-01-15

    Recently, thin films deposited on polymer substrates have been widely utilized as encapsulation barriers in electronic applications such as flexible displays, packaging films, and organic light-emitting diodes. The barrier and mechanical properties of these films are critical aspects when using them for protecting the inner modules of electronic devices from environmental factors such as moisture, oxygen, and sunlight. In particular, polymers can be degraded or decomposed more easily than other materials under such environmental conditions. Therefore, polymer films can be deposited using thin functional materials; however, suitable deposition methods for polymers are scarce owing to many limitations such as low melting/glass transition temperature, thermal degradation, and oxidation. In this study, a thin alumina oxide film was deposited on a high-density polyethylene blown film by using atomic layer deposition. The mechanical and barrier properties of the alumina oxide film deposited on the polyethylene film were characterized by a microtensile test and water vapor transmission rate test. Process conditions such as process temperature, plasma surface treatment, and number of cycles were varied to ascertain the reliability of the thin alumina oxide film deposited on the high-density polyethylene blown film. The results showed that the barrier property of the deposited film improved upon the application of plasma surface treatment, and that its mechanical properties varied under different process conditions.

  19. Crystallization of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) and Polyethylene (PE) /deuterated Polystyrene (dPS) Blends in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (scCO2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pynn, Christopher; Ahdout, Payvand; Jerome, John; Wang, Yantian; Zaitsev, Vladimir; Soklov, Johnathan; Rafailovich, Miriam; Schwarz, Steven

    2006-03-01

    Thin films of EVA or PE and dPS were spun cast onto Si wafers and crystallized in supercritical carbon dioxide at pressures and temperatures corresponding to the density fluctuation ridge^1 or thermally annealed using standard protocols. The morphology composition and melting points of the films were studied using scanning force microscopy and imaging time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry as function of film thickness and homopolymer concentration. The results showed that exposure to scCO2 produced highly crystalline films. Furthermore, in contrast to the thermally annealed films, the homopolymer was fully incorporated into the crystalline phase. The surface morphology of the films after crystallization showed either island or hole structure, depending on the relation between the film thickness and the lamellar height. Supported in part by the NSF-MRSEC program and by a grant from the SRC-NYS consortium. Reference: ^1 Koga T., Seo Y.S., Shin K., Zhang Y., Rafailovich M., Sokolov J., B. Chu, Satija, S.K. Macromolecules. Vol. 36. 2003: 5236- 5243.

  20. Site-specific chemical modification with polyethylene glycol of recombinant immunotoxin anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38 (LMB-2) improves antitumor activity and reduces animal toxicity and immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Yasuo; Onda, Masanori; Nagata, Satoshi; Lee, Byungkook; Kreitman, Robert J.; Pastan, Ira

    2000-01-01

    Chemical modification of proteins with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation) can increase plasma half-lives, stability, and therapeutic potency. To make a PEGylated recombinant immunotoxin with improved therapeutic properties, we prepared a mutant of anti-Tac(Fv)-PE38 (LMB-2), a recombinant immunotoxin composed of a single-chain Fv fragment of the anti-human Tac monoclonal antibody to the IL-2 receptor α subunit fused to a 38-kDa fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin. For site-specific PEGylation of LMB-2, one cysteine residue was introduced into the peptide connector (ASGCGPE) between the Fv and the toxin. This mutant LMB-2 (cys1-LMB-2), which retained full cytotoxic activity, was then site-specifically conjugated with 5 or 20 kDa of polyethylene glycol-maleimide. When compared with unmodified LMB-2, both PEGylated immunotoxins showed similar cytotoxic activities in vitro but superior stability at 37°C in mouse serum, a 5- to 8-fold increase in plasma half-lives in mice, and a 3- to 4-fold increase in antitumor activity. This was accompanied by a substantial decrease in animal toxicity and immunogenicity. Site-specific PEGylation of recombinant immunotoxins may increase their therapeutic potency in humans. PMID:10890891

  1. Photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene film as a prototype of retinal prostheses.

    PubMed

    Uji, Akihito; Matsuo, Toshihiko; Ishimaru, Sanae; Kajiura, Akiko; Shimamura, Kaoru; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi; Dan-oh, Yasufumi; Suga, Sadaharu

    2005-01-01

    Photoelectric dyes, which absorb light and convert photon energy to electric potentials, have been previously shown to stimulate retinal neurons in culture. In this study, a photoelectric dye was coupled to a polyethylene film surface and tested in vitro using retinal tissues from chick embryos at the 12-day embryonic stage, at which time outer segments of retinal photoreceptor cells have not yet developed. Carboxyl moieties were introduced to a polyethylene film surface by fuming nitric acid, and then a photoelectric dye, 2-[2-[4-(dibutylamino)phenyl]ethenyl]-3-carboxymethylbenzothiazolium bromide, was coupled to the film through amide linkage. Intracellular calcium elevation was observed with Fluo-4 in retinal tissues placed on the dye-coupled polyethylene film, in contrast to retinal tissues which had no contact with the film. The response was inhibited by calcicludine, a voltage-gated calcium channel blocker, and also by extracellular calcium depletion. The photoelectric dye, coupled to the polyethylene film surface, absorbed light under a dissecting microscope and stimulated neurons in retinal tissues, showing that the dye-coupled film could be used as a prototype of retinal prostheses.

  2. In Situ deposition of YBCO high-T(sub c) superconducting thin films by MOCVD and PE-MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, J.; Noh, D. W.; Chern, C.; Li, Y. Q.; Norris, P.; Gallois, B.; Kear, B.

    1990-01-01

    Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) offers the advantages of a high degree of compositional control, adaptability for large scale production, and the potential for low temperature fabrication. The capability of operating at high oxygen partial pressure is particularly suitable for in situ formation of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) films. Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) thin films having a sharp zero-resistance transition with T( sub c) greater than 90 K and Jc approx. 10 to the 4th power A on YSZ have been prepared, in situ, at a substrate temperature of about 800 C. Moreover, the ability to form oxide films at low temperature is very desirable for device applications of HTSC materials. Such a process would permit the deposition of high quality HTSC films with a smooth surface on a variety of substrates. Highly c-axis oriented, dense, scratch resistant, superconducting YBCO thin films with mirror-like surfaces have been prepared, in situ, at a reduced substrate temperature as low as 570 C by a remote microwave-plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) process. Nitrous oxide was used as a reactant gas to generate active oxidizing species. This process, for the first time, allows the formation of YBCO thin films with the orthorhombic superconducting phase in the as-deposited state. The as-deposited films grown by PE-MOCVD show attainment of zero resistance at 72 K with a transition width of about 5 K. MOCVD was carried out in a commercial production scale reactor with the capability of uniform deposition over 100 sq cm per growth run. Preliminary results indicate that PE-MOCVD is a very attractive thin film deposition process for superconducting device technology.

  3. In-situ deposition of YBCO high-Tc superconducting thin films by MOCVD and PE-MOCVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, J.; Noh, D. W.; Chern, C.; Li, Y. Q.; Norris, P. E.; Kear, B.; Gallois, B.

    1991-01-01

    Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) offers the advantages of a high degree of compositional control, adaptability for large scale production, and the potential for low temperature fabrication. The capability of operating at high oxygen partial pressure is particularly suitable for in situ formation of high temperature superconducting (HTSC) films. Yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) thin films having a sharp zero-resistance transition with T(sub c) greater than 90 K and J(sub c) of approximately 10(exp 4) A on YSZ have been prepared, in situ, at a substrate temperature of about 800 C. Moreover, the ability to form oxide films at low temperature is very desirable for device applications of HTSC materials. Such a process would permit the deposition of high quality HTSC films with a smooth surface on a variety of substrates. Highly c-axis oriented, dense, scratch resistant, superconducting YBCO thin films with mirror-like surfaces have been prepared, in situ, at a reduced substrate temperature as low as 570 C by a remote microwave-plasma enhanced metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) process. Nitrous oxide was used as a reactant gas to generate active oxidizing species. This process, for the first time, allows the formation of YBCO thin films with the orthorhombic superconducting phase in the as-deposited state. The as-deposited films grown by PE-MOCVD show attainment of zero resistance at 72 K with a transition width of about 5 K. MOCVD was carried out in a commercial production scale reactor with the capability of uniform deposition over 100 sq cm per growth run. Preliminary results indicate that PE-MOCVD is a very attractive thin film deposition process for superconducting device technology.

  4. Radiation synthesis of acrylamide/N,N-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate grafted onto low density polyethylene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Ghaffar, A. M.

    2011-02-01

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of acrylamide/N,N-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (AAm/DMAEMA) onto low density polyethylene films was carried out. The effect of grafting conditions such as solvent type and comonomer composition were studied. Characterization of the prepared films was investigated by Fourier transform infrared. Some selected properties such as thermal stability and swelling behavior were determined. It was found that grafting efficiency, swelling behavior and thermal stability increased with increasing DMAEMA content. Scanning electron microscopy was used for predicting the change in surface morphology via the grafted films. The improvement in properties of the prepared films make it possible to use them in some practical applications.

  5. Raman study of uniaxial deformation of single-crystal mats of ultrahigh molecular weight linear polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavgorodnev, Yu V.; Chvalun, S. N.; Nikolaeva, G. Yu; Sagitova, E. A.; Pashinin, P. P.; Gordeyev, S. A.; Prokhorov, K. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present for the first time a Raman spectroscopic study of the deformation process of solution-crystallized single-crystal mats of ultrahigh molecular weight linear polyethylene (UHMW PE). We study the deformed regions of the films, drawn only until the formation of the neck, and the films of much higher draw ratios, just before rupture starts. For comparison, we have also carried out Raman investigations of films produced by compression of UHMW PE powder. We have found that the uniaxial molecular orientation in the neck region of the single-crystal mat films develops more slowly as compared to the films, prepared by compression of the UHMW PE powder.

  6. 75 FR 70901 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET film) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). See... May 31, 2009, administrative review of the antidumping order on PET film from Korea. See Preliminary...-enhancing resinous or inorganic layer more than 0.00001 inches (0.254 micrometers) thick. PET film is...

  7. 78 FR 19524 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India and Taiwan; Institution of Five-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from India and the antidumping duty orders on PET film from India and Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Department of Commerce issued a countervailing duty order on imports of PET film from India (67 FR 44179) and...

  8. 76 FR 39855 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in Part, of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in... India covering the period January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009. See Antidumping or Countervailing...

  9. 76 FR 39855 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in Part, of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Rescission, in... India covering the period July 1, 2009, through June 30, 2010. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty...

  10. 75 FR 79336 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Countervailing Duty New Shipper Review AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  11. 78 FR 45512 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film from India and Taiwan: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film from India and Taiwan: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary and Final Results of the Second Antidumping Duty Sunset Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International...

  12. Langmuir films of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine grafted poly(ethylene glycol). In-situ evidence of surface aggregation at the air-water interface.

    PubMed

    Clop, Eduardo M; Corvalán, Natalia A; Perillo, María A

    2016-12-01

    The molecular packing-dependent interfacial organization of polyethylene glycol grafted dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (PE-PEGs) Langmuir films was studied. The PEG chains covered a wide molecular mass range (350, 1000 and 5000Da). In surface pressure-area (π-A), isotherms PE-PEG(1000) and PE-PEG(5000) showed transitions (midpoints at πm,t1∼11mN/m, "t1"), which appeared as a long non-horizontal line region. Thus, t1 cannot be considered a first-order phase transition but may reflect a transition within the polymer, comprising its desorption from the air-water interface and compaction upon compression. This is supported by the increase in the νs(C-O-C) PM-IRRAS signal intensity and the increasing surface potentials at maximal compression, which reflect thicker polymeric layers. Furthermore, changes in hydrocarbon chain (HC) packing and tilt with respect to the surface led to reorientation in the PO2(-) group upon compression, indicated by the inversion of the νasym(PO2(-)) PM-IRRAS signal around t1. The absence of a t1 in PE-PEG(350) supports the requisite of a critical polymer chain length for this transition to occur. In-situ epifluorescence microscopy revealed 2D-domain-like structures in PE-PEG(1000) and PE-PEG(5000) around t1, possibly associated with gelation/dehydration of the polymeric layer and appearing at decreasing π as the polymeric tail became longer. Another transition, t2, appearing in PE-PEG(350) and PE-PEG(1000) at πm,t2=29.4 and 34.8mN/m, respectively, was associated with HC condensation and was impaired in PE-PEG(5000) due to steric hindrance imposed by the large size of its polymer moiety. Two critical lengths of polymer chains were found, one of which allowed the onset of polymeric-tail gelation and the other limited HC compaction.

  13. ToF-SIMS imaging of PE/PP polymer using multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyasaka, Toyomitsu; Ikemoto, Takashi; Kohno, Teiichiro

    2008-12-01

    The distribution of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in PE/PP blended-polymer film was determined by applying principal components analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) to time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) imaging, together with preprocessing by pixel binning, normalization, and autoscaling to increase image contrast by reducing topographic and charge-distribution effects. The PE/PP distribution was confirmed by MVA conducted on the image data over static limit. The MCR score with normalized-autoscaling was found to give the PE/PP distribution distinctly.

  14. Engineering functional nanothin multilayers on food packaging: ice-nucleating polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Gezgin, Zafer; Lee, Tung-Ching; Huang, Qingrong

    2013-05-29

    Polyethylene is the most prevalent plastic and is commonly used as a packaging material. Despite its common use, there are not many studies on imparting functionalities to those films which can make them more desirable for frozen food packaging. Here, commercial low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films were oxidized by UV-ozone (UVO) treatment to obtain a negatively charged hydrophilic surface to allow fabrication of functional multilayers. An increase in hydrophilicity was observed when films were exposed to UVO for 4 min and longer. Thin multilayers were formed by dipping the UVO-treated films into biopolymer solutions, and extracellular ice nucleators (ECINs) were immobilized onto the film surface to form a functional top layer. Polyelectrolyte adsorption was studied and confirmed on silicon wafers by measuring the water contact angles of the layers and investigating the surface morphology via atomic force microscopy. An up to 4-5 °C increase in ice nucleation temperatures and an up to 10 min decrease in freezing times were observed with high-purity deionized water samples frozen in ECIN-coated LDPE films. Films retained their ice nucleation activity up to 50 freeze-thaw cycles. Our results demonstrate the potential of using ECIN-coated polymer films for frozen food application.

  15. Evidence of polyethylene biodegradation by bacterial strains from the guts of plastic-eating waxworms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhao, Jiao; Jiang, Lei

    2014-12-02

    Polyethylene (PE) has been considered nonbiodegradable for decades. Although the biodegradation of PE by bacterial cultures has been occasionally described, valid evidence of PE biodegradation has remained limited in the literature. We found that waxworms, or Indian mealmoths (the larvae of Plodia interpunctella), were capable of chewing and eating PE films. Two bacterial strains capable of degrading PE were isolated from this worm's gut, Enterobacter asburiae YT1 and Bacillus sp. YP1. Over a 28-day incubation period of the two strains on PE films, viable biofilms formed, and the PE films' hydrophobicity decreased. Obvious damage, including pits and cavities (0.3-0.4 μm in depth), was observed on the surfaces of the PE films using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The formation of carbonyl groups was verified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and microattenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared (micro-ATR/FTIR) imaging microscope. Suspension cultures of YT1 and YP1 (10(8) cells/mL) were able to degrade approximately 6.1 ± 0.3% and 10.7 ± 0.2% of the PE films (100 mg), respectively, over a 60-day incubation period. The molecular weights of the residual PE films were lower, and the release of 12 water-soluble daughter products was also detected. The results demonstrated the presence of PE-degrading bacteria in the guts of waxworms and provided promising evidence for the biodegradation of PE in the environment.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Films Extruded of Polyethylene/Chitosan Modified with Poly(lactic acid).

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Castillo, Jesús Manuel; Rodríguez-Félix, Dora Evelia; Grijalva-Monteverde, Heriberto; Lizárraga-Laborín, Lauren Lucero; Castillo-Ortega, María Mónica; Del Castillo-Castro, Teresa; Rodríguez-Félix, Francisco; Herrera-Franco, Pedro Jesús

    2014-12-30

    The use of mixtures of synthetic and natural polymers is a potential option to reduce the pollution by plastic waste. In this work, the method for the chemical modification of chitosan with poly(lactic acid) was developed; then, the preparation of films of blends of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid) produced by an extrusion method using polyethylene-graft maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer. It was possible to obtain films with a maximum content of 20 wt% and 30 wt%, chitosan, with and without compatibilizer, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed a homogeneous surface on all films. The addition of the compatibilizer had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the films, such as an increase in Young's modulus and a decrease in the elongation at break; additionally, the compatibilizer promotes thermal degradation in a single step and gives the film a slight increase in thermal resistance. These results are attributed to an improved interaction in the interface of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid), promoted by the compatibilizer.

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Films Extruded of Polyethylene/Chitosan Modified with Poly(lactic acid)

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz-Castillo, Jesús Manuel; Rodríguez-Félix, Dora Evelia; Grijalva-Monteverde, Heriberto; Lizárraga-Laborín, Lauren Lucero; Castillo-Ortega, María Mónica; del Castillo-Castro, Teresa; Rodríguez-Félix, Francisco; Herrera-Franco, Pedro Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The use of mixtures of synthetic and natural polymers is a potential option to reduce the pollution by plastic waste. In this work, the method for the chemical modification of chitosan with poly(lactic acid) was developed; then, the preparation of films of blends of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid) produced by an extrusion method using polyethylene-graft maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer. It was possible to obtain films with a maximum content of 20 wt% and 30 wt%, chitosan, with and without compatibilizer, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed a homogeneous surface on all films. The addition of the compatibilizer had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the films, such as an increase in Young’s modulus and a decrease in the elongation at break; additionally, the compatibilizer promotes thermal degradation in a single step and gives the film a slight increase in thermal resistance. These results are attributed to an improved interaction in the interface of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid), promoted by the compatibilizer. PMID:28787928

  18. Polyethylene/silver-nanofiber composites: A material for antibacterial films.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Paula A; Larrea, Maialen; Tamayo, Laura; Rabagliati, Franco M; Azócar, M Ignacio; Páez, Maritza

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanofibers (Ag-Nfbs)~80nm in diameter were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The nanofibers (3 and 5wt%) were added in the initial feed together with the catalytic system. Polymerizations in an ethylene atmosphere were performed, yielding PE nanocomposites in situ with 3 and 5wt% content of Ag-Nfbs. The antibacterial effect of the silver-nanofiber composites was evaluated after incubation of Escherichia coli ATCC 25923 for 8h on their surface. Bacterial viability tests showed that the silver-nanofiber composites inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli ATCC 25923 by 88 and 56%. This behavior is attributed to increased silver ions release from the nanocomposite. TEM analysis showed that the antibacterial effect is associated with membrane disruption but not with changes in shape. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Hidden Objects, Part I: Interpretation of the Reflection-Absorption-Scattering Fractions in Near-Infrared (NIR) Spectra of Polyethylene Films.

    PubMed

    Pomerantsev, Alexey L; Rodionova, Oxana Ye; Skvortsov, Alexej N

    2017-01-01

    Investigation of a sample covered by an interfering layer is required in many fields, e.g., for process control, biochemical analysis, and many other applications. This study is based on the analysis of spectra collected by near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Each spectrum is a composition of a useful, target spectrum and a spectrum of an interfering layer. To recover the target spectrum, we suggest using a new phenomenological approach, which employs the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method. In general terms, the problem is very complex. We start with a specific problem of analyzing a system, which consists of several layers of polyethylene (PE) film and underlayer samples with known spectral properties. To separate information originating from PE layers and the target, we modify the system versus both the number of the PE layers as well as the reflectance properties of the target sample. We consider that the interfering spectrum of the layer can be modeled using three components, which can be tentatively called transmission, absorption, and scattering contributions. The novelty of our approach is that we do not remove the reflectance and scattering effects from the spectra, but study them in detail aiming to use this information to recover the target spectrum.

  20. Radiation-induced grafting of diallyldimethylammonium chloride onto acrylic acid grafted polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, Sanju; Dhanawade, B. R.; Mitra, D.; Varshney, Lalit; Sabharwal, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DADMAC) was grafted onto polyethylene (PE) films by a double grafting procedure. The PE film was initially modified by grafting acrylic acid (AA), through a mutual irradiation method. AA-g-PE film, thus obtained was subjected to subsequent radiation grafting reaction of DADMAC, to give a DADMAC-g-AA-g-PE film having a comb-type structure. The influence of different conditions, such as the extent of AA grafting, DADMAC concentration, absorbed dose and dose rate, on the grafting yield of DADMAC was investigated. A maximum DADMAC grafting of 30% was achieved. The equilibrium degree of swelling (EDS) of the grafted films were gravimetrically determined. TGA and FT-IR techniques were employed to characterize the grafted PE films.

  1. Effect of ablation parameters on infrared pulsed laser deposition of poly(ethylene glycol) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubb, Daniel M.; Papantonakis, M. R.; Toftmann, B.; Horwitz, J. S.; McGill, R. A.; Chrisey, D. B.; Haglund, R. F., Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Polymer thin films were deposited by laser ablation using infrared radiation both resonant (2.90, 3.40, 3.45, and 8.96 mum) and nonresonant (3.30, 3.92, and 4.17 mum) with vibrational modes in the starting material, polyethylene glycol. The chemical structure of the films was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, while the molecular weight distribution was investigated using gel permeation chromatography. The films deposited by resonant irradiation are superior to those deposited with nonresonant radiation with respect to both the chemical structure and the molecular weight distribution of the films. However, the molecular-weight distributions of films deposited at nonresonant infrared wavelengths show marked polymer fragmentation. Fluence and wavelength dependence studies show that the effects may be related to the degree of thermal confinement, and hence to the relative absorption strengths of the targeted vibrational modes.

  2. Impedance Spectroscopy Study of Composite Thin Films of Hydrated Polyethylene Glycol

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F.; Pedrow, Patrick D.; Goheen, Steven C.; Hartenstine, M. J.

    2007-10-01

    A polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer was synthesized using a dip coating procedure on 316L stainless steel (SS) substrate pre-coated with a primer that consisted of radio frequency RF inductively coupled plasma-polymerized di (ethylene glycol) vinyl ether (EO2V). The primer and PEG composite film was studied with profilometer, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and a tape test to evaluate thickness, coverage, morphology, and adhesion, respectively. Response of the PEG composite film to an applied AC voltage was studied as a function of hydration state using impedance spectroscopy (IS). A resistor/capacitor network was used to interpret the impedance spectra. Electrical capacitance of the PEG film decreased with an exponentially decaying term as dehydration progressed. PEG film capacitance decay was consistent with a model describing water molecules diffusing through the PEG film.

  3. Extruded films of blended chitosan, low density polyethylene and ethylene acrylic acid.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Camacho, A P; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Graciano-Verdugo, A Z; Rodríguez-Félix, F; Castillo-Ortega, M M; Burgos-Hernández, A; Ezquerra-Brauer, J M; Plascencia-Jatomea, M

    2013-01-16

    The obtaining of chitosan extruded films was possible by using low density polyethylene (LDPE) as a matrix polymer and ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer as an adhesive, in order to ensure adhesion in the interphase of the immiscible polymers. The obtained blend films were resistant; however, a reduction in the mechanical resistance was observed as chitosan concentration increased. The thermal stability of the films showed a certain grade of interaction between polymers as seen in FTIR spectra. The antifungal activity of the extruded films was assessed against Aspergillus niger and high inhibition percentages were observed, which may be mainly attributed to barrier properties of the extruded films and the limited oxygen availability, resulting in the inability of the fungi to grow. A low adherence of fungal spores to the material surface was observed, mainly in areas with chitosan clumps, which can serve as starting points for material degradation.

  4. Ferromagnetism of manganese-doped indium tin oxide films deposited on polyethylene naphthalate substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Toshihiro; Isozaki, Shinichi; Tanabe, Kohei; Tachibana, Kunihide

    2009-04-01

    Mn-doped indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. The magnetic, electrical, and optical properties of the films deposited on PEN substrates were investigated by comparing with the properties of films grown on glass substrates at the same growth conditions. Thin films on PEN substrates exhibited low electrical resistivity of the order of 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and high optical transmittance between 75% and 90% in the visible region. Ferromagnetic hysteresis loops were observed at room temperature for the samples grown on PEN substrates. Mn-doped ITO films can be one of the most promising candidates of transparent ferromagnetic materials for flexible spintronic devices.

  5. k-Carrageenan/poly vinyl pyrollidone/polyethylene glycol/silver nanoparticles film for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Fouda, Moustafa M G; El-Aassar, M R; El Fawal, G F; Hafez, Elsayed E; Masry, Saad Hamdy Daif; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Biopolymer composite film containing k-carrageenan (KC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was formulated by dissolving KC and PVP in water containing PEG. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), was produced by Honeybee and added to solution. Finally, all solutions were poured onto dishes and dried overnight at 40°C to form the final films. Tensile strength (TS) and elongation (E %) is evaluated. The water contact angle is inspected. Thermal properties (TGA) and swelling behavior for water were considered. Fungal activity is also examined. Morphology of all films was also explored using scanning electron microscope. AgNPs induced significant hydrophilicity to KC-PVP-PEG film with contact angle of 41.6 and 34.7 for KC-PVP-PEG-AgNPs. Films with AgNPs exhibited higher thermal stability and strength properties than other films without. Films with AgNPs explore lower swelling behavior than other films without. Both SEM and EDX proved the deposition of AgNPs on the surface of films. Films with AgNPs showed higher activity against pathogenic fungi compared with the chemical fungicide; fluconazole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Supercritical fluid impregnation of polyethylene films, a new approach to studying equilibria in matrices; the hydrogen bonding of fluoroalcohols to (η 5-C 5Me 5)Ir(CO) 2 and the effect on CH activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Andrew I.; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Poliakoff, Martyn

    1993-04-01

    Polyethylene (PE) film is used as a matrix for studying temperature-dependent equilibria by IR spectroscopy; the film is impregnated with Cp*Ir(CO) 2 (Cp*=η 5-C 5Me 5) using supercritical CO 2 and subsequently saturated with HOR F (R F=(CF 3) 2CH or (CF 3) 3C). At 200 K, the equilibrium between Cp*Ip(CO) 2 and the hydrogen-bonded complex, Cp*Ir(CO) 2…HOR F, is frozen out and can be disturbed photochemically, because Cp*Ir(CO) 2 is more efficient than Cp*Ir(CO) 2…HOR F for CH activation of polyethylene.

  7. Crystallization studies of polyethylene -poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, P. R.; Hovey, G. E.; Murthy, N. S.; Breitenkamp, K.; Kade, M.; Emerick, T.

    2006-03-01

    Structure and crystallization behavior of three copolymers obtained by grafting poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) chains to polyethylene (PE) main chain was investigated by variable temperature x-ray diffraction and thermal analysis. The results show that PEG side chains and PE main chains crystallize into separate domains. This is especially true when grafted chains are long (50 and 100 repeat units), in which the PEG domains are same as in PEG homopolymer both in structure and in melting behavior. In the copolymer with shorter chains (25 repeat units), the PEG crystals are not distinct and melting is broad. The PEG domains can be dissolved in water or ethanol without altering the mechanical integrity of the film. PE crystallites in both samples are similar to that in PE homopolymer. For instance, the thermal expansion of the basal cell plane (a- and b-axes) of the PE domains agrees well with that of PE homopolymer over the entire temperature range from ambient to melt. However, the chain-axis dimension PE-lattice in the copolymer is shorter by ˜ 0.05 å and the basal dimensions are larger by ˜ 0.05 å. The changes in these dimensions due to the changes in the length of the grafted PEG chains were investigated.

  8. Functional polyethylene glycol derivatives nanostructured thin films synthesized by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, R.; Popescu, C.; Popescu, A.; Grigorescu, S.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Mihaiescu, D.; Gittard, S. D.; Narayan, R. J.; Buruiana, T.; Stamatin, I.; Chrisey, D. B.

    2009-09-01

    We report the thin film deposition by matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of a polymer conjugate with an hydrophilic sequence between metronidazole molecules that was covalently attached to both oligomer ends of carboxylate poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 1.5-metronidazole). A pulsed KrF* excimer laser was used to deposit the drug-polymer composite films. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that MAPLE-transferred materials exhibited chemical properties similar to the starting materials. The dependence of the surface morphology on incident laser fluence is given.

  9. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial applications of ZnO-nanoparticles coated polyethylene films for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Tankhiwale, Rasika; Bajpai, S K

    2012-02-01

    The present work describes the preparation of ZnO nanoparticles loaded starch-coated polyethylene film. The presence of ZnO nanoparticles was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ZnO loaded film was tested for its biocidal action against model bacteria Escherichia coli using zone inhibition and killing kinetics of bacterial growth methods. This newly developed material bears potential to be used as food packaging material to prevent food stuff from bacterial contamination.

  10. Structure and properties of polyethylene films used in heavy lift balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khoury, F.; Crissman, J. M.; Fanconi, B. M.; Wagner, H. L.; Botz, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The following features of five polyethylene films used by NASA in the construction of heavy lift balloons have been examined: molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, branching, melting behavior, density, surface texture, birefringence, orientation of crystalline regions, unlaxial deformation in the machine and transverse directions, and the effect of sample geometry and strain rate on deformation behavior. The goal of this exploratory study was to determine whether there are significant differences in any of the above mentioned features, or combination of features between the films. The acquisition of such information is a first step towards determining whether there are any specific correlations between film characteristics and the incidence of catastrophic failure of balloons during ascent through the troposphere. This exploratory study has resulted in the identification of similarities and differences between various features of the films.

  11. Silicon-Germanium Films Deposited by Low Frequency PE CVD: Effect of H2 and Ar Dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Kosarev, A; Torres, A; Hernandez, Y; Ambrosio, R; Zuniga, C; Felter, T E; Asomoza, R R; Kudriavtsev, Y; Silva-Gonzalez, R; Gomez-Barojas, E; Ilinski, A; Abramov, A S

    2005-09-22

    We have studied structure and electrical properties of Si{sub 1-Y}Ge{sub Y}:H films deposited by low frequency PE CVD over the entire composition range from Y=0 to Y=1. The deposition rate of the films and their structural and electrical properties were measured for various ratios of the germane/silane feed gases and with and without dilution by Ar and by H{sub 2}. Structure and composition was studied by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Surface morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found: (1) The deposition rate increased with Y maximizing at Y=1 without dilution. (2) The relative rate of Ge and Si incorporation is affected by dilution. (3) Hydrogen preferentially bonds to silicon. (4) Hydrogen content decreases for increasing Y. In addition, optical measurements showed that as Y goes for 0 to 1, the Fermi level moves from mid gap to the conduction band edge, i.e. the films become more n-type. No correlation was found between the pre-exponential and the activation energy of conductivity. The behavior of the conductivity {gamma}-factor suggests a local minimum in the density of states at E {approx} 0.33 eV for the films grown with or without H-dilution and E {approx} 0.25 eV for the films with Ar dilution.

  12. Chitosan/polyethylene glycol fumarate blend film: physical and antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Hashemi Doulabi, Azadehsadat; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Imani, Mohammad; Samadi, Nasrin

    2013-01-30

    The objective of this work was to prepare chitosan/polyethylene glycol fumarate (chitosan/PEGF) blend films as wound dressings and to evaluate the influence of composition ratio on the blending properties of the films. Blending chitosan with PEGF obviated the brittleness of neat chitosan film. Film topography performed by atomic force microscopy illustrated that blending could increase and control the surface roughness of the neat film. Their water vapor transmission rates were close to the range of 904-1447 g(-2)day(-1) found to be proper candidates for dressing the wounds with moderate exudates. Controlled water solubility, swelling, wettability and surface tension of the blend films were also evaluated. The blend films showed a powerful antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus (Kill%>99.76 ± 0.16%). Physical properties as well as antibacterial activity assessments showed that among different compositions, the film comprising 80 wt% chitosan and 20 wt% PEGF is a suitable candidate for biomedical applications as a wound dressing material.

  13. Oxidation and biodegradation of polyethylene films containing pro-oxidantadditives: Synergistic effects of sunlight exposure, thermal aging and fungal biodegradation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Synergistic effects of sunlight exposure, thermal aging and fungal biodegradation on the oxidation and biodegradation of linear low density poly (ethylene) PE-LLD films containing pro-oxidant were examined. To achieve oxidation and degradation, films were first exposed to the sunlight for 93 days du...

  14. Effects of polyethylene film wrap on cooler shrink and the microbial status of beef carcasses.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Guilherme S L; Pflanzer-Júnior, Sérgio B; Roça, Roberto de O; Casagrande, Leandro; Bedeschi, Elaine A; Padovani, Carlos R; Miguel, Giulianna Z; Santos, Carolina T; Girão, Lucio V C; Miranda, Zander B; Franco, Robson M

    2015-02-01

    The present study evaluated the use of polyethylene film wrapping of beef half carcasses and its effects on cooler shrink, cooling characteristics and microbial status of the half carcasses. Film wrapping reduced cooler shrink by 55.2%, 43.1%, 36.0% and 30% after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of cooling, respectively, compared to the unwrapped half carcasses, whereas the surface water activity showed no significant differences among the time periods. The wrapped half carcasses had a lower cooling rate and higher surface and internal temperatures. The highest values of the aerobic mesophiles, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacteriaceae were found in the half carcasses wrapped in film. No significant differences were found in the values of Escherichia coli. The polyethylene film was effective in reducing cooler shrink; however, it caused a delay in cooling, thereby enabling greater microbial occurrences and counts and impairing the hygienic and sanitary conditions of the carcasses, which may be an impediment to the practical application of this technology.

  15. Polyethylene films doped with nanophosphors for green house

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Justin; Hunter, David; Laudenslager, Tyler; Jia, Dongdong

    2006-10-01

    CaAl2O4:Eu^2+ and CaSCl:Eu^2+ nanophosphors are prepared by using a salted sol-gel method and a stabilized precipitation method respectively. The absorption of the CaAl2O4:Eu^2+ nanophosphor is in the UV to deep blue (200-400nm) range. Its emission is at 450 nm. The absorption of the CaSCl:Eu^2+ nanophosphor is broad from deep UV to orange. Its emission is at 670 nm which is exactly where photosynthesis absorption peak at. We are going to embed these nanophosphors in transparent polymer materials for a greenhouse. Using the colloidal suspension properties of Xanthan Gum, isolated from Xanthomonas campestris the desiccation resistance of the polymer will be utilized. Xanthan Gum observes low shear and high viscosity in aqueous solutions that will allow a thermal stabilization of a heavy metal phosphor-polymer colloid. The influence of pH on the system will be independent of the nucleation of the phosphor. By dispersing nanophosphors with Xanthan, transparent red and blue light enhance greenhouse film can be prepared.

  16. Electroluminescence and cathodoluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene films: Spectra reconstruction from elementary components and underlying mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, B.; Teyssedre, G.; Laurent, C.

    2016-01-14

    The mechanisms of electroluminescence from large band gap polymers used as insulation in electric components are still under debate. It becomes important to unravel the underlying physics of the emission because of increasing thermo-electric stress and a possible relationship between electroluminescence and field withstand. We report herein on the cathodoluminescence spectra of polyethylene and polypropylene films as a way to uncover the nature of its contributions to electroluminescence emission. It is shown that spectra from the two materials are structured around four elementary components, each of them being associated with a specific process contributing to the overall emission with different weights depending on excitation conditions and on materials. The cathodoluminescence and electroluminescence spectra of each material are reconstructed from the four spectral components and their relative contribution are discussed. It is shown that electroluminescence from polyethylene and polypropylene has the same origin pointing towards generic mechanisms in both.

  17. Effect of Oxidation on Localized Heat Generation and Dielectric Breakdown of Low-Density Polyethylene Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurimoto, Takao; Nagao, Masayuki; Kosaki, Masamitsu

    1995-12-01

    The effect of oxidation on localized heat generation and dielectric breakdown in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film was studied by thermography. In the non-McKeown-type epoxy-free electrode system, localized heat generation of LDPE film leading to dielectric breakdown increased and breakdown strength decreased upon oxidation. In the McKeown-type specimen, however, the breakdown strength of oxidized LDPE film is higher than that of an unoxidized one. It is considered that enhancement of the thermal process is a major factor of breakdown in the epoxy-free electrode system and that homo-space charge and/or electron scattering effect is dominant in the McKeown type specimen.

  18. Labyrinthine and dendritic patterns in polyethylene oxide films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karoutsos, V.; Gontad, F.; Kantarelis, S.; Lorusso, A.; Perrone, A.; Vainos, N. A.

    2017-04-01

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO) films were grown by pulsed laser deposition using two different lasers: ArF (193 nm, 5 ns) and Nd:YAG (355 nm, 7 ns). Even though very similar experimental conditions have been applied to ablate identical targets, different surface morphologies and structures have been observed. Depending on laser fluence, labyrinthine patterns in PEO films have been formed when using 355 nm laser pulses at fluence values in the range 280-1000 mJ/cm2. The same material ablated by 193 nm excimer laser pulses at 200 mJ/cm2 fluence grows in dendritic morphologies. Both target and laser deposited materials have been thoroughly characterized using infrared spectroscopic, microscopic and X-ray analytical methods. Infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the close similarity of molecular chains for both target and film materials. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates polymer chain scissoring by ultraviolet irradiation, a fact also confirmed by size exclusion chromatography.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive polyethylene-supported graphene films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We describe a simple mechanical approach for low-density polyethylene film coating by multilayer graphene. The technique is based on the exfoliation of nanocrystalline graphite (few-layer graphene) by application of shear stress and allows to obtain thin graphene layers on the plastic substrate. We report on the temperature dependence of electrical resistance behaviors in films of different thickness. The experimental results suggest that the semiconducting behavior observed at low temperature can be described in the framework of the Efros-Shklovskii variable-range-hopping model. The obtained films exhibit good electrical conductivity and transparency in the visible spectral region. PACS 72.80.Vp; 78.67.Wj; 78.66.Qn; 85.40.Hp PMID:25288910

  20. Polyethylene cellulose nanofibrils nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Maia, Thiago Henrique Silveira; Larocca, Nelson Marcos; Beatrice, Cesar Augusto Gonçalves; de Menezes, Aparecido Júnior; de Freitas Siqueira, Gilberto; Pessan, Luiz Antonio; Dufresne, Alain; França, Marcos Pini; de Almeida Lucas, Alessandra

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the use of an aqueous dispersion of polyethylene copolymer with a relatively high content of acrylic acid as a compatibilizer and as an alternative medium to obtain polyethylene CNF nanocomposites. The CNF content was varied from 1 to 90wt% and the appearance, optical, thermal, mechanical and rheological properties, as well the morphology of the films were evaluated. The PE/CNF films are transparent up to 20wt% of NFC indicating a good dispersion of CNF, but a poor distribution, with PE-rich and CNF-rich regions observed by SEM. Improved mechanical properties were achieved, with a 100% and 15,900% increase in the Young's modulus with 1wt% and 90wt% NFC, respectively. The rheological behavior indicated good melt processability. According to these results, aqueous polyolefin dispersions seem to be a promising, easy and relatively fast route for obtaining cellulose/polyolefins nanocomposites with low to high contents of cellulose nanofibrils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New process for preparing complex-shaped dielectric film similar to Mylar. [Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Lagasse, R.R.; Kraynik, A.M.

    1982-02-01

    A new thermoforming/heat-treatment process yields complex-shaped dielectric film having electrical and shrinkage properties similar to those of flat Mylar film. This similarity should extend to other physical properties because the new process is directly analogous to the process used to prepare Mylar. Commercially available poly(ethylene terephthalate) film is formed into a cavity at approx. 110/sup 0/C and then heat treated at approx. 180/sup 0/C. A laboratory-scale forming apparatus has produced cylindrically shaped films having depth/diameter ratio approx. 1, a tapered wall-section, and variation in wall thickness of < 3X. Evaluation of other forming methods suggests that the production rate and thickness uniformity can be improved with existing technology. Thermal shrinkage at 150/sup 0/C, 1 kHz dielectric constant from -55 to +70/sup 0/C, leakage current at 1 kV, and breakdown voltage have been measured for both the complex-shaped film and Mylar. These comparative measurements indicate that the complex-shaped film could replace the flat Mylar dielectric currently used in energy-storage capacitors. A complex-shaped energy-storage capacitor could enhance safety in certain nuclear weapon applications by allowing strong-link devices in a firing set to be enclosed by a weak link.

  2. Electroless plating of nickel phosphorous on surface-modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domenech, S. C.; Lima, E.; Drago, V.; De Lima, J. C.; Borges, N. G.; Avila, A. O. V.; Soldi, V.

    2003-12-01

    Chemical surface preparation for Ni-P electroless metallization of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films without using Chromium-based chemicals, was studied. The applicability of this method was verified by a subsequent metallization process. Thermal analysis was conducted to observe the main thermal transitions and stability of the polymer and metallized films. Contact angle analysis was performed to assess the surface hydrophilicity so as to optimize the substrate preparation process. X-ray diffraction, EDAX and SEM analysis were used to understand the composition and morphology of the polymeric substrate and Ni-P coat growing process. Adherence strength, contact sheet resistivity and optical diffuse reflection were measured on the metallized films. The time of chemical etching affects the polymer surface hydrophilicity, polymer/metal adherence strength, surface resistance and optical diffuse reflection, while Ni coating morphology is controlled by the pH of the electroless bath. High wettability of the polymer surface, adherence strength of 800 N cm -2, high optical diffuse reflection and low surface resistivity of the Ni coating, were found for films etched for 60 min. Metallizations performed at pH 7.5 produce Ni-P coatings with 12.0 wt.% phosphorous content, which were amorphous and flexible. The contact sheet resistivity of the plated films is sensitive to roughness variations of the substrate. The method proposed in this work allows the production of metallized films appropriate for the fabrication of flexible circuits.

  3. Acoustic study of a linear low-density polyethylene film after modification of the crystalline structure by heating.

    PubMed

    Tohmyoh, Hironori; Sakamoto, Yuhei

    2014-02-01

    We report on a hybrid microscopy technique that enables us to measure the acoustic properties of a thin polymer film together with an optical microscope image of the corresponding area. Linear low-density polyethylene films are heated to various temperatures and examined by the technique. Density of the film is increased by heating and its sound velocity is decreased compared with a film without heating. Also, spherulites can clearly be seen in the optical microscope image, supporting the thermal shrinkage of the film which can be detected by the present technique.

  4. Wire-bar coating of semiconducting polythiophene/insulating polyethylene blend thin films for organic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Craig E.; Yang, Li; Ray, Santanu; Yu, Liyang; Knox, Steven; Stingelin, Natalie

    2011-11-01

    Organic blend thin films consisting of semiconducting poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and insulating high-density polyethylene (HDPE) have been fabricated by novel application of a large area wire-bar coating technique in air. The microstructure of P3HT:HDPE blend films reveals a strong structural dependence on initial composition. Preferential segregation of P3HT toward the film surface is observed for all blend compositions, while P3HT (or P3HT-rich) columnar structures enclosed by HDPE (or HDPE-rich) lamellar matrix is distinctive for 50:50 (by weight) blends. The transistors fabricated with P3HT:HDPE blend films show a clear field effect behavior, exhibiting charge carrier mobilities up to 5 × 10-2 cm2/Vs, comparable to the values reported in spin-coated similar blends and of neat P3HT devices. The wire-bar coated blend films and devices are highly repeatable and spatially uniform over large areas (few cm by few cm), demonstrating the suitability of this technique for manufacturing of large area organic electronic devices.

  5. Improved blood compatibility of poly(ethylene terephthalate) films modified with L-arginine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Chen, Jie-Rong; Yang, Yun; Wu, Feng

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the blood compatibility of the commonly used blood-contacting biomaterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), in this study PET films were chemically modified with L-arginine (L-Arg) by a three-step-procedure using glutaraldehyde (GA) as a cross-linker. The composition and chemical structure of PET and its change with surface modification were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR) spectroscopy, while the change in hydrophilicity was judged by water contact angles measurement. The result of water contact measurement indicated that the modified films became more hydrophilic than PET with the contact angle decreasing from 78.5 degrees for PET to 43.7 degrees for PET-Arg. The protein adsorption on the film surface was evaluated by bicinchoninic acid assay (BCA) method, and the result showed that the L-Arg-modified films decreased the amount of protein adsorption by about 25%. The in vitro blood compatibility such as platelet adhesion (observed by scanning electron microscopy) and thrombus formation was also investigated, and the results demonstrated that the L-Arg-modified films significantly suppressed platelet adhesion and aggregation and reduced the thrombus formation by about 67% compared with PET.

  6. Migration of polyisobutylene from polyethylene/polyisobutylene films into foods during domestic and microwave oven use.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Nichol, J; Gilbert, J

    1992-01-01

    Migration of polyisobutylene from polyethylene/polyisobutylene film into foods has been studied in domestic applications such as wrapping of foods and reheating in a microwave oven. The results of these migration studies were obtained by direct measurement using newly developed analytical methods utilizing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infra-red (IR) spectroscopy as well as predictively from assessment of loss of polyisobutylene from the film. Total levels of polyisobutylene migration into cheese were found to be 8-10 mg/kg, into cake 1-5 mg/kg, and into sandwiches ranged from < 1 to 4 mg/kg. Reheating foods covered with film in the microwave oven, gave migration levels ranging from < 0.01 mg/kg for contact with steam only, up to 0.5 mg/kg for severe splashing of food onto the film and 4 mg/kg for reheated pizza. Migration of polyisobutylene was shown to be skewed towards the low molecular weight fraction of the additive. In typical films, the molecular weight range of polyisobutylene was shown to be 300-6000 daltons (95% limits) centred on 1300 daltons, whereas the additive that had migrated into cheese was found to range from 130-2200 daltons, centred on 520 daltons.

  7. Fabrication and anti-fouling properties of photochemically and thermally immobilized poly(ethylene oxide) and low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) thin films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Ren, Jin; Hlaing, Aye; Yan, Mingdi

    2011-02-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and low molecular weight poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were covalently immobilized on silicon wafers and gold films by way of the CH insertion reaction of perfluorophenyl azides (PFPAs) by either photolysis or thermolysis. The immobilization does not require chemical derivatization of PEO or PEG, and polymers of different molecular weights were successfully attached to the substrate to give uniform films. Microarrays were also generated by printing polymer solutions on PFPA-functionalized wafer or Au slides followed by light activation. For low molecular weight PEG, the immobilization was highly dependent on the quality of the film deposited on the substrate. While the spin-coated and printed PEG showed poor immobilization efficiency, thermal treatment of the PEG melt on PFPA-functionalized surfaces resulted in excellent film quality, giving, for example, a grafting density of 9.2×10(-4)Å(-2) and an average distance between grafted chains of 33Å for PEG 20,000. The anti-fouling property of the films was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). Low protein adsorption was observed on thermally-immobilized PEG whereas the photoimmobilized PEG showed increased protein adsorption. In addition, protein arrays were created using polystyrene (PS) and PEG based on the differential protein adsorption of the two polymers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Time-resolved detection of structural change in polyethylene films using mid-infrared laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ageev, Eduard; Mizobata, Keisuke; Nakajima, Takashi Zen, Heishun; Kii, Toshiteru; Ohgaki, Hideaki

    2015-07-27

    Some of the vibrational modes of crystalline organic polymers are known to be sensitive to the structural change from the crystalline phase to the amorphous phase, and vice versa. Using a mid-infrared (mid-IR) pulse from a free-electron laser as a probe, we demonstrate the time-resolved detection of structural change in crystalline polymer (polyethylene) films upon laser heating by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Transmittance of the resonant mid-IR pulse almost instantaneously changes before and after the Nd:YAG laser pulse if its fluence is sufficient to induce the structural change in the film. The developed technique would be useful to study the time-dependent dynamics of the structural change in various materials.

  9. Preparation and characterization of nonfouling polymer brushes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) film surfaces.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Tan, Dongsheng; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Tan, Hong; Ding, Mingming; Wan, Changxiu; Fu, Qiang

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a surface grafting of nonfouling poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate (PEGMA) on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was carried out via surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to improve hemocompatibility of polymer based biomaterials. To do this, the coupling agent with hydroxyl groups for the ATRP initiator was first anchored on the surface of PET films using photochemical method, and then these hydroxyl groups were esterified by bromoisobutyryl bromide, from which PET with various main chain lengths of PEGMA was prepared. The structures and properties of modified PET surfaces were investigated using water contact angle (WAC), ATR-FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Atomic force microscopy (AFM). The molecular weights of the free polymer from solution were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). These results indicated that grafting of PEGMA on PET film is a simple way to change its surface properties. The protein adsorption resistance on the surfaces of PET was primarily evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The result demonstrated that the protein adsorption could be well suppressed by poly(PEGMA) brush structure on the surface of PET. This work provides a new approach for polymers to enhance their biocompatibility.

  10. Metal adsorption of gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl cellulose/polyethylene oxide blend films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Naggar, Amal A.; Magida, M. M.; Ibrahim, Sayeda M.

    2016-03-01

    Blend films of different ratios of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) were prepared by the solution casting method. To investigate the effect of irradiation on all properties of prepared blend, it was exposed to different gamma irradiation doses (10, 20, and 30 kGy). Physical properties such as gel fraction (GF) (%) and swelling (SW) (%) were investigated. It was found that the GF (%) increases with increasing irradiation dose up to 20 kGy, while SW (%) decreases with an increase in the irradiation doses for all blend compositions. Moreover, the structural and mechanical properties of the prepared films were studied. The results of the mechanical properties obtained showed that there is an improvement in these properties with an increase in both CMC and irradiation dose up to 20 kGy. The efficiency of metal ions uptake was measured using a UV spectrophotometer. The prepared films showed good tendency to absorb and release metal ions from aqueous media. Thus, the CMC/PEO film can be used in agricultural domain.

  11. Patterning of Aluminium thin film on polyethylene terephthalate by multi-beam picosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Perrie, W.; Harris, P.; Allegre, O. J.; Abrams, K. J.; Dearden, G.

    2015-11-01

    High speed patterning of a 30 nm thick Aluminium thin film on a flexible Polyethylene Terephthalate substrate was demonstrated with the aid of Computer Generated Holograms (CGH's) applied to a phase only Spatial Light Modulator. Low fluence picosecond laser pulses minimise thermal damage to the sensitive substrate and thus clean, single and multi-beam, front side thin film removal is achieved with good edge quality. Interestingly, rear side ablation shows significant Al film delamination. Measured front and rear side ablation thresholds were Fth=0.20±0.01 J cm-2 and Fth=0.15±0.01 J cm-2 respectively. With laser repetition rate of 200 kHz and 8 diffractive spots, a film removal rate of R>0.5 cm2 s-1 was demonstrated during patterning with a fixed CGH and 5 W average laser power. The effective laser repetition rate was feff~1.3 MHz. The application of 30 stored CGH's switching up to 10 Hz was also synchronised with motion control, allowing dynamic large area multi-beam patterning which however, slows micro-fabrication.

  12. Comparison of three gas chromatography methods for the determination of slip agents in polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Garrido-López, Alvaro; Esquiu, Vanesa; Tena, María Teresa

    2007-05-25

    Polymers require the use of some slip agents, such as oleamide and erucamide, in order to reduce their friction coefficient and to make films easier to handle. In this communication, three analytical methods consisting in pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and gas chromatography (GC) are used to determine oleamide and erucamide in polyethylene films. The sample was extracted with pure isopropanol (two times) at 105 degrees C for 16 min. Then, the liquid extract containing oleamide and erucamide was analyzed by GC and three different detection systems: flame ionization detector (FID), thermoionic selective detector (TSD) and ion-trap mass spectrometry detector (MSD). Oleamide and erucamide were separated using a 30 m x 0.25 mm (I.D.) 5% phenyl-95% dimethyl-polysiloxane capillary column in 12 min. The chromatographic methods were characterized and compared in terms of repeatability, linearity and sensitivity. The GC-FID and GC-TSD methods were linear up to about 60 microg ml(-1), whereas the linear range for the GC-MSD method was shorter, from 20.5 to 42 microg ml(-1). LODs identified with GC-MSD were two times higher than those identified with the other two methods. Repeatability values (expressed as relative standard deviation) of less than 2.5% were found for FID and TSD but they were above 10% for MSD. Finally, each method was applied to determine the content of erucamide and oleamide in several polyethylene films and the results obtained were compared with those obtained from the nitrogen content measured by pyrolysis and gas-phase chemiluminescence. No significant differences were observed between the results of the methods.

  13. Modification and patterning of nanometer-thin poly(ethylene glycol) films by electron irradiation.

    PubMed

    Meyerbröker, Nikolaus; Zharnikov, Michael

    2013-06-12

    In this study, we analyzed the effect of electron irradiation on highly cross-linked and nanometer-thin poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) films and, in combination with electron beam lithography (EBL), tested the possibility to prepare different patterns on their basis. Using several complementary spectroscopic techniques, we demonstrated that electron irradiation results in significant chemical modification and partial desorption of the PEG material. The initially well-defined films were progressively transformed in carbon-enriched and oxygen-depleted aliphatic layers with, presumably, still a high percentage of intermolecular cross-linking bonds. The modification of the films occurred very rapidly at low doses, slowed down at moderate doses, and exhibited a leveling off behavior at higher doses. On the basis of these results, we demonstrated the fabrication of wettability patterns and sculpturing complex 3D microstructures on the PEG basis. The swelling behavior of such morphological patterns was studied in detail, and it was shown that, in contrast to the pristine material, irradiated areas of the PEG films reveal an almost complete absence of the hydrogel-typical swelling behavior. The associated sealing of the irradiated areas allows a controlled deposition of objects dissolved in water, such as metal nanoparticles or fluorophores, into the surrounding, pristine areas, resulting in the formation of nanocomposite patterns. In contrast, due to the distinct protein-repelling properties of the PEG films, proteins are exclusively adsorbed onto the irradiated areas. This makes such films a suitable platform to prepare protein-affinity patterns in a protein-repelling background.

  14. MeV H+ ion irradiation effect on the stoichiometry of polyethylene terephthalate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdesselam, M.; Muller, D.; Djebara, M.; Ouichaoui, S.; Chami, A. C.

    2013-07-01

    Appropriate experimental conditions have been chosen to investigate the influence of main H+ ion irradiation parameters on stoichiometry changes induced in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) thin films. Stacks of six self-supporting identical films were irradiated perpendicularly to the target surface. Thus, the irradiations were realized simultaneously at different values of the target electronic stopping power, ɛ+. Indeed, the initial H+ ion energy of 1.1 MeV incident on the front polymer film was degraded down to 0.48 MeV at the entrance of the rear stacked film, which corresponds to an increase of ɛ+ from ˜0.22 up to ˜0.41 MeV cm2 mg-1. Ion fluences in the range (0.05-4) × 1015 cm-2 corresponding to an ion dose interval 1.80-263 MGy were used. The (H, O, C) atomic surface densities of the PET polymeric films were quantitatively determined by IBA techniques using a 1.62 MeV deuteron beam leading to the following main results: for each target film stacked at a given position thus fixed ɛ+, the oxygen atomic density decreases linearly versus ion fluence, ϕ; for the different ɛ+, the hydrogen impoverishment of the PET target is insignificant below critical fluence ϕc ˜ 1.5 × 1015 cm-2 and becomes substantial above ϕc; for fixed ϕ, the hydrogen and oxygen atomic densities exhibit linear decreases versus ɛ+; all measured such data versus ϕ and ɛ+ merge together into a unique decreasing curve for each (H, O, C) polymer content element when represented in function of the H+ ion dose, D, tightly correlating the latter two parameters; the O content element release from the PET target appears to be the most important, followed by the H content depletion, while the target C content is least affected under H+ ion irradiation.

  15. Influence of PE-CVD and PE-ALD on defect formation in permeation barrier films on PET and correlation to atomic oxygen fluence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitschker, F.; Steves, S.; Gebhard, M.; Rudolph, M.; Schücke, L.; Kirchheim, D.; Jaritz, M.; Brochhagen, M.; Hoppe, Ch; Dahlmann, R.; Böke, M.; Benedikt, J.; Giner, I.; de los Arcos, T.; Hopmann, Ch; Grundmeier, G.; Devi, A.; Awakowicz, P.

    2017-06-01

    Defects in SiO x , TiO2 and a-Si:H inorganic barrier films on PET are investigated. Visualization is achieved by reactive oxygen etching in capacitively coupled plasma that leads to the undercutting of the barrier films at defect sites, and defect densities are deduced by SEM imaging. Defect formation is analyzed as a function of absolutely quantified steady state atomic oxygen fluence during the deposition of silicon oxide films and the effect of an additional substrate bias is presented. Macro-defect densities as a function of film thickness are tracked. Barrier films with a barrier improvement of one order of magnitude exhibit macro-defect densities below 160 defects mm-2.

  16. 75 FR 9579 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the Republic of Korea... additional time to gather and analyze information relating to Kolon's cost of production, home market sales...

  17. 76 FR 4288 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea... because we require additional time to collect and analyze information regarding costs of production and...

  18. 75 FR 40776 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From the United Arab Emirates: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From the United Arab... Arab Emirates (UAE) for the period November 06, 2008 through October 31, 2009. See Initiation of...

  19. High-pressure reactions in polyethylene films, a new development in matrix isolation. The photochemical reaction of Fe (CO) 5 with N 2 and the thermal reaction of Fe (CO) 4 (N 2) with H 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Andrew I.; Poliakoff, Martyn

    1993-09-01

    A new miniature high-pressure cell has been developed for the spectroscopic study of reactions between organometallic compounds impregnated into polymer films and gases such as N 2 or H 2 at any temperature between ambient and 20 K. The use of the cell is illustrated by the photochemical reactions of Fe(CO) 5 in polyethylene film (PE) with N 2 and H 2 at 190 K to form Fe (CO) 4(N 2) and Fe (CO) 4H 2 respectively. IR spectra suggest that the N 2 group may occupy an equatorial rather than an axial position. Once formed, Fe (CO) 4(N 2) is shown to react thermally with H 2 at ≈ 210 K to yield the dihydride compound, Fe (CO) 4H 2.

  20. Lithium-Salt-Containing High-Molecular-Weight Polystyrene-block-Polyethylene Oxide Block Copolymer Films.

    PubMed

    Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Rasool, Majid; Brunner, Simon; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2015-08-10

    Ionic conductivity in relation to the morphology of lithium-doped high-molecular-weight polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer films was investigated as solid-state membranes for lithium-ion batteries. The tendency of the polyethylene (PEO) block to crystallize was highly suppressed by increasing both the salt-doping level and the temperature. The PEO crystallites completely vanished at a salt-doping ratio of Li/EO>0.08, at which the PEO segments were hindered from entering the crystalline unit of the PEO chain. A kinetically trapped lamella morphology of PS-b-PEO was observed, due to PEO crystallization. The increase in the lamella spacing with increasing salt concentration was attributed to the conformation of the PEO chain rather than the volume contribution of the salt or the previously reported increase in the effective interaction parameter. Upon loading the salt, the PEO chains changed from a compact/highly folded conformation to an amorphous/expanded-like conformation. The ionic conductivity was enhanced by amorphization of PEO and thereby the mobility of the PEO blocks increased upon increasing the salt-doping level.

  1. Application of schlieren interferometry to temperature measurements during laser welding of high-density polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Coelho, João M P; Abreu, Manuel A; Rodrigues, F Carvalho

    2003-11-01

    Schlieren interferometry is found to be an alternative tool for temperature measurement during thermoplastic laser welding with regard to methods based on thermocouples or optical pyrometers. In fact, these techniques are not easily applied when materials to be processed have reduced thickness, negligible heat conduction, and low emissivity, as is the case of welding high-density polyethylene films with 10.6-microm CO2 laser radiation, even if the method reaches its applicability limit after approximately 1 s of the interaction process. The schlieren method provides the means and the results to probe the thermal variations of the laser-thermoplastic interaction on both the surface and the interface between the sample material and the air.

  2. Bendable ZnO thin film surface acoustic wave devices on polyethylene terephthalate substrate

    SciTech Connect

    He, Xingli; Guo, Hongwei; Chen, Jinkai; Wang, Wenbo; Xuan, Weipeng; Xu, Yang E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk; Luo, Jikui E-mail: jl2@bolton.ac.uk

    2014-05-26

    Bendable surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices were fabricated using high quality c-axis orientation ZnO films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates at 120 °C. Dual resonance modes, namely, the zero order pseudo asymmetric (A{sub 0}) and symmetric (S{sub 0}) Lamb wave modes, have been obtained from the SAW devices. The SAW devices perform well even after repeated flexion up to 2500 με for 100 times, demonstrating its suitability for flexible electronics application. The SAW devices are also highly sensitive to compressive and tensile strains, exhibiting excellent anti-strain deterioration property, thus, they are particularly suitable for sensing large strains.

  3. Electron beam irradiation induced compatibilization of immiscible polyethylene/ethylene vinyl acetate (PE/EVA) blends: Mechanical properties and morphology stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Entezam, Mehdi; Aghjeh, Mir Karim Razavi; Ghaffari, Mehdi

    2017-02-01

    Gel content, mechanical properties and morphology of immiscible PE/EVA blends irradiated by high energy electron beam were studied. The results of gel content measurements showed that the capability of cross-linking of the blend samples increased with an increase of the EVA composition. Also, the gel content for most compositions of the blends displayed a positive deviation from the additive rule. The results of mechanical properties showed that the tensile strength and elongation at break of the samples increased and decreased, respectively, with irradiation dose. On the other hand, the mechanical properties of the irradiated blends also depicted a positive deviation from additive rule contrary to the un-irradiated blends. A synergistic effect observed for the mechanical properties improvement of the irradiated blends and it was attributed to the probable formation of the PE-graft-EVA copolymers at the interface of the blends during the irradiation process. A theoretical analysis revealed that irradiation induced synergistic effect was more significant for EVA-rich blends with weaker interfacial interaction as compared to PE-rich blends. The morphological analysis indicated that the blend morphology was not affected obviously, whereas it was stabilized by irradiation.

  4. Intracellular calcium response and adhesiveness of chick embryonic retinal neurons to photoelectric dye-coupled polyethylene films as prototypes of retinal prostheses.

    PubMed

    Uji, Akihito; Matsuo, Toshihiko; Uchida, Tetsuya; Shimamura, Kaoru; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi

    2006-09-01

    Photoelectric dyes, which absorb light and convert photon energy to electric potentials, were shown to stimulate retinal neurons in culture. One of these dyes coupled with polyethylene film surface, as a prototype of retinal prostheses, could induce intracellular calcium elevation in chick embryonic retinal tissues. In this study, we used retinal cells from chick embryos in which no photoreceptor outer segments yet developed, and assessed cell adhesiveness and response to the original and modified types of our retinal prostheses. Extruded-blown film of high density polyethylene was used as the original polyethylene film. Polyethylene film surface was modified either by coupling with type 1 collagen or by crystallization from the melt of the original polyethylene film. A photoelectric dye, 2-[2-[4-(dibutylamino)phenyl]ethenyl]-3-carboxymethylbenzothiazolium bromide, was coupled to these different types of polyethylene films through amide linkage. Retinal cells from chick embryos at the 12-day embryonic stage were cultured on the surface of dye-coupled films. The response of retinal cells to the dye-coupled films was observed by calcium imaging. Cell types, either neurons or glial cells, were detected by immunocytochemical staining and also observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Intracellular calcium elevation was observed in cells, including both neurons and glial cells, on the surface of the original dye-coupled film, collagen-coated dye-coupled film, and dye-coupled recrystallized film, in contrast with no response of cells cultured on the dye-uncoupled plain film. Retinal neurons grew upon colonies of glial cells settling on the surface of all different types of the films. The number of retinal neurons on the collagen-coated dye-coupled film and dye-coupled recrystallized film was significantly larger than the number of neurons on the dye-uncoupled plain film (P = 0.0004, analysis of variance; P < 0.05, Tukey-Kramer test). With SEM, Muller cell

  5. Physical and biological treatments of polyethylene-rice starch plastic films.

    PubMed

    el-Naggar, Manal M A; Farag, Magdy Gh

    2010-04-15

    This study aimed to produce an industrial applicable thermo-stable alpha-amylase from marine Bacillus amyloliquefaciens which isolated and selected according to its significant enzyme production. The effect of different pH values and temperatures on the bacterial growth and the enzyme production was estimated using an experimental statistical design; maximum amylase production and bacterial growth was obtained at pH 7.0 and 50 degrees C. Some biodegradable polyethylene rice starch plastic films (PERS-P) were manufactured using 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% starch concentrations. The biodegradability (reduction in the plastic elongation%) was tested using the exposure to UV radiation at lambda(300-400 nm) (intensity of about 1000 W/m(2)) and the produced B. amyloliquefaciens thermo-stable alpha-amylase. A significant reduction in the elongation% of these biodegradable plastics was observed in both cases especially on testing the 10% PERS-P; they showed a reduction of 26% and 20%, respectively, compared to the untreated plastic films (180+/-5). 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Action of Humicola lanuginosa lipase on mixed monomolecular films of tricaprylin and polyethylene glycol stearate.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Tz; Mircheva, K; Dobreva, G; Panaiotov, I; Proust, J E; Verger, R

    2008-05-01

    The hydrolysis catalyzed by Humicola lanuginosa lipase (HLL) of pure tricaprylin (TC) or stearate of polyethylene glycol 1500 (PEG-St) as well as their mixtures spread as monomolecular films were studied. The catalytic transformation of the two substrates TC or PEG-St into their respective reaction products was detected by measuring simultaneously the decrease in the film area and the surface potential using the "zero order" trough at constant surface pressure. A kinetic model describing the enzymatic hydrolysis was developed. The surface concentrations of the two substrates and their respective reaction products as well as the values of the global kinetic constants of hydrolysis were determined. The experimentally obtained global kinetic constants of the catalytic action of HLL against TC and PEG-St present in mixed monolayers of TC/PEG-St are approximately the same as in the case of pure monolayers. These obtained results give some indications that the activity of enzyme is not significantly affected by the different molecular environments in the mixed monolayers.

  7. Environmentally Assisted Cracking in Silicon Nitride Barrier Films on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Substrates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungjin; Luo, Hao; Singh, Ankit K; Zhu, Ting; Graham, Samuel; Pierron, Olivier N

    2016-10-03

    A singular critical onset strain value has been used to characterize the strain limits of barrier films used in flexible electronics. However, such metrics do not account for time-dependent or environmentally assisted cracking, which can be critical in determining the overall reliability of these thin-film coatings. In this work, the time-dependent channel crack growth behavior of silicon nitride barrier films on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates is investigated in dry and humid environments by tensile tests with in situ optical microscopy and numerical models. The results reveal the occurrence of environmentally assisted crack growth at strains well below the critical onset crack strain and in the absence of polymer-relaxation-assisted, time-dependent crack growth. The crack growth rates in laboratory air are about 1 order of magnitude larger than those tested in dry environments (dry air or dry nitrogen). In laboratory air, crack growth rates increase from ∼200 nm/s to 60 μm/s for applied stress intensity factors, K, ranging from 1.0 to 1.4 MPa·m(1/2), below the measured fracture toughness Kc of 1.8 MPa·m(1/2). The crack growth rates in dry environments were also strongly dependent on the prior storage of the specimens, with larger rates for specimens exposed to laboratory air (and therefore moisture) prior to testing compared to specimens stored in a dry environment. This behavior is attributed to moisture-assisted cracking, with a measured power law exponent of ∼22 in laboratory air. This study also reveals that much larger densities of channel cracks develop in the humid environment, suggesting an easier initiation of channel cracks in the presence of water vapor. The results obtained in this work are critical to address the time-dependent and environmental reliability issues of thin brittle barriers on PET substrates for flexible electronics applications.

  8. Fe-Si-Cr/PTFE magnetic composite thick films on polyethylene terephthalate sheets for near field communications by aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Jun; Nam, Song-Min; Koh, Jung-Hyuk

    2014-10-01

    Thick film growth of Fe-Si-Cr/poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) composite films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets was investigated by aerosol deposition (AD) as a magnetic absorber for near field communication. The Fe-Si-Cr flakes were crushed to micro flakes smaller than 1 μm after the deposition, and formed dense microstructure on the PET sheets. The Fe-Si-Cr/PTFE composite thick films using 0.2 wt.% PTFE starting powder showed dense and uniform microstructure compared to the 0.5 wt.% film. The real relative permeability /' and the imaginary permeability μ" of Fe-Si-Cr/PTFE composite thick films using the 0.2 wt.% PTFE starting powder were 13.1 and 2.9 at 13.56 MHz, respectively. In the case of 0.5 wt.%, μ' and μ" respectively decreased to 7.4 and 1.0 at 13.56 MHz caused by adding PTFE.

  9. Indium tin oxide films deposited by thermionic-enhanced DC magnetron sputtering on unheated polyethylene terephthalate polymer substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Y.F.; Peng, W.C.; Lo, Y.H.; He, J.L.

    2009-08-05

    Indium tin oxide thin films were deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate substrates via thermionic enhanced DC magnetron sputtering at low substrate temperatures. The structural, optical and electrical properties of these films are methodically investigated. The results show that compared with traditional sputtering, the films deposited with thermionic emission exhibit higher crystallinity, and their optical and electrical properties are also improved. Indium tin oxide films deposited by utilizing thermionic emission exhibit an average visible transmittance of 80% and an electrical resistivity of 4.5 x 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm, while films made without thermionic emission present an average visible transmittance of 74% and an electrical resistivity of 1.7 x 10{sup -3} {Omega} cm.

  10. Effects of pre-annealing on the uni- and bi-axial stretching behavior of poly(ethylene naphthalate) films

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, T. Takarada, W. Kikutani, T.

    2014-05-15

    Effect of pre-annealing on stress and birefringence behavior of poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN) films during stretching and relaxation processes was investigated. Amorphous and non-oriented PEN films were pre-annealed under the conditions of different temperatures and periods. The pre-annealed films were stretched uniaxially or equi-biaxially and then relaxed at fixed length. It was found that pre-annealing did not cause any notable change for the initial behavior of refractive indices variation, whereas the behaviors after necking were significantly affected. Through the comparison between in-plane and out-of-plane birefringence and the analysis of wide-angle x-ray diffraction patterns of drawn films of both stretching modes, it was confirmed that the orientation of naphthalene ring in the film plane was enhanced by pre-annealing.

  11. Ammonia plasma treated polyethylene films for adsorption or covalent immobilization of trypsin: quantitative correlation between X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data and enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Mahsa; Minier, Michel J G; Tatoulian, Michaël; Chehimi, Mohamed M; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2011-09-01

    The ammonia plasma process was used for generating reactive groups, particularly primary amine functions on the surface of polyethylene (PE) films, to immobilize the enzyme trypsin. The attachment of the enzyme was achieved by directly applying an aqueous solution of trypsin to the plasma-activated surface or by using glutaraldehyde as a chemical linker. In both cases, the utilization of sodium cyanoborohydride efficiently stabilized the immobilization. The surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and enzymatic activity measurements. Active trypsin was successfully immobilized on the surface with a mean activity of 0.09 ± 0.02 U/cm(2). The study of the stability of the immobilized enzyme during repetitive assays showed that some activity could be maintained during several months. An original quantitative correlation between the immobilized enzyme activity and the XPS signal intensity of the S 2p electrons present in the sulfur-containing amino acid residues was evidenced. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Contamination characteristics and degradation behavior of low-density polyethylene film residues in typical farmland soils of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Wang, Qunhui; Gu, Qingbao; Cao, Yunzhe; DU, Xiaoming; Li, Fasheng

    2006-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film residues left in farmlands due to agricultural activities were extensively investigated to evaluate the present pollution situation by selecting the typical areas with LDPE film application, including Harbin, Baoding, and Handan of China. The survey results demonstrated that the film residues were ubiquitous within the investigated areas and the amount reached 2,400-8,200 g ha(-1). Breakage rates of the film residues were almost at the same level in the studied fields. There were relatively small amounts of film residues remaining in neighboring farmland fields without application of LDPE film. The studies showed that the sheets of LDPE residues had the same oxidative deterioration, which was probably due to photodegradation instead of biodegradation. The higher molecular weight components of the LDPE film gradually decreased, which were reflected by the appearance of some small flakes detached from the film bodies. LDPE films in the investigated fields gradually deteriorated and the decomposing levels developed with their left time increasing. The degradation behaviors of LDPE films were confirmed by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), and gel permeation chromatography analyses.

  13. Phase structure and properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/polyethylene based on recycled materials

    Treesearch

    Yong Lei; Qinglin Wu; Craig M. Clemons; Weihong. Guo

    2009-01-01

    Blends based on recycled high density polyethylene (R-HDPE) and recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) (R-PET) were made through reactive extrusion. The effects of maleated polyethylene (PE-g-MA), triblock copolymer of styrene and ethylene/butylene (SEBS), and 4,40-methylenedi(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) on blend properties were studied. The 2% PE-g-MA improved the...

  14. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nor Monica; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yusof, Nor Azah; Ab Rashid, Ahmad Hazri; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Hasan, Md Rakibul

    2016-06-29

    A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Cyclic voltamogram (CV). The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075-10 µM and 10-55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days.

  15. Amperometric Biosensor Based on Zirconium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol/Tyrosinase Composite Film for the Detection of Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nor Monica; Abdullah, Jaafar; Yusof, Nor Azah; Ab Rashid, Ahmad Hazri; Abd Rahman, Samsulida; Hasan, Md. Rakibul

    2016-01-01

    A phenolic biosensor based on a zirconium oxide/polyethylene glycol/tyrosinase composite film for the detection of phenolic compounds has been explored. The formation of the composite film was expected via electrostatic interaction between hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and zirconium oxide nanoparticles casted on screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE). Herein, the electrode was treated by casting hexacetyltrimethylammonium bromide on SPCE to promote a positively charged surface. Later, zirconium oxide was mixed with polyethylene glycol and the mixture was dropped cast onto the positively charged SPCE/CTAB. Tyrosinase was further immobilized onto the modified SPCE. Characterization of the prepared nanocomposite film and the modified SPCE surface was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), and Cyclic voltamogram (CV). The developed biosensor exhibits rapid response for less than 10 s. Two linear calibration curves towards phenol in the concentrations ranges of 0.075–10 µM and 10–55 µM with the detection limit of 0.034 µM were obtained. The biosensor shows high sensitivity and good storage stability for at least 30 days. PMID:27367738

  16. Structural Evolution of Low-Molecular-Weight Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene Diblock Copolymer Thin Film

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    The structural evolution of low-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) diblock copolymer thin film with various initial film thicknesses on silicon substrate under thermal annealing was investigated by atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy, and contact angle measurement. At film thickness below half of the interlamellar spacing of the diblock copolymer (6.2 nm), the entire silicon is covered by a polymer brush with PEO blocks anchored on the Si substrate due to the substrate-induced effect. When the film is thicker than 6.2 nm, a dense polymer brush which is equal to half of an interlamellar layer was formed on the silicon, while the excess material dewet this layer to form droplets. The droplet surface was rich with PS block and the PEO block crystallized inside the bigger droplet to form spherulite. PMID:24302862

  17. Structural evolution of low-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene diblock copolymer thin film.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Huang, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    The structural evolution of low-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polystyrene (PEO-b-PS) diblock copolymer thin film with various initial film thicknesses on silicon substrate under thermal annealing was investigated by atomic force microscopy, optical microscopy, and contact angle measurement. At film thickness below half of the interlamellar spacing of the diblock copolymer (6.2 nm), the entire silicon is covered by a polymer brush with PEO blocks anchored on the Si substrate due to the substrate-induced effect. When the film is thicker than 6.2 nm, a dense polymer brush which is equal to half of an interlamellar layer was formed on the silicon, while the excess material dewet this layer to form droplets. The droplet surface was rich with PS block and the PEO block crystallized inside the bigger droplet to form spherulite.

  18. Enhanced electrochromic properties of TiO2 nanoporous film prepared based on an assistance of polyethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shunjian; Luo, Xiaorui; Xiao, Zonghu; Luo, Yongping; Zhong, Wei; Ou, Hui; Li, Yinshuai

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was employed as pore-forming agent to prepare TiO2 nanoporous film based on spin-coating a TiO2 nanoparticle mixed paste on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) glass. The electrochromic and optical properties of the obtained TiO2 film were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and UV–Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the PEG in the mixed paste endows the TiO2 film with well-developed porous structure and improves the uniformity of the TiO2 film, which are helpful for the rapid intercalation and extraction of lithium ions within the TiO2 film and the strengthening of the diffuse reflection of visible light in the TiO2 film. As a result, the TiO2 film derived from the mixed paste with PEG displays higher electrochemical activity and more excellent electrochromic performances compared with the TiO2 film derived from the mixed paste without PEG. The switching times of coloration/bleaching are respectively 10.16/5.65 and 12.77/6.13 s for the TiO2 films with PEG and without PEG. The maximum value of the optical contrast of the TiO2 film with PEG is 21.2% while that of the optical contrast of the TiO2 film without PEG is 14.9%. Furthermore, the TiO2 film with PEG has better stability of the colored state than the TiO2 film without PEG.

  19. Control of carbon content in amorphous GeTe films deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) for phase-change random access memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoukar, M.; Szkutnik, P. D.; Jourde, D.; Pelissier, B.; Michallon, P.; Noé, P.; Vallée, C.

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous and smooth GeTe thin films are deposited on 200 mm silicon substrates by plasma enhanced—metal organic chemical vapor deposition (PE-MOCVD) using the commercial organometallic precursors TDMAGe and DIPTe as Ge and Te precursors, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements show a stoichiometric composition of the deposited GeTe films but with high carbon contamination. Using information collected by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) and XPS, the origin of carbon contamination is determined and the dissociation mechanisms of Ge and Te precursors in H2 + Ar plasma are proposed. As a result, carbon level is properly controlled by varying operating parameters such as plasma radio frequency power, pressure and H2 rate. Finally, GeTe films with carbon level as low as 5 at. % are obtained.

  20. Mechanical properties of polyurethane film exposed to solutions of nonoxynol-9 surfactant and polyethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Martin Kendrick

    Changes in physical properties (tensile strength, strain to failure, elastic modulus, diffusion kinetics and soft segment glass transition temperature (Tg)) were examined for polyetherurethane block copolymers Estane and Tecoflex. These polymer chains consist of 2 mutually incompatible blocks or segments which form microphases consisting of rigid/hard segments in an elastomeric matrix of soft segments. The polyurethanes were exposed to mixtures of nonoxynol 9 (N9) surfactant in polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) at various concentrations and for various times. The purpose was to estimate the effect of exposure to mixtures of N9 spermicide and PEG lubricant on breakage of condoms made from films of these elastomers. Mechanical properties of Estane varied with direction because of molecular orientation induced during manufacturing, suggesting that condoms should be cut from the film in a way that optimizes this property-orientation relationship. Large amounts of N9 were absorbed from N9/PEG solutions. The polymer fraction of the swollen Estane film versus soak solution composition did not follow a linear rule of mixtures. As the percentage of N9 in the PEG/N9 soak solution increased, Estane absorbed more liquid and its properties decreased more than did Tecoflex. This may not matter for low concentrations of N9 where the mechanical properties of Estane were superior to those of Tecoflex. The loss of mechanical properties with increased N9 concentration was likely due to plasticization of the soft segment domains. Hard segment domain disruption was probably not occurring because the relationship between the elastic modulus and polymer volume fraction followed the Flory-Rehner relationship for swollen elastic rubber networks and diffusion of neat N9 and neat PEG followed a Fickian behavior. This is expected because hard domains are much more difficult to disrupt due to strong hydrogen bonding and/or crystallization. Most of the absorption and decrease in mechanical

  1. Biofilm and Diatom Succession on Polyethylene (PE) and Biodegradable Plastic Bags in Two Marine Habitats: Early Signs of Degradation in the Pelagic and Benthic Zone?

    PubMed Central

    Laforsch, Christian; Weber, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The production of biodegradable plastic is increasing. Given the augmented littering of these products an increasing input into the sea is expected. Previous laboratory experiments have shown that degradation of plastic starts within days to weeks. Little is known about the early composition and activity of biofilms found on biodegradable and conventional plastic debris and its correlation to degradation in the marine environment. In this study we investigated the early formation of biofilms on plastic shopper bags and its consequences for the degradation of plastic. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic were tested in the Mediterranean Sea for 15 and 33 days. The samples were distributed equally to a shallow benthic (sedimentary seafloor at 6 m water depth) and a pelagic habitat (3 m water depth) to compare the impact of these different environments on fouling and degradation. The amount of biofilm increased on both plastic types and in both habitats. The diatom abundance and diversity differed significantly between the habitats and the plastic types. Diatoms were more abundant on samples from the pelagic zone. We anticipate that specific surface properties of the polymer types induced different biofilm communities on both plastic types. Additionally, different environmental conditions between the benthic and pelagic experimental site such as light intensity and shear forces may have influenced unequal colonisation between these habitats. The oxygen production rate was negative for all samples, indicating that the initial biofilm on marine plastic litter consumes oxygen, regardless of the plastic type or if exposed in the pelagic or the benthic zone. Mechanical tests did not reveal degradation within one month of exposure. However, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis displayed potential signs of degradation on the plastic surface, which differed between both plastic types. This study indicates that the early biofilm formation and composition

  2. Biofilm and Diatom Succession on Polyethylene (PE) and Biodegradable Plastic Bags in Two Marine Habitats: Early Signs of Degradation in the Pelagic and Benthic Zone?

    PubMed

    Eich, Andreas; Mildenberger, Tobias; Laforsch, Christian; Weber, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    The production of biodegradable plastic is increasing. Given the augmented littering of these products an increasing input into the sea is expected. Previous laboratory experiments have shown that degradation of plastic starts within days to weeks. Little is known about the early composition and activity of biofilms found on biodegradable and conventional plastic debris and its correlation to degradation in the marine environment. In this study we investigated the early formation of biofilms on plastic shopper bags and its consequences for the degradation of plastic. Samples of polyethylene and biodegradable plastic were tested in the Mediterranean Sea for 15 and 33 days. The samples were distributed equally to a shallow benthic (sedimentary seafloor at 6 m water depth) and a pelagic habitat (3 m water depth) to compare the impact of these different environments on fouling and degradation. The amount of biofilm increased on both plastic types and in both habitats. The diatom abundance and diversity differed significantly between the habitats and the plastic types. Diatoms were more abundant on samples from the pelagic zone. We anticipate that specific surface properties of the polymer types induced different biofilm communities on both plastic types. Additionally, different environmental conditions between the benthic and pelagic experimental site such as light intensity and shear forces may have influenced unequal colonisation between these habitats. The oxygen production rate was negative for all samples, indicating that the initial biofilm on marine plastic litter consumes oxygen, regardless of the plastic type or if exposed in the pelagic or the benthic zone. Mechanical tests did not reveal degradation within one month of exposure. However, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis displayed potential signs of degradation on the plastic surface, which differed between both plastic types. This study indicates that the early biofilm formation and composition

  3. A quartz crystal microbalance simulation to examine the effect of ultraviolet light treatment on characteristics of polyethylene surface.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Keiko; Tagawa, Yumiko; Tabata, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet light irradiation on the characteristics of the polyethylene (PE) surface was investigated by the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique. The PE film was prepared on the gold electrodes of the QCM by spin-coating from the solution and then was treated by the excimer UV lamp in ambient air. The changes in the hydrophilic properties, moisture adsorption, and water retention of the PE film due to the UV irradiation were determined from the frequency change of the QCM. To evaluate the detergency of the PE film, stearic acid as model oily soil was deposited onto the PE film formed on the QCM by the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, and was ultrasonically cleaned in aqueous detergent solutions containing ethanol or surfactant. The removal efficiency obtained from the frequency change of the QCM was found to increase considerably after the UV irradiation. From independently determined contact angles and the surface free energy components of the PE film, the free energy change resulting from the penetration of the detergent solution between stearic acid and PE in the zone of contact was calculated. Good relation was found between the removal efficiency and the free energy change, indicating that the increase in the detergency of the PE surface by UV irradiation was explained by surface energetics.

  4. Effect of antioxidants and light stabilisers on silver migration from nanosilver-polyethylene composite packaging films into food simulants.

    PubMed

    Su, Qi-Zhi; Lin, Qin-Bao; Chen, Chao-Fang; Wu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Li-Bing; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    The effect of exposure time, temperature and food simulants, especially additives, on the release of silver from nanosilver-polyethylene composite films to food simulants was studied. Two different type of nanosilver-polyethylene composite films (with or without additives) were chosen to conduct the experiment with the aim of exploring the behaviour of silver migration. It was shown that the migration of silver into 50% ethanol at 40 and 70°C was much less than that into 3% acetic acid. With the increase of exposure time and temperature, the release of silver increased. The migration even continued after a long exposure time (14 days at 20°C, 10 days at 40°C, and 6 days at 70°C respectively). Only about 0.15‰ of silver migrated from composite films with the additives into 3% acetic acid after 6 days of exposure at 70°C, while about 1.3% of silver migrated from composite films that did not contain additives under the same conditions. This could be because the addition of the antioxidants and light stabilisers prevents silver from being oxidised, which is an important way for the release of silver.

  5. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on blown polyethylene films with plasma-treated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Beom Lee, Gyeong; Sik Son, Kyung; Won Park, Suk; Hyung Shim, Joon; Choi, Byoung-Ho

    2013-01-15

    In this study, a layer of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was deposited on blown polyethylene films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at low temperatures, and the surface characteristics of these Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated blown polyethylene films were analyzed. In order to examine the effects of the plasma treatment of the surfaces of the blown polyethylene films on the properties of the films, both untreated and plasma-treated film samples were prepared under various processing conditions. The surface characteristics of the samples were determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as by measuring their surface contact angles. It was confirmed that the surfaces of the plasma-treated samples contained a hydroxyl group, which helped the precursor and the polyethylene substrate to bind. ALD of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was performed through sequential exposures to trimethylaluminum and H{sub 2}O at 60 Degree-Sign C. The surface morphologies of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-coated blown polyethylene films were observed using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Further, it was confirmed that after ALD, the surface of the plasma-treated film was covered with alumina grains more uniformly than was the case for the surface of the untreated polymer film. It was also confirmed via the focused ion beam technique that the layer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} conformed to the surface of the blown polyethylene film.

  6. Solution and film properties of sodium caseinate/glycerol and sodium caseinate/polyethylene glycol edible coating systems.

    PubMed

    Siew, D C; Heilmann, C; Easteal, A J; Cooney, R P

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of plasticizer hydrogen bonding capability and chain length on the molecular structure of sodium caseinate (NaCAS), in NaCAS/glycerol and NaCAS/polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) systems. Both solution and film phases were investigated. Glycerol and PEG reduced the viscosity of aqueous NaCAS, with the latter having a greater effect. This was explained in terms of protein/plasticizer aggregate size and changes to the conformation of the caseinate chain. In the film phase, glycerol caused more pronounced changes to the film tensile strength compared with PEG. However, the effect of glycerol on film water vapor permeability was smaller. These observations are attributed to the differences in plasticizer size and hydrogen bonding strength that controls the protein-plasticizer and protein-protein interactions in the films. Glass transition calculations from the tensile strength data indicate that the distribution of bonding interactions is more homogeneous in NaCAS/PEG films than in NaCAS/glycerol films.

  7. Room temperature crystallization of indium tin oxide films on glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates using rf plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohsaki, H.; Suzuki, M.; Shibayama, Y.; Kinbara, A.; Watanabe, T.

    2007-07-15

    The crystallization of amorphous indium tin oxide (ITO) films was achieved by rf (13.56 MHz) plasma treatment. Although the films were crystallized after 2 min, the sample temperature was lower than 90 deg. C without compulsory cooling even after 10 min of treatment and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates had no damage. Plasma-crystallized sputtered ITO films have a bixbite structure and the resistivity reached to 1.6x10{sup -4} {omega}{center_dot}cm. ITO thin films have almost the same resistivity in both cases of PET and glass substrates used and plasma-treated PET ITO films have a bit higher resistivity than that of glass ITO films, while mass spectroscopy measurements indicated that ITO films deposited on PET substrates are expected to include no apparent gas species ejected from PET substrate. It was found that the plasma gas pressure is the key parameter for the effective crystallization and the appropriate gas pressure depends on the plasma gas species.

  8. The effect of UV light on the thermooxidative stability of linear low density polyethylene films crosslinked by ionizing radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, M.; Basfar, A. A.

    1998-06-01

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) light on the thermooxidative stability of Linear Low Density Polyethylene(LLDPE) films was studied. LLDPE was stabilized with phenolic type antioxidant known as Irganox 1010, hindered amine light stabilizer known as Chimmasorb 944 and phenolic type gamma stabilizer. The influence of these additives on the thermooxidative stability of gamma and UV irradiated LLDPE were investigated by isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). The oxidation induction time (OIT) experiments indicate that antirad free LLDPE films which contains antioxidant and UV stabilizer are more sensitive to gamma and UV radiation. On the other hand, films which contain antirad and irradiated to different doses of γ-radiation demonstrated improved thermooxidative stability.

  9. Effect of organic additives on silver release from nanosilver-polyethylene composite films to acidic food simulant.

    PubMed

    Su, Qi-Zhi; Lin, Qin-Bao; Chen, Chao-Fang; Wu, Li-Bing; Wang, Zhi-Wei

    2017-08-01

    The effects of organic additives (Irgafos 168, Irganox 1076, Tinuvin 622, Chimassorb 944, UV-P, and UV-531) on silver release from nanosilver-polyethylene composite films into an acidic food simulant (3% acetic acid) were investigated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limits of detection and quantification, coefficient of determination, and recoveries of the method used were 3.7ngL(-1), 12.4ngL(-1), 0.999, and 89-113%, respectively. The results indicated that additives can affect silver release via two simultaneous processes: (i) reactions between organic additives and silver that promote silver release from the composite film to the acidic food simulant; and (ii) the promotion or inhibition of silver release by affecting silver oxidation. High temperature and humidity treatment of the composite films was found to significantly increase silver release by promoting silver oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma treated polyethylene terephthalate/polypropylene films assembled with chitosan and various preservatives for antimicrobial food packaging.

    PubMed

    Lei, Jieqiong; Yang, Lingxiao; Zhan, Yingfei; Wang, Yuntao; Ye, Ting; Li, Yan; Deng, Hongbing; Li, Bin

    2014-02-01

    In this study, polyethylene terephthalate/polypropylene (PET/PP) films were treated via atmospheric pressure plasma, assembled with chitosan and various preservatives and applied for antimicrobial food packaging. Surface properties of these obtained films were studied by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy (ATM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and dynamic laser scattering (DLS). The above results showed that the surface hydrophilicity and roughness of the films increased after the plasma treatment. Besides, chitosan and the preservatives were successfully assembled onto the surface of the films. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of the films against three kinds of microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli) were investigated and the results indicated that the inhibition ratios against B. subtilis and E. coli reached almost 100% while the inhibition ratios against S. aureus were lower than 85%. Moreover, the accumulative release profiles of the antimicrobial substances migrating from the assembled films into the release solutions revealed that their release speed increased with the increment of temperature and acidity, but decreased with enhancing the ionic strength regulated by sodium chloride or with lowering the ionic mobility regulated by sucrose.

  11. Polyethylene Films Containing Silver Nanoparticles for Applications in Food Packaging: Characterization of Physico-Chemical and Anti-Microbial Properties.

    PubMed

    Becaro, Aline A; Puti, Fernanda C; Correa, Daniel S; Paris, Elaine C; Marconcini, José M; Ferreira, Marcos D

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the antibacterial effect and physico-chemical characterization of films containing silver nanoparticles for use as food packaging. Two masterbatches (named PEN and PEC) con- taining silver nanoparticles embedded in distinct carriers (silica and titanium dioxide) were mixed with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) in different compositions and extruded to produce plain films. These films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The morphology of the films showed the formation of agglomerates of nanoparticles in both PEN and PEC composites. X-ray analyses confirmed the presence of SiO2 in PEN samples and TiO2 in PEC samples. Thermal analyses indicated an increase in thermal stability of the PEC compositions. The antimicrobial efficacy was determined by applying the test strain for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, according to the Japanese Industrial Standard Method (JIS Z 2801:2000). The films analyzed showed antimicrobial properties against the tested microorganisms, presenting better activity against the S. aureus than E. Coli. These findings suggest that LDPE films with silver nanoparticles are promising to provide a significant contribution to the quality and safety of packaged food.

  12. Polyethylene glycol-assisted growth of Cu2SnS3 promising absorbers for thin film solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahraman, S.; Çetinkaya, S.; Yaşar, S.; Bilican, İ.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report, for the first time, the results of the polyethylene glycol- (PEG) assisted preparation and characterization of high-quality and well-crystallized Cu2SnS3 (CTS) thin films obtained using sol-gel spin-coating method and a subsequent annealing in a sulphur atmosphere. Structural, morphological, compositional, electrical and optical investigations were carried out. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples proved the polycrystalline nature and preferred crystallization of the films. No peak referring to other binary or ternary phases were detected in the patterns. The intensity of the preferred orientation and crystallite size of the films increased with increasing PEG content. This trend yielded an improvement in photo-transient currents of the PEG-assisted growth of CTS films. The scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the CTS films have continuous, dense and agglomeration-like morphology. Through energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies, it has been deduced that the samples consist of Cu, Sn and S of which atomic percentages were consistent with Cu/Sn and S/metal initial ratios. The agglomerated morphology of the samples has been attributed to increasing PEG content. A remarkable enhancement was observed in photo-transient currents of p-n junction of the produced films along with increasing PEG content. Through resistivity-temperature measurements, three impurity level electrical activation energy values for each film were found. Optical band gap values of the films were estimated via absorbance-wavelength behaviours and decreased with increasing PEG content. It has been revealed that PEG-assisted growth of CTS thin films is a promising way to improve its photovoltaic characteristics.

  13. Effect of molecular weight and concentration of polyethylene glycol on physicochemical properties and stability of shellac film.

    PubMed

    Luangtana-anan, Manee; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya

    2010-12-22

    The effects of molecular weight and concentration of plasticizer on physicochemical properties and stability of shellac films were investigated. Type of plasticizer was previously reported to have some effects on the stability of shellac films, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) was the plasticizer of choice for plasticizing shellac films. In this study, different molecular weights of PEG (200, 400 and 4000) were chosen at a concentration of 10% w/w of shellac films. Shellac in alcohol was prepared in a free film. The stability of shellac film was then performed at 75% RH, 40 °C for 3 months. The comparison was made between the film with and without plasticizer. Shellac films were then determined for acid value, insoluble solid, mechanical properties and water vapor permeability coefficient. It was reported that different molecular weights of PEG had some influence on physicochemical properties of the shellac films. Among different molecular weights of PEG, PEG 400 showed a suitable molecular weight that could protect the shellac chain at the carboxylic and hydroxyl groups. Therefore, the molecular weight of plasticizer played a crucial role for the protective ability at active sites. Further study was performed to investigate the effect of concentrations of PEG 400 on the stability. The results demonstrated that PEG 400 at a concentration of 10% (w/w) could prevent the polymerization process for only 4 months and a significant change of all parameters was then reported. However, a higher concentration, 20% (w/w) of PEG 400, could prolong the stability of shellac for 6 months of study. Therefore, the drawback of shellac as a natural polymer in pharmaceutical and food industries could be tackled by the appropriate size and concentration of plasticizer.

  14. Methyl bromide emission from fields partially covered with a high-density polyethylene and a virtually impermeable film

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.; Yates, S.R.

    1998-09-01

    Recent field studies in the interior valley of southern California have indicated that 56--73% of methyl bromide (MeBr) used in soil fumigation is lost to atmospheric emission when the fields are covered completely with a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) film. The emission can be reduced to less than 5% when a virtually impermeable film or Hytibar is used to cover the fields. This study was conducted to determine MeBr emission from bedded field plots where only the beds were covered with a HDPE or a virtually impermeable plastic film. The results provide an assessment on MeBr emission from field beds partially covered with the HDPE film and the suitability of using a virtually impermeable film for emission reduction. Methyl bromide gas was applied to replicated field beds covered with either a HDPE or the Hytibar film. The films were removed 6 days after MeBr application. Replicated soil cores were taken from different locations of the field beds, 20 days after MeBr application, for the determination of soil bromide ion concentrations. The total amount of MeBr degraded from each plot was calculated from the measured bromide ion concentrations, and the potential emission was determined as the difference between the amount of applied and that of degraded. Results indicated that the potential emission from this bedded system was about 95% for the HDPE treatment and 90% for the Hytibar-covered plots. Regardless of the small improvement with the virtually impermeable film, the experiment clearly indicates that partially covering the field with either a HDPE or a virtually impermeable film would result in unacceptably high emission losses.

  15. Aerobic deterioration stimulates outgrowth of spore-forming Paenibacillus in corn silage stored under oxygen-barrier or polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Borreani, Giorgio; Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of Bacillus and Paenibacillus spores in silage is of great concern to dairy producers because their spores can survive pasteurization and some strains are capable of subsequently germinating and growing under refrigerated conditions in pasteurized milk. The objectives of this study were to verify the role of aerobic deterioration of corn silage on the proliferation of Paenibacillus spores and to evaluate the efficacy of oxygen-barrier films used to cover silage during fermentation and storage to mitigate these undesirable bacterial outbreaks. The trial was carried out on whole-crop maize (Zea mays L.) inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium. A standard polyethylene film and a polyethylene-polyamide film with an enhanced oxygen barrier were used to produce the silage bags for this experiment. The silos were stored indoors at ambient temperature (18 to 22°C) and opened after 110 d. The silage was sampled after 0, 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 d of aerobic exposure to quantify the growth of endospore-forming bacteria during the exposure of silages to air. Paenibacillus macerans (gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria) was able to develop during the aerobic exposure of corn silage. This species was present in the herbage at harvesting, together with clostridial spores, and survived ensiling fermentation; it constituted more than 60% of the anaerobic spore formers at silage opening. During silage spoilage, the spore concentration of P. macerans increased to values greater than 7.0 log10 cfu/g of silage. The use of different plastic films to seal silages affected the growth of P. macerans and the number of spores during aerobic exposure of silages. These results indicate that the number of Paenibacillus spores could greatly increase in silage after exposure to air, and that oxygen-barrier films could help to reduce the potential for silage contamination of this important group of milk spoilage

  16. An antioxidant bioinspired phenolic polymer for efficient stabilization of polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Ambrogi, Veronica; Panzella, Lucia; Persico, Paola; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco; Lonz, Carlo A; Carfagna, Cosimo; Verotta, Luisella; Caneva, Enrico; Napolitano, Alessandra; d'Ischia, Marco

    2014-01-13

    The synthesis, structural characterization and properties of a new bioinspired phenolic polymer (polyCAME) produced by oxidative polymerization of caffeic acid methyl ester (CAME) with horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-H2O2 is reported as a new sustainable stabilizer toward polyethylene (PE) thermal and photo-oxidative degradation. PolyCAME exhibits high stability toward decarboxylation and oxidative degradation during the thermal processes associated with PE film preparation. Characterization of PE films by thermal methods, photo-oxidative treatments combined with chemiluminescence, and FTIR spectroscopy and mechanical tests indicate a significant effect of polyCAME on PE durability. Data from antioxidant capacity tests suggest that the protective effects of polyCAME are due to the potent scavenging activity on aggressive OH radicals, the efficient H-atom donor properties inducing free radical quenching, and the ferric ion reducing ability. PolyCAME is thus proposed as a novel easily accessible, eco-friendly, and biocompatible biomaterial for a sustainable approach to the stabilization of PE films in packaging and other applications.

  17. Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) yields better Hydrolytical Stability of Biocompatible SiOx Thin Films on Implant Alumina Ceramics compared to Rapid Thermal Evaporation Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD).

    PubMed

    Böke, Frederik; Giner, Ignacio; Keller, Adrian; Grundmeier, Guido; Fischer, Horst

    2016-07-20

    Densely sintered aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3) is chemically and biologically inert. To improve the interaction with biomolecules and cells, its surface has to be modified prior to use in biomedical applications. In this study, we compared two deposition techniques for adhesion promoting SiOx films to facilitate the coupling of stable organosilane monolayers on monolithic α-alumina; physical vapor deposition (PVD) by thermal evaporation and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PE-CVD). We also investigated the influence of etching on the formation of silanol surface groups using hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid solutions. The film characteristics, that is, surface morphology and surface chemistry, as well as the film stability and its adhesion properties under accelerated aging conditions were characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and tensile strength tests. Differences in surface functionalization were investigated via two model organosilanes as well as the cell-cytotoxicity and viability on murine fibroblasts and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC). We found that both SiOx interfaces did not affect the cell viability of both cell types. No significant differences between both films with regard to their interfacial tensile strength were detected, although failure mode analyses revealed a higher interfacial stability of the PE-CVD films compared to the PVD films. Twenty-eight day exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C revealed a partial delamination of the thermally deposited PVD films whereas the PE-CVD films stayed largely intact. SiOx layers deposited by both PVD and PE-CVD may thus serve as viable adhesion-promoters for subsequent organosilane coupling agent binding to α-alumina. However, PE-CVD appears to be favorable for long-term direct film exposure to aqueous

  18. Usefulness of an aluminized polyester film for reducing heat in polyethylene calf hutches.

    PubMed

    Binion, W R; Friend, T H; Holub, G A

    2014-11-01

    This study determined the efficacy of a radiant barrier material used in the construction industry to moderate summer temperatures in polyethylene calf hutches. The cover consisted of a single layer of two-sided reflective aluminized polyester film with a center polyester scrim reinforcement (reflectivity = 95%). At each of two dairies, six hutches containing a young calf were either uncovered (control) or had reflective covers across the top and sides of the hutch, leaving the front, back, and 1.2 × 1.8-m attached outdoor wire pen exposed. Duplicate loggers mounted 20 cm above the flooring in the center of each hutch recorded interior temperature at 30-min intervals over 22 days during late August to early September. The mean daily interior peak temperatures in each of the hutches over 21 days of observation were significantly less (P < 0.001) in the hutches with reflective covers (37.48 ± 0.14 °C) than in the uncovered hutches (41.65 ± 0.45 °C) and did not differ (P = 0.77) between dairies. The mean daily interior peak temperatures in each of the hutches over the warmest 10 days of observation were significantly less (P < 0.001) in hutches with reflective covers (40.15 °C ± 0.16) than in the uncovered hutches (44.93 ± 0.47 °C). The mean interior ceiling temperatures in each of the hutches over 4 days of observation were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the hutches with reflective covers (37.82 ± 0.36 °C) than in the uncovered hutches (46.89 ± 0.47 °C). The reflective cover used in this study moderated interior hutch temperatures but showed signs of delamination after 22 days and was relatively expensive, so more suitable material needs to be identified.

  19. The influence of guaifenesin and ketoprofen on the properties of hot-melt extruded polyethylene oxide films.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Michael M; Fredersdorf, Anke; Schroeder, Britta; Kucera, Shawn; Prodduturi, Suneela; Repka, Michael A; McGinity, James W

    2004-08-01

    Films containing polyethylene oxide (PEO) and a model drug, either guaifenesin (GFN) or ketoprofen (KTP), were prepared by hot-melt extrusion. The thermal properties of the hot-melt extruded films were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the surface morphology of the films, and wide angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the crystalline properties of the polymer, drugs and physical mixtures as well as the solid state structure of the films. The stability of the polymer was studied using gel permeation chromatography. The mechanical properties, including percent elongation and tensile strength of the films, were determined on an Instron according to American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) procedures. The Hansen solubility parameter was calculated using the Hoftyzer or van Krevelen method to estimate the likelihood of drug--polymer miscibility. Both GFN and KTP were stable during the extrusion process. Melting points corresponding to the crystalline drugs were not observed in the films. Crystallization of GFN on the surface of the film was observed at all concentrations studied, however KTP crystallization did not occur until reaching the 15% level. Guaifenesin and ketoprofen were found to decrease drive load, increase PEO stability and plasticize the polymer during extrusion. The Hansen solubility parameters predicted miscibility between PEO and KTP and poor miscibility between PEO and GFN. The predictions of the solubility parameters were in agreement with the XRD and SEM results. The percent elongation decreased with increasing GFN concentrations and significantly increased with increasing levels of KTP. Both GFN and KTP decreased the tensile strength of the extruded film.

  20. Influence of defects and processing parameters on the properties of indium tin oxide films on polyethylene napthalate substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Han, H.; Zoo, Yeongseok; Bhagat, S. K.; Lewis, J. S.; Alford, T. L.

    2007-09-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene napthalate (PEN) by rf sputtering using different rf powers (60 and 120 W) and at different substrate temperatures (room temperature and 100 deg. C). Selected PEN substrates were pretreated using an Ar plasma before ITO sputter deposition. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry was used to determine the oxygen content in the films. Hall effect measurements were used to evaluate the electrical properties. In this paper the influence of defect structure, sputtering conditions, and the effect of annealing on the electrical and optical properties of ITO on PEN have been investigated. Electrical properties such as carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity of the ITO films varied with rf power and substrate temperature. The electrical and optical properties of the films changed after annealing in air. This study also describes how the as-deposited amorphous ITO changes from amorphous to crystalline as a result of heat treatment, and investigates the effects of Sn defect clustering on electrical and optical properties of the ITO films.

  1. Water effect on the surface morphology of TiO2 thin film modified by polyethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng-Hung; Wang, Kuo-Hua; Dai, Yong-Ming; Jehng, Jih-Mirn

    2013-01-01

    Water effect on the surface morphology of TiO2 thin film was investigated by using PEG-6000 as a template to form the porous structure. The porous TiO2 thin films were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), n&k Analyzer, UV-vis spectrophotometer, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and atomic forced microscopy (AFM) as a function of water content in the preparation of TiO2 thin film. The various water contents result in the TiO2 thin films possessing different surface structures, grain sizes, and thicknesses. The grain sizes were varied with changing the water content, and the thickness increased with increasing water content due to the enhancement of the cross-linking speed. In addition, the cratered surface structure transformed into cracked surface structure upon the water content beyond stoichiometric quantity because the excess water causes the aggregation of polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000). The photocatalysis has been performed by the degradation of methyl blue with corresponding structural characteristics of the TiO2 thin film. The best photocatalytic activity has been obtained when the ratio of water to titanium precursor is equal to 2 referred as TiO2-W2.

  2. Synthesis of polycarbonate-r-polyethylene glycol copolymer for templated synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 films.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajkumar; Kim, Jinkyu; Lee, Chang Soo; Kim, Jong Hak

    2014-12-01

    We synthesized a novel polycarbonate Z-r-polyethylene glycol (PCZ-r-PEG) copolymer by solution polycondensation. Successful synthesis of PCZ-r-PEG copolymer was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PCZ-r-PEG copolymer was used as a structure-directing agent for fabrication of mesoporous thin film containing a titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer. To control the porosity of the resultant inorganic layer, the ratio of titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) to PCZ-r-PEG copolymer was varied. The structure and porosity of the resulting mesoporous films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. Mesoporous TiO2 films fabricated on an F-doped tin oxide (FTO) surface were used as photoanodes for quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (qssDSSCs). The highest efficiency achieved was 3.3% at 100 mW/cm2 for a film thickness of 750 nm, which is high considering the thickness of TiO2 film, indicating the importance of the structure-directing agent.

  3. Stepwise crystallization and the layered distribution in crystallization kinetics of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Biao; Xu, Jianquan; Sun, Shuzheng; Liu, Yue; Yang, Juping; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xinping

    2016-06-01

    Crystallization is an important property of polymeric materials. In conventional viewpoint, the transformation of disordered chains into crystals is usually a spatially homogeneous process (i.e., it occurs simultaneously throughout the sample), that is, the crystallization rate at each local position within the sample is almost the same. Here, we show that crystallization of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films can occur in the heterogeneous way, exhibiting a stepwise crystallization process. We found that the layered distribution of glass transition dynamics of thin film modifies the corresponding crystallization behavior, giving rise to the layered distribution of the crystallization kinetics of PET films, with an 11-nm-thick surface layer having faster crystallization rate and the underlying layer showing bulk-like behavior. The layered distribution in crystallization kinetics results in a particular stepwise crystallization behavior during heating the sample, with the two cold-crystallization temperatures separated by up to 20 K. Meanwhile, interfacial interaction is crucial for the occurrence of the heterogeneous crystallization, as the thin film crystallizes simultaneously if the interfacial interaction is relatively strong. We anticipate that this mechanism of stepwise crystallization of thin polymeric films will allow new insight into the chain organization in confined environments and permit independent manipulation of localized properties of nanomaterials.

  4. Nanoscale mechanical and tribological properties of fluorocarbon films grafted onto plasma-treated low-density polyethylene surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Q.; Komvopoulos, K.

    2012-03-01

    Fluorocarbon (FC) films were grafted onto Ar plasma-treated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) surfaces by plasma polymerization and deposition. The evolution of the surface morphology of the grafted FC films was investigated at different scales with an atomic force microscope. Nanoscale sliding experiments performed with a surface force microscope provided insight into the nanotribological properties of Ar plasma-treated LDPE, with and without grafted FC films, in terms of applied normal load and number of sliding cycles. The observed trends are explained in the context of microstructure models accounting for morphological and structure changes at the LDPE surface due to the effects of plasma treatment (e.g., selective etching of amorphous phase, chain crosslinking and FC film grafting) and surface sliding (e.g., crystalline lamellae alignment along the sliding direction). Nanoindentation experiments elucidated the effect of plasma treatment on surface viscoelasticity and global contact stiffness. The results of this study demonstrate that plasma-assisted grafting of FC films is an effective surface modification method for tuning the nanomechanical/tribological properties of polymers.

  5. Synthesis and Characterization of In2S3 Thin Films Deposited by Chemical Bath Deposition on Polyethylene Naphthalate Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelo-González, O. A.; Santacruz-Ortega, H. C.; Quevedo-López, M. A.; Sotelo-Lerma, M.

    2012-04-01

    Indium sulfide (In2S3) thin films were deposited on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The materials were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to investigate the influence of the polymeric substrate on the resulting thin In2S3. The films showed polycrystalline (cubic and tetragonal) structure. A reduction of the ordering of the polymeric chains at the surface of the PEN was also observed, demonstrated by the appearance of two infrared bands at 1094 cm-1 and 1266 cm-1. Presence of oxygen during the early stages of In2S3 growth was also identified. We propose a reaction mechanism for both the equilibrium and nucleation stages. These results demonstrate that In2S3 can be deposited at room temperature on a flexible substrate.

  6. 77 FR 14493 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ..., and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The period of review (``POR... administrative review of PET film from the People's Republic of China.\\2\\ On November 28, 2011, DuPont Teijin... raw, pre- treated, or primed PET film, whether extruded or co-extruded. Excluded are metalized films...

  7. Optical properties and infrared optics applications of composite films based on polyethylene and low-melting-point chalcogenide glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormashenko, Edward; Pogreb, Roman; Sutovski, Semion; Levin, Mark

    2002-02-01

    A novel composite material based on medium-density polyethylene and thermoplastic chalcogenide glass has been produced. Both materials are highly transparent in the middle and far IR, but their refractive indices differ dramatically. The polymer and the glass have nearly equal viscosities at the temperature of polyethylene processing. This fact allowed the use of extrusion for homogenization. Single- and twin-screw extrusion processes yielded compositions that contain up to 40% of chalcogenide glass particles, which were dispersed in the polymer matrix. Highly homogeneous compositions that contain perfectly spherical glass particles 1 to 2 micrometers in diameter dispersed in the polymer matrix were obtained. Highly oriented structures involving chalcogenide glass fibers immersed in the polymer matrix were prepared at high stretch speeds. It was established that it is possible to produce a composite that is opaque in the visible and near IR, and highly transparent in the 2 to 25-micrometers wavelength band. The use of oriented films as IR laser light-shaping diffusers is possible. The composite films obtained were tried successfully as immersion adhesive layers for the contacting of IR fibers.

  8. Resistance to moist conditions of whey protein isolate and pea starch biodegradable films and low density polyethylene nondegradable films: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehyar, G. F.; Bawab, A. Al

    2015-10-01

    Biodegradable packaging materials are degraded under the natural environmental conditions. Therefore using them could alleviate the problem of plastics accumulation in nature. For effective replacement of plastics, with biodegradable materials, biodegradable packages should keep their properties under the high relative humidity (RH) conditions. Therefore the objectives of the study were to develop biodegradable packaging material based on whey protein isolate (WPI) and pea starch (PS). To study their mechanical, oxygen barrier and solubility properties under different RHs compared with those of low density polyethylene (LDPE), the most used plastic in packaging. Films of WPI and PS were prepared separately and conditioned at different RH (30-90%) then their properties were studied. At low RHs (<50%), WPI films had 2-3 times lower elongation at break (E or stretchability) than PS and LDPE. Increasing RH to 90% significantly (P<0.01) increased the elongation of PS but not WPI and LDPE films. LDPE and WPI films kept significantly (P<0.01) higher tensile strength (TS) than PS films at high RH (90%). Oxygen permeability (OP) of all films was very low (<0.5 cm3 μm m-2 d-1 kPa-1) below 40% RH but increased for PS films and became significantly (P<0.01) different than that of LDPE and WPI at > 40% RH. Oxygen permeability of WPI and LDPE did not adversely affected by increasing RH to 65%. Furthermore, WPI and LDPE films had lower degree of hydration at 50% and 90% RH and total soluble matter than PS films. These results suggest that WPI could be successfully replacing LDPE in packaging of moist products.

  9. Evaluation of removal of model particulate and oily soils from poly(ethylene terephthalate) films by microscopic image analysis.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Keiko; Yu, Nagai; Tagawa, Yumiko

    2013-01-01

    The soil removal behavior from poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films was investigated using a microscopic image analysis system. Carbon black or stearic acid as a model soil was deposited onto a PET film. The PET film was cleaned in various aqueous and non-aqueous solutions by applying stirring or frequency-modulated ultrasound as a mechanical action of soil removal. The amounts of soil deposited on the PET film before and after cleaning were obtained via binary processing of microscopic images, from which the removal efficiency was calculated. Most of the carbon black was deposited on the PET film as submicron aggregates and ultrasound removed them efficiently in a short time, even for relatively smaller aggregates. The removal efficiencies with stirring were less than ca. 10% in all solutions, whereas the removal using ultrasound had high efficiencies that exceeded 80% in the surfactant-free systems. In the case of stearic acid, the removal efficiency with stirring was below 30% in the aqueous solutions, although stearic acid was removed completely in ethanol and n-decane. For ultrasonic cleaning, the removal efficiencies of stearic acid in aqueous solutions became 2-3 times as large as those with the stirring action. To improve soil release in aqueous solutions, the PET film was treated by the dry processing using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) equipment. The wettability and the surface free energy of the PET film were found to increase due to surface oxidation via the APPJ treatment, which resulted in enhanced removal of carbon black and stearic acid in any aqueous solutions.

  10. Facile modulation of cell adhesion to a poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate film with incorporation of polystyrene nano-spheres.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenguang; Yu, Haibo; Li, Gongxin; Wang, Yuechao; Liu, Lianqing

    2016-12-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) is a common hydrogel that has been actively investigated for various tissue engineering applications owing to its biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties. However, the native PEGDA films are known for their bio-inertness which can hinder cell adhesion, thereby limiting their applications in tissue engineering and biomedicine. Recently, nano composite technology has become a particularly hot topic, and has led to the development of new methods for delivering desired properties to nanomaterials. In this study, we added polystyrene nano-spheres (PS) into a PEGDA solution to synthesize a nano-composite film and evaluated its characteristics. The experimental results showed that addition of the nanospheres to the PEGDA film not only resulted in modification of the mechanical properties and surface morphology but further improved the adhesion of cells on the film. The tensile modulus showed clear dependence on the addition of PS, which enhanced the mechanical properties of the PEGDA-PS film. We attribute the high stiffness of the hybrid hydrogel to the formation of additional cross-links between polymeric chains and the nano-sphere surface in the network. The effect of PS on cell adhesion and proliferation was evaluated in L929 mouse fibroblast cells that were seeded on the surface of various PEGDA-PS films. Cells density increased with a larger PS concentration, and the cells displayed a spreading morphology on the hybrid films, which promoted cell proliferation. Impressively, cellular stiffness could also be modulated simply by tuning the concentration of nano-spheres. Our results indicate that the addition of PS can effectively tailor the physical and biological properties of PEGDA as well as the mechanical properties of cells, with benefits for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  11. Analysis of long-term degradation behaviour of polyethylene mulching films with pro-oxidants under real cultivation and soil burial conditions.

    PubMed

    Briassoulis, Demetres; Babou, Epifaneia; Hiskakis, Miltiadis; Kyrikou, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    Apart from the conventional polyethylene and the bio-based or mainly bio-based biodegradable in soil mulching films, polyethylene mulching films of controlled degradation in soil are already used in agriculture. The use of special pro-oxidants as additives is expected to accelerate the abiotic oxidation and the subsequent chain scission of the polymer under specific UV radiation or thermal degradation conditions, according to the literature. The role of pro-oxidants in the possible biodegradation of polyethylene has been theoretically supported through the use of controlled laboratory conditions. However, results obtained in real soil conditions, but also several laboratory test results, are not supporting these claims and the issue remains disputed. Mulching films made of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with pro-oxidants, after being used for one cultivation period in an experimental field with watermelon cultivation, were buried in the soil under real field conditions. This work presents the analysis of the degradation of the mulching films during the cultivation period as compared to the corresponding changes after a long soil burial period of 8.5 years. The combined effects of critical factors on the photochemical degradation of the degradable mulching LLDPE films with pro-oxidants under the cultivation conditions and their subsequent further degradation behaviour in the soil are analysed by testing their mechanical properties and through spectroscopic and thermal analysis.

  12. A Rapid Method for Deposition of Sn-Doped GaN Thin Films on Glass and Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pat, Suat; Özen, Soner; Korkmaz, Şadan

    2017-09-01

    We report the influence of Sn doping on microstructure, surface, and optical properties of GaN thin films deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate. Sn-doped GaN thin films have been deposited by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA) at low temperature. TVA is a rapid deposition technology for thin film growth. Surface and optical properties of the thin films were presented. Grain size, height distribution, roughness values were determined. Grain sizes were calculated as 20 nm and 13 nm for glass and PET substrates, respectively. Nano crystalline forms were shown by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Optical band gap values were determined by optical methods and photoluminescence measurement. The optical band gap values of Sn doped GaN on glass and PET were determined to be approximately ˜3.40 eV and ˜3.47 eV, respectively. As a result, TVA is a rapid and low temperature deposition technology for the Sn doped GaN deposited on glass and PET substrate.

  13. Evaluation of the stability of nonfouling ultrathin poly(ethylene glycol) films for silicon-based microdevices.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sadhana; Johnson, Robert W; Desai, Tejal A

    2004-01-20

    The creation of nonfouling surfaces is one of the major prerequisites for microdevices for biomedical and analytical applications. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), a water soluble, nontoxic, and nonimmunogenic polymer has the unique ability of reducing nonspecific protein adsorption and cell adhesion and, therefore, is generally coupled with a wide variety of surfaces to improve their biocompatibility. The performance of these modified surfaces for long-term biomedical applications largely depends on the stability of these PEG films. To this end, we have investigated the stability of covalently coupled ultrathin PEG films on silicon in aqueous in vivo like conditions for a period of 4 weeks. The PEG-modified silicon substrates were incubated in PBS (37 degrees C, pH 7.4, 5% CO2) for different periods of time and then characterized using the techniques of ellipsometry, contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The ability of the PEG-modified surfaces to control protein fouling was examined by protein adsorption studies using fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin and ellipsometry. Furthermore, the ability of these films to control fibroblast adhesion was examined. Studies suggest that the PEG-modified surfaces retain their protein and cell repulsive nature even though the PEG film thickness decreases for the period of investigation.

  14. Effects of L-arginine immobilization on the anticoagulant activity and hemolytic property of polyethylene terephthalate films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Yang, Yun; Wu, Feng

    2010-04-01

    Surface modification of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was performed with L-arginine ( L-Arg) to gain an improved anticoagulant surface. The surface chemistry changes of modified films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The in vitro anticoagulant activities of the surface-modified PET films were evaluated by blood clotting test, hemolytic test, and the measurement of clotting time including plasma recalcification time (PRT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). The data of blood coagulation index (BCI) for L-arginine modified PET films (PET-Arg) was larger than that for PET at the same blood-sample contact time. The hemolysis ratio for PET-Arg was less than that for PET and within the accepted standard for biomaterials. The PRT and APTT for PET-Arg were significantly prolonged by 189 s and 25 s, respectively, compared to those for the unmodified PET. All results suggested that the currently described modification method could be a possible candidate to create antithrombogenic PET surfaces which would be useful for further medical applications.

  15. Nd:YVO4 laser direct ablation of indium tin oxide films deposited on glass and polyethylene terephthalate substrates.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Xun; Kwon, Sang Jik; Han, Jae-Hee; Cho, Eou Sik

    2013-09-01

    A Q-switched diode-pumped neodymium-doped yttrium vanadate (Nd:YVO4, lambda = 1064 nm) laser was applied to obtain the indium tin oxide (ITO) patterns on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by a direct etching method. After the ITO films were deposited on a soda-lime glass and PET substrate, laser ablations were carried out on the ITO films for various conditions and the laser ablated results on the ITO films were investigated and analyzed considering the effects of substrates on the laser etching. The laser ablated widths on ITO deposited on glass were found to be much narrower than those on ITO deposited on PET substrate, especially, at a higher scanning speed of laser beam such as 1000 mm/s and 2000 mm/s. As the thermal conductivity of glass substrate is about 7.5 times higher than that of PET, more thermal energy would be spread and transferred to lateral direction in the ITO film in case of PET substrate.

  16. A dual enzyme system composed of a polyester hydrolase and a carboxylesterase enhances the biocatalytic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate films.

    PubMed

    Barth, Markus; Honak, Annett; Oeser, Thorsten; Wei, Ren; Belisário-Ferrari, Matheus R; Then, Johannes; Schmidt, Juliane; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    TfCut2 from Thermobifida fusca KW3 and the metagenome-derived LC-cutinase are bacterial polyester hydrolases capable of efficiently degrading polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films. Since the enzymatic PET hydrolysis is inhibited by the degradation intermediate mono-(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (MHET), a dual enzyme system consisting of a polyester hydrolase and the immobilized carboxylesterase TfCa from Thermobifida fusca KW3 was employed for the hydrolysis of PET films at 60°C. HPLC analysis of the reaction products obtained after 24 h of hydrolysis showed an increased amount of soluble products with a lower proportion of MHET in the presence of the immobilized TfCa. The results indicated a continuous hydrolysis of the inhibitory MHET by the immobilized TfCa and demonstrated its advantage as a second biocatalyst in combination with a polyester hydrolase for an efficient degradation oft PET films. The dual enzyme system with LC-cutinase produced a 2.4-fold higher amount of degradation products compared to TfCut2 after a reaction time of 24 h confirming the superior activity of his polyester hydrolase against PET films.

  17. In situ measurement of humidity induced changes in the refractive index and thickness of polyethylene glycol thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilen, Bukem; Skarlatos, Yani; Aktas, Gulen; Inci, M. Naci; Dispinar, Tugba; Kose, M. Merve; Sanyal, Amitav

    2008-11-01

    Humidity induced changes in the refractive index and thickness of polyethylene glycol (PEG) thin films are in situ determined by optical waveguide spectroscopy. PEG brushes are covalently attached to the surface of a thin gold film on a borosilicate crown glass (BK7) using a grafting-from chemical synthesis technique. The measurements are carried out in an attenuated total internal reflection setup. At low humidity levels, both the refractive index and the thickness change gradually due to swelling of the PEG thin films upon water intake. At around 80% relative humidity, a steep decrease in the refractive index and a steep increase in the thickness are observed as a result of a phase change from a semicrystalline state to a physical gel state. The hydrogenation of PEG films causes a less pronounced phase change from a semicrystalline state to a gel state. Due to fewer ether oxygen atoms available for the water molecules to make hydrogen bonding, the polymer has a more stable structure than before and the phase change is observed to shift to higher humidity levels. It is discussed that such a humidity induced change in the index of refraction can be utilized in constructing of a PEG based humidity sensor.

  18. In situ measurement of humidity induced changes in the refractive index and thickness of polyethylene glycol thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilen, Bukem; Skarlatos, Yani; Aktas, Gulen; Inci, Mehmet Naci; Dispinar, Tugba; Kose, Meliha Merve; Sanyal, Amitav

    2007-10-01

    Humidity induced changes in the refractive index and thickness of polyethylene glycol (PEG) thin films are in situ determined by optical waveguide spectroscopy. PEG brushes are covalently attached to the surface of a thin gold film on a borosilicate crown glass using a grafting-from chemical synthesis technique. The measurements are carried out in an attenuated total internal reflection setup. At low humidity levels, both the refractive index and the thickness change gradually due to swelling of the PEG thin films upon water intake. At around 80% relative humidity, a steep decrease in the refractive index and a steep increase in the thickness are observed as a result of a phase change from a semicrystalline state to a physical gel state. The hydrogenation of PEG films causes a less pronounced phase change from a semicrystalline state to a gel state. Due to fewer ether oxygen atoms available for the water molecules to make hydrogen bonding, the polymer has a more stable structure than before and the phase change is observed to shift to higher humidity levels. It is discussed that such a humidity induced change in the index of refraction can be utilized in constructing a PEG based humidity sensor.

  19. Highly hydrophilic ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene powder and film prepared by radiation grafting of acrylic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Honglong.; Xu, Lu.; Li, Rong.; Pang, Lijuan.; Hu, Jiangtao.; Wang, Mouhua.; Wu, Guozhong.

    2016-09-01

    The surface properties of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) are very important for its use in engineering or composites. In this work, hydrophilic UHMWPE powder and film were prepared by γ-ray pre-irradiation grafting of acrylic acid (AA) and further neutralization with sodium hydroxide solution. Variations in the chemical structure, grafting yield and hydrophilicity were investigated and compared. FT-IR and XPS analysis results showed that AA was successfully grafted onto UHMWPE powder and film; the powder was more suitable for the grafting reaction in 1 wt% AA solution than the film. Given a dose of 300 kGy, the grafting yield of AA was ∼5.7% for the powder but ∼0.8% for the film under identical conditions. Radiation grafting of a small amount of AA significantly improved the hydrophilicity of UHMWPE. The water contact angle of the UHMWPE-g-PAA powder with a grafting yield of AA at ∼5.7% decreased from 110.2° to 68.2°. Moreover, the grafting powder (UHMWPE-g-PAA) exhibited good dispersion ability in water.

  20. Iridescent cellulose nanocrystal/polyethylene oxide composite films with low coefficient of thermal expansion

    Treesearch

    Jairo A. Diaz; Julia L. Braun; Robert J. Moon; Jeffrey P. Youngblood

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous control over optical and thermal properties is particularly challenging and highly desired in fields like organic electronics. Here we incorporated cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) into polyethylene oxide (PEO) in an attempt to preserve the iridescent CNC optical reflection given by their chiral nematic organisation, while reducing the composite thermal...

  1. Mechanically robust and transparent N-halamine grafted PVA-co-PE films with renewable antimicrobial activity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Antimicrobial polymeric films that are both mechanically robust and function renewable would have broad technological implications for areas ranging from medical safety and bioengineering to foods industry; however, creating such materials has proven extremely challenging. Here, a novel strategy is ...

  2. Mechanically Robust and Transparent N-Halamine Grafted PVA-co-PE Films with Renewable Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Si, Yang; Cossu, Andrea; Nitin, Nitin; Ma, Yue; Zhao, Cunyi; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Cao, Trung; Wang, Dong; Sun, Gang

    2017-03-01

    Antimicrobial polymeric films that are both mechanically robust and function renewable would have broad technological implications for areas ranging from medical safety and bioengineering to foods industry; however, creating such materials has proven extremely challenging. Here, a novel strategy is reported to create high-strength N-halamine incorporated poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) films (HAF films) with renewable antimicrobial activity by combining melt radical graft polymerization and reactive extrusion technique. The approach allows here the intrinsically rechargeable N-halamine moieties to be covalently incorporated into polymeric films with high biocidal activity and durability. The resulting HAF films exhibit integrated properties of robust mechanical strength, high transparency, rechargeable chlorination capability (>300 ppm), and long-term durability, which can effectively offer 3-5 logs CFU reduction against typical pathogenic bacterium Escherichia coli within a short contact time of 1 h, even at high organism conditions. The successful synthesis of HAF films also provides a versatile platform for exploring the applications of antimicrobial N-halamine moieties in a self-supporting, structurally adaptive, and function renewable form.

  3. Characterization of polyester films used in capacitors. 2: Effects of heat treatments on transient and steady-state charging currents in polyethylene terephthalate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielen, A.; Cerfontaine, J.; Niezette, J.; Feyder, G.; Vanderschueren, J.

    1994-10-01

    The effects of various heat treatments performed before or after the vacuum deposition of aluminum electrodes on the charging currents flowing through polyethylene terephthalate (PET) thin films (6 and 12 micrometers) were studied. The amorphous phase of the PET films was characterized by the use of thermally stimulated current/relaxation map analysis spectrometry, allowing precise determination of thermodynamic and thermokinetic parameters. Density measurements were used to calculate the rate of crystallinity achieved after annealing. A correlation was found between the relaxation parameters of the alpha dipolar relaxation of PET, the rate of crystallinity, and the properties of the charging currents observed from room temperature to 200 C. Strain-induced crystallization has been put forward to account for the experimental evidences.

  4. 78 FR 79400 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Initiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ..., sheet, and strip (``PET film'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') meets the statutory and... certified that they did not export PET film to the United States during the period of investigation (``POI... have never been affiliated with any PRC exporter or producer who exported PET film to the United States...

  5. 76 FR 57715 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Revocation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... strip (PET film) from the Republic of Korea. Pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as..., and 19 CFR 351.222(i)(1)(iii), the Department is revoking the antidumping duty order on PET film from..., 1991, the Department published the antidumping duty order on PET film from the Republic of Korea. See...

  6. 76 FR 30908 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited (SRF), covering the period July 1, 2009, through December 31... Department obtained, from CBP, import data for entries of PET Film from India into the United States during..., requesting information about the company's shipments after the POR of PET film to the United States. On...

  7. 75 FR 81570 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ..., sheet, and strip (PET film) from India in response to a request from SRF Limited (SRF). The domestic.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The Department published the antidumping duty order on PET film from India...), to conduct a semiannual new shipper review under the antidumping duty order on PET film from India...

  8. 75 FR 81574 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... strip (PET film) from India in response to a request from SRF Limited (SRF). The period of review (POR... benefitted from countervailable subsidies provided on the production and export of PET film from India. See... Department published in the Federal Register the CVD order on PET film from India. See Notice of...

  9. 75 FR 49902 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Film) from Taiwan. This review covers respondents, Nan Ya Plastics Corporation, Ltd., (Nan Ya), as well... interested parties DuPont Teijin Films, Mitsubishi Polyester Film of America, SKC, Inc., and Toray Plastics..., ``Affiliation of Nan Ya Plastic Corporation, Ltd., with Certain U.S. Customers,'' dated April 1, 2004....

  10. 78 FR 2365 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip From India: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ....\\5\\ On September 26, 2012, one of the petitioners (DuPont Teijin Films) withdrew its request for an... Administrative Review, 77 FR 39216, 39217 (July 2, 2012). \\2\\ Petitioners are DuPont Teijin Films, Mitsubishi... India: Withdrawal of DuPont Teijin Films' Request for Antidumping Duty Administrative Review (September...

  11. ESCA Study of Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride) Tetrafluoroethylene - Ethylene Copolymer and Polyethylene Exposed to Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Cormia, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    The ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) spectra of films of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), tetrafluoroethylene-ethylene copolymer (TFE/ET) and polyethylene (PE) exposed to atomic oxygen (O(P-3)), in or out of the glow of a radio-frequency O2 plasma, were compared. ESCA spectra of PE films exposed to (O(P-3)) in low Earth orbit (LEO) on the STS-8 Space Shuttle were also examined. Apart from O(P-3)-induced surface recession (etching), the various polymer films exhibited surface oxidation, which proceeded towards equilibrium saturation oxygen levels. The maximum surface oxygen uptakes for in-glow or out-of-glow exposures were in the order: PE greater than TFE/ET greater than PVDF; for PE itself, the oxygen uptakes were in the order: in glow greater than out of glow greater than LEO. Given prior ESCA data on poly(vinyl fluoride) and polytetrafluoroethylene films exposed to O(P-3), the extent of surface oxidation is seen to decrease regularly with increase in fluorine substitution in a family of ethylene-type polymers. (Keywords: ESCA; poly(vinylidene fluoride); tetrafluoroethylene ethylene copolymer; polyethylene; atomic oxygen; radio-frequency oxygen plasma; low Earth orbit)

  12. ESCA Study of Poly (Vinylidene Fluoride) Tetrafluoroethylene - Ethylene Copolymer and Polyethylene Exposed to Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Morton A.; Cormia, Robert D.

    1989-01-01

    The ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) spectra of films of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), tetrafluoroethylene-ethylene copolymer (TFE/ET) and polyethylene (PE) exposed to atomic oxygen (O(P-3)), in or out of the glow of a radio-frequency O2 plasma, were compared. ESCA spectra of PE films exposed to (O(P-3)) in low Earth orbit (LEO) on the STS-8 Space Shuttle were also examined. Apart from O(P-3)-induced surface recession (etching), the various polymer films exhibited surface oxidation, which proceeded towards equilibrium saturation oxygen levels. The maximum surface oxygen uptakes for in-glow or out-of-glow exposures were in the order: PE greater than TFE/ET greater than PVDF; for PE itself, the oxygen uptakes were in the order: in glow greater than out of glow greater than LEO. Given prior ESCA data on poly(vinyl fluoride) and polytetrafluoroethylene films exposed to O(P-3), the extent of surface oxidation is seen to decrease regularly with increase in fluorine substitution in a family of ethylene-type polymers. (Keywords: ESCA; poly(vinylidene fluoride); tetrafluoroethylene ethylene copolymer; polyethylene; atomic oxygen; radio-frequency oxygen plasma; low Earth orbit)

  13. Deformation mechanism in swollen radiation-grafted polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungar, G.; Dlugosz, J.; Ranogajec, F.

    Stress-strain behaviour of anisotropic polyethylene (PE) film radiation-grafted with styrene was studied with the samples immersed in xylene. The glassy polystyrene (PS) phase (1) is softened by swelling. Whereas the tensile modulus of dry graft increases somewhat with increasing PS content, for the swollen graft it decreases sharply. However the yield stress and the elongation at break remain fairly large. For highly grafted films (PS/PE > 1) deformation is almost fully reversible and proceeds without necking up to draw ratios as high as 5:1. With the aid of additional X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results the deformation mechanism is interpreted in terms of the known morphology of the copolymer.

  14. Efficacy of two acidic sanitizers for microbial reduction on metal cans and low-density polyethylene film surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Gupta, M J; Lopes, J; Pascall, M A

    2007-10-01

    This study investigated 2 sanitizer formulations and compared them with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Formulation number 1 contained citric acid and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS). Formulation number 2 contained SDBS, citric, lactic, phosphoric acids, and benzoic acid. Low concentration levels of the sanitizers (1.0% for formulation 1 and 0.5% for formulation 2) were compared with 35% H(2)O(2) for their efficacies on Escherichia coli, Listeria innocua, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculated onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films and metal cans at room temperature (23 +/- 1 degrees C) and 40 degrees C. The results showed that both formulations 1 and 2 required >120 s to sanitize both materials from microbial populations at room temperature, while <15 s was needed for the H(2)O(2). Except for formulation 1 on the E. coli inoculated LDPE film surface, the sanitizers completely eliminated the bacterial populations on both materials in 60 s at 40 degrees C. In general, the formulations were more effective for reduction of the microbial numbers on the can material when compared with the LDPE film. The E. coli showed greater tolerance for the sanitizers when exposed to the process conditions in this study. All sanitizers completely eliminated the test organisms in

  15. Evaluation of various polyethylene as potential dosimeters by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halperin, Fred; Collins, Greta; DiCicco, Michael; Logar, John

    2014-12-01

    Various types of polyethylene (PE) have been evaluated in the past for use as a potential dosimeter, chiefly via the formation of an unsaturated transvinylene (TV) double-bond resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. The utilization of attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy in characterizing TV formation in irradiated PE for a potential dosimeter has yet to be fully developed. In this initial investigation, various PE films/sheets were exposed to ionizing radiation in a high-energy 5 megaelectron volt (MeV) electron beam accelerator in the 10-500 kilogray (kGy) dose range, followed by ATR-FTIR analysis of TV peak formation at the 965 cm-1 wavenumber. There was an upward trend in TV formation for low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheets as a function of absorbed dose in the 10-50 kGy dose range, however, the TV response could not be equated to a specific absorbed dose. LDPE film displayed a downward trend from 50 kGy to 250 kGy and then scattering up to 500 kGy; HDPE sheets demonstrated an upward trend in TV formation up to 500 kGy. For ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) sheets irradiated up to 150 kGy, TV response was equivalent to non-irradiated UHMWPE, and a minimal upward trend was observed for 200 kGy to 500 kGy. The scatter of the data for the irradiated PE films/sheets is such that the TV response could not be equated to a specific absorbed dose. A better correlation of the post-irradiation TV response to absorbed dose may be attained through a better understanding of variables.

  16. Construction of antibacterial poly(ethylene terephthalate) films via layer by layer assembly of chitosan and hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Del Hoyo-Gallego, Sara; Pérez-Álvarez, Leyre; Gómez-Galván, Flor; Lizundia, Erlantz; Kuritka, Ivo; Sedlarik, Vladimir; Laza, Jose Manuel; Vila-Vilela, Jose Luis

    2016-06-05

    Polyelectrolytic multilayers (PEMs) with enhanced antibacterial properties were built up onto commercial poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films based on the layer by layer assembling of bacterial contact killing chitosan and bacterial repelling highly hydrated hyaluronic acid. The optimization of the aminolysis modification reaction of PET was carried out by the study of the mechanical properties and the surface characterization of the modified polymers. The layer by layer assembly was successfully monitored by TEM microscopy, surface zeta-potential, contact angle measurements and, after labeling with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FTIC) by absorption spectroscopy and confocal fluorescent microscopy. Beside, the stability of the PEMs was studied at physiological conditions in absence and in the presence of lysozyme and hyaluronidase enzymes. Antibacterial properties of the obtained PEMs against Escherichia coli were compared with original commercial PET. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of a high-density polyethylene (HDPE) film with a nucleating agent during a stretching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Seok; Cho, In-Hee; Gwon, Sung-Jin; Lim, Youn-Mook; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-07-01

    The effects of the crystallinity and a radiation crosslinking on the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with a nucleating agent were investigated. We found the optimum conditions for the stretching process according to the addition of various quantities of a nucleating agent (Millad3988). The pores of a HDPE membrane were affected by the crystallinity of the polymer, and the crystallinity of the polymer was changed with an increase thermal ageing temperature. Thermal ageing treatment of the HDPE film was conducted in an oven at 110-135 °C for 5-60 min. When the conditions for the annealing were fixed at 125 °C and 40 min, we obtained the highest crystallinity. Also, the resulting mechanical properties of the irradiated HDPE separators were analyzed.

  18. Improvement of barrier properties of rotomolded PE containers with nanoclay

    SciTech Connect

    Jamshidi, Shadi; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-05-22

    Polyethylene (PE) is widely used to make bulk containers in rotational molding process. The challenge in this study is to improve permeation resistance of PE to hydrocarbon solvents and gases. Adding organomodified clay improves the thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of PE. In fact, clay layers create a tortuous path against the permeant, yielding better barrier properties. Due to the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE and polar hydrophilic structure of clay minerals, the compatibilizer plays a crucial role to enhance the dispersion level of clay in the matrix. In this study High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) layered silicate nanocomposite were melt-compounded with two concentrations of organomodified clay (2 and 4 wt. %). The interaction between nanoclay, compatibilizer and rotomolding grade of PE were examined by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheology test. Rheology was used to determine the performance of our material at low shear processing condition.

  19. Improvement of barrier properties of rotomolded PE containers with nanoclay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi, Shadi; Sundararaj, Uttandaraman

    2015-05-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is widely used to make bulk containers in rotational molding process. The challenge in this study is to improve permeation resistance of PE to hydrocarbon solvents and gases. Adding organomodified clay improves the thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of PE. In fact, clay layers create a tortuous path against the permeant, yielding better barrier properties. Due to the non-polar hydrophobic nature of PE and polar hydrophilic structure of clay minerals, the compatibilizer plays a crucial role to enhance the dispersion level of clay in the matrix. In this study High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) layered silicate nanocomposite were melt-compounded with two concentrations of organomodified clay (2 and 4 wt. %). The interaction between nanoclay, compatibilizer and rotomolding grade of PE were examined by using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and rheology test. Rheology was used to determine the performance of our material at low shear processing condition.

  20. 76 FR 30910 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Final Results of Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... strip (PET Film) from India for SRF Limited (SRF), covering the period January 1, 2009, through December... 12938 (March 9, 2011). The Department obtained, from CBP, import data for entries of PET Film from India... SRF on February 11, 2011, requesting information about the company's shipments after the POR of PET...

  1. 76 FR 76941 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ..., 2010. This review covers the following producers/exporters of the subject merchandise: Nan Ya Plastics... Polyester Film, Inc., SKC, Inc., and Toray Plastics (America), Inc. (collectively, Petitioners), timely... film): Nan Ya Plastic Corporation, Ltd. Non-Participation in the Administrative Review for the...

  2. 78 FR 9668 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ..., Shinkong), and Nan Ya Plastics Corporation, Ltd. (Nan Ya), producers and exporters of PET Film from Taiwan... Film, Inc., SKC, Inc., and Toray Plastics (America), Inc. (collectively, Petitioners) filed comments on...: Post- Preliminary Analysis and Calculation Memorandum of Nan Ya Plastics Corporation, Ltd. and...

  3. 76 FR 18519 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Taiwan: Amended Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... the calculation of the antidumping duty margin for Nan Ya Plastics Corporation, Ltd. (Nan Ya...Pont Teijin Films; Mitsubishi Polyester Film Inc.; SKC, Inc.; and Toray Plastics (America), Inc....g., the Department's September 3, 2009 Initial Questionnaire to Nan Ya Plastics Corporation at...

  4. Antibiofilm effect of poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene) (PVA-co-PE) halamine film against Listeria innocua and Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    PubMed

    Cossu, Andrea; Si, Yang; Sun, Gang; Nitin, Nitin

    2017-08-11

    Bacterial biofilm formation is linked to several infections and foodborne disease outbreaks. To address this challenge, there is an unmet need to develop rechargeable antimicrobial materials that can provide continuous sanitation of contact surfaces especially in the food industry. This study was aimed at evaluating a novel rechargeable antimicrobial polymer formed using PVA-co-PE with halamine functionality to prevent biofilm formation with repeated exposure to high loads of bacteria and organic content and also aid in inactivation of pre-formed biofilms upon contact with this novel material. Antibiofilm activity of this rechargeable antimicrobial material was evaluated using a combination of fluorescence and scanning electron microscopies and biofilm metabolic activity analyses. The results based on imaging and metabolic activity measurements demonstrated that halamine functionalized polymer films significantly reduced L. innocua and E. coli O157:H7 biofilms formation. This novel polymeric material maintained its antibiofilm activity with repeated cycles of extended exposure to high levels of bacterial load. These polymeric films were recharged using bleach and cleaned using mechanical sonication after each cycle of extended incubation with bacteria. Halamine functionalized polymeric material also exhibited significant antibacterial activity against pre-formed biofilms on a model surface. In summary, results demonstrate potential of this antimicrobial material to provide continuous sanitation surfaces and applications for inactivating pre-formed biofilms without extensive use of resources including water and heat. This polymeric material may be used as a replacement for existing polymeric materials or used as a coating on diverse materials.IMPORTANCE Conventional sanitizers can have limited efficacy in inactivating biofilms in areas with limited accessibility and buildup of organic biomass. Furthermore, none of the current approaches provide continuous sanitation

  5. Impedance Spectroscopy Study of Composite Thin Films of Hydrated Polyethylene Glycol

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hamarneh, Ibrahim F.; Pedrow, Patrick D.; Goheen, Steven C.; Hartenstine, M. J.

    2007-05-01

    A polythelene glycol (PEG) polymer was synthesized using a dip coating procedure on 316L stainless steel (SS) substrate pre coated by radio frequency RF inductively coupled plasma polymerization with di (ethylene glycol) vinyl ether (EO2V) monomer that was used as a primer coat. The primer and PEG composite film was studied with profilometer, visible-light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a tape test to evaluate thickness, stability, morphology and adhesion. Response of the PEG composite film to an AC electric perturbation was studied as a function of hydration state using impedance spectroscopy (IS). A resistor/capacitor network was used to interpret the impedance spectra. The capacitance of the PEG film decreased with an exponentially decaying term as dehydration progressed. PEG film capacitance decay was consistent with a model describing water molecules diffusing through the PEG film.

  6. Enhancing distributive mixing of immiscible polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blend through zeolite ZSM-5 compounding sequence.

    PubMed

    Thipmanee, Ranumas; Lukubira, Sam; Ogale, Amod A; Sane, Amporn

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this work was to explore the effect of zeolite ZSM-5 (ZSM5) incorporation sequence on the phase morphology, microstructure, and performance of polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (PE/TPS) films. Two processing sequences were used for preparing PE/TPS/ZSM5 composites at a weight ratio of PE to TPS of 70:30 and ZSM5 concentrations of 1-5 wt%: (i) melt compounding of PE with ZSM5 prior to melt blending with TPS (SI); and (ii) TPS was compounded with ZSM5 prior to blending with PE (SII). Distributive mixing and mechanical properties of PE/TPS blend were greatly enhanced when ZSM5 was incorporated via SII. These were caused by both the higher affinity between PE and ZSM5, compared to that of TPS and ZSM5, and the reduction of TPS viscosity after compounding with ZSM5, leading to migration of ZSM5 from TPS dispersed phase toward PE matrix and increase in breakup of TPS droplets during SII sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficient and selective degradation of polyethylenes into liquid fuels and waxes under mild conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xiangqing; Qin, Chuan; Friedberger, Tobias; Guan, Zhibin; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume synthetic polymer, and its chemical inertness makes its degradation by low-energy processes a challenging problem. We report a tandem catalytic cross alkane metathesis method for highly efficient degradation of polyethylenes under mild conditions. With the use of widely available, low-value, short alkanes (for example, petroleum ethers) as cross metathesis partners, different types of polyethylenes with various molecular weights undergo complete conversion into useful liquid fuels and waxes. This method shows excellent selectivity for linear alkane formation, and the degradation product distribution (liquid fuels versus waxes) can be controlled by the catalyst structure and reaction time. In addition, the catalysts are compatible with various polyolefin additives; therefore, common plastic wastes, such as postconsumer polyethylene bottles, bags, and films could be converted into valuable chemical feedstocks without any pretreatment. PMID:27386559

  8. Efficient and selective degradation of polyethylenes into liquid fuels and waxes under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xiangqing; Qin, Chuan; Friedberger, Tobias; Guan, Zhibin; Huang, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume synthetic polymer, and its chemical inertness makes its degradation by low-energy processes a challenging problem. We report a tandem catalytic cross alkane metathesis method for highly efficient degradation of polyethylenes under mild conditions. With the use of widely available, low-value, short alkanes (for example, petroleum ethers) as cross metathesis partners, different types of polyethylenes with various molecular weights undergo complete conversion into useful liquid fuels and waxes. This method shows excellent selectivity for linear alkane formation, and the degradation product distribution (liquid fuels versus waxes) can be controlled by the catalyst structure and reaction time. In addition, the catalysts are compatible with various polyolefin additives; therefore, common plastic wastes, such as postconsumer polyethylene bottles, bags, and films could be converted into valuable chemical feedstocks without any pretreatment.

  9. Influence of polyethylene glycol on the phase transition of poly(butylene adipate) thin films: Polymorphic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yujing; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee

    2017-09-01

    Control of the polymorphic crystals formation of poly(butylene adipate) (PBA) is crucial to tailor its performance. In the present study, we investigated the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with molecular weight of 400 on the polymorphic crystal of PBA thin films using x-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-dependent infrared-reflection absorbance spectroscopy (IRRAS) and two-dimensional correlation analysis (2DCOS). XRD and IRRAS results suggest that the PBA thin film tends to grow α-form crystal with addition of PEG at room temperature. Increasing the PEG contribution to 30 wt%, the PBA thin film shows α-form crystal only. Temperature-dependent IRRAS spectra indicate that pure PBA thin film exhibited α/β mixed crystal and the β-to-α transition was observed during the heating process. After the incorporation of PEG, PEG not only inhibits the growth of β crystal but also suppresses the β-to-α transition during the heating process. In addition, we unexpectedly captured three different amorphous bands of Cdbnd O stretching of pure PBA from the asynchronous 2D correlation spectrum. The band at 1740 cm- 1 corresponded to the amorphous phase of PBA at room temperature, whereas 1746 and 1760 cm- 1 respectively arose from the amorphous phase of PBA melting from α-form crystal and β-form crystal. This study demonstrated that the crystal form of PBA can be modified by blending with PEG, providing a new method to control the crystal modification and physical properties of polymorphic PBA in their blend system.

  10. Minimizing photooxidation in pasteurized milk by optimizing light transmission properties of green polyethylene films.

    PubMed

    Intawiwat, N; Wold, J P; Skaret, J; Rukke, E O; Pettersen, M K

    2013-01-01

    The effect of different amounts of transmitted green light on photooxidation in pasteurized milk was studied. Five different green films produced with combinations of pigments and additives to minimize exposure to harmful wavelengths with regard to photosensitizers (400-450 and 600-650 nm) were evaluated. In addition, a non-colored transparent film and an orange film were compared with 1 selected green film. Pasteurized milk (3.9% fat) was packed in an air atmosphere and exposed to light for 14, 20, 26, and 32 h at 4 °C under the different films. Samples stored in the dark were control samples. The results showed that the most-effective green film had low overall light transmission, and also almost completely blocked light wavelengths shorter than 450 nm and wavelengths longer than 600 nm, which prevented photooxidation of riboflavin and chlorophyllic compounds. Chlorophyll degradation was highly correlated with sensory properties (coefficient of determination = 0.80-0.94). To preserve milk quality, total blocking of all visible light would be preferable. If total blocking is not feasible, then light transmission for wavelength below 450 nm and above 650 nm should be minimized (e.g., less than 5%). The newly developed green film can be used as a prototype for protection of dairy products to reduce the degradation of photosensitizers. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. 77 FR 76456 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet and Strip from Taiwan: Partial Rescission of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Shinkong.\\3\\ On September 26, 2012, DuPont Teijin Films, one of the petitioners who requested the review...; Opportunity To Request Administrative Review, 77 FR 39216, 39217 (July 2, 2012). \\2\\ Petitioners are DuPont...

  12. Spray coating of carbon nanotube on polyethylene terephthalate film for touch panel application.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Yun-Su; Lee, Sung Ho; Song, Kyu Ho; Park, Lee Soon

    2012-07-01

    From a technical perspective, the major limiting factors for the wide adoption of CNT films are the DC conductivity, uniformity of sheet resistance and good adhesion of CNT on film substrate. In this study, the effects of sonificator and process time on the zeta potential and sheet resistance of the CNT-PET film show that although the dispersing power of horn-type sonificator is stronger than that of bath-type, the SWCNT solution obtained with horn-type sonificator agglomerates faster. Likewise, it has been noted that the SWCNT solutions with low enough zeta potentials exhibit higher sheet resistance after making CNT-PET films due to the damage to SWCNTs caused by high dispersion force. Since the spray coating of SWCNT solution gives the SWCNT-SDS composite layer on PET film after drying, the excess SDS should be washed off. The removal of excess SDS was conducted by dipping in the 3 N HNO3 and SOCl2 solution and washing with deionized water followed by heat treatment in a 120 degrees C convection oven for 30 min. The lift-off of SWCNT-SDS composite layer after 40 min dipping in the 3 N HNO3 solution appeared to be due to the continued permeation leading to swelling of the SDS layer by the 3 N HNO3 aqueous solution. It was found that ten times of spray coating cycle gave CNT-PET film the sheet resistance of 310 Ω/[square] and transmittance of 81%. The TSP made with CNT-PET film exhibited a performance equal to the one made with ITO-PET film.

  13. Effect of stearic acid-grafted starch compatibilizer on properties of linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch blown film.

    PubMed

    Khanoonkon, Nattaporn; Yoksan, Rangrong; Ogale, Amod A

    2016-02-10

    The present work aims to investigate the effect of stearic acid-grafted starch (ST-SA) on the rheological, thermal, optical, dynamic mechanical thermal, and tensile properties of linear low density polyethylene/thermoplastic starch (LLDPE/TPS) blends, as well as on their water vapor and oxygen barrier properties. Blends consisting of LLDPE and TPS in a weight ratio of 60:40 and ST-SA at different concentrations, i.e. 1, 3 and 5%, were prepared using a twin-screw extruder. The obtained resins were subsequently converted into films via blown film extrusion. Incorporation of ST-SA resulted in a decreased degree of shear thinning, reduced ambient temperature elasticity, and improved tensile strength, secant modulus, extensibility, and UV absorption, as well as diminished water vapor and oxygen permeabilities of the LLDPE/TPS blend. These effects are attributed to the enhanced interfacial adhesion between LLDPE and TPS phases through the compatibilizing effect induced by ST-SA, and the good dispersion of the TPS phase in the LLDPE matrix. The results confirmed that ST-SA could potentially be used as a compatibilizer for the LLDPE/TPS blend system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tuning thin-film electrolyte for lithium battery by grafting cyclic carbonate and combed poly(ethylene oxide) on polysiloxane.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Lin, Yue; Yao, Hehua; Yuan, Changfu; Liu, Jin

    2014-07-01

    A tunable polysiloxane thin-film electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries was developed. The polysiloxane was synthesized by hydrosilylation of polymethylhydrosiloxane with cyclic [(allyloxy)methyl]ethylene ester carbonic acid and vinyl tris(2-methoxyethoxy)silane. (1) H NMR spectroscopy and gel-permeation chromatography demonstrated that the bifunctional groups of the cyclic propylene carbonate (PC) and combed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) were well grafted on the polysiloxane. At PC/PEO=6:4, the polysiloxane-based electrolyte had an ionic conductivity of 1.55 × 10(-4) and 1.50 × 10(-3)  S cm(-1) at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. The LiFePO4 /Li batteries fabricated with the thin-film electrolyte presented excellent cycling performance in the temperature range from 25 to 100 °C with an initial discharge capacity at a rate of 1 C of 88.2 and 140 mA h g(-1) at 25 and 100 °C, respectively.

  15. Antifouling properties of poly(methyl methacrylate) films grafted with poly(ethylene glycol) monoacrylate immersed in seawater.

    PubMed

    Iguerb, O; Poleunis, C; Mazéas, F; Compère, C; Bertrand, P

    2008-11-04

    Biofouling of all structures immersed in seawater constitutes an important problem, and many strategies are currently being developed to tackle it. In this context, our previous work shows that poly(ethylene glycol) monoacrylate (PEGA) macromonomer grafted on preoxidized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMAox) films exhibits an excellent repellency against the bovine serum albumin used as a model protein. This study aims to evaluate the following: (1) the prevention of a marine extract material adsorption by the modified surfaces and (2) the antifouling property of the PEGA-g-PMMAox substrates when immersed in natural seawater during two seasons (season 1: end of April-beginning of May 2007, and season 2: end of October-beginning of November 2007). The antifouling performances of the PEGA-g-PMMAox films are investigated for different PEG chain lengths and macromonomer concentrations into the PEGA-based coatings. These two parameters are followed as a function of the immersion time, which evolves up to 14 days. The influence of the PEGA layer on marine compounds (proteins and phospholipids) adsorption is evidenced by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that the antifouling efficiency of the PEGA-grafted surfaces increases with both PEGA concentration and PEG chain length.

  16. Characterization of polyelectrolyte multilayer films on polyethylene terephtalate vascular prostheses under mechanical stretching.

    PubMed

    Rinckenbach, Simon; Hemmerlé, Joseph; Dieval, Florence; Arntz, Youri; Kretz, Jean-Georges; Durand, Bernard; Chakfe, Nabil; Schaaf, Pierre; Voegel, Jean-Claude; Vautier, Dominique

    2008-03-01

    Layer-by-layer (LBL) polyelectrolyte films offer extensive potentials to enhance surface properties of vascular biomaterials. From the time of implantation, PET prostheses are continuously subjected to multiple mechanical stresses such as important distorsions and blood pressure. In this study, three LBL films, namely (1) poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/poly(allylamine hydrochloride), (2) poly(L-lysine)/hyaluronan, and (3) poly(L-lysine)/poly(L-glutamic acid) were built on to isolated PET filaments, thread, and vascular prostheses. The three LBL films uniformly covered the surface of the PET samples with rough, totally smooth, and "wrinkled" appearances respectively for (PAH/PSS)(24), (PLL/HA)(24), and (PLL/PGA)(24) systems. We then assessed the behavior of these LBL films, in an aqueous environment [by environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM)], when subjected to unidirectional longitudinal stretches. We found that stretching induces ruptures in the multilayer films on isolated filaments for longitudinal stretches of 14% for (PSS/PAH)(24), 13% for (PLL/PGA)(24), and 30% for (PLL/HA)(24) films. On threads, the rupture limit is enhanced to be respectively 26, 20, and 28%. Most interestingly, we found that on vascular prosthesis no rupture is visible in any of the three multilayers types, even for elongations of 200% (200% undergone by the PET prostheses is representative of those encountered during graft deployment) which by far exceeds elongations observed under physiological conditions (10-20%, blood pressure). In term of mechanical behaviors, these preliminary data constitute a first step toward the possible use of LBL film to coat and functionalize vascular prosthesis.

  17. Epitaxies of chain compounds on monocrystalline polymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaguchi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Various kinds of compounds with normal long hydrocarbon chain(s) were crystallized on the polyethylene (PE) substrate, whose surface was crystallographically well-defined. Their crystals grew in such an oriented way that the crystallographic plane of their subcells, which corresponded to that of the PE substrate surface, was in contact with the substrate surface. When isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and linear low density PE melt films were coupled and solidified from the side of iPP by cooling, a transparent PE-laminated iPP film was produced. When polyvinylcyclohexane was blended on the molecular level in iPP, it acted as a nucleating agent to give rise to a highly transparent iPP film. These textures are related to the epitaxy between the substrate and crystals grown on it. This paper will discuss their overgrowth mechanisms.

  18. Material characterization and thermoforming of polyethylene terephthalate film for electrical insulation: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, D.A.; Smith, B.P.

    1987-12-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine as-received glass transition, crystallization, and melting temperatures of polyethylene terephthalate (PET). A Box-Behnken statistical designed experiment was used to evaluate the effect of forming temperature, forming rate, and heat-set temperature on shrinkage, tear resistance, and thermal properties. At a forming temperature of 88/sup 0/C and heat-set temperature of 180/sup 0/C, good-quality PET parts were produced. The optimum forming time appears to be either 0.5 min or 5.0 min. In addition, inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectroscopy (ICAP) was used to determine the catalyst system for both PET sheets from two vendors.

  19. Physical characterization of Ge films on polyethylene obtained by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, L.; Rosinski, M.; Caridi, F.; Cutroneo, M.

    2012-05-01

    A Nd:YAg laser, operating in fundamental wavelength at 1064 nm, is focused at an intensity of the order of 1010 W/cm2 to ablate a solid Ge target. A Laser Ion Source (LIS) system is employed to produce ion emission at high directionality, high current, high rate of production and high charge states. LIS is used to implant and/or to deposit Ge ions in polyethylene (UHMWPE). Mechanical (roughness, wetting ability and microhardness), optical (reflectivity and transmission) and electrical properties (resistivity) were investigated, in comparison to the pristine values, in order to reach understanding of the ion implantation/deposition effects as a function of the irradiation ion dose.

  20. Hydrophilic polysulfone film prepared from polyethylene glycol monomethylether via coupling graft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Ruikui; Gao, Baojiao; Li, Yanbin

    2013-06-01

    In the presence of acid-acceptor Na2CO3, the nucleophilic substitution between chloromethylated polysulfone (CMPSF) and polyethylene glycol monomethylether (PEGME) was conducted. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was coupling-grafted onto the side chains of polysulfone (PSF) so that the graft copolymer PSF-g-PEG was prepared and the hydrophilic modification of polysulfone membrane material was realized. The chemical structure of PSF-g-PEG was characterized by FTIR and 1H NMR. The influence of the main factors on the coupling graft reaction was investigated. The water static contact angle of PSF-g-PEG membrane was determined and its property of resisting protein pollution was examined by using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. The experimental results show that the coupling graft reaction between CMPSF and PEGME can proceed successfully, and the reaction of chloromethyl groups of CMPSF with the hydroxyl end groups of PEGME is a typical SN1 nucleophilic substitution reaction. The polarity of the solvents and the reaction temperature greatly influence the reaction. The suitable solvent is dimethyl acetamide with stronger polarity and 70 °C is a suitable reaction temperature. After reaction of 36 h, the grafting degree of PEG can reach 48 g/100 g and the product yield is about 73.6%. The contact angle of PSF-g-PEG membrane declines rapidly with the increase of PEG grafting degree, displaying the obvious enhancement of the hydrophilicity. The adsorption capacity of BSA on PSF-g-PEG membrane decreases remarkably with the increase of PEG grafting degree, showing excellent antifouling ability of PSF-g-PEG membrane for proteins.

  1. Spectroscopic studies of Cr{sup 3+} ions doped in poly(vinylalcohol) complexed polyethylene glycol polymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, T. Rajavardhana; Raju, Ch. Linga; Brahmam, K. Veera

    2015-05-15

    Polymer films of Poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) complexed with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) with different dopant concentrations of Cr{sup 3+} ions are prepared by solution cast technique. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), Optical absorption and FT-IR studies have been carried out on the polymer films. The EPR spectra of the entire samples exhibit resonance signal at g ≈1.97 which is attributed to the isolated Cr{sup 3+} pairs. The temperature variation EPR studies show that the population of spin-levels participating in the resonance decreases with an increase in temperature, which is in accordance with the Boltzmann Law. The paramagnetic susceptibilities (X) have been calculated from the EPR data at different temperatures. The linewidth of the g ≈1.97 resonance signal has been found to be decreasing with an increase in temperature, which confirms the pairing mechanism between Cr{sup 3+} ions. The Optical absorption spectrum of chromium ions in (PVA+PEG) polymer films exhibits three bands, corresponding to the d-d transitions {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F)→{sup 4}T{sub 1g}(F), {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F)→{sup 4}T{sub 2g}(F) and {sup 4}A{sub 2g}(F)→{sup 2}T{sub 1g}(G), in the order of decreasing energy. The crystal field parameter Dq and the Racah interelectronic repulsion parameters B and C have been evaluated. From the ultraviolet absorption edges, Optical band gap (E{sub opt}) and Urbach (ΔE) energies are evaluated. FT-IR spectrum exhibits few bands which are attributed to O-H, CH, C=C and C=O groups of stretching and bending vibrations.

  2. Efficient immobilization and patterning of biomolecules on poly(ethylene terephthalate) films functionalized by ion irradiation for biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In-Tae; Kuk, In-Seol; Jung, Chan-Hee; Choi, Jae-Hak; Nho, Young-Chang; Lee, Young-Moo

    2011-07-01

    The surface of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was selectively irradiated with proton beams at various fluences to generate carboxylic acid groups on the surface; the resulting functionalized PET surface was then characterized in terms of its wettability, chemical structure, and chemical composition. The results revealed that (i) carboxylic acid groups were successfully generated in the irradiated regions of the PET surface, and (ii) their relative amounts were dependent on the fluence. A capture biomolecule, anthrax toxin probe DNA, was selectively immobilized on the irradiated regions on the PET surface. Cy3-labeled DNA as a target biomolecule was then hybridized with the probe DNA immobilized on the PET surface. Liver-cancer-specific α-fetoprotein (AFP) antigen, as a target biomolecule, was also selectively immobilized on the irradiated regions on the PET surface. Texas Red-labeled secondary antibody was then reacted with an AFP-specific primary antibody prebound to the AFP antigen on the PET surface for the detection of the target antigen, using an indirect immunoassay method. The results revealed that (i) well-defined micropatterns of biomolecules were successfully formed on the functionalized PET surfaces and (ii) the fluorescence intensity of the micropatterns was dependent mainly on the concentrations of the target DNA hybridized to the probe DNA and the target AFP antigen immobilized on the PET films. The lowest detectable concentrations of the target DNA and target AFP antigen in this study were determined to be 4 and 16 ng/mL, respectively, with the PET film prepared at a fluence of 5 × 10(14) ions/cm(2).

  3. Effect of Tris, MOPS, and phosphate buffers on the hydrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate films by polyester hydrolases.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Juliane; Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Belisário-Ferrari, Matheus Regis; Barth, Markus; Then, Johannes; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    The enzymatic degradation of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) occurs at mild reaction conditions and may find applications in environmentally friendly plastic waste recycling processes. The hydrolytic activity of the homologous polyester hydrolases LC cutinase (LCC) from a compost metagenome and TfCut2 from Thermobifida fusca KW3 against PET films was strongly influenced by the reaction medium buffers tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS), and sodium phosphate. LCC showed the highest initial hydrolysis rate of PET films in 0.2 m Tris, while the rate of TfCut2 was 2.1-fold lower at this buffer concentration. At a Tris concentration of 1 m, the hydrolysis rate of LCC decreased by more than 90% and of TfCut2 by about 80%. In 0.2 m MOPS or sodium phosphate buffer, no significant differences in the maximum initial hydrolysis rates of PET films by both enzymes were detected. When the concentration of MOPS was increased to 1 m, the hydrolysis rate of LCC decreased by about 90%. The activity of TfCut2 remained low compared to the increasing hydrolysis rates observed at higher concentrations of sodium phosphate buffer. In contrast, the activity of LCC did not change at different concentrations of this buffer. An inhibition study suggested a competitive inhibition of TfCut2 and LCC by Tris and MOPS. Molecular docking showed that Tris and MOPS interfered with the binding of the polymeric substrate in a groove located at the protein surface. A comparison of the K i values and the average binding energies indicated MOPS as the stronger inhibitor of the both enzymes.

  4. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammdi, Seyedeh Raziyeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Tabatabaei, Seyed H.

    2015-05-22

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers’ perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out on the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied.

  5. Peel/seal properties of poly(ethylene methyl acrylate)/polybutene-1 blend films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammdi, Seyedeh Raziyeh; Ajji, Abdellah; Tabatabaei, Seyed H.

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, the possibility to easy open a food package is of great interest both from the consumer and food producers' perspective. In this study, the peel/seal properties of poly (ethylene methyl acrylate) (EMA)/polybutene-1 (PB-1) blend films were investigated. Three blends of EMA/PB-1 with different methyl acrylate (MA) content were prepared using cast extrusion process. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal behavior as well as the crystalinity of the blends. The effect of polymer matrix on the crystalline structure of PB-1 was studied using Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction (WAXD) and DSC. T-peel tests were carried out on the heat sealed films at various seal temperatures. The effect of MA content and heat seal temperature on peel/seal properties (i.e. peel initiation temperature, temperature window of sealability and peel strength) of the films were studied.

  6. Picosecond UV laser induced scribing of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films for the enhancement of their flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Min Gi; Kim, Changhwan; Lee, Yong Joong; Kim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Ho

    2016-08-01

    Flexible devices has received a great attention due to their high portability, lightness, and ease of shape reconfiguration. To achieve high flexibility, controlling the mechanical properties of the substrate materials is of importance. In this paper, we controlled the local flexibility of PET films via UV laser scribing. The bending test of the films revealed that their bending curvatures, the associated mechanical damages, and the required bending forces could be successfully tuned by controlling the number and the depth of the scribed lines. Our simple strategy of using laser scribing will find its usefulness in flexible device applications where high flexibility and mechanical stability are required.

  7. 76 FR 47546 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ... exporter of PET Film from India. The Department preliminarily determines that Ester did not make sales of..., Ester provided a chart of its selling functions.\\2\\ However, it did not provide a breakout of sales... chart to include the level of degree of the selling activities, but did not break out the...

  8. Dissociating space charge processes from orientation polarization in poly(ethylene naphthalate) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, M.-Q.; Boudou, L.; Le Roy, S.; Teyssedre, G.

    2014-11-01

    Thermo-stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) measurements and space charge measurements were performed on poly(ethylene naphthalene 2,6-dicarboxylate) (PEN), an aromatic and polar polyester. The aim is to develop an understanding of the dipolar and conduction processes at play in this material and in particular to understand the effects of temperature. For the TSDC measurements, when polarizing at 130 and 170 °C, the sub-glass transition and the glass transition relaxations are observed. However, in the case of a polarization temperature of 170 °C, one more current peak, labelled ρ peak, is observed at temperatures above the glass transition. This peak is not only of dipolar origin and could be associated with charge detrapping in the material. To unravel the mechanisms behind this process, a TSDC was combined with space charge measurements using the pulsed electroacoustic method (PEA) and the partial heating method was used. It is shown that the ρ peak is predominantly associated with the release of the negative charge build-up in the material.

  9. High altitude balloons with ultra thin polyethylene films for scientific observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, J.; Saito, Y.; Matsuzaka, Y.; Namiki, M.; Toriumi, M.; Yokota, R.; Yamagami, T.; Hirosawa, H.; Matsushima, K.

    Development of a balloon flying at higher altitude is one of the most attractive trial for the balloon technology. We, the balloon group at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), have been engaged in the development since 1991. Our concept is to make a light balloon to go higher. We have developed light equipment for house keeping modules and a ultra-thin film with a thickness of only 3.4 μm. Using these equipments and the film, we launched a balloon with a volume of 30,000 m3 to reach the highest altitude of 50.8 km, which is the highest altitude ever reached by Japanese balloons. In this spring, we are going to launch a balloon with a volume of 60,000 m3 , which is expected to make a new record of the balloon altitude. We are going to report the result of the experiment.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus sp. YP1, a polyethylene-degrading bacterium from waxworm's gut.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Chen, Jianwei; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhao, Jiao; Yang, Jun

    2015-04-20

    Bacillus sp. strain YP1, isolated from the gut of waxworm (the larvae of Plodia interpunctella) which ate polyethylene (PE) plastic, is capable of degrading PE and utilizing PE as sole carbon source. Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain YP1, which is relevant to polyethylene depolymerization and biodegradation.

  11. Electrical properties and surface morphology of electron beam evaporated p-type silicon thin films on polyethylene terephthalate for solar cells applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ang, P. C.; Ibrahim, K.; Pakhuruddin, M. Z.

    2015-04-24

    One way to realize low-cost thin film silicon (Si) solar cells fabrication is by depositing the films with high-deposition rate and manufacturing-compatible electron beam (e-beam) evaporation onto inexpensive foreign substrates such as glass or plastic. Most of the ongoing research is reported on e-beam evaporation of Si films on glass substrates to make polycrystalline solar cells but works combining both e-beam evaporation and plastic substrates are still scarce in the literature. This paper studies electrical properties and surface morphology of 1 µm electron beam evaporated Al-doped p-type silicon thin films on textured polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate for application as an absorber layer in solar cells. In this work, Si thin films with different doping concentrations (including an undoped reference) are prepared by e-beam evaporation. Energy dispersion X-ray (EDX) showed that the Si films are uniformly doped by Al dopant atoms. With increased Al/Si ratio, doping concentration increased while both resistivity and carrier mobility of the films showed opposite relationships. Root mean square (RMS) surface roughness increased. Overall, the Al-doped Si film with Al/Si ratio of 2% (doping concentration = 1.57×10{sup 16} atoms/cm{sup 3}) has been found to provide the optimum properties of a p-type absorber layer for fabrication of thin film Si solar cells on PET substrate.

  12. Establishment of orchards with black polyethylene film mulching: effect on nematode and fungal pathogens, water conservation, and tree growth.

    PubMed

    Duncan, R A; Stapleton, J J; McKenry, M V

    1992-12-01

    Placement of a 3-m-wide, black, polyethylene film mulch down rows of peach (Prunus persica 'Red Haven' on 'Lovell' rootstock) and almond (Prunus dulcis 'Nonpareil' on 'Lovell') trees in the San Joaquin Valley of California resulted in irrigation water conservation of 75%, higher soil temperature in the surface 30 cm, a tendency toward greater root mass, elimination of weeds, and a greater abundance of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles in soil but reduced root galling when compared to the nonmulched control. Population levels of Pratylenchus hexincisus, a nematode found within tree roots, were reduced by mulching, as were those of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, which survived on old grape roots remaining from a previously planted vineyard, and Paratrichodorus minor, which probably fed on roots of various weed species growing in the nonmulched soil. Populations of Pythium ultimum were not significantly changed, probably also due to the biological refuge of the old grape roots and moderate soil heating level. Trunk diameters of peach trees were increased by mulching, but those of almond trees were reduced by the treatment. Leaf petiole analysis indicated that concentrations of mineral nutrients were inconsistent, except for a significant increase in Ca in both tree species.

  13. Establishment of Orchards with Black Polyethylene Film Mulching: Effect on Nematode and Fungal Pathogens, Water Conservation, and Tree Growth

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, R. A.; Stapleton, J. J.; McKenry, M. V.

    1992-01-01

    Placement of a 3-m-wide, black, polyethylene film mulch down rows of peach (Prunus persica 'Red Haven' on 'Lovell' rootstock) and almond (Prunus dulcis 'Nonpareil' on 'Lovell') trees in the San Joaquin Valley of California resulted in irrigation water conservation of 75%, higher soil temperature in the surface 30 cm, a tendency toward greater root mass, elimination of weeds, and a greater abundance of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles in soil but reduced root galling when compared to the nonmulched control. Population levels of Pratylenchus hexincisus, a nematode found within tree roots, were reduced by mulching, as were those of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, which survived on old grape roots remaining from a previously planted vineyard, and Paratrichodorus minor, which probably fed on roots of various weed species growing in the nonmulched soil. Populations of Pythium ultimum were not significantly changed, probably also due to the biological refuge of the old grape roots and moderate soil heating level. Trunk diameters of peach trees were increased by mulching, but those of almond trees were reduced by the treatment. Leaf petiole analysis indicated that concentrations of mineral nutrients were inconsistent, except for a significant increase in Ca in both tree species. PMID:19283045

  14. Heat shrinkability of electron-beam-modified thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer and polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaki, T. K.; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2000-11-01

    The heat shrinkability of electron-beam-irradiated thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been investigated in this paper. The effects of temperature, time and extent of stretching and shrinkage temperature and time have been reported. Based on the above data, the optimized conditions in terms of high heat shrinkage and low amnesia rating have been evaluated. Influence of radiation doses (0-500 kGy), multifunctional sensitizer levels (ditrimethylol propane tetraacrylate, DTMPTA), and blend proportions on heat shrinkability has been explained with the help of gel fraction and X-ray data. With the increase in radiation dose, gel fraction increases, which in turn gives rise to low values of heat shrinkage and amnesia rating. At a constant radiation dose and blend ratio, percent heat shrinkage is found to decrease with increase in DTMPTA level. Gel content increases with the increase in EVA content of the blend at a constant radiation dose and monomer level, giving rise to decrease in heat shrinkability. Heat shrinkage increases with the increase in percent crystallinity, although the amnesia rating follows the reverse trend.

  15. Radiation initiated graft copolymerization of N-vinylpyrrolidone and acrylamide onto low density polyethylene films by individual and binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taher, N. H.; Dessuoki, A. M.; El-Arnaouty, M. B.

    1998-10-01

    A study has been made for the preparation of membranes by the direct radiation grafting of N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP), acrylamide (AAm) and its comonomer onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. The factors affecting the grafting process such as solvent, inhibitor, radiation dose, dose rate, monomer and comonomer concentrations on the grafting yield were studied. Dioxane was chosen as a diluent and the addition of any inhibitor failed in this grafting system. The optimum comonomer composition at which the highest grafting yield was obtained, was found to be (20/80 wt% of AAm/NVP) comonomer. The dependence of the grafting rate upon NVP, AAm and its comonomer concentration for comonomer composition (50/50 and 20/80 AAm/NVP) was found to be 1.7, 1.44, 1.9 and 1.7 order, respectively. Some selective properties of the graft copolymers such as, swelling behaviour, electrical and mechanical properties were investigated. On the other hand, the thermal stability of these membranes was measured by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). An improvement of these properties was observed which makes possible the use of these membranes in some practical applications such as the removal of some heavy metals from waste water.

  16. Chemical modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) and immobilization of the selected enzymes on the modified film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irena, Gancarz; Jolanta, Bryjak; Karolina, Zynek

    2009-07-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was modified by reaction with hydrazine (HD), ethylenediamine (EDA), 1,2-diaminopropane (1,2-DAP) and 1,3-diaminopropane (1,3-DAP). The maximal amount of amine functionalities introduced in the chosen conditions on the surface was found as 0.07, 3.35, 0.76 and 1.99 nmol cm -2 for HD, EDA, 1,2-DAP and 1,3-DAP respectively. During the modification process etching of the sample and an increase of stiffness takes place. FTIR-ATR spectra prove that the surface chemistry after modification in amine solution is very complex. The lack of clear correlation between the surface tension and surface concentration of amine functionalities seems to confirm that. For immobilization purpose invertase, laccase and tyrosinase were used. The amount of covalently attached proteins at first increases with the increase of surface concentration of amine groups but after reaching a certain level of amine groups, decrease of the immobilization level was observed. All enzymes tested showed highest activity for a moderate level of aminolysis and this activity had the highest values for EDA-modified PET.

  17. Radiation graft copolymerization of butyl methacrylate and acrylamide onto low density polyethylene and polypropylene films, and its application in wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Ghaffar, A. M.; El-Arnaouty, M. B.; Aboulfotouh, Maysara E.; Taher, N. H.; Taha, Ahmed A.

    2014-09-01

    Butyl methacrylate and acrylamide (BMA/AAm) comonomers were grafted onto low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) films using the mutual gamma radiation grafting technique. The influences of grafting conditions such as solvent, monomer concentration, monomer composition, and irradiation dose on the grafting yield were determined. It was found that using dimethyl formamide as a solvent enhanced the copolymerization process. The grafting yield increases as the comonomer concentration increases up to 60%. Also it was found that the degree of grafting of BMA/AAm onto both LDPE and PP films increases as the AAm content increases till an optimum value at 50:50 wt%. The grafting yield of the comonomers was found to increase with increase in the radiation dose. It was observed that the degree of grafting of polyethylene films is higher than that of polypropylene (PP) films at the same conditions. Some selected properties of the graft copolymers, such as water uptake and thermal properties, were determined using thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology and structure of the grafted films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, infra-red, and X-ray diffraction. Improvement in such properties of the prepared copolymers was observed which offers possible uses in some practical applications such as the removal of some heavy metals from wastewater. It was found that the maximum metal uptake by the copolymer followed the order Cu2+>Co2+>Ni2+ ions.

  18. Depositing radio-frequency-excited polyethylene onto the surface of microcellular polyterafluoroethylene foam film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chongzheng; Xu, Lianxiang; Li, Chong

    1994-10-01

    Based on the physico-chemical properties of microcellular polymer foams and the mechanism of porous formation, micro and ultramicro-cellular polyteraflouroethylene porous membranes were prepared by pressure- induced phase separation in a supercritical fluid solution film. The samples were inspected by scanning electron microscope, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, differential scanning calorimeter and blowing bubble method. The results show that the membranes prepared by pressure-induced phase separation and then combining with plasma polymerization with ethylene, are easier to control with better characteristics.

  19. Microbial Dynamics during Aerobic Exposure of Corn Silage Stored under Oxygen Barrier or Polyethylene Films▿

    PubMed Central

    Dolci, Paola; Tabacco, Ernesto; Cocolin, Luca; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the effects of sealing forage corn with a new oxygen barrier film with those obtained by using a conventional polyethylene film. This comparison was made during both ensilage and subsequent exposure of silage to air and included chemical, microbiological, and molecular (DNA and RNA) assessments. The forage was inoculated with a mixture of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Enterococcus faecium and ensiled in polyethylene (PE) and oxygen barrier (OB) plastic bags. The oxygen permeability of the PE and OB films was 1,480 and 70 cm3 m−2 per 24 h at 23°C, respectively. The silages were sampled after 110 days of ensilage and after 2, 5, 7, 9, and 14 days of air exposure and analyzed for fermentation characteristics, conventional microbial enumeration, and bacterial and fungal community fingerprinting via PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR-DGGE. The yeast counts in the PE and OB silages were 3.12 and 1.17 log10 CFU g−1, respectively, with corresponding aerobic stabilities of 65 and 152 h. Acetobacter pasteurianus was present at both the DNA and RNA levels in the PE silage samples after 2 days of air exposure, whereas it was found only after 7 days in the OB silages. RT-PCR-DGGE revealed the activity of Aspergillus fumigatus in the PE samples from the day 7 of air exposure, whereas it appeared only after 14 days in the OB silages. It has been shown that the use of an oxygen barrier film can ensure a longer shelf life of silage after aerobic exposure. PMID:21821764

  20. Large-scale fabrication of linear low density polyethylene/layered double hydroxides composite films with enhanced heat retention, thermal, mechanical, optical and water vapor barrier properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jiazhuo; Zhang, Kun; Zhao, Qinghua; Wang, Qingguo; Xu, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Novel LDH intercalated with organic aliphatic long-chain anion was large-scale synthesized innovatively by high-energy ball milling in one pot. The linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)/layered double hydroxides (LDH) composite films with enhanced heat retention, thermal, mechanical, optical and water vapor barrier properties were fabricated by melt blending and blowing process. FT IR, XRD, SEM results show that LDH particles were dispersed uniformly in the LLDPE composite films. Particularly, LLDPE composite film with 1% LDH exhibited the optimal performance among all the composite films with a 60.36% enhancement in the water vapor barrier property and a 45.73 °C increase in the temperature of maximum mass loss rate compared with pure LLDPE film. Furthermore, the improved infrared absorbance (1180-914 cm-1) of LLDPE/LDH films revealed the significant enhancement of heat retention. Therefore, this study prompts the application of LLDPE/LDH films as agricultural films with superior heat retention.

  1. Relaxation behavior of polyethylene welded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demchenko, Valeriy; Iurzhenko, Maksym; Shadrin, Andriy; Galchun, Anatoliy

    2017-04-01

    The paper presents results of the investigation of structure relaxation and thermal properties of PE-80 and PE-100 polyethylene hot-tool butt welds. It was found that a weld with the re-crystallized crystalline structure is formed during the welding of dissimilar types of polyethylene. It is shown that within a long period (1 year) the relaxation occurs not only in amorphous but also in the crystalline phase (crystalline α-form transforms into mixed αβ-form), with respective changes in polyethylene properties.

  2. Efficacy of UV-C irradiation for inactivation of food-borne pathogens on sliced cheese packaged with different types and thicknesses of plastic films.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae-Won; Back, Kyeong-Hwan; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficacy of using UV-C light to inactivate sliced cheese inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes and, packaged with 0.07 mm films of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinylchloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) was investigated. The results show that compared with PET and PVC, PP and PE films showed significantly reduced levels of the three pathogens compared to inoculated but non-treated controls. Therefore, PP and PE films of different thicknesses (0.07 mm, 0.10 mm, and 0.13 mm) were then evaluated for pathogen reduction of inoculated sliced cheese samples. Compared with 0.10 and 0.13 mm, 0.07 mm thick PP and PE films did not show statistically significant reductions compared to non-packaged treated samples. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of PP and PE films. These results suggest that adjusted PP or PE film packaging in conjunction with UV-C radiation can be applied to control foodborne pathogens in the dairy industry.

  3. Optimizing fumigation efficiency by doubling drip line number and using low permeability film in raised-bed production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southern California strawberries are planted in raised-beds covered by polyethylene (PE) film and typically are irrigated with two drip lines placed near the bed surface. To control soil-borne pests, fumigants are commonly applied through the drip lines prior to transplanting strawberries, but effic...

  4. Improving fumigation efficiency by increasing drip-tape number and using low permeability film in raised-bed production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Drip fumigation is commonly used for controlling soilborne pests in raised-bed strawberry production systems in California. However, the high emission loss and poor pest control indicate that the current fumigation practice with two drip tapes and polyethylene film (PE) covering need to be improved....

  5. Layer by layer assembly of a biocatalytic packaging film: lactase covalently bound to low-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Talbert, Joey N; Goddard, Julie M

    2013-06-01

    Active packaging is utilized to overcome limitations of traditional processing to enhance the health, safety, economics, and shelf life of foods. Active packaging employs active components to interact with food constituents to give a desired effect. Herein we describe the development of an active package in which lactase is covalently attached to low-density polyethylene (LDPE) for in-package production of lactose-free dairy products. The specific goal of this work is to increase the total protein content loading onto LDPE using layer by layer (LbL) deposition, alternating polyethylenimine, glutaraldehyde (GL), and lactase, to enhance the overall activity of covalently attached lactase. The films were successfully oxidized via ultraviolet light, functionalized with polyethylenimine and glutaraldehyde, and layered with immobilized purified lactase. The total protein content increased with each additional layer of conjugated lactase, the 5-layer sample reaching up to 1.3 μg/cm2 . However, the increase in total protein did not lend to an increase in overall lactase activity. Calculated apparent Km indicated the affinity of immobilized lactase to substrate remains unchanged when compared to free lactase. Calculated apparent turnover numbers (kcat ) showed with each layer of attached lactase, a decrease in substrate turnover was experienced when compared to free lactase; with a decrease from 128.43 to 4.76 s(-1) for a 5-layer conjugation. Our results indicate that while LbL attachment of lactase to LDPE successfully increases total protein mass of the bulk material, the adverse impact in enzyme efficiency may limit the application of LbL immobilization chemistry for bioactive packaging use. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Synergistic Effect of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Pre-Treatment on Alkaline Etching of Polyethylene Terephthalate Fabrics and Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A. Elabid Amel, E.; Guo, Ying; Shi, Jianjun; Ding, Ke; Zhang, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Dyeing of PET materials by traditional methods presents several problems. Plasma technology has received enormous attention as a solution for the environmental problems related with textile surface modifications, and there has been a rapid development and commercialization of plasma technology over the past decade. In this work, the synergistic effect of atmospheric pressure plasma on alkaline etching and deep coloring of dyeing properties on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fabrics and films was investigated. The topographical changes of the PET surface were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images, which revealed a smooth surface morphology of the untreated sample whereas a high surface roughness for the plasma and/or alkaline treated samples. The effects of atmospheric pressure plasma on alkaline etching of the structure and properties of PET were investigated by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the main objective of performing DSC was to investigate the effect of the plasma pre-treatment on the Tg and Tm. Using a tensile strength tester YG065H and following a standard procedure the maximum force and elongation at maximum force of PET materials was investigated. Oxygen and argon plasma pre-treatment was found to increase the PET fabric weight loss rate. The color strength of PET fabrics was increased by various plasma pre-treatment times. The penetration of plasma and alkaline reactive species deep into the PET structure results in better dyeability and leaves a significant effect on the K/S values of the plasma pre-treated PET. It indicated that plasma pre-treatment has a great synergistic effect with the alkaline treatment of PET.

  7. Properties of polyethylene films with incorporated benzoic anhydride and/or ethyl and propyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and their suitability for food packaging.

    PubMed

    Dobiás, J; Chudackova, K; Voldrich, M; Marek, M

    2000-12-01

    Benzoic anhydride and ethyl and propyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (ETP and PRP, respectively, also termed parabens) incorporated into low density polyethylene (LDPE) film were studied with regard to migration into food and food simulants at 6 degrees C and 25 degrees C, and changes in selected properties of the film were investigated. Antimicrobials were incorporated into polymer film in concentrations of 5 g/kg and 10 g/kg. The addition of parabens into the polymer was more difficult than benzoic anhydride due to their volatility. For benzoic anhydride, 30-40% and 10-20% of the added amount was found to leach from the film into aqueous and olive oil food simulants, respectively. The migration into both water and olive oil followed a very similar course in the case of parabens. Migration levels over 90% and in the range of 70% to 80%, relative to the amount of agent in the film, were determined for ETP and PRP respectively. The incorporation of antimicrobials into the film significantly changed the functional characteristics of the packaging material, i.e. permeability of oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour, tensile strength, coefficient of friction, sealing strength and transparency. Shelf life tests with packaged cheese and toasted bread demonstrated the efficiency of the film containing 10 g/kg of BA against mould growth on the food surface during storage at 6 degrees C.

  8. Possibility of Solid-State Graft Copolymerization on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Films by Plasma Irradiation and Effects of Surface Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narushima, Kazuo; Matsuda, Noriko; Mizutani, Chie; Yamashita, Nanami; Inagaki, Norihiro; Iio, Kokoro; Isono, Yoshihiro; Islam, Mohammed Rafiqul

    2007-07-01

    A solid-state graft copolymerization for poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films was proposed for a new surface modification technique. The functional groups included in graft monomers can be introduced on a PET surface. Allylbiguanide hydrochloric acid salt (ABG), N-methylol acrylamide (NM-AAm), and N-isopropyl acrylamide (NIP-AAm) were used as graft monomers. This technique led to a large change in the N/C atomic ratio on the PET film surfaces, which shows that nitrogen functional groups were introduced on PET surfaces. On the grafted PET films, a new N 1s spectrum appeared. This N 1s spectrum contained two components, namely, amino and amido groups, which suggests that the two groups were introduced onto the PET surfaces. In particular, isopropyl groups were introduced on the PET surface in the case of NIP-AAm. The formation of these functional groups demonstrated changes in the surface properties of PET, such as improved wettability.

  9. Fabrication of nanopatterned poly(ethylene glycol) brushes by molecular transfer printing from poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) films to generate arrays of Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Onses, M Serdar

    2015-01-27

    This article presents a soft lithographic approach using block copolymer (BCP) films to fabricate functional chemically patterned polymer brushes on the nanoscale. Hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-OH) was transfer printed from the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) domains of self-assembled poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) films to a substrate in conformal contact with the film to generate patterned PEG brushes mirroring the pattern of BCP domains. A key point in the study is that the chemistry of the functional transferred brushes is different from the chemistry of either block of the copolymer; PEG-OH is miscible only in the PMMA block and therefore transferred only from PMMA domains. The functionality of the PEG brushes was demonstrated by the selective immobilization of citrate-stabilized Au NPs (15 nm) and validated the generation of high-quality chemical patterns with sub-30-nm feature sizes.

  10. Plasma proteins adsorption mechanism on polyethylene-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) surface by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Jinghua; Ji, Xiangling; Stagnaro, Paola

    2013-06-04

    Protein adsorption has a vital role in biomaterial surface science because it is directly related to the hemocompatibility of blood-contacting materials. In this study, monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) with two different molecular weights was grafted on polyethylene as a model to elucidate the adsorption mechanisms of plasma protein through quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Combined with data from platelet adhesion, whole blood clotting time, and hemolysis rate, the blood compatibility of PE-g-mPEG film was found to have significantly improved. Two adsorption schemes were developed for real-time monitoring of protein adsorption. Results showed that the preadsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the surfaces of PE-g-mPEG films could effectively inhibit subsequent adsorption of fibrinogen (Fib). Nonspecific protein adsorption of BSA was determined by surface coverage, not by the chain length of PEG. Dense PEG brush could release more trapped water molecules to resist BSA adsorption. Moreover, the preadsorbed Fib could be gradually displaced by high-concentration BSA. However, the adsorption and displacement of Fib was determined by surface hydrophilicity.

  11. Mechanical and transparent conductive properties of ZnO and Ga-doped ZnO films sputtered using electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma on polyethylene naphtalate substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Akazawa, Housei

    2014-03-15

    Transparent conductive ZnO and Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films were deposited on polyethylene naphtalate (PEN) sheet substrates using electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering. Both ZnO and GZO films were highly adhesive to the PEN substrates without inserting an intermediate layer in the interface. When compared at the same thickness, the transparent conductive properties of GZO films on PEN substrates were only slightly inferior to those on glass substrates. However, the carrier concentration of ZnO films on PEN substrates was 1.5 times that of those on glass substrates, whereas their Hall mobility was only 60% at a thickness of 300 nm. The depth profile of elements measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy revealed the diffusion of hydrocarbons out of the PEN substrate into the ZnO film. Hence, doped carbons may act as donors to enhance carrier concentration, and the intermixing of elements at the interface may deteriorate the crystallinity, resulting in the lower Hall mobility. When the ZnO films were thicker than 400 nm, cracks became prevalent because of the lattice mismatch strain between the film and the substrate, whereas GZO films were free of cracks. The authors investigated how rolling the films around a cylindrical pipe surface affected their conductive properties. Degraded conductivity occurred at a threshold pipe radius of 10 mm when tensile stress was applied to the film, but it occurred at a pipe radius of 5 mm when compressive stress was applied. These values are guidelines for bending actual devices fabricated on PEN substrates.

  12. Nanostructurization and thermal properties of polyethylenes' welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galchun, Anatoliy; Korab, Nikolay; Kondratenko, Volodymyr; Demchenko, Valeriy; Shadrin, Andriy; Anistratenko, Vitaliy; Iurzhenko, Maksym

    2015-03-01

    As it is known, polyethylene (PE) is one of the common materials in the modern world, and PE products take the major share on industrial and trade markets. For example, various types of technical PE like PE-63, PE-80, and PE-100 have wide industrial applications, i.e., in construction, for pipeline systems etc. A rapid development of plastics industry outstrips detailed investigation of welding processes and welds' formation mechanism, so they remain unexplored. There is still no final answer to the question how weld's microstructure forms. Such conditions limit our way to the understanding of the problem and, respectively, prevent scientific approaches to the welding of more complicated (from chemical point of view) types of polymers than PE. Taking into account state-of-the-art, the article presents results of complex studies of PE weld, its structure, thermophysical and operational characteristics, analysis of these results, and basing on that some hypotheses of welded joint and weld structure formation. It is shown that welding of dissimilar types of polyethylene, like PE-80 and PE-100, leads to the formation of better-ordered crystallites, restructuring the crystalline phase, and amorphous areas with internal stresses in the welding zone.

  13. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Zhang, Gang; Nam, Changwoo; Chung, T.C. Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES) proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young’s modulus >1400 MPa) and low water swelling (λ < 15) even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective) properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm) than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO2• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications. PMID:26690232

  14. Characterization of Polyethylene-Graft-Sulfonated Polyarylsulfone Proton Exchange Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Zhang, Gang; Nam, Changwoo; Chung, T C Mike

    2015-12-04

    This paper examines polymer film morphology and several important properties of polyethylene-graft-sulfonated polyarylene ether sulfone (PE-g-s-PAES) proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Due to the extreme surface energy differences between a semi-crystalline and hydrophobic PE backbone and several amorphous and hydrophilic s-PAES side chains, the PE-g-s-PAES membrane self-assembles into a unique morphology, with many proton conductive s-PAES channels embedded in the stable and tough PE matrix and a thin hydrophobic PE layer spontaneously formed on the membrane surfaces. In the bulk, these membranes show good mechanical properties (tensile strength >30 MPa, Young's modulus >1400 MPa) and low water swelling (λ < 15) even with high IEC >3 mmol/g in the s-PAES domains. On the surface, the thin hydrophobic and semi-crystalline PE layer shows some unusual barrier (protective) properties. In addition to exhibiting higher through-plane conductivity (up to 160 mS/cm) than in-plane conductivity, the PE surface layer minimizes methanol cross-over from anode to cathode with reduced fuel loss, and stops the HO• and HO₂• radicals, originally formed at the anode, entering into PEM matrix. Evidently, the thin PE surface layer provides a highly desirable protecting layer for PEMs to reduce fuel loss and increase chemical stability. Overall, the newly developed PE-g-s-PAES membranes offer a desirable set of PEM properties, including conductivity, selectivity, mechanical strength, stability, and cost-effectiveness for direct methanol fuel cell applications.

  15. Stereocomplex Film Using Triblock Copolymers of Polylactide and Poly(ethylene glycol) Retain Paxlitaxel on Substrates by an Aqueous Inkjet System.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Hiroharu; Kuroda, Ayaka; Kan, Kai; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2015-09-29

    The stereocomplex formation of poly(L,L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D,D-lactide) (PDLA) using an inkjet system was expanded to the amphiphilic copolymers, using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as a hydrophilic polymer. The diblock copolymers, which are composed of PEG and PLLA (MPEG-co-PLLA) and PEG and PDLA (MPEG-co-PDLA), were employed for thin-film preparation using an aqueous inkjet system. The solvent and temperature conditions were optimized for the stereocomplex formation between MPEG-co-PLLA and MPEG-co- PDLA. As a result, the stereocomplex was adequately formed in acetonitrile/water (1:1, v/v) at 40 °C. The aqueous conditions improved the stereocomplex film preparation, which have suffered from clogging when using the organic solvents in previous work. The triblock copolymers, PLLA-co-PEG-co-PLLA and PDLA-co-PEG-co-PDLA, were employed for square patterning with the inkjet system, which produced thin films. The amphiphilic polymer film was able to retain hydrophobic compounds inside. The present result contributed to the rapid film preparation by inkjet, retaining drugs with difficult solubility in water, such as paclitaxel within the films.

  16. Fabrication of honeycomb-structured poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) porous films and biomedical applications for cell growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Bingjian; Zhu, Qingzeng; Yao, Linli; Hao, Jingcheng

    2015-03-01

    A series of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(lactic acid) (PEG-PLA) copolymers with a hydrophobic PLA block of different molecular weights and a fixed length hydrophilic PEG were synthesized successfully and characterized. These amphiphilic block copolymers were used to fabricate honeycomb-structured porous films using the breath figure (BF) templating technique. The surface topology and composition of the highly ordered pattern film were further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescence microscopy. The results indicated that the PEG-to-PLA block molecular weight ratio influenced the BF film surface topology. The film with the best ordered pores was obtained with a PEG-to-PLA ratio of 2.0 × 103:3.0 × 104. The self-organization of the hydrophilic PEG chains within the pores was confirmed by XPS and fluorescence labeled PEG. A model is proposed to elucidate the stabilization process of the amphiphilic PEG-PLA aggregated architecture on the water droplet-based templates. In addition, GFP-U87 cell viability has been investigated by MTS test and the cell morphology on the honeycomb-structured PEG-PLA porous film has been evaluated using phase-contrast microscope. This porous film is shown to be suitable as a matrix for cell growth.

  17. Suppression of cell and platelet adhesion to star-shaped 8-armed poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(L-lactide) block copolymer films.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Koji; Ohya, Yuichi; Ouchi, Tatsuro

    2006-06-16

    To explore the potential of a star-shaped 8-armed poly(ethylene glycol)35K-block-poly(L-lactide)37K (8-armed PEG35K-b-PLLA37K: M(n) of PEG = 35 000, M(n) of PLLA = 37 000) film as a novel bioabsorbable adhesion-prevention membrane, the water structure, surface contact angle, protein adsorption, and cell and platelet anti-adhesion properties of such a hydrated film are investigated. Based on the results, it is found that the 8-armed PEG35K-b-PLLA37K film exhibits a biologically inert surface, which is the result of a large number of PEG chains and a free water layer on the film surface. This leads to a reduction in protein absorption and cell and platelet adhesion onto the film surface. This implies that the star-shaped 8-armed PEG35K-b-PLLA37K film can be utilized as a novel bioabsorbable adhesion-prevention membrane.

  18. Spontaneous and specific myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube films for skeletal muscle engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunyan; Andersen, Henrik; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ho, Han Kiat

    2015-11-21

    This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the non-induced hMSCs plated on the PEG-CNT films, compared to the negative control, presented significant up-regulation of general myogenic markers including early commitment markers of myoblast differentiation protein-1 (MyoD) and desmin, as well as a late phase marker of myosin heavy chain-2 (MHC). Corresponding protein analysis by immunoblot assays corroborated these results. Skeletal muscle-specific markers, fast skeletal troponin-C (TnC) and ryanodine receptor-1 (Ryr) were also significantly increased in the non-induced hMSCs on PEG-CNT films by RT-PCR. For these cells, the commitment to specific skeletal myoblasts was further proved by the absence of enhanced adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. This study elucidated that PEG-CNT films supported a dedicated differentiation of hMSCs into a skeletal myogenic lineage and can work as a promising material towards skeletal muscle injury repair.

  19. Effect of a low-density polyethylene film containing butylated hydroxytoluene on lipid oxidation and protein quality of Sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra) muscle during frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Torres-Arreola, Wilfrido; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda; Peralta, Elizabeth; Cardenas-López, José Luis; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina

    2007-07-25

    Fresh sierra fish (Scomberomorus sierra) fillets were packed in low-density polyethylene films with butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT-LDPE) added. Fillets packed in LDPE with no BHT were used as controls (LDPE). The packed fillets were stored at -25 degrees C for 120 days in which the film released 66.5% of the antioxidant. The influence of the antioxidant on lipid and protein quality, lipid oxidation, muscle structure changes, and shear-force resistance was recorded. As compared to LDPE films, fillets packed in BHT-LDPE films showed lower lipid oxidation, thiobarbituric acid values (4.20 +/- 0.52 vs 11.95 +/- 1.06 mg malonaldehyde/kg), peroxide values (7.20 +/- 1.38 vs 15.15 +/- 1.48 meq/kg), and free fatty acids (7.98 +/- 0.43 vs 11.83 +/- 1.26% of oleic acid). Fillets packed in BHT-LDPE films showed less tissue damage and lost less firmness than fillets packed in LDPE. A significant relationship between lipid oxidation and texture was detected (R2 adjusted, 0.70-0.73). BHT-LDPE films may be used not only to prevent lipid oxidation but also to minimize protein damage to prolong the shelf life of sierra fish.

  20. Thermal, mechanical and permeation properties of gamma-irradiated multilayer food packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chytiri, Stavroula; Goulas, Antonios E.; Riganakos, Kyriakos A.; Kontominas, Michael G.

    2006-03-01

    The effect of gamma radiation (doses 5-60 kGy) on the thermal, mechanical and permeation properties, as well as on IR-spectra of experimental five-layer food packaging films were studied. Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene (LDPE) comprising 25-50% by weight of the multilayer structure. Representative films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the buried layer were taken as controls. Results showed that the percentage of recycled LDPE in the multilayer structure did not significantly ( p<0.05) affect the melting temperature, tensile strength, percent elongation at break, Young's modulus, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour transmission rate values and the IR-spectra of the non-irradiated and irradiated multilayer films. Irradiation (mainly the higher dose of 60 kGy) induced certain small, but statistically significant ( p<0.05) differences in the mechanical properties of multilayer films (with or without recycled LDPE layer) while no significant differences were observed in the thermal properties and in the gas and water vapour permeability of multilayer films. The above findings are discussed in relation to the good quality of the pre-consumer scrap used in the present study.

  1. Effect of peptide secondary structure on adsorption and adsorbed film properties on end-grafted polyethylene oxide layers.

    PubMed

    Binazadeh, M; Zeng, H; Unsworth, L D

    2014-01-01

    Poly-l-lysine (PLL), in α-helix or β-sheet configuration, was used as a model peptide for investigating the effect of secondary structures on adsorption events to poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) modified surfaces formed using θ solvents. Circular dichroism results showed that the secondary structure of PLL persisted upon adsorption to Au and PEO modified Au surfaces. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used to characterize the chemisorbed PEO layer in different solvents (θ and good solvents), as well as the sequential adsorption of PLL in different secondary structures (α-helix or β-sheet). QCM-D results suggest that chemisorption of PEO 750 and 2000 from θ solutions led to brushes 3.8 ± 0.1 and 4.5 ± 0.1 nm thick with layer viscosities of 9.2 ± 0.8 and 4.8 ± 0.5 cP, respectively. The average number of H2O per ethylene oxides, while in θ solvent, was determined as ~0.9 and ~1.2 for the PEO 750 and 2000 layers, respectively. Upon immersion in good solvent (as used for PLL adsorption experiments), the number of H2O per ethylene oxides increased to ~1.5 and ~2.0 for PEO 750 and 2000 films, respectively. PLL adsorbed masses for α-helix and β-sheet on Au sensors was 231 ± 5 and 1087 ± 14 ng cm(-2), with layer viscosities of 2.3 ± 0.1 and 1.2 ± 0.1 cP, respectively; suggesting that the α-helix layer was more rigid, despite a smaller adsorbed mass, than that of β-sheet layers. The PEO 750 layer reduced PLL adsorbed amounts to ~10 and 12% of that on Au for α-helices and β-sheets respectively. The PLL adsorbed mass to PEO 2000 layers dropped to ~12% and 4% of that on Au, for α-helix and β-sheet respectively. No significant differences existed for the viscosities of adsorbed α-helix and β-sheet PLL on PEO surfaces. These results provide new insights into the fundamental understanding of the effects of secondary structures of peptides and proteins on their surface adsorption.

  2. Poly(methyl methacrylate-co-ethyl acrylate) latex particles with poly(ethylene glycol) grafts: structure and film formation.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Staffan; Carlsson, Hans T; Andersson, Thomas; Erkselius, Stefan; Larsson, Anders; Karlsson, Ola J

    2007-03-27

    Water-based copolymer dispersions were prepared using methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethyl acrylate (EA) (MMA/EA = 1:2), and a series of nonionic polymerizable surfactants, i.e., "surfmers" based on poly(ethylene glycol)-(meth)acrylates. The latexes were compared with the behavior of a conventionally stabilized (nonionic nonylphenol ethoxylate, NP100 with 84 ethylene oxide units) dispersion with the same MMA-EA composition (PMMAEA). A number of techniques were employed in order to characterize structure, dynamics, and film formation properties: solution/solid-state NMR, dynamic/static light scattering (DLS/SLS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile/shear mode dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The surfmers were found to be miscible with the MMA-EA copolymer at room temperature, with 46-85 mol % of the reacted surfmer detected at the particle surfaces, and the remaining part buried in the particle bulk. In contrast, the NP100 surfactant formed a separate interphase between the copolymer particles with no mixing detected at room temperature or at 90 degrees C. For a 4.0% dry weight concentration, NP100 phase separated and further crystallized at room temperature over a period of several months. Composition fluctuations related to a limited blockiness on a length scale above approximately 2 nm were detected for PMMAEA particles, whereas the surfmer particles were found to be homogeneous also below this limit. On a particle-particle level, the dispersions tended to form colloidal crystals unless hindered by a broadened particle size distribution or, in the case of PMMAEA, by the action of NP100. Finally, a surface roughness (Rq) master plot was constructed for data above the glass transition temperature (Tg) from Tg + 11 degrees C to Tg + 57 degrees C and compared with the complex shear modulus over 11 frequency decades. Shift factors from the 2 methods obeyed the same Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) temperature

  3. Effects of Interphase Modification and Biaxial Orientation on Dielectric Properties of Poly(ethylene terephthalate)/Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) Multilayer Films.

    PubMed

    Yin, Kezhen; Zhou, Zheng; Schuele, Donald E; Wolak, Mason; Zhu, Lei; Baer, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Recently, poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF)-based multilayer films have demonstrated enhanced dielectric properties, combining high energy density and high dielectric breakdown strength from the component polymers. In this work, further enhanced dielectric properties were achieved through interface/interphase modulation and biaxial orientation for the poly(ethylene terephthalate)/poly(methyl methacrylate)/poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) [PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP)] three-component multilayer films. Because PMMA is miscible with P(VDF-HFP) and compatible with PET, the interfacial adhesion between PET and P(VDF-HFP) layers should be improved. Biaxial stretching of the as-extruded multilayer films induced formation of highly oriented fibrillar crystals in both P(VDF-HFP) and PET, resulting in improved dielectric properties with respect to the unstretched films. First, the parallel orientation of PVDF crystals reduced the dielectric loss from the αc relaxation in α crystals. Second, biaxial stretching constrained the amorphous phase in P(VDF-HFP) and thus the migrational loss from impurity ions was reduced. Third, biaxial stretching induced a significant amount of rigid amorphous phase in PET, further enhancing the breakdown strength of multilayer films. Due to the synergistic effects of improved interfacial adhesion and biaxial orientation, the PET/PMMA/P(VDF-HFP) 65-layer films with 8 vol % PMMA exhibited optimal dielectric properties with an energy density of 17.4 J/cm(3) at breakdown and the lowest dielectric loss. These three-component multilayer films are promising for future high-energy-density film capacitor applications.

  4. Polyethylene Oxide Films Polymerized by Radio Frequency Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Phase Deposition and Its Adsorption Behaviour of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wen-Juan; Xie, Fen-Yan; Chen, Qiang; Weng, Jing

    2008-10-01

    We present polyethylene oxide (PEO) functional films polymerized by rf plasma-enhanced vapour chemical deposition (rf-PECVD) on p-Si (100) surface with precursor ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME) and diluted Ar in pulsed plasma mode. The influences of discharge parameters on the film properties and compounds are investigated. The film structure is analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The water contact angle measurement and atomic force microscope (AFM) are employed to examine the surface polarity and to detect surface morphology, respectively. It is concluded that the smaller duty cycle in pulsed plasma mode contributes to the rich C-O-C (EO) group on the surfaces. As an application, the adsorption behaviour of platelet-rich plasma on plasma polymerization films performed in-vitro is explored. The shapes of attached cells are studied in detail by an optic invert microscope, which clarifies that high-density C-O-C groups on surfaces are responsible for non-fouling adsorption behaviour of the PEO films.

  5. Toward a Long-Chain Perfluoroalkyl Replacement: Water and Oil Repellency of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Films Modified with Perfluoropolyether-Based Polyesters.

    PubMed

    Demir, Tugba; Wei, Liying; Nitta, Naoki; Yushin, Gleb; Brown, Philip J; Luzinov, Igor

    2017-07-19

    Original perfluoropolyethers (PFPE)-based oligomeric polyesters (FOPs) of different macromolecular architecture were synthesized via polycondensation as low surface energy additives to engineering thermoplastics. The oligomers do not contain long-chain perfluoroalkyl segments, which are known to yield environmentally unsafe perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids. To improve the compatibility of the materials with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) we introduced isophthalate segments into the polyesters and targeted the synthesis of lower molecular weight oligomeric macromolecules. The surface properties such as morphology, composition, and wettability of PET/FOP films fabricated from solution were investigated using atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. It was demonstrated that FOPs, when added to PET film, readily migrate to the film surface and bring significant water and oil repellency to the thermoplastic boundary. We have established that the wettability of PET/FOP films depends on three main parameters: (i) end-groups of fluorinated polyesters, (ii) the concentration of fluorinated polyesters in the films, and (iii) equilibration via annealing. The most effective water/oil repellency FOP has two C4F9-PFPE-tails. The addition of this oligomeric polyester to PET allows (even at relatively low concentrations) reaching a level of oil repellency and surface energy comparable to that of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE/Teflon). Therefore, the materials can be considered suitable replacements for additives containing long-chain perfluoroalkyl substances.

  6. Morphological and Chemical Evolution of Gradually Deposited Diamond-Like Carbon Films on Polyethylene Terephthalate: From Subplantation Processes to Structural Reorganization by Intrinsic Stress Release Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Catena, Alberto; Guo, Qiaochu; Kunze, Michael R; Agnello, Simonpietro; Gelardi, Franco M; Wehner, Stefan; Fischer, Christian B

    2016-04-27

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are nowadays intensively studied composites due to their excellent gas barrier properties and biocompatibility. Despite their applicative features being highly explored, the interface properties and structural film evolution of DLC coatings on PET during deposition processes are still sparsely investigated. In this study two different types of DLC films were gradually deposited on PET by radio frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) using acetylene plasma. The surface morphology of the deposited samples has been analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their chemical composition was investigated by diffusive reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and Raman spectroscopy analysis and the surface wettability by contact angle measurements. Subplantation processes and interface effects are revealed through the morphological and chemical analysis of both types. During plasma deposition processes the increasing carbon load causes the rise of intrinsic film stress. It is proven that stress release phenomena cause the transition between polymer-like to a more cross-linked DLC network by folding dehydrogenated chains into closed 6-fold rings. These findings significantly lead to an enhanced understanding in DLC film growth mechanism by RF-PECVD processes.

  7. Application of sample-sample two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy to determine the glass transition temperature of poly(ethylene terephthalate) thin films.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Zhang, Ying; Li, Boyan; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2007-01-01

    The glass transition temperatures (Tg) of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) thin films with different thicknesses are determined by analyzing their in situ reflection-absorption infrared (RAIR) spectra measured over a temperature range of 28 to 84 degrees C. The criterion of standard deviation of the covariance matrices is used as a graphical indicator for the determination of the Tg present in the sample-sample two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectra calculated from the temperature-dependent RAIR spectra. After two data pretreatments of the first derivative of the spectral absorbance versus temperature and the mean normalization over the wavenumbers are sequentially carried out on the RAIR spectra, an abrupt change of the first-derivative correlation spectra with respect to temperature is quickly obtained. It reflects the temperature at which the apparent intensity changes in pertinent absorption bands of PET thin films take place due to the dramatic segmental motion of PET chain conformation. The Tg of the thin PET films is accordingly determined. The results reveal that it decreases with a great dependence on the film thickness and that sample-sample 2D correlation spectroscopy enables one to determine the transition temperature of polymer thin films in an easy and valid way.

  8. Surface Functionalized Polyethylene Film.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    functionality into this oxidized surface layer. 2) Explored new techniques for analyzing the surfaces of organic polymeric solids. Contact angle titration...the study of the contact angle of water on organic solids as a function of pH--has proved particularly useful and extremely surface sensitive. 3

  9. Comparison of Mechanical Properties Between PE80 and PE100 Pipe Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi; Jar, P.-Y. Ben

    2016-10-01

    Mechanical properties, including yield stress, relaxation behavior, moduli (elastic modulus at the strain of 0.5% and strain hardening modulus at strains above 70%), viscous stress, and quasi-static stress, are compared between polyethylene (PE) pipes that are made of PE80 and PE100 resins. The mechanical properties are measured using D-split tensile test on modified notched pipe ring specimens. The comparison includes the influence of strain rate (by the change of crosshead speed) on the yield strength and influence of pre-strain on the relaxation behavior and the modulus values. A two-stage approach is used to characterize the influence of pre-strain on the moduli, to ensure that viscous recovery from the first-stage of the test, to introduce the pre-strain, does not affect the modulus measurement from the second-stage test. The results show that elastic modulus, yield stress, strain hardening modulus, viscous stress, and quasi-static stress for PE100 are higher than those for PE80, but PE80 shows higher resistance to stress relaxation. The results also show that with the increase in the pre-strain level, the elastic modulus drops but the strain hardening modulus remains relatively constant.

  10. Structural and optical properties of Ag-doped copper oxide thin films on polyethylene napthalate substrate prepared by low temperature microwave annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sayantan; Alford, T. L.

    2013-06-28

    Silver doped cupric oxide thin films are prepared on polyethylene naphthalate (flexible polymer) substrates. Thin films Ag-doped CuO are deposited on the substrate by co-sputtering followed by microwave assisted oxidation of the metal films. The low temperature tolerance of the polymer substrates led to the search for innovative low temperature processing techniques. Cupric oxide is a p-type semiconductor with an indirect band gap and is used as selective absorption layer solar cells. X-ray diffraction identifies the CuO phases. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements confirm the stoichiometry of each copper oxide formed. The surface morphology is determined by atomic force microscopy. The microstructural properties such as crystallite size and the microstrain for (-111) and (111) planes are calculated and discussed. Incorporation of Ag led to the lowering of band gap in CuO. Consequently, it is determined that Ag addition has a strong effect on the structural, morphological, surface, and optical properties of CuO grown on flexible substrates by microwave annealing. Tauc's plot is used to determine the optical band gap of CuO and Ag doped CuO films. The values of the indirect and direct band gap for CuO are found to be 2.02 eV and 3.19 eV, respectively.

  11. Multivariate analysis of DSC-XRD simultaneous measurement data: a study of multistage crystalline structure changes in a linear poly(ethylene imine) thin film.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Tetsuo; Otsuka, Makoto; Katsumoto, Yukiteru; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    A multivariate analytical technique has been applied to the analysis of simultaneous measurement data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to study thermal changes in crystalline structure of a linear poly(ethylene imine) (LPEI) film. A large number of XRD patterns generated from the simultaneous measurements were subjected to an augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis, and the XRD patterns were readily decomposed into chemically independent XRD patterns and their thermal profiles were also obtained at the same time. The decomposed XRD patterns and the profiles were useful in discussing the minute peaks in the DSC. The analytical results revealed the following changes of polymorphisms in detail: An LPEI film prepared by casting an aqueous solution was composed of sesquihydrate and hemihydrate crystals. The sesquihydrate one was lost at an early stage of heating, and the film changed into an amorphous state. Once the sesquihydrate was lost by heating, it was not recovered even when it was cooled back to room temperature. When the sample was heated again, structural changes were found between the hemihydrate and the amorphous components. In this manner, the simultaneous DSC-XRD measurements combined with ALS analysis proved to be powerful for obtaining a better understanding of the thermally induced changes of the crystalline structure in a polymer film.

  12. Radiolysis products and sensory properties of electron-beam-irradiated high-barrier food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Chytiri, S D; Badeka, A V; Riganakos, K A; Kontominas, M G

    2010-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of electron-beam irradiation on the production of radiolysis products and sensory changes in experimental high-barrier packaging films composed of polyamide (PA), ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE). Films contained a middle buried layer of recycled LDPE, while films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the middle buried layer were taken as controls. Irradiation doses ranged between zero and 60 kGy. Generally, a large number of radiolysis products were produced during electron-beam irradiation, even at the lower absorbed doses of 5 and 10 kGy (approved doses for food 'cold pasteurization'). The quantity of radiolysis products increased with irradiation dose. There were no significant differences in radiolysis products identified between samples containing a recycled layer of LDPE and those containing virgin LDPE (all absorbed doses), indicating the 'functional barrier' properties of external virgin polymer layers. Sensory properties (mainly taste) of potable water were affected after contact with irradiated as low as 5 kGy packaging films. This effect increased with increasing irradiation dose.

  13. Spontaneous and specific myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube films for skeletal muscle engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunyan; Andersen, Henrik; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros; Ramaprabhu, Sundara; Pastorin, Giorgia; Ho, Han Kiat

    2015-10-01

    This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that the non-induced hMSCs plated on the PEG-CNT films, compared to the negative control, presented significant up-regulation of general myogenic markers including early commitment markers of myoblast differentiation protein-1 (MyoD) and desmin, as well as a late phase marker of myosin heavy chain-2 (MHC). Corresponding protein analysis by immunoblot assays corroborated these results. Skeletal muscle-specific markers, fast skeletal troponin-C (TnC) and ryanodine receptor-1 (Ryr) were also significantly increased in the non-induced hMSCs on PEG-CNT films by RT-PCR. For these cells, the commitment to specific skeletal myoblasts was further proved by the absence of enhanced adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic markers. This study elucidated that PEG-CNT films supported a dedicated differentiation of hMSCs into a skeletal myogenic lineage and can work as a promising material towards skeletal muscle injury repair.This study explored the influence of polyethylene glycol-linked multi-walled carbon nanotube (PEG-CNT) films on skeletal myogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). PEG-CNT films were prepared with nanoscale surface roughness, orderly arrangement of PEG-CNTs, high hydrophilicity and high mechanical strength. Notably, PEG-CNT films alone could direct the skeletal myogenic differentiation of hMSCs in the absence of myogenic induction factors. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed

  14. 78 FR 52500 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... Remand, Court No. 11-00070, dated July 22, 2013, available at: http://ia.ita.doc.gov/remands (``PET Film... with the Department's PET Film Final Results \\2\\ and is amending the final results with respect to... (February 22, 2011) (``PET Film Final Results''). DATES: Effective August 16, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  15. Roll-to-roll DBD plasma pretreated polyethylene web for enhancement of Al coating adhesion and barrier property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haibao; Li, Hua; Fang, Ming; Wang, Zhengduo; Sang, Lijun; Yang, Lizhen; Chen, Qiang

    2016-12-01

    In this paper the roll-to-roll atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was used to pre-treat polyethylene (PE) web surface before the conventional thermal evaporation aluminum (Al) was performed as a barrier layer. We emphasized the plasma environment effect based on the inlet three kinds of reactive monomers. The cross hatch test was employed to assess the Al coating adhesion; and the oxygen transmission rate (OTR) was used to evaluate gas barrier property. The results showed that after roll-to-roll DBD plasma treatment all Al coatings adhered strongly on PE films and were free from pinhole defects with mirror morphology. The OTR was reduced from 2673 cm3/m2 day for Al-coated original PE to 138 cm3/m2 day for Al-coated allyamine (C3H7N) modified PE. To well understand the mechanism the chemical compositions of the untreated and DBD plasma pretreated PE films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface topography was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). For the property of surface energy the water contact angle measurement was also carried out in the DBD plasma treated samples with deionized water.

  16. Aluminum Wire Rope Polyethylene Sheathing Failure.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    of polyethylene taken from sheathed wire rope samples with and without cracking . Sample Melting Point (°C) Heat of Fusion (J/g) Percent...The cracked polyethylene sheathing was made from a higher density PE than the uncracked sheathing. It failed when it was wound onto a cable reel...12, 512 (1979). 6. A. Lustiger, ’ Environmental Stress Cracking : The Phenomenon and its Utility’, Chapter 16 in Failure of Plastics, edited by W

  17. Silk fibroin immobilization on poly(ethylene terephthalate) films: comparison of two surface modification methods and their effect on mesenchymal stem cells culture.

    PubMed

    Liang, Meini; Yao, Jinrong; Chen, Xin; Huang, Lei; Shao, Zhengzhong

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has played a curial role for the surface modification of conventional materials to improve the biocompatibility, and SF modified poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) materials have potential applications on tissue engineering such as artificial ligament, artificial vessel, artificial heart valve sewing cuffs dacron and surgical mesh engineering. In this work, SF was immobilized onto PET film via two different methods: 1) plasma pretreatment followed by SF dip coating (PET-SF) and 2) plasma-induce acrylic acid graft polymerization and subsequent covalent immobilization of SF on PET film (PET-PAA-SF). It could be found that plasma treatment provided higher surface roughness which was suitable for further SF dip coating, while grafted poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) promised the covalent bonding between SF and PAA. ATR-FTIR adsorption band at 3284 cm(-1), 1623 cm(-1) and 1520 cm(-1) suggested the successful introduction of SF onto PET surface, while the amount of immobilized SF of PET-SF was higher than PET-PAA-SF according to XPS investigation (0.29 vs 0.23 for N/C ratio). Surface modified PET film was used as substrate for mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) culture, the cells on PET-SF surface exhibited optimum density compared to PET-PAA-SF according to CCK-8 assays, which indicated that plasma pretreatment followed by SF dip coating was a simple and effective way to prepare biocompatible PET surface. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Application of Linear and Branched Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Poly(Lactide) Block Copolymers for the Preparation of Films and Solution Electrospun Meshes.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Martina; Groll, Juergen; Tessmar, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (PEG-PLA) block copolymers are processed to solvent cast films and solution electrospun meshes. The effect of polymer composition, architecture, and number of anchoring points for the plasticizer on swelling, degradation, and mechanical properties of these films and meshes is investigated as potential barrier device for the prevention of peritoneal adhesions. As a result, adequate properties are achieved for the massive films with a longer retention of the plasticizer PEG for star-shaped block copolymers than for the linear triblock copolymers and consequently more endurable mechanical properties during degradation. For electrospun meshes fabricated using the same polymers, similar trends are observed, but with an earlier start of fragmentation and lower tensile strengths. To overcome the poor mechanical strengths and an occurring shrinkage during incubation, which may impair the coverage of the wound, further adaptions of the meshes and the fabrication process are necessary. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Radiation induced graft copolymerization of n-butyl acrylate onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films and thermal properties of the obtained graft copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ping, Xiang; Wang, Mozhen; Ge, Xuewu

    2011-05-01

    n-Butyl acrylate (BA) was successfully grafted onto poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using simultaneous radiation induced graft copolymerization with gamma rays. When BA concentration ranges from 20% to 30%, the Degree of Grafting (DG), measured by gravimetry and 1H NMR, increases with the monomer concentration and absorbed dose, but decreases with dose rate from 0.83 to 2.53 kGy/h. The maximum DG can reach up to 22.1%. The thermal transition temperatures such as glass-transition temperature ( Tg) and cold-crystallization temperature ( Tcc) of PET in grafted films were little different from those in original PET film, indicating that microphase separation occurred between PBA side chains and PET backbone. This work implied that if PET/elastomers (e.g., acrylate rubber) blends are radiated by high energy gamma rays under a certain condition, PET-g-polyacrylate copolymer may be produced in-situ, which will improve the compatibility between PET and the elastomers so as to improve the integral mechanical properties of PET based engineering plastic.

  20. Plasma-induced graft-polymerization of polyethylene glycol acrylate on polypropylene films: chemical characterization and evaluation of the protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Stefano; Riccardi, Claudia; Grimoldi, Elisa; Colombo, Claudia; Villa, Anna Maria; Natalello, Antonino; Gatti-Lafranconi, Pietro; Lotti, Marina; Doglia, Silvia Maria

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the optimization of argon plasma-induced graft-polymerization of polyethylene glycol acrylate (PEGA) on polypropylene (PP) films in order to obtain surfaces with a reduced protein adsorption for possible biomedical applications. To this end, we examined the protein adsorption on the treated and untreated surfaces. The graft-polymerization process consisted of four steps: (a) plasma pre-activation of the PP substrates; (b) immersion in a PEGA solution; (c) argon plasma-induced graft-polymerization; (d) washing and drying of the samples. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated in terms of the amount of grafted polymer, coverage uniformity and substrates wettability. The process was monitored by contact angle measurements, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. The stability of the obtained thin films was evaluated in water and in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) at 37 degrees C. The adsorption of fibrinogen and green fluorescent protein (GFP)--taken as model proteins--on the differently prepared surfaces was evaluated through a fluorescence approach using laser scanning confocal microscopy with photon counting detection. After plasma treatments of short duration, the protein adsorption decreases by about 60-70% with respect to that of the untreated film, while long plasma exposure resulted in a higher protein adsorption, due to damaging of the grafted polymer.

  1. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of olive by-products and antioxidant film containing olive leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Moudache, M; Colon, M; Nerín, C; Zaidi, F

    2016-12-01

    The antioxidant activity of olive leaf (OL) and cake (OC) extracts with different solvents was evaluated. 70% of aqueous ethanol extract of OL was chosen as the most antioxidant extract based on antiradical activity (DPPH) (95.4±0.3%) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) (0.82±0.07g equivalent Trolox per g of solution) assays. This OL extract was incorporated in two multilayer materials consisting of (i) polyethylene/polyethylene (PE/PE) film and (ii) polyethylene/paper (PE/P). These multilayers were exposed to a gas stream enriched in free radicals to evaluate the scavenging capacity of both materials. PE/PE film exhibited the highest scavenging activity of free radicals (78.8%). Migration of the phenolic compounds from olive by-products into two simulants was performed and demonstrated a non-migrating behavior. The limits of detection and quantification for oleuropein were 0.5μgkg(-1) and 1.7μgkg(-1) and for Luteolin-7-O-glucoside 1.3μgkg(-1) and 4.3μg kg(-1) respectively.

  2. Consequences of thermo- and photo-oxidation on end-use properties of pure PE

    SciTech Connect

    Tireau, Jonathan; Van Schoors, Laetitia; Benzarti, Karim; Colin, Xavier

    2010-06-02

    Thin films of polyethylene have been exposed to thermal and photochemical accelerated agings at different temperatures and different UV intensities. In both cases, mechanical tests performed on aged samples revealed a severe embrittlement of the PE material. However, a multi-scale analysis showed that i) under thermal oxidative conditions, such embrittlement mainly resulted from a reduction of molecular mobility of the amorphous phase due to annealing phenomena, while ii) it was rather associated to a competition between chain scission and cross-linking processes under photo-oxidative conditions. As regards the oxidation mechanisms, it was found that thermo-oxidation is clearly initiated by a bimolecular decomposition of hydroperoxides, while photo-oxidation seems rather initiated by the photolysis of ketones and hydroperoxides. Over a critical threshold of the hydroperoxide concentration, thermolysis of hydroperoxides seems to predominate and even to control the overall photo-oxidation kinetics.

  3. Tuning the superstructure of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene/low-molecular-weight polyethylene blend for artificial joint application.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Chen, Chen; Zhong, Gan-Ji; Lei, Jun; Xu, Jia-Zhuang; Hsiao, Benjamin S; Li, Zhong-Ming

    2012-03-01

    An easy approach was reported to achieve high mechanical properties of ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)-based polyethylene (PE) blend for artificial joint application without the sacrifice of the original excellent wear and fatigue behavior of UHMWPE. The PE blend with desirable fluidity was obtained by melt mixing UHMWPE and low molecular weight polyethylene (LMWPE), and then was processed by a modified injection molding technology-oscillatory shear injection molding (OSIM). Morphological observation of the OSIM PE blend showed LMWPE contained well-defined interlocking shish-kebab self-reinforced superstructure. Addition of a small amount of long chain polyethylene (2 wt %) to LMWPE greatly induced formation of rich shish-kebabs. The ultimate tensile strength considerably increased from 27.6 MPa for conventional compression molded UHMWPE up to 78.4 MPa for OSIM PE blend along the flow direction and up to 33.5 MPa in its transverse direction. The impact strength of OSIM PE blend was increased by 46% and 7% for OSIM PE blend in the direction parallel and vertical to the shear flow, respectively. Wear and fatigue resistance were comparable to conventional compression molded UHMWPE. The superb performance of the OSIM PE blend was originated from formation of rich interlocking shish-kebab superstructure while maintaining unique properties of UHMWPE. The present results suggested the OSIM PE blend has high potential for artificial joint application.

  4. Physicochemical and mechanical properties of experimental coextruded food-packaging films containing a buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Badeka, Anastasia; Goulas, Antonios E; Adamantiadi, Antigoni; Kontominas, Michael G

    2003-04-09

    Migrational, permeation, and tensile properties of experimental five- and eight-layer coextruded and laminated films containing a middle buried layer of recycled low-density polyethylene (LDPE) comprising 40-50% bw of the multilayer structure were determined. Respective films containing 100% virgin LDPE as the buried layer were taken as controls. Results showed that the percentage of recycled LDPE in the multilayer structure did not affect overall migration values to distilled water, 3% acetic acid, and iso-octane. In all cases, overall migration values were lower than the upper acceptable limit (10 mg/dm(2)) set by the European Union. Transmission rate values to O(2), CO(2), and water vapor were also not affected by the percentage of recycled LDPE in the multilayer structure. On the basis of O(2) transmission rates, low-barrier, barrier, and high-barrier multilayer structures were produced. Likewise, tensile properties (tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and Young's modulus) were not affected by the percentage of recycled material in the multilayer structure. Finally, all experimental films produced no adverse effects in taste or odor of the food-contacting phase tested. The above findings are discussed in relation to the high quality of the primary LDPE scrap used throughout this work in combination with the functional barrier hypothesis. On the basis of the present results it is proposed that primary LDPE scrap may be used as a middle layer comprising 40-50% bw of multilayer food-packaging films without any compromise in migrational, barrier, mechanical, and organoleptic properties.

  5. Preparation and characterization of gradient polymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Gradient polymers are multicomponent polymers whose chemical constitution varies with depth in the sample. Although these polymers may possess unique mechanical, optical, and barrier properties they remain relatively unexplored. This work is a study of the preparation of gradient polymers by sequential exposure of films to a diffusing monomer followed by electron beam irradiation. Initial experiments involved immersion of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) films in styrene or n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) for various time periods followed by irradiation with 1 or 10 megarads of accelerated electrons. A significant amount of poly(n-butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) formed in PVC/BMA systems, but little polystyrene could be found in the PVC/styrene films. A second set of experiments involved immersion of PVC and polyethylene (PE) films in BMA for 20, 40, 60, and 720 minutes followed by irradiation with 10 megarads of electrons. These films were then characterized using optical microscopy, quantitative transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and a depth profiling procedure based on quantitative attenuated total reflection (ATR) FTIR. It was concluded that the mechanism of PBMA formation in the polyethylene films was a result of events immediately following irradiation. Atmospheric oxygen diffusing into irradiated films trapped free radicals at the film surfaces. This was followed by storage in an evacuated desiccator where unintentional exposure to BMA vapor took place. This BMA reacted with free radicals that remained within the film cores, polymerizing to PBMA.

  6. Autoantibodies to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) recognize a kininogen-PE complex.

    PubMed

    Sugi, T; McIntyre, J A

    1995-10-15

    Demonstration of autoimmune antiphospholipid antibodies (aPA) to negatively charged phospholipids (PL) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) requires the presence of certain phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, eg, beta 2-glycoprotein I. We found a requirement for plasma against the electrically neutral or zwitterionic phospholipid, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Two of these PE-binding plasma proteins were identified as high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) and low molecular weight kininogen (LMWK). We studied anti-PE antibody (aPE) seropositive plasma from 13 patients with SLE and/or recurrent spontaneous abortions by using partially purified kininogens and kininogen binding proteins from adult bovine serum isolated by carboxymethyl (CM)-papain affinity chromatography. Eleven of 13 sera recognized a kininogen-PE complex and/or a kininogen-binding protein-kininogen-PE complex. Some aPE-positive patient sera were shown to recognize highly purified HMWK and LMWK by ELISA only when the kininogens were presented on a PE substrate. These aPE sera did not recognize PE, HMWK, or LMWK when they were presented independently as the sole antigens on the ELISA plates. Other aPE-positive sera that did not react with PE-bound HMWK or LMWK reacted with the CM-papain column eluate when it was bound to PE, which suggests that these aPE recognize factor XI or prekallikrein, which normally bind to HMWK. The aPE ELISA reactivity of two patient sera were inhibited by preincubation of the CM-papain column eluate in the ELISA plate. These data show that most aPE are not specific for PE but require the presence of certain PL-binding plasma proteins that are kininogens or proteins in complex with kininogens. Our studies indicate that aPE bind to different plasma proteins than those implicated in anionic PL, aPA ELISA reactivity.

  7. Multifunctional network-structured film coating for woven and knitted polyethylene terephthalate against cardiovascular graft-associated infections.

    PubMed

    Al Meslmani, Bassam M; Mahmoud, Gihan F; Sommer, Frank O; Lohoff, Michael D; Bakowsky, Udo

    2015-05-15

    Multifunctional network-structured polymeric coat for woven and knitted forms of crimped polyethylene terephthalate PET graft was developed to limit graft-associated infections. A newly synthesized antibacterial sulfadimethoxine polyhexylene adipate-b-methoxy polyethylene oxide (SD-PHA-b-MPEO) di-block copolymer was employed. Our figures of merit revealed that the formed coat showed a porous topographic architecture which manifested paramount properties, mostly bacterial anti-adhesion efficiency and biocompatibility with host cells. Compared to untreated grafts, the coat presented marked reduction of adhered Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis previously isolated from a patient's vein catheter by 2.6 and 2.3 folds for woven and knitted grafts, respectively. Similarly, bacterial anti-adhesion effect was observed for Staphylococcus aureus by 2.3 and 2.4 folds, and by 2.9 and 2.7 folds for Gram-negative Escherichia coli for woven and knitted grafts, respectively. Additionally, adhesion and growth characteristics of L929 cells on the modified grafts revealed no significant effect on the biocompatibility. In conclusion, coating of PET with (SD-PHA-b-MPEO) is a versatile approach offers the desired bacterial anti-adhesion effect and host biocompatibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Ultimate PE Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerny, Eleanor; Wojehowski, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article features the Ultimate PE Challenge. The idea had been born when the fifth-grade teachers complained that teaching physical geography was boring, and the technology instructor simultaneously noticed a climbing wall in the gym. "Could physical education simulate the geographic characteristics and obstacles of North America?"…

  9. Statistical analysis of the strength of ultra-oriented ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene film filaments in the framework of the Weibull model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiko, Yu. M.; Marikhin, V. A.; Myasnikova, L. P.; Moskalyuk, O. A.; Radovanova, E. I.

    2016-10-01

    A statistical analysis of the distribution of the tensile strength σ of ultra-oriented ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) film filaments has been performed in the framework of the Weibull model using the results obtained from a large number (50) of measurements. The UHMWPE film filaments have been produced by means of high-temperature multistage zone drawing of xerogels prepared from 1.5% UHMWPE solutions in decalin. The Weibull modulus has been determined for this type of materials. It has been shown that, for the ultimate draw ratio λ = 120, the average tensile strength is equal to 4.7 GPa, which is significantly higher than the tensile strength σ = 3.5 GPa for commercial gel-spun UHMWPE fibers manufactured by the DSM Company (The Netherlands) and the Honeywell International Incorporation (United States). It has been demonstrated that, for 20% of the specimens thus prepared, the tensile strength reaches record-high values σ = 5.2-5.9 GPa.

  10. β - NMR Measurements of Lithium Ion Transport in Thin Films of Pure and Lithium-Salt-Doped Poly(ethylene oxide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Iain; Harada, Masashi; Cortie, David L.; Kiefl, Robert F.; Levy, C. D. Philip; Macfarlane, W. Andrew; McFadden, Ryan M. L.; Morris, Gerald D.; Ogata, Shin-Ichi; Pearson, Matthew R.; Sugiyama, Jun

    2015-03-01

    β - Detected nuclear spin relaxation of 8Li+ has been used to study the microscopic diffusion of lithium ions in thin films of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), PEO with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), PEO with lithium triflate (LiTf) and PEO with lithium trifluoroacetic acid (LiTFA) with monomer-to-salt ratios of 8.3:1. Hopping of Li + above ~ 250 K follows an Arrhenius law in all of the films. Diffusion of Li+ is fastest in pure PEO and decreases in order LiTFSI >LiTf >LiTFA. We observed the activation energy for hopping (EA) and the intrinsic hop rate (τ0-1) both increasing in order LiTFA

  11. β-NMR measurements of molecular-scale lithium-ion dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-lithium-salt thin films.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Iain; Cortie, David L; Harada, Masashi; Kiefl, Robert F; Levy, C D Philip; MacFarlane, W Andrew; McFadden, Ryan M L; Morris, Gerald D; Ogata, Shin-Ichi; Pearson, Matthew R; Sugiyama, Jun

    2017-06-28

    β-detected NMR (β-NMR) has been used to study the molecular-scale dynamics of lithium ions in thin films of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) containing either lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) or lithium trifluoroacetate (LiTFA) salts at monomer-to-salt ratios (EO/Li) of 8.3. The results are compared with previous β-NMR measurements on pure PEO and PEO with lithium triflate (LiOTf) at the same loading [McKenzie et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 7833 (2014)]. Activated hopping of (8)Li(+) was observed in all of the films above ∼250 K, with the hopping parameters strongly correlated with the ionicity of the lithium salt rather than the polymer glass transition temperature. The pre-exponential factor increases exponentially with ionicity, while the activation energy for hopping increases approximately linearly, going from 6.3±0.2 kJ mol(-1) in PEO:LiTFA to 17.8±0.2 kJ mol(-1) in PEO:LiTFSI. The more rapid increase in the pre-exponential factor outweighs the effect of the larger activation energy and results in (8)Li(+) hopping being fastest in PEO followed by PEO:LiTFSI, PEO:LiOTf, and PEO:LiTFA.

  12. β-NMR measurements of molecular-scale lithium-ion dynamics in poly(ethylene oxide)-lithium-salt thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Iain; Cortie, David L.; Harada, Masashi; Kiefl, Robert F.; Levy, C. D. Philip; MacFarlane, W. Andrew; McFadden, Ryan M. L.; Morris, Gerald D.; Ogata, Shin-Ichi; Pearson, Matthew R.; Sugiyama, Jun

    2017-06-01

    β -detected NMR (β -NMR) has been used to study the molecular-scale dynamics of lithium ions in thin films of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) containing either lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) or lithium trifluoroacetate (LiTFA) salts at monomer-to-salt ratios (EO/Li) of 8.3. The results are compared with previous β -NMR measurements on pure PEO and PEO with lithium triflate (LiOTf) at the same loading [McKenzie et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 7833 (2014)]. Activated hopping of 8Li+ was observed in all of the films above ˜250 K, with the hopping parameters strongly correlated with the ionicity of the lithium salt rather than the polymer glass transition temperature. The pre-exponential factor increases exponentially with ionicity, while the activation energy for hopping increases approximately linearly, going from 6.3 ±0.2 kJ mol-1 in PEO:LiTFA to 17.8 ±0.2 kJ mol-1 in PEO:LiTFSI. The more rapid increase in the pre-exponential factor outweighs the effect of the larger activation energy and results in 8Li+ hopping being fastest in PEO followed by PEO:LiTFSI, PEO:LiOTf, and PEO:LiTFA.

  13. Temperature, pressure critical in PE line pipe use

    SciTech Connect

    Oney, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) line pipe is used for low-pressure gas (gathering, supply gas, etc.) and water lines and, in some cases for flow lines. API Spec 15LE specifies minimum requirements for qualification of product and quality control by manufacturers of polyethylene pipe. Spec 15LE also provides guidelines for design of polyethylene. Thermoplastic pipe (PE and PVC) is manufactured by melting resin pellets or powder and extruding the melt through dies. Thermoplastic pipe pressure classes are designated by ''standard dimension ratios'' (SDR). The SDR is the average OD divided by the wall thickness (w.t.). Thus 2 3/8-in. OD pipe (nominal 2 in.) with 0.216-in. w.t. is SDR 11. Nominal 3-in. pipe (3 1/2-in. OD) must have a minimum 0.318-in. w.t. to be SDR 11. Table 5.1 in Spec 15LE lists the most commonly used SDRs. Quality control during manufacture required by Spec 15LE for PE pipe includes short-term hydrostatic tests and dimensional checks. Frequency of tests depend on whether the pipe is coiled or cut into lengths. PE pipe sizes of 3 in. and smaller sizes usually are coiled. In addition, annual tests for verification of long-term pressure rating are required by Spec 15LE.

  14. Deposition of plasma polymerized perfluoromethylene-dominated films showing oil-repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, J. E.; Boerio, F. J.

    2003-05-01

    Plasma polymerized fluorocarbon films were deposited onto polyethylene (PE) substrates to increase oil-repellency of PE. Depositions were performed using the monomer, 1H,1H,2H-perfluoro-1-dodecene in a parallel-plate, radio frequency (rf) reactor, with variable continuous-wave power ranging from 2 to 160 W. The film deposition rate and morphology were strongly dependent on the applied rf power. Most importantly, the chemical structure of the deposited films was also altered, resulting in changes in contact angles of various liquids and the surface energy. Films deposited at low power were composed mainly of perfluoromethylene (CF2) species (up to 67.2%), as shown by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). With an increase in rf power, CF2 content in the film decreased as further fragmentation of the monomer occurred. For each deposition at varying rf powers, even at powers as low as 2 W, the C=C and C-H bonds in the monomer were dissociated by the plasma and not incorporated into the films, as shown by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Oil-repellency, as shown by increased contact angles of hydrocarbon liquids, was found to increase as the amount of CF2 species increased in the film structure. A low critical surface energy (2.7 mJ/m2) was calculated for the film deposited with only 2 W of rf power. Adhesion of the plasma-polymerized films to the PE was also evaluated and found to be poor for films with a high concentration of CF2 species, where cohesive failure within the film occurred. However, adhesion increased as a function of rf power, where the film structure showed more cross-linking. There was a compromise between producing a film with high oleophobicity (oil-repellency) while maintaining adhesion of the film to PE, as some disruption of the CF2 chains in the films was necessary for cohesion through cross-linking.

  15. Polyethylene–Carbon Nanotube Composite Film Deposited by Cold Spray Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ata, Nobuhisa; Ohtake, Naoto; Akasaka, Hiroki

    2017-10-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are high-performance materials because of their superior electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and self-lubrication, and they have been studied for application to polymer composite materials as fillers. However, the methods of fabricating polymer composites with CNTs, such as injection molding, are too complicated for industrial applications. We propose a simple cold spray (CS) technique to obtain a polymer composite of polyethylene (PE) and CNTs. The composite films were deposited by CS on polypropylene and nano-porous structured aluminum substrates. The maximum thickness of the composite film was approximately 1 mm. Peaks at G and D bands were observed in the Raman spectra of the films. Scanning electron microscopy images of the film surface revealed that PE particles were melted by the acceleration gas and CNTs were attached with melted PE. The PE particles solidified after contact with the substrate. These results indicate that PE-CNT composite films were successfully deposited on polypropylene and nano-porous structured aluminum substrates by CS.

  16. Plasma parameters effects on the properties, aging and stability behaviors of allylamine plasma coated ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aziz, Gaelle; Thukkaram, Monica; De Geyter, Nathalie; Morent, Rino

    2017-07-01

    In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated at medium to atmospheric pressure has been used for the deposition of thin polyallylamine (PAA) films on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) substrates. The effect of treatment time (1-5 min), discharge power (5.7-24.0 W), monomer concentration (1-2 g/h) and pressure (10-100 kPa) on the films properties, aging and stability behaviors have been investigated. The used characterization techniques are X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle and optical reflectance spectroscopy. In this paper, it is shown that plasma treatment time does not affect the coatings chemistry; whereas plasma power, monomer concentration and pressure control the coatings properties. It is also shown that the deposition rate of the deposited films changes with varying W/FM values. At low W/FM values, high deposition rates of up to 2 nm/s are observed. Plasma treatments were also characterized by their amino efficiency ([NH2]/[C] in %) and amino selectivity ([NH2]/[N] in %). Depending on the used parameters, these varied between 12.3% and 20% and between 71.2% and 91.1%, respectively. For the aging study, coatings that preserved most of their hydrophilicity were obtained at power ≤11.3 W, monomer concentration ≥1.5 g/h and pressure ≥50 kPa. For the stability study, coatings that showed the highest [N] (%) and lowest percentage of thickness decrease were obtained at ≤2 min, 24.0 W, 1 g/h and pressure ≤50 kPa. One can therefore control the deposition rate as well as the properties, aging and stability behaviors of the deposited coating by carefully choosing the plasma parameters.

  17. The interplay of plasma treatment and gold coating and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene: On the cytocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Novotná, Zdenka; Rimpelová, Silvie; Juřík, Petr; Veselý, Martin; Kolská, Zdenka; Hubáček, Tomáš; Ruml, Tomáš; Švorčík, Václav

    2017-02-01

    We have investigated the application of Ar plasma for creation of nanostructured ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (PE) surface in order to enhance adhesion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (L929). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the interface between plasma-treated and gold-coated PE on adhesion and spreading of cells. The surface properties of pristine samples and its modified counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques (gravimetry, goniometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrokinetic analysis), which were used for characterization of treated and sputtered layers, polarity and surface chemical structure, respectively. Further, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to study the surface morphology and roughness. Biological responses of cells seeded on PE samples were evaluated in terms of cell adhesion, spreading, morphology and proliferation. Detailed cell morphology and intercellular connections were followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As it was expected the thickness of a deposited gold film was an increasing function of the sputtering time. Despite the fact that plasma treatment proceeded in inert plasma, oxidized degradation products were formed on the PE surface which would contribute to increased hydrophilicity (wettability) of the plasma treated polymer. The XPS method showed a decrease in carbon concentration with increasing plasma treatment. Cell adhesion measured on the interface between plasma treated and gold coated PE was inversely proportional to the thickness of a gold layer on a sample. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Cyclodextrin-functionalized polyethylene and polypropylene as biocompatible materials for diclofenac delivery.

    PubMed

    Nava-Ortíz, Cesar A B; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Bucio, Emilio; Concheiro, Angel; Burillo, Guillermina

    2009-12-01

    Polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) were surface functionalized with beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) with the aim of providing PE and PP with the capability of behaving as drug delivery systems. Functionalization was carried out according to a two-step procedure: (i) glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was grafted by means of gamma radiation and (ii) the epoxy groups of GMA reacted with the hydroxyl groups of CDs forming ether bonds. For a fix radiation dose and GMA concentration, grafting yield (ranging from 1 to 100 micromol GMA cm(-2)) depended on the time during which the preirradiated PE and PP films and slabs were immersed in the GMA solution. CD grafting (from 0.013 to 0.734 micromol cm(-2)) was confirmed by infrared analysis, DSC and the organic compound approach (using 3-methylbenzoic acid as a probe). Functionalization with CDs rendered as highly cytocompatible materials as the starting ones, did not cause relevant changes in the water contact angle and the friction coefficient of PE and PP, but remarkably improved their capability to uptake diclofenac through formation of inclusion complexes with the CDs. Furthermore, the functionalized materials released the drug for 1 h, which could be useful for management of initial pain, inflammation at the insertion site as well as adhesion of certain microorganisms if these materials are used as medicated medical devices.

  19. Design procedure prevents PE pipe rupture

    SciTech Connect

    Grigory, S.C.

    1995-12-01

    A rupture prevention design procedure for plastic gas distribution pipe is nearing completion at Southwest Research Institute (SWRI). Given the pipe size, polyethylene (PE) resin, and minimum operating temperature, the maximum safe operating pressure can be determined for which rapid crack propagation (RCP) cannot occur. A computer program, called PFRAC, has been developed for this purpose and uses Charpy energy as the measurement of fracture toughness of PE. Present efforts, however, involve replacing Charpy energy with a dynamic toughness measurement obtained from the Small Scale Steady State (S4) test that is required in ISO 4437. The program is being financed by the Gas Research Institute, Chicago. RCP events in PE pipe have been rare primarily because operating pressures are low and pipe diameters are small in most gas distribution systems. However, controlled RCP experiments in the US and other countries clearly demonstrate that as the gas industry moves toward higher line pressures and larger diameters, the likelihood of an RCP event increases. Recognizing this, ISO includes a requirement for RCP in its ISO 4437 standard for pipe greater than 10 inches in diameter or operating pressures greater than 58 psig. The S4 test may be used on all pipe diameters. A full scale test or the S4 test can be used on pipe greater than 10 inches diameter.

  20. Processable conductive graphene/polyethylene nanocomposites: Effects of graphene dispersion and polyethylene blending with oxidized polyethylene on rheology and microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Muhammad Z.; Abdala, Ahmed A.; Mittal, Vikas; Seifert, Sӧnke; Herring, Andrew M.; Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2016-08-01

    Poor dispersion of graphene in non-polar polymer matrices creates composites with limited applications. A method to improve the dispersion of graphene in polyethylene (PE) via blending PE with oxidized PE (OPE) is examined. Graphene was produced by simultaneous thermal exfoliation and reduction of graphite oxide. Nanocomposites of graphene with PE as well as graphene with PE/OPE-blends were prepared by solvent blending. Improved dispersion of graphene in PE/OPE blends substantially decreases percolation from both rheological (0.3 vol%) and electrical (0.13 vol%) measurements compared to neat PE nanocomposites (1 and 0.29 vol%), respectively. A universal Brownian dispersion of graphene in polymers was concluded similar to that of nanotubes, following the Doi-Edwards theory. Micromechanical models, such as Mori-Tanaka and Halpin-Tsai models, modeled the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites. The nanocomposites microstructure, studied by small angle x-ray scattering, confirmed better dispersion of graphene at lower loadings and the formation of surface fractals in the blend/graphene nanocomposites; whereas only mass fractals were observed in neat PE/graphene nanocomposites.

  1. In Situ Nanocalorimetric Investigations of Plasma Assisted Deposited Poly(ethylene oxide)-like Films by Specific Heat Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Madkou, Sherif; Melnichu, Iurii; Choukourov, Andrei; Krakovsky, Ivan; Biederman, Hynek; Schönhals, Andreas

    2016-04-28

    In recent years, highly cross-linked plasma polymers have started to unveil their potential in numerous biomedical applications in thin-film form. However, conventional diagnostic methods often fail due to their diverse molecular dynamics conformations. Here, glassy dynamics and the melting transition of thin PEO-like plasma assisted deposited (ppPEO) films (thickness 100 nm) were in situ studied by a combination of specific heat spectroscopy, utilizing a pJ/K sensitive ac-calorimeter chip, and composition analytical techniques. Different cross-linking densities were obtained by different plasma powers during the deposition of the films. Glassy dynamics were observed for all values of the plasma power. It was found that the glassy dynamics slows down with increasing the plasma power. Moreover, the underlying relaxation time spectra broaden indicating that the molecular motions become more heterogeneous with increasing plasma power. In a second set of the experiment, the melting behavior of the ppPEO films was studied. The melting temperature of ppPEO was found to decrease with increasing plasma power. This was explained by a decrease of the order in the crystals due to formation of chemical defects during the plasma process.

  2. Low-temperature layer transfer of midair cavity silicon films to a poly(ethylene terephthalate) substrate by meniscus force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaike, Kohei; Nakamura, Shogo; Akazawa, Muneki; Higashi, Seiichiro

    2014-01-01

    A single-crystalline-silicon (c-Si) layer (supported by columns on a starting Si-on-insulator wafer) and a counter-poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate were placed in close face-to-face contact, and pure water was sandwiched in between the c-Si layer and the PET substrate. The samples formed in this manner were heated on a hot plate at 80 °C. By the meniscus force generated during the evaporation of the sandwiched water from the samples, the c-Si films were completely transferred to the PET substrate. A (100)-oriented c-Si thin film that shows good adhesion was successfully formed on PET substrates at low process temperatures.

  3. Q-switched erbium doped fiber laser based on single and multiple walled carbon nanotubes embedded in polyethylene oxide film as saturable absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. H. M.; Ali, N. M.; Salleh, Z. S.; Rahman, A. A.; Harun, S. W.; Manaf, M.; Arof, H.

    2015-01-01

    A passive, stable and low cost Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using both single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which are embedded in polyethylene oxide (PEO) film as a saturable absorber (SA). The film is sandwiched between two FC/PC fiber connectors and integrated into the laser cavity for Q-switching pulse generation operating at wavelength of 1533.6 nm. With SWCNTs, the laser produces a stable pulse train with repetition rate and pulse width ranging from 9.52 to 33.33 kHz and 16.8 to 8.0 μs while varying the 980 nm pump power from 48.5 mW to 100.4 mW. On the other hand, with MWCNTs, the repetition rate and pulse width can be tuned in a wider range of 6.12-33.62 kHz and 9.5- 4.2 μs, respectively as the pump power increases from 37.9 to 120.6 mW. The MWCNTs produce the pulse train at a lower threshold and attain a higher repetition rate compared to the SWCNTs. This is due to thicker carbon nanotubes layer of the MWCNTs which provides more absorption and consequently higher damage threshold. The Q-switched EDFL produces the highest pulse energy of 531 nJ at pump power of 37.9 mW with the use of MWCNTs-PEO SA.

  4. Quantitative investigation of the photodegradation of polyethylene terephthalate film by friction force microscopy, contact-angle goniometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Claire R; Leggett, Graham J

    2009-08-01

    Studies of the UV-induced photodegradation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) have been carried out using contact-angle goniometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and friction force microscopy (FFM). The advancing contact angle of water, theta, decreased following exposure of free-standing PET films to UV light. Measurements of surface friction by FFM showed that the coefficient of friction mu increased as the degradation proceeded, reaching a limiting value after ca 200 min, in agreement with the contact angle data. Using a modified form of the Cassie equation, a quantitative analysis of the extent of modification could be carried out. There was a very close correlation between the coefficient of friction determined by FFM and the value of cos theta. XPS provided more detailed information on surface bonding that also correlated closely with the FFM data. Although FFM provides quantitative data on surface modification with nanometer-scale spatial resolution, it does not provide detailed structural information such as is provided by XPS. The oxygen content at the surface was found to increase as photo-generated radicals within the PET reacted with atmospheric oxygen. Increases in both ester and carbonyl contributions within XPS data accompanied this increase. It was concluded that the photodegradation process follows mainly Norrish type I reaction pathways, following previous work by Fechine et al and Grosstete et al.

  5. Simulation of synaptic short-term plasticity using Ba(CF3SO3)2-doped polyethylene oxide electrolyte film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. T.; Zeng, F.; Li, X. J.; Dong, W. S.; Lu, S. H.; Gao, S.; Pan, F.

    2016-01-01

    The simulation of synaptic plasticity using new materials is critical in the study of brain-inspired computing. Devices composed of Ba(CF3SO3)2-doped polyethylene oxide (PEO) electrolyte film were fabricated and with pulse responses found to resemble the synaptic short-term plasticity (STP) of both short-term depression (STD) and short-term facilitation (STF) synapses. The values of the charge and discharge peaks of the pulse responses did not vary with input number when the pulse frequency was sufficiently low(~1 Hz). However, when the frequency was increased, the charge and discharge peaks decreased and increased, respectively, in gradual trends and approached stable values with respect to the input number. These stable values varied with the input frequency, which resulted in the depressed and potentiated weight modifications of the charge and discharge peaks, respectively. These electrical properties simulated the high and low band-pass filtering effects of STD and STF, respectively. The simulations were consistent with biological results and the corresponding biological parameters were successfully extracted. The study verified the feasibility of using organic electrolytes to mimic STP.

  6. Simulation of synaptic short-term plasticity using Ba(CF3SO3)2-doped polyethylene oxide electrolyte film

    PubMed Central

    Chang, C. T.; Zeng, F.; Li, X. J.; Dong, W. S.; Lu, S. H.; Gao, S.; Pan, F.

    2016-01-01

    The simulation of synaptic plasticity using new materials is critical in the study of brain-inspired computing. Devices composed of Ba(CF3SO3)2-doped polyethylene oxide (PEO) electrolyte film were fabricated and with pulse responses found to resemble the synaptic short-term plasticity (STP) of both short-term depression (STD) and short-term facilitation (STF) synapses. The values of the charge and discharge peaks of the pulse responses did not vary with input number when the pulse frequency was sufficiently low(~1 Hz). However, when the frequency was increased, the charge and discharge peaks decreased and increased, respectively, in gradual trends and approached stable values with respect to the input number. These stable values varied with the input frequency, which resulted in the depressed and potentiated weight modifications of the charge and discharge peaks, respectively. These electrical properties simulated the high and low band-pass filtering effects of STD and STF, respectively. The simulations were consistent with biological results and the corresponding biological parameters were successfully extracted. The study verified the feasibility of using organic electrolytes to mimic STP. PMID:26739613

  7. Formulation and in vitro characterization of novel sildenafil citrate-loaded polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer-based orally dissolving films.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Li; Shi, Li-Li; Cao, Qing-Ri; Xu, Wei-Juan; Cao, Yue; Zhu, Xiao-Yin; Cui, Jing-Hao

    2014-10-01

    This work was aimed to develop novel sildenafil citrate (SC)-loaded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) graft copolymer (Kollicoat(®) IR)-based orally dissolving films (ODFs) using a solvent casting method. Formulation factors such as plasticizers and disintegrants were optimized on the basis of characteristics of blank ODFs. The SC-loaded ODF with a loading capacity up to 6.25mg in an area of 6 cm(2) was prepared and evaluated in terms of mechanical properties, disintegration time and dissolution rate. The physicochemical properties of drug-loaded ODF were also investigated using the scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The blank ODF composed of Kollicoat(®) IR, sodium alginate (ALG-Na) and glycerol (10:2:1.5, w/w) had a remarkably short disintegration time of about 20s. The SC-loaded ODF showed a delayed disintegration time (about 25s), but exhibited improved mechanical properties when compared to the blank ODF. SC was homogeneously dispersed throughout the ODF and the crystalline form of drug had been partly changed, existing strong hydrogen bonding between the drug and carriers. The Kollicoat(®) IR/ALG-Na based ODFs containing SC might be an alternative to conventional tablet for the treatment of male erectile dysfunction.

  8. Ca2+ and Mg2+ binding site engineering increases the degradation of polyethylene terephthalate films by polyester hydrolases from Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Then, Johannes; Wei, Ren; Oeser, Thorsten; Barth, Markus; Belisário-Ferrari, Matheus R; Schmidt, Juliane; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Several bacterial polyester hydrolases are able to hydrolyze the synthetic polyester polyethylene terephthalate (PET). For an efficient enzymatic degradation of PET, reaction temperatures close to the glass transition temperature of the polymer need to be applied. The esterases TfH, BTA2, Tfu_0882, TfCut1, and TfCut2 produced by the thermophilic actinomycete Thermobifida fusca exhibit PET-hydrolyzing activity. However, these enzymes are not sufficiently stable in this temperature range for an efficient degradation of post-consumer PET materials. The addition of Ca2+ or Mg2+ cations to the enzymes resulted in an increase of their melting points between 10.8 and 14.1°C determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. The thermostability of the polyester hydrolases was sufficient to degrade semi-crystalline PET films at 65°C in the presence of 10 mM Ca2+ and 10 mM Mg2+ resulting in weight losses of up to 12.9% after a reaction time of 48 h. The residues Asp174, Asp204, and Glu253 were identified by molecular dynamics simulations as potential binding residues for the two cations in TfCut2. This was confirmed by their substitution with arginine, resulting in a higher thermal stability of the corresponding enzyme variants. The generated variants of TfCut2 represent stabilized catalysts suitable for PET hydrolysis reactions performed in the absence of Ca2+ or Mg2+.

  9. β-NMR measurements of lithium ion transport in thin films of pure and lithium-salt-doped poly(ethylene oxide).

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Iain; Harada, Masashi; Kiefl, Robert F; Levy, C D Philip; MacFarlane, W Andrew; Morris, Gerald D; Ogata, Shin-Ichi; Pearson, Matthew R; Sugiyama, Jun

    2014-06-04

    β-Detected nuclear spin relaxation of (8)Li(+) has been used to study the microscopic diffusion of lithium ions in thin films of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), where the implanted lithium ions are present in extremely low concentration, and PEO with 30 wt % LiCF3SO3 over a wide range of temperatures both above and below the glass transition temperature. Recent measurements by Do et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2013, 111, 018301] found that the temperature dependence of the Li(+) conductivity was identical to that of the dielectric α relaxation and was well described by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation, implying the α relaxation dominates the Li(+) transport process. In contrast, we find the hopping of Li(+) in both samples in the high temperature viscoelastic phase follows an Arrhenius law and depends significantly on the salt content. We propose that the hopping of Li(+) between cages involves motion of the polymer but that it is only for long-range diffusion where the α relaxation plays an important role.

  10. Electroless plating Cu-Co-P polyalloy on UV/ozonolysis irradiated polyethylene terephthalate film and its corrosion resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Bi, Siyi; Zhao, Hang; Xu, Yumeng; Mu, Yuhang; Lu, Yinxiang

    2017-05-01

    High corrosion resistant Cu-Co-P coatings were firstly prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate by electroless plating in combination with UV/ozonolysis irradiation under optimized cobalt sulfate heptahydrate concentration, pH value, plating temperature and time. The copper polyalloy/PET composite can be obtained in three steps, namely: (i) the generation of oxygen-containing functionalities (carboxylic groups) onto PET surface through UV irradiation combined with ozone, (ii) Cu seeding catalysts were obtained after being immersed into cupric citrate and NaBH4 solutions subsequently, and (iii) Cu-Co-P polyalloy metallization using electroless plating bath. Attenuated total reflection fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle measurement and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) were utilized to track the surface changes during the whole process. The electroless plating conditions were optimized by an orthogonal experiment (L9(3)4) for Cu-Co-P coating as follows: CoSO4·7H2O addition of 0.08 M, pH value, plating temperature and time were set on 10.0, 35 °C and 25 min, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, copper polyalloy possessed high adhesive strength and the lowest surface resistance (8.06 Ω/sq), while maintaining reliability even after over 1000 times of bending and mechanical stress. The results of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) measurements showed that Cu-Co-P layer formed on PET surface was imparted with fine uniformity and high compactness. Electrochemical test revealed the optimized Cu-Co-P coatings exhibited high corrosion resistance in NaCl, NaOH and HCl solutions, respectively. The excellent electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE >99.999% at frequency ranging from 30 MHz to 1000 MHz) of copper polyalloy/PET composites was confirmed by the spectrum analyzer. Therefore, this copper polyalloy will

  11. TG/FTIR analysis on co-pyrolysis behavior of PE, PVC and PS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingli; Chen, Tianju; Luo, Xitao; Han, Dezhi; Wang, Zhiqi; Wu, Jinhu

    2014-03-01

    The pyrolysis and co-pyrolysis behaviors of polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) under N2 atmosphere were analyzed by Thermal gravimetric/Fourier transform infrared (TG/FTIR). The volatile products were analyzed to investigate the interaction of the plastic blends during the thermal decomposition process. The TGA results showed that the thermal stability increased followed by PVC, PS and PE. The pyrolysis process of PE was enhanced when mixed with PS. However, PS was postponed when mixed with PVC. As for PE and PVC, mutual block was happened when mixed together. The FTIR results showed that the free radical of the decomposition could combine into a stable compound. When PE mixed with PVC or PS, large amount of unsaturated hydrocarbon groups existed in products while the content of alkynes was decreased. The methyl (-CH3) and methylene (-CH2-) bonds were disappeared while PVC mixed with PE.

  12. Shock induced dissociation of polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.E.; Loughran, E.D.; Mortensen, G.F.; Gray, G.T. III; Shaw, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    To identify the physical processes occurring on the Hugoniot, shock-recovery experiments were performed. Cylindrical recovery systems were used that enabled a wide range of single-shock Hugoniot states to be examined. Mass spectroscopy was used to examine the gaseous dissociation products. X-ray and TEM measurements were made to characterize the post-shock carbon structures. A dissociation product equation of state is presented to interpret the observed results. Polyethylene (PE) samples that were multiply shocked to their final states dissociated at much higher pressures than single-shocked samples. 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Development of indigenous linear low-density polyethylene film and other related techniques for heavy-load balloons in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redkar, R. T.

    1993-02-01

    A new grade of balloon film extruded out of LLDPE resin with Butene as comonomer and Cold Brittle Point (CBP) at -88°C was extruded and successfully flight tested with a 25 micron single shell 53,000 Cu.M. balloon carrying 330 Kg. payload to 33 Km. altitude. We have also produced superior LLDPE film out of Dowlex 2045 Dow Chemicals resin with Octene as comonomer, which has the cold brittle point lower than -90°C and superior mechanical properties at low temperatures. A high pressure hydrogen filling system capable of delivering 2200 Cu.Ft. of hydrogen per minute has been commissioned and successfully utilised in 11 flights. With this new filling system, the inflation time is drastically reduced by over 50% thereby reducing the duration of pre-launch stresses on the ground bubble. After the acceptance of our revised design criteria for balloons to be flown from equatorial latitudes by M/s.Winzen International Inc., U.S.A., 41 flights have been made, out of which 36 have been successful giving us a success record of 88%. Out of the 5 failures, 3 have been float failures with gross inflations exceeding 1950 kg, for which launch spool damage is a suspect. To reduce the spool damage, the shell thickness of the subsequent balloon was increased to 20.32 microns from 17.78 microns and the flight was a success. For further reducing the possibility of launch spool damage, a larger diameter spool is being designed.

  14. Radiation resistivity of polyacenaphthylene-grafted polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayakawa, Kiyoshi; Kawase, Kaoru; Yamakita, Hiromi

    Thin poly (ethylene-g-acenaphthylene) films prepared by the vapor-phase grafting method were subjected to the γ-irradiation in air, and various changes in tensile and structural properties of the film were investigated by comparing with those of the untreated or crosslinked polyethylene film. Polyethylene got to lose its inherent necking property by oxidative degradation and to be brittle-fractured by the irradiation dose less than 100 Mrad in air. The polyacenaphthylene-grafted polyethylenes (extent of grafting, ˜ 54 by {100( P-P°) }/{P°}), however, kept their ductility up to 200 Mrad or more, and the rate of increase in elastic modulus as well as yield strength with the increasing irradiation dose was considerably lower than that of untreated or crosslinked polyethylene. The effect of the grafting extent, and that of the irradiation dose-rate on the fracture energy were also examined. The weight increase of polyethylene due to the oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of carbonyl group which proceeded proportionally with the irradiation dose were remarkably suppressed by the grafting, whereas the double bond formation seemed to be unaffected by it. The grafted film held the original content of gel fraction unchanged during the irradiation in air, but the average molecular weight of the sol fraction decreased gradually. Meanwhile, the gel fraction of the crosslinked polyethylene was degenerated by a small dose of irradiation. The analysis of gaseous products revealed the formation of water, methanol, acetaldehyde and so forth from the irradiated grafted film. The grafting procedure and the subsequent irradiation of the grafted film did not affect the degree of crystallinity of the backbone polyethylene. The role played by the grafted polyacenaphthylene for endowing the radiation resistivity to polyethylene and its inherent limitation in effect were discussed from the structural point of view of the grafted film.

  15. Yield Stress Enhancement in Glassy-Polyethylene Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulhearn, William; Register, Richard

    Polyethylene (PE) has the highest annual production volume of all synthetic polymers worldwide, and is valuable across many applications due to its low cost, toughness, processability, and chemical resistance. However, PE is not well suited to certain applications due to its modest yield stress and Young's modulus (approximately 30 MPa and 1 GPa, respectively for linear, high-density PE). Irreversible deformation of PE results from dislocation of crystal stems and eventual crystal fragmentation under applied stress. The liquid-like amorphous fraction provides no useful mechanical support to the crystal fold surface in a PE homopolymer, so the only method to enhance the force required for crystal slip, and hence the yield stress, is crystal thickening via thermal treatment. An alternative route towards modifying the mechanical properties of PE involves copolymerization of a minority high-glass transition temperature block into a majority-PE block copolymer. In this work, we investigate a system of glassy/linear-PE block copolymers prepared via ring-opening metathesis polymerization of cyclopentene and substituted norbornene monomers followed by hydrogenation. We demonstrate that a large change in mechanical properties can be achieved with the addition of a short glassy block (e.g. a doubling of the yield stress and Young's modulus versus PE homopolymer with the addition of 25 percent glassy block). Furthermore, owing to the low interaction energy between PE and the substituted polynorbornene blocks employed, these high-yield PE block copolymers can exhibit single-phase melts for ease of processability.

  16. Conversion of post-industrial PET-PE scraps into compatibilized plastic blends for new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, Flavia; Bruni, Cosimo; Coltelli, Maria-Beatrice; Castelvetro, Valter; Ciardelli, Francesco

    2012-07-01

    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) / poly(ethylene) (PE) granules coming from a post-industrial packaging stream were directed to new applications. The collected material was first characterized through selective extractions followed by infrared analysis. After the characterization work the presence of poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) copolymer was evidenced. Moreover the degree of yellowing was shown to increase by increasing the PE content in the granules batch. The blending of PET/PE with a stabilizer allowed to control its thermal stability, moreover the addition of compatibilizers resulted in the possibility of modulating both rheological and mechanical properties. Hence the use of stabilizers and compatibilizers allowed to upgrade postindustrial PET/PE based materials for the use in different industrial applications

  17. Effect of amine functionalized polyethylene on clay-silver dispersion for polyethylene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Valdes, S.; Ibarra-A, M. C.; Ramírez-V, E.; Ramos-V, L. F.; Martinez-C, J. G.; Romero-G, J.; Ledezma-P, A. S.; Rodriguez-F, O. S.

    2014-08-01

    The compatibilization provided by maleic anhydride (MA) and 2-[2-(dimethylamino)-ethoxy] ethanol (DMAE) functionalized polyethylene for forming polyethylene-based nanocomposites was studied and compared. MA was grafted into PE by melt mixing to obtain PEgMA (compatibilizer 1), thereafter, PEgMA was reacted with DMAE and an antioxidant also by melt mixing to obtain PAgDMAE (compatibilizer 2). These compatibilizers were reacted using ultrasound with a solution of AgNO3 0.04 M and Ethylene glycol. Ammonium hydroxide was added in a ratio of 2:1 molar with respect to silver nitrate. These silver coated compatibilizers were mixed with PE and nano-clay (Cloisite I28E), thus forming the different hybrid PE-clay-silver nanocomposites. FTIR confirmed the formation of these two compatibilizers. All the compatibilized nanocomposites had better filler (clay and silver) dispersion and exfoliation compared to the uncompatibilized PE nanocomposites. X-ray diffraction, mechanical and antimicrobial properties attained showed that the PEgDMAE produced the better dispersed PE, clay and silver nanocomposites. The obtained nanocomposites showed outstanding antimicrobial properties against bacteria, Escherichia coli and fungus, Aspergillus niger. It is concluded that the PEgDMAE offers an outstanding capability for preparing nanocomposites with highly exfoliated and dispersed filler into the PE matrix.

  18. Fabrication and properties of HDPE/CF/CaCO3/PE-g-MAH quaternary composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.-L.; Ming, H.; Yin, H.

    2015-07-01

    In this research, carbon fiber (CF) was taken as reinforcing filler, nano calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was taken as toughener, maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene (PE-g-MAH) was taken as compatibilizer for high density polyethylene (HDPE) modification. Through orthogonal test, the influence of different amount of ingredient CF, CaCO3 and PE-g-MAH on the mechanical properties of the HDPE composites was researched. The optimal composition of the quaternary composites with the good toughness and high strength was obtained.

  19. Profiles in garbage: Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1997-11-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a plastic resin used primarily to make bottles. Soft drinks -- along with salad dressing, fruit juices, peanut butter, and other household and consumer products -- use PET bottles. PET also is used for film, sheeting for cups and food trays, oven-safe trays, and other uses. PET is a relatively new packaging resin, first commercialized in the early 1970s. Because it is an ``engineered`` resin, PET is more expensive than commodity resins such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and, for the same reason, it is usually the highest valued plastic recyclable.

  20. Development of TLSER model and QSAR model for predicting partition coefficients of hydrophobic organic chemicals between low density polyethylene film and water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huihui; Wei, Mengbi; Yang, Xianhai; Yin, Cen; He, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Partition coefficients are vital parameters for measuring accurately the chemicals concentrations by passive sampling devices. Given the wide use of low density polyethylene (LDPE) film in passive sampling, we developed a theoretical linear solvation energy relationship (TLSER) model and a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for the prediction of the partition coefficient of chemicals between LDPE and water (Kpew). For chemicals with the octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) <8, a TLSER model with Vx (McGowan volume) and qA(-) (the most negative charge on O, N, S, X atoms) as descriptors was developed, but the model had relatively low determination coefficient (R(2)) and cross-validated coefficient (Q(2)). In order to further explore the theoretical mechanisms involved in the partition process, a QSAR model with four descriptors (MLOGP (Moriguchi octanol-water partition coeff.), P_VSA_s_3 (P_VSA-like on I-state, bin 3), Hy (hydrophilic factor) and NssO (number of atoms of type ssO)) was established, and statistical analysis indicated that the model had satisfactory goodness-of-fit, robustness and predictive ability. For chemicals with log KOW>8, a TLSER model with Vx and a QSAR model with MLOGP as descriptor were developed. This is the first paper to explore the models for highly hydrophobic chemicals. The applicability domain of the models, characterized by the Euclidean distance-based method and Williams plot, covered a large number of structurally diverse chemicals, which included nearly all the common hydrophobic organic compounds. Additionally, through mechanism interpretation, we explored the structural features those governing the partition behavior of chemicals between LDPE and water.

  1. Low-density polyethylene films treated by an atmospheric Ar-O2 post-discharge: functionalization, etching, degradation and partial recovery of the native wettability state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou Rich, S.; Dufour, T.; Leroy, P.; Nittler, L.; Pireaux, J. J.; Reniers, F.

    2014-02-01

    To optimize the adhesion of layers presenting strong barrier properties on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) surfaces, we investigated the influence of argon and argon-oxygen atmospheric pressure post-discharges. This study was performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and dynamic water contact angle (WCA) measurements. After the plasma treatment, a slight increase in the roughness was emphasized, more particularly for the samples treated in a post-discharge supplied in oxygen. Measurements of the surface roughness and of the oxygen surface concentration suggested the competition of two processes playing a role on the surface hydrophilicity and occurring during the post-discharge treatment: the etching and the activation of the surface. The etching rate was estimated to about 2.7 nm s-1 and 5.8 nm s-1 for Ar and Ar-O2 post-discharges, respectively. The mechanisms underlying this etching were investigated through experiments, in which we discuss the influence of the O2 flow rate and the distance (gap) separating the plasma torch from the LDPE surface located downstream. O atoms and NO molecules (emitting in the UV range) detected by OES seem to be good candidates to explain the etching process. An ageing study is also presented to evidence the stability of the treated surfaces over 60 days. After 60 days of storage, we showed that whatever the O2 flow rate, the treated films registered a loss of their hydrophilic state since their WCA increased towards a common threshold of 80°. This ‘hydrophobic recovery’ effect was mostly attributed to the reorientation of induced polar chemical groups into the bulk of the material. Indeed, the relative concentrations of the carbonyl and carboxyl groups at the surface decreased with the storage time and seemed to reach a plateau after 30 days.

  2. Radiation grafting of various water-soluble monomers on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene powder. Part III: Preparation of compression moulded films, and water-uptake and morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydınlı, Bahattin; Tinçer, Teoman

    2001-10-01

    Compression moulded films were obtained from PAA, PMAA, PAAm, PNDAAm and PVP radiation grafted ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powders. Mechanical properties and water-uptake of PVP and PNDAAm grafted UHMWPE were found to be distinctly better than PAA, PMAA and PAAm ones. The former group showed almost complete melting and flow during compression moulding compared with the latter group. Hence, the mechanical properties of this group were found to be better than the others. Important parameters affecting the film formation appeared as H-bonding ability and also the compatibility between grafting polymer and UHMWPE. Per cent water-uptake of films increase with the grafting level and approaches 30% at most for all types of films except PMAA one. High per cent water-uptake results of PAA and PAAm cases should be taken cautiously due to incomplete flowing during compression in film preparation. SEM analysis revealed incomplete melting and flow for the case of PAA, PMAA and PAAm-co-UHMWPE resulting in pores and holes in the final films while homogeneous films were obtained for the case of PVP and PNDAAm.

  3. Polyethylene/organically-modified layered-silicate nanocomposites with antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Songtipya, P.; Jimenez-Gasco, M. M.; Manias, E.

    2009-03-01

    Despite the very intensive research on polymer nanocomposites, the opportunities for new functionalities possible by nanofillers still remain largely untapped. Here, we present polyethylene/inorganic nanocomposites that exhibit strongly enhanced mechanical performance and, at the same time, also an antimicrobial activity originating from the organo-filler nature. Specifically, PE/organically-modified layered-silicate nanocomposites were prepared via melt-processing, and antimicrobial activity was designed by proper choice of their organic modification. Their antimicrobial activity was measured against three micotoxinogen fungal strains (Penicillium roqueforti and claviforme, and Fusarium graminearum) as model soil-borne plant and food contaminants. Montmorillonite-based organofillers, which only differ in their organic modification, were used to exemplify how these surfactants can be designed to render antifungal activity to the nanocomposites. The comparative discussion of the growth of fungi on unfilled PE and nanocomposite PE films is used to demonstrate how the antimicrobial efficacy is dictated by the surfactant chemistry and, further, how the nanocomposites' inhibitory activity compares to that of the organo-fillers and the surfactants.

  4. Determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wrapping films and wrapped PDO Italian cheeses by using HS-SPME and GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Panseri, Sara; Chiesa, Luca Maria; Zecconi, Alfonso; Soncini, Gabriella; De Noni, Ivano

    2014-06-25

    Nowadays food wrapping assures attractive presentation and simplifies self-service shopping. Polyvinylchloride (PVC)- and polyethylene (PE)-based cling-films are widely used worldwide for wrapping cheeses. For this purpose, films used in retail possess suitable technical properties such as clinginess and unrolling capacity, that are achieved by using specific plasticizers during their manufacturing process. In the present study, the main VOCs of three cling-films (either PVC-based or PE-based) for retail use were characterized by means of Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction and GC/MS. In addition, the effects of cling film type and contact time on the migration of VOCs from the films to four different PDO Italian cheeses during cold storage under light or dark were also investigated. Among the VOCs isolated from cling-films, PVC released 2-ethylhexanol and triacetin. These compounds can likely be considered as a "non-intentionally added substance". These same compounds were also detected in cheeses wrapped in PVC films with the highest concentration found after 20 days storage. The PE cling-film was shown to possess a simpler VOC profile, lacking some molecules peculiar to PVC films. The same conclusions can be drawn for cheeses wrapped in the PE cling-film. Other VOCs found in wrapped cheeses were likely to have been released either by direct transfer from the materials used for the manufacture of cling-films or from contamination of the films. Overall, HS-SPME is shown to be a rapid and solvent free technique to screen the VOCs profile of cling-films, and to detect VOCs migration from cling-films to cheese under real retail storage conditions.

  5. Degradable polyethylene: fantasy or reality.

    PubMed

    Roy, Prasun K; Hakkarainen, Minna; Varma, Indra K; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2011-05-15

    Plastic waste disposal is one of the serious environmental issues being tackled by our society today. Polyethylene, particularly in packaging films, has received criticism as it tends to accumulate over a period of time, leaving behind an undesirable visual footprint. Degradable polyethylene, which would enter the eco-cycle harmlessly through biodegradation would be a desirable solution to this problem. However, the "degradable polyethylene" which is presently being promoted as an environmentally friendly alternative to the nondegradable counterpart, does not seem to meet this criterion. This article reviews the state of the art on the aspect of degradability of polyethylene containing pro-oxidants, and more importantly the effect these polymers could have on the environment in the long run. On exposure to heat, light, and oxygen, these polymers disintegrate into small fragments, thereby reducing or increasing the visual presence. However, these fragments can remain in the environment for prolonged time periods. This article also outlines important questions, particularly in terms of time scale of complete degradation, environmental fate of the polymer residues, and possible accumulation of toxins, the answers to which need to be established prior to accepting these polymers as environmentally benign alternatives to their nondegradable equivalents. It appears from the existing literature that our search for biodegradable polyethylene has not yet been realized.

  6. Simulation of melting in crystalline polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubova, E. A.; Balabaev, N. K.; Musienko, A. I.; Gusarova, E. B.; Mazo, M. A.; Manevitch, L. I.; Berlin, A. A.

    2012-06-01

    We carry out a molecular dynamics simulation of the first stages of constrained melting in crystalline polyethylene (PE). When heated, the crystal undergoes two structural phase transitions: from the orthorhombic (O) phase to the monoclinic (M) phase, and then to the columnar (C), quasi-hexagonal, phase. The M phase represents the tendency to the parallel packing of planes of PE zigzags, and the C phase proves to be some kind of oriented melt. We follow both the transitions O→M and M→C in real time and establish that, at their beginning, the crystal tries (and fails) to pass into the partially ordered phases similar to the RI and RII phases of linear alkanes, correspondingly. We discuss the molecular mechanisms and driving forces of the observed transitions, as well as the reasons why the M and C phases in PE crystals substitute for the rotator phases in linear alkanes.

  7. Structure-property relationship in polyethylene reinforced by polyethylene-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Causin, Valerio; Yang, Bing-Xing; Marega, Carla; Goh, Suat Hong; Marigo, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Polyethylene-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (PE-g-MWNT) were used to reinforce polyethylene (PE). The nanocomposites possessed not only improved stiffness and strength, but also increased ductility and toughness. The effects on the structure and morphology of composites due to pristine multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and PE-g-MWNT were studied and compared using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The SAXS long period, crystalline layer thickness and crystallinity of polymer lamellar stacks were found to decrease significantly in MWNT composites, while the decreases were much smaller in PE-g-MWNT composites. PE-g-MWNT allowed a more efficient and unhindered crystallization at a lamellar level, while MWNT disrupted the order of lamellar stacks, probably because of their tendency to aggregate. The SAXS crystallinity and the mechanical properties of the composites showed similar trends as a function of MWNT content. This suggested that the improvement of the interfacial strength between polymer and carbon nanotubes was a result of synergistic effects of better dispersion of the filler, better stress transfer, due to the grafting of polymer and MWNT, and the nucleation of a crystalline phase around MWNT. The latter effect was confirmed by measurements of kinetics of non-isothermal crystallization.

  8. MARTINI Coarse-Grained Models of Polyethylene and Polypropylene.

    PubMed

    Panizon, Emanuele; Bochicchio, Davide; Monticelli, Luca; Rossi, Giulia

    2015-06-25

    The understanding of the interaction of nanoplastics with living organisms is crucial both to assess the health hazards of degraded plastics and to design functional polymer nanoparticles with biomedical applications. In this paper, we develop two coarse-grained models of everyday use polymers, polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP), aimed at the study of the interaction of hydrophobic plastics with lipid membranes. The models are compatible with the popular MARTINI force field for lipids, and they are developed using both structural and thermodynamic properties as targets in the parametrization. The models are then validated by showing their reliability at reproducing structural properties of the polymers, both linear and branched, in dilute conditions, in the melt, and in a PE-PP blend. PE and PP radius of gyration is correctly reproduced in all conditions, while PE-PP interactions in the blend are slightly overestimated. Partitioning of PP and PE oligomers in phosphatidylcholine membranes as obtained at CG level reproduces well atomistic data.

  9. Structure-property relationships: Model studies on melt-extruded uniaxially-oriented high density polyethylene films having well defined morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongyi

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) films having simple and well-defined stacked lamellar morphology, either with or without a distinct presence of row-nucleated fibril structures, have been utilized as model materials to carry out investigations on solid state structure-property relationships. Mechanical tests, including tensile (INSTRON), creep (TMA), and dynamic mechanical (DMTA) tests, were performed at different angles with respect to the original machine direction (MD) of the melt extruded films; morphological changes as a result of these mechanical tests were detected by WAXS, SAXS, and TEM. Crystalline lamellar thickness and its distribution were determined by DSC, SAXS, TEM and AFM experiments. In the large strain deformation study (chapter 4.0), samples were stretched at 00sp°, 45sp° and 90sp° angles with respect to the original MD. A distinct orientation dependence of the tensile behavior was observed and correlated to the corresponding deformation modes and morphological changes, namely (1) lamellar separation and fragmentation by chain slip for the 00sp° stretch, (2) lamellar break-up via chain pull-out for the 90sp° stretch, and (3) lamellar shear, rotation and break-up through chain slip and/or tilt for the 45sp° stretch. A strong strengthening effect was observed for samples with row-nucleated fibril structures at the 00sp° stretch; whereas for the 90sp° stretch, the presence of such structures significantly limited deformability of the samples. In the dynamic strain mechanical alpha relaxation study (chapter 5.0), samples were tested at nine different angles with respect to the original MD, and the morphologies of samples before and after the dynamic tests were also investigated. The mechanical dispersions for the 00sp° and 90sp° tests were believed to arise essentially from the crystalline phase, and they contain contributions from two earlier recognized sub-relaxations of alphasbI and alphasbII. While for the 45sp° test, in addition to a

  10. Crosslinked blends and coextruded films by electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallat, M. F.; Marouani, S.; Perraud, S.; Mendoza Patlan, N.

    2005-07-01

    Morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of polymer blends and coextruded films of hydrogenated copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile (HNBR) and polyethylene-co-octene (PE-co-O) are considered before and after electron beam crosslinking. It is known that the properties are depending not only on the crosslinks in the bulk of the polymers but also on that created in the interfacial domain. It is however very difficult to have direct evidence of the interfacial crosslinks. Moreover the two polymers are not compatible and the addition of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer as a potential polymer compatibiliser is considered.

  11. Polyhomologation based on in situ generated boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites: a novel strategy towards the synthesis of polyethylene-based complex architectures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Hefeng; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikos

    2015-06-21

    A novel strategy, based on the in situ generated boron-thexyl-silaboracyclic initiating sites for the polyhomologation of dimethylsulfoxonium methylide, has been developed for the synthesis of complex polyethylene-based architectures. As examples, the synthesis of a 4-arm polyethylene star, three (polystyrene)(polyethylene)2 3-miktoarm stars and a PE-branched double graft copolymer is given.

  12. Effects of Biomass in Polyethylene or Polylactic Acid Composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous studies have shown that compounding Polyethylene (PE) or Polylactic acid (PLA) with a dairy-based bioplastic resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, mass ratios of a dairy-protein-based material (DBP) ranging from 0, 5, 10 and 20 wt% replaced equivalent masse...

  13. Biocompatibility of modified ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novotná, Z.; Lacmanová, V.; Rimpelová, S.; Juřik, P.; Polívková, M.; Å vorčik, V.

    2016-09-01

    Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE, PE) is a synthetic polymer used for biomedical applications because of its high impact resistance, ductility and stability in contact with physiological fluids. Therefore this material is being used in human orthopedic implants such as total joint replacements. Surface modification of this material relates to changes of its surface hydrophilicity, energy, microstructure, roughness, and morphology, all influencing its biological response. In our recent work, PE was treated by an Ar+ plasma discharge and then grafted with biologically active polyethylene glycol in order to enhance adhesion and proliferation of mouse fibroblast (L929). The surface properties of pristine PE and its grafted counterparts were studied by goniometry (surface wettability). Furthermore, Atomic Force Microscopy was used to determine the surface morphology and roughness. The biological response of the L929 cell lines seeded on untreated and plasma treated PE matrices was quantified in terms of the cell adhesion, density, and metabolic activity. Plasma treatment leads to the ablation of the polymer surface layers. Plasma treatment and subsequent poly(ethylene glycol) grafting lead to dramatic changes in the polymer surface morphology and roughness. Biological tests, performed in vitro, show increased adhesion and proliferation of cells on modified polymers. Grafting with poly(ethylene glycol) increases cell proliferation compared to plasma treatment.

  14. Combustion of PMMA, PE, and PS in a ramjet

    SciTech Connect

    van der Geld, C.W.M. ); Korting, P.A.O.G. ); Wijchers, T. )

    1990-03-01

    This paper reports the combustion behavior of polymethylmetharcrylate (PMMA), polyethylene (PE), and polystyrene (PS) with air investigated in a connected pipe test facility; spectroscopy showed the presence of OH, C{sub 2}, and CH and temperatures between 1300 and 3000 K during combustion. Particular attention was focused on regression rate and combustion efficiency and the role of temperature and soot production. The present investigation gives an understanding of the most important phenomena that control (or emanate from) the combustion of a cylindrical solid fuel with a rearward facing step, and this has application for solid fuel ramjets, the safe burning of toxic waste, and hot gas generators. The results are summarized.

  15. Effect of surface topography and morphology on space charge packets in polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanxiang, Zhou; Yunshan, Wang; Ninghua, Wang; Qinghua, Sun

    2009-08-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is a major kind of internal insulating material. With great progresses of space charge measurement technologies in the last three decades, lots of researches are focused on space charge in PE. The heat pressing and annealing condition of polyethylene affect its morphology obviously. During the heat pressing, the surface of PE forms different surface topographies because of different substrate materials. Surface topography has great relation to the epitaxial crystallization layer and influences the space charge characteristic of PE dramatically. This paper studied the formation process of different surface topographies and their micrographic characters in low density polyethylene (LDPE). pulsed electro-acoustic (PEA) method was used to measure the space charge distribution of samples with different surface topographies and morphologies in LDPE. The effect of surface topography and morphology to space charge packet were studied. The surface topography has great influence on space charge packet polarity and morphology has influence on both movement speed rate and polarity of space charge packet.

  16. Tribological characteristics of polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a lubricant for wear resistance of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE ) in artificial knee join.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masanori; Koide, Takayuki; Hyon, Suong-Hyu

    2014-10-01

    For the longevity of total knee joint prostheses, we have developed an artificial lubricant using polyethylene glycol (PEG) for the prevention of wear of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). In the present study, the lubricative function of this PEG lubricant was evaluated by a wear test using Co-Cr alloy and UHMWPE counter surface samples. As a result, human synovial fluid including the PEG lubricant showed good result regarding the wear volume and a worn surface of UHMWPE. Considering its lubrication mechanism, it is suspected that interaction between the PEG molecules and the proteins in synovial fluid was involved. Since PE molecules are also organic compounds having a hydroxyl group at one or both ends, the albumin and PEG molecule complex would have bound more strongly to the metal oxide surface and UHMWPE surfaces might enhance and stabilize the lubricating film between the contact surfaces under the boundary lubrication. This study suggests that PEG lubricant as an intra-articular viscous supplement has the potential to prevent wear of UHMWPE by mixing with synovial fluid and to contribute to the longevity of knee joint prostheses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cell adhesion and proliferation on polyethylene grafted with Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasálková, N. Slepičková; Slepička, P.; Kolská, Z.; Sajdl, P.; Bačáková, L.; Rimpelová, S.; Švorčík, V.

    2012-02-01

    Plasma treatment and subsequent Au nano-particles grafting of polyethylene (PE) lead to changes in surface morphology, roughness and wettability, significantly increasing the attractiveness of the material for cells. The PE samples were exposed to argon plasma. Plasma modified PE was chemically grafted by immersion to biphenyldithiol and consequently into solution of Au nano-particles. Changes in chemical structure of the modified PE were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and electrokinetic analysis ( ζ-potential). The surface wettability of the modified PE samples was examined by measurement of the contact angle by standard goniometry. The surface morphology of the plasma modified PE and that grafted with Au nano-particles was studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The modified PE samples were seeded with rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and their adhesion and proliferation were studied. Chemically bounded biphenyldithiol increases the number of the incorporated gold nano-particles and changes sample surface properties. The presence of the biphenyldithiol and the gold nano-particles on the PE surface influences dramatically adhesion and proliferation of VSMCs.

  18. 21 CFR 177.1630 - Polyethylene phthalate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following prescribed conditions: (a) Polyethylene phthalate films consist of a base sheet of ethylene... as constituents of the base sheet or as constituents of coatings applied to the base sheet. (b) Polyethylene phthalate articles consist of a base polymer of ethylene terephthalate polymer, or ethylene-1,4...

  19. 21 CFR 177.1630 - Polyethylene phthalate polymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Polyethylene phthalate films consist of a base sheet of ethylene terephthalate polymer, ethylene terephthalate....1315(b)(3), to which have been added optional substances, either as constituents of the base sheet or as constituents of coatings applied to the base sheet. (b) Polyethylene phthalate articles consist of...

  20. Grafting functional antioxidants on highly crosslinked polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Malaika, S.; Riasat, S.; Lewucha, C.

    2016-05-01

    The problem of interference of antioxidants, such as hindered phenols, with peroxide-initiated crosslinking of polyethylene was addressed through the use of functional (reactive) graftable antioxidants (g-AO). Reactive derivatives of hindered phenol and hindered amine antioxidants were synthesised, characterised and used to investigate their grafting reactions in high density polyethylene; both non-crosslinked (PE) and highly peroxide-crosslinked (PEXa). Assessment of the extent of in-situ grafting of the antioxidants, their retention after exhaustive solvent extraction in PE and PEXa, and the stabilising performance of the grafted antioxidants (g-AO) in the polymer were examined and benchmarked against conventionally stabilised crosslinked & non-crosslinked polyethylene. It was shown that the functional antioxidants graft to a high extent in PEXa, and that the level of interference of the g-AOs with the polymer crosslinking process was minimal compared to that of conventional antioxidants which bear the same antioxidant function. The much higher level of retention of the g-AOs in PEXa after exhaustive solvent extraction, compared to that of the corresponding conventional antioxidants, accounts for their superior long-term thermal stabilising performance under severe extractive conditions.

  1. Waste product profile: Polyethylene terephthalate

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.

    1996-02-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) is a plastic resin used primarily to make bottles. Soft drinks are the primary product packaged in PET. Salad dressing, peanut butter, and other household and consumer products also use PET bottles. PET is also used for film, sheeting for cups and food trays, ovenable trays, and other uses. PET is a relatively new packaging resin, first commercialized in the early `70s. Because it is an ``engineered`` resin, it is more expensive than commodity resins such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE). The primary market for recycled PET is the fiber industry, which uses PET for carpet fiber, sweaters and other clothing, and for other uses. Recycled PET can also be used for food and beverage containers. Export markets, particularly Asian countries, are becoming increasingly important.

  2. The New P.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandertie, Joan; Corner, Amy B.; Corner, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Marana Middle School in Tucson, Ariz., scrapped its traditional P.E. program that emphasized team sports and shifted to a program that focuses on lifetime fitness, student choice in activities, and nutrition and health education. The program also includes student leadership development and informal community service. As a result, Marana students…

  3. The New P.E.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandertie, Joan; Corner, Amy B.; Corner, Kevin J.

    2012-01-01

    Marana Middle School in Tucson, Ariz., scrapped its traditional P.E. program that emphasized team sports and shifted to a program that focuses on lifetime fitness, student choice in activities, and nutrition and health education. The program also includes student leadership development and informal community service. As a result, Marana students…

  4. Water film thickness-dependent conformation and diffusion of single-strand DNA on poly(ethylene glycol)-silane surface

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hyun; Aluru, N. R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate, using molecular dynamics simulations, the conformation and diffusion of longer and shorter single-strand DNA (ssDNA) as a function of water film thickness. While the conformation of the shorter ssDNA is significantly affected and the diffusion is suppressed with reduction in water film thickness, the conformation and diffusion of the longer DNA is not influenced. We explain our observations by considering the competition between stacking interaction of bases and solvation tendency of ssDNA. This paper suggests an approach to control the surface motion of ssDNA in nanoscale water films using film thickness. PMID:20404938

  5. Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Song, Alex Y.; Catrysse, Peter B.; Liu, Chong; Peng, Yucan; Xie, Jin; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Thermal management through personal heating and cooling is a strategy by which to expand indoor temperature setpoint range for large energy saving. We show that nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) is transparent to mid-infrared human body radiation but opaque to visible light because of the pore size distribution (50 to 1000 nanometers). We processed the material to develop a textile that promotes effective radiative cooling while still having sufficient air permeability, water-wicking rate, and mechanical strength for wearability. We developed a device to simulate skin temperature that shows temperatures 2.7° and 2.0°C lower when covered with nanoPE cloth and with processed nanoPE cloth, respectively, than when covered with cotton. Our processed nanoPE is an effective and scalable textile for personal thermal management.

  6. Radiative human body cooling by nanoporous polyethylene textile.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Po-Chun; Song, Alex Y; Catrysse, Peter B; Liu, Chong; Peng, Yucan; Xie, Jin; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2016-09-02

    Thermal management through personal heating and cooling is a strategy by which to expand indoor temperature setpoint range for large energy saving. We show that nanoporous polyethylene (nanoPE) is transparent to mid-infrared human body radiation but opaque to visible light because of the pore size distribution (50 to 1000 nanometers). We processed the material to develop a textile that promotes effective radiative cooling while still having sufficient air permeability, water-wicking rate, and mechanical strength for wearability. We developed a device to simulate skin temperature that shows temperatures 2.7° and 2.0°C lower when covered with nanoPE cloth and with processed nanoPE cloth, respectively, than when covered with cotton. Our processed nanoPE is an effective and scalable textile for personal thermal management.

  7. Preparation of Polyethylene Composites Containing Silver(I) Acylpyrazolonato Additives and SAR Investigation of their Antibacterial Activity.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Fabio; Palmucci, Jessica; Pettinari, Claudio; Pettinari, Riccardo; Marangoni, Mirko; Ferraro, Stefano; Giovannetti, Rita; Scuri, Stefania; Grappasonni, Iolanda; Cocchioni, Mario; Maldonado Hodar, Francisco José; Gunnella, Roberto

    2016-11-02

    Novel composite materials PEn (n = 1-9) have been prepared by an easily up-scalable embedding procedure of three different families of Ag(I) acylpyrazolonato complexes in polyethylene (PE) matrix. In details, PE1-PE3 composites contain polynuclear [Ag(Q(R))]n complexes, PE4-PE6 contain mononuclear [Ag(Q(R))(L)m] complexes and PE7-PE9 are loaded with mononuclear [Ag(Q(R)) (PPh3)2] complexes, respectively (where L = 1-methylimidazole or 2-ethylimidazole, m = 1 or 2, and HQ(R) = 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-RC(═O)-5-pyrazolone, where in detail HQ(fb), R = -CF2CF2CF3; HQ(cy), R = -cyclo-C6H11; HQ(be), R = -C(H)═C(CH3)2). The PEn composites, prepared by using a 1:1000 w/w silver additive/polyethylene ratio, have been characterized in bulk by IR spectroscopy and TGA analyses, which confirmed that the properties of polyethylene matrix are essentially unchanged. AFM, SEM, and EDX surface techniques show that silver additives form agglomerates with dimensions 10-100 μm on the polyethylene surface, with a slight increment of surface roughness of pristine plastic within 50 nm. However, the elastic properties of the composites are essentially the same of PE. The antibacterial activity of all composites has been tested against three bacterial strains (E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus) and results show that two classes of composites, PE1-PE3 and PE4-PE6, display high and persistent bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity, comparable to PE embedded with AgNO3. By contrast, composites PE7-PE9 exhibit a reduced antibacterial action. Contact and release tests in several conditions for specific migration of Ag(+) from plastics, indicate a very limited but time persistent release of silver ions from PE1-PE6 composites, thus suggesting that they are potential antibacterial materials for future applications. Instead, PE7-PE9 almost do not release silver, only trace levels of silver ions being detected, in accordance with their reduced antibacterial action. None of the composites is

  8. Molecular dynamics of polymer crystallization revisited: Crystallization from the melt and the glass in longer polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    Molecular mechanisms of the steady-state growth of the chain folded lamella and the cold crystallization across the glass transition temperature Tg are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation for a system of long polyethylene (PE)-like polymers made of 512 united atoms C512. The present paper aims to reconsider results of our previous simulations for short PE-like polymers C100 by carrying out very long simulations up to 1 μs for more realistic systems of much longer chains, thereby to establish the firm molecular image of chain-folded crystallization and clarify the specific molecular process of cold crystallization. We observe that the chain-folded lamella shows fast thickening-growth keeping marked tapered growth front. Despite the fast growth in much longer chains, the fold-surface is found to be predominantly of adjacent-reentry. Detailed inspections of the molecular pathway give an insightful image that can explain the apparently contradicting results. In addition, the fold-structure with specific spatial heterogeneity is found to give rise to heterogeneous mobility within the crystalline region. On the other hand, investigations of the cold crystallization during slow heating of the glassy film across Tg is found to give a granular texture made of small crystallites. The crystallites are found to nucleate preferentially near the free surfaces having lower Tg, and to be dominantly edge-on showing a definite tendency to orient their chain axes parallel to the free surface.

  9. Biomimetic hydration lubrication with various polyelectrolyte layers on cross-linked polyethylene orthopedic bearing materials.

    PubMed

    Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Saiga, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Masami; Ito, Hideya; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Takatori, Yoshio; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2012-06-01

    Natural joints rely on fluid thin-film lubrication by the hydrated polyelectrolyte layer of cartilage. However, current artificial joints with polyethylene (PE) surfaces have considerably less efficient lubrication and thus much greater wear, leading to osteolysis and aseptic loosening. This is considered a common factor limiting prosthetic longevity in total hip arthroplasty (THA). However, such wear could be mitigated by surface modification to mimic the role of cartilage. Here we report the development of nanometer-scale hydrophilic layers with varying charge (nonionic, cationic, anionic, or zwitterionic) on cross-linked PE (CLPE) surfaces, which could fully mimic the hydrophilicity and lubricity of the natural joint surface. We present evidence to support two lubrication mechanisms: the primary mechanism is due to the high level of hydration in the grafted layer, where water molecules act as very efficient lubricants; and the secondary mechanism is repulsion of protein molecules and positively charged inorganic ions by the grafted polyelectrolyte layer. Thus, such nanometer-scaled hydrophilic polymers or polyelectrolyte layers on the CLPE surface of acetabular cup bearings could confer high durability to THA prosthetics.

  10. Li + grafting of ion irradiated polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švorčík, V.; Rybka, V.; Vacík, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Öchsner, R.; Ryssel, H.

    1999-02-01

    Foils of oriented polyethylene (PE) were irradiated with 63 keV Ar + and 155 keV Xe + ions to different fluences at room temperature and then doped from water solution of LiCl. The as irradiated and irradiated plus doped samples were examined by IR, EPR and neutron depth profiling (NDP) technique. The sheet resistance was also measured by the standard two points method. After Li salt doping of ion modified layer of PE, a reaction between degraded macromolecules and Li occur and thus a new chemical structure C-Li + is formed. Owing to the presence of these cations on the polymer chain, the irradiated plus doped layer exhibits higher electric conductivity compared to as-irradiated ones.

  11. Fumigation efficacy and emission reduction using low-permeability film in orchard soil fumigation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Suduan; Sosnoskie, Lynn M; Cabrera, Jose Alfonso; Qin, Ruijun; Hanson, Bradley D; Gerik, James S; Wang, Dong; Browne, Greg T; Thomas, John E

    2016-02-01

    Many orchards use fumigation to control soilborne pests prior to replanting. Controlling emissions is mandatory to reduce air pollution in California. This research evaluated the effects of plastic film type [polyethylene (PE) or totally impermeable film (TIF)], application rate of Telone C35 [full (610 kg ha(-1) ), 2/3 or 1/3 rates] and carbonation at 207 kPa on fumigant transport (emission and in soil) and efficacy. While increasing fumigant concentrations under the tarp, TIF reduced emissions >95% (∼2% and <1% of total applied 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin respectively) relative to bare soil, compared with ∼30% reduction by PE. All fumigation treatments, regardless of film type, provided good nematode control above 100 cm soil depth; however, nematode survival was high at deeper depths. Weed emergence was mostly affected by tarping and fumigant rate, with no effects from the carbonation. TIF can effectively reduce fumigant emissions. Carbonation under the studied conditions did not improve fumigant dispersion and pest control. The 2/3 rate with TIF controlled nematodes as effectively as the full rate in bare soil or under the PE film to 100 cm soil depth. However, control of nematodes in deeper soil remains a challenge for perennial crops. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Adhesion of an Amylolytic Arthrobacter sp. to Starch-Containing Plastic Films

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Syed H.; Gould, J. Michael

    1990-01-01

    Cells of the amylolytic bacterium KB-1 (thought to be an Arthrobacter sp.) adhered (∼70%) to the surface of plastic films composed of starch-poly (methylacrylate) graft copolymer (starch-PMA), but did not adhere (<10%) to films composed of polymethylacrylate (PMA), polyethylene (PE), carboxymethyl cellulose, or a mixture of PE plus poly (ethylene-coacrylic acid) (EAA), starch plus PE, or starch plus PE and EAA. About 30% of the cells adhered to gelatinized insoluble starch. Dithiothreitol (5 mM), EDTA (5 mM), and soluble starch (1%, wt/vol) had little effect on the adhesion of KB-1 cells to starch-PMA films. However, glutaraldehyde-fixed cells, azide-treated cells, and heat-killed cells did not bind to starch-PMA plastic, suggesting that the observed adhesion required cell viability. Culture supernatant from 5-day-old KB-1 cultures contained a proteolytic enzyme that inhibited cell adhesion to starch-PMA plastics. Trypsin-treated KB-1 cells also lost their ability to bind to starch-PMA plastic. When washed free of trypsin and suspended in fresh medium, trypsin-treated bacteria were able to recover adhesion activity in the absence, but not in the presence, of the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol. These results suggested that adhesion of KB-1 to starch-PMA plastic may be mediated by a cell surface protein. Although KB-1 bacteria bound to starch-PMA plastic, they did not appear to degrade starch in these films. Evidence of starch degradation was observed for starch-PE-EAA plastics, where <10% of the bacteria was bound, suggesting that cell adhesion may not be a prerequisite for degradation of some starch-containing plastics. Images PMID:16348173

  13. Adhesion of an amylolytic arthrobacter sp. to starch-containing plastic films

    SciTech Connect

    Imam, S.H.; Gould, J.M. )

    1990-04-01

    Cells of the amylolytic bacterium KB-1 (thought to be an Arthrobacter sp.) adhered ({approx}70%) to the surface of plastic films composed of starch-poly(methylacrylate) graft copolymer (starch-PMA), but did not adhere (>10%) to films composed of starch-polymethylacrylate (PMA), polyethylene (PE), carboxymethyl cellulose, or a mixture of PE plus poly(ethylene-coacrylic acid)(EAA), starch plus PE, or starch plus PE and EAA. About 30% of the cells adhered to gelatinized insoluble starch. Dithiothreitol (5mM), EDTA (5 mM), and soluble starch (1%, wt/vol) had little effect on the adhesion of KB-1 cells to starch-PMA films. However, glutaraldehyde-fixed cells, azide-treated cells, and heat-killed cells did not bind to starch-PMA plastic, suggesting that the observed adhesion required cell viability. Culture supernatant from 5-day-old KB-1 cultures contained a proteolytic enzyme that inhibited cell adhesion to starch-PMA plastics Trypsin-treated KB-1 cells also lost their ability to bind to starch-PMA plastic. When washed free of trypsin and suspended in fresh medium, trypsin-treated bacteria were able to recover adhesion activity in the absence, but not in the presence, of the protein synthesis inhibitor chloramphenicol. These results suggested that adhesion of KB-1 to starch-PMA plastic may be mediated by a cell surface protein. Although KB-1 bacteria bound to starch-PMA plastic, they did not appear to degrade starch in these films. Evidence of starch degradation was observed for starch-PE-EAA plastics, where <10% of the bacteria was bound, suggesting that cell adhesion may not be a prerequisite for degradation of some starch-containing plastics.

  14. Determinants of PE Teachers Career Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the cause's célèbre in the field of education has been teacher attrition; Physical education (PE) is no different. Some PE teachers are leaving the profession because they encounter stress and dissatisfaction in their profession. The purpose of this study is to determine the aspects that keep PE teachers happy and remaining in the…

  15. Determinants of PE Teachers Career Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the cause's célèbre in the field of education has been teacher attrition; Physical education (PE) is no different. Some PE teachers are leaving the profession because they encounter stress and dissatisfaction in their profession. The purpose of this study is to determine the aspects that keep PE teachers happy and remaining in the…

  16. Adhesion Improvement between Polyethylene and Aluminum Using Eco-Friendly Plasma Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popelka, Anton; Krupa, Igor; Novák, Igor; Ouederni, Mabrouk; Abdulaqder, Fatima; Al-Yazedi, Shrooq; Al-Gunaid, Taghreed; Al-Senani, Thuraya

    Polyethylene (PE) belongs among the most widely used polymers in many industrial applications, such as in building, packaging or transport industry. Qatar is one of the largest producers of PE in the world. Composite laminates consisting of PE and metal materials, such as aluminum (Al) lead to an improvement of various mechanical and physical properties necessary for special applications in building industry. Aluminum composite panel (ACP) represents type of flat panel that consists of two thin aluminum sheets bonded to a non-aluminum core, often made from PE. ACPs are frequently used for external cladding or facades of buildings. The main problem relates the adhesion between both materials. In this research work the improvement of adhesion properties of composite laminates prepared from PE and Al using plasma treatment was investigated. This surface treatment led to the significantly increase of peel strength of PE-Al adhesive joints.

  17. Charge distribution and conduction characteristics of 2-vinylpyridine-grafted polyethylenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Kwang S.; Kim, Jong Eun; Oh, Woo Jung; Yoon, Ho Gyu; Takada, Tatsuo

    2000-05-01

    This article describes electrical properties such as space charge distribution and electrical conduction characteristics of 2-vinylpyridine (VP) grafted low density polyethylenes (PE). The VP incorporated onto PE chains changes electrical properties of PE. For example, the homocharge found in virgin PE decreases with the increase of graft ratio. As a result of the nitrogen acting as an electron donor, no space charge develops at high graft ratios. It has been found that VP reduces the current density in PE. Grafted PE with VP content of 0.754 wt % has also been found to obey a space charge limited conduction mechanism: effective charge mobility at 70 °C was calculated to be 4.6×10-16 m2/V s: an activation energy for the conduction was estimated to be 0.81 eV at 70 °C.

  18. Preparation of High Density Polyethylene/Waste Polyurethane Blends Compatibilized with Polyethylene-Graft-Maleic Anhydride by Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong-Seok; Lim, Youn-Mook; Nho, Young-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is a very popular polymer that is used in a variety of applications due to its good mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. However, PU recycling has received significant attention due to environmental issues. In this study, we developed a recycling method for waste PU that utilizes the radiation grafting technique. Grafting of waste PU was carried out using a radiation technique with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA). The PE-g-MA-grafted PU/high density polyethylene (HDPE) composite was prepared by melt-blending at various concentrations (0–10 phr) of PE-g-MA-grafted PU. The composites were characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and their surface morphology and thermal/mechanical properties are reported. For 1 phr PU, the PU could be easily introduced to the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender after the radiation-induced grafting of PU with PE-g-MA. PE-g-MA was easily reacted with PU according to the increasing radiation dose and was located at the interface between the PU and the HDPE during the melt processing in the blender, which improved the interfacial interactions and the mechanical properties of the resultant composites. However, the elongation at break for a PU content >2 phr was drastically decreased. PMID:28788022

  19. Modeling uptake of hydrophobic organic contaminants into polyethylene passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jay M; Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Luthy, Richard G

    2015-02-17

    Single-phase passive samplers are gaining acceptance as a method to measure hydrophobic organic contaminant (HOC) concentration in water. Although the relationship between the HOC concentration in water and passive sampler is linear at equilibrium, mass transfer models are needed for nonequilibrium conditions. We report measurements of organochlorine pesticide diffusion and partition coefficients with respect to polyethylene (PE), and present a Fickian approach to modeling HOC uptake by PE in aqueous systems. The model is an analytic solution to Fick's second law applied through an aqueous diffusive boundary layer and a polyethylene layer. Comparisons of the model with existing methods indicate agreement at appropriate boundary conditions. Laboratory release experiments on the organochlorine pesticides DDT, DDE, DDD, and chlordane in well-mixed slurries support the model's applicability to aqueous systems. In general, the advantage of the model is its application in the cases of well-agitated systems, low values of polyethylene-water partioning coefficients, thick polyethylene relative to the boundary layer thickness, and/or short exposure times. Another significant advantage is the ability to estimate, or at least bound, the needed exposure time to reach a desired CPE without empirical model inputs. A further finding of this work is that polyethylene diffusivity does not vary by transport direction through the sampler thickness.

  20. Enhancement of adhesion by a transition layer: Deposition of a-C film on ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, F. F.; Bai, W. Q.; Li, L. L.; Wang, X. L.; Xie, Y. J.; Jin, G.; Tu, J. P.

    2016-02-01

    An amorphous carbon (a-C) film is deposited on the plasma-treated UHMWPE substrate using a closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering to improve its tribological properties. During the plasma treatment period, a transition layer is prepared by high energy ion bombardment at a bias voltage of -500 V to enhance the adhesion between the a-C film and the substrate. The mechanical and tribological properties of the a-C film were evaluated by nano-indentation and ball-on-disk tribometer. After deposition of a-C film with a thickness 900 nm, the nano-hardness of UHMWPE significantly increases from 47 MPa to 720 MPa and the wear rate decreases from 9.82 × 10-15 m3 N-1 m-1 to 4.78 × 10-15 m3 N-1 m-1 in bovine calf serum solution. The formation of the transition layer is believed to be the reason why the vertical adhesion between the a-C film and the UHMWPE substrate is enhanced.

  1. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM ON UHMW-PE, PTFE, AND VESPEL POLYIMIDE

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, E; Kirk Shanahan, K

    2006-11-01

    Samples of ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and the polyimide Vespel{reg_sign} were exposed to tritium gas in closed containers initially at 101 kPa (1 atmosphere) pressure and ambient temperature for various times up to 2.3 years. Tritium exposure effects on the samples were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and radiolysis products were characterized by measuring the total final pressure and composition in the exposure containers at the end of exposure period.

  2. Preparation of extruded polyethylene/chitosan blends compatibilized with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Castillo, J M; Rodríguez-Félix, D E; Grijalva-Monteverde, H; Del Castillo-Castro, T; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Rodríguez-Félix, F; Herrera-Franco, P J

    2014-01-30

    Novel films of polyethylene and chitosan were obtained using extrusion. These polymers have interesting properties, and processing them with methods that are of high use in the industry, such as the extrusion method, can have a significant effect on the potential applications of these materials. The individual materials were thermally characterized; after this, extruded films of low density polyethylene and chitosan mixtures were prepared with the addition of polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer for the blends, and glycerol, as a plasticizer for chitosan. The use of compatibilizer and plasticizer agents improved the processability and compatibility of the mixtures, as well as their mechanical properties, as revealed by mechanical property measurements and scanning electron microscopy. It was possible to prepare blends with a maximum chitosan content of 20 wt%. The material stiffness increased with the increase of chitosan in the sample. FTIR studies revealed the existence of an interaction between the compatibilizer and chitosan.

  3. Biodegradation of poly(hydroxy butanoic acid) copolymer mulch films in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukade, Pranav

    Agricultural mulch films that are used to cover soil of crop rows contribute to earlier maturation of crops and higher yield. Incineration and landfill disposals are the most common means of disposal of the incumbent polyethylene (PE) mulch films; however, these are not environment friendly options. Biodegradable mulch films that can be rototilled into the soil after crop harvest are a promising alternative to offset problems such as landfill disposal, film retrieval and disposal costs. In this study, an in-house laboratory scale test method was developed in which the rate of disintegration, as a result of biodegradation of films based on polyhydroxybutanoic acid (PHB) copolymers was investigated in a soil environment using the residual weight loss method. The influence of soil composition, moisture levels in the soil, and industry-standard anti-microbial additive in the film composition on the rate of disintegration of PHB copolymer films was investigated. The soil composition has significant effect on the disintegration kinetics of PHB copolymer films, since the increasing compost levels in the soil lowered the rate of disintegration of the film. Also, with the increase in moisture level up to a threshold limit, the microbial activity and, hence, the rate of disintegration increased. Lastly, the developed lab-scale test protocol was found to be sensitive to even small concentrations of industry-standard antimicrobial additive in the film composition.

  4. CAPE for CaPE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Joni

    1993-01-01

    In an effort to improve short-term forecasting for the Kennedy Space Center region, Holle et al. (1992) investigated the effects of low level wind regimes on the distribution of cloud-to-ground lightning in central Florida. With a study period of 455 days, Holle et al. (1992) found 'southwest flow contributed 66 percent of the total network flashes while also occurring on the most days (142).' Relationships among mesoscale thermodynamic variables and precipitation and/or lightning have been addressed in previous studies in Canada and the Tennessee valley. Zawadzki et al. (1981) found 'soundings, surface pressure, temperature and humidity obtained from a standard observation network were correlated with rain rates given by raingages and radar.' Buechler et al. (1990) found 'a fair relationship between CAPE (convective available potential energy) and daily cloud-to-ground activity' with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.68. The present research will investigate the relationships among rainfall, cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning, CAPE, and low level wind flow using data collected during the CaPE (Convection and Precipitation/Electrification Experiment) field program. The CaPE field program was conducted in east central Florida from July 8, 1991 to August 18, 1991.

  5. Effect of the precise branching of polyethylene at each 21st CH2 group on its phase transitions, crystal structure, and morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Qui, Wulin; Sworen, John; Pyda, Marek {nmn}; Nowak-Pyda, Elisabieta; Habenschuss, Anton {Tony}; Wagener, Kenneth; Wunderlich, Bernhard {nmn}

    2006-01-01

    Three linear polyethylenes with branches at every 21st backbone atom have been analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and quasi-isothermal, temperature-modulated DSC. The branches were methyl (PE1M), dimethyl (PE2M), and ethyl groups (PE1E). Linear polyethylene (HDPE) and atactic poly(octadecyl acrylate) (PODA) were also analyzed. All were compared to a random poly(ethylene-co-octene-1) of similar branch concentration (LLDPE) and poly(4,4'-phthaloimidobenzoyldoeicosyleneoxycarbonyl) (PEIM-22). The HDPE has the highest melting temperature and crystallinity with relatively large contributions of reversing melting when grown as folded-chain crystals. The precisely branched polyethylenes and copolymers have lower melting temperatures and heats of fusion. Of the branched samples, PE1M crystallizes more readily, followed by PE1E and PE2M, with PE2M showing cold crystallization. In contrast to paraffins of equal length which melt fully reversibly, the precisely designed, branched polymers melt largely irreversibly with small amounts of reversing melting, which is least for the best-grown crystals. The PE1M forms monoclinic, PE1E, pseudohexagonal, or triclinic crystals, and PE2M has a multitude of crystal structures.

  6. Direction of polyethylene separator development for the SLI market

    SciTech Connect

    Navarrete, J.

    1997-12-01

    Recent separator advancements have improved the oxidation stability and puncture resistance of Polyethylene (PE) separators. These improvements, at the same time, have been accomplished even as the market continues to demand separators with lower backweb thickness. Results of development work to evaluate improved oxidation resistance is presented. Evaluation of separator characteristics as well as separator performance in a battery are presented and form the basis for an improved separator design.

  7. Improved self-healing of polyethylene/carbon black nanocomposites by their shape memory effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Jun; Chen, Min; Ma, Lan; Zhao, Xiaodong; Dang, Zhi-Min; Wang, Zhenwen

    2013-02-07

    In this work, the improved self-healing of cross-linked polyethylene (PE) (cPE)/carbon black (CB) nanocomposites by their shape memory effect (SME) is investigated. CB nanoparticles are found to be homogeneously dispersed in the PE matrix and significantly increase the strength of the materials. Compared with the breaking of linear PE (lPE) at the melting temperature (T(m)), the cPE and cPE/CB nanocomposites still have high strength above T(m) due to the formation of networks. The cPE and cPE/CB nanocomposites show both high strain fixity ratio (R(f)) and high strain recovery ratio (R(r)). Crystallization-induced elongation is observed for all the prepared shape memory polymer (SMP) materials and the effect becomes less remarkable with increasing volume fraction of CB nanoparticles (v(CB)). The scratch self-healing tests show that the cross-linking of PE matrix, the addition of CB nanoparticles, and the previous stretching in the direction perpendicular to the scratch favor the closure of the scratch and its complete healing. This SME-aided self-healing could have potential applications in diverse fields such as coating and structure materials.

  8. Physical and mechanical of breadfruit leaves-polyethylene composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoto, R.; Rohmah, S.; Suhandi, A.

    2017-03-01

    A degradable polymeric composite was prepared from polyethylene (PE) and breadfruit leaves tree powders. Breadfruit leaves tree powders were mixed with PE in an internal mixer at a temperature above the glass transition of PE without additives. Formulations were based on PE/leaves ratio of 100/0, 90/10, 85/15, 80/20 and 75/25 on a dry weight basis. The effect of leaves powders of 140 and 100 meshon the composite mechanical properties was evaluated by means of universal testing machine (UTM) and hardness Rockwell tester. The results showed increases of elastic modulus and flexural modulus of the composites with increasing leaves powders. Tensile strength, yield strength, yield strain, and hardness decreased with increasing percentage of leaves powders in the composites. Flexural strength was slightly decreased with the presence of the leaves powders but independent on the percentage of the leaves powders. In general, the composite properties of 140 mesh leaves powders were more enhanced compare with that of 100 mesh. PE/leaves composites increased water absorption and caused the bulk composite surface more porous. Hence, oxo-biodegradation processes will more easily take place in the PE/leaves composites.

  9. Conversion of post consumer polyethylene to the biodegradable polymer polyhydroxyalkanoate.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Maciej W; Kenny, Shane T; Duane, Gearoid F; Casey, Eoin; Woods, Trevor; Babu, Ramesh P; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Murray, Michael; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2014-05-01

    A process for the conversion of post consumer (agricultural) polyethylene (PE) waste to the biodegradable polymer medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) is reported here. The thermal treatment of PE in the absence of air (pyrolysis) generated a complex mixture of low molecular weight paraffins with carbon chain lengths from C8 to C32 (PE pyrolysis wax). Several bacterial strains were able to grow and produce PHA from this PE pyrolysis wax. The addition of biosurfactant (rhamnolipids) allowed for greater bacterial growth and PHA accumulation of the tested strains. Some strains were only capable of growth and PHA accumulation in the presence of the biosurfactant. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO-1 accumulated the highest level of PHA with almost 25 % of the cell dry weight as PHA when supplied with the PE pyrolysis wax in the presence of rhamnolipids. The change of nitrogen source from ammonium chloride to ammonium nitrate resulted in faster bacterial growth and the earlier onset of PHA accumulation. To our knowledge, this is the first report where PE is used as a starting material for production of a biodegradable polymer.

  10. High-resolution poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) hot embossing at low temperature: thermal, mechanical, and optical analysis of nanopatterned films.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Marco; Signori, Francesca; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; Bronco, Simona; Ciardelli, Francesco; Beltram, Fabio

    2008-11-04

    In this work we present controlled, low-damage nanotopographic surface modification of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). High-resolution nanopatterning over macroscopic areas was performed by " low-temperature" hot embossing lithography (HEL). While for standard HEL the temperature is typically raised up to many tens of Celsius degrees above the polymer glass transition temperature (Tg), we demonstrate optimal results at a temperature very close to the bulk Tg of PET (72 degrees C). Nanopits and nanobarcodes were transferred onto the surface of PET commercial sheets, demonstrating reliable sub-100 nm resolution over macroscopic areas. Sample optical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics were systematically analyzed before and after embossing at low (75 degrees C) and high (150 degrees C) temperature by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, tensile tests, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). We show that, while conventional high-temperature HEL can lead to dramatic degradation of the polymer in terms of transparency, flexibility, and crystallinity content, our low-temperature process fully maintains original surface and bulk substrate properties.

  11. Conducting polymer films fabricated by oxidative graft copolymerization of aniline on poly(acrylic acid) grafted poly(ethylene terephthalate) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiku; Liu, Xuyan; Choi, Ho-Suk; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2008-11-27

    A conductive polyaniline/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PANI/PET) composite film was fabricated via the oxidative graft copolymerization of aniline (ANI) onto the plasma-induced poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) grafted PET surface. The attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirmed that PANI was successfully grafted onto the surface of the PAAc-g-PET films. The effects of the experimental conditions on the percentage of PANI grafted onto the PAAc-g-PET films were extensively investigated. A very high grafting percentage of ANI can be obtained through the acid-base reaction between the aniline monomer and PAAc on the PAAc-g-PET surface at high temperature. As a result, the grafting percentage of PANI can be increased to as high as 12.18 wt %, which causes the surface resistance of the PANI-g-PAAc-g-PET film to be reduced to about 1000 Omega/sq. We predicted that this is because of the high flexibility of the PAAc molecular chains and high solubility of aniline, both of which facilitate the binding of aniline to PAAc during this high temperature acid-base reaction. It was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) that the PANI-modified PET surface exhibits higher size irregularity and surface roughness, which further indicated that a much greater number of aniline molecules can be reactively bonded to and distributed along the grafted AAc chains and that the PANI-g-PAAc-g-PET surface resulting from the sequential oxidative graft copolymerization can possess higher electrical conductivity.

  12. Transferability and Adhesion of Sol-Gel-Derived Crystalline TiO2 Thin Films to Different Types of Plastic Substrates.

    PubMed

    Amano, Natsumi; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Uchiyama, Hiroaki; Kozuka, Hiromitsu

    2017-01-31

    Anatase thin films were prepared on various plastic substrates by our recently developed sol-gel transfer technique. Polycarbonate (PC), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyether ether ketone (PEEK), and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) were employed as plastic substrates. A Si(100) substrate was first coated with a polyimide (PI)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) mixture layer, and an alkoxide-derived titania gel film was deposited on it by spin-coating. The resulting titania gel film was heated to 600 °C, during which the PI/PVP layer decomposed and the gel film was converted into a 60 nm thick anatase film. The anatase film was then transferred from the Si(100) substrate to the plastic substrate. This was achieved by heating the plastic/anatase/Si(100) stack in a near-infrared image furnace to 120-350 °C, depending on the type of plastic substrate, under unidirectional pressure. The anatase film cracked during transfer to PE, PP, PEEK, and PVDC substrates but did not crack during transfer to PC, PMMA, and PET substrates. The fraction of the total film area that was successfully transferred was assessed with the aid of image analysis. This fraction tended to be large for plastics with C═O and C-O groups and small for those without these groups. The film/substrate adhesion assessed by cross-cut tape tests also tended to be high for plastics with C═O and C-O groups and low for those without these groups. The adhesion to plastics without C═O or C-O groups could be enhanced and their transfer area fraction increased by oxidizing the native plastic surface by ultraviolet-ozone treatment prior to transfer.

  13. Migration of wear debris of polyethylene depends on bone microarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Libouban, Hélène; Massin, Philippe; Gaudin, Christine; Mercier, Philippe; Baslé, Michel F; Chappard, Daniel

    2009-08-01

    The mechanism of hip arthroplasties loosening is related to the migration of wear debris throughout the implant environment. In vivo, polyethylene particles (PE) were shown to infiltrate the bone implant interface and the medullary spaces of the cancellous bone. Our test hypothesis was that polyethylene particle migration is correlated to bone porosity. Bone samples with a high or low trabecular volume and microarchitecture were harvested in 20 calves and 20 human cadavers. They were extensively washed to remove marrow cells. Bone cylinders were filled with a light-curing monomer having the same viscosity as bone marrow. PE particles (7 and 33 microm) were deposited at the surface of the polymer. The bone cylinders were agitated during 7 days on an orbital shaker and the gel was left to polymerize at day light. X-ray microtomography was performed to characterize bone volume and microarchitecture. Cylinders were sectioned and observed under polarized light. The migration distance and rate were determined. Migration of PE particles strongly depended on trabecular bone volume and microarchitecture. We found a linear relationship (r = 0.61) between speed migration and bone volume and an exponential relationship between speed migration and bone architecture. The present in vitro model confirmed our hypothesis about the key role of bone microarchitecture in the migration of large PE wear particles. This is an explanation for the development of inflammatory reaction at distance from a prosthesis although our study did not include submicron particles.

  14. Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Board of Education, PA. Div. of Instructional Materials.

    The Affective Curriculum Research Project produced five films and two records during a series of experimental summer programs. The films and records form part of a curriculum designed to teach to the concerns of students. The films were an effort to describe the Philadelphia Cooperative Schools Program, to explain its importance, and to…

  15. Copper nanoparticles functionalized PE: Preparation, characterization and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reznickova, A.; Orendac, M.; Kolska, Z.; Cizmar, E.; Dendisova, M.; Svorcik, V.

    2016-12-01

    We report grafting of copper nanoparticles (CuNP) on plasma activated high density polyethylene (HDPE) via dithiol interlayer pointing out to the structural and magnetic properties of those composites. The as-synthesized Cu nanoparticles have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM/TEM) and UV-vis spectroscopy. Properties of pristine PE and their plasma treated counterparts were studied by different experimental techniques: X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), zeta potential, electron spin resonance (ESR) and SQUID magnetometry. From TEM and HRTEM analyses, it is found that the size of high purity Cu nanoparticles is (12.2 ± 5.2) nm. It was determined that in the CuNPs, the copper atoms are arranged mostly in the (111) and (200) planes. Absorption in UV-vis region by these nanoparticles is ranging from 570 to 670 nm. EDS revealed that after 1 h of grafting are Cu nanoparticles homogeneously distributed over the whole surface and after 24 h of grafting Cu nanoparticles tend to aggregate slightly. The combined investigation of magnetic properties using ESR spectrometry and SQUID magnetometry confirmed the presence of copper nanoparticles anchored on PE substrate and indicated ferromagnetic interactions.

  16. New software forecasts service life and integrity of PE piping

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, C.J.; Kanninen, M.F.; Mamoun, M.M.

    1995-04-01

    New software from the Gas Research Institute (GRI) is especially useful to local distribution companies (LDCs) who have older plastic gas pipe installations and are in warmer climates. The new software, LIFESPAN, enables these companies to predict pipe lifetimes and plan for long range replacement programs. LIFESPAN also is useful for assessing the operational benefits by changing scenarios, such as: what will the pipe lifetime be if pressure is increased (or reduced) by 25%? In addition to its ability to forecast the longterm performance of polyethylene (PE) gas pipe materials by using data from short-term, laboratory-based slow crack growth (SCG) tests, LIFESPAN also can evaluate existing piping systems. Also, it can be used to design new systems, select PE gas piping materials in a cost effective manner for specific operating conditions, and improve inspection and maintenance operations. With information from LIFESPAN, pipe replacements, repairs, or rehabilitation can be done in a scheduled manner for effective use of manpower and equipment resources.

  17. Achromobacter xylosoxidans as a new microorganism strain colonizing high-density polyethylene as a key step to its biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Anna; Chyc, Marek; Ryszka, Przemysław; Latowski, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    This study presents results of research on isolation new bacteria strain Achromobacter xylosoxidans able to effect on the structure of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polymer resistant to degradation in environment. New strain of A. xylosoxidans PE-1 was isolated from the soil and identified by analysis of the 16S ribosome subunit coding sequences. The substance to be degraded was HDPE in the form of thin foil films. The foil samples were analyzed with Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) as well as scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the results revealed degradation of chemical structure of HDPE. About 9 % loss of weight was also detected as a result of A. xylosoxidans PE-1 effect on HDPE foil. On the basis of comparative spectral analysis of the raw material before the bacteria treatment and the spectrum from a spectra database, it was assumed that the HDPE was the only source of carbon and energy for the microorganisms. No fillers or other additives used in the plastic processing were observed in HDPE before experiments. This is the first communication showing that A. xylosoxidans is able to modify chemical structure of HDPE, what was observed both on FTIR, in mass reduction of HDPE and SEM analysis. We also observed quite good growth of the bacteria also when the HDPE was the sole carbon source in the medium. These results prove that A. xylosoxidans is an organism worth applying in future HDPE biodegradation studies.

  18. Polymer crystalline texture controlled through film blowing and block copolymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Li-Bong Wei

    Polymer properties can be manipulated through processing or chemical modification. Both methods are explored here, by (a) elucidating the origin of directional tear behavior in polyethylene (PE) films processed under different conditions, and (b) synthesizing new block copolymers, whose architectures permit precise control over crystal thickness and melting temperature. Directional tear in films of PE and its copolymers was traced to the orientation imparted during film blowing, quantified through x-ray scattering. The blow-up ratio (BUR) was the most significant process parameter controlling crystal orientation. The Keller-Machin I structure was observed in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films, which tore preferentially in the transverse direction (TD). Conversely, the Keller-Machin II structure was observed in ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymer films at low BUR, which also tore TD, but the orientation rotated 90° at high BUR, leading to preferred tear in the machine direction (MD). High-density and linear low-density PE films also exhibited the Keller-Machin I structure (as in LDPE) but tore either along MD (HDPE) or isotropically (LLDPE). These differences in tear behavior between chemically similar but architecturally distinct polymers, differing greatly in the type and level of branching, stem from intercrystallite tie molecules. In the second area, crystalline-amorphous diblock copolymers were synthesized through ring-opening metathesis polymerization and subsequent hydrogenation, where the amorphous block was hydrogenated poly(ethylidene norbornene), hPEN, and the crystalline block was either hydrogenated polycyclopentene, hPCP (identical to HDPE) or hydrogenated polynorbornene, hPN. Acyclic metathesis discovered during the PCP synthesis focused the study on block copolymers containing hPN, which is atactic yet highly crystalline. The hPN crystal structure was solved as monoclinic-beta (space group C2/c), with a = 6.936 A, b = 9.596 A, c = 12.420 A, and

  19. Doping Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on Electrical Insulation Properties of Polyethylene: From Macroscopic to Molecular Scale

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Ziang; Li, Changming; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Guiling; Han, Baozhong

    2016-01-01

    The doping effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on electrical insulation properties of polyethylene (PE) was studied by combining experimental and theoretical methods. The electric conduction properties and trap characteristics were tested for pure PE and PE/GNPs composites by using a direct measurement method and a thermal stimulated current (TSC) method. It was found that doping smaller GNPs is more beneficial to decrease the conductivity of PE/GNPs. The PE/GNPs composite with smaller size GNPs mainly introduces deep energy traps, while with increasing GNPs size, besides deep energy traps, shallow energy traps are also introduced. These results were also confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) and the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) method calculations. Therefore, doping small size GNPs is favorable for trapping charge carriers and enhancing insulation ability, which is suggested as an effective strategy in exploring powerful insulation materials. PMID:28773802

  20. Doping Effect of Graphene Nanoplatelets on Electrical Insulation Properties of Polyethylene: From Macroscopic to Molecular Scale.

    PubMed

    Jing, Ziang; Li, Changming; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Guiling; Han, Baozhong

    2016-08-10

    The doping effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on electrical insulation properties of polyethylene (PE) was studied by combining experimental and theoretical methods. The electric conduction properties and trap characteristics were tested for pure PE and PE/GNPs composites by using a direct measurement method and a thermal stimulated current (TSC) method. It was found that doping smaller GNPs is more beneficial to decrease the conductivity of PE/GNPs. The PE/GNPs composite with smaller size GNPs mainly introduces deep energy traps, while with increasing GNPs size, besides deep energy traps, shallow energy traps are also introduced. These results were also confirmed by density functional theory (DFT) and the non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method calculations. Therefore, doping small size GNPs is favorable for trapping charge carriers and enhancing insulation ability, which is suggested as an effective strategy in exploring powerful insulation materials.

  1. Plasma Treatment of Polyethylene Powder Particles in Hollow Cathode Glow Discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Wolter, Matthias; Quitzau, Meike; Bornholdt, Sven; Kersten, Holger

    2008-09-07

    Polyethylen (PE) is widely used in the production of foils, insulators, packaging materials, plastic bottles etc. Untreated PE is hydrophobic due to its unpolar surface. Therefore, it is hard to print or glue PE and the surface has to be modified before converting.In the present experiments a hollow cathode glow discharge is used as plasma source which is mounted in a spiral conveyor in order to ensure a combines transport of PE powder particles. With this set-up a homogeneous surface treatment of the powder is possible while passing the glow discharge. The plasma treatment causes a remarkable enhancement of the hydrophilicity of the PE powder which can be verified by contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  2. An Investigation into Reducing Time Dependent Creep of a Polyethylene Geotextile using Glass Fiber Yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jun

    An investigation has been carried out to reduce the deformation behavior of polyethylene (PE) woven geotextile fabric by making PE fabric-glass yarn composite structure using stitching and laminating. The results showed that reinforcement significantly reduced the creep and IED as long as the tensile stress is lower than the total load bearing capacity of the glass yarns in the composite structure. However, the strength of PE-glass composite fabric was solely dependent on the strength of the glass yarns. The strength from PE yarns only contributes when all glass yarns are broken. Cast result of concrete columns using the glass yarn reinforced PE fabric by stitching method suggested that the glass yarn must face outside of the fabric formwork to avoid damage of both fabric surface and column surface.

  3. Nanocomposites polyethylene/argile destines a des applications electriques: Conception et relations structure-proprietes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazoum, Bouchaib

    The aim of this work is the manufacturing of PE/clay nanocomposites and to study the structure-property relationships of these materials. The nanocomposites materials were prepared by mixing a commercially available premixed LLDPE/O-MMT masterbatch into a polyethylene blend matrix containing 80 wt % low density polyethylene and 20 wt % high density polyethylene with and without anhydride modified polyethylene (PE-MA) as the compatibilizer using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Firstly, the effect of nanoclay and compatibilizer on the structure and dielectric response of PE/clay nanocomposites has been investigated. The microstructure of PE/clay nanocomposites was characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thermal properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The dielectric response of neat PE was compared with those of PE/clay nanocomposite with and without the compatibilizer in order to understand the effect of the quality of dispersion of nanoclay on dielectric response. In the nanocomposite materials two relaxation modes are detected in the dielectric losses. The first relaxation is due to a Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars interfacial polarization and the second relaxation is related to dipolar polarization. A relationship between the degree of dispersion and the relaxation rate f max of Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars was found and discussed. Secondly, PE/clay nanocomposites have been characterized by various techniques such as optical microscopy, AFM, TEM, TGA, DMTA and dielectric breakdown measurements. A correlation between structure and dielectric breakdown strength was discussed. Finally, a 3D simulation model by the finite element method is developed in order to study the effect of dispersion of nanoclay particles, varying the permittivity and radius of the inclusion on effective permittivity, electric field distribution and polarization. The simulation results were compared with theoretical

  4. Giant surfactants of poly(ethylene oxide)- b-polystyrene-(molecular nanoparticle): nanoparticle-driven self-assembly with sub-10-nm nanostructures in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Hao; Lin, Zhiwei; Dong, Xue-Hui; Hsieh, I.-Fan; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.

    2014-03-01

    Giant surfactants are built upon precisely attaching shape- and volume-persistent molecular nanoparticles (MNP) to polymeric flexible tails. The unique class of self-assembling materials, giant surfactants, has been demonstrated to form self-assembled ordered nanostructures, and their self-assembly behaviors are remarkably sensitive to primary chemical structures. In this work, two sets of giant surfactants with functionalized MNP attached to diblock copolymer tails were studied in thin films. Carboxylic acid-functionalized [60]fullerene (AC60) tethered with PEO- b-PS (PEO-PS-AC60) represents an ABA' (hydrophilic-hydrophobic-hydrophilic) giant surfactant, and fluoro-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (FPOSS) tethered with PEO- b-PS (PEO-PS-FPOSS) represents an ABC (hydrophilic-hydrophobic-omniphobic) one. The dissimilar chemical natures of the MNPs result in different arrangement of MNPs in self-assembled structures, the dispersion of AC60 in PEO domain and the single domain of FPOSS. Moreover, the chemically bonded MNPs could induce the originally disordered small molecular PEO- b-PS to form ordered cylindrical and lamellar structure, as evidenced by TEM and GISAXS, leading to sub-10-nm nanostructures of copolymer in the thin film state.

  5. Far-UV Annealed Inkjet-Printed In2O3 Semiconductor Layers for Thin-Film Transistors on a Flexible Polyethylene Naphthalate Substrate.

    PubMed

    Leppäniemi, Jaakko; Eiroma, Kim; Majumdar, Himadri; Alastalo, Ari

    2017-03-15

    The inkjet-printing process of precursor solutions containing In nitrate dissolved in 2-methoxyethanol is optimized using ethylene glycol as a cosolvent that allows the stabilization of the droplet formation, leading to a robust, repeatable printing process. The inkjet-printed precursor films are then converted to In2O3 semiconductors at flexible-substrate-compatible low temperatures (150-200 °C) using combined far-ultraviolet (FUV) exposure at ∼160 nm and thermal treatment. The compositional nature of the precursor-to-metal oxide conversion is studied using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy that indicate that amorphous, high density (up to 5.87 g/cm(3)), and low impurity In2O3 films can be obtained using the combined annealing technique. Prolonged annealing (180 min) at 150 °C yields enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of 4.3 cm(2)/(Vs) and ∼1 cm(2)/(Vs) on rigid Si/SiO2 and flexible plastic PEN substrates, respectively. This paves the way for manufacturing relatively high-performance, printed metal-oxide TFT arrays on cheap, flexible substrate for commercial applications.

  6. [Biodegradation of polyethylene].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun; Song, Yi-ling; Qin, Xiao-yan

    2007-05-01

    Plastic material is one of the most serious solid wastes pollution. More than 40 million tons of plastics produced each year are discarded into environment. Plastics accumulated in the environment is highly resistant to biodegradation and not be able to take part in substance recycle. To increase the biodegradation efficiency of plastics by different means is the main research direction. This article reviewed the recent research works of polyethylene biodegradation that included the modification and pretreatment of polyethylene, biodegradation pathway, the relevant microbes and enzymes and the changes of physical, chemical and biological properties after biodegradation. The study directions of exploiting the kinds of life-forms of biodegradation polyethylene except the microorganisms, isolating and cloning the key enzymes and gene that could produce active groups, and enhancing the study on polyethylene biodegradation without additive were proposed.

  7. Polyethylene Glycol 3350

    MedlinePlus

    ... the stool. This increases the number of bowel movements and softens the stool so it is easier ... for polyethylene glycol 3350 to produce a bowel movement.To use the powder, follow these steps: If ...

  8. Diffusion of limonene in polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Limm, W; Begley, T H; Lickly, T; Hentges, S G

    2006-07-01

    Diffusion coefficients of limonene in various linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) resins have been determined from sorption data using a thermogravimetric methodology. From these data, one can determine whether polymer synthesis parameters such as the choice of catalytic process or co-monomer result in substantial differences in how much food packaging additives might migrate to food. For example, LLDPE is currently manufactured using either one of two distinct catalytic processes: Ziegler-Natta (ZN) and metallocene, a single-site catalyst. ZN catalysis is a heterogeneous process that has dominated polyolefin synthesis over the last half-century. It involves a transition metal compound containing a metal-carbon bond that can handle repeated insertion of olefin units. In contrast, metallocene catalysis has fewer than 20 years of history, but has generated much interest due to its ability to produce highly stereospecific polymers at a very high yield. In addition to high stereospecificity, metallocene-catalysed polymers are significantly lower in polydispersity than traditional ZN counterparts. Absorption and desorption testing of heat-pressed films made from LLDPE and LDPE resins of varying processing parameters indicates that diffusion coefficients of limonene in these resins do not change substantially.

  9. Functional separator consisted of polyimide nonwoven fabrics and polyethylene coating layer for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chuan; Zhang, Peng; Huang, Shaohua; He, Xinyi; Yang, Pingting; Wu, Dezhi; Sun, Daoheng; Zhao, Jinbao

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a composite membrane with nonwoven polyimide (PI) membrane as structural support and polyethylene (PE) particles coating layer as a thermal shutdown layer, is fabricated as the separator for lithium-ion battery. Different from PI nonwoven membrane, the PE coating PI nonwoven composite membrane (PE-PI-S) not only shows excellent thermal shutdown function, similar to traditional multilayer PP/PE/PP separator, but also exhibits much higher thermal stability, better wettability to the polar electrolyte and lower internal resistance than the PP/PE/PP separator. The electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of PE-PI-S increase from 58%, 0.84 mS cm-1 to 400%, 1.34 mS cm-1, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal shutdown function of PE-PI-S can be controlled widely in the temperature range from 120 °C to more than 200 °C while the multilayer PP/PE/PP separator only with a shutdown temperature range from 130 °C to 160 °C. Lithium ion battery with PE-PI-S nonwoven separator also shows excellent stable cycling and good rate performance.

  10. No, Really: P.E. Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    Because some students need to drop some extracurricular activities in order to enroll in a PE class, public schools have developed PE courses that can be fitted into students' tight schedules. These programs are popular because of convenience. Not only can workouts be scheduled as desired, but students can sweat it out almost anywhere: the local…

  11. No, Really: P.E. Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2005-01-01

    Because some students need to drop some extracurricular activities in order to enroll in a PE class, public schools have developed PE courses that can be fitted into students' tight schedules. These programs are popular because of convenience. Not only can workouts be scheduled as desired, but students can sweat it out almost anywhere: the local…

  12. Elementary Students' Construct of PE Teacher Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Nilo O.; McCullick, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary students' perceptions of PE teacher credibility. Eight high- and low-skilled students from grades 3 and 5 were selected from a school employing a PE teacher holding a National Board Certification. Data were collected in the school setting utilizing observations, field notes, an open-ended…

  13. Elementary Students' Construct of PE Teacher Credibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Nilo O.; McCullick, Bryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary students' perceptions of PE teacher credibility. Eight high- and low-skilled students from grades 3 and 5 were selected from a school employing a PE teacher holding a National Board Certification. Data were collected in the school setting utilizing observations, field notes, an open-ended…

  14. Thermo-Gelation of Surface-Modified Polyethylene Microgels from Fragmentation and Immiscible Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Gerald H.; Shaw, Montgomery T.

    2008-07-01

    Polyethylene microgels were created by swollen-state grinding and ultrasonic fragmentation of bulk crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) suspended in squalane, and by the extraction of crosslinked-polyethylene micro-domains from an immiscible blend of polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS). Crosslinking of the polyethylene micro-domains in the blend was achieved by exposure to an electron beam. Suspensions of both microgels in squalane exhibit thermal gelation upon cooling where both G' and G″ increase by up to five-orders in magnitude when probed using small-angle oscillatory shear. We propose that this phenomenon is attributed to weak short-range interactions among the particles whereby surface terminal chains on the microgels can co-crystallize forming inter-particle bonds. However, these interactions are mild enough that the systems may be reverted to its original state by applying higher shear stresses at elevated temperatures.

  15. Evaluation of Recycling Technology of Insulation of Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulated Cable using Supercritical Alcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Toshiharu; Ashihara, Shingo; Yamazaki, Takanori; Watanabe, Kiyoshi

    The material recycling of the insulation of cross-linked polyethylene cable was studied. We successfully obtained thermoplastic recycled polyethylene from silane cross-linked polyethylene by using chemical reaction in supercritical alcohol. Here, the continuous process for the recycling of silane cross-linked PE using supercritical alcohol was constructed. The mechanical and electrical properties of recycled polyethylene satisfied the requirement of the cable insulation. These results indicate that the cable to cable and wire to wire recycling of silane cross-linked polyethylene will possibly be accomplished by supercritical technology using extruder. Moreover the environmental effect of this technology was evaluated by the amount of the carbon dioxide generated from the continuous process. These results indicate that recycling method using supercritical alcohol was useful for the reduction of the environmental pollution.

  16. Postharvest storage quality of grapefruit placed in polyethylene bags with or without micro-perforation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Washed ‘Marsh’ white grapefruit were placed in polyethylene (PE) bags (1 mil) with or without micro-perforation holes (representing 0.002% of the bag surface) and evaluated for juice quality, firmness, and the development of decay and disorders during storage for 30, 60, or 90 days at 50oF. Each tre...

  17. Elastomer modified polypropylene–polyethylene blends as matrices for wood flour–plastic composites

    Treesearch

    Craig Clemons

    2010-01-01

    Blends of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) could potentially be used as matrices for wood–plastic composites (WPCs). The mechanical performance and morphology of both the unfilled blends and wood-filled composites with various elastomers and coupling agents were investigated. Blending of the plastics resulted in either small domains of the minor phase in a...

  18. Direct subcutaneous injection of polyethylene particles over the murine calvaria results in dramatic osteolysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Allison J; Zwingenberger, Stefan; Valladares, Roberto; Li, Chenguang; Lane Smith, Robert; Goodman, Stuart B; Nich, Christophe

    2013-07-01

    The murine calvarial model has been widely employed for the in vivo study of particle-induced osteolysis, the most frequent cause of aseptic loosening of total joint replacements. Classically, this model uses an open surgical technique in which polyethylene (PE) particles are directly spread over the calvarium for the induction of osteolysis. We evaluated a minimally invasive modification of the calvarial model by using a direct subcutaneous injection of PE particles. Polyethylene (PE) particles were injected subcutaneously over the calvaria of C57BL6J ten-week-old mice ("injection" group) or were implanted after surgical exposure of the calvaria ("open" group) (n = 5/group). For each group, five additional mice received no particles and served as controls. Particle-induced osteolysis was evaluated two weeks after the procedure using high-definition microCT imaging. Polyethylene particle injection over the calvaria resulted in a 40% ± 1.8% decrease in the bone volume fraction (BVF), compared to controls. Using the "open surgical technique", the BVF decreased by 16% ± 3.8% as compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Direct subcutaneous injection of PE particles over the murine calvaria produced more profound resorption of bone. Polyethylene particle implantation by injection is less invasive and reliably induces osteolysis to a greater degree than the open technique. This subcutaneous injection method will prove useful for repetitive injections of particles, and the assessment of potential local or systemic therapies.

  19. Field evaluation of a new plastic film (vapor safe) to reduce fumigant emissions and improve distribution in soil.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Ajwa, Husein; Sullivan, David; Wang, Dong; Hanson, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    Preplant soil fumigation is an important pest management practice in coastal California strawberry production regions. Potential atmospheric emissions of fumigants from field treatment, however, have drawn intensive environmental and human health concerns; increasingly stringent regulations on fumigant use have spurred research on low-emission application techniques. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of a new low-permeability film, commonly known as totally impermeable film (TIF), on fumigant emissions and on fumigant distribution in soil. A 50/50 mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) was shank-applied at 314 kg ha in two location-separate field plots (0.4 ha each) in Ventura County, California, in fall 2009. One plot was surface-covered with standard polyethylene (PE) film, and the other was covered with TIF immediately after fumigant application. Data collection included emissions, soil-gas phase concentration profile, air concentration under the film, and soil residuals of the applied fumigants. Peak emission flux of 1,3-D and CP from the TIF field was substantially lower than from the PE field. Total through-film emission loss was 2% for 1,3-D and <1% for CP from the TIF field during a 6-d film covering period, compared with 43% for 1,3-D and 12% for CP from the PE field. However, on film-cutting, greater retention of 1,3-D in the TIF field resulted in a much higher emission surge compared with the PE field, while CP emissions were fairly low in both fields. Higher concentrations and a more uniform distribution in the soil profile for 1,3-D and CP were observed under the TIF compared with the PE film, suggesting that the TIF may allow growers to achieve satisfactory pest control with lower fumigant rates. The surging 1,3-D emissions after film-cutting could result in high exposure risks to workers and bystanders and must be addressed with additional mitigation measures. Copyright © by the American Society of

  20. Thermal and catalytic degradation of high and low density polyethylene into fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    Uddin, Azhar; Koizumi, Kazuo; Sakata, Yusaku

    1996-12-31

    The degradation of four different types of polyethylene (PE) namely high density PE (HDPE), low density PE (LDPE), linear low density PE (LLDPE), and cross-linked PE (XLPE) was carried out at 430 {degrees}C by batch operation using silica-alumina as a solid acid catalyst and thermally without any catalyst. For thermal degradation, both HDPE and XLPE produced significant amount of wax-like compounds and the yield of liquid products were lower than that of LDPE and LLDPE. LDPE and LLDPE also produced small amount of wax-like compounds. Thus the structure of the degrading polymers influenced the product yields. The liquid products from thermal degradation were broadly distributed in the carbon fraction of n-C{sub 5} to n-C{sub 25} (boiling point range, 36-405 C). With silica-alumina, the polyethylenes were converted to liquid products with high yields (77-83 wt%) and without any wax production. The liquid products were distributed in the range of n-C{sub 5} to n-C{sub 20} (Mostly C{sub 5}-C{sub 12}). Solid acid catalyst indiscriminately degraded the various types of polyethylene into light fuel oil. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Functionalization enhancement on interfacial shear strength between graphene and polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yikuang; Duan, Fangli; Mu, Xiaojing

    2016-11-01

    Pull-out processes were simulated to investigate the interfacial mechanical properties between the functionalized graphene sheet (FGS) and polyethylene (PE) matrix by using molecular dynamics simulation with ReaxFF reactive force field. The interfacial structure of polymer and the interfacial interaction in the equilibrium FGS/PE systems were also analyzed to reveal the enhancement mechanism of interfacial shear strength. We observed the insertion of functional groups into polymer layer in the equilibrium FGS/PE systems. During the pull-out process, some interfacial chains were attached on the FGS and pulled out from the polymer matrix. The behavior of these pulled out chains was further analyzed to clarify the different traction action of functional groups applied on them. The results show that the traction effect of functional groups on the pulled-out chains is agreement with their enhancement influence on the interfacial shear strength of the FGS/PE systems. They both are basically dominated by the size of functional groups, suggesting the enhancement mechanism of mechanical interlocking. However, interfacial binding strength also exhibits an obvious influence on the interfacial shear properties of the hybrid system. Our simulation show that geometric constrains at the interface is the principal contributor to the enhancement of interfacial shear strength in the FGS/PE systems, which could be further strengthened by the wrinkled morphology of graphene in experiments.

  2. Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Yayun; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Zhang; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Liu, J.-M.; Ishiwara, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we investigated the microstructure and electrical properties of Bi2SiO5 (BSO) doped SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) films deposited by chemical solution deposition. X-ray diffraction observation indicated that the crystalline structures of all the BSO-doped SBT films are nearly the same as those of a pure SBT film. Through BSO doping, the 2Pr and 2Ec values of SBT films were changed from 15.3 μC/cm2 and 138 kV/cm of pure SBT to 1.45 μC/cm2 and 74 kV/cm of 10 wt.% BSO-doped SBT. The dielectric constant at 1 MHz for SBT varied from 199 of pure SBT to 96 of 10 wt.% BSO-doped SBT. The doped SBT films exhibited higher leakage current than that of non-doped SBT films. Nevertheless, all the doped SBT films still had small dielectric loss and low leakage current. Our present work will provide useful insights into the BSO doping effects to the SBT films, and it will be helpful for the material design in the future nonvolatile ferroelectric memories.

  3. JROTC as a Substitute for PE: Really?

    PubMed Central

    Lounsbery, Monica A. F.; Holt, Kathryn A.; Monnat, Shannon A.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Funk, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Even though physical education (PE) is an evidence-based strategy for providing and promoting physical activity, alternative programs such as Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) are commonly substituted for PE in many states. The purpose of this study was to compare student physical activity and lesson contexts during high school PE and JROTC sessions. Method SOFIT (System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time) was used to assess PE and JROTC sessions (N=38 each) in 4 high schools that provided both programs. Data were analyzed using t-tests, negative binomial regression, and logistic regression. Results Students engaged in significantly more moderate to vigorous physical activity during PE than JROTC sessions and they were significantly less sedentary. Significant differences between the two program types were also found among lesson contexts. Conclusions PE and JROTC provide substantially different content and contexts and students in them engage in substantially different amounts of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Students in JROTC, and perhaps other alternative programs, are less likely to accrue health-supporting physical activity and engage in fewer opportunities to be physically fit and motorically skilled. Policies and practices for providing substitutions for PE should be carefully examined. PMID:25141093

  4. ESR study of free radicals in UHMW-PE fiber irradiated by gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanning; Wang, Mouhua; Tang, Zhongfeng; Wu, Guozhong

    2010-04-01

    ESR spectra of the trapped radicals in an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW-PE) fiber irradiated by gamma rays showed well-resolved hyperfine splitting at room temperature since the c-axis of the crystallites is aligned with the fiber direction and the radicals are trapped in crystallites. The alkyl radical (-CH 2- •CH-CH 2-) was the major product after irradiation in vacuum and in air at room temperature. Some of the alkyl radicals converted to allyl radicals (-CH 2- •CH-CH=CH-) and polyenyl radicals (-CH 2- •CH-(CH=CH) n-CH 2-) during storage in vacuum. Upon storage in air atmosphere, the alkyl radicals decayed by reaction with oxygen. Of particular interest is the very slow decay rate of the alkyl radical trapped in UHMW-PE fiber, the half-life is 26 days in vacuum, and 13 days in air at room temperature, which is about 1/30 and 1/100 of that reported for high density polyethylene (HDPE), respectively. The extremely long lifetime of the alkyl radical is supposed to be caused by the large size of crystallites in UHMW-PE fiber. The rate of radical decay was accelerated by annealing at elevated temperature.

  5. Structure and antibacterial properties of polyethylene/organo-vermiculite composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundáková, Marianna; Tokarský, Jonáš; Valášková, Marta; Slobodian, Petr; Pazdziora, Erich; Kimmer, Dušan

    2015-10-01

    Vermiculite (VER) was modified by cation exchange with hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA+) bromide in three concentrations and used as organo-VER clay mineral nanofillers (denoted as HDTMA+1-VER, HDTMA+2-VER, and HDTMA+3-VER) in polyethylene (PE). PE/organo-VER composites were prepared via a melt compounding technique and pressed into thin plates. The organo-VER nanofillers and composite plates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis which in combination with molecular modeling confirmed the intercalation of HDTMA+ molecules. It was found that alkyl tails of HDTMA+ molecules create a non-polar, water-free area which may help the PE chains to enter the VER interlayer space. The nanocomposite structure was confirmed for PE/HDTMA+3-VER. PE/organo-VER composites were also studied by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy and by creep testing. Antibacterial activity of powder organo-VER nanofillers was tested on Gram-positive (G+) (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (G-) (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains. The most sensitive G+ bacteria responded by stopping their bacterial growth after 24 h with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.014% (w/v) at all samples. Growth of G- bacteria was inhibited after 24 h with higher MIC value 0.041-10% (w/v) in relation to the content of HDTMA+ in samples. The surfaces of PE/organo-VER composites are very active against G+ bacterial strain E. faecalis. The number of bacterial colonies forming units (cfu) on surfaces of samples was reduced by approximately several orders. The number of bacterial colonies after 48 h was 0 cfu on the surface of PE/HDTMA+3-VER nanocomposite.

  6. Improvement of aluminum/polyethylene adhesion through corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popelka, Anton; Krupa, Igor; Novák, Igor; Al-Maadeed, Mariam Ali S. A.; Ouederni, Mabrouk

    2017-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is often used in several industrial applications including the building, packaging and transport industries. Aluminum (Al) is widely used in different applications in the automotive, railway, aeronautic, and naval industries because of its excellent mechanical and chemical properties. Laminates prepared from Al and PE lead to an enhancement in physical and mechanical properties. These materials play a main role in the packaging and building sectors, such as in TetraPak containers and aluminum composite panels. The main problem observed is associated with the adhesion between polymers and metals. This research focused on investigating the enhancement in the adhesion of the PE/Al laminate using the corona discharge. The corona treatment of the surfaces led to a significant increase in the adhesion of the PE/Al laminate as a result of improved surface properties confirmed by peel test measurements. Moreover, the positive effect of the corona treatment in combination with a primer on the improvement of adhesion characteristics was observed too. Different analytical techniques were employed to characterize the effect of the corona treatment on the improvement in adhesion of PE/Al. A significant increase in wettability was confirmed by the measurement of contact angles. Changes in the surface morphology of the PE and Al surface, after the corona treatments at different operating conditions, were observed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In addition, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyze changes in chemical composition after the corona discharge effect on PE and Al surfaces.

  7. Influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain length on the thermal behavior of spin-coated thin films of biodegradable poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate)/PEG blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yujing; Park, Yeonju; Noda, Isao; Jung, Young Mee

    2016-11-01

    The influence of the polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mn = 400, 1500, and 3400) chain length on the miscibility and thermal properties of spin-coated films of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHx, HHx = 6.9 mol %)/PEG blends was elucidated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and temperature-dependent infrared (IR) spectroscopy. To extract more detailed information about the spectral variations induced by the temperature, 2D correlation spectroscopy was applied to the temperature-dependent IR spectra of PHBHx/PEG blends. It was found that PEG 400 was completely miscible with PHBHx while PEG 1500 and 3400 were only partially miscible, reflecting that PHBHx/PEG miscibility decreased with the increasing molecular weight of PEG. The amorphous band of carbonyl group of 70/30 PHBHx/PEG 400 blend is resolved into two bands at 1744 and 1754 cm-1 in the asynchronous spectrum, which is not observed in the corresponding asynchronous 2D correlation spectra of PHBHx and its blend with PEG 1500 and 3400. This observation suggests that we captured the possible existence of two different types of amorphous state in 70/30 PHBHx/PEG 400 blend and the band at 1744 cm-1 is related to the amorphous mixture of PHBHx and PEG 400. Furthermore, 2D correlation analysis and the normalized peak height trends demonstrate that PEG 400 disrupts the crystalline structure of PHBHx, indicating low molecular weight PEG 400 has a clear effect on the thermal properties of PHBHx as well as depressing its melting temperature.

  8. Kinetics and microscopic processes of long term fracture in polyethylene piping materials. Final report, February 1, 1991-February 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Lu, X.

    1992-07-21

    The report contains 9 completed works as follows: The Dependence of Slow Crack Growth in a Polyethylene Copolymer on Testing Temperature and Morphology; A Test of Slow Crack Growth Failure of PE under Constant Load; Effect of Annealing on Slow Crack Growth in an Ethylene-Hexene Copolymer; The Fundamental Material Parameters that Govern Slow Crack Growth in Linear Polyethylene; Slow Crack Growth in Blends of HDPE and UHMWPE; The Mechqnism of Fatigue Failure in a Polyethylene Copolymer; PENT Quality Control Test for PE Gas Pipes and Resins; International Round Robin Study of A Fatigue Test Approach to the Ranking of Polyethylene Pipe Material; Proposed ASTM Specification for ASTM F17.40 Test Methods Committee.

  9. Preparation of a new micro-porous poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted polyethylene separator for high performance Li secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwon, Sung-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hak; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Ihm, Young-Eon; Nho, Young-Chang

    2009-10-01

    In this study, micro-porous poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted polyethylene separators (PE-g-PMMA) were prepared by a radiation-induced graft polymerization of methyl methacrylate onto a conventional PE separator followed by a phase inversion. After the phase inversion, the micro-pores were generated in the grafted PMMA layer. The prepared micro-porous PE-g-PMMA separators showed an improved electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity due to their improved affinity with a liquid electrolyte and the presence of pores in the grafted PMMA layer. The PE-g-PMMA separators exhibited a lower thermal shrinkage compared to the original PE separator. The PE-g-PMMA separators showed a better oxidation stability up to 5.0 V when compared to the original PE separator (4.5 V).

  10. Graphite/Ultra-High Modulus Polyethylene Hybrid Fiber Composites with Epoxy and Polyethylene Matrices for Cosmic Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    One of the most significant technical challenges in long-duration space missions is that of protecting the crew from harmful radiation. Protection against such radiation on a manned Mars mission will be of vital importance both during transit and while on the surface of the planet. The development of multifunctional materials that serve as integral structural members of the space vehicle and provide the necessary radiation shielding for the crew would be both mission enabling and cost effective. Additionally, combining shielding and structure could reduce total vehicle mass. Hybrid laminated composite materials having both ultramodulus polyethylene (PE) and graphite fibers in epoxy and PE matrices could meet such mission requirements. PE fibers have excellent physical properties, including the highest specific strength of any known fiber. Moreover, the high hydrogen (H) content of polyethylene makes the material an excellent shielding material for cosmic radiation. When such materials are incorporated into an epoxy or PE matrix a very effective shielding material is expected. Boron (B) may be added to the matrix resin or used as a coating to further increase the shielding effectiveness due to B s ability to slow thermal neutrons. These materials may also serve as micrometeorites shields due to PE s high impact energy absorption properties. It should be noted that such materials can be fabricated by existing equipment and methods. It is the objective of this work therefore to: (a) perform preliminary analysis of the radiation transport within these materials; (b) fabricate panels for mechanical property testing before and after radiation exposure. Preliminary determination on the effectiveness of the combinations of material components on both shielding and structural efficiency will be made.

  11. Graphite/Ultra-High Modulus Polyethylene Hybrid Fiber Composites with Epoxy and Polyethylene Matrices for Cosmic Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    One of the most significant technical challenges in long-duration space missions is that of protecting the crew from harmful radiation. Protection against such radiation on a manned Mars mission will be of vital importance both during transit and while on the surface of the planet. The development of multifunctional materials that serve as integral structural members of the space vehicle and provide the necessary radiation shielding for the crew would be both mission enabling and cost effective. Additionally, combining shielding and structure could reduce total vehicle mass. Hybrid laminated composite materials having both ultramodulus polyethylene (PE) and graphite fibers in epoxy and PE matrices could meet such mission requirements. PE fibers have excellent physical properties, including the highest specific strength of any known fiber. Moreover, the high hydrogen (H) content of polyethylene makes the material an excellent shielding material for cosmic radiation. When such materials are incorporated into an epoxy or PE matrix a very effective shielding material is expected. Boron (B) may be added to the matrix resin or used as a coating to further increase the shielding effectiveness due to B s ability to slow thermal neutrons. These materials may also serve as micrometeorites shields due to PE s high impact energy absorption properties. It should be noted that such materials can be fabricated by existing equipment and methods. It is the objective of this work therefore to: (a) perform preliminary analysis of the radiation transport within these materials; (b) fabricate panels for mechanical property testing before and after radiation exposure. Preliminary determination on the effectiveness of the combinations of material components on both shielding and structural efficiency will be made.

  12. Characteristics of Protons Exiting from a Polyethylene Converter Irradiated by Neutrons with Energies between 1 keV and 10 MeV.

    PubMed

    Nikezic, D; Shahmohammadi Beni, Mehrdad; Krstic, D; Yu, K N

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo method has been used to determine the efficiency for proton production and to study the energy and angular distributions of the generated protons. The ENDF library of cross sections is used to simulate the interactions between the neutrons and the atoms in a polyethylene (PE) layer, while the ranges of protons with different energies in PE are determined using the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) computer code. The efficiency of proton production increases with the PE layer thickness. However the proton escaping from a certain polyethylene volume is highly dependent on the neutron energy and target thickness, except for a very thin PE layer. The energy and angular distributions of protons are also estimated in the present paper, showing that, for the range of energy and thickness considered, the proton flux escaping is dependent on the PE layer thickness, with the presence of an optimal thickness for a fixed primary neutron energy.

  13. Characteristics of Protons Exiting from a Polyethylene Converter Irradiated by Neutrons with Energies between 1 keV and 10 MeV

    PubMed Central

    Nikezic, D.; Shahmohammadi Beni, Mehrdad; Krstic, D.; Yu, K. N.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo method has been used to determine the efficiency for proton production and to study the energy and angular distributions of the generated protons. The ENDF library of cross sections is used to simulate the interactions between the neutrons and the atoms in a polyethylene (PE) layer, while the ranges of protons with different energies in PE are determined using the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (SRIM) computer code. The efficiency of proton production increases with the PE layer thickness. However the proton escaping from a certain polyethylene volume is highly dependent on the neutron energy and target thickness, except for a very thin PE layer. The energy and angular distributions of protons are also estimated in the present paper, showing that, for the range of energy and thickness considered, the proton flux escaping is dependent on the PE layer thickness, with the presence of an optimal thickness for a fixed primary neutron energy. PMID:27362656

  14. Reactive blending of thermoplastic starch and polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride with chitosan as compatibilizer.

    PubMed

    Jantanasakulwong, Kittisak; Leksawasdi, Noppol; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Wongsuriyasak, Somchai; Techapun, Charin; Ougizawa, Toshiaki

    2016-11-20

    Cassava starch was melt-blended with glycerol (70/30wt%/wt%) at 140°C to prepare thermoplastic starch (TPS). Chitosan (CTS) was premixed with starch and glycerol, in acidified water (lactic acid 2wt%), at 1, 5 and 10wt%/wt%. TPS/CTS was then melt-blended (160°C) with polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (PE-MAH). Phase determination and scanning electron microscopy indicated TPS/PE-MAH/CTS had a co-continuous morphology and CTS-induced phase inversion to give dispersed PE-MAH particles in a TPS matrix. Tensile strength at break and elongation, melt viscosity, fracture toughness and water contact angle of TPS/PE-MAH were improved by CTS incorporation. TPS/PE-MAH/CTS blends decreased the melting temperature of TPS and PE-MAH compared to the neat polymers. FTIR confirmed a reaction had occurred between amino groups (NH2) of CTS and the MAH groups of PE-MAH. This reaction and the enhanced miscibility between TPS and CTS improved the mechanical properties of the TPS/PE-MAH/CTS blend, particularly at 5wt%/wt% CTS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Method for casting polyethylene pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, R. M., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Short lengths of 7-cm ID polyethylene pipe are cast in a mold which has a core made of room-temperature-vulcanizable (RTV) silicone. Core expands during casting and shrinks on cooling to allow for contraction of the polyethylene.

  16. 76 FR 50456 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Polyethylene...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet, and strip (PET film) from Korea, effective as of the date of... Department published an antidumping duty order on PET film from Korea on June 5, 1991. See Antidumping Duty..., the Department published the notice of final court decision and amended final determination on PET...

  17. Synthesis and characterization of azo acrylates grafted onto polyethylene terephthalate by gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucio, Emilio; Skewes, Phill; Burillo, Guillermina

    2005-07-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films were grafted with acryloyl chloride by gamma irradiation, and the grafted films were reacted with Disperse Red 1 or 4-phenylazophenol. The films where characterized by atomic force microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, FTIR-ATR, light polarized microscopy, elemental analysis and UV spectroscopy. The surface of the films was homogeneous, and the dye underwent trans to cis photoreaction, whereby the red films became colorless by the irradiation of UV light at room temperature.

  18. Kinetics and microscopic processes of long-term fracture in polyethylene-piping materials. Annual report, February 1, 1989-February 1, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Lu, X.

    1990-05-10

    Contents: notchology--the effect of the notching method on the slow crack growth failure in tough polyethylene; the effect of molecular weight on the fatigue behavior of high density polyethylene; the transition from ductile to slow crack growth failure in a copolymer of polyethylene; the ductile-brittle transition in a polyethylene copolymer; a unification of ductile failure and slow crack growth in an ethylene-octene copolymer; the dependence of butyl branch density on slow crack growth in polyethylene-kinetics; slow crack growth under fatigue and constant stress for ethylene-hexene resins with different density of branches; correlation of the fatigue test and the constant load slow crack growth test; relationship between slow crack growth and morphological change in ethylene-hexene copolymers; morphological changes on annealing in hdpe and mdpe and their effect on slow crack growth; ranking of pe gas pipe resins in air and igepal; brittle fracture of pe at low temperature; butt fusion welding.

  19. Effective Blending of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene with High-Density Polyethylene via Solid-State Shear Pulverization (SSSP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diop, Mirian; Torkelson, John

    2014-03-01

    Compared with conventional polyolefins, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) possesses outstanding mechanical properties, including impact strength and crack resistance, that make it it highly desirable for applications ranging from body armor to implants. Unfortunately, UHMWPE has an ultrahigh melt viscosity that renders common melt processes ineffective for making products from UHMWPE. Attempts to overcome this problem by blending UHMWPE with polyethylene (PE) by conventional melt mixing have been unsuccessful because of the enormous viscosity mismatch between blend components and have led to large suspensions of UHMWPE particles within a PE matrix. Here, we show the utility of solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP) in achieving effectively and intimately mixed UHMWPE/PE blends. For blends with up to 50 wt% UHMWPE we observe only slight increases in viscosity (η) at high shear rates but major increases in η with increasing UHMWPE content at low shear rates. Using extensional rheology, we confirm the strain hardening behavior of SSSP blends. Additionally, shear rheology and differential scanning calorimetry data indicate that the degree of mixing between UHMWPE and HDPE domains can be increased dramatically with subsequent passes of SSSP and single screw extrusion. Finally, blends prepared via SSSP show dramatic increases in impact strength; e.g., for a 30/70 wt% UHMWPE/HDPE blend, impact strength increases by about 300 % (relative to the parent neat HDPE).

  20. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  1. Atmospheric-Pressure Non-thermal Plasma-JET effects on PS and PE surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, J.; Asenjo, J.; Vargas, I.; Solis, Y.

    2015-03-01

    The Atmospheric-Pressure Non-Thermal Plasma (APNTP) has become a topic of a great interest for a wide spectrum of applications in different industry branches, including the surface of treatment processes. In this work we evaluate the effect of an argon APNTP exposure to determine changes suffered by a polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE) polymer surface through RAMAN spectroscopy and SEM. It was determined that the hydrophilic change in energetic terms, i.e. surface activation in the PS and PE polymers is addition of oxygen by surface activation when the samples with jet plasma are exposed with the inert argon gas. It was possible to characterize the hydrophilic shift based on the change in intensity of the spectra.

  2. Development of flexible antimicrobial films using essential oils as active agents.

    PubMed

    López, P; Sánchez, C; Batlle, R; Nerín, C

    2007-10-17

    The antimicrobial activity in the vapor-phase of laboratory-made flexible films of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene/ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (PE/EVOH) incorporating essential oil of cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum), oregano ( Origanum vulgare), clove ( Syzygium aromaticum), or cinnamon fortified with cinnamaldehyde was evaluated against a wide range of microorganisms: the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella choleraesuis; the Gram-positive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Enterococcus faecalis; the molds Penicillium islandicum, Penicillium roqueforti, Penicillium nalgiovense, Eurotium repens, and A spergillus flavus and the yeasts Candida albicans, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Zigosaccharomyces rouxii. Films with a nominal concentration of 4% (w/w) of fortified cinnamon or oregano essential oil completely inhibited the growth of the fungi; higher concentrations were required to inhibit the Gram-positive bacteria (8 and 10%, respectively), and higher concentrations still were necessary to inhibit the Gram-negative bacteria. PP films were more effective than PE/EVOH films. The atmospheres generated by the antimicrobial films inside Petri dishes were quantitatively analyzed using headspace-single drop microextraction (HS-SDME) in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analyses showed that the oregano-fortified PP films released higher levels of carvacrol and thymol, and the cinnamon-fortified PP films released higher levels of cinnamaldehyde, during the first 3-6 h of incubation, than the corresponding PE/EVOH films. Shelf-life tests were also performed, demonstrating that the antifungal activities of the films persisted for more than two months after their manufacture. In addition, migration tests (overall and specific) were performed, using both aqueous and fatty simulants, to ensure that the films meet EU regulations

  3. Plasma treated polyethylene grafted with adhesive molecules for enhanced adhesion and growth of fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Rimpelová, Silvie; Kasálková, Nikola Slepičková; Slepička, Petr; Lemerová, Helena; Švorčík, Václav; Ruml, Tomáš

    2013-04-01

    The cell-material interface plays a crucial role in the interaction of cells with synthetic materials for biomedical use. The application of plasma for tailoring polymer surfaces is of abiding interest and holds a great promise in biomedicine. In this paper, we describe polyethylene (PE) surface tuning by Ar plasma irradiating and subsequent grafting of the chemically active PE surface with adhesive proteins or motives to support cell attachment. These simple modifications resulted in changed polymer surface hydrophilicity, roughness and morphology, which we thoroughly characterized. The effect of our modifications on adhesion and growth was tested in vitro using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 cell line). We demonstrate that the plasma treatment of PE had a positive effect on the adhesion, spreading, homogeneity of distribution and moderately on proliferation activity of NIH 3T3 cells. This effect was even more pronounced on PE coated with biomolecules.

  4. Production of an extracellular polyethylene-degrading enzyme(s) by Streptomyces species.

    PubMed Central

    Pometto, A L; Lee, B T; Johnson, K E

    1992-01-01

    Extracellular culture concentrates were prepared from Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Streptomyces badius 252, and Streptomyces setonii 75Vi2 shake flask cultures. Ten-day-heat-treated (70 degrees C) starch-polyethylene degradable plastic films were incubated with shaking with active or inactive enzyme for 3 weeks (37 degrees C). Active enzyme illustrated changes in the films' Fourier transform infrared spectra, mechanical properties, and polyethylene molecular weight distributions. PMID:1610196

  5. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polyethylene filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaji, K.; Okada, T.; Sakurada, I.

    Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto high density polyethylene (PE) filaments was carried out in order to raise softening temperature and impart flame retardance and hydrophilic properties. Mutual γ-irradiation method was employed for the grafting in a mixture of acrylic acid (AA), ethylene dichloride and water containing a small amount of ferrous ammonium sulfate. The rate of grafting was very low at room temperature. On the other hand, large percent grafts were obtained when the grafting was performed at an elevated temperature. Activation energy for the initial rate of grafting was found to be 17 {kcal}/{mol} between 20 and 60°C and 10 {kcal}/{mol} between 60 and 80°C. Original PE filament begins to shrink at 70°C, show maximum shrinkage of 50% at 130°C and then breaks off at 136°C. When a 34% AA graft is converted to metallic salt such as sodium and calcium, the graft filament retains its filament form even above 300°C and gives maximum shrinkage of 15%. Burning tests by a wire-netting basket method indicate that graft filaments and its metallic salts do not form melting drops upon burning and are self-extinguishing. Original PE filament shows no moisture absorption, however, that of AA-grafted PE increases with increasing graft percent. The sodium salt of 15% graft shows the same level of moisture regain as cotton. The AA-grafted PE filament and its metallic salts can be dyed with cationic dyes even at 1% graft. Tensile properties of PE filament is impaired neither by grafting nor by conversion to metallic salts.

  6. Precision Polyolefin Structure: Modeling Polyethylene Containing Methyl and Ethyl Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Giovanni; Wagener, Kenneth B.

    Sequenced copolymers of ethylene and diverse species have been created using acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization, a step growth, condensation- type polymerization driven to high conversion by the removal of ethylene. ADMET permits control over branch content and branch length, which can be predetermined during the monomer synthesis, allowing sequence control in the resultant unsaturated polymer. Monomers are symmetrical α,ωdienes with a pendant functionality. Diverse functional groups are compatible with ADMET polymerization when Schrock’s or first-generation Grubb’s catalysts are used. Saturation with hydrogen after ADMET polymerization affords a polyethylene (PE) backbone bearing specific functionalities in precise places. Varying both the pendant functional group and the spacing between functionalities alters the physical and chemical properties of the polymer. Incorporation of alkyl chains into the PE backbone via ADMET leads to the study of perfect structures modeling the copolymerization of ethylene with α-olefins such as 1-propene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, and 1-octene.

  7. Unraveling the luminescence signatures of chemical defects in polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lihua; Tran, Huan Doan; Wang, Chenchen; Ramprasad, Rampi

    2015-09-28

    Chemical defects in polyethylene (PE) can deleteriously downgrade its electrical properties and performance. Although these defects usually leave spectroscopic signatures in terms of characteristic luminescence peaks, it is nontrivial to make unambiguous assignments of the peaks to specific defect types. In this work, we go beyond traditional density functional theory calculations to determine intra-defect state transition and charge recombination process derived emission and absorption energies in PE. By calculating the total energy differences of the neutral defect at excited and ground states, the emission energies from intra-defect state transition are obtained, reasonably explaining the photoluminescence peaks in PE. In order to study the luminescence emitted in charge recombination processes, we characterize PE defect levels in terms of thermodynamic and optical charge transition levels that involve total energy calculations of neutral and charged defects. Calculations are performed at several levels of theory including those involving (semi)local and hybrid electron exchange-correlation functionals, and many-body perturbation theory. With these critical elements, the emission energies are computed and further used to clarify and confirm the origins of the observed electroluminescence and thermoluminescence peaks.

  8. Effect of polymer viscosities on the fiber structure and membrane properties of polypropylene/polyethylene bicomponent hollow fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Satoshi; Takarada, Wataru; Kikutani, Takeshi

    2015-05-01

    Polypropylene (PP) / Polyethylene (PE) bicomponent microporous hollow fiber membranes were prepared through the bicomponent melt spinning and drawing processes. Fibers of hollow shape were firstly prepared through the melt spinning process by introducing the air into the core part of the fiber cross-section. Annealing and drawing processes were applied to thus prepared fibers to furnish the membrane properties to the fibers. In this study, high and low molecular weight PP, HMwPP and LMwPP, were used. Viscosity of HMwPP was higher than that of PE, while viscosity of LMwPP was lower than that of PE. In the case of LMwPP/PE fibers, birefringence of PE component increased with take-up velocity and birefringence of LMwPP component was lower than that of PE component at all attainable take-up velocities. In HMwPP/PE fibers, birefringence of both components increased with take-up velocity at low take-up velocities. Birefringence of HMwPP component increased continuously with further increase of take-up velocity, however that of PE component decreased significantly at the take-up velocity higher than 1 km/min. In this region, birefringence of HMwPP component in HMwPP/PE bicomponent hollow fibers was much higher than that of LMwPP component in LMwPP/PE hollow fibers. Hollow fiber membrane which was prepared by annealing and drawing of HMwPP/PE hollow fibers showed 10 times higher air transmission rate than that of LMwPP/PE fibers. In addition, air transmission rate increased with an increase in the HMwPP composition. These results indicate that the structure of PP component in the as-spun fiber undertake a crucial role on membrane properties in PP/PE bicomponent hollow fiber membrane.

  9. Improving corn silage quality in the top layer of farm bunker silos through the use of a next-generation barrier film with high impermeability to oxygen.

    PubMed

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect on the fermentation, chemical, and microbiological quality of corn silage covered with a new-generation high oxygen barrier film (HOB) made with a special grade of ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH) compared with a standard polyethylene film (PE). Two bunkers (farms 1 and 2) were divided into 2 parts lengthwise so that half of the silo would be covered with PE film and the other with HOB film. Plastic net bags with fresh chopped corn were buried in the upper layer (close to and far from the wall) and in the central part of the bunkers. During spring-summer consumption, the bags were unloaded, weighed, and subsampled to analyze the dry matter (DM) content, neutral detergent fiber and starch contents, pH, lactic and monocarboxylic acids, yeast and mold counts, aerobic and anaerobic spore-former counts, and aerobic stability. We also determined the economic benefit of applying the novel covering. The top layer of silage conserved under the HOB film had a higher lactic acid content and lower pH; lower counts of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers; higher aerobic stability; and lower DM losses than the silage conserved under the PE film. The use of the HOB film prevented almost all of the silage in the upper layer from spoiling; only 2 out of 32 samples had a mold count >6log10 cfu/g. This led to a net economic gain when the HOB film was used on both farms due to the increased DM recovery and reduced labor time required to clean the upper layer, even though the HOB film cost about 2.3 times more than the PE film. Furthermore, use of the HOB film, which ensures a longer shelf life of silage during consumption, reduced the detrimental effect of yeasts, molds, and aerobic and anaerobic spore-formers on the nutritional and microbiological quality of the unloaded silage. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Borosilicate films as permeability barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applegate, J. R.; Steinmetz, C. E.; Hettinger, J. D.; Carroll, J. F.; Krchnavek, R.

    2009-03-01

    Borosilicate films have been deposited using rf-sputtering techniques from a composite target at room temperature onto polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene(HDPE), low density polyethylene(LDPE), and polyethylene terephthalate (PETG) substrates. Films were found to be smooth, flexible, with excellent adhesion to the substrates. Repeated rolling the coated substrates on a radius of 0.5mm resulted in no discernable damage for films less than 200nm in thickness. Creasing the substrates did result in local damage. However excellent adhesion did not allow the fractured glass to come off the substrate. Heat generated during deposition only influenced the films grown on LDPE where the thermal expansion mismatch between the film and substrate induced strains caused fractures in thick films. Modifications to processing parameters allowed thick films to be grown without fractures. Permeability measurements of nitrogen resulted in significant improvements in comparison to uncoated substrates.

  11. Thermal Decomposition of Copper Ore Concentrate and Polyethylene Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyszka, Danuta; Wieckowska, Jadwiga

    2016-10-01

    Thermal analyses (TGA and DTA) of the composite, comprised of 10% polyethylene (PE) scrap and 90% copper ore concentrate, enabled determination of the temperature range and decomposition degree of the organic matters in argon atmosphere. Products of pyrolysis were qualitatively and quantitatively determined. The results were compared to those obtained for products of pyrolysis of the composite in air. Products of pyrolysis were identified by means of the gas chromatography (GC) method alone or supported with results of mass spectrometry analyses (GC-MS).

  12. Polyethylene glycol as a solid polymer electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, D.K.; Park, S.M.

    1997-12-01

    Polymer electrolytes were prepared from polyethylene glycol (PEG)-lithium perchlorate complexes and characterized at a stainless steel electrode using a variety of electrochemical techniques. The charge transfer process was affected by the oxide film on the stainless steel electrode surface in the early stages of redox processes. The polymer electrolytes showed a transference number of 0.2 for Li{sup +}. The conductivity of the PEG-10000 electrolyte has been determined to be 4.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} S/cm. This rather high value is attributed to the anionic end groups increasing the polarity of the matrix.

  13. Does cyclic stress and accelerated ageing influence the wear behavior of highly crosslinked polyethylene?

    PubMed

    Affatato, Saverio; De Mattia, Jonathan Salvatore; Bracco, Pierangiola; Pavoni, Eleonora; Taddei, Paola

    2016-06-01

    First-generation (irradiated and remelted or annealed) and second-generation (irradiated and vitamin E blended or doped) highly crosslinked polyethylenes were introduced in the last decade to solve the problems of wear and osteolysis. In this study, the influence of the Vitamin-E addition on crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE_VE) was evaluated by comparing the in vitro wear behavior of crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) versus Vitamin-E blended polyethylene XLPE and conventional ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (STD_PE) acetabular cups, after accelerated ageing according to ASTM F2003-02 (70.0±0.1°C, pure oxygen at 5bar for 14 days). The test was performed using a hip joint simulator run for two millions cycles, under bovine calf serum as lubricant. Mass loss was found to decrease along the series XLPE_VE>STD_PE>XLPE, although no statistically significant differences were found between the mass losses of the three sets of cups. Micro-Raman spectroscopy was used to investigate at a molecular level the morphology changes induced by wear. The spectroscopic analyses showed that the accelerated ageing determined different wear mechanisms and molecular rearrangements during testing with regards to the changes in both the chain orientation and the distribution of the all-trans sequences within the orthorhombic, amorphous and third phases. The results of the present study showed that the addition of vitamin E was not effective to improve the gravimetric wear of PE after accelerated ageing. However, from a molecular point of view, the XLPE_VE acetabular cups tested after accelerated ageing appeared definitely less damaged than the STD_PE ones and comparable to XLPE samples.

  14. Degradation of degradable starch-polyethylene plastics in a compost environment

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.E.; Pometto, A.L. III; Nikolov, Z.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Degradable plastics have differing degradation rates. Three types of degradation of polyethylene in the starch-polyethylene polymers can occur: chemical degradation, photodegradation, and biological degradation. This study examines all three types of degradation in 11 commercially produced degradable starch-polyethylene bags. Different rates for chemical and photo-degradation were found within a 20 day or an 8-week period. Results indicated that both the 70[degree]C oven and HT-HH film treatments were appropriate methods to evaluate oxidative degradation. In a compost environment, oxygen tension on the surface of the film appears to be the rate-limiting component for both chemical and biological degradation. Levels of starch in all bags was similar, so the prooxidant additive was critical in promoting the oxidative degradation of polyethylene. The Fe-Mn additive displayed the best catalytic activity. This study overall confirms degradation of starch-polyethylene plastics in a natural environment. 17 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Guidelines for installing PE gas pipes using HDD

    SciTech Connect

    Popelar, C.H.; Kuhlman, C.J.

    1997-06-01

    Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) represents an alternative to the traditional trench cut and cover method, and offers substantial savings for installing polyethylene (PE) pipes in heavily developed urban areas, beneath obstacles such as roads, railways, rivers, etc., and under environmentally sensitive areas where trenching might otherwise be prohibited. This method is ideally suited for soft subsoils such as clay and compacted sand. Subgrade soils consisting of large grain materials (e.g., gravel and cobble), rock, and buried debris make it more difficult to use HDD and may contribute to damage of the pipe and drilling equipment. HDD may represent a cost-effective alternative to pipe splitting and bursting, as well as slip lining, modified slip lining, and soft lining renewal techniques. The installation of a pipe using HDD is typically a two-stage process. First, a small-diameter pilot hole is directionally drilled from an entrance pit to an exit pit along a predetermined path. The thrust and pull-back capabilities of the drilling rig, amount of available drill rod, drill path contour, mud mix and other factors typically limit the distance between pits to about 500 feet. The pilot hole is then enlarged by reaming prior to pulling-in the pipe. This operation usually consists of backreaming from the exit pit to the entrance pit while at the same time pulling the pipe into the enlarged hole.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of melting and crystallization processes of polyethylene clusters confined in armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhou; Wang, Jinjian; Zhu, Xiaolei; Lu, Xiaohua; Guan, Wenwen; Yang, Yuchen

    2015-01-01

    The confined interaction is important to understand the melting and crystallization of polymers within single-wall carbon tube (SWNT). However, it is difficult for us to observe this interaction. In the current work, the structures and behaviors of melting and crystallization for polyethylene (PE) clusters confined in armchair single-walled carbon nanotubes ((n,n)-SWNTs) are investigated and examined based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The nonbonded energies, structures, Lindemman indices, radial density distributions, and diffusion coefficients are used to demonstrate the features of melting phase transition for PE clusters confined in (n,n)-SWNTs. The chain end-to-end distance (R(n)) and chain end-to-end distribution are used to examine the flexibility of the PE chain confined in SWNT. The global orientational order parameter (P2) is employed to reveal the order degree of whole PE polymer. The effect of polymerization degree on melting temperature and the influence of SWNT chirality on structure of PE cluster are examined and discussed. Results demonstrate that within the confined environment of SWNT, PE clusters adopt novel co-axial crystalline layer structure, in which parallel chains of each layer are approximately vertical to tube axis. The disordered-ordered transformation of PE chains in each layer is an important structural feature for crystallization of confined PE clusters. SWNTs have a considerable effect on the structures and stabilities of the confined PE clusters.

  17. Transcriptomics and Lipidomics of the Environmental Strain Rhodococcus ruber Point out Consumption Pathways and Potential Metabolic Bottlenecks for Polyethylene Degradation.

    PubMed

    Gravouil, Kévin; Ferru-Clément, Romain; Colas, Steven; Helye, Reynald; Kadri, Linette; Bourdeau, Ludivine; Moumen, Bouziane; Mercier, Anne; Ferreira, Thierry

    2017-04-12

    Polyethylene (PE), one of the most prominent synthetic polymers used worldwide, is very poorly biodegradable in the natural environment. Consequently, PE represents by itself more than half of all plastic wastes. PE biodegradation is achieved through the combination of abiotic and biotic processes. Several microorganisms have been shown to grow on the surface of PE materials, among which are the species of the Rhodococcus genus, suggesting a potent ability of these microorganisms to use, at least partly, PE as a potent carbon source. However, most of them, if not all, fail to induce a clear-cut degradation of PE samples, showing that bottlenecks to reach optimal biodegradation clearly exist. To identify the pathways involved in PE consumption, we used in the present study a combination of RNA-sequencing and lipidomic strategies. We show that short-term exposure to various forms of PE, displaying different molecular weight distributions and oxidation levels, lead to an increase in the expression of 158 genes in a Rhodococcus representative, R. ruber. Interestingly, one of the most up-regulated pathways is related to alkane degradation and β-oxidation of fatty acids. This approach also allowed us to identify metabolic limiting steps, which could be fruitfully targeted for optimized PE consumption by R. ruber.

  18. The induction of a catabolic phenotype in human primary osteoblasts and osteocytes by polyethylene particles.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Gerald J; Welldon, Katie J; Holding, Christopher A; Haynes, David R; Howie, Donald W; Findlay, David M

    2009-08-01

    Polyethylene (PE) wear particles are associated with the osteolysis seen in aseptic loosening that leads to orthopaedic implant failure. While cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage are implicated, evidence is now emerging that osteoblastic cells may also be affected by PE. In this study we investigated the effect of PE particles on osteoblasts, using a novel in vitro cell culture system that was developed to juxtapose cells and PE particles, replicating the 3-dimensional (3D) environment near implants. This system allowed normal human bone-derived cells (NHBC) to undergo differentiation into a mature osteocyte-like phenotype over a 21-28-day culture period. PE particles induced an increase in mRNA expression of the osteocyte markers E11, DMP-1 and SOST/sclerostin. NHBC responded to PE particles by increasing the mRNA expression of several genes associated with osteoclast formation and activity (RANKL, IL-8 and M-CSF) and decreased the expression of the osteoclast antagonist, OPG. PE also appeared to induce a switch in the RUNX2 control of gene expression from that of promoting matrix production (type I collagen) to inducing the expression of pro-osteoclastogenic genes. These results suggest that PE particles switch mature osteoblastic cells from an anabolic to a more catabolic phenotype. This concept was further supported by the finding that PE-induced expression of RANKL mRNA in the mouse osteocyte cell line, MLO-Y4. Overall, our results suggest that PE particles directly induce a change in the phenotype of mature osteoblasts and osteocytes, consistent with the net loss of bone near orthopaedic implants.

  19. Improved adhesion, growth and maturation of vascular smooth muscle cells on polyethylene grafted with bioactive molecules and carbon particles.

    PubMed

    Parizek, Martin; Kasalkova, Nikola; Bacakova, Lucie; Slepicka, Petr; Lisa, Vera; Blazkova, Martina; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2009-11-20

    High-density polyethylene (PE) foils were modified by an Ar(+) plasma discharge and subsequent grafting with biomolecules, namely glycine (Gly), polyethylene glycol (PEG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), colloidal carbon particles (C) or BSA and C (BSA + C). As revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), goniometry and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), the surface chemical structure and surface morphology of PE changed dramatically after plasma treatment. The contact angle decreased for the samples treated by plasma, mainly in relation to the formation of oxygen structures during plasma irradiation. A further decrease in the contact angle was obvious after glycine and PEG grafting. The increase in oxygen concentration after glycine and PEG grafting proved that the two molecules were chemically linked to the plasma-activated surface. Plasma treatment led to ablation of the PE surface layer, thus the surface morphology was changed and the surface roughness was increased. The materials were then seeded with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) derived from rat aorta and incubated in a DMEM medium with fetal bovine serum. Generally, the cells adhered and grew better on modified rather than on unmodified PE samples. Immunofluorescence showed that focal adhesion plaques containing talin, vinculin and paxillin were most apparent in cells on PE grafted with PEG or BSA + C, and the fibres containing alpha-actin, beta-actin or SM1 and SM2 myosins were thicker, more numerous and more brightly stained in the cells on all modified PE samples than on pristine PE. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed increased concentrations of focal adhesion proteins talin and vinculin and also a cytoskeletal protein beta-actin in cells on PE modified with BSA + C. A contractile protein alpha-actin was increased in cells on PE grafted with PEG or Gly. These results showed that PE activated with plasma and subsequently grafted with bioactive molecules and colloidal C

  20. Improved Adhesion, Growth and Maturation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Polyethylene Grafted with Bioactive Molecules and Carbon Particles

    PubMed Central

    Parizek, Martin; Kasalkova, Nikola; Bacakova, Lucie; Slepicka, Petr; Lisa, Vera; Blazkova, Martina; Svorcik, Vaclav

    2009-01-01

    High-density polyethylene (PE) foils were modified by an Ar+ plasma discharge and subsequent grafting with biomolecules, namely glycine (Gly), polyethylene glycol (PEG), bovine serum albumin (BSA), colloidal carbon particles (C) or BSA and C (BSA + C). As revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), goniometry and Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS), the surface chemical structure and surface morphology of PE changed dramatically after plasma treatment. The contact angle decreased for the samples treated by plasma, mainly in relation to the formation of oxygen structures during plasma irradiation. A further decrease in the contact angle was obvious after glycine and PEG grafting. The increase in oxygen concentration after glycine and PEG grafting proved that the two molecules were chemically linked to the plasma-activated surface. Plasma treatment led to ablation of the PE surface layer, thus the surface morphology was changed and the surface roughness was increased. The materials were then seeded with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) derived from rat aorta and incubated in a DMEM medium with fetal bovine serum. Generally, the cells adhered and grew better on modified rather than on unmodified PE samples. Immunofluorescence showed that focal adhesion plaques containing talin, vinculin and paxillin were most apparent in cells on PE grafted with PEG or BSA + C, and the fibres containing α-actin, β-actin or SM1 and SM2 myosins were thicker, more numerous and more brightly stained in the cells on all modified PE samples than on pristine PE. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed increased concentrations of focal adhesion proteins talin and vinculin and also a cytoskeletal protein β-actin in cells on PE modified with BSA + C. A contractile protein α-actin was increased in cells on PE grafted with PEG or Gly. These results showed that PE activated with plasma and subsequently grafted with bioactive molecules and colloidal C particles