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Sample records for polymeric micellar doxorubicin

  1. Polymeric micellar co-delivery of resveratrol and curcumin to mitigate in vitro doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Lisa Janssen; Cote, Brianna; Alani, Adam Wg; Rao, Deepa A

    2014-08-01

    Resveratrol (RES) and curcumin (CUR) have free radical scavenging ability and potential chemosensitizing effects. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DH) is a potent chemotherapeutic with severe cardiotoxicity. We hypothesize that RES and CUR co-loaded in Pluronic(®) micelles and co-administered with DH will result in cardioprotective effects while maintaining/improving DH anti-proliferative effect in vitro. RES-CUR at a molar ratio of 5:1 in F127 micelles (mRC) were prepared and characterized for size, drug loading, and release. In vitro cell viability and apoptosis assays in ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3) and cardiomyocytes (H9C2) with either individual drugs or RES-CUR or mRC in combination with DH were conducted. Combination index (CI) analysis was performed to determine combination effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were quantified in H9C2 for DH, and combinations. The mRC solubilized 2.96 and 0.97 mg/mL of RES and CUR, respectively. Cell viability and CI studies indicated that the combinations were synergistic in SKOV-3 and antagonistic in H9C2 cells. Caspase 3/7 activity in combination treatments was lower than with DH alone in both cell lines. ROS activity was restored to baseline in H9C2 cells in the micelle combination groups. Co-administration of mRC with DH in vitro mitigates DH-induced cardiotoxicity through reduction in apoptosis and ROS while improving DH potency in ovarian cancer cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Small-angle neutron scattering study of polymeric micellar structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.; Chu, B. ); Schneider, D.K. )

    1994-11-17

    Polymeric micellar structures formed by a PEO-PPO-PEO copolymer in o-xylene in the presence of water were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. In order to reveal the detailed micellar structure, different contrasts among the micellar core, the micellar shell, and the dispersing medium (background) were constructed by selectively changing the protonated/deuterated combination of water and xylene. The micellar structure could be well described by a core-shell structure with the scattering behavior of the micellar shell being very similar to that of a star polymer. The solubilized water existed not only in the micellar core but also in the micellar shell. The volume fraction of a copolymer segments in the micellar shell was rather low, being of the order of 0.2. There seemed to be no sharp interface between the micellar core and the micellar shell. 25 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Polymeric micellar nanocarriers of benzoyl peroxide as potential follicular targeting approach for acne treatment.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, Emine; Özhan, Gül; Özsoy, Yıldız; Güngör, Sevgi

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize polymeric nano-sized micellar carriers of the anti-acne compound benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and to examine the ability of these carriers to deposit into hair follicles with the objective of improving skin delivery of BPO. BPO loaded polymeric micelles composed of Pluronic(®) F127 were prepared by the thin film hydration method and characterized in terms of size, loading capacity, morphology and physical stability. The optimized micelle formulation was then selected for skin delivery studies. The penetration of BPO loaded micellar carriers into skin and skin appendages across full thickness porcine skin was examined in vitro. Confocal microscopy images confirmed the penetration of Nile Red into hair follicles, which was loaded into micellar carriers as a model fluorescent compound. The relative safety of the polymeric micelles was evaluated with the MTT viability test using mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The results indicated that nano-sized polymeric micelles of BPO composed of Pluronic(®) F127 offer a potential approach to enhance skin delivery of BPO and that targeting of micelles into hair follicles may be an effective and safe acne treatment.

  4. Doxorubicin loaded Polymeric Nanoparticulate Delivery System to overcome drug resistance in osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Drug resistance is a primary hindrance for the efficiency of chemotherapy against osteosarcoma. Although chemotherapy has improved the prognosis of osteosarcoma patients dramatically after introduction of neo-adjuvant therapy in the early 1980's, the outcome has since reached plateau at approximately 70% for 5 year survival. The remaining 30% of the patients eventually develop resistance to multiple types of chemotherapy. In order to overcome both the dose-limiting side effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents and the therapeutic failure incurred from multidrug resistant (MDR) tumor cells, we explored the possibility of loading doxorubicin onto biocompatible, lipid-modified dextran-based polymeric nanoparticles and evaluated the efficacy. Methods Doxorubicin was loaded onto a lipid-modified dextran based polymeric nano-system. The effect of various concentrations of doxorubicin alone or nanoparticle loaded doxorubicin on KHOS, KHOSR2, U-2OS, and U-2OSR2 cells was analyzed. Effects on drug retention, immunofluorescence, Pgp expression, and induction of apoptosis were also analyzed. Results Dextran nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin had a curative effect on multidrug resistant osteosarcoma cell lines by increasing the amount of drug accumulation in the nucleus via Pgp independent pathway. Nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin also showed increased apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells as compared with doxorubicin alone. Conclusion Lipid-modified dextran nanoparticles loaded with doxorubicin showed pronounced anti-proliferative effects against osteosarcoma cell lines. These findings may lead to new treatment options for MDR osteosarcoma. PMID:19917123

  5. A core cross-linked polymeric micellar platium(IV) prodrug with enhanced anticancer efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jie; Shang, Jincai; Jiao, Chengbin; Jiang, Peiyue; Xiao, Huijie; Luo, Lan; Liu, Tongjun

    2013-07-01

    A core cross-linked polymeric micellar cisplatin(IV) conjugate prodrug is prepared by attaching the cisplatin(IV) to mPEG-b-PLL biodegradable copolymers to form micellar nanoparticles that can disintegrate to release the active anticancer agent cisplatin(II) in a mild reducing environment. Moreover, in vitro studies show that this cisplatin(IV) conjugate prodrug displays enhanced cytotoxicity against HepG2 cancer cells compared with cisplatin(II). Further studies demonstrate that the high cellular uptake and platinum-DNA adduct of this cisplatin(IV) conjugate prodrug can induce more cancer-cell apoptosis than cisplatin(II), which is responsible for its enhanced anticancer activity.

  6. On the role of oil-soluble initiators in the radical polymerization of micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Capek, I

    2001-05-25

    Polymerization in micellar systems is a technique which allows the preparation of ultrafine as well as coarse latex particles. This article presents a review of the current literature in the field of radical polymerization of classical monomers in micellar systems initiated by oil-soluble initiators. Besides a short introduction to some of the kinetic aspects of emulsion polymerization initiated by water-soluble initiators, we mainly focus on the kinetics and the mechanism of radical polymerization in o/w and w/o micellar systems initiated by classical oil-soluble initiators. The initiation of emulsion polymerization of an unsaturated monomer (styrene, butyl acrylate,...) by a water-soluble initiator (ammonium peroxodisulfate) is well understood. It starts in the aqueous phase and the initiating radicals enter the monomer-swollen micelle. The formed oligomeric radicals are surface active and increase the colloidal stability of the disperse system. Besides, the charged initiating radicals might experience the energetic barrier when entering the charged particle surface. The locus of initiation with oil-soluble initiators is more complex. It can partition between the aqueous-phase and the oil-phase. Besides, the surface-active oil-soluble initiator can penetrate into the interfacial layer. The dissolved oil-soluble initiator in the monomer droplet can experience the cage effect. The small fraction of the oil-soluble initiator dissolved in the aqueous phase takes part in the formation of radicals. The oligomeric radicals formed are uncharged and therefore, they do not experience the energetic barrier when entering the polymer particles. We summarize and discuss the experimental data of radical polymerization of monomers initiated by oil-soluble initiators in terms of partitioning an initiator among the different domains of the multiphase system. The inhibitor approach is used to model the formation of radicals and their history during the polymerization. The nature of

  7. Nuclease Resistant DNA via High-Density Packing in Polymeric Micellar Nanoparticle Coronas

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Anthony M.; Thompson, Matthew P.; Tatro, Erick T.

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we describe a polymeric micellar nanoparticle capable of rendering nucleic acids resistant to nuclease digestion. This approach relies on utilizing DNA as the polar head group of a DNA-polymer amphiphile in order to assemble well-defined, discrete nanoparticles. Dense packing of DNA in the micelle corona allows for hybridization of complementary oligonucleotides while prohibiting enzymatic degradation. We demonstrate the preparation, purification and characterization of the nanoparticles, then describe their resistance to treatment with endo- and exonucleases including snake-venom phosphodiesterase (SVP) a common, general DNA digestion enzyme. PMID:23379679

  8. Biocatalytic synthesis of polymeric nanowires by micellar templates of ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Nazari, K; Adhami, F; Najjar-Safari, A; Salmani, S; Mahmoudi, A

    2011-07-15

    Micelle-templated polyguaiacol nanowires were successfully prepared via polymerization oxidation of guaiacol (o-methoxy phenol) by peroxidase enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide at mild reaction conditions. The dimensions of the prepared nanowires were controlled by tuning the size and shape of the micelle structure via changing and controlling the type, chain length and molar concentrations of the ionic surfactant. The progress of the reaction and estimation of the size of soft micellar templates were followed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The resulting micelle encapsulated or purified polyguaiacol nanowires were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Overcoming multidrug resistance of breast cancer cells by the micellar doxorubicin nanoparticles of mPEG-PCL-graft-cellulose.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Hsuan; Cuong, Nguyen-Van; Chen, Yung-Tsung; So, Regina Cheng; Liau, Ian; Hsieh, Ming-Fa

    2011-01-01

    The amphiphilic block copolymer methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) was grafted to 2-hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) to produce nano-sized micellar nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were loaded with anti-tumor drug, doxorubicin (DOX) and the size of the DOX-loaded nanoparticles were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) in aqueous solution to be from 197.4 to 230 nm. The nanoparticles subjected to co-culture with macrophage cells showed that these nanoparticles used as drug carrier are not recognized as foreign bodies. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an important factor in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in many cancer cells. In this study, Western blot and Rhodamine 123 were used to monitor the relative P-glycoprotein expression in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/WT and MCF-7/ADR. The endocytosis of the DOX-loaded nanoparticles by breast cancer cells is more efficient observed under a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and a flow cytometry in MCF7/ADR cells, compared to the diffusion of the free drug into the cytoplasm of cells. Based on these findings, we concluded that the nanoparticles made from mPEG-PCL-g-cellulose were effective in overcoming P-gp efflux in MDR breast cancer cells.

  10. New approach in synthesis, characterization and release study of pH-sensitive polymeric micelles, based on PLA-Lys- b-PEGm, conjugated with doxorubicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiadou, E. K.; Tapeinos, C.; Bilalis, P.; Kordas, G.

    2011-12-01

    Amphiphilic block copolymers are well established as building blocks for the preparation of micellar drug carriers. The functional polymer micelles possess several advantages, such as high drug efficiency, targeted delivery, and minimized cytotoxicity. The synthesis of block copolymers using nano-structured templates has emerged as a useful and versatile approach for preparing drug carriers. Here, we report the synthesis of a smart polymeric compound of a diblock PLA-Lys- b-PEG copolymer containing doxorubicin. We have synthesized functionalized diblock copolymers, with lysinol, poly(lactide) and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) via thermal ring-opening polymerization and a subsequent six-step substitution reaction. A variety of spectroscopic methods were employed here to verify the product of our synthesis. 1H-Nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared studies validated the expected synthesis of copolymers. Doxorubicin is chemically loaded into micelles, and the ex vitro release can be evaluated either in weak acidic or in SBF solution by UV-vis spectroscopy. Dynamic light scattering, thermo gravimetric analysis, and size exclusion chromatography have also been used.

  11. Preparation, characterization, in vivo pharmacokinetics, and biodistribution of polymeric micellar dimethoxycurcumin for tumor targeting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Xu, Hui; Jiang, Yunxia; Hao, Shengyuan; Gong, Feirong; Mu, Hongjie; Liu, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Dimethoxycurcumin (DMC) is an analog of curcumin with superior efficacy in various disease models. Currently, drug delivery system research on DMC is very limited, and it has become a huge challenge to realize further developments and clinical applications. In the present study, a kind of amphiphilic block copolymer, N-t-butoxycarbonyl-phenylalanine terminated monomethoxyl poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (ε-caprolactone), or mPEG-PCL-Phe(Boc), was prepared from monomethoxyl poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) with its hydroxyl terminal chemically converted into N-t-butoxycarbonyl-phenylalanine (Boc-Phe). This copolymer was determined to have a fairly low critical micelle concentration (2.56×10−3 mg/mL) and passive targeting potential to tumor tissue, and thus was applied to develop a polymeric micellar formulation of DMC for the first time. The DMC-loaded micelles prepared by thin-film hydration method had typical shell–core structure, with an average particle size of 17.9±0.4 nm and a polydispersity index of 0.045±0.011. The drug loading capacity and entrapment efficiency were 9.94%±0.15% and 97.22%±0.18%, respectively, indicating a high-affinity interaction between DMC and the copolymer. At a concentration of 2 mg/mL, the reconstituted micelle solution could be maintained for at least 10 days at room temperature, and displayed a low initial burst release followed by a sustained release in vitro. Pharmacokinetic study in rats revealed that in vivo drug exposure of DMC was significantly increased and prolonged by intravenously administering DMC-loaded micelles when compared with the same dose of free DMC dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Furthermore, in vivo distribution results from tumor-bearing nude mice demonstrated that this micellar formulation significantly changed the biodistribution profile of DMC and increased drug accumulation in tumors. Therefore, the polymeric micellar formulation of DMC, based on the amphiphilic block

  12. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and (131)I by thermosensitive micellar-hydrogel for enhanced in situ synergetic chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pingsheng; Zhang, Yumin; Wang, Weiwei; Zhou, Junhui; Sun, Yu; Liu, Jinjian; Kong, Deling; Liu, Jianfeng; Dong, Anjie

    2015-12-28

    Combined chemoradiotherapy is potent to defeat malignant tumor. Concurrent delivery of radioisotope with chemotherapeutic drugs, which also act as the radiosensitizer, to tumor tissues by a single vehicle is essential to achieve this objective. To this end, a macroscale injectable and thermosensitive micellar-hydrogel (MHg) depot was constructed by thermo-induced self-aggregation of poly(ε-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone)-poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone) (PECT) triblock copolymer micelles (Ms), which could not only serve as a micellar drug reservoir to locally deliver concentrated nano chemotherapeutic drugs, but also immobilize radioisotopes at the internal irradiation hot focus. Doxorubicin (DOX) and iodine-131 labeled hyaluronic acid ((131)I-HA) were used as the model therapeutic agents. The aqueous mixture of drug-loaded PECT micelles and (131)I-HA exhibited sol-to-gel transition around body temperature. In vitro drug release study indicated that PECT/DOX Ms were sustainedly shed from the native PECT/DOX MHg formulation, which could be internalized by tumor cells with rapid intracellular DOX release. This hydrogel formulation demonstrated considerable in vitro antitumor effect as well as remarkable radiosensitization. In vivo subcutaneous injection of PECT MHg demonstrated that (131)I isotope was immobilized stably at the injection location and no obvious indication of damage to major organs were observed as indicated by the histopathological analysis. Furthermore, the peritumoral injection of chemo-radiation therapeutic agents-encapsulated MHg formulation on tumor-bearing nude mice resulted in the desired combined treatment effect, which significantly improved the tumor growth inhibition efficiency with minimized drug-associated side effects to major organs. Consequently, such a thermosensitive MHg formulation, which enabled the precise control over the dosage and ratio of combination

  13. Production efficiency of micellar casein concentrate using polymeric spiral-wound microfiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, S L; Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Barbano, D M

    2010-10-01

    Most current research has focused on using ceramic microfiltration (MF) membranes for micellar casein concentrate production, but little research has focused on the use of polymeric spiral-wound (SW) MF membranes. A method for the production of a serum protein (SP)-reduced micellar casein concentrate using SW MF was compared with a ceramic MF membrane. Pasteurized (79°C, 18s) skim milk (1,100 kg) was microfiltered at 50°C [about 3 × concentration] using a 0.3-μm polyvinylidene fluoride spiral-wound membrane, bleed-and-feed, 3-stage process, using 2 diafiltration stages, where the retentate was diluted 1:2 with reverse osmosis water. Skim milk, permeate, and retentate were analyzed for SP content, and the reduction of SP from skim milk was determined. Theoretically, 68% of the SP content of skim milk can be removed using a single-stage 3× MF. If 2 subsequent water diafiltration stages are used, an additional 22% and 7% of the SP can be removed, respectively, giving a total SP removal of 97%. Removal of SP greater than 95% has been achieved using a 0.1-μm pore size ceramic uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) MF membrane after a 3-stage MF with diafiltration process. One stage of MF plus 2 stages of diafiltration of 50°C skim milk using a polyvinylidene fluoride polymeric SW 0.3-μm membrane yielded a total SP reduction of only 70.3% (stages 1, 2, and 3: 38.6, 20.8, and 10.9%, respectively). The SP removal rate for the polymeric SW MF membrane was lower in all 3 stages of processing (stages 1, 2, and 3: 0.05, 0.04, and 0.03 kg/m(2) per hour, respectively) than that of the comparable ceramic UTP MF membrane (stages 1, 2, and 3: 0.30, 0.11, and 0.06 kg/m(2) per hour, respectively), indicating that SW MF is less efficient at removing SP from 50°C skim milk than the ceramic UTP system. To estimate the number of steps required for the SW system to reach 95% SP removal, the third-stage SP removal rate (27.4% of the starting material SP content) was used to

  14. Flow and Stability of Wormlike Micellar and Polymeric Solutions in Converging and T-Shaped Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulages, J.; McKinley, G. H.

    2008-07-01

    The flow and stability of wormlike micellar and polymeric solutions is investigated in two prototypical converging and elongational geometries; (i) microfabricated hyperbolic contractions and (ii) converging flow in T-shaped microchannels. Understanding the flow behavior of such fluids at the microscale is important to the design and optimization of microfluidic devices for lab-on-a-chip processes and fluidic computing applications as well as to industrial applications such as extensional flow through porous media. The controlled flow rates and very well-defined geometries achievable with microfluidic fabrication technologies enable us to gain insight into the extensional rheology of complex fluids at high extension rates and to investigate the onset of elastically-driven flow asymmetries. In the present study, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) wormlike micelles in aqueous solutions of sodium salicylate as well as dilute polyethylene oxide (PEO) solutions are selected as test fluids. Using the micellar fluids, it is possible to quantify the two-dimensional distribution of both the velocity and stress fields in hyperbolic-shaped micro-contractions using a new microscope-based flow-induced birefringence technique in conjunction with microparticle imaging velocimetry (μPIV). The knowledge of both the deformation and velocity data allows us to better understand the behavior of shear-banding fluids in inhomogeneous extensional flows. In the case of dilute PEO solutions flowing through perfectly symmetric T-shaped microchannels, a local extensional flow develops where the two streams meet. The resulting birefringent strand of highly-oriented material can lead to symmetry-breaking bifurcations in the flow at high Weissenberg number which can be quantified using microparticle imaging velocimetry. The spatio-temporal characteristics of these purely elastic flow asymmetries can also be compared to predictions of numerical simulation.

  15. Synergistic Cisplatin/Doxorubicin Combination Chemotherapy for Multidrug-Resistant Cancer via Polymeric Nanogels Targeting Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiqiu; Jin, Haojie; Wang, Cun; Zhang, Zihao; Ruan, Haoyu; Sun, Luyan; Yang, Chen; Li, Yongjing; Qin, Wenxin; Wang, Changchun

    2017-03-08

    Combination chemotherapy has been proposed to achieve synergistic effect and minimize drug dose for cancer treatment in clinic application. In this article, the stimuli-responsive polymeric nanogels (<100 nm in size) based on poly(acrylic acid) were designed as codelivery system for doxorubicin and cisplatin to overcome drug resistance. By chelation, electrostatic interaction, and π-π stacking interactions, the nanogels could encapsulate doxorubicin and cisplatin with designed ratio and high capacity. Compared with free drugs, the nanogels could deliver more drugs into MCF-7/ADR cells. Significant accumulation in tumor tissues was observed in the biodistribution experiments. The in vitro antitumor studies demonstrated the superior cell-killing activity of the nanogel drug delivery system with a combination index of 0.84, which indicated the great synergistic effect. All the antitumor experimental data revealed that the combination therapy was effective for the multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR tumor with reduced side effects.

  16. Biocatalytic synthesis of polymeric nanowires by micellar templates of ionic surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Nazari, K.; Adhami, F.; Najjar-Safari, A.; Salmani, S.; Mahmoudi, A.

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Soft-template production of polyguaiacol nanowire was done by peroxidase enzyme. {yields} Main advantage of this simple method is producing soluble encapsulated nanowires. {yields} Nanowire can be easily precipitated and separated by dilution with distilled water. {yields} Size tuned templates of sodium decyl sulfate (d = 2.7 nm) gave nanowires with d = 2-4 nm. {yields} Dried surfactant-coated wires recover freshly on specified and desired applications. -- Abstract: Micelle-templated polyguaiacol nanowires were successfully prepared via polymerization oxidation of guaiacol (o-methoxy phenol) by peroxidase enzyme in the presence of hydrogen peroxide at mild reaction conditions. The dimensions of the prepared nanowires were controlled by tuning the size and shape of the micelle structure via changing and controlling the type, chain length and molar concentrations of the ionic surfactant. The progress of the reaction and estimation of the size of soft micellar templates were followed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The resulting micelle encapsulated or purified polyguaiacol nanowires were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  17. Covalent and non-covalent curcumin loading in acid-responsive polymeric micellar nanocarriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Chen, Chao; Fan, Aiping; Zhang, Ju; Kong, Deling; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2015-07-01

    Poor aqueous solubility, potential degradation, rapid metabolism and elimination lead to low bioavailability of pleiotropic impotent curcumin. Herein, we report two types of acid-responsive polymeric micelles where curcumin was encapsulated via both covalent and non-covalent modes for enhanced loading capacity and on-demand release. Biodegradable methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) copolymer (mPEG-PLA) was conjugated with curcumin via a hydrazone linker, generating two conjugates differing in architecture (single-tail versus double-tail) and free curcumin was encapsulated therein. The two micelles exhibited similar hydrodynamic size at 95 ± 3 nm (single-tail) and 96 ± 3 nm (double-tail), but their loading capacities differed significantly at 15.0 ± 0.5% (w/w) (single-tail) and 4.8 ± 0.5% (w/w) (double-tail). Under acidic sink conditions (pH 5.0 and 6.0), curcumin displayed a faster release from the single-tail nanocarrier, which was correlated to a low IC50 of 14.7 ± 1.6 (μg mL-1) compared to the value of double-tail micelle (24.9 ± 1.3 μg mL-1) in HeLa cells. The confocal imaging and flow cytometry analysis demonstrated a superior capability of single-tail micelle for intracellular curcumin delivery, which was a consequence of the higher loading capacity and lower degree of mPEG surface coverage. In conclusion, the dual loading mode is an effective means to increase the drug content in the micellar nanocarriers whose delivery efficiency is highly dependent on its polymer-drug conjugate architecture. This strategy offers an alternative nanoplatform for intracellularly delivering impotent hydrophobic agents (i.e. curcumin) in an efficient stimuli-triggered way, which is valuable for the enhancement of curcumin’s efficacy in managing a diverse range of disorders.

  18. On-demand combinational delivery of curcumin and doxorubicin via a pH-labile micellar nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoyu; Li, Man; Chen, Chao; Fan, Aiping; Kong, Deling; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2015-11-10

    The combinational delivery of doxorubicin and curcumin in a physically loaded nanocarrier offers the benefits of enhanced therapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects, but this strategy often suffers from the slow drug release followed by delayed onset of pharmacological action. This work reported the hydrazone-linked polymer-curcumin conjugate micelles containing physically loaded doxorubicin to address this problem; the ester-linked conjugate micelles were produced as the control. The pH-labile spherical micelles were less than 100 nm with a loading at 9.3 ± 0.5% (w/w, Curcumin) and 2.5 ± 0.1(w/w, Doxorubicin). Both agents were released at a faster rate in the pH-labile micelles compared to the control. The confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed a time-dependent co-localization of both agents in HepG2 cells. The IC50 of pH-labile conjugate micelles without doxorubicin in HepG2 cells was 27.7 ± 5.3 (μM), whereas the co-loaded micelles was lowered to 10.8 ± 3.4 (μM) (Cur-equivalent dose). The combination index calculation demonstrated a synergistic action of both agents in the co-loading nanocarrier. The current work provided an efficient nanocarrier system to achieve rapid on-demand drug release without onset delay of therapeutic action, which might add value to the clinical translation of the combinational delivery systems.

  19. Characteristic of core materials in polymeric micelles effect on their micellar properties studied by experimental and dpd simulation methods.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Furong; Guan, Xuewa; Cao, Huan; Su, Ting; Cao, Jun; Chen, Yuanwei; Cai, Mengtan; He, Bin; Gu, Zhongwei; Luo, Xianglin

    2015-08-15

    Polymeric micelles are one important class of nanoparticles for anticancer drug delivery, but the impact of hydrophobic segments on drug encapsulation and release is unclear, which deters the rationalization of drug encapsulation into polymeric micelles. This paper focused on studying the correlation between the characteristics of hydrophobic segments and encapsulation of structurally different drugs (DOX and β-carotene). Poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) or poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) were used as hydrophobic segments to synthesize micelle-forming amphiphilic block copolymers with the hydrophilic methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG). Both blank and drug loaded micelles were spherical in shape with sizes lower than 50 nm. PCL-based micelles exhibited higher drug loading capacity than their PLLA-based counterparts. Higher encapsulation efficiency of β-carotene was achieved compared with DOX. In addition, both doxorubicin and β-carotene were released much faster from PCL-based polymeric micelles. Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation revealed that the two drugs tended to aggregate in the core of the PCL-based micelles but disperse in the core of PLLA based micelles. In vitro cytotoxicity investigation of DOX loaded micelles demonstrated that a faster drug release warranted a more efficient cancer-killing effect. This research could serve as a guideline for the rational design of polymeric micelles for drug delivery.

  20. Doxorubicin and siRNA Codelivery via Chitosan-Coated pH-Responsive Mixed Micellar Polyplexes for Enhanced Cancer Therapy in Multidrug-Resistant Tumors.

    PubMed

    Butt, Adeel Masood; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Katas, Haliza; Abdul Murad, Nor Azian; Jamal, Rahman; Kesharwani, Prashant

    2016-12-05

    This study investigated the potential of chitosan-coated mixed micellar nanocarriers (polyplexes) for codelivery of siRNA and doxorubicin (DOX). DOX-loaded mixed micelles (serving as cores) were prepared by thin film hydration method and coated with chitosan (CS, serving as outer shell), and complexed with multidrug resistance (MDR) inhibiting siRNA. Selective targeting was achieved by folic acid conjugation. The polyplexes showed pH-responsive enhanced DOX release in acidic tumor pH, resulting in higher intracellular accumulation, which was further augmented by downregulation of mdr-1 gene after treatment with siRNA-complexed polyplexes. In vitro cytotoxicity assay demonstrated an enhanced cytotoxicity in native 4T1 and multidrug-resistant 4T1-mdr cell lines, compared to free DOX. Furthermore, in vivo, polyplexes codelivery resulted in highest DOX accumulation and significantly reduced the tumor volume in mice with 4T1 and 4T1-mdr tumors as compared to the free DOX groups, leading to improved survival times in mice. In conclusion, codelivery of siRNA and DOX via polyplexes has excellent potential as targeted drug nanocarriers for treatment of MDR cancers.

  1. Self-assembled nanocomplex between polymerized phenylboronic acid and doxorubicin for efficient tumor-targeted chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Junseok; Kim, Jinhwan; Lee, Yeong Mi; Park, Dongsik; Im, Sooseok; Song, Eun Ho; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Won Jong

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery that nano-scaled particulates can easily be incorporated into tumors via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, such nanostructures have been exploited as therapeutic small molecule delivery systems. However, the convoluted synthetic process of conventional nanostructures has impeded their feasibility and reproducibility in clinical applications. Herein, we report an easily prepared formulation of self-assembled nanostructures for systemic delivery of the anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Phenylboronic acid (PBA) was grafted onto the polymeric backbone of poly(maleic anhydride). pPBA-DOX nanocomplexes were prepared by simple mixing, on the basis of the strong interaction between the 1,3-diol of DOX and the PBA moiety on pPBA. Three nanocomplexes (1, 2, 4) were designed on the basis of [PBA]:[DOX] molar ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1, respectively, to investigate the function of the residual PBA moiety as a targeting ligand. An acid-labile drug release profile was observed, owing to the intrinsic properties of the phenylboronic ester. Moreover, the tumor-targeting ability of the nanocomplexes was demonstrated, both in vitro by confocal microscopy and in vivo by fluorescence imaging, to be driven by an inherent property of the residual PBA. Ligand competition assays with free PBA pre-treatment demonstrated the targeting effect of the residual PBA from the nanocomplexes 2 and 4. Finally, the nanocomplexes 2 and 4, compared with the free DOX, exhibited significantly greater anti-cancer effects in vitro and even in vivo. Our pPBA-DOX nanocomplex enables a new paradigm for self-assembled nanostructures with potential biomedical applications. PMID:28414203

  2. Doxorubicin loaded polymeric gold nanoparticles targeted to human folate receptor upon laser photothermal therapy potentiates chemotherapy in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Banu, Hussaina; Sethi, Dipinder Kaur; Edgar, Andre; Sheriff, Adhnaan; Rayees, Nuthan; Renuka, N; Faheem, S M; Premkumar, Kumpati; Vasanthakumar, Geetha

    2015-08-01

    The current research focuses on the application of folate conjugated and doxorubicin loaded polymeric gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for the targeted treatment of folate receptor overexpressing breast cancers, augmented by adjunctive laser photothermal therapy. Herein, GNPs surface modified with folate, drug doxorubicin and polyethylene glycol were engineered and were used as vehicles for folate receptor targeted delivery of doxorubicin into cancer cells. Subsequently, the GNPs were photo-excited using laser light for mediating hyperthermia in the cancer cells. In vitro studies were performed to validate the efficacy of the combined modality of folate conjugated and doxorubicin loaded polymeric GNP mediated chemotherapy followed by photothermal therapy in comparison to treatment with free drug; and the combination modality showed better therapeutic efficacy than that of plain doxorubicin treatment in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells that express increased levels of surface folate receptors when compared to MCF-7 breast cancer cells that express low levels of folate receptor. The mechanism of cell death was investigated using fluorescent microscopy. Immunoassays showed the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein p53 and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Collectively, these results suggest that the folate tagged doxorubicin loaded GNPs are an attractive platform for targeted delivery of doxorubicin and are agents suitable for photothermal cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymeric micelles based on poly(ethylene oxide) and α-carbon substituted poly(ɛ-caprolactone): An in vitro study on the effect of core forming block on polymeric micellar stability, biocompatibility, and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Garg, Shyam M; Vakili, Mohammad Reza; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2015-08-01

    A series of block copolymers based on methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL), PEO-b-PCL bearing side groups of benzyl carboxylate (PEO-b-PBCL), or free carboxyl (PEO-b-PCCL) on the PCL backbone with increasing degrees of polymerization of the PCL backbone were synthesized. Prepared block copolymers assembled to polymeric micelles by co-solvent evaporation. The physical stability of prepared micelles was assessed by measuring their tendency toward aggregation over time using dynamic light scattering (DLS). The resistance of micelles against dissociation in the presence of a micelle destabilizing agent, i.e., sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), was also investigated using DLS. The rate of micellar core degradation was determined using (1)H NMR for polymer molecular weight measurement upon incubation of micelles in PBS (pH=7.4) at 37°C followed by dialysis of the remaining polymer at different time intervals. The effect of pendent group chemistry in the micellar core on the adsorption of serum proteins to micellar structure was then evaluated using Bradford Protein assay kit. Finally, the effect of micellar core structure on the induction of bone marrow derived dendritic cell (BMDC) maturation and secretion of IL-12 was studied as a measure of micellar immunogenicity. The results showed micelle structures from polymers with higher degree of polymerization in the hydrophobic block and/or those with more hydrophobic substituents on the core-forming block, to be more stable. This was reflected by a decreased tendency for micellar aggregation, reduced dissociation of micelles in the presence of SDS, and diminished core degradation. All micelles were shown to have insignificant adsorption of serum protein suggesting that the hydrophilic PEO shell provided sufficient protection of the core. However, the protein adsorption increased with increase in the hydrophobicity and molecular weight of the core-forming block. Irrespective of the micellar core

  4. RAFT polymerization of 4-vinylphenylboronic acid as the basis for micellar sugar sensors.

    PubMed

    Maji, Samarendra; Vancoillie, Gertjan; Voorhaar, Lenny; Zhang, Qilu; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Well-defined homo and mPEGylated block (co)polymers of the commercially available unprotected 4-vinylphenylboronic acid (4-VBA) monomer are reported based on reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The polymerization kinetics are studied in detail for homo and block (co)polymerizations with different chain transfer agents (CTAs) to optimize the preparation of well-defined polymer structures, eventually leading to comparatively low dispersities (Đ ≤ 1.25). Subsequently, block (co)polymers with methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) mPEG-b-P(4-VBA) are prepared using a mPEG-functionalized CTA. The formed block copolymer mPEG114 -b-P(4-VBA)30 is demonstrated to be pH and glucose responsive as its micellization behavior is dictated by pH as well as the presence of glucose. The glucose-responsive pH window of mPEG114 -b-P(4-VBA)30 is found to be pH 9-10 based on the DLS and TEM measurement. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. An in vivo mechanism for the reduced peripheral neurotoxicity of NK105: a paclitaxel-incorporating polymeric micellar nanoparticle formulation

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Iwao; Ichimura, Eiji; Goda, Rika; Hayashi, Hitomi; Mashiba, Hiroko; Nagai, Daichi; Yokoyama, Hirofumi; Onda, Takeshi; Masuda, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In our previous rodent studies, the paclitaxel (PTX)-incorporating polymeric micellar nanoparticle formulation NK105 had showed significantly stronger antitumor effects and reduced peripheral neurotoxicity than PTX dissolved in Cremophor® EL and ethanol (PTX/CRE). Thus, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying reduced peripheral neurotoxicity due to NK105, we performed pharmacokinetic analyses of NK105 and PTX/CRE in rats. Among neural tissues, the highest PTX concentrations were found in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Moreover, exposure of DRG to PTX (Cmax_PTX and AUC0-inf._PTX) in the NK105 group was almost half that in the PTX/CRE group, whereas exposure of sciatic and sural nerves was greater in the NK105 group than in the PTX/CRE group. In histopathological analyses, damage to DRG and both peripheral nerves was less in the NK105 group than in the PTX/CRE group. The consistency of these pharmacokinetic and histopathological data suggests that high levels of PTX in the DRG play an important role in the induction of peripheral neurotoxicity, and reduced distribution of PTX to the DRG of NK105-treated rats limits the ensuing peripheral neurotoxicity. In further analyses of PTX distribution to the DRG, Evans blue (Eb) was injected with BODIPY®-labeled NK105 into rats, and Eb fluorescence was observed only in the DRG. Following injection, most Eb dye bound to albumin particles of ~8 nm and had penetrated the DRG. In contrast, BODIPY®–NK105 particles of ~90 nm were not found in the DRG, suggesting differential penetration based on particle size. Because PTX also circulates as PTX–albumin particles of ~8 nm following injection of PTX/CRE, reduced peripheral neurotoxicity of NK105 may reflect exclusion from the DRG due to particle size, leading to reduced PTX levels in rat DRG (275). PMID:28243090

  6. An in vivo mechanism for the reduced peripheral neurotoxicity of NK105: a paclitaxel-incorporating polymeric micellar nanoparticle formulation.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Iwao; Ichimura, Eiji; Goda, Rika; Hayashi, Hitomi; Mashiba, Hiroko; Nagai, Daichi; Yokoyama, Hirofumi; Onda, Takeshi; Masuda, Akira

    2017-01-01

    In our previous rodent studies, the paclitaxel (PTX)-incorporating polymeric micellar nanoparticle formulation NK105 had showed significantly stronger antitumor effects and reduced peripheral neurotoxicity than PTX dissolved in Cremophor(®) EL and ethanol (PTX/CRE). Thus, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying reduced peripheral neurotoxicity due to NK105, we performed pharmacokinetic analyses of NK105 and PTX/CRE in rats. Among neural tissues, the highest PTX concentrations were found in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Moreover, exposure of DRG to PTX (Cmax_PTX and AUC0-inf._PTX) in the NK105 group was almost half that in the PTX/CRE group, whereas exposure of sciatic and sural nerves was greater in the NK105 group than in the PTX/CRE group. In histopathological analyses, damage to DRG and both peripheral nerves was less in the NK105 group than in the PTX/CRE group. The consistency of these pharmacokinetic and histopathological data suggests that high levels of PTX in the DRG play an important role in the induction of peripheral neurotoxicity, and reduced distribution of PTX to the DRG of NK105-treated rats limits the ensuing peripheral neurotoxicity. In further analyses of PTX distribution to the DRG, Evans blue (Eb) was injected with BODIPY(®)-labeled NK105 into rats, and Eb fluorescence was observed only in the DRG. Following injection, most Eb dye bound to albumin particles of ~8 nm and had penetrated the DRG. In contrast, BODIPY(®)-NK105 particles of ~90 nm were not found in the DRG, suggesting differential penetration based on particle size. Because PTX also circulates as PTX-albumin particles of ~8 nm following injection of PTX/CRE, reduced peripheral neurotoxicity of NK105 may reflect exclusion from the DRG due to particle size, leading to reduced PTX levels in rat DRG (275).

  7. Evaluation of polymeric nanoparticle formulations by effective imaging and quantitation of cellular uptake for controlled delivery of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Yin; Teng, Choon Peng; Ye, Enyi; Low, Michelle; Han, Ming-Yong

    2015-03-01

    Various polymeric nanoparticles have been extensively engineered for applications in controlled drug release delivery in the last decades. Currently, there is a great demand to develop a strategy to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate these polymeric nanoparticle formulations for producing innovative delivery systems. In this work, a screening platform is developed using luminescent quantum dots as drug model and imaging label to evaluate nanoparticle formulations incorporating either hydrophilic or hydrophobic drugs and imaging agents. It is validated that there is no influence of the incorporated entities on the cellular uptake profile. The use of quantum dots enables efficient detection and precise quantitation of cellular uptake of particles which occupy 25% of the cell volume. The correlation of quantum dot- and doxorubicin-incorporated nanoparticles is useful to develop an evaluation platform for nanoparticle formulations through imaging and quantitation. This platform is also used to observe the surface properties effect of other polymers such as chitosan and poly(ethylene) glycol on the cellular interaction and uptake. Moreover, quantum dots can be used to study microparticle theranostic delivery formulations by deliberately incorporating as visible ring surrounding the microparticles for their easy identifying and tracing in diagnostic and chemotherapeutic applications.

  8. Stable curcumin-loaded polymeric micellar formulation for enhancing cellular uptake and cytotoxicity to FLT3 overexpressing EoL-1 leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Tima, Singkome; Anuchapreeda, Songyot; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Berkland, Cory; Okonogi, Siriporn

    2017-05-01

    The present study aims to develop a stable polymeric micellar formulation of curcumin (CM) with improved solubility and stability, and that is suitable for clinical applications in leukemia patients. CM-loaded polymeric micelles (CM-micelles) were prepared using poloxamers. The chemical structure of the polymers influenced micellar properties. The best formulation of CM-micelles, namely CM-P407, was obtained from poloxamer 407 at drug to polymer ratio of 1:30 and rehydrated with phosphate buffer solution pH 7.4. CM-P407 exhibited the smallest size of 30.3±1.3nm and highest entrapment efficiency of 88.4±4.1%. When stored at -80°C for 60days, CM-P407 retained high protection of CM and had no significant size change. In comparison with CM solution in dimethyl sulfoxide (CM-DMSO), CM kinetic degradation in both formulations followed a pseudo-first-order reaction, but the half-life of CM in CM-P407 was approx. 200 times longer than in CM-DMSO. Regarding the activity against FLT3 overexpressing EoL-1 leukemic cells, CM-P407 showed higher cytotoxicity than CM-DMSO. Moreover, intracellular uptake to leukemic cells of CM-P407 was 2-3 times greater than that of CM-DMSO. These promising results for CM-P407 will be further investigated in rodents and in clinical studies for leukemia treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Biodegradable polymeric micelle-encapsulated doxorubicin suppresses tumor metastasis by killing circulating tumor cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Senyi; Wu, Qinjie; Zhao, Yuwei; Zheng, Xin; Wu, Ni; Pang, Jing; Li, Xuejing; Bi, Cheng; Liu, Xinyu; Yang, Li; Liu, Lei; Su, Weijun; Wei, Yuquan; Gong, Changyang

    2015-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) play a crucial role in tumor metastasis, but it is rare for any chemotherapy regimen to focus on killing CTCs. Herein, we describe doxorubicin (Dox) micelles that showed anti-metastatic activity by killing CTCs. Dox micelles with a small particle size and high encapsulation efficiency were obtained using a pH-induced self-assembly method. Compared with free Dox, Dox micelles exhibited improved cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, and cellular uptake. In addition, Dox micelles showed a sustained release behavior in vitro, and in a transgenic zebrafish model, Dox micelles exhibited a longer circulation time and lower extravasation from blood vessels into surrounding tissues. Anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities of Dox micelles were investigated in transgenic zebrafish and mouse models. In transgenic zebrafish, Dox micelles inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing zebrafish. Furthermore, Dox micelles suppressed tumor metastasis by killing CTCs. In addition, improved anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities were also confirmed in mouse tumor models, where immunofluorescent staining of tumors indicated that Dox micelles induced more apoptosis and showed fewer proliferation-positive cells. There were decreased side effects in transgenic zebrafish and mice after administration of Dox micelles. In conclusion, Dox micelles showed stronger anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities and decreased side effects both in vitro and in vivo, which may have potential applications in cancer therapy.

  10. Improving anticancer activity and reducing systemic toxicity of doxorubicin by self-assembled polymeric micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, MaLing; Shi, HuaShan; Guo, Gang; Men, Ke; Zhang, Juan; Zheng, Lan; Li, ZhiYong; Luo, Feng; Qian, ZhiYong; Zhao, Xia; Wei, YuQuan

    2011-03-01

    In an attempt to improve anticancer activity and reduce systemic toxicity of doxorubicin (Dox), we encapsulated Dox in monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) micelles by a novel self-assembly procedure without using surfactants, organic solvents or vigorous stirring. These Dox encapsulated MPEG-PCL (Dox/MPEG-PCL) micelles with drug loading of 4.2% were monodisperse and ~ 20 nm in diameter. The Dox can be released from the Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles; the Dox-release at pH 5.5 was faster than that at pH 7.0. Encapsulation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of Dox on the C-26 colon carcinoma cell in vitro, and slowed the extravasation of Dox in the transgenic zebrafish model. Compared to free Dox, Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles were more effective in inhibiting tumor growth in the subcutaneous C-26 colon carcinoma and Lewis lung carcinoma models, and prolonging survival of mice bearing these tumors. Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles also induced lower systemic toxicity than free Dox. In conclusion, incorporation of Dox in MPEG-PCL micelles enhanced the anticancer activity and decreased the systemic toxicity of Dox; these Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles are an interesting formulation of Dox and may have potential clinical applications in cancer therapy.

  11. Folate Receptor Targeted Polymeric Micellar Nanocarriers for Delivery of Orlistat as a Repurposed Drug against Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Bhethanabotla, Rohith; Mishra, Kaushik; Devulapally, Rammohan; Foygel, Kira; Sekar, Thillai V; Ananta, Jeyarama S; Massoud, Tarik F; Joy, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a recalcitrant malignancy with no available targeted therapy. Off target effects and poor bioavailability of the FDA approved anti-obesity drug orlistat hinder its clinical translation as a repurposed new drug against TNBC. Here we demonstrate a newly engineered drug formulation for packaging orlistat tailored to TNBC treatment. We synthesized TNBC-specific folate receptor targeted micellar nanoparticles (NPs) carrying orlistat, which improved the solubility (70-80 μg/ml) of this water insoluble drug. The targeted NPs also improved the delivery and bioavailability of orlistat to MDA-MB-231 cells in culture and to tumor xenografts in nude mouse model. We prepared HEA-EHA copolymer micellar NPs by copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethylacrylate (HEA) and 2-ethylhexylacrylate (EHA), and functionalized them with folic acid and an imaging dye. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of TNBC cells indicated a dose dependent increase in apoptotic populations in cells treated with free orlistat, orlistat NPs, and folate-receptor targeted Fol-HEA-EHA-orlistat NPs in which Fol-HEA-EHA-orlistat NPs showed significantly higher cytotoxicity than free orlistat. In vitro analysis data demonstrated significant apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations in cells activated through caspase 3 and PARP inhibition. In vivo analysis demonstrated significant antitumor effects in living mice after targeted treatment of tumors, and confirmed by fluorescence imaging. Moreover, Folate receptor targeted Fol-DyLight747-orlistat NPs treated mice exhibited significantly higher reduction in tumor volume compared to control group. Taken together, these results indicate that orlistat packaged in HEA-b-EHA micellar NPs is a highly promising new drug formulation for TNBC therapy. PMID:26553061

  12. Combinatorial resveratrol and quercetin polymeric micelles mitigate doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cote, Brianna; Carlson, Lisa Janssen; Rao, Deepa A; Alani, Adam W G

    2015-09-10

    Doxorubicin hydrochloride (ADR) is an anthracycline antibiotic used to treat various cancers. However, due to its extensive cardiotoxic side effects a lifetime cumulative dose limit of 450-550 mg/m2 exists. The postulated mechanism of the cardiotoxicity is generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Natural products like resveratrol (RES), and quercetin (QUE) are known free radical scavengers and have shown cardioprotective effects. However, concurrent dosing of these natural products with ADR is limited due to their low solubility, and low oral bioavailability. We hypothesize that the combination of RES and QUE in Pluronic® F127 micelles (mRQ) when co-administered with ADR, will be cardioprotective in vitro and in vivo, while maintaining or increasing the efficacy of ADR against cancer cell lines in vitro. We prepared mRQ micelles capable of retaining 1.1mg/mL and 1.42 mg/mL of RES and QUE respectively. The in vitro release of RES and QUE from the micelles followed first order kinetics over 48h. In vitro cell viability and combination index analysis studies in human ovarian cancer cells (SKOV-3) and rat cardiomyocytes (H9C2) showed that RES:QUE: ADR at 10:10:1 ratio was synergistic in SKOV-3 cells and antagonistic in H9C2 cells. Caspase 3/7 activity studies indicated that mRQ did not interfere with ADR caspase activity in SKOV-3 cells but significantly decreased it in H9C2 cells. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SKOV-3 and H9C2 cells in the presence of mRQ also indicated no changes in ROS activity in SKOV-3 cells but significant scavenging in H9C2 cells. Healthy mice were exposed to acute doses of ADR and ADR with mRQ. Based on biochemical estimations the presence of mRQ with ADR conferred full cardioprotection in these mice. Concurrent administration of mRQ with ADR at 10:10:1 ratio provides a viable strategy to mitigate acute ADR induced cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear-targeting TAT-PEG-Asp8-doxorubicin polymeric nanoassembly to overcome drug-resistant colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhen-Zhen; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhang, Meng; Lin, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Wen-Yuan; Zhao, Peng-Fei; Tang, Yi-Si; Xiong, Yong; Zeng, Yuan-Er; Huang, Yong-Zhuo

    2016-08-01

    Drug efflux-associated multidrug resistance (MDR) is a main obstacle to effective cancer chemotherapy. Large molecule drugs are not the substrates of P-glycoprotein, and can circumvent drug efflux and be retained inside cells. In this article we report a polymer-drug conjugate nanoparticulate system that can overcome MDR based on size-related exclusion effect. Doxorubicin was coupled with the triblock polymeric material cell-penetrating TAT-PEG-poly(aspartic acid). The amphiphilic macromolecules (termed TAT-PEG-Asp8-Dox) could self-assemble into nanoparticles (NPs) in water. The antitumor activity was evaluated in drug-resistant human colon cancer HCT8/ADR cells in vitro and in nude mice bearing HCT8/ADR tumor. The self-assembling TAT-PEG-Asp8-Dox NPs were approximately 150 nm with a narrow particle size distribution, which not only increased the cellular uptake efficiency, but also bypassed P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux and improved the intracellular drug retention, thus yielding an enhanced efficacy for killing drug-resistant HCT8/ADR colon cancer cells in vitro. Importantly, the TAT-PEG-Asp8-Dox NPs enhanced the intranuclear disposition of drugs for grater inhibition of DNA/RNA biosynthesis. In nude mice bearing xenografted HCT8/ADR colon cancers, intravenous or peritumoral injection of TAT-PEG-Asp8-Dox NPs for 22 d effectively inhibited tumor growth. TAT-PEG-Asp8-Dox NPs can increase cellular drug uptake and intranuclear drug delivery and retain effective drug accumulation inside the cells, thus exhibiting enhanced anticancer activity toward the drug-resistant human colon cancer HCT8/ADR cells.

  14. Nuclear-targeting TAT-PEG-Asp8-doxorubicin polymeric nanoassembly to overcome drug-resistant colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Zhen-zhen; Wang, Hui-yuan; Zhang, Meng; Lin, Ting-ting; Zhang, Wen-yuan; Zhao, Peng-fei; Tang, Yi-si; Xiong, Yong; Zeng, Yuan-er; Huang, Yong-zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Drug efflux-associated multidrug resistance (MDR) is a main obstacle to effective cancer chemotherapy. Large molecule drugs are not the substrates of P-glycoprotein, and can circumvent drug efflux and be retained inside cells. In this article we report a polymer-drug conjugate nanoparticulate system that can overcome MDR based on size-related exclusion effect. Methods: Doxorubicin was coupled with the triblock polymeric material cell-penetrating TAT-PEG-poly(aspartic acid). The amphiphilic macromolecules (termed TAT-PEG-Asp8-Dox) could self-assemble into nanoparticles (NPs) in water. The antitumor activity was evaluated in drug-resistant human colon cancer HCT8/ADR cells in vitro and in nude mice bearing HCT8/ADR tumor. Results: The self-assembling TAT-PEG-Asp8-Dox NPs were approximately 150 nm with a narrow particle size distribution, which not only increased the cellular uptake efficiency, but also bypassed P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux and improved the intracellular drug retention, thus yielding an enhanced efficacy for killing drug-resistant HCT8/ADR colon cancer cells in vitro. Importantly, the TAT-PEG-Asp8-Dox NPs enhanced the intranuclear disposition of drugs for grater inhibition of DNA/RNA biosynthesis. In nude mice bearing xenografted HCT8/ADR colon cancers, intravenous or peritumoral injection of TAT-PEG-Asp8-Dox NPs for 22 d effectively inhibited tumor growth. Conclusion: TAT-PEG-Asp8-Dox NPs can increase cellular drug uptake and intranuclear drug delivery and retain effective drug accumulation inside the cells, thus exhibiting enhanced anticancer activity toward the drug-resistant human colon cancer HCT8/ADR cells. PMID:27292613

  15. Polymeric Sulfated Amino Acid Surfactants: A New Class of Versatile Chiral Selectors for Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography (MEKC) and MEKC-MS

    PubMed Central

    Ali Rizvi, Syed Asad; Zheng, Jie; Apkarian, Robert P.; Dublin, Steven N.; Shamsi, Shahab A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, three amino acids derived (L-leucinol, L-isoleucinol and L-valinol) sulfated chiral surfactants are synthesized and polymerized. These chiral sulfated surfactants are thoroughly characterized to determine critical micelle concentration, aggregation number, polarity, optical rotation and partial specific volume. For the first time the morphological behavior of polymeric sulfated surfactants is revealed using cryogenic high-resolution electron microscopy (cryo-HRSEM). The polysodium N-undecenoyl-L-leucine sulfate (poly-L-SUCLS) shows distinct tubular structure, while polysodium N-undecenoyl-L-valine sulfate (poly-L-SUCVS) also shows tubular morphology but without any distinct order of the tubes. On the other hand, polysodium N-undecenoyl-L-isoleucine sulfate (poly-L-SUCILS) displays random distribution of coiled/curved filaments with heavy association of tightly and loosely bound water. All three polymeric sulfated surfactants are compared for enantio-separation of broad range of structurally diverse racemic compounds at very acidic, neutral and basic pH conditions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). A small combinatorial library of 10 structurally related phenylethylamines (PEAs) is investigated for chiral separation under acidic and moderately acidic to neutral pH conditions using an experimental design. In contrast to neutral pH conditions, at acidic pH, significantly enhanced chiral resolution is obtained for class I and class II PEAs due to the compact structure of polymeric sulfated surfactants. It is observed that the presence of hydroxy group on the benzene ring of PEAs resulted in deterioration of enantioseparation. A sensitive MEKC-mass spectrometry (MS) method is developed for one of the PEA (e.g., (±)-pseudoephedrine) in human urine. Very low limit of detection (LOD) is obtained at pH 2.0 (LOD 325 ng/mL), which is ca 16 times better compared to pH 8.0 (LOD 5.2 µg/mL). Other broad range of chiral analytes (

  16. Polymeric nanoparticles conjugate a novel heptapeptide as an epidermal growth factor receptor-active targeting ligand for doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chia Wen; Lin, Wen Jen

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was performed to develop a functional poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)- poly(ethylene glycol) (PLGA-PEG)-bearing amino-active end group for peptide conjugation. Methods and results PLGA was preactivated following by copolymerization with PEG diamine. The resulting amphiphilic PLGA-PEG copolymer bearing 97.0% of amino end groups had a critical micelle concentration of 3.0 × 10−8 mol/L, and the half-effective inhibition concentration (IC50) of the prepared PLGA-PEG nanoparticles was >100 mg/mL, which was much higher than that of PLGA nanoparticles (1.02 ± 0.37 mg/mL). The amphiphilic properties of PLGA-PEG spontaneously formed a core-shell conformation in the aqueous environment, and this special feature provided the amino group on the PEG chain scattered on the surface of PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for efficient peptide conjugation. The peptide-conjugated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles showed three-fold higher uptake than peptide-free PLGA-PEG nanoparticles in a SKOV3 cell line with high expression of epidermal growth factor receptor. Both peptide-conjugated and peptide-free PLGA-PEG nanoparticles were used as nanocarriers for delivery of doxorubicin. Although the rate of release of doxorubicin from both nanoparticles was similar, drug release at pH 4.0 (500 U lipase) was faster than at pH 7.4. The IC50 of doxorubicin-loaded peptide-conjugated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles in SKOV3 cells (0.05 ± 0.03 μg/mL) was much lower (by 62.4-fold) than that of peptide-free PLGA-PEG nanoparticles (3.12 ± 1.44 μg/mL). Conclusion This in vivo biodistribution study in SKOV3 tumor-bearing mice was further promising in that accumulation of doxorubicin in tumor tissue was in the order of peptide-conjugated PLGA-PEG nanoparticles > peptide-free PLGA-PEG nanoparticles > doxorubicin solution. PMID:22973097

  17. [Study of rat blood serum biochemical indicators of cardiotoxic action of novel antitumor 4-thiazolidinone derivatives and doxorubicin in complexes with polyethylene glycol-containing polymeric carrier in the rat blood serum].

    PubMed

    Kobylyns'ka, L I; Havryliuk, D Ia; Riabtseva, A O; Mitina, N Ie; Zaichenko, O S; Zimenkovskyĭ, B S; Stoĭka, R S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the activity of enzymes which reflect cardiotoxic action in rats of novel synthetic 4-thiazolidone derivatives--3882, 3288 and 3833 that demonstrated antineoplastic effect in vitro towards 60 lines of human tumor cells tested in the framework of the program of screening new anticancer drugs at the National Cancer Institute (USA). Such action of these compounds was compared with the effect of well known anticancer agent doxorubicin and after conjugation of all above mentioned substances with new polyethylenglycol-containing polymeric comb-like carrier that was synthesized by the authors. Among the biochemical indicators of cardiotoxic action of anticancer agents, activity of the following enzymes in rat blood serum showed to be the most informative: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransterase. Tenfold injection of doxorubicin in a dose of 5.5 mg/kg of weight caused rats' death, while 3882, 3288 and 3833 preparations had not such action. Application of the doxorubicin in combination with polymeric carrier prolonged the survival time to 20 days. Thus, the injection of anticancer agents in a complex with polymeric carrier provides a significant decrease in their cardiotoxicity that was confirmed by the corresponding changes in the activity of marker enzymes: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in blood serum of treated rats.

  18. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and AS1411 aptamer by poly(ethylene glycol)-poly( β-amino esters) polymeric micelles for targeted cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ran; Wang, Shi-Bin; Wu, Wen-Guo; Kankala, Ranjith Kumar; Chen, Ai-Zheng; Liu, Yuan-Gang; Fan, Jing-Qian

    2017-06-01

    Recently, targeted drug delivery systems (TDDS) have offered a great potential and benefits towards the anti-tumor drug delivery. In this work, we designed the TDDS using a biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol)-poly( β-amino esters) amphiphilic block copolymer (PEG-PAEs) synthesized by Michael addition polymerization for combinatorial therapy. Further, the chemotherapeutic agents' doxorubicin (DOX) and AS1411 DNA aptamer (Apt) are encapsulated in the PEG-PAEs NPs (PDANs) for co-delivery therapeutics. PDANs have shown the monodisperse spherical shape, smooth surface with a net positive charge (average diameter—183.1 ± 27.2 nm, zeta potential—31.2 ± 6.3 mV), and good colloidal stability (critical micelle concentration of PEG-PAEs is about 6.3 μg/mL). The pH-sensitive PAEs endowed PDANs both pH-triggered drug release characteristics and enhanced endo/lysosomal escape ability, thus improving the localization and cytotoxicity of DOX. AS1411 Apt conjugated PDANs precisely targeted nucleolin and their uptake correlates to a significant activity enhancement only in tumor cells (MCF-7) but not in normal cells (MCF-10A). Thus, PDANs can be a very promising targeted drug delivery platform for effective breast cancer therapy.

  19. Cationic amphiphilic drugs self-assemble to the core-shell interface of PEGylated phospholipid micelles and stabilize micellar structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Xing, Xueqing; Fang, Xiaocui; Zhou, Chang; Huang, Feng; Wu, Zhonghua; Lou, Jizhong; Liang, Wei

    2013-10-13

    Since polymeric micelles are promising and have potential in drug delivery systems, people have become more interested in studying the compatibility of polymeric carriers and drugs, which might help them to simplify the preparation method and increase the micellar stability. In this article, we report that cationic amphiphilic drugs can be easily encapsulated into PEGylated phospholipid (PEG-PE) micelles by self-assembly method and that they show high encapsulation efficiency, controllable drug release and better micellar stability than empty micelles. The representative drugs are doxorubicin and vinorelbine. However, gemcitabine and topotecan are not suitable for PEG-PE micelles due to lack of positive charge or hydrophobicity. Using a series of experiments and molecular modelling, we figured out the assembly mechanism, structure and stability of drug-loaded micelles, and the location of drugs in micelles. Integrating the above information, we explain the effect of the predominant force between drugs and polymers on the assembly mechanism and drug release behaviour. Furthermore, we discuss the importance of pKa and to evaluate the compatibility of drugs with PEG-PE in self-assembly preparation method. In summary, this work provides a scientific understanding for the reasonable designing of PEG-PE micelle-based drug encapsulation and might enlighten the future study on drug-polymer compatibility for other polymeric micelles.

  20. Multifunctional micelle delivery system for overcoming multidrug resistance of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Qin, Li; Wu, Lei; Jiang, Shanshan; Yang, Dandan; He, Huiyang; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Peng

    2017-09-13

    Doxorubicin, as an anthracycline, plays an important role in chemotherapy. But multidrug resistance tremendously retards the anticancer effect of doxorubicin and results in the failure of chemotherapy. Multifunctional micelles emerge as a valid strategy to load doxorubicin by physical encapsulation or chemical binding to be delivered to cancer cells against multidrug resistance. In this review, mechanism of multidrug resistance of doxorubicin is simply described. Multifunctional co-delivery micelles of doxorubicin and main multidrug resistance modulators have been summarized in detail. Doxorubicin-loaded multifunctional polymeric micelles are also introduced to alleviate multidrug resistance of doxorubicin, in which polymers act as multidrug resistance modulators.

  1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells: comparison of in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization in aqueous micellar and organic media.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Ellis, Hanna; Yang, Lei; Johansson, Erik M J; Boschloo, Gerrit; Vlachopoulos, Nick; Hagfeldt, Anders; Bergquist, Jonas; Shevchenko, Denys

    2015-04-07

    Solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (sDSCs) are devoid of such issues as electrolyte evaporation or leakage and electrode corrosion, which are typical for traditional liquid electrolyte-based DSCs. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is one of the most popular and efficient p-type conducting polymers that are used in sDSCs as a solid-state hole-transporting material. The most convenient way to deposit this insoluble polymer into the dye-sensitized mesoporous working electrode is in situ photoelectrochemical polymerization. Apparently, the structure and the physicochemical properties of the generated conducting polymer, which determine the photovoltaic performance of the corresponding solar cell, can be significantly affected by the preparation conditions. Therefore, a simple and fast analytical method that can reveal information on polymer chain length, possible chemical modifications, and impurities is strongly required for the rapid development of efficient solar energy-converting devices. In this contribution, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) for the analysis of PEDOT directly on sDSCs. It was found that the PEDOT generated in aqueous micellar medium possesses relatively shorter polymeric chains than the PEDOT deposited from an organic medium. Furthermore, the micellar electrolyte promotes a transformation of one of the thiophene terminal units to thiophenone. The introduction of a carbonyl group into the PEDOT molecule impedes the growth of the polymer chain and reduces the conductivity of the final polymer film. Both the simplicity of sample preparation (only application of the organic matrix onto the solar cell is needed) and the rapidity of analysis hold the promise of making MALDI MS an essential tool for the physicochemical characterization of conducting polymer-based sDSCs.

  2. Ring opening metathesis polymerization-derived block copolymers bearing chelating ligands: synthesis, metal immobilization and use in hydroformylation under micellar conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Gajanan M; Weckesser, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    Summary Norborn-5-ene-(N,N-dipyrid-2-yl)carbamide (M1) was copolymerized with exo,exo-[2-(3-ethoxycarbonyl-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-en-2-carbonyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium iodide (M2) using the Schrock catalyst Mo(N-2,6-Me2-C6H3)(CHCMe2Ph)(OCMe(CF3)2)2 [Mo] to yield poly(M1-b-M2). In water, poly(M1-b-M2) forms micelles with a critical micelle-forming concentration (cmc) of 2.8 × 10−6 mol L−1; Reaction of poly(M1-b-M2) with [Rh(COD)Cl]2 (COD = cycloocta-1,5-diene) yields the Rh(I)-loaded block copolymer poly(M1-b-M2)-Rh containing 18 mg of Rh(I)/g of block copolymer with a cmc of 2.2 × 10−6 mol L−1. The Rh-loaded polymer was used for the hydroformylation of 1-octene under micellar conditions. The data obtained were compared to those obtained with a monomeric analogue, i.e. CH3CON(Py)2RhCl(COD) (C1, Py = 2-pyridyl). Using the polymer-supported catalyst under micellar conditions, a significant increase in selectivity, i.e. an increase in the n:iso ratio was accomplished, which could be further enhanced by the addition of excess ligand, e.g., triphenylphosphite. Special features of the micellar catalytic set up are discussed. PMID:20502652

  3. Doxorubicin Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Kanu; Zhang, Jianqing; Honbo, Norman; Karliner, Joel S.

    2010-01-01

    Established doxorubicin cardiomyopathy is a lethal disease. When congestive heart failure develops, mortality is approximately 50%. Extensive research has been done to understand the mechanism and pathophysiology of doxorubicin cardiomyopathy, and considerable knowledge and experience has been gained. Unfortunately, no effective treatment for established doxorubicin cardiomyopathy is presently available. Extensive research has been done and is being done to discover preventive treatments. However an effective and clinically applicable preventive treatment is yet to be discovered. PMID:20016174

  4. BIOCHEMICAL INDICATORS OF HEPATOTOXICITY IN BLOOD SERUM OF RATS UNDER THE EFFECT OF NOVEL 4-THIAZOLIDINONE DERIVATIVES AND DOXORUBICIN AND THEIR COMPLEXES WITH POLYETHYLENEGLYCOL-CONTAINING NANOSCALE POLYMERIC CARRIER.

    PubMed

    Kobylinska, L I; Havrylyuk, D Ya; Ryabtseva, A O; Mitina, N E; Zaichenko, O S; Lesyk, R B; Zimenkovsky, B S; Stoika, R S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of new synthetic 4-tiazolidinone derivatives (compounds 3882, 3288 and 3833) and doxorubicin (positive control) in free form and in their complexes with synthetic polyethyleneglycol-containing nanoscale polymeric carrier on the biochemical indicators of hepatotoxicity in blood serum of rats. The activity of enzymes considered as the markers of hepatotoxicity, as well as. the concentration of total protein, urea and creatinine were measured in blood serum of rats. It was found that after injection of investigated compounds the activities ofalanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and α-amylase increased in comparison to control. Doxorubicin injection was accompanied by 4-fold increase in the activity of γ-glutamyltransferase, and injection ofcompound 3833 led to 2.5-fold elevation ofthe activity of this enzyme. Complexation ofthese antineoplastic derivatives with a synthetic nanocarrier lowered the activity ofthe investigated enzymes substantially if compared to the effect of these compounds infreeform. The most evident decrease was measured for α-amylase, γ-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities. The normalization of concentrations of total protein, urea and creatinine in blood serum of rats treated with complexes of the studied compounds with a polymeric carrier comparing with their introduction infreeform was also detected. Thus, the immobilization by novel polymeric carrier of anticancer drugs possessing high general toxicity in the treated organism mitigates their toxic effect, which is evident as normalization of specific biochemical indicators of the hepatodestructive effects of the anticancer drugs.

  5. Beta-cyclodextrin-centered star-shaped amphiphilic polymers for doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Li Yan; Wang, Rong Juan; Zheng, Cheng; Jin, Yi; Jin, Le Qun

    2010-02-01

    Delivery of doxorubicin could be achieved by a novel micellar system based on beta-cyclodextrin-centered star-shaped amphiphilic polymers (sPEL/CD). This study specifically explored the effect of polylactide segments in sPEL/CD on various micelle properties, such as the critical micelle concentration, size, drug loading, cytotoxicity and drug resistance reversing effect. The sPEL/CD was synthesized by the arm-first method. The critical micelle concentrations of polymeric micelles were determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry using pyrene as a probe. The oil/water method was applied to prepare doxorubicin-loaded micelles. 3-(4,5-dimethylthi-azol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, confocal laser-scanning microscopy and flow cytometry were used to examine cell cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of the doxorubicin-loaded micelles. Finally, rhodamine-123 cellular uptake was determined to evaluate the polymer action on MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR cells. All polymers exhibited low cytotoxicity and their micelles had a desirable release-acceleration pH (pH 5.0) for cytoplasmic drug delivery. With the introduction of polylactide into the polymer, the micelle critical micelle concentration can be effectively decreased and the drug-loading content was enhanced. Most importantly, the drug resistance of MCF-7/ADR cells was significantly reversed via the interaction between polymer and Pgp. Therefore, this type of polymer has potential superiority for cancer therapy.

  6. Development and Characterization of Lecithin-based Self-assembling Mixed Polymeric Micellar (saMPMs) Drug Delivery Systems for Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ling-Chun; Chen, Yin-Chen; Su, Chia-Yu; Wong, Wan-Ping; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Ho, Hsiu-O

    2016-01-01

    Self-assembling mixed polymeric micelles (saMPMs) were developed for overcoming major obstacles of poor bioavailability (BA) associated with curcumin delivery. Lecithin added was functioned to enlarge the hydrophobic core of MPMs providing greater solubilization capacity. Amphiphilic polymers (sodium deoxycholate [NaDOC], TPGS, CREMOPHOR, or a PLURONIC series) were examined for potentially self-assembling to form MPMs (saMPMs) with the addition of lecithin. Particle size, size distribution, encapsulation efficacy (E.E.), and drug loading (D.L.) of the mixed micelles were optimally studied for their influences on the physical stability and release of encapsulated drugs. Overall, curcumin:lecithin:NaDOC and curcumin:lecithin:PLURONIC P123 in ratios of 2:1:5 and 5:2:20, respectively, were optimally obtained with a particle size of < 200 nm, an E.E. of >80%, and a D.L. of >10%. The formulated system efficiently stabilized curcumin in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at room temperature or 4 °C and in fetal bovine serum or PBS at 37 °C and delayed the in vitro curcumin release. In vivo results further demonstrated that the slow release of curcumin from micelles and prolonged duration increased the curcumin BA followed oral and intravenous administrations in rats. Thus, lecithin-based saMPMs represent an effective curcumin delivery system, and enhancing BA of curcumin can enable its wide applications for treating human disorders. PMID:27848996

  7. Development and Characterization of Lecithin-based Self-assembling Mixed Polymeric Micellar (saMPMs) Drug Delivery Systems for Curcumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ling-Chun; Chen, Yin-Chen; Su, Chia-Yu; Wong, Wan-Ping; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Ho, Hsiu-O.

    2016-11-01

    Self-assembling mixed polymeric micelles (saMPMs) were developed for overcoming major obstacles of poor bioavailability (BA) associated with curcumin delivery. Lecithin added was functioned to enlarge the hydrophobic core of MPMs providing greater solubilization capacity. Amphiphilic polymers (sodium deoxycholate [NaDOC], TPGS, CREMOPHOR, or a PLURONIC series) were examined for potentially self-assembling to form MPMs (saMPMs) with the addition of lecithin. Particle size, size distribution, encapsulation efficacy (E.E.), and drug loading (D.L.) of the mixed micelles were optimally studied for their influences on the physical stability and release of encapsulated drugs. Overall, curcumin:lecithin:NaDOC and curcumin:lecithin:PLURONIC P123 in ratios of 2:1:5 and 5:2:20, respectively, were optimally obtained with a particle size of < 200 nm, an E.E. of >80%, and a D.L. of >10%. The formulated system efficiently stabilized curcumin in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at room temperature or 4 °C and in fetal bovine serum or PBS at 37 °C and delayed the in vitro curcumin release. In vivo results further demonstrated that the slow release of curcumin from micelles and prolonged duration increased the curcumin BA followed oral and intravenous administrations in rats. Thus, lecithin-based saMPMs represent an effective curcumin delivery system, and enhancing BA of curcumin can enable its wide applications for treating human disorders.

  8. Peptide-Conjugated Polymeric Micellar Nanoparticles for Dual SPECT and Optical Imaging of EphB4 Receptors in Prostate Cancer Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Xiong, Chiyi; Huang, Miao; Zhou, Min; Huang, Qian; Wen, Xiaoxia; Liang, Dong; Li, Chun

    2011-01-01

    EphB4, a member of the largest family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in numerous tumors. In this study, we developed a new class of multimodal nanoplatform for dual single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and near-infrared fluorescence imaging of EphB4. EphB4-binding peptide TNYL-FSPNGPIARAW (TNYL-RAW) was conjugated to polyethylene glycol-coated, core-crosslinked polymeric micelles (CCPM) dually labeled with near-infrared fluorescence fluorophores (Cy7) and a radioisotope (indium 111). In vitro, TNYL-RAW-CCPM selectively bound to EphB4-positive PC-3M prostate cancer cells, but not to EphB4-negative A549 lung cancer cells. In vivo, PC-3M tumors were clearly visualized by both SPECT and near-infrared fluorescence tomography after intravenous administration of 111In-labeled TNYL-RAW-CCPM. In contrast, there was little signal in A549 tumors of mice injected with 111In-labeled TNYL-RAW-CCPM or in PC-3M tumors of mice injected with 111In-labeled CCPM. The high accumulation of 111In-labeled TNYL-RAW-CCPM in PC-3M tumor could be significantly reduced after co-injection with an excess amount of TNYL-RAW peptide. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that fluorescence signal from the nanoparticles correlated with their radioactivity count, and co-localized with the EphB4 expressing region. 111In-labeled TNYL-RAW-CCPM allowed visualization of cancer cells overexpressing EphB4 by both nuclear and optical techniques. The complementary information acquired with multiple imaging techniques should be advantageous in early detection of cancer. PMID:21612822

  9. Enhanced Micellar Catalysis LDRD.

    SciTech Connect

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D; Taggart, Gretchen; Kinnan, Mark K.; Glen, Crystal Chanea; Rivera, Danielle; Sanchez, Andres; Alam, Todd Michael

    2012-12-01

    The primary goals of the Enhanced Micellar Catalysis project were to gain an understanding of the micellar environment of DF-200, or similar liquid CBW surfactant-based decontaminants, as well as characterize the aerosolized DF-200 droplet distribution and droplet chemistry under baseline ITW rotary atomization conditions. Micellar characterization of limited surfactant solutions was performed externally through the collection and measurement of Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) images and Cryo-Transmission Electron Microscopy (cryo-TEM) images. Micellar characterization was performed externally at the University of Minnesotas Characterization Facility Center, and at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source facility. A micellar diffusion study was conducted internally at Sandia to measure diffusion constants of surfactants over a concentration range, to estimate the effective micelle diameter, to determine the impact of individual components to the micellar environment in solution, and the impact of combined components to surfactant phase behavior. Aerosolized DF-200 sprays were characterized for particle size and distribution and limited chemical composition. Evaporation rates of aerosolized DF-200 sprays were estimated under a set of baseline ITW nozzle test system parameters.

  10. Formulation and optimization of doxorubicin loaded polymeric nanoparticles using Box-Behnken design: ex-vivo stability and in-vitro activity.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Muhammad Vaseem; Kala, Manika; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2017-03-30

    Biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) have gained tremendous interest for targeting chemotherapeutic drugs to the tumor environment. Inspite of several advances sufficient encapsulation along with the controlled release and desired size range have remained as considerable challenges. Hence, the present study examines the formulation optimization of doxorubicin loaded PLGA NPs (DOX-PLGA-NPs), prepared by single emulsion method for cancer targeting. Critical process parameters (CPP) were selected by initial screening. Later, Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used for analyzing the effect of the selected CPP on critical quality attributes (CQA) and to generate a design space. The optimized formulation was stabilized by lyophilization and was used for in-vitro drug release and in-vitro activity on A549 cell line. Moreover, colloidal stability of the NPs in the biological milieu was assessed. Amount of PLGA and PVA, oil:water ratio and sonication time were the selected independent factors for BBD. The statistical data showed that a quadratic model was fitted to the data obtained. Additionally, the lack of fit values for the models was not significant. The delivery system showed sustained release behavior over a period of 120h and was governed by Fickian diffusion. The multipoint analysis at 24, 48 and 72h showed gradual reduction in IC50 value of DOX-PLGA-NPs (p<0.05, Fig. 9). DOX-PLGA-NPs were found to be stable in the biological fluids indicating their in-vivo applicability. In conclusion, optimization of the DOX-PLGA-NPs by BBD yielded in a promising drug carrier for doxorubicin that could provide a novel treatment modality for cancer.

  11. Validated LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of doxorubicin and curcumin in polymeric micelles in subcellular compartments of MCF-7/Adr cells by protein precipitation-ultrasonic breaking method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinling; Li, Ying; Ma, Wenzhuan; Wang, Xiaohui; Tu, Pengfei

    2017-06-01

    A specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS with protein precipitation- ultrasonic breaking method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of doxorubicin (DOX) and curcumin (Cur) in DOX and Cur co-loaded hyaluronic acid-vitamin E succinatemicelles [(DOX + Cur)-polymeric micelles (PMs)] in subcellular compartments of resistant MCF-7/Adr cells. Sequential extraction of four subcellular protein fractions (cytosolic, membrane/organelle, nucleic and cytoskeleton) was performed directly from MCF-7/Adr cells after incubation with (DOX + Cur)-PMs. An ultrasonic breaking-methanol precipitation method was used for extraction of the fractions, and the micelle breaking efficiency with methanol was 98.1 and 97.6% for DOX and Cur, respectively. The analytes were analyzed using positive electrospray ionization coupled with multiple reaction monitoring. The calibration curves were linear over a concentration range of 0.5-400 ng/mL for DOX and 2-2000 ng/mL for Cur, and the recovery for the two analytes were >85% with negligible matrix effect. The intra-day and inter-day precision was <10.80% and relative error was within ±7.70%. The developed method was successfully applied for subcellular determination of DOX and Cur in MCF-7/Adr cells. Moreover, Cur and (DOX + Cur)-PMs had a marked promoting effect on the distribution of DOX in the nucleic protein fraction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bald, Edward; Kubalczyk, Paweł

    Since the introduction of micellar electrokinetic chromatography by Terabe, several authors have paid attention to the fundamental characteristics of this separation method. In this chapter the theoretical and practical aspects of resolution optimization, as well as the effect of different separation parameters on the migration behavior are discussed. These among others include fundamentals of separation, retention factor and resolution equation, efficiency, selectivity, and various surfactants and additives. Initial conditions for method development and instrumental approaches such as mass spectrometry detection are also mentioned covering the proposals for overcoming the difficulties arising from the coupling micellar electrokinetic chromatography with mass spectrometry detection.

  13. Folate-Modified Poly(malic acid) Graft Polymeric Nanoparticles for Targeted Delivery of Doxorubicin: Synthesis, Characterization and Folate Receptor Expressed Cell Specificity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ning; Nie, Yu; Sheng, Mingming; Yue, Dong; Wang, Gang; Tang, James Z; Gu, Zhongwei

    2015-09-01

    A novel amphiphilic biodegradable cholesterol and poly(ethylene glycol)-folate grafted poly(α,β-malic acid) (PMA-g-Chol/PEG-FA) was synthesized and characterized as self-assembled nanoparticles for targeted delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). The nanoparticles showed extremely low critical aggregation concentrations (CAC), appropriate zeta potential, narrow size distribution, good stability in serum conditions and negligible toxicity. After encapsulation'of DOX, PMA-g-Chol/PEG-FA nanoparticles showed significantly reduced cell viability (up to 30% for Hela and 27% for 4T1 cells) compared with the non-targeted ones on carcinoma cells with different levels of folate receptor (FR) expression. While no difference was detected on HEK293 cells (FR receptor negative) between the two nanoparticles. Addition of extra free folate obviously decreased the cellular mortality and inhibited the cellular uptake of targeted nanoparticles. In the Hela/HEK293 co-culture model, folate conjugated nanoparticles showed specific affiliation with Hela cells other than HEK293 cells, indicating good targeting property of the delivery system. As detected from ex vivo fluorescent imaging, PMA-g-Chol/PEG-FA nanoparticles could accumulate at tumor site with higher selectivity compared to PMA-g-Chol/PEG nanoparticles and DOX x HCl. In vivo antitumor studies confirmed the significant tumor inhibition efficacy of drug-loaded PMA-g-Chol/PEG-FA nanoparticles with lower toxicity to normal tissues than DOX x HCI at the same dosage.

  14. Combination chemotherapy of doxorubicin, all-trans retinoic acid and low molecular weight heparin based on self-assembled multi-functional polymeric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Xiong, Hui; Zohra Dahmani, Fatima; Sun, Li; Li, Yuanke; Yao, Li; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

    2015-04-01

    Based on the complementary effects of doxorubicin (DOX), all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), the combination therapy of DOX, ATRA and LMWH was expected to exert the enhanced anti-tumor effects and reduce the side effects. In this study, amphiphilic LMWH-ATRA conjugate was synthesized for encapsulating the DOX. In this way, DOX, ATRA and LMWH were assembled into a single nano-system by both chemical and physical modes to obtain a novel anti-tumor targeting drug delivery system that can realize the simultaneous delivery of multiple drugs with different properties to the tumor. LMWH-ATRA nanoparticles exhibited good loading capacities for DOX with excellent physico-chemical properties, good biocompatibility, and good differentiation-inducing activity and antiangiogenic activity. The drug-loading capacity was up to 18.7% with an entrapment efficiency of 78.8%. It was also found that DOX-loaded LMWH-ATRA nanoparticles (DHR nanoparticles) could be efficiently taken up by tumor cells via endocytic pathway, and mainly distributed in cytoplasm at first, then transferred into cell nucleus. Cell viability assays suggested that DHR nanoparticles maintained the cytotoxicity effect of DOX on MCF-7 cells. Moreover, the in vivo imaging analysis indicated that DiR-loaded LMWH-ATRA nanoparticles could target the tumor more effectively as compared to free DiR. Furthermore, DHR nanoparticles possessed much higher anticancer activity and reduced side effects compared to free drugs solution. These results suggested that DHR nanoparticles could be considered as a promising targeted delivery system for combination cancer chemotherapy with lower adverse effects.

  15. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kawada, Y.; Yamada, J. I.

    1985-07-30

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains as an essential component an internal olefin sulfonate. This micellar slug has an excellent capability for decreasing an interfacial tension between oil and water and an excellent salinity tolerance and hard-water resistance. Furthermore, the micro-emulsion can be formed from this micellar slug in a wide composition range.

  16. Nanomedicine based curcumin and doxorubicin combination treatment of glioblastoma with scFv-targeted micelles: In vitro evaluation on 2D and 3D tumor models.

    PubMed

    Sarisozen, Can; Dhokai, Shekhar; Tsikudo, Edcar G; Luther, Ed; Rachman, Ilya M; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2016-11-01

    NF-κB is strongly associated with poor prognosis of different cancer types and an important factor responsible for the malignant phenotype of glioblastoma. Overcoming chemotherapy-induced resistance caused by activation of PI3K/Akt and NF-κB pathways is crucial for successful glioblastoma therapy. We developed an all-in-one nanomedicine formulation for co-delivery of a chemotherapeutic agent (topoisomerase II inhibitor, doxorubicin) and a multidrug resistance modulator (NF-κB inhibitor, curcumin) for treatment of glioblastoma due to their synergism. Both agents were incorporated into PEG-PE-based polymeric micelles. The glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1) is overexpressed in many tumors including glioblastoma. The micellar system was decorated with GLUT1 antibody single chain fragment variable (scFv) as the ligand to promote blood brain barrier transport and glioblastoma targeting. The combination treatment was synergistic (combination index, CI of 0.73) against U87MG glioblastoma cells. This synergism was improved by micellar encapsulation (CI: 0.63) and further so with GLUT1 targeting (CI: 0.46). Compared to non-targeted micelles, GLUT1 scFv surface modification increased the association of micelles (>20%, P<0.01) and the nuclear localization of doxorubicin (∼3-fold) in U87MGcells, which also translated into enhanced cytotoxicity. The increased caspase 3/7 activation by targeted micelles indicates successful apoptosis enhancement by combinatory treatment. Moreover, GLUT1 targeted micelles resulted in deeper penetration into the 3D spheroid model. The increased efficacy of combination nanoformulations on the spheroids compared to a single agent loaded, or to non-targeted formulations, reinforces the rationale for selection of this combination and successful utilization of GLUT1 scFv as a targeting agent for glioblastoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polymerization of anionic wormlike micelles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiyuan; González, Yamaira I; Xu, Hangxun; Kaler, Eric W; Liu, Shiyong

    2006-01-31

    Polymerizable anionic wormlike micelles are obtained upon mixing the hydrotropic salt p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC) with the reactive anionic surfactant sodium 4-(8-methacryloyloxyoctyl)oxybenzene sulfonate (MOBS). Polymerization captures the cross-sectional radius of the micelles (approximately 2 nm), induces micellar growth, and leads to the formation of a stable single-phase dispersion of wormlike micellar polymers. The unpolymerized and polymerized micelles were characterized using static and dynamic laser light scattering, small-angle neutron scattering, 1H NMR, and stopped-flow light scattering. Stopped-flow light scattering was also used to measure the average lifetime of the unpolymerized wormlike micelles. A comparison of the average lifetime of unpolymerized wormlike micelles with the surfactant monomer propagation rate was used to elucidate the mechanism of polymerization. There is a significant correlation between the ratio of the average lifetime to the monomer propagation rate and the average aggregation number of the polymerized wormlike micelles.

  18. Self-assembled nanoparticle drug delivery systems from galactosylated polysaccharide-doxorubicin conjugate loaded doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Gu, Ying; Ma, Hong; Bai, Jing; Liu, Lina; Zhao, Peiguang; He, Hongxuan

    2010-03-01

    Xyloglucan was grafted with the doxorubicin (DOX) and galactosamine, a terminal moiety that can be used to target polymeric conjugates to liver hepatocytes. The content of the DOX was over 5% (wt) in the conjugate. The polymeric drug assisted to form nanoparticle drug delivery systems (nanoDDSs) with an average size of 142 nm in diameter when combined with an excess amount of deprotonated doxorubicin in an aqueous phase. A loading content of doxorubicin is as high as 23.8% in the nanoDDS. In an in vitro cytotoxicity experiment, the novel nanoDDS has similar cytotoxicity as free DOX against HepG2 cells. In contrast, for the incubation with HeLa cells of the novel nanoDDS, there was no significant cytotoxicity change. In a human tumor xenograft nude mouse model, the novel nanoDDS generated higher therapeutic effect than non-targeted doxorubicin nanoparticles or free doxorubicin. Together, these results suggest that novel nanoDDS, which has improved transfection efficiency and hepatocyte specificity, may be useful for tumor therapy. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mixed micelles for encapsulation of doxorubicin with enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity on breast and ovarian cancer cell lines versus Doxil(®).

    PubMed

    Cagel, Maximiliano; Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Lorena; Lagomarsino, Eduardo; Zubillaga, Marcela; Moretton, Marcela A; Chiappetta, Diego A

    2017-09-09

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is used as a "first-line" antineoplastic drug in ovarian and metastatic breast cancer. However, serious side effects, such as cardiotoxicity have been reported after DOX intravenous administration. Hence, we investigated different micelle-former biomaterials, as Soluplus(®), Pluronic F127, Tetronic T1107 and d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) to develop a potential mixed micellar nanocarrier for DOX delivery. Since DOX hydrochloride is a poor candidate to be encapsulated inside the hydrophobic core of the mixed micelles, we assayed a hydrophobic complex between DOX and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) as an excellent candidate to be encapsulated within polymeric micelles. The combination of T1107:TPGS (1:3, weight ratio) demonstrated the best physicochemical properties together with a high DL capacity (6.43% w/v). Particularly, DOX in vitro release was higher at acidic tumour microenvironment pH value (5.5) than at physiological counterpart (7.4). The hydrodynamic diameter of the DOX/NaDC-loaded mixed micellar system was 10.7nm (PDI=0.239). The in vitro cytotoxicity of the mixed micellar formulation resulted significantly (p<0.05) higher than Doxil(®) against ovarian (SKOV-3) and triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB- 231). Further, the in vitro cellular uptake assays demonstrated a significant increment (p<0.05) of the DOX intracellular content for the mixed micelles versus Doxil(®) for both, SKOV-3 (at 2, 4 and 6h of incubation) and MDA-MB-231 (at 4h of incubation) cells. These findings suggest that T1107:TPGS (1:3) mixed micelles could be employed as a potential nanotechnological platform for drug delivery of DOX. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Micellar liquid chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basova, Elena M.; Ivanov, Vadim M.; Shpigun, Oleg A.

    1999-12-01

    Background and possibilities of practical applications of micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) are considered. Various retention models in MLC, the effects of the nature and concentration of surfactants and organic modifiers, pH, temperature and ionic strength on the MLC efficiency and selectivity are discussed. The advantages and limitations of MLC are demonstrated. The performance of MLC is critically evaluated in relationship to the reversed-phase HPLC and ion-pair chromatography. The potential of application of MLC for the analysis of pharmaceuticals including that in biological fluids and separation of inorganic anions, transition metal cations, metal chelates and heteropoly compounds is described. The bibliography includes 146 references.

  1. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kawada, Y.; Ukigai, T.; Yamada, J.

    1985-08-27

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil is described, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains as an essential component an alpha-olefin sulfonate having 10 to 26 carbon atoms and containing 0.1% to 15% by weight by weight of a disulfonate. This micellar slug has an excellent salinity tolerance and hard-water resistance. Furthermore, the micellar slugs of the present invention are capable of forming micro-emulsions having a sufficiently low interfacial tension and, therefore, can improve oil recovery efficiency.

  2. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kowada, Y.; Ukigai, T.; Yamada, J.

    1985-04-23

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil is described, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains, as an essential component, a divalent metal salt of an alpha-olefin sulfonic acid. This micellar slug has an excellent salinity tolerance and hard-water resistance. Furthermore, the micro-emulsion formed from the present micellar slug is maintained stable in a subterranean reservoir formed by alkaline earth metal carbonates and, therefore, the oil recovery efficiency can be improved.

  3. pH- and NIR Light-Responsive Polymeric Prodrug Micelles for Hyperthermia-Assisted Site-Specific Chemotherapy to Reverse Drug Resistance in Cancer Treatment.

    PubMed

    Li, Zuhong; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yangjun; Wang, Yin; Li, Huan; Han, Haijie; Chen, Tingting; Jin, Qiao; Ji, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Despite the exciting advances in cancer chemotherapy over past decades, drug resistance in cancer treatment remains one of the primary reasons for therapeutic failure. IR-780 loaded pH-responsive polymeric prodrug micelles with near infrared (NIR) photothermal effect are developed to circumvent the drug resistance in cancer treatment. The polymeric prodrug micelles are stable in physiological environment, while exhibit fast doxorubicin (DOX) release in acidic condition and significant temperature elevation under NIR laser irradiation. Phosphorylcholine-based biomimetic micellar shell and acid-sensitive drug conjugation endow them with prolonged circulation time and reduced premature drug release during circulation to conduct tumor site-specific chemotherapy. The polymeric prodrug micelles combined with NIR laser irradiation could significantly enhance intracellular DOX accumulation and synergistically induce the cell apoptosis in DOX-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. Meanwhile, the tumor site-specific chemotherapy combined with hyperthermia effect induces significant inhibition of MCF-7/ADR tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. These results demonstrate that the well-designed IR-780 loaded polymeric prodrug micelles for hyperthermia-assisted site-specific chemotherapy present an effective approach to reverse drug resistance.

  4. Doxorubicin Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with another chemotherapy drug to treat multiple myeloma (a type of cancer of the bone marrow) ... When doxorubicin lipid complex is used to treat multiple myeloma, it is given on certain days every 3 ...

  5. Fluorescence properties of doxorubicin in PBS buffer and PVA films.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sunil; Chandra, Anjali; Kaur, Amanjot; Sabnis, Nirupama; Lacko, Andras; Gryczynski, Zygmunt; Fudala, Rafal; Gryczynski, Ignacy

    2017-05-01

    We studied steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence properties of an anticancer drug Doxorubicin in a saline buffer and poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) film. Absorption of Doxorubicin, located at blue-green spectral region, allows a convenient excitation with visible light emitting diodes or laser diodes. Emission of Doxorubicin with maximum near 600nm can be easily detected with photomultipliers and CCD cameras. Both, absorption and fluorescence spectra in polymeric matrix show more pronounced vibronic structures than in solution. Also, the steady-state anisotropy in the polymer film is significantly higher than in the saline solution. In PVA film the fluorescence anisotropy is about 0.30 whereas in the saline buffer only 0.07. Quantum efficiencies of Doxorubicin were compared to a known standard Rhodamine 101 which has fluorescence emission in a similar spectral region. The quantum yield of Doxorubicin in PVA film is more than 10% and about twice higher than in the saline solution. Similarly, the lifetime of doxorubicin in PVA film is about 2ns whereas in the saline solution only about 1ns. The fluorescence anisotropy decays show that Doxorubicin molecules are freely rotating in the saline buffer with a correlation time of about 290ps, and are almost completely immobilized in the PVA film. The spectroscopic investigations presented in this manuscript are important, as they provide answers to changes in molecular properties of Doxorubicin depending changes in the local environment, which is useful when synthesizing nanoparticles for Doxorubicin entrapment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of controlled radical polymerization (CRP) in the design of functional biomedical architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegwart, Daniel John

    In this thesis, atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization were utilized in the design of synthetic polymers to create tissue engineering scaffolds and drug delivery systems with improved control over structure and functionality. Thermo-sensitive injectable hydrogels based on poly(NIPAAm) with degradable ester units within the polymer backbone and at the cross-linking sites were prepared using ATRP and RAFT. Solvent induced morphologies of poly(methyl methacrylate-b-ethylene oxide-b-methyl methacrylate) triblock copolymers synthesized by ATRP were described. A micellar structure, composed of a hydrophobic PMMA core and a PEO shell was constructed for delivery of hydrophobic drugs. ATRP was carried out in inverse miniemulsion to prepare well defined functional nanogels that were capable of entrapping and releasing various molecules (Doxorubicin, carbohydrate-based drugs, fluorophores, and gold nanoparticles). The results demonstrated that nanogels prepared by ATRP in inverse miniemulsion could be internalized into cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Nanogels functionalized with integrin-binding peptides increased cellular uptake. A process called Atom Transfer Radical Coupling (ATRC) was also described, which illustrated the power of functionality in ATRP. Finally, linear polymers and cross-linked nanogels were synthesized by ATRP and functionalized with biotin, pyrene, and peptide sequences, tying together the overall themes of structural control and functionality.

  7. Micellar slug for oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, H.; Kawada, Y.; Ukigai, T.; Yamada, J.

    1985-10-29

    A micellar slug for use in the recovery of oil, the slug containing a hydrocarbon, an aqueous medium, a surfactant, and a cosurfactant. The surfactant contains as an essential component an internal olefin sulfonate or sulfonates having 10 to 30 carbon atoms and an alpha-olefin sulfonate or sulfonates having 10 to 30 carbon atoms. This micellar slug has a sufficiently low interfacial tension, good salinity tolerance, hard-water resistance, ability to maintain the micro-emulsion against change in the composition of the micro-emulsion, and mobility controlled viscosity.

  8. Ultrasound-Mediated Polymeric Micelle Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hesheng; Zhao, Yue; Tong, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of multi-functional nanocarriers and the design of new stimuli-responsive means are equally important for drug delivery. Ultrasound can be used as a remote, non-invasive and controllable trigger for the stimuli-responsive release of nanocarriers. Polymeric micelles are one kind of potential drug nanocarrier. By combining ultrasound and polymeric micelles, a new modality (i.e., ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery) has been developed and has recently received increasing attention. A major challenge remaining in developing ultrasound-responsive polymeric micelles is the improvement of the sensitivity or responsiveness of polymeric micelles to ultrasound. This chapter reviews the recent advance in this field. In order to understand the interaction mechanism between ultrasound stimulus and polymeric micelles, ultrasound effects, such as thermal effect, cavitation effect, ultrasound sonochemistry (including ultrasonic degradation, ultrasound-initiated polymerization, ultrasonic in-situ polymerization and ultrasound site-specific degradation), as well as basic micellar knowledge are introduced. Ultrasound-mediated polymeric micelle drug delivery has been classified into two main streams based on the different interaction mechanism between ultrasound and polymeric micelles; one is based on the ultrasound-induced physical disruption of the micelle and reversible release of payload. The other is based on micellar ultrasound mechanochemical disruption and irreversible release of payload.

  9. Paclitaxel-Loaded Polymeric Micelles Modified with MCF-7 Cell-Specific Phage Protein: Enhanced Binding to Target Cancer Cells and Increased Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Petrenko, Valery A.; Torchilin, Vladimir P.

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric micelles are used as pharmaceutical carriers to increase solubility and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Different ligands are used to prepare targeted polymeric micelles. Earlier, we developed the method for use of specific landscape phage fusion coat proteins as targeted delivery ligands and demonstrated the efficiency of this approach with doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomes. Here, we describe a MCF-7 cell-specific micellar formulation self-assembled from the mixture of the micelle-forming amphiphilic polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) conjugate, MCF-7-specific landscape phage fusion coat protein, and the hydrophobic drug paclitaxel. These micelles demonstrated a very low CMC value and specific binding to target cells. Using an in vitro co-culture model, FACS analysis, and fluorescence microscopy we showed that MCF-7 targeted phage micelles preferential bound to target cells compared to non-target cells. As a result, targeted paclitaxel-loaded phage micelles demonstrated a significantly higher cytotoxicity towards target MCF-7 cells than free drug or non-targeted micelle formulations, but failed to show such a differential toxicity towards non-target C166 cells. Overall, cancer cell-specific phage proteins identified from phage display peptide libraries can serve as targeting ligands (“substitute antibody”) for polymeric micelle-based pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:20518562

  10. Doxorubicin: nanotechnological overviews from bench to bedside.

    PubMed

    Cagel, Maximiliano; Grotz, Estefanía; Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Moretton, Marcela A; Chiappetta, Diego A

    2017-02-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is considered one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents, used as a first-line drug in numerous types of cancer. Nevertheless, it exhibits serious adverse effects, such as lethal cardiotoxicity and dose-limiting myelosuppression. In this review, we focus on the description and the clinical benefits of different DOX-loaded nanotechnological platforms, not only those commercially available but also the ones that are currently in clinical phases, such as liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, polymer-drug conjugates, polymeric micelles and ligand-based DOX-loaded nanoformulations. Although some DOX-based nanoproducts are currently being used in the clinical field, it is clear that further research is necessary to achieve improvements in cancer therapeutics.

  11. Characterization and classification of pseudo-stationary phases in micellar electrokinetic chromatography using chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cexiong; Khaledi, Morteza G

    2014-03-04

    Two types of chemometric methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis, are employed to characterize and classify a total of 70 pseudostationary phases (54 distinct systems and 16 decoy systems) in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). PCA excels at removing redundant information for micellar phase characterization and retaining principal determinants for phase classification. While PCA is useful in the characterization of micelle selectivities, it is ineffective in defining the grouping of micellar phases. Hierarchical clustering yields a complete dendrogram of cluster structures but provides only limited cluster characterizations. The combination of these two chemometric methods leads to a comprehensive interpretation of the micellar phase classification. Moreover, the k-means analysis can further discern subtle differences among those closely located micellar phases. All three chemometric methods result in similar classifications with respect to the similarities and differences of the 70 micelle systems investigated. These systems are categorized into 3 major clusters: fluoro-surfactants represent cluster I, identified as strong hydrogen bond donors and dipolar but weak hydrogen bond acceptors. Cluster II includes sulfonated acrylamide/acrylate copolymers and surfactants with trimethylammonium head groups, characterized by strong hydrophobicity (v) and weak hydrogen bond acidity (b). The last cluster consists of two subclusters: clusters III and IV. Cluster III includes siloxane-based polymeric micelles, exhibiting weak hydrophobicity and medium hydrogen bond acidity and basicity (a), and the cluster IV micellar systems are characterized by their strong hydrophobicity and medium hydrogen bond acidity and basicity but rather weak dipolarity. Cluster III differs from cluster IV by its slightly weaker hydrophobicity and hydrogen bond donating capability. The classification by chemometric methods is in good agreement with the

  12. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography with acid labile surfactant.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Bob; Lucy, Charles A

    2012-02-24

    We present a study of a degradable surfactant, sodium 4-[(2-methyl-2-undecyl-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl)methoxy]-1-propane sulfonate that is also known as an acid-labile surfactant (ALS). The performance of ALS as a pseudostationary phase is assessed and compared with established pseudostationary phases such as sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), volatile surfactants and polymeric micelles. ALS achieves separation efficiency of 100,000-145,000 theoretical plates and relative standard deviation (RSD) of electrophoretic mobility (n=5) of less than 3%. Retention factors with ALS are strongly correlated with those with SDS. This is shown by the R2=0.79 for all eleven analytes and an R2=0.992 for specifically the non-hydrogen bonding (NHB) analytes. However, ALS displays different selectivity than SDS for hydrogen bond donor (HBD) and hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) solutes (R2 of 0.74 and 0.88, respectively). ALS is degraded to less surface active compounds in acidic solution. These less surface-active compounds are more compatible with the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). ALS has a half-life of 48 min at pH 4. ALS has the potential to couple micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with the ESI-MS. ALS can be used as a pseudostationary phase for a high efficiency separation and later acid hydrolyzed to enable an ESI-MS analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Micellar systems: Novel family for drug carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Meenakshi; Chowdhury, Papia

    2016-05-01

    Micellar systems have attracted a great deal of interest, especially in the field of biomedical sciences. The paper deals with the encapsulation behavior of Pyrrole-2-carboxyldehyde (PCL) an anti-cancer drug in different micellar systems. The inculsion capability of PCL is verified experimentally (UV-Vis, Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy) in polymer matrix. Two-micellar systems sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and Polysorbate 80 (TWEEN 80) have been studied with a poorly water soluble PCL. The present work provides the effects of biocompatible organic PCL molecule entrap in micellar system in polymer phase due to its vast applicability in drug industry.

  14. Phase Behavior and Micellar Packing of Impurity-Free Pluronic Block Copolymers in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang Yeol; Park, Hanjin

    We have investigated the impacts of the non-micellizable polymeric impurities on the micellar packing and solution phase behavior of Pluronic block copolymers in water. In particular, small angle x-ray scattering, rheology and dynamic light scattering techniques have been employed to elucidate how the low MW impurities affect the micellar packing and solution phase diagram in water, when ordered cubic structures of spherical micelles are formed. A silica slurry method has been developed using the competitive adsorption of the PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers over the low MW polymeric impurities for a large scale purification of Pluronics and it purity of Pluronics has been assessed by interaction chromatography. Based on the comparative studies on micellar packing between As-Received (AR) and Purified (Pure) Pluronic F108 solutions, we found experimental evidence to support the hypothesis that the inter-micellar distance of Pluronic cubic structures in aqueous solution is governed by the effective polymer concentration in terms of PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymers. Removal of the impurities in AR F108 offers an important clue on window into the onset of BCC ordering via hydrodynamic contact between micelles in solution. NSF DMR Polymers.

  15. Construction of block copolymers for the coordinated delivery of doxorubicin and magnetite nanocubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Ibrahim, Nor Lizawati; Jiang, Jiang; Gao, Shujun; Erathodiyil, Nandanan; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-08-10

    Multifunctional nanoparticles combine drug and imaging agent together to assign both therapeutic and diagnostic functions. However, particle aggregation/dissociation and/or major differences in the bio-distribution and targeting capability of drugs and imaging probes are main obstacles for the efficient, coordinated delivery of multiple agents, unless the different agents can be tightly bound and well-protected during their circulation in vivo. In this paper, we report the coordinated in vivo delivery of anti-cancer drugs and imaging agents by chemically loading doxorubicin and magnetite nanocubes (MNs) in the core of polymeric nanoparticles. Living polymerization, nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization (NMP), was applied to construct the optimal polymers to co-deliver doxorubicin and MNs. The resulting diblock polymers consisted of one block with triethylene glycol brushes and another block with carboxylic acid groups to bind doxorubicin and Fe3O4 MNs. The optimal polymer has narrow polydispersity (PDI=1.2) and high doxorubicin/MN loading (30wt.%/28wt.%). Core-shell particles were obtained with good stability and a suitable particle size of ~100nm. The doxorubicin and MNs loaded in this polymeric system showed highly coordinated bio-distribution in the balb/C mice model. This system may have important impact on the design of effective and stable dual-agent co-delivery systems.

  16. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography on microchips.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Fumihiko; Otsuka, Koji

    2008-03-01

    This review highlights the methodological and instrumental developments in microchip micellar EKC (MCMEKC) from 1995. The combination of higher separation efficiencies in micellar EKC (MEKC) with high-speed separation in microchip electrophoresis (MCE) should provide high-throughput and high-performance analytical systems. The chip-based separation technique has received considerable attention due to its integration ability without any connector. This advantage allows the development of a multidimensional separation system. Several types of 2-D separation microchips are described in the review. Since complicated channel configurations can easily be fabricated on planar substrates, various sample manipulations can be carried out prior to MCMEKC separations. For example, mixing for on-chip reactions, on-line sample preconcentration, on-chip assay, etc., have been integrated on MEKC microchips. The application of on-line sample preconcentration to MCMEKC can provide not only sensitivity enhancement but also the elucidation of the preconcentration mechanism due to the visualization ability of MCE. The characteristics of these sample manipulations on MEKC microchips are presented in this review. The scope of applications in MCMEKC covers mainly biogenic compounds such as amino acids, peptides, proteins, biogenic amines, DNA, and oestrogens. This review provides a comprehensive table listing the applications in MCMEKC in relation to detection methods.

  17. Doxorubicin loaded pH-responsive micelles capable of rapid intracellular drug release for potential tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Wu, Wei; Xiu, Kemao; Xu, Fujian; Li, Zhongming; Li, Jianshu

    2014-08-01

    Amphiphilic copolymers have been paid much attention for controlled drug release for many years due to their obvious advantages. In this study, an acid-triggered drug carrier system capable of rapid intracellular drug release is investigated for potential tumor therapy. The amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(2-diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride) (PDPA-b-PAMA) is prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The molecular structure of the copolymer is confirmed by 1H NMR and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The critical micelle concentration (CMC) value of the PDPA-b-PAMA is 0.005 mg/mL, which can ensure the thermodynamical stability of micelles even after significant dilution. The drug loading and encapsulation efficiencies of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded micelles are 9.96% and 55.31%, respectively. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) show that the amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into spherical micelles with narrow polydispersity indexes (PDLs) at pH 7.4 and 6.8, but disassemble into random chain aggregations at pH 5.0. The DOX-loaded PDPA-b-PAMA shows obvious pH-responsive drug release profile when the pH value changes from 7.4 to 5.0, since it transforms from amphiphilicity to double hydrophilicity through the protonation of PDPA block (pK(a) - 6.2) in a relatively low pH condition, thus the loaded DOX can be rapidly released from the disassembling micelles. In addition, the micellar system also exhibits relatively low cytotoxicity and rapid drug release behaviour in tumor cells, which make it promising for tumor therapy.

  18. Absorption Spectroscopy in Homogeneous and Micellar Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, S. Sadiq; Henscheid, Leonard G.

    1983-01-01

    Describes an experiment which has helped physical chemistry students learn principles of absorption spectroscopy, the effect of solvent polarity on absorption spectra, and some micellar chemistry. Background information and experimental procedures are provided. (JN)

  19. Capillary Separation: Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terabe, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), a separation mode of capillary electrophoresis (CE), has enabled the separation of electrically neutral analytes. MEKC can be performed by adding an ionic micelle to the running solution of CE without modifying the instrument. Its separation principle is based on the differential migration of the ionic micelles and the bulk running buffer under electrophoresis conditions and on the interaction between the analyte and the micelle. Hence, MEKC's separation principle is similar to that of chromatography. MEKC is a useful technique particularly for the separation of small molecules, both neutral and charged, and yields high-efficiency separation in a short time with minimum amounts of sample and reagents. To improve the concentration sensitivity of detection, several on-line sample preconcentration techniques such as sweeping have been developed.

  20. One-pot synthesis of doxorubicin-loaded multiresponsive nanogels based on hyperbranched polyglycerol.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Herves, Ana; Wedepohl, Stefanie; Calderón, Marcelo

    2015-03-28

    Doxorubicin-loaded nanogels with multiresponsive properties are prepared using hyperbranched polyglycerol as a biocompatible scaffold. The nanogels are synthesized in a single step combining free-radical polymerization and a mild nanoprecipitation technique. The nanogels respond to different biological stimuli such as low pH and reductive environments, resulting in a more efficient cell proliferation inhibition in A549 cells.

  1. Molecular biology of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Umlauf, J; Horký, M

    2002-01-01

    The anthracycline doxorubicin is an antineoplastic agent, eliciting chronic cardiac toxicity. It occurs in patients after prolonged administration of doxorubicin, leading to congestive heart failure. The pathogenesis of the doxorubicin-induced car-diomyopathy is not well understood. The present article summarizes the unique effect of doxorubicin on cardiac-specific gene expression. In addition to binding to DNA, doxorubicin directly affects the function of a variety of proteins. Free radical generation, damage to mitochondria and active cell death are also critical in the development of doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity. Agents providing effective cardioprotection are also reviewed. PMID:19644577

  2. Solute-solvent interactions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography: IV. Characterization of electroosmotic flow and micellar markers.

    PubMed

    Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí

    2002-01-01

    A wide study of the compounds and procedures mostly used to determine the electroosmotic flow (EOF) and micelle elution times has been done in seven different micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) systems. These systems are formed from mixtures of an aqueous buffer with the surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate, lithium dodecyl sulfate, lithium perfluorooctane sulfonate, sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The solvation parameter model has been used to evaluate the usefulness of the compounds studied as EOF or micellar markers in each of the seven MEKC systems. It is demonstrated that methanol, acetonitrile and formamide are the best EOF markers, and that dodecanophenone is the best micellar marker.

  3. Combination regimens using doxorubicin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin prior to autologous transplantation in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Philippe

    2009-07-01

    Doxorubicin and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin are key compounds of several induction regimens used prior to autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with de novo multiple myeloma, such as vincristine, doxorubicin, dexamethasone (VAD), vincristine, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin/Doxil, dexamethasone (DVd) or PS-341/bortezomib, doxorubicin, dexamethasone (PAD). The aim of this article is to summarize the more recent data available on the efficacy of these combinations and to discuss their role as part of initial therapy.

  4. Micellar Polymer Encapsulation of Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Besic, Sabina; Minteer, Shelley D

    2017-01-01

    Although enzymes are highly efficient and selective catalysts, there have been problems incorporating them into fuel cells. Early enzyme-based fuel cells contained enzymes in solution rather than immobilized on the electrode surface. One problem utilizing an enzyme in solution is an issue of transport associated with long diffusion lengths between the site of bioelectrocatalysis and the electrode. This issue drastically decreases the theoretical overall power output due to the poor electron conductivity. On the other hand, enzymes immobilized at the electrode surface have eliminated the issue of poor electron conduction due to close proximity of electron transfer between electrode and the biocatalyst. Another problem is inefficient and short term stability of catalytic activity within the enzyme that is suspended in free flowing solution. Enzymes in solutions are only stable for hours to days, whereas immobilized enzymes can be stable for weeks to months and now even years. Over the last decade, there has been substantial research on immobilizing enzymes at electrode surfaces for biofuel cell and sensor applications. The most commonly used techniques are sandwich or wired. Sandwich techniques are powerful and successful for enzyme immobilization; however, the enzymes optimal activity is not retained due to the physical distress applied by the polymer limiting its applications as well as the non-uniform distribution of the enzyme and the diffusion of analyte through the polymer is slowed significantly. Wired techniques have shown to extend the lifetime of an enzyme at the electrode surface; however, this technique is very hard to master due to specific covalent bonding of enzyme and polymer which changes the three-dimensional configuration of enzyme and with that decreases the optimal catalytic activity. This chapter details encapsulation techniques where an enzyme will be immobilized within the pores/pockets of the hydrophobically modified micellar polymers such as

  5. Intracellular uptake and pH-dependent release of doxorubicin from the self-assembled micelles based on amphiphilic polyaspartamide graft copolymers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeongeun; Jeong, Jihoon; Kim, Dukjoon

    2015-01-12

    Biodegradable and pH-sensitive graft copolymers based on polysuccinimide (PSI) were synthesized as intracellular drug carriers. Hydrophobic octadecylamine (C18) and hydrophilic O-(2-aminoethyl) polyethylene glycol (PEG, Mw 5000) were grafted on a PSI backbone for amphiphilicity, enabling the formation of a self-assembled micellar structure in aqueous medium. Biotin was conjugated at the end of the PEG segment as the cell penetrating ligand, and hydrazone hydrate was introduced as a cleavable linkage for the release of pH sensitive drug, doxorubicin. The chemical structure of the polymer and degree of substitution of the graft segments were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The size and distribution of the polymer micelles were investigated by dynamic light scattering. The average diameter of the polymer micelles was 290-310 nm with a narrow distribution. Less than 30% of the total DOX loaded in the polymeric micelles was released at pH 7.4, whereas >75% was released at pH 5 in 70 h because of the cleavage of the hydrazone bond in acidic conditions. For the cytotoxicity test, the MCF-7 cell viability in the presence of biotin-conjugated polymer was much lower than that in the presence of a nonconjugated one, as the former had higher probability of cell penetration aided by a biotin ligand. The DOX uptake in MCF-7 cells was analyzed by the confocal laser scanning microscopy. More DOX uptake was observed in acidic conditions because of the cleavage of hydrazone groups in the polymer.

  6. Polymeric microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Walt, David R.; Mandal, Tarun K.; Fleming, Michael S.

    2004-04-13

    The invention features core-shell microsphere compositions, hollow polymeric microspheres, and methods for making the microspheres. The microspheres are characterized as having a polymeric shell with consistent shell thickness.

  7. Enhanced oral bioavailability of nevirapine within micellar nanocarriers compared with Viramune(®).

    PubMed

    Moretton, Marcela A; Cohen, Laura; Lepera, Leandro; Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Taira, Carlos; Höcht, Christian; Chiappetta, Diego A

    2014-10-01

    In this work, Nevirapine (NVP) was encapsulated within three derivatives of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) block copolymers (Tetronic(®) 904, 1107 and Pluronic(®) F127) with and without the addition of three pharmaceutical cosolvents (glycerin, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400) over a wider range of concentrations (0-40% v/v). Also, we evaluated the effect of addition of the cosolvents on the micellar size as determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The solubilization capacity of the systems was investigated by UV-spectrophotometry (282nm) and the systems stability was evaluated for 1 month at 25°C. Finally, oral bioavailability of the NVP-loaded micellar systems (2mg/mL) was assessed in male Wistar rats (8mg/kg) and compared with a pediatric commercially available formulation (Viramune(®)). The present study demonstrates that PEO-PPO-PEO polymeric micelles were able to enhance apparent aqueous solubility of NVP with the addition of cosolvents. Moreover, micellar nanocarriers significantly (p<0.05) improved the oral bioavailability of the drug versus Viramune(®). Overall results support the suitability of the strategy toward the development of an optimized NVP aqueous formulation to prevent HIV/AIDS mother-to-child transmission.

  8. Ultrafiltration of micellar solutions containing phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczak, H.; Materna, K.; Urbanski, R.; Szymanowski, J.

    1999-10-15

    Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration represents a potentially attractive tool for the removal of different contaminants from wastewaters. The ultrafiltration of micellar solutions containing phenol or 4-nitrophenol was studied. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), hexadecylrimethyl ammonium sulfate, alkyl polyglucoside Glucopon 215 SC UP, and oxyethylated methyl dodecanoates with the average degree of oxyethylation equal to 5 and 9 were used as surfactants and NaHCO{sub 3} as an electrolyte and alkalizing agent. Filtration and phenol rejection depends on the presence of NaHCO{sub 3} and the type of surfactant. NaHCO{sub 3} depresses to the filtration rate, especially in the case of SDS and hydrophobic oxyethylated methyl dodecanoate. The highest filtration rates are obtained for hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and alkyl polyglucoside micellar solutions. The best separations, both of phenol and 4-nitrophenol (almost 100% rejection), are obtained for CTAB micellar solutions at the pH range from 3 to 11. Nonionic surfactants are not effective enough for the separation of phenol and 4-nitrophenol. SDS solutions permit only the separation of phenol.

  9. Micellar solution for recovering crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kayser, R. B.; Purcell, R. F.

    1985-08-20

    An improved process for recovering crude oil from a geological formation containing it using a micellar solution containing as a surfactant a salt of a petroleum sulfonic acid having an equivalent weight of from about 350-500 and as a co-surfactant 2-alkenyl-4,4-substituted oxazoline.

  10. Selective counterion condensation in ionic micellar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswal, V. K.; Goyal, P. S.

    2003-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering experiments have been carried out on micellar solutions of cationic surfactants of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) and chloride (CTACl) in the presence of varying concentrations of salts KBr and KCl. In these systems, while the size of micelles strongly increases with the addition of KBr, the effect of addition of KCl in comparison is much less pronounced. It is found that in equimolar surfactant to salt micellar solutions of CTABr/KCl and CTACl/KBr, the micellar sizes are larger in CTACl/KBr than those in CTABr/KCl. The measurements have been done for different equimolar surfactant to salt concentrations and at different temperatures. We explain these results in terms of selective counterion condensation on the micelles. That is, while the condensation of Cl- counterions on the CTABr micelles in CTABr/KCl takes place around the condensed Br- counterions of CTABr, the Cl- counterions of CTACl in CTACl/KBr are replaced by Br- counterions of the salt. Similar results have also been obtained on micellar solutions of anionic surfactants of sodium dodecyl sulfate and lithium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of salts LiBr and NaBr, respectively.

  11. Selective counterion condensation in ionic micellar solutions.

    PubMed

    Aswal, V K; Goyal, P S

    2003-05-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering experiments have been carried out on micellar solutions of cationic surfactants of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr) and chloride (CTACl) in the presence of varying concentrations of salts KBr and KCl. In these systems, while the size of micelles strongly increases with the addition of KBr, the effect of addition of KCl in comparison is much less pronounced. It is found that in equimolar surfactant to salt micellar solutions of CTABr/KCl and CTACl/KBr, the micellar sizes are larger in CTACl/KBr than those in CTABr/KCl. The measurements have been done for different equimolar surfactant to salt concentrations and at different temperatures. We explain these results in terms of selective counterion condensation on the micelles. That is, while the condensation of Cl- counterions on the CTABr micelles in CTABr/KCl takes place around the condensed Br- counterions of CTABr, the Cl- counterions of CTACl in CTACl/KBr are replaced by Br- counterions of the salt. Similar results have also been obtained on micellar solutions of anionic surfactants of sodium dodecyl sulfate and lithium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of salts LiBr and NaBr, respectively.

  12. Redox and pH dual responsive poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-poly(ethylene glycol) conjugates for intracellular delivery of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Qiu, Lipeng; Cheng, Liang; Hu, Qing; Liu, Yang; Hu, Ziyang; Chen, Dawei; Cheng, Lifang

    2016-05-01

    To solve the contradiction between long circulation time and effective intracellular drug release, redox and pH-responsive drug delivery system was developed by incorporated redox-sensitive disulfide linkage between poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded into the hydrophobic core of the conjugates to prepare PAMAM-SS-PEG/DOX complexes (PSSP/DOX). In vitro release studies suggested that DOX release from PSSP/DOX complexes followed an redox and acid-triggered manner and increased with increasing PEGylation degree. In vitro cytotoxicity of PSSP/DOX complexes against B16 tumor cells increased with, while cellular uptake decreased with increasing PEGylation degree. Further, intracellular DOX release observation and measurement indicate that the intracellular DOX release played a critical role for the cytotoxicity of DOX-loaded PSSP conjugates. In addition, cellular entry mechanism of the PSSP/DOX study demonstrated that both clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis were the primary pathways for cellular entry of PSSP/DOX. Finally, in vivo study of PSSP/DOX complexes in B16 tumor-bearing mice indicate that PSSP/DOX could significantly improve antitumor efficiency and present a good safety. The redox and pH-responsive drug delivery system has been demonstrated to be a promising candidate for solid tumor therapy. In previous research, pH-sensitive diblock polymer of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(2,4,6-trimethoxybenzylidene-pentaerythritol carbonate) (PEG-PTMBPEC) was synthesized to facilitate the intracellular anticancer drug release. However, the nanoparticles based on PEG-PTMBPEC get into the tumor cells just relying on the EPR-mediated passive targeting resulting in the low drug accumulation. Therefore, cRGD peptide modified PEG-PTMBPEC polymeric micelles were developed for specific targeted delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) to neovascular cells and tumor cells simultaneously. The precise intracellular target site

  13. Enhanced cytotoxicity of anticancer drug delivered by novel nanoscale polymeric carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoika, R.; Boiko, N.; Senkiv, Y.; Shlyakhtina, Y.; Panchuk, R.; Finiuk, N.; Filyak, Y.; Bilyy, R.; Kit, Y.; Skorohyd, N.; Klyuchivska, O.; Zaichenko, A.; Mitina, N.; Ryabceva, A.

    2013-04-01

    We compared in vitro action of highly toxic anticancer drug doxorubicin under its delivery to the mammalian tumor cells in free form and after encapsulation in novel bio-functionalized nanoscale polymeric carrier. Such encapsulation was found to enhance significantly drug uptake by the targeted cells, as well as its cytotoxic action. 10 times higher cytotoxicity of the carrier-immobilized doxorubicin comparing to its free form was demonstrated by direct cell counting, and 5 times higher cytotoxicity of encapsulated doxorubicin was shown by FACS analysis. The polymeric carrier itself did not possess significant toxicity in vitro or in vivo (laboratory mice). The carrier protected against negative side effects of doxorubicin in mice with experimental NK/Ly lymphoma. The life duration of tumor-bearing animals treated with doxorubicin-carrier complex was significantly longer than life duration in animals treated with free doxorubicin. Besides, the effective treatment dose of the carrier-delivered doxorubicin in tumor-bearing mice was 10 times lower than such dose of free doxorubicin. Thus, novel nanoscale polymers possess high potential as drug carrier.

  14. Acetal-linked paclitaxel prodrug micellar nanoparticles as a versatile and potent platform for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yudan; Zhong, Yinan; Meng, Fenghua; Cheng, Ru; Deng, Chao; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2013-08-12

    Endosomal pH-activatable paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug micellar nanoparticles were designed and prepared by conjugating PTX onto water-soluble poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(acrylic acid) (PEG-PAA) block copolymers via an acid-labile acetal bond to the PAA block and investigated for potent growth inhibition of human cancer cells in vitro. PTX was readily conjugated to PEG-PAA with high drug contents of 21.6, 27.0, and 42.8 wt % (denoted as PTX prodrugs 1, 2, and 3, respectively) using ethyl glycol vinyl ether (EGVE) as a linker. The resulting PTX conjugates had defined molecular weights and self-assembled in phosphate buffer (PB, pH 7.4, 10 mM) into monodisperse micellar nanoparticles with average sizes of 158.3-180.3 nm depending on PTX contents. The in vitro release studies showed that drug release from PTX prodrug nanoparticles was highly pH-dependent, in which ca. 86.9%, 66.4% and 29.0% of PTX was released from PTX prodrug 3 at 37 °C in 48 h at pH 5.0, 6.0, and pH 7.4, respectively. MTT assays showed that these pH-sensitive PTX prodrug nanoparticles exhibited high antitumor effect to KB and HeLa cells (IC(50) = 0.18 and 0.9 μg PTX equiv/mL, respectively) as well as PTX-resistant A549 cells. Notably, folate-decorated PTX prodrug micellar nanoparticles based on PTX prodrug 3 and 20 wt % folate-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(D,L-lactide) (FA-PEG-PLA) displayed apparent targetability to folate receptor-overexpressing KB cells with IC(50) over 12 times lower than nontargeting PTX prodrug 3 under otherwise the same conditions. Furthermore, PTX prodrug nanoparticles could also load doxorubicin (DOX) to simultaneously release PTX and DOX under mildly acidic pH. These acetal-linked PTX prodrug micellar nanoparticles have appeared as a highly versatile and potent platform for cancer therapy.

  15. [Effects of ionic liquids on micellar microstructures and separation performance in micellar electrokinetic chromatography].

    PubMed

    Yu, Meijuan; Hang, Dong; Cao, Yuhua

    2011-02-01

    The effects of ionic liquids on micellar microstructures and separation performance in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) were investigated. The experimental results showed that the addition of ionic liquids into micellar system would result in a decreased micellar surface charge density, an enlarged size of micelle and a slight enhancement of the polarity in the inner core of micelle. Prednisone, hydrocortisone and prednisolone were analyzed with MEKC to evaluate the separation performance. Hydrocortisone and prednisolone could not be separated in sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) micellar system. However, the three analytes could be baseline separated in the mixed system of ionic liquids and SDS (20 mmol/L SDS-10 mmol/L 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium tetrafluoroborate-50 mmol/L borax, pH 8.4) within 17 min. Notably, the linearities of the three analytes ranged from 2 to 100 mg/L and the detection limits based on the ratio of signal to noise of 3 were 1.0, 1.1 and 1.0 mg/L for prednisone, hydrocortisone and prednisolone, respectively. The method has been used in the analysis of corticosteroids in cosmetic samples. The recoveries for the three analytes were between 95. 1% and 117%. This method has the advantages of simple pretreatment, high accuracy, good reproducibility, and can be applied to the quality control of cosmetics.

  16. Micellar Enzymology for Thermal, pH, and Solvent Stability.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Shelley D

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes methods for enzyme stabilization using micellar solutions. Micellar solutions have been shown to increase the thermal stability, as well as the pH and solvent tolerance of enzymes. This field is traditionally referred to as micellar enzymology. This chapter details the use of ionic and nonionic micelles for the stabilization of polyphenol oxidase, lipase, and catalase, although this method could be used with any enzymatic system or enzyme cascade system.

  17. Host-guest interaction of ZnBDC-MOF + doxorubicin: A theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, Iane B.; Wanderley, Kaline A.; Rodrigues, Nailton M.; da Costa, Nivan B.; Freire, Ricardo O.; Junior, Severino A.

    2017-03-01

    The incorporation of drugs in biodegradable polymeric particles is one of many processes that controllably and significantly increase their release and action. In this paper, we describe the synthesis and physicochemical characterization of ZnBDC-MOF + doxorubicin (DOXO@ZnBDC) and the system's effectiveness in the sustained release of the drug doxorubicin. An experimental and theoretical study is presented of the interaction between the [Zn(BDC)(H2O)2]n MOF and the drug doxorubicin (DOXO). The synthesis was characterized by elemental analysis and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The experimental incorporation was accomplished and analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), XRPD and UV-Vis (ultraviolet-visible) spectrophotometry. Based on an analysis of the doxorubicin release profile, our results suggest that the drug delivery system showed slower release than other systems under development. Studies of cytotoxicity by the MTT method showed good results for the system developed with antineoplastic doxorubicin, and together with the other results of this study, suggest the successful development of a MOF-based drug delivery system.

  18. A study of micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Scamehorn, J.F.; Christian, S.D.

    1991-02-01

    Research on ultrafiltration continued. Progress is briefly reported in four basic categories: systematic studies of the phenomenon of solubilization of organics in micelles and the mechanism of removal of organics from aqueous streams, using micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF); systematic studies and the development of theoretical models for the binding of ions by micelles and polyelectrolytes; development and demonstration of four new related separation processes for removing ions from water: ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (LM-MEUF), polyelectrolyte-enhanced ultrafiltration (PEUF), ion-explusion ultrafiltration (IEUF), and a combined surfactant-polyelectrolyte ultrafiltration process; and investigation of downstream processing of the effluent streams from all five of the UF separation processes.

  19. Effect of micellar topology on shear rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Simon; Calabrese, Michelle; Wagner, Norman

    2014-03-01

    Micellar topology affects the nonlinear shear rheology of self-assembled surfactant solutions. Segmental alignment of wormlike micelles (WLMs) exhibiting varying degrees of branching was investigated under shear in the flow-gradient and flow-vorticity planes using new small angle neutron scattering (SANS) sample environments. The degree of branching in mixed cationic/anionic surfactant (CTAT/SDBS) WLMs is controlled via the addition of the hydrotropic salt sodium tosylate. Shear-induced segmental alignment of the micelles is characterized by spatially-resolved flow-small angle neutron scattering (flow-SANS). Our ability to resolve structural projections in both planes provides insight to branch behavior and kinematics under shear flows. Local segmental orientation and alignment in the flow-gradient plane is a non-monotonic function of branching level and radial position. Alignment in the flow-gradient plane is significantly higher than that observed in the flow-vorticity plane, suggesting that branches may simultaneously migrate into the vorticity direction and inhibit spatially localized flows. Shear and normal stresses calculated from micellar alignment using the stress-SANS law are favorably compared with rheological measurements under identical conditions. The results provide evidence for the effects of micellar topology on the nonlinear shear rheology of WLM solutions.

  20. A Switching Mechanism in Doxorubicin Bioactivation Can Be Exploited to Control Doxorubicin Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Nnenna A.; Findley, Harry W.; Kemp, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    Although doxorubicin toxicity in cancer cells is multifactorial, the enzymatic bioactivation of the drug can significantly contribute to its cytotoxicity. Previous research has identified most of the components that comprise the doxorubicin bioactivation network; however, adaptation of the network to changes in doxorubicin treatment or to patient-specific changes in network components is much less understood. To investigate the properties of the coupled reduction/oxidation reactions of the doxorubicin bioactivation network, we analyzed metabolic differences between two patient-derived acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines exhibiting varied doxorubicin sensitivities. We developed computational models that accurately predicted doxorubicin bioactivation in both ALL cell lines at high and low doxorubicin concentrations. Oxygen-dependent redox cycling promoted superoxide accumulation while NADPH-dependent reductive conversion promoted semiquinone doxorubicin. This fundamental switch in control is observed between doxorubicin sensitive and insensitive ALL cells and between high and low doxorubicin concentrations. We demonstrate that pharmacological intervention strategies can be employed to either enhance or impede doxorubicin cytotoxicity in ALL cells due to the switching that occurs between oxygen-dependent superoxide generation and NADPH-dependent doxorubicin semiquinone formation. PMID:21935349

  1. Doxorubicin as an Antioxidant: Maintenance of Myocardial Levels of Lycopene under Doxorubicin Treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity remains controversial. Wistar-rats (n=96) were randomly assigned to either a control (C), Lycopene (L), Doxorubicin (D) or Doxorubicin + Lycopene (DL) group. The L and DL groups received lycopene (5 mg/Kg-body-wt/d by gavage) for 7 wks. The D and D...

  2. Effect of temperature on the viscosities of mixed micellar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, C. Durga; Kumar, D. Sudheer; Sarma, G. V. S.; Ramesh, K. V.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of addition of Triton X-100 (TX-100) on the viscosities of Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micellar solution containingNaCl and Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) micellar solution containingKBr at various temperatures are presented. The viscosity of SDS micellar solution is found to increase on addition of TX-100 at all temperatures (25 to 45 °C). However the increase in viscosity is large up to certain % of TX-100, after that the increase in viscosity is found to be small. Where as in CTAB micelles, at lower temperatures, the viscosity of micellar solution decreased up to certain composition of TX-100 and with further addition of TX-100 the viscosity got increaed. At higher temperatures viscosity of CTAB micellar solution increased on addition of TX-100. Depending on the nature of surfactant system and temperature, the viscosity of micellar solution may increase or decrease on addition of TX-100. The thermodynamic parameters for the viscous flow of micellar solutions in the presence of TX-100 are also determined. The effect of TX-100 on the viscosity and the activation enthalpy for viscous flow of anionic micelles is tremendously large as compared to cationic micelles. This is due to transition of micellar shape from rod to elongated rod or to sphere in the presence of added TX-100.

  3. Current trends in the use of vitamin E-based micellar nanocarriers for anticancer drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Muddineti, Omkara Swami; Ghosh, Balaram; Biswas, Swati

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the complexity of cancer pathogenesis, conventional chemotherapy can be an inadequate method of killing cancer cells effectively. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems have been widely exploited pre-clinically in recent years. Areas covered: Incorporation of vitamin-E in nanocarriers have the advantage of (1) improving the hydrophobicity of the drug delivery system, thereby improving the solubility of the loaded poorly soluble anticancer drugs, (2) enhancing the biocompatibility of the polymeric drug carriers, and (3) improving the anticancer potential of the chemotherapeutic agents by reversing the cellular drug resistance via simultaneous administration. In addition to being a powerful antioxidant, vitamin E demonstrated its anticancer potential by inducing apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. Various vitamin E analogs have proven their ability to cause marked inhibition of drug efflux transporters. Expert opinion: The review discusses the potential of incorporating vitamin E in the polymeric micelles which are designed to carry poorly water-soluble anticancer drugs. Current applications of various vitamin E-based polymeric micelles with emphasis on the use of α-tocopherol, D-α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) and its conjugates such as D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol-succinate (TPGS) in micellar system is delineated. Advantages of utilizing polymeric micelles for drug delivery and the challenges to treat cancer, including multiple drug resistance have been discussed.

  4. Reversible Interactions of Proteins with Mixed Shell Polymeric Micelles: Tuning the Surface Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Balance toward Efficient Artificial Chaperones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzu; Song, Yiqing; Sun, Pingchuan; An, Yingli; Zhang, Zhenkun; Shi, Linqi

    2016-03-22

    Molecular chaperones can elegantly fine-tune its hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance to assist a broad spectrum of nascent polypeptide chains to fold properly. Such precious property is difficult to be achieved by chaperone mimicking materials due to limited control of their surface characteristics that dictate interactions with unfolded protein intermediates. Mixed shell polymeric micelles (MSPMs), which consist of two kinds of dissimilar polymeric chains in the micellar shell, offer a convenient way to fine-tune surface properties of polymeric nanoparticles. In the current work, we have fabricated ca. 30 kinds of MSPMs with finely tunable hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface properties. We investigated the respective roles of thermosensitive and hydrophilic polymeric chains in the thermodenaturation protection of proteins down to the molecular structure. Although the three kinds of thermosensitive polymers investigated herein can form collapsed hydrophobic domains on the micellar surface, we found distinct capability to capture and release unfolded protein intermediates, due to their respective affinity for proteins. Meanwhile, in terms of the hydrophilic polymeric chains in the micellar shell, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) excels in assisting unfolded protein intermediates to refold properly via interacting with the refolding intermediates, resulting in enhanced chaperone efficiency. However, another hydrophilic polymer-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) severely deteriorates the chaperone efficiency of MSPMs, due to its protein-resistant properties. Judicious combination of thermosensitive and hydrophilic chains in the micellar shell lead to MSPM-based artificial chaperones with optimal efficacy.

  5. Monitoring subcellular biotransformation of N-L-leucyldoxorubicin by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography coupled to laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Satori, Chad P; Meyer, Brandon; Arriaga, Edgar A

    2014-04-01

    Development of prodrugs is a promising alternative to address cytotoxicity and nonspecificity of common anticancer agents. N-L-leucyldoxorubicin (LeuDox) is a prodrug that is biotransformed to the anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) in the extracellular space; however, its biotransformation may also occur intracellularly in endocytic organelles. Such organelle-specific biotransformation is yet to be determined. In this study, magnetically enriched endocytic organelle fractions from human uterine sarcoma cells were treated with LeuDox. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography with laser-induced fluorescence detection (MEKC-LIF) was used to determine that 10% of LeuDox was biotransformed to Dox, accounting for ~43% of the biotransformation occurring in the post-nuclear fraction. This finding suggests that endocytic organelles also participate in the intracellular biotransformation of LeuDox to Dox.

  6. Glassy states in attractive micellar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, F.; Broccio, M.; Faraone, A.; Chen, W. R.; Chen, S.-H.

    2004-08-01

    Recent mode coupling theory (MCT) calculations show that in attractive colloids one may observe a new type of glass originating from clustering effects, as a result of the attractive interaction. This happens in addition to the known glass-forming mechanism due to cage effects in the hard sphere system. MCT also indicates that, within a certain volume fraction range, varying the external control parameter, the effective temperature, makes the glass-to-liquid-to-glass re-entrance and the glass-to-glass transitions possible. Here we present experimental evidence and details on this complex phase behavior in a three-block copolymer micellar system.

  7. Surfactant concentration effects on micellar properties.

    PubMed

    Jusufi, Arben; LeBard, David N; Levine, Benjamin G; Klein, Michael L

    2012-01-26

    A hydrophobic theory is combined with a Debye-Hückel approximation to calculate surfactant micellization properties such as the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and concentration effects. The predictive power of the theory is validated by comparison with experimental data of various ionic surfactant types in presence of salt. The theory is also used to describe micellar properties of surfactant models developed for molecular simulations for which cmc computations become infeasible. The theory allows such computations and helps to evaluate the quality of models used in simulations.

  8. SANS studies of micellar and magnetic fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Hayter, J.B,

    1985-08-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has proved to be an excellent technique for the study of complex fluids. This article introduces SANS from the viewpoint of such studies. The use of SANS to determine the structures of concentrated micellar fluids is then discussed within the framework of current one-component macrofluid (OCM) models, and experimental examples are taken from several contemporary studies. Finally, the discussion is extended to magnetic fluids (ferrofluids) in which the neutron magnetic interaction plays an important experimental role. 25 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Static Structure of Polydisperse Micellar Solutions.

    PubMed

    Mileva

    2000-12-15

    A model study of polydisperse micellar solutions formed by ionic amphiphiles in the presence of added salt is proposed. The structural peculiarities of the system are determined by effective potentials including the screened electrostatic and the hardcore interactions. A perturbation procedure is applied to expand the characteristic parameters of the system around a reference system. The basic result is a model size distribution curve that accounts not only for the inherent polydispersity of the system but also includes the interaggregate interactions and the space correlation of the aggregates. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Protective effects of berberine against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats by inhibiting metabolism of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Hao, Gang; Yu, Yunli; Gu, Bingren; Xing, Yiwen; Xue, Man

    2015-01-01

    1. The clinical use of doxorubicin, an effective anticancer drug, is severely hampered by its cardiotoxicity. Berberine, a botanical alkaloid, has been reported to possess cardioprotective and antitumor effects. In this study, we investigated the cardioprotective effect of berberine on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and the effect of berberine on the metabolism of doxorubicin. 2. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered doxorubicin in the presence or absence of berberine for 2 weeks. Administration of berberine effectively prevented doxorubicin-induced body weight reduction and mortality in rats. 3. Berberine reduced the activity of myocardial enzymes, including aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), CK isoenzyme (CK-MB) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Echocardiographic examination further demonstrated that berberine effectively ameliorated cardiac dysfunction induced by doxorubicin. 4. Berberine inhibited the metabolism of doxorubicin in the cytoplasm of rat heart and reduced the accumulation of doxorubicinol (a secondary alcohol metabolite of doxorubicin) in heart. 5. These data showed that berberine alleviated the doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats via inhibition of the metabolism of doxorubicin and reduced accumulation of doxorubicinol selectively in hearts.

  11. The role of macrocyclic ligands in the structure of LDS micellar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglioni, P.; Gambi, C. M. C.; Giordano, R.; Teixeira, J.

    1995-02-01

    We have studied the effect of macrocyclic ligands on the aggregation behavior of lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) micellar solutions. Two different classes of macrocyclic compounds are investigated: crown-ethers and cryptands. We show that macrocyclic ligands solubilize at the micellar surface by decreasing the micellar surface charge and the micellar aggregation number and increasing the thickness of the micellar polar head group region. These effects are dependent on the shape and size of the macrocyclic ligand.

  12. Voltammetry as a tool for monitoring micellar structural evolution?

    PubMed

    Charlton; Doherty

    2000-02-15

    Self-assembled systems such as micelles and liquid crystals are currently of interest as templates for the controlled formation of nanoscale structures. Knowledge of the mesophase structure, structural evolution, and interparticle interaction is of great importance in understanding the behavior of such systems especially for applications such as nanoreactors. Here, we compare the use of cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and the rotating disk electrode (RDE) for the determination of micellar hydrodynamic radii and show that only the steady-state RDE yields values directly comparable with nonelectrochemical techniques. The RDE is applied for the determination of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride micellar structure and observing micellar structural evolution as well as evaluating the usual intermicellar interactions. The results clearly show (a) the collapse of the micellar shear plane toward the hard-sphere surface with increasing electrolyte concentration, (b) the electrolyte-dependent spherical expansion of the micellar hard-spheres due to increasing aggregation (N) number, (c) the structural transition from spherical to rodlike micelles, and (d) micellar elongation. As well as structural evolution, the evolutionary changes in interaction processes are also observed, i.e. the transition from Coulombic interactions to excluded volume interaction. This paper describes in detail the voltammetric measurement of these processes and explicates the necessary experimental conditions for successful observation of micellar structural evolution.

  13. Polyphenols, autophagy and doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Shabalala, S; Muller, C J F; Louw, J; Johnson, R

    2017-07-01

    Doxorubicin is a highly effective, first line chemotherapeutic agent used in the management of hematological and solid tumors. The effective use of doxorubicin in cancer therapy has been severely limited owing to its well-documented cardiotoxic side effect. Oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis as well as dysregulation of autophagy, has been implicated as a major contributor associated with doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are known to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species, while autophagy has been reported to protect the cell from stress stimuli or, alternatively, contribute to cell death. Nonetheless, to date, no single chemical synthesized drug is available to prevent the harmful action of doxorubicin without reducing its anti-cancer efficacy. Therefore, the search for an effective and safe antagonist of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity remains a challenge. In recent years, there has been much interest in the role plant-derived polyphenols play in the regulation of oxidative stress and autophagy. Therefore, the present review renders a concise overview of the mechanism associated with doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity as well as giving insight into the role plant-derived phytochemical play as a possible adjunctive therapy against the development of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bone-Targeted Acid-Sensitive Doxorubicin Conjugate Micelles as Potential Osteosarcoma Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a malignancy of the bone that primarily affects adolescents. Current treatments retain mortality rates, which are higher than average cancer mortality rates for the adolescent age group. We designed a micellar delivery system with the aim to increase drug accumulation in the tumor and potentially reduce side effects associated with chemotherapy. The design features are the use of the hydrophilic d-aspartic acid octapeptide as both the effective targeting agent as well as the hydrophilic micelle corona. Micelle stabilization was accomplished by binding of model drug (doxorubicin) via an acid-sensitive hydrazone bond and incorporating one to four 11-aminoundecanoic acid (AUA) moieties to manipulate the hydrophobic/hydrophilic ratio. Four micelle-forming unimers have been synthesized and their self-assembly into micelles was evaluated. Size of the micelles could be modified by changing the architecture of the unimers from linear to branched. The stability of the micelles increased with increasing content of AUA moieties. Adsorption of all micelles to hydroxyapatite occurred rapidly. Doxorubicin release occurred at pH 5.5, whereas no release was detected at pH 7.4. Cytotoxicity toward human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells correlated with drug release data. PMID:25291150

  15. Cellular internalization of doxorubicin loaded star-shaped micelles with hydrophilic zwitterionic sulfobetaine segments.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Xie, Xiaoxiong; Lu, Aijing; He, Bin; Chen, Yuanwei; Gu, Zhongwei; Luo, Xianglin

    2014-05-01

    Four arm star-shaped poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly((N,N-diethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-r-(N-(3-sulfopropyl)-N-methacryloxyethy-N,N-diethylammoniumbetaine)) (4sPCLDEAS) micelles were loaded with anticancer drug doxorubicin to track their endocytosis in Hela cancer cell line. The effects of mean diameters and surface charges of the drug loaded micelles on the cellular uptake were studied in details. The results demonstrated that the internalization of micelles was both time and energy dependent process. Endocytic pathways including clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis were all involved in the internalization; caveolae-mediated endocytosis was the main pathway for the internalization of 4sPCLDEAS micelles. The assays for cell apoptosis and growth inhibition of tumor spheroids identified that these doxorubicin loaded micelles could induce cell apoptosis and inhibit tumor spheroids growth efficiently, which was even equal to free DOX·HCl. This study provided a rational design strategy for fabricating diverse micellar drug delivery systems with high anticancer efficiency.

  16. Bone-targeted acid-sensitive doxorubicin conjugate micelles as potential osteosarcoma therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Low, Stewart A; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2014-11-19

    Osteosarcoma is a malignancy of the bone that primarily affects adolescents. Current treatments retain mortality rates, which are higher than average cancer mortality rates for the adolescent age group. We designed a micellar delivery system with the aim to increase drug accumulation in the tumor and potentially reduce side effects associated with chemotherapy. The design features are the use of the hydrophilic D-aspartic acid octapeptide as both the effective targeting agent as well as the hydrophilic micelle corona. Micelle stabilization was accomplished by binding of model drug (doxorubicin) via an acid-sensitive hydrazone bond and incorporating one to four 11-aminoundecanoic acid (AUA) moieties to manipulate the hydrophobic/hydrophilic ratio. Four micelle-forming unimers have been synthesized and their self-assembly into micelles was evaluated. Size of the micelles could be modified by changing the architecture of the unimers from linear to branched. The stability of the micelles increased with increasing content of AUA moieties. Adsorption of all micelles to hydroxyapatite occurred rapidly. Doxorubicin release occurred at pH 5.5, whereas no release was detected at pH 7.4. Cytotoxicity toward human osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells correlated with drug release data.

  17. Evaluation of the El Dorado micellar-polymer demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Vanhorn, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    The El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Demonstration Project has been a cooperative venture between Cities Service Co. and the U.S. Department of Energy. The objective of the project was to determine if it was technically and economically feasible to produce commercial volumes of oil using a micellar-polymer process in the El Dorado field. The project was designed to allow a side-by-side comparison of 2 distinctly different micellar-polymer processes in the same field in order that the associated benefits and problems of each could be determined. These are described and evaluated.

  18. Evaluation of the El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    VanHorn, L.E.

    1983-06-01

    The El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Demonstration Project has been a cooperative venture between Cities Service Company and the United States Department of Energy. The objective of the project was to determine if it was technically and economically feasible to produce commercial volumes of oil using a micellar-polymer process in the El Dorado field. The project was designed to allow a side-by-side comparison of two distinctly different micellar-polymer processes in the same field in order that the associated benefits and problems of each could be determined.

  19. Polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bolhassani, Azam; Javanzad, Shabnam; Saleh, Tayebeh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers with various compositions and biological properties have been extensively applied for in vitro/in vivo drug and gene delivery. The family of nanocarriers includes polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers (liposomes/micelles), dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and gold nanoparticles (nanoshells/nanocages). Among different delivery systems, polymeric carriers have several properties such as: easy to synthesize, inexpensive, biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, non-toxic, and water soluble. In addition, cationic polymers seem to produce more stable complexes led to a more protection during cellular trafficking than cationic lipids. Nanoparticles often show significant adjuvant effects in vaccine delivery since they may be easily taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Natural polymers such as polysaccharides and synthetic polymers have demonstrated great potential to form vaccine nanoparticles. The development of new adjuvants or delivery systems for DNA and protein immunization is an expanding research field. This review describes polymeric carriers especially PLGA, chitosan, and PEI as vaccine delivery systems. PMID:24128651

  20. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Green, Andrew E; Rose, Peter G

    2006-01-01

    Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is a formulation of doxorubicin in which the molecule itself is packaged in a liposome made of various lipids with an outer coating of polyethylene glycol. Liposomal technology is being used in increasing amounts in the therapy of a variety of cancers, including ovarian cancers. This article reviews the mechanistic actions of this formulation, the Phase II and Phase III data that helped define the role of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in recurrent ovarian cancer, as well as a discussion of some of the side-effects and their management. PMID:17717964

  1. Doxorubicin

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain types of bladder, breast, lung, stomach, and ovarian cancer; Hodgkin's lymphoma (Hodgkin's disease) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma ( ... and chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood ... for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.

  2. Kunststoffe (Polymere)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weißbach, Wolfgang

    Polymere bestehen aus Riesen- oder Makromolekülen, die durch chemische Reaktionen aus einfachen, niedermolekularen Verbindungen entstehen, den Monomeren. Ausgangsstoffe sind überwiegend Kohlenwasserstoffe (KW), die größte Gruppe der C-Verbindungen. Sie müssen reaktionsfähige Stellen besitzen, das sind OH-Gruppen oder Dopppelbindungen.

  3. Micellar nano-carriers for the delivery of STAT3 dimerization inhibitors to melanoma.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Amir H; Garg, Shyam M; Paiva, Igor M; Vakili, Mohammad R; Alshareef, Abdulraheem; Huang, Yung-Hsing; Molavi, Ommoleila; Lai, Raymond; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2017-03-13

    The objective of this research was to develop polymeric micellar formulations of inhibitors of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) dimerization, i.e., S3I-1757 and S3I-201, and evaluate the activity of successful formulations in B16-F10 melanoma, a STAT3 hyperactive cancer model, in vitro and in vivo. STAT3 inhibitory agents were encapsulated in methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEO114-b-PCL22) and methoxy poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(α-benzyl carboxylate-ε-caprolactone) (PEO114-b-PBCL20) micelles using co-solvent evaporation. Polymeric micelles of S3I-1757 showed high encapsulation efficiency (>88%), slow release profile (<32% release in 24 h) under physiological conditions, and a desirable average diameter for tumor targeting (33-54 nm). The same formulations showed low encapsulation efficiencies and rapid drug release for S3I-201. Further studies evidenced the delivery of functional S3I-1757 by polymeric micelles to B16-F10 melanoma cells, leading to a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production comparable with that of free drug. Encapsulation of S3I-1757 in polymeric micelles significantly reduced its cytotoxicity in normal bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs). Micelles of S3I-1757 were able to significantly improve the function of B16-F10 tumor-exposed immunosuppressed DCs in the production of IL-12, an indication for functionality in the induction of cell-mediated immune response. In a B16-F10 melanoma mouse model, S3I-1757 micelles inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the survival of tumor-bearing mice more than free S3I-1757. Our findings show that both PCL- and PBCL-based polymeric micelles have potential for the solubilization and delivery of S3I-1757, a potent STAT3 inhibitory agent.

  4. Surface-Adaptive, Antimicrobially Loaded, Micellar Nanocarriers with Enhanced Penetration and Killing Efficiency in Staphylococcal Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Busscher, Henk J; Zhao, Bingran; Li, Yuanfeng; Zhang, Zhenkun; van der Mei, Henny C; Ren, Yijin; Shi, Linqi

    2016-04-26

    Biofilms cause persistent bacterial infections and are extremely recalcitrant to antimicrobials, due in part to reduced penetration of antimicrobials into biofilms that allows bacteria residing in the depth of a biofilm to survive antimicrobial treatment. Here, we describe the preparation of surface-adaptive, Triclosan-loaded micellar nanocarriers showing (1) enhanced biofilm penetration and accumulation, (2) electrostatic targeting at acidic pH toward negatively charged bacterial cell surfaces in a biofilm, and (3) antimicrobial release due to degradation of the micelle core by bacterial lipases. First, it was established that mixed-shell-polymeric-micelles (MSPM) consisting of a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-shell and pH-responsive poly(β-amino ester) become positively charged at pH 5.0, while being negatively charged at physiological pH. This is opposite to single-shell-polymeric-micelles (SSPM) possessing only a PEG-shell and remaining negatively charged at pH 5.0. The stealth properties of the PEG-shell combined with its surface-adaptive charge allow MSPMs to penetrate and accumulate in staphylococcal biofilms, as demonstrated for fluorescent Nile red loaded micelles using confocal-laser-scanning-microscopy. SSPMs, not adapting a positive charge at pH 5.0, could not be demonstrated to penetrate and accumulate in a biofilm. Once micellar nanocarriers are bound to a staphylococcal cell surface, bacterial enzymes degrade the MSPM core to release its antimicrobial content and kill bacteria over the depth of a biofilm. This constitutes a highly effective pathway to control blood-accessible staphylococcal biofilms using antimicrobials, bypassing biofilm recalcitrance to antimicrobial penetration.

  5. Light Scattering and Electric Birefringence Experiments on Micellar Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiorgio, Vittorio; Piazza, Roberto

    We describe a selected number of recent light scattering experiments dealing with critical phenomena in nonionic and cationic micellar solutions, the dynamics of phase separation in nonionic amphiphile solutions near the critical point, studies of the sponge phase, aggregation of block copolymers, and conformational phase transitions in biological micelles. Electric birefringence has been increasingly utilized in the last few years for investigating the formation and growth of anisotropic aggregates in micellar solutions. In this article we discuss its application to the study of nonionic micellar solutions near the cloud point, and to the description of the sphere-to-rod transition of ionic and inverted micelles. In several situations the relaxation of the electric birefringence follows a stretched-exponential behaviour which reflects the presence in the micellar system of a wide distribution of relaxation times.

  6. Doxorubicin, DNA torsion, and chromatin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Teves, Sheila S.; Kemp, Christopher J.; Henikoff, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most important anti-cancer chemotherapeutic drugs, being widely used for the treatment of solid tumors and acute leukemias. The action of doxorubicin and other anthracycline drugs has been intensively investigated during the last several decades, but the mechanisms that have been proposed for cell killing remain disparate and controversial. In this review, we examine the proposed models for doxorubicin action from the perspective of the chromatin landscape, which is altered in many types of cancer due to recurrent mutations in chromatin modifiers. We highlight recent evidence for effects of anthracyclines on DNA torsion and chromatin dynamics that may underlie basic mechanisms of doxorubicin-mediated cell death and suggest new therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment. PMID:24361676

  7. pH-Responsive Triblock Copolymeric Micelles Decorated with a Cell-Penetrating Peptide Provide Efficient Doxorubicin Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Khen Eng; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd; Katas, Haliza; Amjad, Muhammad Wahab; Butt, Adeel Masood; Kesharwani, Prashant; Iyer, Arun K.

    2016-12-01

    This study developed novel triblock pH-responsive polymeric micelles (PMs) using cholic acid-polyethyleneimine-poly- l-arginine (CA-PEI-pArg) copolymers. PEI provided pH sensitivity, while the hydrophilic cell-penetrating pArg peptide promoted cellular PM internalization. The copolymers self-assembled into PMs in aqueous solution at above the critical micelle concentration (2.98 × 10-7 M) and encapsulated doxorubicin in the core region, with a 34.2% ( w/ w) entrapment efficiency. PMs showed pH-dependent swelling, increasing in size by almost sevenfold from pH 7.4 to 5.0. Doxorubicin release was pH-dependent, with about 65% released at pH 5.0, and 32% at pH 7.4. Cellular uptake, assessed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, was enhanced by using doxorubicin-loaded CA-PEI-pArg PMs, as compared to free doxorubicin and DOX-loaded CA-PEI PMs. Moreover, 24-h incubation of these PMs with a human breast cancer cell line produced greater cytotoxicity than free doxorubicin. These results indicate that pH-responsive CA-PEI-pArg micelles could provide a versatile delivery system for targeted cancer therapy using hydrophobic drugs.

  8. Polymer/surfactant transport in micellar flooding

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, C.S.; Kellerhals, G.E.

    1981-10-01

    For the surfactant formulations used (particular surfactant concentration, surfactant type, cosolvent type, cosolvent concentration, etc.), the results show that surfactant systems containing polymer as a mobility control agent may exhibit adverse polymer transport behavior during flow through porous media. Polymer generally lagged behind the surfactant even though the two species were injected simultaneously in the surfactant slug. This poor polymer transport definitely could have a detrimental effect on the efficiency of a micellar flooding process in the field. Phase studies show that when some surfactant systems containing xanthan gum are mixed with crude oil at various salinities, a polymer-rich, gel-like phase forms. The polymer lag phenomenon in core tests can be related to phase separation due to divalent cations generated in situ as a result of ion exchange with the clays and the surfactant. 18 refs.

  9. QRAR models for cardiovascular system drugs using biopartitioning micellar chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sumin; Yang, Gengliang; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Haiyan; Li, Zhiwei

    2007-02-01

    The capability of biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) to describe and estimate pharmacological parameters of cardiovascular system drugs has been studied. The retention of cardiovascular system drugs was studied using different pH of Brij-35 as micellar mobile phase in modified C(18) stationary phase. Quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRAR) in BMC were investigated for these compounds. An adequate correlation between the retention factors (log k) and the toxicity (LD(50)) of cardiovascular system drugs was obtained.

  10. Ultrasonic method to characterize shear wave propagation in micellar fluids

    PubMed Central

    Amador, Carolina; Otilio, Bruno L.; Kinnick, Randall R.; Urban, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Viscoelastic micellar fluid characteristics have been measured with mechanically generated shear waves and showed good agreement to shear oscillatory methods. In this paper, shear waves in wormlike micellar fluids using ultrasound were successfully generated and detected. Micellar fluids of different concentrations (100, 200, 300, and 400 mM) were studied with ultrasound-based and conventional rheology methods. The measured micellar fluid complex modulus from oscillatory shear tests between 0.001 and 15.91 Hz was characterized with an extended Maxwell fluid model. The elastic and viscous parameters found using rheological testing were used to estimate shear wave phase velocity over a frequency range from 100 to 500 Hz, and compared to shear wave velocity measured with ultrasound-based methods with a mean absolute error 0.02 m/s. The shear wave frequency content was studied and an increase in shear wave center frequency was found as a function of micellar fluid concentration. Moreover, the bias found in the shear wave group velocity with respect to rheological measurement is attributed to the micellar fluid viscous component. Finally, the shear wave phase velocity evaluated at the center frequency agreed well with the rheological measurements. PMID:27914388

  11. Biological activity and photostability of biflorin micellar nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Santana, Edson R B; Ferreira-Neto, João P; Yara, Ricardo; Sena, Kêsia X F R; Fontes, Adriana; Lima, Cláudia S A

    2015-05-13

    Capraria biflora L. is a shrub from the Scrophulariaceae family which produces in its roots a compound named biflorin, an o-naphthoquinone that shows activity against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi and also presents antitumor and antimetastatic activities. However, biflorin is hydrophobic and photosensitive. These properties make its application difficult. In this work we prepared biflorin micellar nanostructures looking for a more effective vehiculation and better preservation of the biological activity. Biflorin was obtained, purified and characterized by UV-Vis, infrared (IR) and 1H- and 13C-NMR. Micellar nanostructures of biflorin were then assembled with Tween 80®, Tween 20® and saline (0.9%) and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The results showed that the micellar nanostructures were stable and presented an average size of 8.3 nm. Biflorin micellar nanostructures' photodegradation was evaluated in comparison with biflorin in ethanol. Results showed that the biflorin in micellar nanostructures was better protected from light than biflorin dissolved in ethanol, and also indicated that biflorin in micelles were efficient against Gram-positive bacteria and yeast species. In conclusion, the results showed that the micellar nanostructures could ensure the maintenance of the biological activity of biflorin, conferring photoprotection. Moreover, biflorin vehiculation in aqueous media was improved, favoring its applicability in biological systems.

  12. Calcium modulation of doxorubicin cytotoxicity in yeast and human cells.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Thuy Trang; Lim, Ying Jun; Fan, Melanie Hui Min; Jackson, Rebecca A; Lim, Kim Kiat; Ang, Wee Han; Ban, Kenneth Hon Kim; Chen, Ee Sin

    2016-03-01

    Doxorubicin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, but its utility is limited by cellular resistance and off-target effects. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating chemotherapeutic responses to doxorubicin, we previously carried out a genomewide search of doxorubicin-resistance genes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe fission yeast and showed that these genes are organized into networks that counteract doxorubicin cytotoxicity. Here, we describe the identification of a subgroup of doxorubicin-resistance genes that, when disrupted, leads to reduced tolerance to exogenous calcium. Unexpectedly, we observed a suppressive effect of calcium on doxorubicin cytotoxicity, where concurrent calcium and doxorubicin treatment resulted in significantly higher cell survival compared with cells treated with doxorubicin alone. Conversely, inhibitors of voltage-gated calcium channels enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity in the mutants. Consistent with these observations in fission yeast, calcium also suppressed doxorubicin cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells. Further epistasis analyses in yeast showed that this suppression of doxorubicin toxicity by calcium was synergistically dependent on Rav1 and Vph2, two regulators of vacuolar-ATPase assembly; this suggests potential modulation of the calcium-doxorubicin interaction by fluctuating proton concentrations within the cellular environment. Thus, the modulatory effects of drugs or diet on calcium concentrations should be considered in doxorubicin treatment regimes.

  13. Electrochemical sensing of doxorubicin in unprocessed whole blood, cell lysate, and human plasma samples using thin film of poly-arginine modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Soleymani, Jafar; Hasanzadeh, Mohammad; Eskandani, Morteza; Khoubnasabjafari, Maryam; Shadjou, Nasrin; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2017-08-01

    A thin film of poly-arginine fabricated on glassy carbon electrode by one step electrodeposition method is applied for detection of doxorubicin hydrochloride in whole blood, cell lysate, and untreated-plasma samples. Cyclic voltammetry results indicated that the doxorubicin is oxidized via two electrons and two protons at physiological pH (pH=7.4) using poly-arginine thin film modified glassy carbon. More importantly, electrostatic repulsion takes place between the prepared polymer film-modified electrode and selected drug resulting in the signal amplification on oxidation of doxorubicin and lowering its over potential and thereby selective detection of doxorubicin in real samples. The apparent electron transfer rate constant and transfer coefficient were determined by cyclic voltammetry and were approximately 10.1s(-1) and 0.82, respectively. Also, using differential-pulse voltammetric technique for sensitive detection of doxorubicin in whole blood and plasma samples, the lower limit of quantification was 69nM and 103nM, respectively. Also, application of this amino acid based biocompatible polymeric electrode was tested to the determination of doxorubicin in unprocessed whole blood and the results show that this sensor could be applied in online and real time monitoring of this anti-cancer drug in real samples which is important for clinical research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Tailoring magnetic PLGA nanoparticles suitable for doxorubicin delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansık, Gülistan; Yakar, Arzu; Gündüz, Ufuk

    2014-01-01

    One of the main problems of current cancer chemotherapy is the lack of selectivity of anti-cancer drugs to tumor cells, which leads to systemic toxicity and adverse side effects. In order to overcome these limitations, researches on controlled drug delivery systems have gained much attention. Nanoscale-based drug delivery systems provide tumor targeting. Among many types of nanocarriers, superparamagnetic nanoparticles with their biocompatible polymer coatings can be targeted to an intented site by an external magnetic field. Thus, the drug can be carried to the targeted site safely. The aim of this study is to prepare poly( dl-lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-coated magnetic nanoparticles and load anti-cancer drug, doxorubicin to them. For this purpose, magnetite (Fe3O4) iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized as a magnetic core material (MNP) and then coated with oleic acid. Oleic acid-coated MNP (OA-MNP) was encapsulated into PLGA. Effects of different OA-MNP/PLGA ratios on magnetite entrapment efficiency were investigated. Doxorubicin-loaded magnetic polymeric nanoparticles (DOX-PLGA-MNP) were prepared. After the characterization of prepared nanoparticles, their cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 cell line were studied. PLGA-coated magnetic nanoparticles (PLGA-MNP) had a proper size and superparamagnetic character. The highest magnetite entrapment efficiency of PLGA-MNP was estimated as 63 % at 1:8 ratio. Cytotoxicity studies of PLGA-MNP did not indicate any notable cell death between the concentration ranges of 2 and 125 μg/ml. Drug loading efficiency was estimated as 32 %, and it was observed that DOX-PLGA-MNP showed significant cytotoxicity on MCF-7 cells compared to PLGA-MNP. The results showed that prepared nanoparticles have desired size and superparamagnetic characteristics without serious toxic effects on cells. These nanoparticles may be suitable for targeted drug delivery applications.

  15. Quercetin-induced cardioprotection against doxorubicin cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cancer has continually been the leading cause of death worldwide for decades. Thus, scientists have actively devoted themselves to studying cancer therapeutics. Doxorubicin is an efficient drug used in cancer therapy, but also produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce severe cytotoxicity against heart cells. Quercetin, a plant-derived flavonoid, has been proven to contain potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Thus, this in vitro study investigated whether quercetin can decrease doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity and promote cell repair systems in cardiomyocyte H9C2 cells. Results Proteomic analysis and a cell biology assay were performed to investigate the quercetin-induced responses. Our data demonstrated that quercetin treatment protects the cardiomyocytes in a doxorubicin-induced heart damage model. Quercetin significantly facilitated cell survival by inhibiting cell apoptosis and maintaining cell morphology by rearranging the cytoskeleton. Additionally, 2D-DIGE combined with MALDI-TOF MS analysis indicated that quercetin might stimulate cardiomyocytes to repair damage after treating doxorubicin by modulating metabolic activation, protein folding and cytoskeleton rearrangement. Conclusion Based on a review of the literature, this study is the first to report detailed protective mechanisms for the action of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte toxicity based on in-depth cell biology and proteomic analysis. PMID:24359494

  16. Micellar effects on dediazoniation and on azo coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Pazo-Llorente, Román; Rodriguez-Menacho, M A Carmen; González-Romero, Elisa; Bravo-Díaz, Carlos

    2002-04-01

    The effects of a sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS, micellar solution on the coupling rates of two arenediazonium ions, ArN(2)(+), with the hydrophobic 1-naphthylamine, 1NA and N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine, NED, coupling agents and with the hydrophilic Na salt of 2-naphthol-6-sulfonic acid, 2N6S, have been studied. First, we explored the micellar effects on the thermal decomposition of the arenediazonium ions. The observed rate constants are slightly depressed or increased, depending on the nature of ArN(2)(+), compared to those in pure water upon increasing [SDS]. Estimations of the corresponding association constant to the micelle indicate that a significant fraction of the arenediazonium ions are incorporated into the micelles even at low surfactant concentrations. The sulfonate group in 2N6S prevents its incorporation into the micellar aggregate due to the electrostatic barrier imposed by the micelles and, in consequence, the coupling reaction is inhibited. In contrast, when employing the naphthylamine derivatives, the observed rate constant increase rapidly up to a maximum at [SDS]micellar and aqueous pseudophases, the micellar-induced shift in the pK(a) of the amines, and the concentration/dilution effect exerted by the micelles.

  17. Principles of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography applied in pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Hancu, Gabriel; Simon, Brigitta; Rusu, Aura; Mircia, Eleonora; Gyéresi, Arpád

    2013-01-01

    Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  18. Flow-induced structured phase in nonionic micellar solutions.

    PubMed

    Cardiel, Joshua J; Tonggu, Lige; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Zhao, Ya; Pozzo, Danilo C; Wang, Liguo; Shen, Amy Q

    2013-12-17

    In this work, we consider the flow of a nonionic micellar solution (precursor) through an array of microposts, with focus on its microstructural and rheological evolution. The precursor contains polyoxyethylene(20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween-80) and cosurfactant monolaurin (ML). An irreversible flow-induced structured phase (NI-FISP) emerges after the nonionic precursor flows through the hexagonal micropost arrays, when subjected to strain rates ~10(4) s(-1) and strain ~10(3). NI-FISP consists of close-looped micellar bundles and multiconnected micellar networks as evidenced by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). We also conduct small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements in both precursor and NI-FISP to illustrate the structural transition. We propose a potential mechanism for the NI-FISP formation that relies on the micropost arrays and the flow kinematics in the microdevice to induce entropic fluctuations in the micellar solution. Finally, we show that the rheological variation from a viscous precursor solution to a viscoelastic micellar structured phase is associated with the structural evolution from the precursor to NI-FISP.

  19. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  20. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  1. Polymeric bicontinuous microemulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Kasiraman

    Rheology of complex fluids has been a topic of considerable interest recently. Bicontinuous microemulsions (BmuE), made by mixing appropriate amounts of oil, water and a surfactant, form a unique class of complex fluids. They possess a characteristic nanostructure consisting of undulating surfaces with vanishingly small interfacial curvature. BmuEs can also be generated in polymers by mixing appropriate amounts of two homopolymers and their corresponding diblock copolymer. The main objective of the present research is to study effects of shear on a model polymeric BmuE. Scattering is used as a predominant tool with in situ flow devices, along with optical microscopy and rheology. The model BmuE consists of a ternary blend of poly(ethyl ethylene) (PEE), poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) and a PEE-PDMS diblock copolymer. Steady shear experiments reveal four regimes as a function of shear rate. At low shear rates (regime I), Newtonian behavior is observed; there is onset of shear thinning at higher rates (regime II). In regime III, the stress is independent of shear rate, whereas it increases with shear rate once again in regime IV. Morphological characterization was carried out for each of these four regimes using scattering and microscopy, the key result being the evidence for flow-induced phase separation in regime III. Transient rheological measurements were conducted for startup and step changes in shear rate, and the BmuE exhibits features similar to worm-like micellar colloidal systems. Time-resolved light scattering and microscopy also reveal interesting characteristics. Dynamic mechanical spectroscopy indicates similarities with neat block copolymers near the order-disorder transition. The equilibrium rheological behavior is intriguing and detailed comparisons are made with Landau-Ginzburg theoretical models. Other areas of research as a part of this thesis include study of structural dynamics of BmuEs with dynamic light scattering, and the rheological

  2. Counterion condensation and release in micellar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Chin Chieh; Wang, Tzu-Yu; Tsao, Heng-Kwong

    2005-04-01

    Counterion condensation and release in micellar solutions are investigated by direct measurement of counterion concentration with ion-selective electrode. Monte Carlo simulations based on the cell model are also performed to analyze the experimental results. The degree of counterion condensation is indicated by the concentration ratio of counterions in the bulk to the total ionic surfactant added, α⩽1. The ionic surfactant is completely dissociated below the critical micelle concentration (cmc). However, as cmc is exceeded, the free counterion ratio α declines with increasing the surfactant concentration and approaches an asymptotic value owing to counterion condensation to the surface of the highly charged micelles. Micelle formation leads to much stronger electrostatic attraction between the counterion and the highly charged sphere in comparison to the attraction of single surfactant ion with its counterion. A simple model is developed to obtain the true degree of ionization, which agrees with our Monte Carlo results. Upon addition of neutral polymer or monovalent salts, some of the surfactant counterions are released to the bulk. The former is due to the decrease of the intrinsic charge (smaller aggregation number) and the degree of ionization is increased. The latter is attributed to competitive counterion condensation, which follows the Hefmeister series. This consequence indicates that the specific ion effect plays an important role next to the electrostatic attraction.

  3. Micellar Catalysis: Bioinspired Micellar Copper Protoporphyrin as a High Performing Nano-Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Mohammad M; Kzemin Jasemi, Neda; Hedayati Katuli, Fatemeh; Dorostgu, Zahra; Yazdani, Fahimeh; Dorostgu, Zeinab; Rad, Behnam; Sartipnia, Nasrin; Falahati, Mojtaba

    2016-02-29

    Herein we have engineered a micellar Cu protoporphyrin catalyst that mediates carbon bond activation using peroxide as an electron source. Cu protoporphyrin is a biomimetic model of active site of chloroperoxidase enzyme, which catalyzes the carbon bond halogenation in the presence of a suitable amount of H2O2. The encapsulation of Cu(II) Protoporphyrin IX/L-Cysteine inside of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide micelle increases the rate of chlorination at pH 3. The cited catalyst resists high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, which is previously reported as a suicide inactivator component of hemo-enzymes. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) data have revealed the formation of a micellar complex by encapsulation of six Cu(II) proporphyrins within each micelle. Moreover, electrochemical investigations indicate that L-Cysteine increases the intensity of electron transferred due to the formation of self-assembled monolayer on Au electrode. Our results paved a road toward the design of a more robust mimetic catalysis based on Protoporphyrin IX derivatives.

  4. Biokompatible Polymere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Suk-Woo; Wintermantel, Erich; Maier, Gerhard

    Der klinische Einsatz von synthetischen Polymeren begann in den 60-er Jahren in Form von Einwegartikeln, wie beispielsweise Spritzen und Kathetern, vor allem aufgrund der Tatsache, dass Infektionen infolge nicht ausreichender Sterilität der wiederverwendbaren Artikel aus Glas und metallischen Werkstoffen durch den Einsatz von sterilen Einwegartikeln signifikant reduziert werden konnten [1]. Die Einführung der medizinischen Einwegartikel aus Polymeren erfolgte somit nicht nur aus ökonomischen, sondern auch aus hygienischen Gründen. Wegen der steigenden Anzahl synthetischer Polymere und dem zunehmenden Bedarf an ärztlicher Versorgung reicht die Anwendung von Polymeren in der Medizin von preisgünstigen Einwegartikeln, die nur kurzzeitig intrakorporal eingesetzt werden, bis hin zu Implantaten, welche über eine längere Zeit grossen Beanspruchungen im menschlichen Körper ausgesetzt sind. Die steigende Verbreitung von klinisch eingesetzten Polymeren ist auf ihre einfache und preisgünstige Verarbeitbarkeit in eine Vielzahl von Formen und Geometrien sowie auf ihr breites Eigenschaftsspektrum zurückzuführen. Polymere werden daher in fast allen medizinischen Bereichen eingesetzt.

  5. Mechanisms of doxorubicin resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Josiah; Weinman, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma, one of the most common solid tumors worldwide, is poorly responsive to available chemotherapeutic approaches. While systemic chemotherapy is of limited benefit, intra-arterial delivery of doxorubicin to the tumor frequently produces tumor shrinkage. Its utility is limited, in part, by the frequent emergence of doxorubicin resistance. The mechanisms of this resistance include increased expression of multidrug resistance efflux pumps, alterations of the drug target, topoisomerase, and modulation of programmed cell death pathways. Many of these effects result from changes in miRNA expression and are particularly prominent in tumor cells with a stem cell phenotype. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms of doxorubicin resistance of hepatocellular carcinoma and the potential for approaches toward therapeutic chemosensitization. PMID:26998221

  6. In vivo and in vitro anti-cancer activity of thermo-sensitive and photo-crosslinkable doxorubicin hydrogels composed of chitosan-doxorubicin conjugates.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Il; Park, Shinyoung; Jeong, Seo Young; Yoo, Hyuk Sang

    2009-09-01

    Doxorubicin was chemically conjugated to acrylated chitosan in order to obtain sustained-release profiles of doxorubicin from thermo-responsive and photo-crosslinkable hydrogels. Chitooligosaccharide was acrylated with glycidyl methacrylate and subsequently conjugated to doxorubicin via an amide linkage. A mixture of doxorubicin-chitosan conjugates, acrylated Pluronic, and doxorubicin formed physical gels at 37 degrees C. Photo-irradiation was subsequently performed to chemically crosslink the physical hydrogel at 37 degrees C. Chitooligosaccharide-doxorubicin conjugates in the doxorubicin hydrogels significantly reduced burst release of free doxorubicin from doxorubicin hydrogels compared hydrogels without the conjugates. Upon incubating doxorubicin hydrogels at 37 degrees C, chitosan-doxorubicin conjugates were confirmed to be degraded into more hydrophilic oligomers by reversed-phase chromatography. In vitro cytotoxicity assay using released media from doxorubicin hydrogels showed that degraded chitosan-doxorubicin had cytotoxicity comparable to free doxorubicin. Athymic nude mice bearing human lung adenocarcinoma were subjected to intra-tumoral injections of physical hydrogels. After photo-crosslinking injected hydrogels using surgical catheters, tumor sizes, body weights, and survivals were measured for 1 month. Released media from doxorubicin hydrogels exerted similar cytotoxicities to free doxorubicin, and the tumor volume was significantly reduced for 1 month compared to other samples. Thus, doxorubicin hydrogels containing doxorubicin conjugates can be employed as a novel injectable anti-cancer drug aiming to achieve sustained release of doxorubicin for several weeks against solid tumors.

  7. Targeted Magnetic Liposomes Loaded with Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Pallab; Banerjee, Rinti; Bahadur, Dhirendra; Koch, Christian; Mykhaylyk, Olga; Plank, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Targeted delivery systems for anticancer drugs are urgently needed to achieve maximum therapeutic efficacy by site-specific accumulation and thereby minimizing adverse effects resulting from systemic distribution of many potent anticancer drugs. We have prepared folate receptor-targeted magnetic liposomes loaded with doxorubicin, which are designed for tumor targeting through a combination of magnetic and biological targeting. Furthermore, these liposomes are designed for hyperthermia-induced drug release to be mediated by an alternating magnetic field and to be traceable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, detailed preparation and relevant characterization techniques of targeted magnetic liposomes encapsulating doxorubicin are described.

  8. Doxorubicin-transferrin conjugate triggers pro-oxidative disorders in solid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Szwed, Marzena; Wrona, Dominika; Kania, Katarzyna D; Koceva-Chyla, Aneta; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a widely accepted mechanism of doxorubicin (DOX) toxicity toward cancer cells. However, little is known about the potential of new systems, designed for more efficient and targeted doxorubicin delivery (i.e. protein conjugates, polymeric micelles, liposomes, monoclonal antibodies), to induce oxidative stress (OS) in tumors and hematological malignancies. Therefore, the objective of our study was to determine the relation between the toxicity of doxorubicin-transferring (DOX-TRF) conjugate and its capability to generate oxidative/nitrosative stress in solid tumor cells. Our research proves that DOX-TRF conjugate displays higher cytotoxicity towards lung adenocarcinoma epithelial (A549) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines than the reference free drug (DOX) and induces more extensive OS, characterized by a significant decrease in the total cellular antioxidant capacity, glutathione level and amount of -SH groups and an increase in hydroperoxide content. The intracellular redox imbalance was accompanied by changes in the transcription of genes encoding key antioxidant enzymes engaged in the sustaining of cellular redox homeostasis: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GP).

  9. El Dorado micellar-polymer project - a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Vanhorn, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Demonstration Project is a cooperative venture between Cities Service Co. and the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary objective of the project is to determine the economic feasibility of improved oil recovery using 2 micellar-polymer processes and to determine the associated benefits and problems of each process. The El Dorado Demonstration Project is designed to allow a side-by-side comparison of 2 distinct micellar-polymer processes in the same field so that the reservoir conditions for the 2 floods are as similar as possible. This report updates the status of the operation of the El Dorado Project from Jan. 1979 through Dec. 1980.

  10. Mechanistic studies of partial-filing micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.M.; Lee, C.S. |

    1996-09-15

    The need for coupling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with electrospray mass spectrometry initiates the development of partial-filling MEKC. In comparison with conventional MEKC, only a small portion of the capillary is filled with a micellar solution for performing the separation in partial-filling MEKC. Analytes first migrate into the micellar plug, where the separation occurs, and then into the leading electrophoresis buffer, which is free of surfactants. A theoretical model is proposed for predicting the separation behavior of triazine herbicides in partial-filling MEKC. The comparisons between conventional and partial-filling MEKC in terms of separation efficiency and resolution of triazine herbicides are presented and discussed. The optimization techniques, possible applications, and advantages of partial-filling MEKC are similarly addressed. 11 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Biopartitioning micellar chromatography to predict mutagenicity of aromatic amines.

    PubMed

    Torres-Cartas, S; Martín-Biosca, Y; Villanueva-Camañas, R M; Sagrado, S; Medina-Hernández, M J

    2007-01-01

    Mutagenicity is a toxicity endpoint associated with the chronic exposure to chemicals. Aromatic amines have considerable industrial and environmental importance due to their widespread use in industry and their mutagenic capacity. Biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC), a mode of micellar liquid chromatography that uses micellar mobile phases of Brij35 in adequate experimental conditions, has demonstrated to be useful in mimicking the drug partitioning process into biological systems. In this paper, the usefulness of BMC for predicting mutagenicity of aromatic amines is demonstrated. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model based on BMC retention data is proposed and compared with other ones reported in bibliography. The proposed model present better or similar descriptive and predictive capability.

  12. Micellar kinetics of a fluorosurfactant through stopped-flow NMR.

    PubMed

    Yushmanov, Pavel V; Furó, István; Stilbs, Peter

    2006-02-28

    19F NMR chemical shifts and transverse relaxation times T2 were measured as a function of time after quick stopped-flow dilution of aqueous solutions of sodium perfluorooctanoate (NaPFO) with water. Different initial concentrations of micellar solution and different proportions of mixing were tested. Previous stopped-flow studies by time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering (TR-SAXS) detection indicated a slow (approximately 10 s) micellar relaxation kinetics in NaPFO solutions. In contrast, no evidence of any comparable slow (>100 ms) relaxation process was found in our NMR studies. Possible artifacts of stopped-flow experiments are discussed as well as differences between NMR and SAXS detection methods. Upper bounds on the relative weight of a slow relaxation process are given within existing kinetic theories of micellar dissolution.

  13. Self-crosslinkable and intracellularly decrosslinkable biodegradable micellar nanoparticles: A robust, simple and multifunctional nanoplatform for high-efficiency targeted cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Fang, Ya; Meng, Hao; Meng, Fenghua; Deng, Chao; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Zhiyuan

    2016-12-28

    Nanomedicines based on biodegradable micelles offer a most promising treatment for malignant tumors. Their clinical effectiveness, however, remains to be improved. Here, we report that self-crosslinkable and intracellularly decrosslinkable micellar nanoparticles (SCID-Ms) self-assembled from novel amphiphilic biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(dithiolane trimethylene carbonate) block copolymer achieve high-efficiency targeted cancer chemotherapy in vivo. Interestingly, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded SCID-Ms showed favorable features of superb stability, minimal drug leakage, long circulation time, triggered drug release inside the tumor cells, and an unprecedented maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of over 100mg DOX equiv./kg in mice, which was at least 10 times higher than free drug. The in vivo studies in malignant B16 melanoma-bearing C57BL/6 mice revealed that DOX-SCID-Ms at a dosage of 30mg DOX equiv./kg could effectively suppress tumor growth and prolong mice survival time without causing obvious systemic toxicity. Moreover, DOX-SCID-Ms could be readily decorated with a targeting ligand like cRGD peptide. The biodistribution studies showed that cRGD20/DOX-SCID-Ms had a high tumor accumulation of 6.13% ID/g at 6h post injection, which was ca. 3-fold higher than that for clinically used pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (DOX-LPs). Accordingly, cRGD20/DOX-SCID-Ms exhibited significantly better therapeutic efficacy and lower side effects than DOX-LPs in B16 melanoma-bearing mice. These self-regulating biodegradable micellar nanoparticles offer a robust, multifunctional and viable nanoplatform for targeted cancer chemotherapy.

  14. Development and application of a streamline micellar/polymer simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Lake, L.W.; Pope, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    A large-scale, two-dimensional, multicomponent, multiphase, compositional simulator for micellar/polymer flooding has been developed and applied. It can be used to calculate the areal sweep with any well pattern and any irregular reservoir boundary. The model involves both streamline and finite-difference techniques. In order to demonstrate that this model is capable of handling large field problems, a large-scale simulation of the north lease of the Kansas' El Dorado micellar/polymer pilot test was made. The simulated final oil recovery and the production histories of each producer are illustrated. 28 refs.

  15. Adsorption Kinetics in Micellar Solutions of Nonionic Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colegate, Daniel M.; Bain, Colin D.

    2005-11-01

    Standard models of the adsorption kinetics of surfactants at the air-water surface assume that micelles break down into monomers in the bulk solution and that only monomers adsorb. We show here that micelles of the nonionic surfactant C14E8 adsorb to the surface of a liquid jet at a diffusion-controlled rate. Micellar adsorption can be switched off by incorporation of a small amount of ionic surfactant into the micelle and switched on again by addition of salt. More sophisticated models of adsorption processes in micellar solutions are required that permit a kinetic flux of micelles to the air-water interface.

  16. A Novel Insight into the Cardiotoxicity of Antineoplastic Drug Doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Heger, Zbynek; Cernei, Natalia; Kudr, Jiri; Gumulec, Jaromir; Blazkova, Iva; Zitka, Ondrej; Eckschlager, Tomas; Stiborova, Marie; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of many types of cancer. Little is known about the interactions of doxorubicin with cardiac biomolecules. Serious cardiotoxicity including dilated cardiomyopathy often resulting in a fatal congestive heart failure may occur as a consequence of chemotherapy with doxorubicin. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of exposure to doxorubicin on the changes in major amino acids in tissue of cardiac muscle (proline, taurine, glutamic acid, arginine, aspartic acid, leucine, glycine, valine, alanine, isoleucine, threonine, lysine and serine). An in vitro interaction study was performed as a comparison of amino acid profiles in heart tissue before and after application of doxorubicin. We found that doxorubicin directly influences myocardial amino acid representation even at low concentrations. In addition, we performed an interaction study that resulted in the determination of breaking points for each of analyzed amino acids. Lysine, arginine, β-alanine, valine and serine were determined as the most sensitive amino acids. Additionally we compared amino acid profiles of myocardium before and after exposure to doxorubicin. The amount of amino acids after interaction with doxorubicin was significantly reduced (p = 0.05). This fact points at an ability of doxorubicin to induce changes in quantitative composition of amino acids in myocardium. Moreover, this confirms that the interactions between doxorubicin and amino acids may act as another factor most likely responsible for adverse effects of doxorubicin on myocardium. PMID:24185911

  17. NADPH oxidases participate to doxorubicin-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Gilleron, Mylène; Marechal, Xavier; Montaigne, David; Franczak, Jessica; Neviere, Remi; Lancel, Steve

    2009-10-30

    Cumulative doses of doxorubicin, a potent anticancer drug, lead to serious myocardial dysfunction. Numerous mechanisms including apoptosis have been proposed to account for its cardiotoxicity. Cardiac apoptosis induced by doxorubicin has been related to excessive reactive oxygen species production by the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase. Here, we explored whether doxorubicin treatment activates other superoxide anion generating systems such as the NADPH oxidases, membrane-embedded flavin-containing enzymes, and whether the subsequent oxidative stress contributes to apoptosis. We showed that doxorubicin treatment of rat cardiomyoblasts H9c2 triggers increases in caspase-3 like activity and hypoploid cells, both common features of apoptosis. Doxorubicin exposure also leads to a rapid superoxide production through NADPH oxidase activation. Inhibition of these enzymes using diphenyliodonium and apocynin reduces doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species production, caspase-3 like activity and sub-G1 cell population. In conclusion, NADPH oxidases participate to doxorubicin-induced cardiac apoptosis.

  18. El Dorado micellar-polymer demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenwald, G.W.

    1980-02-01

    The micellar fluid injection was completed in the north (Chesney) pattern, and injection of polymer soluttion was initiated. Polymer solution was injected into the south (Hegberg) pattern during the entire reporting period. The third step of the graded polymer injection design is nearing completion. Fluid movement at the observation wells has been monitored closely. Oil mobilization has been indicated by the detection of an oil bank moving past some of the observation wells in both patterns. No significant changes in fluid composition have occurred at the eight production wells during this reporting period. Three flow tests designed to define the optimal salinity for the north pattern polymer drive were made using El Dorado 650-ft Sandstone cores. Results of these tests indicated that a polymer drive with 1.0 wt %. NaCl in El Dorado lake water has the highest oil recovery efficiency. The pressures in the project monitoring wells were measured four times. Two sets of pressure transient tests were conducted to determine the extent of a hydraulic fracture of well MP-213; these tests also involved wells MP-226 and MP-227. An extensive discussion of the west-to-east pressure gradient observed in the field was presented last year. Data indicate the gradient still exists. Computations show that the gradient cannot be caused by the degree of reservoir heterogeneity thought to exist in the El Dorado reservoir. Although the cause of the gradient remains unexplained, its adverse impact on ultimate oil recovery could be significant and should be considered in future performance modeling. An estimate of recovery efficiency was made based on the updated calculations and the data taken for the one-foot interval at well MP-131. These preliminary results showed about 40% displacement efficiency.

  19. Chitosan-Decorated Doxorubicin-Encapsulated Nanoparticle Targets and Eliminates Tumor Reinitiating Cancer Stem-like Cells.

    PubMed

    Rao, Wei; Wang, Hai; Han, Jianfeng; Zhao, Shuting; Dumbleton, Jenna; Agarwal, Pranay; Zhang, Wujie; Zhao, Gang; Yu, Jianhua; Zynger, Debra L; Lu, Xiongbin; He, Xiaoming

    2015-06-23

    Tumor reinitiating cancer stem-like cells are responsible for cancer recurrence associated with conventional chemotherapy. We developed a doxorubicin-encapsulated polymeric nanoparticle surface-decorated with chitosan that can specifically target the CD44 receptors of these cells. This nanoparticle system was engineered to release the doxorubicin in acidic environments, which occurs when the nanoparticles are localized in the acidic tumor microenvironment and when they are internalized and localized in the cellular endosomes/lysosomes. This nanoparticle design strategy increases the cytotoxicity of the doxorubicin by six times in comparison to the use of free doxorubicin for eliminating CD44(+) cancer stem-like cells residing in 3D mammary tumor spheroids (i.e., mammospheres). We further show these nanoparticles reduced the size of tumors in an orthotopic xenograft tumor model with no evident systemic toxicity. The development of nanoparticle system to target cancer stem-like cells with low systemic toxicity provides a new treatment arsenal for improving the survival of cancer patients.

  20. Dynamics of adsorption in micellar and non micellar solutions of derivatives of lysosomotropic substances.

    PubMed

    Dopierala, Katarzyna; Prochaska, Krystyna

    2010-04-22

    Dynamics of adsorption in micellar and non micellar solutions of derivatives of lysosomotropic substances was studied. The following compounds were considered in our research work: alkyl N,N-dimethyl-alaninates methobromides (DMALM-n), alkyl N,N-dimethylglycinates methobromides (DMGM-n), fatty acids N,N-dimethylaminoethylesters methobromides (DMM-n), fatty acids N,N-dimethylaminopropylesters methobromides (DMPM-n), fatty acids 1-dimethylamino-2-propyl methobromides (DMP(2)M-n), and derivatives of aminoesters with double alkyl chains (M(2)M-n). The examined compounds show interesting biological properties which can be useful, especially in medicine. The exact mechanism of interaction of such compounds with biological membrane is not fully known. However, it is supposed that the presence of micelles has an important role in biological systems. In this paper we show the results of dynamic surface tension measurements in solutions containing the investigated compounds at concentrations above and below cmc. Moreover, we analyzed the influence of the chemical structure of molecules on the diameters of the micelles formed in the solutions. It was found that adsorption dynamics for the studied compounds is strongly affected by the chemical structure of the considered derivatives, especially by the presence of the ester bond, linearity of the molecule, as well as its hydrophobicity. The obtained results show that the structure of the bromide M(2)M-n with two short hydrocarbon chains favors a faster and more efficient adsorption of the molecules at the air/water interface, compared with compounds having one long alkyl chain. Moreover, the double chained derivatives of the M(2)M-n type do not form typical spherical micelles but bilayer structures probably exist in these solutions. The micelles present in the solutions influence the dynamics of adsorption drastically. Moreover, the obtained results indicated that the compounds with especially high biological activity form

  1. MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY (R823292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The combination of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with mass spectrometry (MS) is very attractive for the direct identification of analyte molecules, for the possibility of selectivity enhancement, and for the structure confirmation and analysis in a MS-MS mode. The...

  2. MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY (R823292)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The combination of micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with mass spectrometry (MS) is very attractive for the direct identification of analyte molecules, for the possibility of selectivity enhancement, and for the structure confirmation and analysis in a MS-MS mode. The...

  3. Use of a fluorosurfactant in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, R; Damin, F; Reijenga, J; Chiari, M

    2001-05-04

    A fluorosurfactant, the anionic N-ethyl-N-[(heptadecafluorooctyl)sulfonyl]glycine potassium salt, trade name FC-129 [CAS 2991-51-7] was investigated for possible application in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). The surfactant was characterized with conductometric titration and test sample mixtures were investigated in MEKC systems, and compared with sodium dodecylsulphate. An increased efficiency and interesting selectivity differences were observed.

  4. Photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for controlled doxorubicin release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Cuiping; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Cecheng; Lin, Xinyi; Wei, Zuwu; Zheng, Youshi; Zhang, Da; Zhang, Zhenxi; Liu, Xiaolong

    2017-06-01

    Currently, photoresponsive nanomaterials are particularly attractive due to their spatial and temporal controlled drug release abilities. In this work, we report a photoresponsive lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticle for remote controlled delivery of anticancer drugs. This hybrid nanoparticle comprises three distinct functional components: (i) a poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) core to encapsulate doxorubicin; (ii) a soybean lecithin monolayer at the interface of the core and shell to act as a molecular fence to prevent drug leakage; (iii) a photoresponsive polymeric shell with anti-biofouling properties to enhance nanoparticle stability, which could be detached from the nanoparticle to trigger the drug release via a decrease in the nanoparticle’s stability under light irradiation. In vitro results revealed that this core-shell nanoparticle had excellent light-controlled drug release behavior (76% release with light irradiation versus 10% release without light irradiation). The confocal microscopy and flow cytometry results also further demonstrated the light-controlled drug release behavior inside the cancer cells. Furthermore, a CCK8 assay demonstrated that light irradiation could significantly improve the efficiency of killing cancer cells. Meanwhile, whole-animal fluorescence imaging of a tumor-bearing mouse also confirmed that light irradiation could trigger drug release in vivo. Taken together, our data suggested that a hybrid nanoparticle could be a novel light controlled drug delivery system for cancer therapy.

  5. Nanoengineered mesoporous silica nanoparticles for smart delivery of doxorubicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Akhilesh Kumar; Pandey, Himanshu; Agarwal, Vishnu; Ramteke, Pramod W.; Pandey, Avinash C.

    2014-08-01

    The motive of the at hand exploration was to contrive a proficient innovative pH-responsive nanocarrier designed for an anti-neoplastic agent that not only owns competent loading capacity but also talented to liberate the drug at the specific site. pH sensitive hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles ( MSN) have been synthesized by sequence of chemical reconstruction with an average particle size of 120 nm. MSN reveal noteworthy biocompatibility and efficient drug loading magnitude. Active molecules such as Doxorubicin (DOX) can be stocked and set free from the pore vacuities of MSN by tuning the pH of the medium. The loading extent of MSN was found up to 81.4 wt% at pH 7.8. At mild acidic pH, DOX is steadily released from the pores of MSN. Both, the nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and X-ray diffraction patterns reflects that this system holds remarkable stable mesostructure. Additionally, the outcomes of cytotoxicity assessment further establish the potential of MSN as a relevant drug transporter which can be thought over an appealing choice to a polymeric delivery system.

  6. A Stimuli-Responsive Hydrogel for Doxorubicin Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Liu, Zen; Pumberger, Matthias; Giraldo, Catalina Vallejo; Ruesink, Terry; Lu, Lichun; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a polymeric carrier for delivery of anti-tumor drugs and sustained release of these agents in order to optimize anti-tumor activity while minimizing systemic effects. We used oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) hydrogels modified with small negatively charged molecules, sodium methacrylate (SMA), for delivery of doxorubicin (DOX). SMA at different concentrations was incorporated into the OPF hydrogel with a photo-crosslinking method. The resulting hydrogels exhibited sensitivity to the pH and ionic strength of the surrounding environment. Our results revealed that DOX was bound to the negatively charged hydrogel through electrostatic interaction and was released in a timely fashion with an ion exchange mechanism. Release kinetics of DOX was directly correlated to the concentration of SMA in the hydrogel formulations. Anti-tumor activity of the released DOX was assessed using a human osteosarcoma cell line. Our data revealed that DOX released from the modified, charged hydrogels remained biologically active and had the capability to kill cancer cells. In contrast, control groups of unmodified OPF hydrogels with or without DOX did not exhibit any cytotoxicity. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using SMA-modified OPF hydrogels as a potential carrier for chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatments. PMID:20696470

  7. Chemical Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Alleviates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hai Ying; Sanada, Shoji; Matsuzaki, Takashi; Liao, Yulin; Okuda, Keiji; Yamato, Masaki; Tsuchida, Shota; Araki, Ryo; Asano, Yoshihiro; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asakura, Masanori; French, Brent A; Sakata, Yasushi; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Minamino, Tetsuo

    2016-03-04

    Doxorubicin is an effective chemotherapeutic agent for cancer, but its use is often limited by cardiotoxicity. Doxorubicin causes endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dilation in cardiomyocytes, and we have demonstrated that ER stress plays important roles in the pathophysiology of heart failure. We evaluated the role of ER stress in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and examined whether the chemical ER chaperone could prevent doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction. We confirmed that doxorubicin caused ER dilation in mouse hearts, indicating that doxorubicin may affect ER function. Doxorubicin activated an ER transmembrane stress sensor, activating transcription factor 6, in cultured cardiomyocytes and mouse hearts. However, doxorubicin suppressed the expression of genes downstream of activating transcription factor 6, including X-box binding protein 1. The decreased levels of X-box binding protein 1 resulted in a failure to induce the expression of the ER chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 which plays a major role in adaptive responses to ER stress. In addition, doxorubicin activated caspase-12, an ER membrane-resident apoptotic molecule, which can lead to cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction. Cardiac-specific overexpression of glucose-regulated protein 78 by adeno-associated virus 9 or the administration of the chemical ER chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate attenuated caspase-12 cleavage, and alleviated cardiac apoptosis and dysfunction induced by doxorubicin. Doxorubicin activated the ER stress-initiated apoptotic response without inducing the ER chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78, further augmenting ER stress in mouse hearts. Cardiac-specific overexpression of glucose-regulated protein 78 or the administration of the chemical ER chaperone alleviated the cardiac dysfunction induced by doxorubicin and may facilitate the safe use of doxorubicin for cancer treatment. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. The effects of detergents on the polymerization properties of actin.

    PubMed

    Ujfalusi-Pozsonyi, Kinga; Hild, Gábor; Gróf, Pál; Gutay-Tóth, Zsuzsanna; Bacsó, Zsolt; Nyitrai, Miklós

    2010-05-01

    Effects of some detergents-most frequently used in membrane raft studies-on the polymerization properties of actin were examined under in vitro and in vivo conditions, for protein and cellular investigations, respectively. Under in vitro conditions the polymerization rates were measured with pyrene-labeled actin. We found that polymerization rate depended on the detergent concentration by following either biphasic characteristics or only decreasing tendency. The strongest effects were observed at relatively low detergent concentrations. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and dynamic light-scattering measurements provided further evidences for the size distribution of actin filaments formed under the influence of detergents. Comparing the polymerization rates measured in the presence of different detergents to those obtained with various magnesium and KCl concentrations showed that detergents may influence the actin polymerization at three levels by modifying: (i) the monomer-monomer interaction, (ii) the local ionic strength, and (iii) the affinity of actin for various cations. In vivo studies on NIH 3T3MDR1 cells using TRITC-phalloidin detected fast depolymerization of large extent around the critical micellar concentrations of the detergents. We concluded that microdomain insolubility observed in the presence of detergents is hardly to be the result of the stabilization of the submembrane actin cytoskeleton merely; rather inter-lipid and lipid-protein interactions are also involved within the detergent-resistant membranes.

  9. Synthesis of amphiphilic tadpole-shaped linear-cyclic diblock copolymers via ring-opening polymerization directly initiating from cyclic precursors and their application as drug nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xuejuan; Liu, Tao; Liu, Shiyong

    2011-04-11

    We report on the facile synthesis of well-defined amphiphilic and thermoresponsive tadpole-shaped linear-cyclic diblock copolymers via ring-opening polymerization (ROP) directly initiating from cyclic precursors, their self-assembling behavior in aqueous solution, and the application of micellar assemblies as controlled release drug nanocarriers. Starting from a trifunctional core molecule containing alkynyl, hydroxyl, and bromine moieties, alkynyl-(OH)-Br, macrocyclic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (c-PNIPAM) bearing a single hydroxyl functionality was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), the subsequent end group transformation into azide functionality, and finally the intramacromolecular ring closure reaction via click chemistry. The target amphiphilic tadpole-shaped linear-cyclic diblock copolymer, (c-PNIPAM)-b-PCL, was then synthesized via the ROP of ε-caprolactone (CL) by directly initiating from the cyclic precursor. In aqueous solution at 20 °C, (c-PNIPAM)-b-PCL self-assembles into spherical micelles consisting of hydrophobic PCL cores and well-solvated coronas of cyclic PNIPAM segments. For comparison, linear diblock copolymer with comparable molecular weight and composition, (l-PNIPAM)-b-PCL, was also synthesized. It was found that the thermoresponsive coronas of micelles self-assembled from (c-PNIPAM)-b-PCL exhibit thermoinduced collapse and aggregation at a lower critical thermal phase transition temperature (T(c)) compared with those of (l-PNIPAM)-b-PCL. Temperature-dependent drug release profiles from the two types of micelles of (c-PNIPAM)-b-PCL and (l-PNIPAM)-b-PCL loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) were measured, and the underlying mechanism for the observed difference in releasing properties was proposed. Moreover, MTT assays revealed that micelles of (c-PNIPAM)-b-PCL are almost noncytotoxic up to a concentration of 1.0 g/L, whereas at the same polymer concentration, micelles loaded with Dox lead to ∼60% cell death. Overall, chain

  10. Doxorubicin-Nanocarriers Enhance Doxorubicin Uptake and Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Drug-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohammed

    We tested Fe3O4 TiO2 metal oxide core-shell nanocomposites as carriers for doxorubicin and investigated the distribution of "doxorubicin-nanocarriers" and free doxorubicin in doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian cancer cell lines. We hypothesized that doxorubicin-nanocarriers (DOX-NCs) would increase doxorubicin uptake in a drug-resistant cell line. Our expectation was that doxorubicin would bind to the TiO2 surface either by a labile monodentate link or through adsorption and subsequent disassociation from the nanocomposite carriers upon acidification in cell endosomes. Released doxorubicin could then traverse the intracellular milieu to enter the cell nucleus, overcoming the p-glycoprotein mediated doxorubicin resistance. Using a combination of confocal fluorescent microscopy, flow cytometry, and X-ray fluorescence microscopy we were able to evaluate the uptake and distribution of doxorubicin-nanocarriers in cells. Moreover, we found that nanocomposite treatment modulates the simultaneous uptake and distribution of fluorescent transferrin in ovarian cancer cell lines. This increased transferrin uptake still occurred by clathrin-mediated endocytosis; it appears that the nanocomposites and DOX-NCs alike may interfere with trans-Golgi apparatus function.

  11. Nanodrug-Enhanced Radiofrequency Tumor Ablation: Effect of Micellar or Liposomal Carrier on Drug Delivery and Treatment Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Marwan; Goldberg, S. Nahum; Kumar, Gaurav; Sawant, Rupa R.; Levchenko, Tatyana; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Ahmed, Muneeb

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of different drug-loaded nanocarriers (micelles and liposomes) on delivery and treatment efficacy for radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with nanodrugs. Materials/Methods Fischer 344 rats were used (n = 196). First, single subcutaneous R3230 tumors or normal liver underwent RFA followed by immediate administration of IV fluorescent beads (20, 100, and 500 nm), with fluorescent intensity measured at 4–24 hr. Next, to study carrier type on drug efficiency, RFA was combined with micellar (20 nm) or liposomal (100 nm) preparations of doxorubicin (Dox; targeting HIF-1α) or quercetin (Qu; targeting HSP70). Animals received RFA alone, RFA with Lipo-Dox or Mic-Dox (1 mg IV, 15 min post-RFA), and RFA with Lipo-Qu or Mic-Qu given 24 hr pre- or 15 min post-RFA (0.3 mg IV). Tumor coagulation and HIF-1α orHSP70 expression were assessed 24 hr post-RFA. Third, the effect of RFA combined with IV Lipo-Dox, Mic-Dox, Lipo-Qu, or Mic-Qu (15 min post-RFA) compared to RFA alone on tumor growth and animal endpoint survival was evaluated. Finally, drug uptake was compared between RFA/Lipo-Dox and RFA/Mic-Dox at 4–72 hr. Results Smaller 20 nm beads had greater deposition and deeper tissue penetration in both tumor (100 nm/500 nm) and liver (100 nm) (p<0.05). Mic-Dox and Mic-Qu suppressed periablational HIF-1α or HSP70 rim thickness more than liposomal preparations (p<0.05). RFA/Mic-Dox had greater early (4 hr) intratumoral doxorubicin, but RFA/Lipo-Dox had progressively higher intratumoral doxorubicin at 24–72 hr post-RFA (p<0.04). No difference in tumor growth and survival was seen between RFA/Lipo-Qu and RFA/Mic-Qu. Yet, RFA/Lipo-Dox led to greater animal endpoint survival compared to RFA/Mic-Dox (p<0.03). Conclusion With RF ablation, smaller particle micelles have superior penetration and more effective local molecular modulation. However, larger long-circulating liposomal carriers can result in greater intratumoral drug accumulation over

  12. Bacterial inactivation of the anticancer drug doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Westman, Erin L; Canova, Marc J; Radhi, Inas J; Koteva, Kalinka; Kireeva, Inga; Waglechner, Nicholas; Wright, Gerard D

    2012-10-26

    Microbes are exposed to compounds produced by members of their ecological niche, including molecules with antibiotic or antineoplastic activities. As a result, even bacteria that do not produce such compounds can harbor the genetic machinery to inactivate or degrade these molecules. Here, we investigated environmental actinomycetes for their ability to inactivate doxorubicin, an aminoglycosylated anthracycline anticancer drug. One strain, Streptomyces WAC04685, inactivates doxorubicin via a deglycosylation mechanism. Activity-based purification of the enzymes responsible for drug inactivation identified the NADH dehydrogenase component of respiratory electron transport complex I, which was confirmed by gene inactivation studies. A mechanism where reduction of the quinone ring of the anthracycline by NADH dehydrogenase leads to deglycosylation is proposed. This work adds anticancer drug inactivation to the enzymatic inactivation portfolio of actinomycetes and offers possibilities for novel applications in drug detoxification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of flavonoid derivatives on doxorubicin transport and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Václavíková, Radka; Kondrová, Eliska; Ehrlichová, Marie; Boumendjel, Ahcene; Kovár, Jan; Stopka, Pavel; Soucek, Pavel; Gut, Ivan

    2008-02-15

    This study investigated the effect of naturally occurring flavonoids and synthetic aurone derivatives on the formation of cardiotoxic doxorubicinol and transport of doxorubicin in breast cancer cells. Quercetin significantly inhibited the formation of doxorubicinol. Quercetin and aurones did not significantly affect transport of [14C]doxorubicin in human resistant breast cancer cells. In conclusion, quercetin should be further tested for its potency to decrease doxorubicin-mediated toxicity.

  14. Doxorubicin cardiomyopathy in children with left-sided Wilms tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkel, D.; Camitta, B.; Kun, L.; Howarth, C.; Tang, T.

    1982-01-01

    Two children with Wilms tumor of the left kidney experienced severe anthracycline cardiomyopathy after irradiation to the tumor bed and conventional dosage of doxorubicin. The cardiomyopathy is attributed 1) to the fact that radiation fields for left Wilms tumor include the lower portion of the heart and 2) to the interaction of doxorubicin and irradiation on cardiac muscle. It is recommended that doxorubicin dosage be sharply restricted in children with Wilms tumor of the left kidney who receive postoperative irradiation.

  15. Cardiac actomyosin ATPase activity after chronic doxorubicin treatment.

    PubMed

    Bergson, A; Inchiosa, M A

    1985-04-01

    Doxorubicin (Adriamycin), a potent antineoplastic drug, produces progressive cardiotoxicity which may lead to ultimate cardiac failure. The effects of chronic doxorubicin treatment on cardiac actomyosin ATPase were the principal focus of the present studies. This approach was based on the established correlation between cardiac contractility and contractile protein ATPase activity. Rabbits were injected intravenously with doxorubicin (4 mg/kg) at weekly intervals for 1-7 weeks. Body weight increase was attenuated in the treated animals; heart weight/body weight ratio was unchanged. Actomyosin and water contents of ventricular muscle were not different in doxorubicin-treated as compared with vehicle control animals. Cellular damage was detected histologically after one dose of doxorubicin (equivalent to a single clinical dose), and was extensive after 4-5 weeks of treatment. Animals which received 1-2 injections of doxorubicin demonstrated a 29% average increase in actomyosin ATPase activity as compared to vehicle controls; this difference was highly significant (p less than 0.001). Further treatment with doxorubicin tended to progressively decrease ATPase activity. It is suggested that the increased actomyosin ATPase activity seen with low total doses of doxorubicin may represent a compensatory mechanism for maintenance of contractility; this interpretation is supported by the clinical observation that the morphologic evidence of progressive doxorubicin toxicity is not associated with a parallel decrease in contractility, until severe cumulative toxicity has been induced.

  16. Polyaspartic acid functionalized gold nanoparticles for tumor targeted doxorubicin delivery.

    PubMed

    Khandekar, Sameera V; Kulkarni, M G; Devarajan, Padma V

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present polyaspartic acid, a biodegradable polymer as a reducing and functionalizing agent for the synthesis of doxorubicin loaded gold nanoparticles by a green process. Gold nanoparticles were stable to electrolytes and pH. Secondary amino groups of polyaspartic acid enabled reduction of gold chloride to form gold nanoparticles of size 55 +/-10 nm, with face centered cubic crystalline structure as confirmed by UV, TEM, SAED and XRD studies. Cationic doxorubicin was readily loaded onto anionic polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles by ionic complexation. Fluorescence studies confirmed doxorubicin loading while FTIR spectra confirmed ionic complexation. Doxorubicin loading onto polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles was studied at doxorubicin/polyaspartic acid molar ratios 1:10 to 1:1. As the molar ratio tended to unity, although loading up to 60% was achieved, colloidal instability resulted and is attributed to effective covering of negative charges of polyaspartic acid. Stable doxorubicin loaded polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles of 105 +/- 15.1 nm with doxorubicin loading of 23.85% w/w and zeta potential value of -28 +/- 0.77 mV were obtained at doxorubicin/polyaspartic acid molar ratio 1:10. Higher doxorubicin release rate from the doxorubicin loaded polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles in an acid medium (i.e., pH 5.5) as compared to that in pH 7.4 and deionized water is a desirable characteristic for tumor targeted delivery. Enhanced cytotoxicity and 3 fold higher uptake of doxorubicin loaded polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles as compared to doxorubicin solution were seen in MCF-7 breast cancer cells while polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles revealed no cytotoxicity confirming safety. Prominent regression in tumor size in-vivo in fibrosarcoma tumor induced mouse model was observed upto 59 days with doxorubicin loaded polyaspartic acid gold nanoparticles while doxorubicin solution treated mice showed regrowth beyond 23rd day. Moreover, a

  17. Polymeric micellar nanoplatforms for Fenton reaction as a new class of antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Kim, Nam-Hong; Yang, Wonseok; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jang, Mi-Kyeong; Lee, Dongwon

    2016-01-10

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by host phagocytes exert antibacterial action against a variety of pathogens and ROS-induced oxidative stress is the governing mechanism for the antibacterial activity of major bactericidal antibiotics. In particular, hydroxyl radical is a strong and nonselective oxidant which can damage biomolecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids. Ferrous ion is known to convert mild oxidant hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into highly reactive and toxic hydroxyl radicals, referred to as Fenton reaction. Herein, we report a new class of antibacterial agents based on Fenton reaction-performing nanostructures, composed of H2O2-generating polymer (PCAE) and iron-containing ferrocene. Amphiphilic PCAE was designed to incorporate H2O2-generating cinnamaldehyde through acid-cleavable linkages and self-assemble to form thermodynamically stable micelles which could encapsulate ferrocene in their hydrophobic core. All the experiments in vitro display that ferrocene-loaded PCAE micelles produce hydroxyl radicals to kill Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa through membrane damages. Intraperitoneally injected ferrocene-loaded PCAE micelles significantly reduced the lung damages and therefore increased the survival rate of mice infected with drug resistant P. aeruginosa. Given their potent antibacterial activity, ferrocene-loaded PCAE micelles hold great potential as a new class of ROS-manipulating antibacterial agents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of aldo-keto reductases and other doxorubicin pharmacokinetic genes in doxorubicin resistance, DNA binding, and subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since proteins involved in chemotherapy drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics have a strong impact on the uptake, metabolism, and efflux of such drugs, they likely play critical roles in resistance to chemotherapy drugs in cancer patients. Methods To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a whole genome microarray study to identify difference in the expression of genes between isogenic doxorubicin-sensitive and doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 breast tumour cells. We then assessed the degree of over-representation of doxorubicin pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic genes in the dataset of doxorubicin resistance genes. Results Of 27,958 Entrez genes on the array, 7.4 per cent or 2,063 genes were differentially expressed by ≥ 2-fold between wildtype and doxorubicin-resistant cells. The false discovery rate was set at 0.01 and the minimum p value for significance for any gene within the “hit list” was 0.01. Seventeen and 43 per cent of doxorubicin pharmacokinetic genes were over-represented in the hit list, depending upon whether the gene name was identical or within the same gene family, respectively. The most over-represented genes were within the 1C and 1B families of aldo-keto reductases (AKRs), which convert doxorubicin to doxorubicinol. Other genes convert doxorubicin to other metabolites or affect the influx, efflux, or cytotoxicity of the drug. In further support of the role of AKRs in doxorubicin resistance, we observed that, in comparison to doxorubicin, doxorubincol exhibited dramatically reduced cytotoxicity, reduced DNA-binding activity, and strong localization to extra nuclear lysosomes. Pharmacologic inhibition of the above AKRs in doxorubicin-resistant cells increased cellular doxorubicin levels, restored doxorubicin cytotoxicity and re-established doxorubicin localization to the nucleus. The properties of doxorubicinol were unaffected. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the utility of using curated pharmacokinetic and

  19. Micellar and structural stability of nanoscale amphiphilic polymers: Implications for anti-atherosclerotic bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyue; Li, Qi; Welsh, William J; Moghe, Prabhas V; Uhrich, Kathryn E

    2016-04-01

    Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of mortality in developed countries, is characterized by the buildup of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) within the vascular intima, unregulated oxLDL uptake by macrophages, and ensuing formation of arterial plaque. Amphiphilic polymers (AMPs) comprised of a branched hydrophobic domain and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tail have shown promising anti-atherogenic effects through direct inhibition of oxLDL uptake by macrophages. In this study, five AMPs with controlled variations were evaluated for their micellar and structural stability in the presence of serum and lipase, respectively, to develop underlying structure-atheroprotective activity relations. In parallel, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the AMP conformational preferences within an aqueous environment. Notably, AMPs with ether linkages between the hydrophobic arms and sugar backbones demonstrated enhanced degradation stability and storage stability, and also elicited enhanced anti-atherogenic bioactivity. Additionally, AMPs with increased hydrophobicity elicited increased atheroprotective bioactivity in the presence of serum. These studies provide key insights for designing more serum-stable polymeric micelles as prospective cardiovascular nanotherapies.

  20. Micellar and Structural Stability of Nanoscale Amphiphilic Polymers: Implications for Anti-atherosclerotic Bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingyue; Li, Qi; Welsh, William J.; Moghe, Prabhas V.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of mortality in developed countries, is characterized by the buildup of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) within the vascular intima, unregulated oxLDL uptake by macrophages, and ensuing formation of arterial plaque. Amphiphilic polymers (AMPs) comprised of a branched hydrophobic domain and a hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tail have shown promising anti-atherogenic effects through direct inhibition of oxLDL uptake by macrophages. In this study, five AMPs with controlled variations were evaluated for their micellar and structural stability in the presence of serum and lipase, respectively, to develop underlying structure-atheroprotective activity relations. In parallel, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the AMP conformational preferences within an aqueous environment. Notably, AMPs with ether linkages between the hydrophobic arms and sugar backbones demonstrated enhanced degradation stability and storage stability, and also elicited enhanced anti-atherogenic bioactivity. Additionally, AMPs with increased hydrophobicity elicited increased atheroprotective bioactivity in the presence of serum. These studies provide key insights for designing more serum-stable polymeric micelles as prospective cardiovascular nanotherapies. PMID:26828687

  1. Terahertz absorption spectroscopy of protein-containing reverse micellar solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, H.; Toyota, Y.; Nishi, T.; Nashima, S.

    2012-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy has been carried out for AOT/isooctane reverse micellar solution with myoglobin at the water-to-surfactant molar ratios ( w0) of 0.2 and 4.4. The amplitude of the absorption spectrum increases with increasing the protein concentration at w0 = 0.2, whereas it decreases at w0 = 4.4. The molar extinction coefficients of the protein-filled reverse micelle, and the constituents, i.e., myoglobin, water, and AOT, have been derived by use of the structural parameters of the micellar solution. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of hydration onto the protein and surfactant in the reverse micelle.

  2. Photodegradation in Micellar Aqueous Solutions of Erythrosin Esters Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Herculano, Leandro Silva; Lukasievicz, Gustavo Vinicius Bassi; Sehn, Elizandra; Caetano, Wilker; Pellosi, Diogo Silva; Hioka, Noboru; Astrath, Nelson Guilherme Castelli; Malacarne, Luis Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Strong light absorption and high levels of singlet oxygen production indicate erythrosin B as a viable candidate as a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy or photodynamic inactivation of microorganisms. Under light irradiation, erythrosin B undergoes a photobleaching process that can decrease the production of singlet oxygen. In this paper, we use thermal lens spectroscopy to investigate photobleaching in micellar solutions of erythrosin ester derivatives: methyl, butyl, and decyl esters in low concentrations of non-ionic micellar aqueous solutions. Using a previously developed thermal lens model, it was possible to determine the photobleaching rate and fluorescence quantum efficiency for dye-micelle solutions. The results suggest that photobleaching is related to the intensity of the dye-micelle interaction and demonstrate that the thermal lens technique can be used as a sensitive tool for quantitative measurement of photochemical properties in very diluted solutions.

  3. Flow-induced interfacial mesostructures by using wormlike micellar solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang; Shen, Amy

    2003-11-01

    Thin films with self-assembled mesostructures are important in applications such as catalysis, synthesis, and biosensor technology. A major technique used to prepare such films is sol-gel processing. This technique involves depositing a complex fluid containing colloids, alcohol, and surfactants on a substrate by coating, followed by allowing the film to evaporate and form self-assembled mesostructures. The fundamental mechanisms underlying this process are poorly understood. Here, we present a program designed to explore the formation of self-assembled mesotructures with respect to coating dynamics and rheological properties of the fluids. By dip coating a plate through wormlike micellar solutions, we report systematic characterization of mesoporous films (film thickness and final surface morphology) synthesized under different physiochemical hydrodynamic conditions. We will present an interpretation of these observations in terms of the micellar kinetics, coating parameters, and also rheological properties of the fluids.

  4. Polymerization of perfluorobutadiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J.; Toy, M. S.

    1970-01-01

    Diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate dissolved in liquid perfluorobutadiene is conducted in a sealed vessel at the autogenous pressure of polymerization. Reaction temperature, ratio of catalyst to monomer, and amount of agitation determine degree of polymerization and product yield.

  5. Quercetin attenuates doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by modulating Bmi-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qinghua; Chen, Long; Lu, Qunwei; Sharma, Sherven; Li, Lei; Morimoto, Sachio; Wang, Guanyu

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy induces cardiotoxicity, which limits its clinical application. We previously reported the protective effects of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we tested the effects of quercetin on the expression of Bmi-1, a protein regulating mitochondrial function and ROS generation, as a mechanism underlying quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Experimental Approach Effects of quercetin on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity was evaluated using H9c2 cardiomyocytes and C57BL/6 mice. Changes in apoptosis, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and related signalling were evaluated in H9c2 cells. Cardiac function, serum enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured in mice after a single injection of doxorubicin with or without quercetin pre-treatment. Key Results In H9c2 cells, quercetin reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS generation and DNA double-strand breaks. The quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin toxicity was characterized by decreased expression of Bid, p53 and oxidase (p47 and Nox1) and by increased expression of Bcl-2 and Bmi-1. Bmi-1 siRNA abolished the protective effect of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, quercetin protected mice from doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction that was accompanied by reduced ROS levels and lipid peroxidation, but enhanced the expression of Bmi-1 and anti-oxidative superoxide dismutase. Conclusions and Implications Our results demonstrate that quercetin decreased doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo by reducing oxidative stress by up-regulation of Bmi-1 expression. The findings presented in this study have potential applications in preventing doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:24902966

  6. Quercetin attenuates doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by modulating Bmi-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qinghua; Chen, Long; Lu, Qunwei; Sharma, Sherven; Li, Lei; Morimoto, Sachio; Wang, Guanyu

    2014-10-01

    Doxorubicin-based chemotherapy induces cardiotoxicity, which limits its clinical application. We previously reported the protective effects of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity. In this study, we tested the effects of quercetin on the expression of Bmi-1, a protein regulating mitochondrial function and ROS generation, as a mechanism underlying quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Effects of quercetin on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity was evaluated using H9c2 cardiomyocytes and C57BL/6 mice. Changes in apoptosis, mitochondrial function, oxidative stress and related signalling were evaluated in H9c2 cells. Cardiac function, serum enzyme activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were measured in mice after a single injection of doxorubicin with or without quercetin pre-treatment. In H9c2 cells, quercetin reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, ROS generation and DNA double-strand breaks. The quercetin-mediated protection against doxorubicin toxicity was characterized by decreased expression of Bid, p53 and oxidase (p47 and Nox1) and by increased expression of Bcl-2 and Bmi-1. Bmi-1 siRNA abolished the protective effect of quercetin against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in H9c2 cells. Furthermore, quercetin protected mice from doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction that was accompanied by reduced ROS levels and lipid peroxidation, but enhanced the expression of Bmi-1 and anti-oxidative superoxide dismutase. Our results demonstrate that quercetin decreased doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vitro and in vivo by reducing oxidative stress by up-regulation of Bmi-1 expression. The findings presented in this study have potential applications in preventing doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Flow-induced gelation of living (micellar) polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruinsma, Robijn; Gelbart, William M.; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam

    1992-01-01

    The effect of shear velocity gradients on the size (L) of rodlike micelles in dilute and semidilute solution is considered. A kinetic equation is introduced for the time-dependent concentration of aggregates of length L, consisting of 'bimolecular' combination processes L + L-prime yield (L + L-prime) and unimolecular fragmentations L yield L + (L - L-prime). The former are described by a generalization (from spheres to rods) of the Smoluchowski mechanism for shear-induced coalesence of emulsions, and the latter by incorporating the tension-deformation effects due to flow. Steady-state solutions to the kinetic equation are obtained, with the corresponding mean micellar size evaluated as a function of the Peclet number P (i.e., the dimensionless ratio of the flow rate and the rotational diffusion coefficient). For sufficiently dilute solutions, only a weak dependence of the micellar size on P is found. In the semidilute regime, however, an apparent divergence in the micellar size at P of about 1 suggests a flow-induced first-order gelation phenomenon.

  8. Quantitative treatment of micellar effects upon deprotonation equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Bunton, C.A.; Romsted, L.S.; Sepulveda, L.

    1980-10-02

    The apparent base dissociation constants, KB, for deprotonation of benzimidazole in dilute NaOh go through minima with increasing concentration of cetyltrimethylammonium ion surfactants (CTAX, X = Cl, Br, NO/sub 3/) at concentrations of surfactant counterions is maintained at 0.1 mole. In both cases the micellar effect on KB follows the sequence CTaCl > CTaBr > CTaNO/sub 3/. These observations are consistent with a pseudophase ion-exchange model in which the micelle binds OH/sup -/ and both forms of the indicator, increasing deprotonation and decreasing KB, but the counterion of the surfactant displaces OH/sup -/ from the micellar surface so that KB goes through a minimum with increasing (CTAX). This model leads to a simple quantitative treatment which fits the data for (CTAX) > 0.01 mole. A similar pattern of behavior has been found for deprotonation of phenols and oximes in CTABr in the presence of borate buffer. Intrinsic basicity constants in the micellar pseudophase can be estimated which are larger than those in water by approximately one order of magnitude. 39 references.

  9. Molecular interaction mechanisms in reverse micellar extraction of microbial transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tingting; Lin, Mingxiang; Wan, Junfen; Cao, Xuejun

    2017-08-18

    Reverse micellar extraction is an efficient and economical alternative for protein purification. In this study, microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) from crude materials was purified using reverse micellar extraction, and the molecular interaction mechanism in reverse micellar extraction of MTGase was explored. By using a molecular simulation study, the interaction mechanism of forward extraction was investigated. The molecular simulation results reveal the interaction of MTGase-water-surfactant is the major driving force for the forward extraction. Further, the effect of ionic strength on molecular interactions in backward extraction was investigated using 1H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and circular dichroism (CD) spectra. In backward extraction, the interactions between water and the other two molecules (MTGase and surfactant molecules) are enhanced while the interactions between target molecules (MTGase) and the other two molecules (water and surfactant molecules) are weakened as the ionic strength increases. Moreover, the effect of size exclusion on backward extraction was also investigated. The results demonstrate size exclusion has limit effect at high ionic strength, and the weakened interaction of MTGase-water-surfactant is the main reason causing the release of the target molecules in backward extraction. This work might provide valuable reference to the MTGase purification and downstream processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Phosphatidylcholine embedded micellar systems: enhanced permeability through rat skin.

    PubMed

    Spernath, Aviram; Aserin, Abraham; Sintov, Amnon C; Garti, Nissim

    2008-02-15

    Micellar and microemulsion systems are excellent potential vehicles for delivery of drugs because of their high solubilization capacity and improved transmembrane bioavailability. Mixtures of propylene glycol (PG) and nonionic surfactants with sodium diclofenac (DFC) were prepared in the presence of phosphatidylcholine (PC) as transmembrane transport enhancers. Fully dilutable systems with maximum DFC solubilization capacity (SC) at pH 7 are presented. It was demonstrated that the concentrates underwent phase transitions from reverse micelles to swollen reverse micelles and, via the bicontinuous transitional mesophase, into inverted O/W microstructures. The SC decreases as a function of dilution. DFC transdermal penetration using rat skin in vitro correlated with SC, water content, effect of phospholipid content, presence of an oil phase, and ethanol. Skin penetration from the inverted bicontinuous mesophase and the skin penetration from the O/W-like microstructure were higher than that measured from the W/O-like droplets, especially when the micellar system containing the nonionic surfactant, sugar ester L-1695, and hexaglycerol laurate. PC embedded within the micelle interface significantly increased the penetration flux across the skin compared to micellar systems without the embedded PC at their interface. Moreover, the combination of PC with HECO40 improved the permeation rate (P) and shortened the lag-time (T(L)).

  11. Irreversible Gelation in Wormlike Micellar Solutions via Microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardiel, Joshua; Zhao, Ya; Cheung, Perry; Shen, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Surfactant molecules can self-assemble into various morphologies under proper combinations of ionic strength, temperature, and flow conditions. At equilibrium, the wormlike micelles can transition from entangled to branched and multi-connected structures with increasing salt concentration. Under specific flow conditions, micellar structure transition can follow different trajectories. In this work we consider the flow of two semi-dilute wormlike micellar solutions through microposts, focusing on their microstructural and rheological evolution. Both solutions contain cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium salicylate (NaSal). One is weakly viscoelastic and shear thickening while the other is strongly viscoelastic and shear thinning. When subject to strain rates ~103 s-1 and strain ~103, we observe irreversible gelation, with entangled, branched, and multi-connected micellar bundles, evidenced by electron microscopy. We also show that the rheological properties of the shear-thickening precursor are smaller than those of the gel, while the rheological properties of the shear-thinning precursor are several times larger than those of the ge. This rheological property variation is associated with their respective structural evolution.

  12. Flow-induced gelation of living (micellar) polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruinsma, Robijn; Gelbart, William M.; Ben-Shaul, Avinoam

    1992-01-01

    The effect of shear velocity gradients on the size (L) of rodlike micelles in dilute and semidilute solution is considered. A kinetic equation is introduced for the time-dependent concentration of aggregates of length L, consisting of 'bimolecular' combination processes L + L-prime yield (L + L-prime) and unimolecular fragmentations L yield L + (L - L-prime). The former are described by a generalization (from spheres to rods) of the Smoluchowski mechanism for shear-induced coalesence of emulsions, and the latter by incorporating the tension-deformation effects due to flow. Steady-state solutions to the kinetic equation are obtained, with the corresponding mean micellar size evaluated as a function of the Peclet number P (i.e., the dimensionless ratio of the flow rate and the rotational diffusion coefficient). For sufficiently dilute solutions, only a weak dependence of the micellar size on P is found. In the semidilute regime, however, an apparent divergence in the micellar size at P of about 1 suggests a flow-induced first-order gelation phenomenon.

  13. Injectable micellar supramolecular hydrogel for delivery of hydrophobic anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Fu, CuiXiang; Lin, XiaoXiao; Wang, Jun; Zheng, XiaoQun; Li, XingYi; Lin, ZhengFeng; Lin, GuangYong

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an injectable micellar supramolecular hydrogel composed of α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caplactone) (MPEG5000-PCL5000) micelles was developed by a simple method for hydrophobic anticancer drug delivery. By mixing α-CD aqueous solution and MPEG5000-PCL5000 micelles, an injectable micellar supramolecular hydrogel could be formed under mild condition due to the inclusion complexation between α-CD and MPEG segment of MPEG5000-PCL5000 micelles. The resultant supramolecular hydrogel was thereafter characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effect of α-CD amount on the gelation time, mechanical strength and thixotropic property was studied by a rheometer. Payload of hydrophobic paclitaxel (PTX) to supramolecular hydrogel was achieved by encapsulation of PTX into MPEG5000-PCL5000 micelles prior mixing with α-CD aqueous solution. In vitro release study showed that the release behavior of PTX from hydrogel could be modulated by change the α-CD amount in hydrogel. Furthermore, such supramolecular hydrogel could enhance the biological activity of encapsulated PTX compared to free PTX, as indicated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay. All these results indicated that the developed micellar supramolecular hydrogel might be a promising injectable drug delivery system for anticancer therapy.

  14. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  15. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  16. Polymeric mixed micelles as nanomedicines: Achievements and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cagel, Maximiliano; Tesan, Fiorella C; Bernabeu, Ezequiel; Salgueiro, Maria J; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Moretton, Marcela A; Chiappetta, Diego A

    2017-04-01

    During the past few decades, polymeric micelles have raised special attention as novel nano-sized drug delivery systems for optimizing the treatment and diagnosis of numerous diseases. These nanocarriers exhibit several in vitro and in vivo advantages as well as increased stability and solubility to hydrophobic drugs. An interesting approach for optimizing these properties and overcoming some of their disadvantages is the combination of two or more polymers in order to assemble polymeric mixed micelles. This review article gives an overview on the current state of the art of several mixed micellar formulations as nanocarriers for drugs and imaging probes, evaluating their ongoing status (preclinical or clinical stage), with special emphasis on type of copolymers, physicochemical properties, in vivo progress achieved so far and toxicity profiles. Besides, the present article presents relevant research outcomes about polymeric mixed micelles as better drug delivery systems, when compared to polymeric pristine micelles. The reported data clearly illustrates the promise of these nanovehicles reaching clinical stages in the near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide with doxorubicin-dacarbazine for the adjuvant treatment of canine hemangiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Finotello, R; Stefanello, D; Zini, E; Marconato, L

    2017-03-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a neoplasm of vascular endothelial origin that has an aggressive biological behaviour, with less than 10% of dogs alive at 12-months postdiagnosis. Treatment of choice consists of surgery followed by adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy. We prospectively compared adjuvant doxorubicin and dacarbazine (ADTIC) to a traditional doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) treatment, aiming at determining safety and assessing whether this regimen prolongs survival and time to metastasis (TTM). Twenty-seven dogs were enrolled; following staging work-up, 18 were treated with AC and 9 with ADTIC. Median TTM and survival time were longer for dogs treated with ADTIC compared with those receiving AC (>550 versus 112 days, P = 0.021 and >550 versus 142 days, P = 0.011, respectively). Both protocols were well tolerated, without need for dose reduction or increased interval between treatments. A protocol consisting of combined doxorubicin and dacarbazine is safe in dogs with HSA and prolongs TTM and survival time.

  18. Doxorubicin Blocks Cardiomyocyte Autophagic Flux by Inhibiting Lysosome Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan L.; Wang, Zhao V.; Ding, Guanqiao; Tan, Wei; Luo, Xiang; Criollo, Alfredo; Xie, Min; Jiang, Nan; May, Herman; Kyrychenko, Viktoriia; Schneider, Jay W.; Gillette, Thomas G.; Hill, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The clinical use of doxorubicin is limited by cardiotoxicity. Histopathologic changes include interstitial myocardial fibrosis and appearance of vacuolated cardiomyocytes. Whereas dysregulation of autophagy in the myocardium has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, the role of autophagy in doxorubicin cardiomyopathy remains poorly defined. Methods and Results Most models of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity involve intraperitoneal injection of high-dose drug, which elicits lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, and peritoneal fibrosis, all of which confound the interpretation of autophagy. Given this, we first established a model that provokes modest and progressive cardiotoxicity without constitutional symptoms, reminiscent of the effects seen in patients. We report that doxorubicin blocks cardiomyocyte autophagic flux in vivo and in cardiomyocytes in culture. This block was accompanied by robust accumulation of undegraded autolysosomes. We go on to localize the site of block as a defect in lysosome acidification. To test the functional relevance of doxorubicin-triggered autolysosome accumulation, we studied animals with diminished autophagic activity due to haploinsufficiency for Beclin 1. Beclin 1+/− mice exposed to doxorubicin were protected in terms of structural and functional changes within the myocardium. Conversely, animals over-expressing Beclin 1 manifested an amplified cardiotoxic response. Conclusions Doxorubicin blocks autophagic flux in cardiomyocytes by impairing lysosome acidification and lysosomal function. Reducing autophagy initiation protects against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. PMID:26984939

  19. Doxorubicin Blocks Cardiomyocyte Autophagic Flux by Inhibiting Lysosome Acidification.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan L; Wang, Zhao V; Ding, Guanqiao; Tan, Wei; Luo, Xiang; Criollo, Alfredo; Xie, Min; Jiang, Nan; May, Herman; Kyrychenko, Viktoriia; Schneider, Jay W; Gillette, Thomas G; Hill, Joseph A

    2016-04-26

    The clinical use of doxorubicin is limited by cardiotoxicity. Histopathological changes include interstitial myocardial fibrosis and the appearance of vacuolated cardiomyocytes. Whereas dysregulation of autophagy in the myocardium has been implicated in a variety of cardiovascular diseases, the role of autophagy in doxorubicin cardiomyopathy remains poorly defined. Most models of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity involve intraperitoneal injection of high-dose drug, which elicits lethargy, anorexia, weight loss, and peritoneal fibrosis, all of which confound the interpretation of autophagy. Given this, we first established a model that provokes modest and progressive cardiotoxicity without constitutional symptoms, reminiscent of the effects seen in patients. We report that doxorubicin blocks cardiomyocyte autophagic flux in vivo and in cardiomyocytes in culture. This block was accompanied by robust accumulation of undegraded autolysosomes. We go on to localize the site of block as a defect in lysosome acidification. To test the functional relevance of doxorubicin-triggered autolysosome accumulation, we studied animals with diminished autophagic activity resulting from haploinsufficiency for Beclin 1. Beclin 1(+/-) mice exposed to doxorubicin were protected in terms of structural and functional changes within the myocardium. Conversely, animals overexpressing Beclin 1 manifested an amplified cardiotoxic response. Doxorubicin blocks autophagic flux in cardiomyocytes by impairing lysosome acidification and lysosomal function. Reducing autophagy initiation protects against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Doxorubicin (Adriamycin) Cardiomyopathy—A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Saltiel, Emmanuel; McGuire, William

    1983-01-01

    Despite its vast utility in clinical oncology, the use of doxorubicin hydrochloride (Adriamycin) is limited by a potentially fatal cardiomyopathy. The following critical review, which examines the natural course, histopathologic effects, risk factors and monitoring indicators of this toxicity, also analyzes recent research of proposed mechanisms, including free radical formation with depletion of detoxifying enzymes, inhibition of vital enzyme systems and alterations in relative calcium concentrations. Prevention of the adverse reaction has been attempted by using such agents as α-tocopherol, selenium sulfide, coenzyme Q10, sulfhydryl donors, nucleosides and razoxane, and via liposomal carriage and alternative methods of administration. PMID:6356608

  1. Doxorubicin resistant cancer cells activate myeloid-derived suppressor cells by releasing PGE2

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Yuan; Yuan, Chun-Hui; Qu, Zhen; Zhou, Hu; Guan, Qing; Yang, Na; Leng, Xiao-Hua; Bu, Lang; Wu, Ke; Wang, Fu-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapies often induce drug-resistance in cancer cells and simultaneously stimulate proliferation and activation of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs) to inhibit anti-tumor T cells, thus result in poor prognosis of patients with breast cancers. To date, the mechanism underlying the expansion of MDSCs in response to chemotherapies is poorly understood. In the present study, we used in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal studies to demonstrate that doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells secret significantly more prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) than their parental doxorubicin-sensitive cells. The secreted PGE2 can stimulate expansion and polymerization of MDSCs by directly target to its receptors, EP2/EP4, on the surface of MDSCs, which consequently triggers production of miR-10a through activating PKA signaling. More importantly, activated MDSCs can inhibit CD4+CD25− T cells as evidenced by reduced proliferation and IFN-γ release. In order to determine the molecular pathway that involves miR-10a mediated activation of MDSCs, biochemical and pharmacological studies were carried out. We found that miR-10a can activate AMPK signaling to promote expansion and activation of MDSCs. Thus, these results reveal, for the first time, a novel role of PGE2/miR-10a/AMPK signaling axis in chemotherapy-induced immune resistance, which might be targeted for treatment of chemotherapy resistant tumors. PMID:27032536

  2. Biochemical characterization of the interactions between doxorubicin and lipidic GM1 micelles with or without paclitaxel loading.

    PubMed

    Leonhard, Victoria; Alasino, Roxana V; Bianco, Ismael D; Garro, Ariel G; Heredia, Valeria; Beltramo, Dante M

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline anticancer drug with high water solubility, whose use is limited primarily due to significant side effects. In this study it is shown that Dox interacts with monosialoglycosphingolipid (GM1) ganglioside micelles primarily through hydrophobic interactions independent of pH and ionic strength. In addition, Dox can be incorporated even into GM1 micelles already containing highly hydrophobic paclitaxel (Ptx). However, it was not possible to incorporate Ptx into Dox-containing GM1 micelles, suggesting that Dox could be occupying a more external position in the micelles. This result is in agreement with a higher hydrolysis of Dox than of Ptx when micelles were incubated at alkaline pH. The loading of Dox into GM1 micelles was observed over a broad range of temperature (4°C-55°C). Furthermore, Dox-loaded micelles were stable in aqueous solutions exhibiting no aggregation or precipitation for up to 2 months when kept at 4°C-25°C and even after freeze-thawing cycles. Upon exposure to blood components, Dox-containing micelles were observed to interact with human serum albumin. However, the amount of human serum albumin that ended up being associated to the micelles was inversely related to the amount of Dox, suggesting that both could share their binding sites. In vitro studies on Hep2 cells showed that the cellular uptake and cytotoxic activity of Dox and Ptx from the micellar complexes were similar to those of the free form of these drugs, even when the micelle was covered with albumin. These results support the idea of the existence of different nano-domains in a single micelle and the fact that this micellar model could be used as a platform for loading and delivering hydrophobic and hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  3. Biochemical characterization of the interactions between doxorubicin and lipidic GM1 micelles with or without paclitaxel loading

    PubMed Central

    Leonhard, Victoria; Alasino, Roxana V; Bianco, Ismael D; Garro, Ariel G; Heredia, Valeria; Beltramo, Dante M

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline anticancer drug with high water solubility, whose use is limited primarily due to significant side effects. In this study it is shown that Dox interacts with monosialoglycosphingolipid (GM1) ganglioside micelles primarily through hydrophobic interactions independent of pH and ionic strength. In addition, Dox can be incorporated even into GM1 micelles already containing highly hydrophobic paclitaxel (Ptx). However, it was not possible to incorporate Ptx into Dox-containing GM1 micelles, suggesting that Dox could be occupying a more external position in the micelles. This result is in agreement with a higher hydrolysis of Dox than of Ptx when micelles were incubated at alkaline pH. The loading of Dox into GM1 micelles was observed over a broad range of temperature (4°C–55°C). Furthermore, Dox-loaded micelles were stable in aqueous solutions exhibiting no aggregation or precipitation for up to 2 months when kept at 4°C–25°C and even after freeze–thawing cycles. Upon exposure to blood components, Dox-containing micelles were observed to interact with human serum albumin. However, the amount of human serum albumin that ended up being associated to the micelles was inversely related to the amount of Dox, suggesting that both could share their binding sites. In vitro studies on Hep2 cells showed that the cellular uptake and cytotoxic activity of Dox and Ptx from the micellar complexes were similar to those of the free form of these drugs, even when the micelle was covered with albumin. These results support the idea of the existence of different nano-domains in a single micelle and the fact that this micellar model could be used as a platform for loading and delivering hydrophobic and hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredients. PMID:26005348

  4. Imaging of doxorubicin release from theranostic macromolecular prodrugs via fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Harald R; Schütz, Irene; Justies, Aileen; Licha, Kai; Welker, Pia; Haucke, Volker; Calderón, Marcelo

    2014-11-28

    Herein we present a FRET-based theranostic macromolecular prodrug (TMP) composed of (a) dendritic polyglycerol (PG) as polymeric nanocarrier, (b) doxorubicin (Dox) linked via a pH-sensitive hydrazone to (c) a tri-functional linker, and (d) an indodicarbocyanine dye (IDCC) attached in close proximity to Dox. The drug fluorescence is quenched via intramolecular FRET until the pH-sensitive hydrazone bond between the TMP and Dox is cleaved at acidic pH. By measuring its fluorescence, we characterized the TMP cleavage kinetics at different pH values in vitro. The intracellular release of Dox from the carrier was monitored in real time in intact cancer cells, giving more insight into the mode of action of a polymer drug conjugate.

  5. Highly Viscoelastic Reverse Wormlike Micellar Systems from a Mixture of Lecithin, Polyglycerol Fatty Acid Monoesters, and an Oil.

    PubMed

    Hashizaki, Kaname; Imai, Miko; Yako, Shuhei; Tsusaka, Hitomi; Sakanishi, Yuichi; Saito, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Makiko

    2017-09-01

    We report new lecithin reverse wormlike micelles with high viscoelasticity formed using lecithin/polyglycerol fatty acid monoester (PGLFA)/oil systems. In this study, the influence of the amphiphilicity (i.e., hydrophile-lipophile balance, HLB) of PGLFA on the phase behavior and rheological properties of reverse wormlike micelles was investigated in detail. PGLFAs with degrees of polymerization of polyglycerol varying between 6-40 and constituent fatty acids with chains between 6-18 carbon atoms long were used. Partial phase diagrams of the lecithin/PGLFA/n-decane systems indicated that the appropriate PGLFA could change the lecithin/oil solution into a highly viscoelastic solution comprising reverse wormlike micelles. Rheological measurements showed that all systems that formed reverse wormlike micelles exhibited an unusual phenomenon called "shear-thickening". Furthermore, reverse wormlike micelles grew as the PGLFA concentration increased and the zero-shear viscosity (η0) of the solution rapidly increased. Our results indicate that the magnitude of the maximum η0 depends on the degree of polymerization of the constituent polyglycerol in the PGLFA, while the size of the reverse micellar region and the highly viscous region in the phase diagram depends on the HLB value of the PGLFA.

  6. c(RGDfK) decorated micellar drug delivery system for intravesical instilled chemotherapy of superficial bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Danhua; Zhang, Guan; Gan, Zhihua

    2013-08-10

    The aim of this work was to develop a targeted drug delivery system with potentials for intravesical instilled chemotherapy of superficial bladder cancer. The amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(ε-caprolactone)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PCL-b-PEO) was first conjugated with the cyclic (Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-d-Phenylalanine-Lysine) (c(RGDfK)) and fluorescein isothiocyannate (FITC) via the functional terminal groups of hydrophilic block, and then assembled into micelles. The interaction between micelles and various model cells was well studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. The c(RGDfK) on the surface of the micelle was confirmed by (1)H NMR analysis and cell affinity with human glioblastoma-astrocytoma cells (U87MG). The cell viability of bladder cancer cells (T-24 cells) after incubation with doxorubicin (DOX) loaded polymeric micelles was evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity assay. The results revealed that c(RGDfK) modified micelles showed strong affinity to T-24 cells and strong inhibitory effect on the proliferation of T-24 cells when doxorubicin drug was loaded, indicating the high affinity of c(RGDfK) to bladder cancer cells. The c(RGDfK) modified micelles assembled from PCL-b-PEO diblock copolymers developed in this study are of great potentials as nano-scaled drug delivery system for intravesical instilled chemotherapy of superficial bladder cancer.

  7. Biopolymer based nanosystem for doxorubicin targeted delivery

    PubMed Central

    Csikós, Zsuzsanna; Kerekes, Krisztina; Fazekas, Erika; Kun, Sándor; Borbély, János

    2017-01-01

    This study describes formation of an actively and passively targeted, water-soluble drug delivery system (DDS) which contains doxorubicin (DOX). The system comprises two biocompatible and biodegradable polymers: poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) and chitosan (CH). Self-assembly of these biopolymers in aqueous medium results stable nanoparticles (NPs) with a hydrodynamic size of 80-150 nm and slightly negative surface charge. Folic acid (FA) was used as targeting agent bonded to the polyanion (PA) and also to the surface of the NPs. The NP’s physical stability, active targeting effect, cellular toxicity, release profile and in vivo anti-tumor efficacy were investigated. It was found that the targeted, self-assembled nanoparticles are stable at 4°C for several months, cause better in vitro toxicity effect on folate receptor (FR) positive cell lines than the doxorubicin or the non-targeted nanosystem and based on its release profile it is expected, that the nanosystem will remain stable during the circulation in the body. Pharmacodynamic studies demonstrated that the DOX-loaded nanoparticles can deliver greater tumor growth inhibition than the free drug molecules and the liposomal compound, with less general toxicity. It was observed that the overall survival is the main benefit of the biopolymer based drug delivery system. PMID:28401023

  8. Poly-L-aspartic acid as a carrier for doxorubicin: a comparative in vivo study of free and polymer-bound drug.

    PubMed Central

    Pratesi, G.; Savi, G.; Pezzoni, G.; Bellini, O.; Penco, S.; Tinelli, S.; Zunino, F.

    1985-01-01

    The synthetic polypeptide, poly-L-aspartic acid (PAA, mol. wt = 20,000) has been used as a macromolecular carrier for doxorubicin. The drug may be released in vivo through hydrolysis of the ester linkage formed between the carboxyl groups of the polymer and the drug side chain. PAA has been found to be a suitable carrier since it is a soluble, biodegradable, multivalent and nontoxic polymer. The toxicity and the therapeutic efficacy of free and polymer-linked doxorubicin have been evaluated in normal and tumour-bearing mice, using a variety of experimental tumour systems. In studies on single and multiple drug administration, the results indicated that the polymeric derivative of doxorubicin had approximately 3-fold lower toxicity than did free drug. In addition, the severity of specific toxic effects, including cardio- and vesicant toxicity, were appreciably reduced following conjugation to PAA. The doxorubicin-PAA conjugate gave similar or rather greater therapeutic effects than free drug at less toxic doses. This effect, more evident in the highly sensitive tumours, suggests an improvement of the therapeutic index of the polymer-linked drug. PMID:4074638

  9. Doxorubicin-loaded micelles based on multiarm star-shaped PLGA-PEG block copolymers: influence of arm numbers on drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guilei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Linhua; Sun, Hongfan; Song, Cunxian; Wang, Chun; Kong, Deling

    2016-01-01

    Star-shaped block copolymers based on poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (st-PLGA-PEG) were synthesized with structural variation on arm numbers in order to investigate the relationship between the arm numbers of st-PLGA-PEG copolymers and their micelle properties. st-PLGA-PEG copolymers with arm numbers 3, 4 and 6 were synthesized by using different cores such as trimethylolpropane, pentaerythritol and dipentaerythritol, and were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and gel permeation chromatography. The critical micelle concentration decreased with increasing arm numbers in st-PLGA-PEG copolymers. The doxorubicin-loaded st-PLGA-PEG micelles were prepared by a modified nanoprecipitation method. Micellar properties such as particle size, drug loading content and in vitro drug release behavior were investigated as a function of the number of arms and compared with each other. The doxorubicin-loaded 4-arm PLGA-PEG micelles were found to have the highest cellular uptake efficiency and cytotoxicity compared with 3-arm PLGA-PEG micelles and 6-arm PLGA-PEG micelles. The results suggest that structural tailoring of arm numbers from st-PLGA-PEG copolymers could provide a new strategy for designing drug carriers of high efficiency. Structural tailoring of arm numbers from star shaped-PLGA-PEG copolymers (3-arm/4-arm/6-arm-PLGA-PEG) could provide a new strategy for designing drug carriers of high efficiency.

  10. Mechanisms of Doxorubicin Toxicity in Pancreatic β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heart, Emma A.; Karandrea, Shpetim; Liang, Xiaomei; Balke, Maren E.; Beringer, Patrick A.; Bobczynski, Elyse M.; Zayas-Bazán Burgos, Delaine; Richardson, Tiffany; Gray, Joshua P.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to chemotherapeutic agents has been linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a disease characterized by both the peripheral insulin resistance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic β-cells. Using the rat β-cell line INS-1 832/13 and isolated mouse pancreatic islets, we investigated the effect of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (Adriamycin) on pancreatic β-cell survival and function. Exposure of INS-1 832/13 cells to doxorubicin caused impairment of GSIS, cellular viability, an increase in cellular toxicity, as soon as 6 h post-exposure. Doxorubicin impaired plasma membrane electron transport (PMET), a pathway dependent on reduced equivalents NADH and NADPH, but failed to redox cycle in INS-1 832/13 cells and with their lysates. Although NADPH/NADP+ content was unaffected, NADH/NAD+ content decreased at 4 h post-exposure to doxorubicin, and was followed by a reduction in ATP content. Previous studies have demonstrated that doxorubicin functions as a topoisomerase II inhibitor via induction of DNA cross-linking, resulting in apoptosis. Doxorubicin induced the expression of mRNA for mdm2, cyclin G1, and fas whereas downregulating p53, and increased the melting temperature of genomic DNA, consistent with DNA damage and induction of apoptosis. Doxorubicin also induced caspase-3 and -7 activity in INS-1 832/13 cells and mouse islets; co-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK temporarily attenuated the doxorubicin-mediated loss of viability in INS-1 832/13 cells. Together, these data suggest that DNA damage, not H2O2 produced via redox cycling, is a major mechanism of doxorubicin toxicity in pancreatic β-cells. PMID:27255381

  11. Febuxostat ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Bhaskar; Rani, Neha; Bharti, Saurabh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Bhatia, Jagriti; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Ray, Ruma; Arava, Sudheer; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

    2015-07-25

    The clinical use of doxorubicin is associated with dose limiting cardiotoxicity. This is a manifestation of free radical production triggered by doxorubicin. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of febuxostat, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor and antioxidant, in blocking cardiotoxicity associated with doxorubicin in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control (normal saline 2.5mL/kg/dayi.p. on alternate days, a total of 6 doses); Doxorubicin (2.5mg/kg/dayi.p. on alternate days, a total of 6 doses), Doxorubicin+Febuxostat (10mg/kg/day oral) and Doxorubicin+Carvedilol (30mg/kg/day oral) for 14days. Febuxostat significantly ameliorated the doxorubicin-induced deranged cardiac functions as there was significant improvement in arterial pressures, left ventricular end diastolic pressure and inotropic and lusitropic states of the myocardium. These changes were well substantiated with biochemical findings, wherein febuxostat prevented the depletion of non-protein sulfhydryls level, with increased manganese superoxide dismutase level and reduced cardiac injury markers (creatine kinase-MB and B-type natriuretic peptide levels) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances level. Febuxostat also exhibited significant anti-inflammatory (decreased expression of NF-κBp65, IKK-β and TNF-α) and anti-apoptotic effect (increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased Bax and caspase-3 expression and TUNEL positivity). Hematoxylin and Eosin, Masson Trichome, Picro Sirius Red and ultrastructural studies further corroborated with hemodynamic and biochemical findings showing that febuxostat mitigated doxorubicin-induced increases in inflammatory cells, edema, collagen deposition, interstitial fibrosis, perivascular fibrosis and mitochondrial damage and better preservation of myocardial architecture. In addition, all these changes were comparable to those produced by carvedilol. Thus, our results suggest that the antioxidant and anti-apoptotic effect of febuxostat

  12. Hyperbaric Oxygen Preconditioning Provides Preliminary Protection Against Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tezcan, Orhan; Karahan, Oguz; Alan, Mustafa; Ekinci, Cenap; Yavuz, Celal; Demirtas, Sinan; Ekinci, Aysun; Caliskan, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Background Doxorubicin (DOX) is generally recognized to have important cardiotoxic side effects. Studies are contradictory about the interaction between hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy and doxorubicin-induced cardiomyotoxicity. Recent data suggests that HBO2 therapy can lead to preconditioning of myocardium while generating oxidative stress. Herein we have investigated the effect of HBO2 therapy in a DOX-induced cardiomyocyte injury animal model. Methods Twenty-one rats were divided into three equal groups as follows: 1) Group 1 is a control group (without any intervention), used for evaluating the basal cardiac structures and determining the normal value of cardiacs and serum oxidative markers; 2) Group 2 is the doxorubicin group (single dose i.p. 20 mg/kg doxorubicin) for detecting the cardiotoxic and systemic effects of doxorubicin; 3) Group 3 is the doxorubicin and HBO2 group (100% oxygen at 2.5 atmospheric for 90 minutes, daily), for evaluating the effect of HBO2 in doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. At the end of the protocols, the hearts were harvested and blood samples (2 ml) were obtained. Results The doxorubicin treated animals (Group 2) had increased oxidative stress markers (both cardiac and serum) and severe cardiac injury as compared to the basal findings in the control group. Nevertheless, the highest cardiac oxidative stress index was detected in Group 3 (control vs. Group 3, p = 0.01). However, histological examination revealed that cardiac structures were well preserved in Group 3 when compared with Group 2. Conclusions Our results suggest that HBO2 preconditioning appears to be protective in the doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity model. Future studies are required to better elucidate the basis of this preconditioning effect of HBO2. PMID:28344418

  13. Transferrin receptor-targeted pH-sensitive micellar system for diminution of drug resistance and targetable delivery in multidrug-resistant breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Ye, Guihua; Duan, Xiaochuan; Yang, Xiaoying; Yang, Victor C

    2017-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistance is partially associated with overproduction of transferrin receptor (TfR). To overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) and achieve tumor target delivery, we designed a novel biodegradable pH-sensitive micellar system modified with HAIYPRH, a TfR ligand (7pep). First, the polymers poly(l-histidine)-coupled polyethylene glycol-2000 (PHIS-PEG2000) and 7pep-modified 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-polyethylene glycol-2000 (7pep-DSPE-PEG2000) were synthesized, and the mixed micelles were prepared by blending of PHIS-PEG2000 and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-polyethylene glycol-2000 (DSPE-PEG2000) or 7pep-DSPE-PEG2000 (7-pep HD micelles). The micelles exhibited good size uniformity, high encapsulation efficiency, and a low critical micelle concentration. By changing the polymer ratio in the micellar formulation, the pH response range was specially tailored to pH ~6.0. When loaded with antitumor drug doxorubicin (DOX), the micelle showed an acid pH-triggering drug release profile. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity study demonstrated that 7-pep HD micelles could significantly enhance the intracellular level and antitumor efficacy of DOX in multidrug-resistant cells (MCF-7/Adr), which attributed to the synergistic effect of poly(l-histidine)-triggered endolysosom escape and TfR-mediated endocytosis. Most importantly, the in vivo imaging study confirmed the target-ability of 7-pep HD micelles to MDR tumor. These findings indicated that 7-pep HD micelles would be a promising drug delivery system in the treatment of drug-resistant tumors. PMID:28223798

  14. Assembling techniques for micellar dispersed carbon single-walled nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burghard, M.; Muster, J.; Duesberg, G.; Philipp, G.; Krstic, V.; Roth, S.

    1998-08-01

    Surfactant-stabilised aqueous dispersions of carbon single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) provide attractive possibilities for different types of assembling processes. The adsorption behaviour of chromatographically purified, micellar suspended SWNTs on silica substrates and metal electrodes is presented. Chemical modifications of the substrate surface allow to control the adsorption kinetics and the fraction between adsorbed individual SWNTs and bundles of SWNTs. Tube alignment occurs presumably due to flow effects upon removal of the surfactant. As a second assembling technique, we describe the preparation of Langmuir-Blodgett films consisting of SWNTs embedded in a surfactant matrix.

  15. Analysis of anthraquinones in Rumex crispus by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Başkan, Selda; Daut-Ozdemir, Ayşe; Günaydin, Keriman; Erim, F Bedia

    2007-02-15

    A micellar electrochromatographic method was performed for the analysis of the pharmaceutically important anthraquinones from the root of Rumex crispus. The separation of 1,5-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (1); 1,3,5-trihydroxy-6-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (2); 1,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-7-methylanthraquinone (3) was achieved in 6min using a running buffer containing 10mmol/l sodium borate, 50mmol/l sodium dodecylsulfate, and 25% acetonitrile at pH 10.6. The method is simple, rapid, and reproducible.

  16. Determination of urinary hippuric acid by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zuppi, Cecilia; Rossetti, Diana Valeria; Vitali, Alberto; Vincenzoni, Federica; Giardina, Bruno; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2003-08-15

    We propose a method for the simultaneous determination of hippuric acid (HA) and creatinine based on capillary micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Experimental conditions were 20 mM sodium phosphate, pH 7.20, 25 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, 5% (v/v) acetonitrile. Electropherograms evidenced HA and creatinine peaks in less than 12 min. The method showed good linearity for both analytes and satisfactory within-day precision. The present method, which is accurate, sensitive, rapid and simple, may be applied to single-spot urine samples.

  17. Dimerization of recombinant horseradish peroxidase in a reversed micellar system.

    PubMed

    Klyachko, N L; Dulkis YuK; Gazaryan, I G; Ouporov, I V; Levashov, A V

    1997-10-01

    Recombinant horseradish peroxidase reactivated from E. coli inclusion bodies was studied in a reversed micellar system of AOT in octane. The ability of the recombinant enzyme, in contrast to native horseradish peroxidase, to form a dimeric structure was found. The existence of the dimer was proved by results of sedimentation analysis. Dimer/monomer ratio in the enzyme-containing micelles and dimer catalytic activity were found to depend on the substrate used (pyrogallol, guaiacol, o-dianisidine, o-phenylenediamine). Computer modelling was used to describe possible structures of the dimeric recombinant horseradish peroxidase.

  18. Polymerization in emulsion microdroplet reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Nick J.

    The goal of this research project is to utilize emulsion droplets as chemical reactors for execution of complex polymerization chemistries to develop unique and functional particle materials. Emulsions are dispersions of immiscible fluids where one fluid usually exists in the form of drops. Not surprisingly, if a liquid-to-solid chemical reaction proceeds to completion within these drops, the resultant solid particles will possess the shape and relative size distribution of the drops. The two immiscible liquid phases required for emulsion polymerization provide unique and complex chemical and physical environments suitable for the engineering of novel materials. The development of novel non-ionic fluorosurfactants allows fluorocarbon oils to be used as the continuous phase in a water-free emulsion. Such emulsions enable the encapsulation of almost any hydrocarbon compound in droplets that may be used as separate compartments for water-sensitive syntheses. Here, we exemplify the promise of this approach by suspension polymerization of polyurethanes (PU), in which the liquid precursor is emulsified into droplets that are then converted 1:1 into polymer particles. The stability of the droplets against coalescence upon removal of the continuous phase by evaporation confirms the formation of solid PU particles. These results prove that the water-free environment of fluorocarbon based emulsions enables high conversion. We produce monodisperse, cross-linked, and fluorescently labeled PU-latexes with controllable mesh size through microfluidic emulsification in a simple one-step process. A novel method for the fabrication of monodisperse mesoporous silica particles is presented. It is based on the formation of well-defined equally sized emulsion droplets using a microfluidic approach. The droplets contain the silica precursor/surfactant solution and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading to

  19. Combinatorial effects of doxorubicin and retargeted tissue factor by intratumoral entrapment of doxorubicin and proapoptotic increase of tumor vascular infarction

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Caroline; Höltke, Carsten; Schliemann, Christoph; Kessler, Torsten; Schmidt, Lars Henning; Harrach, Saliha; Mantke, Verena; Hintelmann, Heike; Hartmann, Wolfgang; Wardelmann, Eva; Lenz, Georg; Wünsch, Bernhard; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Mesters, Rolf M.; Schwöppe, Christian; Berdel, Wolfgang E.

    2016-01-01

    Truncated tissue factor (tTF), retargeted to tumor vasculature by GNGRAHA peptide (tTF-NGR), and doxorubicin have therapeutic activity against a variety of tumors. We report on combination experiments of both drugs using different schedules. We have tested fluorescence- and HPLC-based intratumoral pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin, flow cytometry for cellular phosphatidylserine (PS) expression, and tumor xenograft studies for showing in vivo apoptosis, proliferation decrease, and tumor shrinkage upon combination therapy with doxorubicin and induced tumor vascular infarction. tTF-NGR given before doxorubicin inhibits the uptake of the drug into human fibrosarcoma xenografts in vivo. Reverse sequence does not influence the uptake of doxorubicin into tumor, but significantly inhibits the late wash-out phase, thus entrapping doxorubicin in tumor tissue by vascular occlusion. Incubation of endothelial and tumor cells with doxorubicin in vitro increases PS concentrations in the outer layer of the cell membrane as a sign of early apoptosis. Cells expressing increased PS concentrations show comparatively higher procoagulatory efficacy on the basis of equimolar tTF-NGR present in the Factor X assay. Experiments using human M21 melanoma and HT1080 fibrosarcoma xenografts in athymic nude mice indeed show a combinatorial tumor growth inhibition applying doxorubicin and tTF-NGR in sequence over single drug treatment. Combination of cytotoxic drugs such as doxorubicin with tTF-NGR-induced tumor vessel infarction can improve pharmacodynamics of the drugs by new mechanisms, entrapping a cytotoxic molecule inside tumor tissue and reciprocally improving procoagulatory activity of tTF-NGR in the tumor vasculature via apoptosis induction in tumor endothelial and tumor cells. PMID:27738341

  20. Bioadhesive chitosan-coated cyclodextrin-based superamolecular nanomicelles to enhance the oral bioavailability of doxorubicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuhai; Zhai, Yinglei; Han, Xiaopeng; Liu, Xiaohong; Liu, Wanjun; Wu, Chunnuan; Li, Lin; Du, Yuqian; Lian, He; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui; Sun, Jin

    2014-10-01

    In order to improve the oral bioavailability of doxorubicin (Dox), a novel bioadhesive nanomicelle based on host-guest interaction was developed in this study. Hyaluronic acid-linked β-cyclodextrin (HA-CD) was synthesized. The primary nanomicelles were formed through the self-assemble of HA-CD and retinoic acid (RA) which was included as the hydrophobic core to anchor CD cavity by host-guest interaction. Chitosan (CS) was then coated on the surface of primary nanomicelles by ionic interaction with the negatively charged HA. The critical micellar concentration of HA-CD-RA was as low as 22.5 μg/mL. Dox was successfully encapsulated into the hydrophobic core of CS-coated HA-CD-RA nanomicelles (CS/HA-CD-RA-Dox), with encapsulation efficiency as high as 89.2 %. The CS/HA-CD-RA-Dox particle size was 234 nm and was stable over 30 days. In vitro Dox release showed that CS/HA-CD-RA nanomicelles were more sustained than HA-CD-RA nanomicelles, and Dox encapsulated into CS-coated nanomicelles was stable at low pH. The in situ single pass intestinal perfusion revealed that encapsulation of Dox into CS/HA-CD-RA nanomicelles could significantly improve the intestinal permeability of Dox. The mucoadhesion results indicated that the retention percentage of CS/HA-CD-RA nanomicelles was significantly higher than that of HA-CD-RA nanomicelles in gastrointestinal tract. In vivo pharmacokinetic study revealed that AUC(0-∞) of CS/HA-CD-RA nanomicelles was about fourfold higher than that of Dox solution. The present study suggested that CS/HA-CD-RA nanomicelles as biodegradable, biocompatible, and bioadhesive nanostructure can be a promising nanocarrier in improving the bioavailability of anticancer drugs to facilitate the oral chemotherapy.

  1. Solute-solvent interactions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Selectivity of lithium dodecyl sulfate-lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate mixed-micellar buffers.

    PubMed

    Fuguet, E; Ràfols, C; Bosch, E; Rosés, M; Abraham, M H

    2001-01-12

    The solvation parameter model has been applied to the characterization of micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC) systems with mixtures of lithium dodecyl sulfate and lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate as surfactant. The variation in MEKC surfactant composition results in changes in the coefficients of the correlation equation, which in turns leads to information on solute-solvent and solute-micelle interactions. Lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate is more dipolar and hydrogen bond acidic but less polarizable and hydrogen bond basic than lithium dodecyl sulfate. Therefore mixtures of lithium dodecyl sulfate and lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate cover a very wide range of polarity and hydrogen bond properties, which in turn results in important selectivity changes for analytes with different solute properties.

  2. Worming Their Way into Shape: Toroidal Formations in Micellar Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Cardiel Rivera, Joshua J.; Tonggu, Lige; Dohnalkova, Alice; de la Iglesia, Pablo; Pozzo, Danilo C.; Shen, Amy

    2013-11-01

    We report the formation of nanostructured toroidal micellar bundles (nTMB) from a semidilute wormlike micellar solution, evidenced by both cryogenicelectron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images. Our strategy for creating nTMB involves a two-step protocol consisting of a simple prestraining process followed by flow through a microfluidic device containing an array of microposts, producing strain rates in the wormlike micelles on the order of 105 s^1. In combination with microfluidic confinement, these unusually large strain rates allow for the formation of stable nTMB. Electron microscopy images reveal a variety of nTMB morphologies and provide the size distribution of the nTMB. Small-angle neutron scattering indicates the underlying microstructural transition from wormlike micelles to nTMB. We also show that other flow-induced approaches such as sonication can induce and control the emergence of onion-like and nTMB structures, which may provide a useful tool for nanotemplating.

  3. The use of micellar solutions for novel separation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Bruce Lynn

    1993-01-01

    Surfactant based separation techniques based on the solubilization of organic compounds into the nonpolar interior of a micelle or electrostatic attraction of ionized metals and metal complexes to the charged surface of a micelle were studied in this work. Micellar solutions were used to recover two model volatile organic compounds emitted by the printing and painting industries (toluene and amyl acetate) and to investigate the effect of the most important variables in the surfactant enhanced carbon regeneration (SECR) process. SECR for liquid phase applications was also investigated in which the equilibrium adsorption of cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on activated carbon were measured. Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) was investigated using spiral wound membranes for the simultaneous removal of organic compounds, metals and metal complexes dissolved in water, with emphasis on pollution control applications. Investigations of MEUF to remove 99+ per cent of trichloroethylene (TCE) from contaminated groundwater using criteria such as: membrane flux, solubilization equilibrium constant, surfactant molecular weight, and Krafft temperature led to the selection of an anionic disulfonate with a molecular weight of 642 (DOWFAX 8390). These data and results from supporting experiments were used to design a system which could clean-up water in a 100,000 gallon/day operation. A four stage process was found to be an effective design and estimated cost for such an operation were found to be in the range of the cost of mature competitive technologies.

  4. Overview of the El Dorado Micellar-Polymer Project

    SciTech Connect

    Vanhorn, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The primary objective of the El-Dorado Micellar-Polymer Demonstration Project is to determine the economic feasibility of improved oil recovery using 2 micellar-polymer processes and to determine the associated benefits and problems of each process. The project, located in the El Dorado field, is being conducted in the 650-ft shallow sand of the Admire Group in the base of the Permian section. Sand thicknesses vary upward to 30 ft in association with numerous mini-structures. The 650-ft sand has been described as a deltaic environment with intermixing swamps, bay, and distributary channel deposits. The average porosity is 24% with permeabilities averaging 230 md. The total areal extent of the 650-ft sand reservoir is in excess of 6200 acres. Original oil-in-place was estimated at approximately 108 million bbl. Primary, air-drive, and waterflood operations have recovered 36.5 million bbl of oil, leaving an estimated 71.5 million bbl of oil in place. Water injection was terminated in February 1971, and essentially all wells in the 650-ft sand were plugged prior to initiation of the project. The primary objectives of the demonstration test are given.

  5. Conductivity measurements in a shear-banding wormlike micellar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Photinos, Panos J.; López-González, M. R.; Hoven, Corey V.; Callaghan, Paul T.

    2010-07-01

    Shear banding in the cetylpyridinium chloride/sodium salicylate micellar system is investigated using electrical conductivity measurements parallel to the velocity and parallel to the vorticity in a cylindrical Couette cell. The measurements show that the conductivity parallel to the velocity (vorticity) increases (decreases) monotonically with applied shear rate. The shear-induced anisotropy is over one order of magnitude lower than the anisotropy of the Nc nematic phase. The steady-state conductivity measurements indicate that the anisotropy of the shear induced low-viscosity (high shear rate) phase is not significantly larger than the anisotropy of the high viscosity (low shear rate) phase. We estimate that the micelles in the shear induced low viscosity band are relatively short, with a characteristic length to diameter ratio of 5-15. The relaxation behavior following the onset of shear is markedly different above and below the first critical value γ˙1 , in agreement with results obtained by other methods. The transient measurements show that the overall anisotropy of the sample decreases as the steady state is approached, i.e., the micellar length/the degree of order decrease.

  6. Micellar delivery of bicalutamide and embelin for treating prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Danquah, Michael; Li, Feng; Duke, Charles B; Miller, Duane D; Mahato, Ram I

    2009-09-01

    To examine the effect of bicalutamide and embelin on the growth of prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Micelles were fabricated with polyethylene glycol-b-polylactic acid (PEG-PLA) copolymer and characterized in terms of particle size, micellar solubilization and drug loading, followed by evaluation in nude mice bearing LNCaP xenografts. Embelin induced caspase 3 and 9 activation in LNCaP and C4-2 cells by decreasing XIAP expression and was more potent than bicalutamide in killing prostate tumor cells irrespective of their androgen status. As analyzed by isobologram analysis the combination of bicalutamide and embelin was synergistic for C4-2 but additive and slightly antagonistic for LNCaP cells. Micellar formulation resulted in at least 60-fold increase in the aqueous solubility of bicalutamide and embelin. Tumor growth was effectively regressed upon treatment with bicalutamide, but the extent of tumor regression was significantly higher when bicalutamide was formulated in micelles. However, tumor response to bicalutamide stopped after prolonged treatment and began to grow. Sequential treatment with XIAP inhibitor embelin resulted in regression of these hormone refractory tumors. Combined treatment with bicalutamide and embelin may be an effective strategy for treating hormone refractory prostate cancer.

  7. Univalent salts as modifiers in micellar capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    McLaren, David G; Boulat, Olivier; Chen, David D Y

    2002-06-01

    The influence of three univalent salts (LiCl, NaCl and RbCl) on the separation of amino acids labelled with 3-(4-carboxybenzoyl)-quinoline-2-carboxaldehyde (CBQCA) in micellar capillary electrophoresis has been studied. Capacity factors for a series of eight CBQCA-labelled amino acids in a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micellar system containing different concentrations of salt were measured and were found to be related to both the hydrodynamic radius of the salt counter-ion (Li(+), Na(+), Rb(+)) and the relative hydrophobicity of the amino acid. Affinities of the analytes for the micelles were generally observed to decrease as the salt concentration in the background electrolyte was increased from 10 to 50 mM. This decrease in affinity was greatest in the presence of the salt counter-ion with the smallest hydrodynamic radius and is primarily due to an increased resistance to mass transfer. Furthermore, interaction of hydrophobic analytes with the micelles is greater than that of hydrophilic analytes at all salt concentrations due to the greater strength of the hydrophobic interactions and this effect is also enhanced in the presence of a smaller counter-ion. No negative effects due to Joule heating or electromigrative dispersion were observed for low to moderate concentrations of salt, which suggests that the use of simple univalent salts to modify analyte/micelle affinities can be a practical method for improving the separation of complex mixtures.

  8. Percolation and Critical Phenomena of AN Attractive Micellar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, F.; Chen, S. H.; Gambadauro, P.; Lombardo, D.; Faraone, A.; Tartaglia, P.

    In this work we study an attractive micellar system for which the percolation curve terminates near the critical point. We have studied such an intriguing situation by means of scattering (elastic and dynamical) and viscoelasticity experiments. Obtained data are accounted by considering in a proper way the fractal clustering processes typical of percolating systems and the related scaling concepts. We observe that the main role in the system structure and dynamics it is played by the cluster's partial screening of hydrodynamic interaction. This behaves on approaching the percolation threshold dramatic effects on the system rheological properties and on the density decay relaxations. The measured correlation functions assume a stretched exponential form and the system becomes strongly viscoelastic. The overall behavior of the measured dynamical and structural parameters indicates, that in the present micellar system, the clustering process originates dilute, poly-disperse and swelling structures. Finally, this originates an interesting situation observed in the present experiment. As it has been previously, proposed by A. Coniglio et al., percolation clusters can be considered to be "Ising clusters" with the same properties as the Fisher's critical droplets. Therefore at the critical point the percolation connectedness length (ξp) can be assumed as the diverging correlation length (ξp ≡ ξ) and the mean cluster size diverges as the susceptibility.

  9. Resveratrol, a polyphenol phytoalexin, protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jun; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Da-dong

    2015-10-01

    Doxorubicin is the mainstay of treatment for various haematological malignancies and solid tumours. However, its clinical application may be hampered by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. The mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity may involve various signalling pathways including free radical generation, peroxynitrite formation, calcium overloading, mitochondrial dysfunction and alteration in apoptosis and autophagy. Interestingly, the use of resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin has been reported to prevent cardiac toxicity as well as to exert a synergistic effect against tumour cells both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge and to elucidate the protective effect of resveratrol in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Resveratrol, a polyphenol phytoalexin, protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jun; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Da-dong

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin is the mainstay of treatment for various haematological malignancies and solid tumours. However, its clinical application may be hampered by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. The mechanism of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity may involve various signalling pathways including free radical generation, peroxynitrite formation, calcium overloading, mitochondrial dysfunction and alteration in apoptosis and autophagy. Interestingly, the use of resveratrol in combination with doxorubicin has been reported to prevent cardiac toxicity as well as to exert a synergistic effect against tumour cells both in vivo and in vitro. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge and to elucidate the protective effect of resveratrol in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:26177159

  11. Making Polymeric Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Hyson, Michael T.; Chung, Sang-Kun; Colvin, Michael S.; Chang, Manchium

    1989-01-01

    Combination of advanced techniques yields uniform particles for biomedical applications. Process combines ink-jet and irradiation/freeze-polymerization techniques to make polymeric microspheres of uniform size in diameters from 100 to 400 micrometer. Microspheres used in chromatography, cell sorting, cell labeling, and manufacture of pharmaceutical materials.

  12. Making Polymeric Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Hyson, Michael T.; Chung, Sang-Kun; Colvin, Michael S.; Chang, Manchium

    1989-01-01

    Combination of advanced techniques yields uniform particles for biomedical applications. Process combines ink-jet and irradiation/freeze-polymerization techniques to make polymeric microspheres of uniform size in diameters from 100 to 400 micrometer. Microspheres used in chromatography, cell sorting, cell labeling, and manufacture of pharmaceutical materials.

  13. Step-Growth Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stille, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    Following a comparison of chain-growth and step-growth polymerization, focuses on the latter process by describing requirements for high molecular weight, step-growth polymerization kinetics, synthesis and molecular weight distribution of some linear step-growth polymers, and three-dimensional network step-growth polymers. (JN)

  14. Sustained release micellar carrier systems for iontophoretic transport of dexamethasone across human sclera

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Poonam; Hao, Jinsong; Li, S. Kevin

    2012-01-01

    A challenge in ocular drug delivery is to maintain the therapeutic concentration of a drug at the site of action in the eye. The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of micellar carrier systems for sustained drug delivery in transscleral iontophoresis in vitro. Simple and mixed micelles prepared using sodium taurocholate (TA) alone or with egg lecithin (LE) were the carrier systems studied. Dexamethasone (DEX), a poorly water soluble corticosteroid, was the model drug. The micellar carrier systems were first characterized for their solubilization and encapsulation of the drug. Passive and 2-mA iontophoretic (both cathodal and anodal) transport experiments were conducted using these micellar carrier systems in side-by-side diffusion cells with excised human sclera in vitro. Drug release studies were performed after the transport experiments. Saturated DEX solution without the micellar carriers was used as a control. It was found that the solubilization capacity of the micellar carrier systems increased as the total lipid concentration of the systems increased. Drug release from the sclera was significantly prolonged with the micellar carrier systems as compared to the control after passive and iontophoretic delivery. Less than ~ 20% of DEX was released from the sclera in approximately 2 hours after cathodal iontophoretic delivery of the micellar carrier systems, whereas more than ~ 50% of DEX was released from the control in the same time period under the same condition. Micellar carrier systems can be a suitable transscleral drug delivery system for poorly water soluble drugs by enhancing their aqueous solubilities and providing sustained drug delivery. These micellar carrier systems can be efficiently delivered into and across the sclera by iontophoresis for drug delivery. PMID:22306336

  15. Doxorubicin induced heart failure: Phenotype and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mitry, Maria A.; Edwards, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Long term survival of childhood cancers is now more than 70%. Anthracyclines, including doxorubicin, are some of the most efficacious anticancer drugs available. However, its use as a chemotherapeutic agent is severely hindered by its dose-limiting toxicities. Most notably observed is cardiotoxicity, but other organ systems are also degraded by doxorubicin use. Despite the years of its use and the amount of information written about this drug, an understanding of its cellular mechanisms is not fully appreciated. The mechanisms by which doxorubicin induces cytotoxicity in target cancer cells have given insight about how the drug damages cardiomyocytes. The major mechanisms of doxorubicin actions are thought to be as an oxidant generator and as an inhibitor of topoisomerase 2. However, other signaling pathways are also invoked with significant consequences for the cardiomyocyte. Further the interaction between oxidant generation and topoisomerase function has only recently been appreciated and the consequences of this interaction are still not fully understood. The unfortunate consequences of doxorubicin within cardiomyocytes have promoted the search for new drugs and methods that can prevent or reverse the damage caused to the heart after treatment in cancer patients. Alternative protocols have lessened the impact on newly diagnosed cancer patients. However the years of doxorubicin use have generated a need for monitoring the onset of cardiotoxicity as well as understanding its potential long-term consequences. Although a fairly clear understanding of the short-term pathologic mechanisms of doxorubicin actions has been achieved, the long-term mechanisms of doxorubicin induced heart failure remain to be carefully delineated. PMID:27213178

  16. Clinical characteristics of doxorubicin-associated alopecia in 28 dogs.

    PubMed

    Falk, Elizabeth F; Lam, Andrea T H; Barber, Lisa G; Ferrer, Lluis

    2017-04-01

    Chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) is common in humans, but there are limited reports describing the clinical features of CIA in dogs. To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of doxorubicin-associated alopecia (DAA) in canine patients at a teaching hospital from 2012 to 2014. Signalment, diagnosis, treatment protocols and clinical examination findings were recorded in 150 dogs treated with doxorubicin from 2012 to 2014. Medical records were searched retrospectively for the keywords "alopecia" and "hypotrichosis." Dogs were excluded if the causal link of hair loss was unclear. Doxorubicin-associated alopecia was reported in 28 of 150 dogs (19%). Two parameters were statistically associated with the development of DAA: coat-type and cumulative doxorubicin dose. Dogs with curly or wire-haired coat-type were significantly more likely to develop DAA than dogs with straight-haired coat-type [χ(2) (1, N = 147) = 30, P < 0.0001]. After adjusting for sex, weight and doxorubicin dose, the odds of dogs with curly or wire-haired coat-type developing DAA were 22 times higher than those with straight-haired coat-type (P < 0.0001). Dogs that developed DAA received a significantly higher median cumulative doxorubicin dose (103.0 versus 84.5 mg/m(2) ; P = 0.0039) than those that did not develop DAA. Dogs treated with doxorubicin may be at risk for developing DAA. This risk increases as the cumulative dose of doxorubicin increases, and with a curly or wire-haired coat-type. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Chronic heart damage following doxorubicin treatment is alleviated by lovastatin.

    PubMed

    Henninger, Christian; Huelsenbeck, Stefanie; Wenzel, Philip; Brand, Moritz; Huelsenbeck, Johannes; Schad, Arno; Fritz, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The anticancer efficacy of anthracyclines is limited by cumulative dose-dependent early and delayed cardiotoxicity resulting in congestive heart failure. Mechanisms responsible for anthracycline-induced heart damage are controversially discussed and effective preventive measures are preferable. Here, we analyzed the influence of the lipid lowering drug lovastatin on anthracycline-induced late cardiotoxicity three month after treatment of C57BL/6 mice with five low doses of doxorubicin (5×3mg/kg BW; i.p.). Doxorubicin increased the cardiac mRNA levels of BNP, IL-6 and CTGF, while the expression of ANP remained unchanged. Lovastatin counteracted these persisting cardiac stress responses evoked by the anthracycline. Doxorubicin-induced fibrotic alterations were neither detected by histochemical collagen staining of heart sections nor by analysis of the mRNA expression of collagens. Extensive qRT-PCR-array based analyses revealed a large increase in the mRNA level of heat shock protein Hspa1b in doxorubicin-treated mice, which was mitigated by lovastatin co-treatment. Electron microscopy together with qPCR-based analysis of mitochondrial DNA content indicate that lovastatin attenuates doxorubicin-stimulated hyperproliferation of mitochondria. This was not paralleled by increased expression of oxidative stress responsive genes or senescence-associated proteins. Echocardiographic analyses disclosed that lovastatin protects from the doxorubicin-induced decrease in the left ventricular posterior wall diameter (LVPWD), while constrictions in fractional shortening (FS) and ejection fraction (EF) evoked by doxorubicin were not amended by the statin. Taken together, the data suggest beneficial effects of lovastatin against doxorubicin-induced delayed cardiotoxicity. Clinical studies are preferable to scrutinize the usefulness of statins for the prevention of anthracycline-induced late cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Distinct biodistribution of doxorubicin and the altered dispositions mediated by different liposomal formulations.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ruijuan; Li, Yan; He, Miao; Zhang, Huixia; Yuan, Hebao; Johnson, Mark; Palmisano, Maria; Zhou, Simon; Sun, Duxin

    2017-03-15

    The liposomal formulations of doxorubicin produced distinct efficacy and toxicity profiles compared to doxorubicin solution in cancer patients. This study aims to investigate the drug tissue distribution and the driving force for tissue distribution from doxorubicin solution and two liposomal delivery systems, Doxil and Myocet. These three formulations were intravenously administered to mice at a single dose of 5mg/kg. Eleven organs, plasma and blood were collected at different time points. Total doxorubicin concentrations in each specimen were measured with LC-MS/MS. Compared to doxorubicin solution, both Doxil and Myocet produced distinct doxorubicin tissue exposure in all 11 tissues. Interestingly, the tissue exposure by Myocet was drastically different from that of Doxil and showed a formulation-dependent pattern. Cmax of doxorubicin in heart tissue by Doxil and Myocet was approximately 60% and 50% respectively of that by doxorubicin solution. The predominant driving force for doxorubicin tissue distribution is liposomal-doxorubicin deposition for Doxil and free drug concentration for doxorubicin solution. For Myocet, the driving force for tissue distribution is predominately liposomal-doxorubicin deposition into tissues within the first 4h; as the non-PEGylated doxorubicin liposomal decomposes, the driving force for tissue distribution is gradually switched to the released free doxorubicin. Unique tissue distributions are correlated with their toxicity profiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymeric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C-S.

    1999-11-02

    Synthesis of polymeric carbon dioxide has long been of interest to many chemists and materials scientists. Very recently we discovered the polymeric phase of carbon dioxide (called CO{sub 2}-V) at high pressures and temperatures. Our optical and x-ray results indicate that CO{sub 2}-V is optically non-linear, generating the second harmonic of Nd: YLF laser at 527 nm and is also likely superhard similar to cubic-boron nitride or diamond. CO{sub 2}-V is made of CO{sub 4} tetrahedra, analogous to SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, and is quenchable at ambient temperature at pressures above 1 GPa. In this paper, we describe the pressure-induced polymerization of carbon dioxide together with the stability, structure, and mechanical and optical properties of polymeric CO{sub 2}-V. We also present some implications of polymeric CO{sub 2} for high-pressure chemistry and new materials synthesis.

  20. Cardioprotective effect of cannabidiol in rats exposed to doxorubicin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Amr A; Albuali, Waleed H; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-09-01

    The potential protective effect of cannabidiol, the major non-psychotropic Cannabis constituent, was investigated against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in rats. Cardiotoxicity was induced by six equal doses of doxorubicin (2.5mgkg(-1) i.p., each) given at 48h intervals over two weeks to achieve a total dose of 15mgkg(-1). Cannabidiol treatment (5mgkg(-1)/day, i.p.) was started on the same day of doxorubicin administration and continued for four weeks. Cannabidiol significantly reduced the elevations of serum creatine kinase-MB and troponin T, and cardiac malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor-α, nitric oxide and calcium ion levels, and attenuated the decreases in cardiac reduced glutathione, selenium and zinc ions. Histopathological examination showed that cannabidiol ameliorated doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that cannabidiol significantly reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-κB, Fas ligand and caspase-3, and increased the expression of survivin in cardiac tissue of doxorubicin-treated rats. These results indicate that cannabidiol represents a potential protective agent against doxorubicin cardiac injury.

  1. Riboflavin-containing telodendrimer nanocarriers for efficient doxorubicin delivery: High loading capacity, increased stability, and improved anticancer efficacy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dandan; Shi, Changying; Wang, Xu; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Shengle; Luo, Juntao

    2017-10-01

    We have developed two linear-dendritic telodendrimers (TDs) with rational design using amphiphilic riboflavin (Rf) as building blocks for efficient doxorubicin (DOX) delivery. Micellar TD nanoparticles (NPs) are composed of a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) shell and a Rf-containing affinitive core for DOX encapsulation. Strong DOX-Rf interactions and amphiphilic Rf structure render these nanocarriers with an ultra-high DOX loading capacity (>1/1, DOX/TD, w/w), ∼100% loading efficiency, the sustained drug release and the optimal particle sizes (20-40 nm) for efficient tumor-targeted drug delivery. These nanoformulations significantly prolonged DOX circulation time in the blood without the accelerated clearance observed after multiple injections. DOX-TDs target several types of tumors efficiently in vivo, e.g. Raji lymphoma, MDA-MB-231 breast cancer, and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer. In vivo maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of DOX was increased by 2-2.5 folds for the nanoformulations in mice relative to those of free DOX and Doxil(®). These nanoformulations significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival of mice bearing SKOV-3 ovarian cancer xenografts. In summary, Rf-containing nanoformulations with high DOX loading capacity, improved stability and efficient tumor targeting lead to superior antitumor efficacy, which merit the further development for clinical application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Utilization of micellar electrokinetic chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry employed volatile micellar phase in the analysis of cathinone designer drugs.

    PubMed

    Švidrnoch, Martin; Lněníčková, Ludmila; Válka, Ivo; Ondra, Peter; Maier, Vítězslav

    2014-08-22

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with tandem mass spectrometry has been developed for the selective separation, identification and determination of twelve new designer drugs from the group of synthetic cathinones. Ammonium salt of perfluorooctanoic acid at various concentrations as a volatile background electrolyte (BGE) to create micellar phase was studied for separation of selected synthetic cathinones with direct tandem mass spectrometry without significant loss of detection sensitivity. The optimized BGE contained 100 mM perfluorooctanoic acid with 200 mM ammonium hydroxide providing acceptable resolution of studied drugs in the MEKC step. In order to minimize interferences with matrix components and to preconcentrate target analytes, solid phase extraction was introduced as a clean-up step. The method was linear in the concentration range of 10-5000 ng mL(-1) and the limits of detection were in the range of 10-78 ng mL(-1). The method was demonstrated to be specific, sensitive, and reliable for the systematic toxicological analysis of these derivatives in urine samples.

  3. Selectivity patterns in micellar electrokinetic chromatography: characterization of fluorinated and aliphatic alcohol modifiers by micellar selectivity triangle.

    PubMed

    Fu, Cexiong; Khaledi, Morteza G

    2009-03-06

    The usefulness of the micellar selectivity triangle (MST) for prediction and interpretation of separation patterns in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separations is presented. In addition, we demonstrate the capability of controlling selectivity properties of micelles through addition of organic modifiers with known solvation properties as predicted by MST. The examples are modification of the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) micelle of lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate, the hydrogen bond acceptor (HBA) micelle of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide, and the sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles with intermediate hydrogen bonding properties with two hydrophobic organic modifiers. One is an aliphatic alcohol, n-pentanol that can act as both a HBA and a HBD; by contrast, the other organic modifier is a fluorinated alcohol, hexafluoroisopropanol that is a strong HBD modifier and would enhance the hydrogen bond donor strength of micelles. A test sample composed of 20 small organic solutes representing HBA, HBD, and non-hydrogen bond aromatic compounds was carefully selected. The trends in retention behavior of these compounds in different micelles are consistent with the selectivity patterns predicted by the MST scheme. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the unique selectivity of fluorinated alcohols as modifiers in MEKC. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the MST scheme for identifying pseudo-phases with highly similar or different selectivities and can serve as a guide for judicious selection of modifiers to create pseudo-phases with desired selectivity behavior on a rational basis.

  4. Non-Isocyanate Polyurethane Soft Nanoparticles Obtained by Surfactant-Assisted Interfacial Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Bossion, Amaury; Jones, Gavin O; Taton, Daniel; Mecerreyes, David; Hedrick, James L; Ong, Zhan Yuin; Yang, Yi Yan; Sardon, Haritz

    2017-02-28

    Polyurethanes (PUs) are considered ideal candidates for drug delivery applications due to their easy synthesis, excellent mechanical properties, and biodegradability. Unfortunately, methods for preparing well-defined PU nanoparticles required miniemulsion polymerization techniques with a nontrivial control of the polymerization conditions due to the inherent incompatibility of isocyanate-containing monomers and water. In this work, we report the preparation of soft PU nanoparticles in a one-pot process using interfacial polymerization that employs a non-isocyanate polymerization route that minimizes side reactions with water. Activated pentafluorophenyl dicarbonates were polymerized with diamines and/or triamines by interfacial polymerization in the presence of an anionic emulsifier, which afforded non-isocyanate polyurethane (NIPU) nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 200-300 nm. Notably, 5 wt % of emulsifier was required in combination with a trifunctional amine to achieve stable PU dispersions and avoid particle aggregation. The versatility of this polymerization process allows for incorporation of functional groups into the PU nanoparticles, such as carboxylic acids, which can encapsulate the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin through ionic interactions. Altogether, this waterborne synthetic method for functionalized NIPU soft nanoparticles holds great promise for the preparation of drug delivery nanocarriers.

  5. Elasticity and Dynamic Properties of Ionic Micellar Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumley, Sulakshana Sathi

    1990-01-01

    Micellar liquid crystals are formed in aqueous solutions of surfactants. Three ionic surfactant systems were used in this dissertation research: Potassium laurate system (KL/1-dec/D_2O), Sodium decyl sulfate system (SDS/1-dec/D_2O) and Cesium perfluorooctanoate system (CsPFO/H_2 O). The KL and SDS systems show three nematic phases: two uniaxial nematic and an intervening biaxial nematic phase. The nematic-nematic transitions are all second order. The aim of this research is to study the similarities and dissimilarities in physical properties of the different systems. In the CsPFO system, the birefringence and density were studied over the N-S transition which shows an unusual hysteresis. Rotational viscosities of micellar nematics were measured by monitoring the relaxation of the optical axes as a function of time in the presence of magnetic field. The KL and SDS systems show significant differences in viscosities and elastic constants. The elastic constants in KL and SDS systems were measured to be of the order of 10^{ -7}-10^{-8} dynes which is an order smaller than for thermotropic systems. The viscosity measured in the middle of N_{ rm C} phase is about 60 poise in SDS system while it is about 10 poise in the KL system. In the SDS system, a strong pretransitional effect is seen at the N_{rm BX} -N_{rm C} transition resulting in a decrease in viscosity. It is probably due to a change in short range interaction of the micelles. Birefringence measurements were taken for CsPFO system over the N-S transition to study the hysteresis at N-S transition. Density measurements were also done for the same purpose. Measurements taken at the different scan rate showed that there was still a small hysteresis even at rates as slow as 1mk/min. It is remarkable that in the SDS and CsPFO systems the density change at N-I transition is negative while the density change is positive at N-S transition. It indicates that there are different changes in the micellar structure. An

  6. Effect of the interaction of heat-processing style and fat type on the micellarization of lipid-soluble pigments from green and red pungent peppers (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Yahia, Elhadi M; Failla, Mark L

    2013-04-17

    The high diversity of carotenoids and chlorophylls in foods contrasts with the reduced number of pigments that typically are investigated in micellarization studies. In this study, pepper samples (raw and heat-treated) contained 68 individual pigments, but only 38 of them were micellarized after in vitro digestion. The micellarization of pigments was majorly determined by the interaction effect of processing style (food matrix effect) and fat type (saturated and unsaturated). The highest micellarization was observed with raw peppers. Unsaturated fat increased the micellarization of carotenoid esters, while the impact of fat on the micellarization of free carotenoids seemed to be dependent on pigment structure. The micellarization efficiency was diminished as the esterification level of carotenoids increased. The type of fatty acid moiety and the polarity of the carotenoids modulated their micellarization. Chlorophylls were transformed into pheophytins by heat-processing and digestion, with the pheophytins being stable under gastrointestinal conditions. Micellarization of pheophytins was improved by fat.

  7. A comparison of the effect of doxorubicin and phenol on the skeletal muscle. May doxorubicin be a new alternative treatment agent for spasticity?

    PubMed

    Cullu, Emre; Ozkan, Ilhan; Culhaci, Nil; Alparslan, Bulent

    2005-03-01

    Since spasticity is still an unsolved problem for orthopaedic surgeons, different chemical agents are tried before surgery. Phenol is a chemical agent which has been used for spasticity treatment for a long time. Doxorubicin is an antitumoral agent that has recently been used for chemomyectomy. The intramuscular effects of phenol and two different dose of doxorubicin were compared in that experimental study. In the first group 0.5 mg/0.5 cm3 doxorubicin, in the second group 1 mg/0.5 doxorubicin and in the third group 5% aqueous solution of fenol/0.5 injection were applied into left quadriceps muscle of rats. Degeneration areas were wider in the high dose doxorubicin group (29.9%; 8.5-61), in comparison with the low dose doxorubicin group (6.4%; 3.1-12) and phenol group (4%; 0-14) after 6 weeks. Differences in degeneration area among three groups were statistically significant (P<0.001). The difference was significant between the high dose doxorubicin group and the phenol group (P=0.001) and also between the high dose doxorubicin group and the low dose doxorubicin group (P<0.001). The results of this study suggested that doxorubicin could provide an alternative treatment modality for neuromuscular disease causing spasticity and it has a dose-dependent effect. Further studies are needed for long-term comparison and clinical use of doxorubicin for spasticity treatment.

  8. Doxorubicin-mediated radiosensitivity in multicellular spheroids from a lung cancer cell line is enhanced by composite micelle encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wen-Hong; Han, Min; Dong, Qi; Fu, Zhi-Xuan; Diao, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Hai; Xu, Jing; Jiang, Hong-Liang; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Zheng, Shu; Gao, Jian-Qing; Wei, Qi-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of composite doxorubicinloaded micelles for enhancing doxorubicin radiosensitivity in multicellular spheroids from a non-small cell lung cancer cell line. Methods A novel composite doxorubicin-loaded micelle consisting of polyethylene glycolpolycaprolactone/Pluronic P105 was developed, and carrier-mediated doxorubicin accumulation and release from multicellular spheroids was evaluated. We used confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry to study the accumulation and efflux of doxorubicin from A549 multicellular spheroids. Doxorubicin radiosensitization and the combined effects of irradiation and doxorubicin on cell migration and proliferation were compared for the different doxorubicin delivery systems. Results Confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantitative flow cytometry studies both verified that, for equivalent doxorubicin concentrations, composite doxorubicin-loaded micelles significantly enhanced cellular doxorubicin accumulation and inhibited doxorubicin release. Colony-forming assays demonstrated that composite doxorubicin-loaded micelles are radiosensitive, as shown by significantly reduced survival of cells treated by radiation + composite micelles compared with those treated with radiation + free doxorubicin or radiation alone. The multicellular spheroid migration area and growth ability verified higher radiosensitivity for the composite micelles loaded with doxorubicin than for free doxorubicin. Conclusion Our composite doxorubicin-loaded micelle was demonstrated to have radiosensitization. Doxorubicin loading in the composite micelles significantly increased its cellular uptake, improved drug retention, and enhanced its antitumor effect relative to free doxorubicin, thereby providing a novel approach for treatment of cancer. PMID:22679376

  9. Application of micellar liquid chromatography for the determination of antitumoral and antiretroviral drugs in plasma.

    PubMed

    Peris-Vicente, Juan; Casas-Breva, Inmaculada; Roca-Genovés, Pasqual; Esteve-Romero, Josep

    2014-01-01

    In micellar liquid chromatography, the mobile phase is made of a surfactant and, eventually, an alcohol. This article describes several methods to measure the concentration of antitumoral and antiretroviral drugs in plasma, utilizing micellar liquid chromatography. Samples can be injected after dilution with a micellar solution and filtration, because proteins and other endogenous compounds are solubilized in micellar medium. We will discuss the following optimized parameters: dilution ratio, type of column, detection conditions and mobile phase composition. This article will also cover the validation performed following the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines and the results reported in the literature, indicating that the methods are useful for the routine analysis of plasma samples for clinical purposes.

  10. Concentration fluorescence quenching of cyanine dyes in micellar solutions and microemulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Razumov, V.F.; Ivanchenko, A.G.

    1995-10-01

    The concentration fluorescence quenching of cyanine dyes in micellar solutions and microemulsions is studied. The concentration quenching by dimers and statistical traps is analyzed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. SOLUBILIZATION OF DODECANE, TETRACHLOROETHYLENE, AND 1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE IN MICELLAR SOLUTIONS OF ETHOXYLATED NONIONIC SURFACTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although surfactants have received considerable attention as a potential means for enhancing the recovery of organic compounds from the subsurface, only limited information is available regarding the micellar solubilization of common groundwater contaminants by nonionic surfactan...

  12. SOLUBILIZATION OF DODECANE, TETRACHLOROETHYLENE, AND 1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE IN MICELLAR SOLUTIONS OF ETHOXYLATED NONIONIC SURFACTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although surfactants have received considerable attention as a potential means for enhancing the recovery of organic compounds from the subsurface, only limited information is available regarding the micellar solubilization of common groundwater contaminants by nonionic surfactan...

  13. Separation of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ching-Hua; Sun, Shao-Wen

    2002-01-01

    The micellar electrokinetic chromatographic (MEKC) separation of seven bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids has been developed. The effects of various separating factors were studied. Optimum separation was achieved using a buffer (pH 9.2) of 20 mM sodium borate and 20 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer containing 55 mM sodium cholate; the optimum voltage and injection time were 21 kV and 0.05 min, respectively. Highest peak efficiency was obtained when the analytes were dissolved in 10 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate as sample matrix for injection. The elution order of the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids was related to their lipophilicity. The resolution, run time and detection limits of the MEKC method were compared with those of an HPLC method developed previously.

  14. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separation of furanonaphthoquinones from Tabebuia impetiginosa.

    PubMed

    Koyama, J; Morita, I; Kino, A; Tagahara, K

    2000-06-01

    The separation of nine furanonaphthoquinones by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) is described. The running electrolytes used in this method were 0.03 M sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) in 0.09 M borate buffer (pH 9) containing 10% methanol, with an applied voltage of 20 kV. Application of this technique in the determination of the main furanonaphthoquinones, 5-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, 8-hydroxy-2-(1-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, and 2-(1-hydroxyethyl)naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, of Tabebuia impetiginosa is demonstrated in this paper.

  15. Experimental study of the micellar nematic phase of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Photinos, Panos; Xu, Shou Yi; Saupe, Alfred

    1990-07-01

    Measurements of the electric conductivity parallel and normal to the nematic director, of the reorientation time in magnetic fields, of the birefringence, and of the density are presented as functions of temperature and concentration, for the system tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide-D2O. The density in the nematic and the isotropic phases decreases with temperature, almost linearly. The variation is described in terms of the expansion of the aqueous phase and the alkyl chains forming the micellar interior. The data also indicate denser packing at the transition to the isotropic phase. The conductivity anisotropy and the birefringence are rather low and show little variation with temperature; the reorientation times are very long, corresponding to rotational viscosities between 1000 and 3000 P. The high viscosity indicates that the micelles have total length much higher than the persistence length, and may show flow properties similar to polymer solutions.

  16. Modelling bioconcentration of pesticides in fish using biopartitioning micellar chromatography.

    PubMed

    Bermúdez-Saldaña, José María; Escuder-Gilabert, Laura; Medina-Hernández, María José; Villanueva-Camañas, Rosa María; Sagrado, Salvador

    2005-01-21

    Ecotoxicity assessment is essential before placing new chemical substances on the market. An investigation of the use of the chromatographic retention (log k) in biopartitioning micellar chromatography (BMC) as an in vitro approach to evaluate the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of pesticides in fish is proposed. A heterogeneous set of 85 pesticides from six chemical families was used. For pesticides exhibiting bioconcentration in fish (experimental log BCF > 2), a quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRAR) model is able to perform precise log BCF estimations of new pesticides. Considering the present data, the results based on log k seem to be more reliable than those from available software (BCFWIN and KOWWIN) and from log P (quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR)). It is also possible to perform risk assessment tasks fixing a threshold value for log k, which substitute two common threshold values, log P and experimental log BCF, avoiding the experimental problems related with these two parameters.

  17. Dynamics of concentration fluctuations for a micellar solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamano, K.; Sato, T.; Koyama, T.; Kuwahara, N.

    1985-09-01

    The decay rate Γ for a micellar solution pentaethyleneglycol mono n-dodecyl ether +water has been examined near the critical mixing point by light scattering. We find that the dynamic scaling behavior of Γ*=[6πη(T)/kBT](Γ/k3 ) as a function of kξ over the range of 0.14<=kξ<=6.2 has an obvious kinship with that for a fluid mixture near the critical mixing point, where η(T) is the shear viscosity and ξ the correlation length. It is also found that the shear viscosity exhibits a critical-like power-law singularity and depends explicitly on shear gradients.

  18. Redox reactions in micellar systems. communication 4. Eosin-photosensitized reduction of methylviologen

    SciTech Connect

    Nadtochenko, V.; Dzhabiev, T.S.; Rubtsov, I.V.

    1985-12-10

    The authors present data on photosensitized reduction of methylviologen (MV/sup 2 +/) by disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) in micellar systems modeling, in a first approximation, the structural organization of components of the chain of energy and electron transfer in natural photosynthesis. Photosensitized reduction of methylviologen by EDTA in micellar solutions can model photosystem I of plants with structure formation of reagents and transfer of excitation energy before the step of occurrence of a redox reaction in the active center.

  19. Efficient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons dihydroxylation in direct micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, D; Berti, D; Briganti, F; Baglioni, P; Scozzafava, A; Di Gennaro, P; Galli, E; Bestetti, G

    2001-08-05

    Optimization of whole-cell bioconversion of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) anthracene, phenanthrene, and naphthalene to the enantiomerically pure corresponding cis-dihydroxydihydro derivatives by the Escherichia coli JM109 (pPS1778) recombinant strain, carrying the naphthalene dioxygenase and corresponding regulatory genes cloned from Pseudomonas fluorescens N3, in micellar systems, is presented. We show that direct microemulsion systems, where a nonionic surfactant such as 1.5% (v/v) Triton X-100 plus 0.6% to 1.0% (v/v) selected oils are able to solubilize the PAHs tested at relatively high concentrations (initial concentrations in the reaction medium > or =10 mM for naphthalene and phenanthrene and > or =2 mM for anthracene), and allow for more efficient substrate bioconversion. These media, while not affecting bacteria viability and performance, provide increased efficiency and final product yields (100% for naphthalene, >30% for anthracene, >60% for phenanthrene). The phase behavior of the direct microemulsion systems for the different substrates and oils utilized was monitored as a function of their volume fraction by light scattering experiments, and related to the bioconversion results. For anthracene and phenanthrene, the dihydroxylated products have an inhibitory effect on the conversion reactions, thus hindering complete turnover of the substrates. We ascertain that such inhibition is reversible because removal of the products formed allowed the process to start over at rates comparable to initial rates. To allow for complete conversion of the PAHs tested a stepwise or continuous separation of the product formed from the micellar reaction environment is being developed. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  20. Theoretical study of catalytic effects in micellar solutions.

    PubMed

    Rescic, J; Vlachy, V; Bhuiyan, L B; Outhwaite, C W

    2005-01-04

    The catalytic effect of charged micelles as manifested through the increased collision frequency between the counterions of an electrolyte in the presence of such micelles is explored by the Monte Carlo simulation technique and various theoretical approaches. The micelles and ions are pictured as charged hard spheres embedded in a dielectric continuum with the properties of water at 298 K with the charge on micelles varying from zero to z(m) = 50 negative elementary charges. Analytical theories such as (i) the symmetric Poisson-Boltzmann theory, (ii) the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory, and (iii) the hypernetted-chain integral equation are applied and tested against the Monte Carlo data for micellar ions (m) with up to 50 negative charges in aqueous solution with monovalent counterions (c; z(c) = +1) and co-ions (co; z(co) = -1). The results for the counterion-counterion pair correlation function at contact, g(cc)(sigma(cc)), are calculated in a micellar concentration range from c(m) = 5 x 10(-)(6) to 0.1 mol/dm(3) with an added +1:-1 electrolyte concentration of 0.005 mol/dm(3) (for most cases), and for various model parameters. Our computations indicate that even a small concentration of a highly charged polyelectrolyte added to a +1:-1 electrolyte solution strongly increases the probability of finding two counterions in contact. This result is in agreement with experimental data. For low charge on the micelles (z(m) below -8), all the theories are in qualitative agreement with the new computer simulations. For highly charged micelles, the theories either fail to converge (the hypernetted-chain theory) or, alternatively, yield poor agreement with computer data (the symmetric Poisson-Boltzmann and modified Poisson-Boltzmann theories). The nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann cell model results yield reasonably good agreement with computer simulations for this system.

  1. Jet A fuel recovery using micellar flooding: Design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Kostarelos, Konstantinos; Lenschow, Søren R; Stylianou, Marinos A; de Blanc, Phillip C; Mygind, Mette Marie; Christensen, Anders G

    2016-09-01

    Surfactants offer two mechanisms for recovering NAPLs: 1) to mobilize NAPL by reducing NAPL/water interfacial tension, and; 2) to increase the NAPL's aqueous solubility-called solubilization-as an enhancement to pump & treat. The second approach has been well-studied and applied successfully in several pilot-scale and a few full-scale tests within the last 15years, known as Surfactant Enhanced Aquifer Remediation (SEAR). A useful source of information for this second approach is the "Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR) design manual" from the U.S. Navy Facilities Engineering Command. Few attempts, however, have been made at recovering NAPLs using the mobilization approach presented in this paper. Now, a full-scale field implementation of the mobilization approach is planned to recover an LNAPL (Jet A fuel) from a surficial sand aquifer located in Denmark using a smaller amount of surfactant solution and fewer PVs of throughput compared with the SEAR approach. The approach will rely on mobilizing the LNAPL so that it is recovered ahead of the surfactant microemulsion, also known as a micellar flood. This paper will review the laboratory work performed as part of the design for a full-scale implementation of a micellar flood. Completed lab work includes screening of surfactants, phase behavior and detailed salinity scans of the most promising formulations, and generating a ternary diagram to be used for the numerical simulations of the field application. The site owners and regulators were able to make crucial decisions such as the anticipated field results based on this work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of commercial sterilization regimens on micellar casein concentrates.

    PubMed

    Beliciu, C M; Sauer, A; Moraru, C I

    2012-10-01

    This work focused on evaluating the effects of UHT sterilization and in-container retorting on the stability and physical properties of micellar casein concentrates (MCC). The study was performed on MCC obtained by membrane separation, with casein concentrations between 5 and 10%. The UHT and retorting regimens were designed to achieve the same microbial inactivation effect. Ultra-high temperature treatment was performed in a pilot-scale MicroThermics heating system (MicroThermics Inc., Raleigh, NC), and retorting in an FMC multipurpose laboratory retort (Steritort; FMC Corp., San Jose, CA). The heat-treated and the non-heat-treated MCC controls were evaluated for pH, mineral profile, ζ-potential, particle size, and rheological properties for up to 24h after heat treatment. The treatments were performed in triplicate, and differences among samples were evaluated using statistical analyses. Retorting resulted in slight aggregation in the MCC, whereas UHT caused the formation of visible aggregates and coagulation. The UHT-treated MCC had higher viscosity than retorted MCC, and displayed predominantly solid-like rheological behavior, indicative of structure formation. These effects were, at least in part, attributed to a change in mineral equilibrium, which affected the stability of the casein micelles, but additional mechanisms such as κ-casein dissociation may also play a significant role in these heat-induced changes. Drying of MCC accentuated the observed instabilities, as dried and reconstituted micellar casein concentrates (R-MCC) were more unstable to UHT sterilization than the MCC that had not undergone drying. The results of this study provide valuable information about the sterilization behavior and physical properties of MCC, which can be useful to processors in the development and manufacture of shelf-stable casein-based products and beverages.

  3. Role of non-covalent and covalent interactions in cargo loading capacity and stability of polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiyu; Ng, Victor Wee Lin; Ono, Robert J; Chan, Julian M W; Krishnamurthy, Sangeetha; Wang, Ying; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Yan

    2014-11-10

    Polymeric micelles self-assembled from biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers have been proven to be effective drug delivery carriers that reduce the toxicity and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of free drugs. Several reviews have been reported in the literature to discuss the importance of size/size distribution, stability and drug loading capacity of polymeric micelles for successful in vivo drug delivery. This review is focused on non-covalent and covalent interactions that are employed to enhance cargo loading capacity and in vivo stability, and to achieve nanosize with narrow size distribution. In particular, this review analyzes various non-covalent and covalent interactions and chemistry applied to introduce these interactions to the micellar drug delivery systems, as well as the effects of these interactions on micelle stability, drug loading capacity and release kinetics. Moreover, the factors that influence these interactions and the future research directions of polymeric micelles are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cardiomyocyte death in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi-Wei; Shi, Jianjian; Li, Yuan-Jian; Wei, Lei

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most widely used and successful antitumor drugs, but its cumulative and dose-dependent cardiac toxicity has been the major concern of oncologists in cancer therapeutic practice for decades. With the increasing population of cancer survivals, there is a growing need to develop preventive strategies and effective therapies against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, in particular, the late onset cardiomyopathy. Although intensive investigations on the DOX-induced cardiotoxicity have been continued for decades, the underlying mechanisms responsible for DOX-induced cardiotoxicity have not been completely elucidated. A rapidly expanding body of evidence supports that cardiomyocyte death by apoptosis and necrosis is a primary mechanism of DOX-induced cardiomyopathy and other types of cell death, such as autophagy and senescence/aging, may participate in this process. In this review, we will focus on the current understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying DOX-induced cardiomyocyte death, including the major primary mechanism of excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and other recently discovered ROS-independent mechanisms. Different sensitivity to DOX-induced cell death signals between adult and young cardiomyocytes will also be discussed. PMID:19866340

  5. Ehrlich tumor inhibition using doxorubicin containing liposomes.

    PubMed

    Elbialy, Nihal Saad; Mady, Mohsen Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    Ehrlich tumors were grown in female balb mice by subcutaneous injection of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells. Mice bearing Ehrlich tumor were injected with saline, DOX in solution or DOX encapsulated within liposomes prepared from DMPC/CHOL/DPPG/PEG-PE (100:100:60:4) in molar ratio. Cytotoxicity assay showed that the IC50 of liposomes containing DOX was greater than that DOX only. Tumor growth inhibition curves in terms of mean tumor size (cm(3)) were presented. All the DOX formulations were effective in preventing tumor growth compared to saline. Treatment with DOX loaded liposomes displayed a pronounced inhibition in tumor growth than treatment with DOX only. Histopathological examination of the entire tumor sections for the various groups revealed marked differences in cellular features accompanied by varying degrees in necrosis percentage ranging from 12% for saline treated mice to 70% for DOX loaded liposome treated mice. The proposed liposomal formulation can efficiently deliver the drug into the tumor cells by endocytosis (or passive diffusion) and lead to a high concentration of DOX in the tumor cells. The study showed that the formulation of liposomal doxorubicin improved the therapeutic index of DOX and had increased anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich tumor models.

  6. UVRAG Deficiency Exacerbates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    An, Lin; Hu, Xiao-wen; Zhang, Shasha; Hu, Xiaowen; Song, Zongpei; Naz, Amber; Zi, Zhenguo; Wu, Jian; Li, Can; Zou, Yunzeng; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Mouse models of acute or chronic DOX-induced cardiotoxicity were established. UVRAG deficiency exacerbated DOX-induced mortality and cardiotoxicity manifested by increased cytoplasmic vacuolization, enhanced collagen accumulation, elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and myocardial muscle creatine kinase, higher ROS levels, aggravated apoptosis and more depressed cardiac function. Autophagic flux was impaired in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. UVRAG deficiency aggravated impaired autophagic flux in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Intermittent fasting restored autophagy and ameliorated pathological alterations of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our data suggest that UVRAG deficiency exacerbates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, through aggravation of DOX-induced impaired autophagic flux. Intermittent fasting, which restores blunted autophagic flux and ameliorates pathology in the mouse models of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, may be used as a potential preventive or therapeutic approach for DOX cardiotoxicity. PMID:28225086

  7. UVRAG Deficiency Exacerbates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    An, Lin; Hu, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Shasha; Hu, Xiaowen; Song, Zongpei; Naz, Amber; Zi, Zhenguo; Wu, Jian; Li, Can; Zou, Yunzeng; He, Lin; Zhu, Hongxin

    2017-02-22

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Mouse models of acute or chronic DOX-induced cardiotoxicity were established. UVRAG deficiency exacerbated DOX-induced mortality and cardiotoxicity manifested by increased cytoplasmic vacuolization, enhanced collagen accumulation, elevated serum activities of lactate dehydrogenase and myocardial muscle creatine kinase, higher ROS levels, aggravated apoptosis and more depressed cardiac function. Autophagic flux was impaired in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. UVRAG deficiency aggravated impaired autophagic flux in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Intermittent fasting restored autophagy and ameliorated pathological alterations of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Collectively, our data suggest that UVRAG deficiency exacerbates DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, through aggravation of DOX-induced impaired autophagic flux. Intermittent fasting, which restores blunted autophagic flux and ameliorates pathology in the mouse models of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, may be used as a potential preventive or therapeutic approach for DOX cardiotoxicity.

  8. Radical-Mediated Enzymatic Polymerizations

    PubMed Central

    Zavada, Scott R.; Battsengel, Tsatsral; Scott, Timothy F.

    2016-01-01

    Polymerization reactions are commonly effected by exposing monomer formulations to some initiation stimulus such as elevated temperature, light, or a chemical reactant. Increasingly, these polymerization reactions are mediated by enzymes―catalytic proteins―owing to their reaction efficiency under mild conditions as well as their environmental friendliness. The utilization of enzymes, particularly oxidases and peroxidases, for generating radicals via reduction-oxidation mechanisms is especially common for initiating radical-mediated polymerization reactions, including vinyl chain-growth polymerization, atom transfer radical polymerization, thiol–ene step-growth polymerization, and polymerization via oxidative coupling. While enzyme-mediated polymerization is useful for the production of materials intended for subsequent use, it is especially well-suited for in situ polymerizations, where the polymer is formed in the place where it will be utilized. Such polymerizations are especially useful for biomedical adhesives and for sensing applications. PMID:26848652

  9. Effect of monomer dosing rate in the preparation of mesoporous polystyrene nanoparticles by semicontinuous heterophase polymerization.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Dalia Y; Guillén, Lourdes; Saade, Hened; Mendizábal, Eduardo; Puig, Jorge E; López, Raúl G

    2014-12-23

    The semicontinuous heterophase polymerization of styrene in the presence of cross-linking and porogen agents was carried out. Latexes with close to 20% solid content, which contained mesoporous nanoparticles with 28 nm in average diameters, up to 0.5 cm3/g in porosity and 6-8 nm in pore diameters were obtained. By varying the monomer dosing rate over the micellar solution, an unexpected direct dependence of instantaneous conversion on the monomer dosing rate was found. This was ascribed to the higher average number of radicals per particle attained in the polymerization at the higher dosing rate, which in turn would arise from the higher gel percentage in the polymer. It is believed that the cross-linked chains prevent encounters between radicals, delaying the bimolecular termination reactions and allowing the existence of more than one radical inside the particles, which in turn increases the propagation rate.

  10. Synthesis of long-circulating, backbone degradable HPMA copolymer-doxorubicin conjugates and evaluation of molecular-weight-dependent antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huaizhong; Sima, Monika; Yang, Jiyuan; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-02-01

    Backbone degradable, linear, multiblock N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-doxorubicin (DOX) conjugates are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization followed by chain extension via thiol-ene click reaction. The examination of molecular-weight-dependent antitumor activity toward human ovarian A2780/AD carcinoma in nude mice reveals enhanced activity of multiblock, second-generation, higher molecular weight conjugates when compared with traditional HPMA copolymer-DOX conjugates. The examination of body weight changes during treatment indicates the absence of non-specific adverse effects.

  11. Degradation of phenol accumulated in a micellar molybdovanadophosphate nanoreactor by air at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shun; Sun, Congliang; Wang, Lei; Xu, Xiaobin; Wang, Xiaohong

    2010-06-07

    A novel route to facilitate the degradation of phenol is reported. This new approach is based on a micellar polyoxometalate (POM) catalytic system. The micellar POM catalyst could promote phenol molecules' degradation into a simple inorganic compound such as CO2 using only air as an oxidant under room conditions. The results of the recycling experiment suggests that the micellar POMs may be used as a potential catalyst for the degradation of phenol in wastewater.

  12. Trichostatin A accentuates doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Karagiannis, Tom C; Lin, Ann JE; Ververis, Katherine; Chang, Lisa; Tang, Michelle M; Okabe, Jun; El-Osta, Assam

    2010-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a new class of anticancer therapeutics and the expectation is that they will be most effective when used in combination with conventional cancer therapies, such as the anthracycline, doxorubicin. The dose-limiting side effect of doxorubicin is severe cardiotoxicity and evaluation of the effects of combinations of the anthracycline with histone deacetylase inhibitors in relevant models is important. We used a well-established in vitro model of doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy to examine the effects of the prototypical histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A. Our findings indicate that doxorubicin modulates the expression of the hypertrophy-associated genes, ventricular myosin light chain-2, the alpha isoform of myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide, an effect which is augmented by Trichostatin A. Furthermore, we show that Trichostatin A amplifies doxorubicin-induced DNA double strand breaks, as assessed by γH2AX formation. More generally, our findings highlight the importance of investigating potential side effects that may be associated with emerging combination therapies for cancer. PMID:20930262

  13. Berberine attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Zhang, J; Tong, N; Liao, X; Wang, E; Li, Z; Luo, Y; Zuo, H

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of berberine, a natural alkaloid, on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with saline 10 ml/kg (n = 10), doxorubicin 2.5 mg/kg (n = 10), 60 mg/kg berberine 1 h before doxorubicin 2.5 mg/kg (n = 10), or 60 mg/kg berberine alone (n = 10) every other day for 14 days. Body weight, general condition and mortality were recorded over the 14-day study period. Electro cardiography was performed before the start of treatment and after 14 days and plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was measured after 14 days. At the end of the study period the heart was excised and examined histologically. An increase in mortality, an initial decrease in body weight, increased LDH activity, prolongation of QRS duration and increased myocardial injury were seen in the doxorubicin-treated group compared with the saline control group. These changes were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with berberine. The study suggests that berberine may have a potential protective role against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice.

  14. Solute-solvent interactions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography. III. Characterization of the selectivity of micellar electrokinetic chromatography systems.

    PubMed

    Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Bosch, Elisabeth; Abraham, Michael H; Rosés, Martí

    2002-01-04

    Several micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) systems (sodium dodecyl sulfate, lithium dodecyl sulfate, lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate, sodium cholate, sodium deoxycholate, tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) have been characterized by means of the solvation parameter model. It has been observed that the coefficients of the correlation equations depend strongly on the particular set of compounds analyzed. Principal component analysis has been used to characterize the 2975 compounds with available solute descriptors and to select an appropriate subset of compounds to be analyzed by MEKC. With this set of compounds, the MEKC systems have been characterized. Principal component analysis has also been used to show the similarities and differences between the properties of the surfactants characterized by MEKC.

  15. Comparison of active and passive targeting of doxorubicin for somatostatin receptor 2 positive tumor models by octreotide-modified HPMA copolymer-doxorubicin conjugates.

    PubMed

    He, Shuang; Zhou, Zhou; Li, Lian; Yang, Qingqing; Yang, Yang; Guan, Shan; Zhang, Jian; Zhu, Xi; Jin, Yun; Huang, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2), specifically over-expressed on many tumor cells, is a potential receipt for active targeting in cancer therapy. In the present study, octreotide (Oct), which had high affinity to SSTR2, was attached to N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide (HPMA) polymeric system to enhance the antitumor efficiency of the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). Two kinds of cell lines (HepG2 and A549), which overexpress SSTR2, were chosen as cell models. Compared with non-modified conjugates, Oct-modified conjugates exhibited superior cytotoxicity and intracellular uptake on both HepG2 and A549 cell lines. This might be due to the mechanism of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Subsequently, the in vivo biodistribution and antitumor activity evaluations showed that Oct modification significantly improved the tumor accumulation and antitumor efficacy of HPMA copolymer conjugates in SSTR2 over-expressed Kunming mice bearing H22 tumor xenografts. In summary, Oct-modified HPMA polymer-DOX conjugates might be a promising system for the treatment of SSTR2 over-expressed cancers.

  16. Incorporation methods for cholic acid chitosan-g-mPEG self-assembly micellar system containing camptothecin.

    PubMed

    Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Wonglertnirant, Nanthida; Opanasopit, Praneet; Ruktanonchai, Uracha; Yoksan, Rangrong; Wasanasuk, Kaewkarn; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2009-11-01

    A water-insoluble anticancer agent, camptothecin (CPT) was incorporated to a polymeric micelle carrier system preparing from cholic acid chitosan-grafted poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether (CS-mPEG-CA). CS-mPEG-CA formed a core-shell micellar structure with a critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 7.08 microg/ml. Incorporation efficiency was investigated by varying physical incorporation method and initial drug loading. Among three incorporation methods (dialysis, emulsion and evaporation methods), an emulsion method showed the highest CPT incorporation efficiency. Increasing the initial CPT loading from 5 to 40%, the incorporation efficiency decreased. In all examined CPT-loaded CS-mPEG-CA micelles, 5% initial drug loading showed the highest drug incorporation efficiency. Release of CPT from the micelles was sustained when increasing the initial CPT loading. This indicates the importance of incorporation method and the initial drug loading to obtain the optimum particle size with high drug loading and sustained drug release. When compared to the unprotected CPT, CPT-loaded CS-mPEG-CA micelles were able to prevent the hydrolysis of the lactone group of the drug. This novel CS-mPEG-CA polymer presents considerable potential interest in the further development of CPT carrier.

  17. Synthesis and micellar characterization of short block length methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(caprolactone) diblock copolymers.

    PubMed

    Letchford, Kevin; Zastre, Jason; Liggins, Richard; Burt, Helen

    2004-05-15

    A series of short block length methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(caprolactone) diblock copolymers was synthesized and characterized in order to assess the potential of these copolymers as a micellar drug-delivery system. Varying the caprolactone:MePEG weight ratio in the reaction mixture allowed the synthesis of diblock copolymers with a MePEG molecular weight of 750 g/mol and PCL block lengths of 2, 5 or 10 repeat units. Phase diagrams of aqueous solutions of the copolymers were constructed which displayed characteristic cloud points and Krafft points. As the degree of polymerization of PCL increased, critical micelle concentration (CMC) values decreased from 6.97 x 10(-1) to 3.38 x 10(-3) g/l, partition equilibrium coefficients (Kv) increased from 1.09 x 10(4) to 22.2 x 10(4),and hydrodynamic diameters increased from 12.2 to 19.5 nm. The micelle morphology was determined to be spherical by transmission electron microscopy.

  18. Aspartate facilitates mitochondrial function, growth arrest and survival during doxorubicin exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dornfeld, Ken; Madden, Michael; Skildum, Andrew; Wallace, Kendall B

    2015-01-01

    Genomic screens of doxorubicin toxicity in S. cerevisiae have identified numerous mutants in amino acid and carbon metabolism which express increased doxorubicin sensitivity. This work examines the effect of amino acid metabolism on doxorubicin toxicity. S. cerevisiae were treated with doxorubicin in combination with a variety of amino acid supplements. Strains of S. cerevisiae with mutations in pathways utilizing aspartate and other metabolites were examined for sensitivity to doxorubicin. S. cerevisiae cultures exposed to doxorubicin in minimal media showed significantly more toxicity than cultures exposed in rich media. Supplementing minimal media with aspartate, glutamate or alanine reduced doxorubicin toxicity. Cell cycle response was assessed by examining the budding pattern of treated cells. Cultures exposed to doxorubicin in minimal media arrested growth with no apparent cell cycle progression. Aspartate supplementation allowed cultures exposed to doxorubicin in minimal media to arrest after one division with a budding pattern and survival comparable to cultures exposed in rich media. Aspartate provides less protection from doxorubicin in cells mutant in either mitochondrial citrate synthase (CIT1) or NADH oxidase (NDI1), suggesting aspartate reduces doxorubicin toxicity by facilitating mitochondrial function. These data suggest glycolysis becomes less active and mitochondrial respiration more active following doxorubicin exposure. PMID:26317891

  19. Improved Efficacy of Liposomal Doxorubicin Treatment of Superficial Tumors by Thermotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ping, Xiong; Angang, Ding; Xia, Gong; Yinzhu, Zhao; Jia, Li; Guofeng, Shen; Yazhu, Chen

    2016-04-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the effect of ultrasonic thermotherapy on the targeted delivery of liposomal doxorubicin to superficial tumors, local drug concentrations in tumor tissue, and the curative effect of chemotherapy. Twenty rabbits with VX2 tumors transplanted into the superficial muscle of the hind limb were randomly assigned to the following 4 treatment groups: (1) free doxorubicin, (2) liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride, (3) liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride plus 41 °C thermotherapy, and (4) liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride plus 43 °C thermotherapy. Ultrasonic thermotherapy was delivered at 41 °C to 43 °C. Plasma, tumor, and organ/tissue homogenates were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography to determine doxorubicin concentrations. The drug concentration in plasma and tumor tissue was significantly higher in the liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride plus thermotherapy group than in the liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride and free doxorubicin groups, but there were no significant differences among the 4 groups in the concentration in heart or kidney tissue. Combining thermotherapy with liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride chemotherapy significantly increased the concentration of the drug in tumor tissue. The doxorubicin concentration was significantly higher in the liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride plus 41 °C thermotherapy group. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Protective effects of agmatine on doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in rat.

    PubMed

    Yarmohmmadi, Fatemeh; Rahimi, Nastaran; Faghir-Ghanesefat, Hedyeh; Javadian, Nina; Abdollahi, Alireza; Pasalar, Parvin; Jazayeri, Farahnaz; Ejtemaeemehr, Shahram; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2017-02-05

    The detrimental cardio-toxic effect of doxorubicin, an effective chemotherapeutic agent, limited its clinical use. It has been claimed that doxorubicin cardio-toxicity occurs through calcium ions (Ca(2+)) overload and reactive oxygen species production. Agmatine, an endogenous imidazoline receptor agonist, induce uptake of cytosolic Ca(2+) and cause an increase in activity of calcium pumps, including Ca(2+)-ATPase. Also it shows self-scavenging effect against reactive oxygen species production. Therefore, present study was designed to investigate the effects of agmatine against chronic cardio-toxicity of doxorubicin in rats. Male wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin and agmatine four times a week for a month. Agmatine significantly alleviate the adverse effect of doxorubicin on left ventricular papillary muscle stimulation threshold and contractibility. Chronic co-administration of agmatine with doxorubicin blocked electrocardiographic changes induced by doxorubicin. In addition, agmatine improved body weight and decreased the mortality rate of animals by doxorubicin. Moreover, reversing the doxorubicin induced myocardial lesions was observed in animals treated by agmatine. A significant rise in the total antioxidant capacity of rat plasma was achieved in agmatine-treated animals in comparison to doxorubicin. To conclude, agmatine may improve therapeutic outcomes of doxorubicin since it exerts protective effects against doxorubicin-induced chronic cardiotoxicity in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reversible derivatization to enhance enzymatic synthesis: Chemoenzymatic synthesis of Doxorubicin-14-O-Esters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An efficient three-step, chemoenzymatic synthesis of unprotected doxorubicin-14-O-esters from doxorubicin hydrochloride salt is described. The key step is a lipase-catalyzed regioselective transesterification/esterification using commercially-available acyl donors and doxorubicin reversibly derivat...

  2. N-acetylcysteine potentiates doxorubicin-induced ATM and p53 activation in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Brum, Gabriella; Carbone, Thomas; Still, Eric; Correia, Vendita; Szulak, Kevin; Calianese, David; Best, Charles; Cammarata, Garret; Higgins, Katelyn; Ji, Fang; Di, Wen; Wan, Yinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Doxorubicin has been used clinically to treat various types of cancer, and yet the molecular mode of actions of doxorubicin remains to be fully unraveled. In this study, we investigated the effect of doxorubicin on cultured ovarian cancer cells (CaOV3). MTT assay data showed that doxorubicin inhibits cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Phagokinetic cell motility assay data indicated that doxorubicin inhibits both basal level and EGF-induced cell migration in CaOV3 cells. Confocal microscopic data revealed that doxorubicin induces reorganization of cytoskeletal proteins including actin, tubulin and vimentin. Doxorubicin induces phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15 and 20, acetylation of p53 and ATM activation. Doxorubicin also induces phosphorylation of histone H2AX at Ser139. Interestingly, doxorubicin also inhibits mTOR activity, measured by phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein. Pretreatment of CaOV3 cells with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), but not pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) potentiates doxorubicin-induced phosphorylation of p53 and ATM. Collectively, we conclude that doxorubicin induces ATM/p53 activation leading to reorganization of cytoskeletal networks, inhibition of mTOR activity, and inhibition of cell proliferation and migration. Our data also suggest that removal of oxidants by antioxidants such as NAC may enhance the efficacy of doxorubicin in vivo.

  3. MRI-visible micellar nanomedicine for targeted drug delivery to lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guthi, Jagadeesh Setti; Yang, Su-Geun; Huang, Gang; Li, Shunzi; Khemtong, Chalermchai; Kessinger, Chase W; Peyton, Michael; Minna, John D; Brown, Kathlynn C; Gao, Jinming

    2010-02-01

    Polymeric micelles are emerging as a highly integrated nanoplatform for cancer targeting, drug delivery and tumor imaging applications. In this study, we describe a multifunctional micelle (MFM) system that is encoded with a lung cancer-targeting peptide (LCP), and encapsulated with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and doxorubicin (Doxo) for MR imaging and therapeutic delivery, respectively. The LCP-encoded MFM showed significantly increased alpha(v)beta(6)-dependent cell targeting in H2009 lung cancer cells over a scrambled peptide (SP)-encoded MFM control as well as in an alpha(v)beta(6)-negative H460 cell control. (3)H-Labeled MFM nanoparticles were used to quantify the time- and dose-dependent cell uptake of MFM nanoparticles with different peptide encoding (LCP vs SP) and surface densities (20% and 40%) in H2009 cells. LCP functionalization of the micelle surface increased uptake of the MFM by more than 3-fold compared to the SP control. These results were confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, which further demonstrated the successful Doxo release from MFM and accumulation in the nucleus. SPIO clustering inside the micelle core resulted in high T(2) relaxivity (>400 Fe mM(-1) s(-1)) of the resulting MFM nanoparticles. T(2)-weighted MRI images showed clear contrast differences between H2009 cells incubated with LCP-encoded MFM over the SP-encoded MFM control. An ATP activity assay showed increased cytotoxicity of LCP-encoded MFM over SP-encoded MFM in H2009 cells (IC(50) values were 28.3 +/- 6.4 nM and 73.6 +/- 6.3 nM, respectively; p < 0.005). The integrated diagnostic and therapeutic design of MFM nanomedicine potentially allows for image-guided, target-specific treatment of lung cancer.

  4. Polyhydroxybutyrate-coated magnetic nanoparticles for doxorubicin delivery: cytotoxic effect against doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Serap; Unsoy, Gozde; Mutlu, Pelin; Khodadust, Rouhollah; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2014-01-01

    In this study, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by coprecipitation of iron salts (Fe and Fe) by ammonium hydroxide. Characterizations of PHB-coated MNPs were performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, thermal gravimetric analysis, vibrating sample magnetometry, and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Doxorubicin was loaded onto PHB-MNPs, and the release efficiencies at different pHs were studied under in vitro conditions. The most efficient drug loading concentration was found about 87% at room temperature in phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2). The drug-loaded MNPs were stable up to 2 months in neutral pH for mimicking physiological conditions. The drug release studies were performed with acetate buffer (pH 4.5) that mimics endosomal pH. Doxorubicin (60%) released from PHB-MNPs within 65 hours. Doxorubicin-loaded PHB-MNPs were about 2.5-fold more cytotoxic as compared with free drug on resistant Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma, MCF-7) cell line (1 μM doxorubicin) in vitro. Therefore, doxorubicin-loaded PHB-MNPs lead to overcome the drug resistance.

  5. Paclitaxel isomerisation in polymeric micelles based on hydrophobized hyaluronic acid.

    PubMed

    Smejkalová, Daniela; Nešporová, Kristina; Hermannová, Martina; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Cožíková, Dagmar; Vištejnová, Lucie; Safránková, Barbora; Novotný, Jaroslav; Kučerík, Jiří; Velebný, Vladimír

    2014-05-15

    Physical and chemical structure of paclitaxel (PTX) was studied after its incorporation into polymeric micelles made of hyaluronic acid (HA) (Mw=15 kDa) grafted with C6 or C18:1 acyl chains. PTX was physically incorporated into the micellar core by solvent evaporation technique. Maximum loading capacity for HAC6 and HAC18:1 was determined to be 2 and 14 wt.%, respectively. The loading efficiency was higher for HAC18:1 and reached 70%. Independently of the derivative, loaded HA micelles had spherical size of approximately 60-80 nm and demonstrated slow and sustained release of PTX in vitro. PTX largely changed its form from crystalline to amorphous after its incorporation into the micelle's interior. This transformation increased PTX sensitivity towards stressing conditions, mainly to UV light exposure, during which the structure of amorphous PTX isomerized and formed C3C11 bond within its structure. In vitro cytotoxicity assay revealed that polymeric micelles loaded with PTX isomer had higher cytotoxic effect to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) and human colon carcinoma cells (HCT-116) than the same micelles loaded with non-isomerized PTX. Further observation indicated that PTX isomer influenced in different ways cell morphology and markers of cell cycle. Taken together, PTX isomer loaded in nanocarrier systems may have improved anticancer activity in vivo than pure PTX.

  6. Preparation and characteristics of lipid nanoemulsion formulations loaded with doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Sai-Ping; He, Sai-Nan; Li, Yun-Long; Feng, Da-Lin; Lu, Xiao-Yang; Du, Yong-Zhong; Yu, He-Yong; Hu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Safe and effective lipid nanoemulsion (LNE) formulations for the antitumor delivery of doxorubicin is designed. Methods LNEs composed of medium-chain triglyceride, soybean oil, lecithin, and doxorubicin are prepared by a solvent-diffusion method in an aqueous system. The effects of lipid material composition and polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylation on the size, drug encapsulation efficiency, and stability of LNEs are investigated. Based on in-vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake tests of A549 (human lung carcinoma) cells, in-vivo biodistribution, antitumor activity, and cardiac toxicity are further examined using nude mouse bearing A549 tumor. Results The LNE size decreases from 126.4 ± 8.7 nm to 44.5 ± 9.3 nm with increased weight ratio of medium-chain triglyceride to soybean oil from 1:4 to 3:2, whereas the encapsulation efficiency of doxorubicin is slightly reduced from 79.2% ± 2.1% to 71.2% ± 2.9%. The PEGylation of LNE by 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[carboxy(PEG)2000] (DSPE-PEG 2000) does not significantly change the size and drug encapsulation efficiency. Three-month storage at room temperature and lyophilization process does not affect the drug encapsulation efficiency, whereas the size slightly increases to almost 100 nm. The in-vitro drug-release profiles of LNEs suggest that the present formulation can prolong drug release for 48 hours. LNEs can be internalized into tumor cells in vitro and efficiently accumulate in tumor tissues in vivo by passive targeting. Analysis results of in-vitro and in-vivo antitumor activities reveal that doxorubicin-loaded LNE exerts a therapeutic effect similar to that of the commercial Adriamycin. Moreover, the toxicity of doxorubicin, particularly its cardiac toxicity, is reduced. Conclusion The present LNE formulation of doxorubicin can effectively suppress tumor growth and improve the safety of Adriamycin. PMID:23990722

  7. Enhanced cellular respiration in cells exposed to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Souid, Abdul-Kader; Penefsky, Harvey S; Sadowitz, Peter D; Toms, Bonnie

    2006-01-01

    Doxorubicin executes topoisomerase II mediated apoptosis, a process known to result in mitochondrial dysfunction, such as the leakage of cytochrome c and the opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (PTP). To further define the effects of doxorubicin on cell metabolism, we measured cellular respiration, cellular ATP, DNA fragmentation, and cytochrome c leakage in Jurkat (supersensitive), human leukemia-60 (HL-60, sensitive), and HL-60/MX2 (resistant) cells following exposure to 1.0 microM doxorubicin for 30 min. The measurements were made after 24 h of exposure to the drug. In Jurkat and HL-60 cells, doxorubicin treatment increased cellular mitochondrial oxygen consumption and ATP content by 2-3-fold. The increment in oxygen consumption was blocked by the pan-caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-dl-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk) and by the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A. In HL-60/MX2 cells, which are resistant because of a reduced topoisomerase II activity, doxorubicin treatment was without effect on either respiration or ATP content, suggesting that topoisomerase II was essential for induction of apoptosis and stimulation of respiration and ATP content. The conclusion that both of the latter processes were products of oxidations in the mitochondrial respiratory chain was supported by the further observation that rotenone and sodium cyanide inhibited oxygen consumption and substantially lowered ATP content in the treated and untreated cells. Thus, oxidative phosphorylation is enhanced in cells briefly incubated with doxorubicin for as long as 24 h post drug exposure despite apoptosis-associated mitochondrial insults caused by the drug.

  8. Photo-responsive polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Dong, Ruijiao; Zhu, Xinyuan; Yan, Deyue

    2014-09-07

    Photo-responsive polymeric micelles have received increasing attention in both academic and industrial fields due to their efficient photo-sensitive nature and unique nanostructure. In view of the photo-reaction mechanism, photo-responsive polymeric micelles can be divided into five major types: (1) photoisomerization polymeric micelles, (2) photo-induced rearrangement polymeric micelles, (3) photocleavage polymeric micelles, (4) photo-induced crosslinkable polymeric micelles, and (5) photo-induced energy conversion polymeric micelles. This review highlights the recent advances of photo-responsive polymeric micelles, including the design, synthesis and applications in various biomedical fields. Especially, the influence of different photo-reaction mechanisms on the morphology, structure and properties of the polymeric micelles is emphasized. Finally, the possible future directions and perspectives in this emerging area are briefly discussed.

  9. Cyclophosphamide and Doxorubicin Induced Melanonychia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Vivek Bhanubhai; Acharya, Raviraj; Gopalaswamy, Vinaya; Doddamani, Akhila

    2017-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents may rarely cause discoloration and hyperpigmentation of the nails. We present a patient who developed blackish discoloration of nails also referred as melanonychia during six cycles of R-CHOP chemotherapy regimen (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) for the treatment of Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) follicular type. The patient developed blackish brown discoloration in all the nails. As suggested by previous literature evidence the melanonychia could be associated with cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin. According to the Naranjo causality assessment scale, we established that there was a ‘probable’ association of nail discoloration with the drug. PMID:28273993

  10. Synthesis and characterization of smart N-isopropylacrylamide-based magnetic nanocomposites containing doxorubicin anti-cancer drug.

    PubMed

    Motaali, Soheila; Pashaeiasl, Maryam; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2017-05-01

    In the present study, magnetic and thermo/pH-sensitive (multiresponsive) nanocomposites based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) were synthesized and characterized. Nanocomposites were synthesized by free radical emulsion polymerization of NIPAAM as thermosensitive monomer and N,N-dimethyl-aminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) as pH-sensitive monomer in the presence of methylene-bis-acrylamide as cross-linking agent. Doxorubicin, an anti-cancer drug, was loaded into these nanocomposites via equilibrium swelling method. Thermo/pH-sensitive cross-linked poly (NIPAAM-DMAEMA)-Fe3O4 nanocomposites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The volume of the loaded drug and drug release amount was determined by UV measurements. The results showed that this thermo/pH-sensitive magnetic nanocomposite has a high drug-loading efficiency. Doxorubicin was released at 40 °C and pH 5.8 more than the 37 °C and pH 7.4.

  11. Cryomilling for the fabrication of doxorubicin-containing silica-nanoparticle/polycaprolactone nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yu; Lim, Jing; Han, Yiyuan; Wang, Lifeng; Chong, Mark Seow Khoon; Teoh, Swee-Hin; Xu, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    Bionanocomposites need to have a homogeneous distribution of nanomaterials in the polymeric matrix to achieve consistent mechanical and biological functions. However, a significant challenge lies in achieving the homogeneous distribution of nanomaterials, particularly through a solvent-free approach. This report introduces a technology to address this need. Specifically, cryomilling, a solvent-free, low-temperature processing method, was applied to generate a bionanocomposite film with well-dispersed nanoparticles. As a proof-of-concept, polycaprolactone (PCL) and doxorubicin-containing silica nanoparticles (Si-Dox) were processed through cryomilling and subsequently heat pressed to form the PCL/Si-Dox (cPCL/Si-Dox) film. Homogeneous distribution of Si-Dox was observed under both confocal imaging and atomic force microscopy imaging. The mechanical properties of cPCL/Si-Dox were comparable to those of the pure PCL film. Subsequent in vitro release profiles suggested that sustained release of Dox from the cPCL/Si-Dox film was achievable over 50 days. When human cervical cancer cells were seeded directly on these films, uptake of Dox was observed as early as day 1 and significant inhibition of cell growth was recorded on day 5.Bionanocomposites need to have a homogeneous distribution of nanomaterials in the polymeric matrix to achieve consistent mechanical and biological functions. However, a significant challenge lies in achieving the homogeneous distribution of nanomaterials, particularly through a solvent-free approach. This report introduces a technology to address this need. Specifically, cryomilling, a solvent-free, low-temperature processing method, was applied to generate a bionanocomposite film with well-dispersed nanoparticles. As a proof-of-concept, polycaprolactone (PCL) and doxorubicin-containing silica nanoparticles (Si-Dox) were processed through cryomilling and subsequently heat pressed to form the PCL/Si-Dox (cPCL/Si-Dox) film. Homogeneous

  12. Co-delivery honokiol and doxorubicin in MPEG-PLA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bilan; Gou, Maling; Zheng, Xiuling; Wei, Xiawei; Gong, Changyang; Wang, Xiuhong; Zhao, Yinglan; Luo, Feng; Chen, Lijuan; Qian, Zhiyong; Yang, Li

    2010-07-01

    The combination chemotherapy is an important protocol in cancer therapy. Honokiol shows synergistic anticancer effect with doxorubicin. In this paper, honokiol and doxorubicin co-loaded MPEG-PLA nanoparticles were prepared. The particle size, morphology, in vitro release profile, cytotoxicity and cell proliferation study were studied in detail. The results indicated that honokiol and doxorubicin could be efficiently loaded into MPEG-PLA nanoparticles simultaneously, and could be released out in an extended period in vitro. Meanwhile, honokiol and doxorubicin in MPEG-PLA nanoparticle could efficiently suppress cancer cell proliferation in vitro. The described honokiol and doxorubicin co-loaded MPEG-PLA nanoparticle might be a novel anticancer agent.

  13. Doxorubicin induces mitochondrial permeability transition and contractile dysfunction in the human myocardium.

    PubMed

    Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Preau, Sebastien; Baccouch, Riadh; Modine, Thomas; Fayad, George; Lancel, Steve; Neviere, Remi

    2011-01-01

    In human atrial trabeculae, we examined the effects of doxorubicin on the isometric force of contraction, mitochondrial respiration, membrane potential and calcium retention capacity. Compared with untreated controls, doxorubicin induced contractile dysfunction and depression of mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria isolated from doxorubicin-treated human atrial trabeculae displayed reduced transmembrane potential and calcium retention capacity. Cyclosporine A, a mitochondrial membrane transition pore opening blocker, prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired contractile performance induced by doxorubicin. The study suggests that a mitochondrial membrane transition pore opening is involved in the development of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity in human hearts. Copyright © 2010 Mitochondria Research Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. EGCG/gelatin-doxorubicin gold nanoparticles enhance therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin for prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Li-Chu; Hsieh, Hao-Ying; Lu, Kun-Ying; Wang, Sin-Yu; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2016-01-01

    Development of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and gelatin-doxorubicin conjugate (GLT-DOX)-coated gold nanoparticles (DOX-GLT/EGCG AuNPs) for fluorescence imaging and inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth. AuNPs alternatively coated with EGCG and DOX-GLT conjugates were prepared by a layer-by-layer assembly method. The physicochemical properties of the AuNPs and the effect of Laminin 67R receptor-mediated endocytosis on the anticancer efficacy of the AuNPs were examined. The AuNPs significantly inhibit the proliferation of PC-3 cancer cell and the enzyme-responsive intracellular release of DOX could be tracked by monitoring the recovery of the fluorescence signal of DOX. Laminin 67R receptor-mediated delivery of DOX using the AuNPs enhanced cellular uptake of DOX and improved apoptosis of PC-3 cells.

  15. Acetal-linked polymeric prodrug micelles for enhanced curcumin delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Gao, Min; Fu, Yunlan; Chen, Chao; Meng, Xuan; Fan, Aiping; Kong, Deling; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2016-04-01

    On-demand curcumin delivery via stimuli-responsive micellar nanocarriers holds promise for addressing its solubility and stability problem. Polymer-curcumin prodrug conjugate micelle is one of such nanosystems. The diversity of linker and conjugation chemistry enabled the generation and optimization of different curcumin micelles with tunable stimuli-responsiveness and delivery efficiency. The aim of the current work was to generate and assess acetal-linked polymeric micelles to enrich the pH-responsive curcumin delivery platforms. Curcumin was slightly modified prior to conjugating to amphiphilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) copolymer via an acetal bond, whereas an ester bond-linked conjugate was used as the control. The acetal-containing micelles showed a hydrodynamic diameter of 91.1 ± 2.9(nm) and the accompanying core size of 63.5 ± 7.1 (nm) with a zeta potential of -10.9 ± 0.7(mV). Both control and pH-labile micelles displayed similar critical micelle concentration at 1.6 μM. The acetal-containing nanocarriers exhibited a pH-dependent drug release behavior, which was faster at lower pH values. The cytotoxicity study in HepG2 cells revealed a significantly lower IC50 at 51.7 ± 9.0(μM) for acetal-linked micelles in contrast to the control at 103.0 ± 17.8(μM), but the polymer residue showed no cytotoxicity upon drug release. The acetal-linked micellar nanocarrier could be a useful addition to the spectrum of currently available stimuli-responsive curcumin nano-formulations.

  16. Hepatic Arterial Embolization with Doxorubicin-Loaded Superabsorbent Polymer Microspheres in a Rabbit Liver Tumor Model

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay Wright, Kenneth C.; Ensor, Joe; Van Pelt, Carolyn S.; Dixon, Katherine A.; Kundra, Vikas

    2011-10-15

    Objectives: The pharmacokinetic profile after hepatic arterial embolization with superabsorbent microspheres (QuadraSpheres) loaded with doxorubicin was studied. Methods: Rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumors were treated with intra-arterial administration of QuadraSpheres loaded with doxorubicin, or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using doxorubicin, Lipiodol and Embospheres, or hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of doxorubicin. Tumor specimens were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, and plasma and tumor concentrations of doxorubicin were measured. Results: The peak plasma concentration of doxorubicin was lower in the QuadraSphere group (309.9 ng/ml) than in the HAI (673.4 ng/ml) or TACE (360.5 ng/ml) groups, suggesting higher tumor retention in the QuadraSphere group. Intratumoral doxorubicin levels declined to negligible levels at 1 and 3 days after treatment, respectively, in the HAI and TACE groups. In the QuadraSphere groups, intratumoral doxorubicin level declined after day 1, but was still detectable at 14 days after treatment and was higher than that in the other groups at 1, 3, and 7 days. Intratumoral doxorubicin fluorescence was detected at all time points in the QuadraSphere group, but only at 1 day after treatment in the TACE group. Conclusions: Hepatic arterial administration of doxorubicin-loaded QuadraSpheres enables the sustained release of doxorubicin to hepatic tumors.

  17. Hepatic Arterial Embolization with Doxorubicin-Loaded Superabsorbent Polymer Microspheres in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sanjay; Wright, Kenneth C.; Ensor, Joe; Van Pelt, Carolyn S.; Dixon, Katherine A.; Kundra, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To study the pharmacokinetic profile after hepatic arterial embolization with superabsorbent microspheres (QuadraSpheres) loaded with doxorubicin. Materials and Methods Rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumors were treated with intra-arterial administration of QuadraSpheres loaded with doxorubicin, or transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using doxorubicin, Lipiodol and Embospheres, or hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of doxorubicin. Tumor specimens were evaluated by fluorescence microscopy, and plasma and tumor concentrations of doxorubicin were measured. Results The peak plasma concentration of doxorubicin was lower in the QuadraSphere group (309.9 ng/ml) than in the HAI (673.4 ng/ml) or TACE (360.5 ng/ml) groups, suggesting higher tumor retention in the QuadraSphere group. Intratumoral doxorubicin levels declined to negligible levels at 1 and 3 days after treatment, respectively in the HAI and TACE groups. In the QuadraSphere groups, intratumoral doxorubicin level declined after day 1, but was still detectable at 14 days after treatment and was higher than that in the other groups at 1, 3, and 7 days. Intratumoral doxorubicin fluorescence was detected at all time points in the QuadraSphere group, but only at 1 day after treatment in the TACE group. Conclusions Hepatic arterial administration of doxorubicin-loaded QuadraSpheres enables the sustained release of doxorubicin to hepatic tumors. PMID:21479746

  18. Injectable small molecule hydrogel as a potential nanocarrier for localized and sustained in vivo delivery of doxorubicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Manish; Kundu, Somanath; Reddy M, Amarendar; Sreekanth, Vedagopuram; Motiani, Rajender K.; Sengupta, Sagar; Srivastava, Aasheesh; Bajaj, Avinash

    2014-10-01

    The majority of the localized drug delivery systems are based on polymeric or polypeptide scaffolds, as weak intermolecular interactions of low molecular weight hydrogelators (LMHGs, Mw <500 Da) are significantly perturbed in the presence of anticancer drugs. Here, we present l-alanine derived low molecular weight hydrogelators (LMHGs) that remain injectable even after entrapping the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). These DOX containing nanoassemblies (DOX-Gel) showed promising anticancer activity in mice models. Subcutaneous injection of DOX-Gel near the tumor achieved a greater decrease in tumour load than by intravenous injection of DOX (DOX-IV), and local injection of DOX alone (DOX-Local) at the tumor site. We noticed that DOX-Gel nanocarriers are especially effective when injected during the early stage of tumor progression, and achieve a substantial decrease in tumor load in the long term.The majority of the localized drug delivery systems are based on polymeric or polypeptide scaffolds, as weak intermolecular interactions of low molecular weight hydrogelators (LMHGs, Mw <500 Da) are significantly perturbed in the presence of anticancer drugs. Here, we present l-alanine derived low molecular weight hydrogelators (LMHGs) that remain injectable even after entrapping the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). These DOX containing nanoassemblies (DOX-Gel) showed promising anticancer activity in mice models. Subcutaneous injection of DOX-Gel near the tumor achieved a greater decrease in tumour load than by intravenous injection of DOX (DOX-IV), and local injection of DOX alone (DOX-Local) at the tumor site. We noticed that DOX-Gel nanocarriers are especially effective when injected during the early stage of tumor progression, and achieve a substantial decrease in tumor load in the long term. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Scheme 1, Fig. S1-S6, synthesis of hydrogels; experimental section for gelation, rheology, MALDI, microscopy and

  19. Pentoxifylline as a modulator of anticancer drug doxorubicin. Part II: Reduction of doxorubicin DNA binding and alleviation of its biological effects.

    PubMed

    Gołuński, Grzegorz; Borowik, Agnieszka; Derewońko, Natalia; Kawiak, Anna; Rychłowski, Michał; Woziwodzka, Anna; Piosik, Jacek

    2016-04-01

    Anticancer drug doxorubicin is commonly used in cancer treatment. However, drug's severe side effects make toxicity reduction important matter. Another biologically active aromatic compound, pentoxifylline, can sequester aromatic compounds in stacking complexes reducing their bioactivity. This work deals with the problem of alleviating doxorubicin side effects by pentoxifylline. We employed a wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular assays. In addition, we used the doxorubicin-pentoxifylline mixed association constant to quantitatively assess pentoxifylline influence on the doxorubicin mutagenic activity. Obtained results indicate strong protective effects of pentoxifylline towards doxorubicin, observed on bacteria and human keratinocytes with no such effects observed on the cancer cells. It may be hypothesized that, considering much shorter half-life of pentoxifylline than doxorubicin, simultaneous administration of doxorubicin and pentoxifylline will lead to gradual release of doxorubicin from complexes with pentoxifylline to reach desired therapeutic concentration. Proposed results shed light on the possible doxorubicin chemotherapy modification and its side effects reduction without the loss of its therapeutic potential.

  20. Development, characterization and evaluation of doxorubicin nanostructured lipid carriers for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Wei; Dang, Qiang; Zhang, Zheng-Wei; Wu, Fu-Shun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an optimised formulation for a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) loaded with doxorubicin. A doxorubicin-loaded NLC was prepared using an emulsification solidification method. The Box-Behnken design response surface methodology was used to optimise formulations of the doxorubicin-loaded NLC. The drug entrapment efficiency, drug loading efficiency, particle size, and zeta potential of the doxorubicin- loaded NLC were 74.18%, 13.28%, 170 nm, and -14.8 mV, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy of the optimised NLC showed spherical particles. Furthermore, the doxorubicin-loaded NLC was found to exhibit good therapeutic efficacy with remarkably improved oral bioavailability of doxorubicin. The NLC system demonstrated potential for the targeted delivery of doxorubicin in prostate cancer.

  1. High-Copy Overexpression Screening Reveals PDR5 as the Main Doxorubicin Resistance Gene in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Ayse Banu; Koc, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most potent anticancer drugs used in the treatment of various cancer types. The efficacy of doxorubicin is influenced by the drug resistance mechanisms and its cytotoxicity. In this study, we performed a high-copy screening analysis to find genes that play a role in doxorubicin resistance and found several genes (CUE5, AKL1, CAN1, YHR177W and PDR5) that provide resistance. Among these genes, overexpression of PDR5 provided a remarkable resistance, and deletion of it significantly rendered the tolerance level for the drug. Q-PCR analyses suggested that transcriptional regulation of these genes was not dependent on doxorubicin treatment. Additionally, we profiled the global expression pattern of cells in response to doxorubicin treatment and highlighted the genes and pathways that are important in doxorubicin tolerance/toxicity. Our results suggest that many efflux pumps and DNA metabolism genes are upregulated by the drug and required for doxorubicin tolerance. PMID:26690737

  2. Grape seed and skin extract protects kidney from doxorubicin-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Mokni, Meherzia; Hamlaoui, Sonia; Kadri, Safwen; Limam, Ferid; Amri, Mohamed; Marzouki, Lamjed; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-01

    The study investigated the protective effect of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) against doxorubicin-induced renal toxicity in healthy rats. Animals were treated with GSSE or not (control), for 8 days, administered with doxorubicin (20mg/kg) in the 4th day, and renal function as well as oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Data showed that doxorubicin induced renal toxicity by affecting renal architecture and plasma creatinine. Doxorubicin also induced an oxidative stress characterized by an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), calcium and H(2)O(2) and a decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Unexpectedly doxorubicin increased peroxidase (POD) and decreased carbonyl protein and plasma urea. Treatment with GSSE counteracted almost all adverse effects induced by doxorubicin. Data suggest that doxorubicin induced an oxidative stress into rat kidney and GSSE exerted antioxidant properties, which seem to be mediated by the modulation of intracellular calcium.

  3. Exercise preconditioning modulates genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in multiple organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Martins, Renato Almeida; Minari, André Luis; Chaves, Marcelo Donizetti; dos Santos, Ronaldo Wagner Thomatieli; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise in multiple organs of rats treated with doxorubicin. Male adult Wistar rats were distributed into the following groups: sedentary + NaCl; exercise + NaCl; sedentary + doxorubicin; and exercise + doxorubicin. Animals were sacrificed 2 days following injections. Central fragments from heart, liver, and kidney were collected and minced in 0.9% NaCl being cellular suspensions used for the single-cell gel (comet) assay. The results showed that exercise was able to prevent genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in heart cells. By contrast, exercise was not able to prevent genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in liver cells. The same occurred to kidney cells, i.e. no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) were found when compared with groups not exposed to doxorubicin. Taken together, our results support the idea that exercise could contribute to the protective effect against genotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in heart cells.

  4. Liposomal Coencapsulation of Doxorubicin with Listeriolysin O Increases Potency via Subcellular Targeting.

    PubMed

    Walls, Zachary F; Gong, Henry; Wilson, Rebecca J

    2016-03-07

    Liposomal doxorubicin is a clinically important drug formulation indicated for the treatment of several different forms of cancer. For doxorubicin to exert a therapeutic effect, it must gain access to the nucleus. However, a large proportion of the liposomal doxorubicin dose fails to work because it is sequestered within endolysosomal organelles following endocytosis of the liposomes due to the phenomenon of ion trapping. Listeriolysin O (LLO) is a pore-forming protein that can provide a mechanism for endosomal escape. The present study demonstrates that liposomal coencapsulation of doxorubicin with LLO enables a significantly larger percentage of the dose to colocalize with the nucleus compared to liposomes containing doxorubicin alone. The change in intracellular distribution resulted in a significantly more potent formulation of liposomal doxorubicin as demonstrated in both the ovarian carcinoma cell line A2780 and its doxorubicin-resistant derivative A2780ADR.

  5. Quantification of Lipophilicity of 1,2,4-Triazoles Using Micellar Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Janicka, Małgorzata; Stępnik, Katarzyna; Pachuta-Stec, Anna

    2012-05-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), over-pressured-layer chromatography (OPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) techniques with micellar mobile phases were proposed to evaluate the lipophilicity of 21 newly synthesized 1,2,4-triazoles, compounds of potential importance in medicine or agriculture as fungicides. Micellar parameters log k(m) were compared with extrapolated R(M0) values determined from reversed-phase (RP) TLC experimental data obtained on RP-8 stationary phases as well as with log P values (Alog Ps, AClog P, Alog P, Mlog P, KowWin, xlog P2 and xlog P3) calculated from molecular structures of solutes tested. The results obtained by applying principal component analysis (PCA) and linear regression showed considerable similarity between partition and retention parameters as alternative lipophilicity descriptors, and indicated micellar chromatography as a suitable technique to study lipophilic properties of organic substances. In micellar HPLC, RP-8e column (Purospher) was applied, whereas in OPLC and TLC, RP-CN plates were applied, which was the novelty of this study and allowed the use of micellar effluents in planar chromatography measurements.

  6. A thermodynamic micellization model for asphaltene precipitation: Part 1: Micellar size and growth

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, H.; Firoozabadi, A.

    1996-12-31

    Asphaltene precipitation is a serious problem in the production of some petroleum reservoirs. A thermodynamic predictive model is a challenge and currently does not exist. Published models do not yet represent a realistic picture of asphaltenes in the crude. A large number of recent experimental studies have shown that asphaltenes aggregate in the crude to form micelles. The size of the micelle changes due to changes in composition and temperature. In this study, we present a simple thermodynamic micellization model to describe asphaltene aggregation in crude mixtures. The asphaltene molecules are assumed to form the micellar core and the resin molecules adsorb onto the core surface to stabilize the micelle. The asphaltene and resin molecules in a micelle are in equilibrium with the asphaltene and resin monomers in the bulk crude. The principle of the minimization of Gibbs free energy is used to determine the micellar structure and concentration. The predicted micellar size and growth when the crude is diluted with normal alkanes are in line with experimental observations. The predicted effects of temperature and pressure on the micellar size are also in agreement with data. The expression for the micellar concentration in our simple approach is the same as the published expression based on the multiple chemical equilibrium principle.

  7. Effect of Hofmeister anions on micellization and micellar growth of the surfactant cetylpyridinium chloride.

    PubMed

    Abezgauz, Ludmila; Kuperkar, Ketan; Hassan, Puthusserickal A; Ramon, Ory; Bahadur, Pratap; Danino, Dganit

    2010-02-01

    Controlling the morphological characteristics of micellar solutions is important for surfactant performance and for achieving desired properties. In this work we study how monovalent anions of the lyotropic series affect micellization, micellar transitions, and micellar growth of the cationic surfactant N-cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPyCl), with the aim of achieving a tool to methodically tune these self-assembly characteristics. For the first time, a set of ions of the Hofmeister series were studied by combining indirect (surface tension, conductivity, optical absorption, viscosity, dynamic light scattering) and direct-imaging cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). Following recent literature on anionic surfactants, we considered the pyridinium headgroup as a chaotropic cation, interacting with cosmotrope and chaotrope anions (Cl(-), Br(-), NO(3)(-), ClO(3)(-)). We show that the micelles' structure is strongly influenced by both the nature and concentration of added anions and their location in the lyotropic series, but the lyotropic number by itself cannot explain all the effects measured. Especially interesting was the relatively small effect of the chlorate ion on the CMC, but its large effect on micellar transition and growth. We further test the influence of a hydrotrope on the first and second CMC and micellar growth, and compare it with the data obtained with the inorganic salts. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Selection of reservoirs amenable to micellar flooding. First annual report, October 1978-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Goldburg, A.; Price, H.

    1980-12-01

    The overall project objective is to build a solid engineering base upon which the Department of Energy (DOE) can improve and accelerate the application of micellar-polymer recovery technology to Mid-Continent and California sandstone reservoirs. The purpose of the work carried out under these two contracts is to significantly aid, both DOE and the private sector, in gaining the following Project Objectives: to select the better micellar-polymer prospects in the Mid-Continent and California regions; to assess all of the available field and laboratory data which has a bearing on recovering oil by micellar-polymer projects in order to help identify and resolve both the technical and economic constraints relating thereto; and to design and analyze improved field pilots and tests and to develop a micellar-polymer applications matrix for use by the potential technology users; i.e., owner/operators. The report includes the following: executive summary and project objectives; development of a predictive model for economic evaluation of reservoirs; reservoir data bank for micellar-polymer recovery evaluation; PECON program for preliminary economic evaluation; ordering of candidate reservoirs for additional data acquisition; validation of predictive model by numerical simulation; and work forecast. Tables, figures and references are included.

  9. Effect of mixed micellar lipid on the absorption of cholesterol and vitamin D3 into lymph

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Gilbert R.; Ockner, Robert K.; Isselbacher, Kurt J.

    1969-01-01

    The absorption of endogenous cholesterol, labeled with tracer doses of cholesterol 14C or cholesterol-3H and of near physiological doses of vitamin D3-3H was studied in rats with cannulated intestinal lymphatics. The effects of administering mixed micellar solutions of fatty acid, monoglyceride, and bile salt on the absorption of these labeled sterols was determined. It was observed that the specific activity of free cholesterol and the amounts of vitamin D3 appearing in lymph were significantly increased during the intraduodenal administration of mixed micellar solutions of either linoleic or palmitic acid, in contrast to control rats receiving a micellar solution of taurocholate. These increases were related linearly to the lymph triglyceride level. In addition it was observed that when the linoleic acid solution was administered there was a more marked increase in the ratio of the specific activities of free and esterified cholesterol in lymph than with either the palmitic acid or taurocholate solutions. Additional studies in rats with intact lymphatics showed that the uptake of labeled cholesterol and vitamin D3 from the intestinal lumen into the wall was similar whether the sterols were administered in taurocholate or in mixed micellar solution. These findings suggest that mixed micellar lipid increased the rate of appearance of labeled free cholesterol and vitamin D3 in lymph by enhancing their transport out of the intestinal mucosa, rather than by an effect on uptake. PMID:4303790

  10. Chemometric Deconvolution of Continuous Electrokinetic Injection Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography Data for the Quantitation of Trinitrotoluene in Mixtures of Other Nitroaromatic Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-24

    ABSTRACT Chemometric Deconvolution of Continuous Electrokinetic Injection Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography Data for the Quantitation of...Unclassified Unlimited Unclassified Unlimited 13 Braden C. Giordano (202) 404-6320 Micellar electrokinetic chromatography Nitroaromatic explosives...Capillary electrophoresis DNT – Dinitrotoluene EOF – Electroosmotic flow MEKC – Micellar electrokinetic chromatography PLS – Partial least squares regression TNT – Trinitrotoluene 11

  11. Dewetting film dynamics inside a capillary using a micellar nanofluid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, Darsh

    2014-08-12

    An experimental study was performed in which hexadecane was displaced by a micellar nanofluid in a glass capillary. Experiments have shown that a thick film was formed on the capillary wall after hexadecane was displaced by the nanofluid. The thick hexadecane film is unstable, and over time it breaks and forms a thin film. Once the thick film ruptures, it retracts and forms an annular rim (liquid ridge) that collects liquid. As the volume of the annular rim increases over time, it forms a double-concave meniscus across the capillary and dewetting stops. The thin film on the right side of the double-concave meniscus then breaks and the contact angle increases. The process repeats until the droplets build up all along the capillary wall. Finally, the droplets are displaced from the capillary wall by the nanofluid and spherical droplets appear inside the capillary. This is a novel phenomenon because we did not observe any film formation when we used a solution without micelles. The theoretical model based on the lubrication approximation using the capillary pressure gradient was developed to estimate the annular rim dewetting velocity. The predicted dewetting velocity is found to be in fair agreement with the experimentally measured value.

  12. Qualitative analysis of mycotoxins using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.D.; Sepaniak, M.J. )

    1993-05-01

    Naturally occurring mycotoxins are separated using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography. Trends in the retention of these toxins, resulting from changes in mobile-phase composition and pH, are reported and presented as a means of alleviating coelution problems. Two sets of mobile-phase conditions are determined that provide unique separation selectivity. The facile manner by which mobile-phase conditions can be altered, without changes in instrumental configuration, allowed the acquisition of two distinctive, fully resolved chromatograms of 10 mycotoxins in a period of approximately 45 min. By adjusting retention times, using indigenous or added components in mycotoxin samples as normalization standards, it is possible to obtain coefficients of variation in retention time that average less than 1%. The qualitative capabilities of this methodology are evaluated by separating randomly generated mycotoxin-interferent mixtures. In this study, the utilization of normalized retention times applied to separations obtained with two sets of mobile-phase conditions permitted the identification of all the mycotoxins in five unknown samples without any misidentifications. 24 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Microchip separations of neutral species via micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A.W. Jr.; Jacobson, S.C.; Ramsey, J.M.

    1995-11-15

    Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) of three neutral coumarin dyes was performed on glass microchips. Manifolds of channels for analyte injection and separation were machined into one surface of the glass substrates using standard photolithographic, etching, and deposition techniques. Cover plates were then directly bonded over these channels to form capillary networks, with fluid flow in these networks controlled by varying the applied high-voltage potentials at the outlets. The separation capillary was 16.5 cm long for a serpentine channel chip and 1.3 cm long for a straight channel chip. Detection of analyte zones was accomplished by laser-induced fluorescence using the UV lines (nearly 350 nm) of an argon ion laser. At low applied electric field strengths, MECC analyses with on-chip injections gave high reproducibilities in peak areas and migration times (<1% for two of the three coumarins) and near constant separation efficiencies throughout the analysis. At high fields (>400 V/cm), analysis times were shorter, but separation efficiency decreased at later migration times. These peaks showed significant broadening, consistent with mass transfer effects. 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Micellar electrokinetic chromatographic determination of triazine herbicides in water samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Shuaihua; Yin, Xiaofang; Wang, Chun; Wang, Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with online sweeping preconcentration in micellar electrokinetic chromatography was developed for the simultaneous determination of five triazine herbicides (atrazine, simazine, propazine, prometon and simetryn) in water samples. Several experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiencies such as the type and volume of both the extraction and dispersive solvents, the addition of salt to sample solution, the extraction time and the pH of the sample solution were investigated. Under optimum conditions, the linearity of the method was good in the range from 0.33 to 20 ng mL(-1) for simazine, propazine, atrazine and simetryn, and from 0.17 to 20 ng mL(-1) for prometon, respectively. The sensitivity enrichment factors were in the range from 1750 to 2100, depending on the compound. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) ranged from 0.05 to 0.10 ng mL(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of the five triazines in river, ground and well waters.

  15. Molecular thermodynamics for micellar branching in solutions of ionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Andreev, Vasily A; Victorov, Alexey I

    2006-09-26

    We develop an analytical molecular-thermodynamic model for the aggregation free energy of branching portions of wormlike ionic micelles in 1:1 salt solution. The junction of three cylindrical aggregates is represented by a combination of pieces of the torus and bilayer. A geometry-dependent analytical solution is obtained for the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. This analytical solution is applicable to saddle-like structures and reduces to the solutions known previously for planar, cylindrical, and spherical aggregates. For micellar junctions, our new analytical solution is in excellent agreement with numerical results over the range of parameters typical of ionic surfactant systems with branching micelles. Our model correctly predicts the sequence of stable aggregate morphologies, including a narrow bicontinuous zone, in dependence of hydrocarbon tail length, head size, and solution salinity. For predicting properties of a spatial network of wormlike micelles, our aggregation free energy is used in the Zilman-Safran theory. Our predictions are compared with experimental data for branching micelles of ionic surfactants.

  16. Interfacial Micellar Structures from Novel Amphiphilic Star Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Genson, Kirsten L.; Hoffman, Joshua; Teng, Jing; Zubarev, Eugene R.; Vaknin, David; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2010-11-10

    An amphiphilic heteroarm star polymer containing 12 alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic arms of polystyrene (PS) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) connected to a well-defined rigid aromatic core was studied at the air-water and the air-solid interfaces. At the air-water interface, the molecules spontaneously form pancakelike micellar aggregates which measure up to several microns in diameter and 5 nm in thickness. Upon reduction of the surface area per molecule to 7 nm2, the two-dimensional micelles merged into a dense monolayer. We suggest that confined phase separation of dissimilar polymer arms occurred upon their segregation on the opposite sides of the rigid disklike aromatic core, forcing the rigid cores to adopt a face-on orientation with respect to the interface. Upon transfer onto solid supports the PS chains face the air-film interface making it completely hydrophobic, and the PAA chains were found to collapse and form a thin flattened underlayer. This study points toward new strategies to create large 2D microstructures with facial amphiphilicity and suggests a profound influence of star molecular architecture on the self-assembly of amphiphiles at the air-water interface.

  17. Model for phase equilibria in micellar solutions of nonionic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    1986-03-01

    The formation of spherical micelles in aqueous solutions of nonionic surfactants and the equilibria between two such micellar phases are studied with a phenomenological model incorporating hydrophobic interactions and the configurational entropy of the amphiphiles. The distribution of micelle sizes is determined over the entire temperature-composition phase diagram, and moments of that distribution function determine the consolute point parameters. In a generalization of an analysis given by Stillinger and Ben-Naim, the mathematical properties of various thermodynamic functions in the neighborhood of the critical micelle concentration are related to the location of branch points of the osmotic pressure in the complex concentration plane. The model attributes the experimentally observed lower critical solution points in these systems to surfactant-water hydrogen bonding, whose temperature dependence is described with a mean field approximation. Calculated phase diagrams are in qualitative agreement with those from experiments, in particular, exhibiting closed solubility loops with quite distinct upper and lower critical compositions, and values for the lower critical composition on the order of several percent volume fraction. The relevance of certain aspects of the model to the understanding of microemulsions is discussed.

  18. Efficacy of reverse micellar extracted fruit bromelain in meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, Ram Saran; Sakhare, P Z; Bhaskar, N; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2015-06-01

    Reverse micellar extraction (RME) was used for the separation and purification of bromelain from pineapple core and efficacy of RME purified bromelain (RMEB) in tenderization of beef meat was compared with that of commercial stem bromelain (CSB). RME resulted in reasonably high bromelain activity recovery (85.0 %) and purification fold (4.0). Reduction in meat toughness was higher in RMEB treated meat (52.1 %) compared to raw (control) and CSB treated (26.7 %). Significant increase in water holding capacity (WHC) was observed in RMEB treated meat (91.1 %) as against CSB treated (55.6 %) and control (56.6 %). No change in cooking loss was observed in RMEB treated meat, whereas the loss increased by nearly 14.0 % in case of CSB treated. While the meat color was retained, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble protein content increased due to hydrolysis of protein in RMEB treated meat. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that RMEB treatment completely ruptures myofibril tissues, indicating a higher degree of tenderization.

  19. Glass and percolation transitions in dense attractive micellar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, F.; Beneduci, R.; Gambadauro, P.; Lombardo, D.; Chen, S. H.

    2001-12-01

    In this work, we study a copolymer-micellar system characterized by clustering processes due to a short-range attractive interaction. This originates a percolation process and a new type of kinetic glass transition. We have studied these intriguing dynamical situations by means of an extensive set of light scattering and viscoelasticity experiments. Obtained data, in both the phenomena, are accounted for by considering in a proper way fractal clustering processes and the related scaling concepts. Near the percolation line the main role in the system structure and dynamics is played by the cluster's partial screening of hydrodynamic interaction, that behaves, on approaching the percolation threshold, dramatic effects on the rheological properties and on the density decay relaxations. The ergodic-nonergodic transition line (glass transition) is studied in terms of the intermediate scattering functions (ISF) in the frame of the mode coupling theory. The measured ISF gives evidence of a logarithmic decay on the density fluctuation followed by a power law behavior. This latter phenomenon is the signature of a high-order glass transition of the A3 type (cusp-like singularity).

  20. Simultaneous micellar LC determination of lidocaine and tolperisone.

    PubMed

    Youngvises, Napaporn; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2003-03-26

    A micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) procedure was developed for the simultaneous separation and determination of lidocaine hydrochloride (LD HCl) and tolperisone hydrochloride (TP HCl) using a short-column C18 (12.5 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with a small amount of isopropanol, and diode array detector. The optimum conditions for the simultaneous determination of both drugs were 0.075 mol l(-1) SDS-7.5% (v/v) isopropanol with a flow rate of 0.7 ml min(-1) and detection at 210 nm. The LOD (2S/N) of LD HCl was 0.73 ng 20 microl(-1), whereas that of TP HCl was 1.43 ng 20 microl(-1). The calibration curves for LD HCl and TP HCl were linear over the ranges 0.125-500 microg ml(-1) (r(2)=0.9999) and 1.00-500 microg ml(-1) (r(2)=0.9997), respectively. The %recoveries of both drugs were in the range 98-103% and the %RSD values were less than 2. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of TP HCl and LD HCl in various pharmaceutical preparations.

  1. Control of doxorubicin release from magnetic Poly( dl-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles by application of a non-permanent magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peça, Inês N.; Bicho, A.; Gardner, Rui; Cardoso, M. Margarida

    2015-11-01

    This work studied the effect of the application time of a non-permanent magnetic field on the rate of drug release from iron oxide polymeric nanoparticles. Magnetically responsive doxorubicin loaded poly( d-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles were synthetized by the o/w solvent extraction/evaporation method and characterized. The produced particles show spherical shapes exhibiting a size between 200 and 400 nm, a drug loading of 3.6 % (w/w) and an iron concentration of 20.7 % (w/w). Cell cytotoxicity tests showed that unloaded magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were nontoxic. Concerning the therapeutic activity, doxorubicin-loaded magnetic particles cause a remarkable enhancement of the cell inhibition rates compared to their non-magnetic counterparts (40 against 7 % of dead cells). In vitro drug release studies performed under a non-permanent magnetic field show that the application time and the on/off cycle duration have a great influence with respect to the final amount and to the rate of drug release. The final amount and the rate of doxorubicin released increase with the time of field application reaching higher values for a higher number of pulses with a lower duration. Doxorubicin release mechanism has shown to be governed by Fickian diffusion in the absence of a magnetic field while in the presence of a magnetic field some controlled relaxation polymer chains might also be present. The results show that the drug release rate from magnetic PLGA nanoparticles can be modulated through the application time and the on/off cycles duration of a non-permanent magnetic field.

  2. Induction of Apoptosis in Human Oral Keratinocyte by Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Okudaira, Noriyuki; Masuda, Yoshiko; Amano, Osamu; Yokose, Satoshi; Kanda, Yumiko; Suguro, Madoka; Natori, Takenori; Oizumi, Hiroshi; Oizumi, Takaaki

    2017-03-01

    We have previously reported that doxorubicin (DXR) showed much higher cytotoxicity against human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines compared to normal human mesenchymal normal oral cells (gingival fibroblast, periodontal ligament fibroblast, pulp cell), yielding high tumor-specificity. However, we unexpectedly found that doxorubicin showed potent cytotoxicity against human normal oral keratinocytes and primary gingival epithelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the reproducibility, underlining mechanisms and generality of this unexpected finding. Viable cell number was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method, fine cell structure by transmission electron microscopy and apoptosis induction by western blot analysis. Doxorubicin induced keratinocyte toxicity, regardless of cell density and concentration of FBS in the culture medium. Doxorubicin induced apoptosis (characterized by the loss of cell surface microvilli, chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation and caspase-3 activation) in keratinocytes. A total of 11 anticancer drugs showed similar keratinocyte toxicity. Alkaline extract of the leaves of Sasa senanensis Rehder partially alleviated the DXR-induced keratinocyte cytotoxicity by promoting cell growth. The present study suggested that oral keratinocyte toxicity is a novel adverse effect of most anticancer agents. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  3. Simulation of Doxorubicin Delivery via Glucosamine(ethylene glycol) Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Pirawattana, Thongjun; Srinophakun, Thongchai

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the molecular modeling of the release of doxorubicin from capsules composed of glucosamine(ethylene glycol) oligomers. Doxorubicin forms micelle structures with glucosamine(ethylene glycol), and the drug release mechanism can be studied through the modeling of oligomeric bond breaking under acidic, neutral, or basic conditions. Under these conditions, the activation energies were calculated to be 145.51, 135.78, and 287.60 kcal/mol, respectively, at the B3LYP/6-31G//PM3 level. Based on these values, doxorubicin can be released into acidic and neutral solutions but not into basic solution. Ethylene glycol chain length in glucosamine(ethylene glycol) also effects drug release. As the length of ethylene glycol increases, the amount of drug released increases under acidic conditions, but decreases under neutral and basic conditions. When the drug is released from glucosamine(ethylene glycol) oligomers, the drug molecule and glucosamine(ethylene glycol) molecules form a micelle structure. Studies found that, as the length of the ethylene glycol chains increases, the micelle structure is more easily formed. The ethylene glycol group can deliver doxorubicin to cancer cells in micelle form. PMID:19330076

  4. Variable Effect during Polymerization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment performing the polymerization of 3-methylthiophene(P-3MT) onto the conditions for the selective electrode to determine the catechol by using cyclic voltammetry was performed. The P-3MT formed under optimized conditions improved electrochemical reversibility, selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of the catechol.

  5. Flame retardant polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, M.; Atlas, S.M.; Pearce, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The flame retardation of polyolefins is the focus of this volume. Methods for reduction of smoke and experimental evaluation of flammability parameters for polymeric materials are discussed. The flammability evaluation methods for textiles and the use of mass spectrometry for analysis of polymers and their degradation products are also presented.

  6. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  7. Variable Effect during Polymerization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment performing the polymerization of 3-methylthiophene(P-3MT) onto the conditions for the selective electrode to determine the catechol by using cyclic voltammetry was performed. The P-3MT formed under optimized conditions improved electrochemical reversibility, selectivity and reproducibility for the detection of the catechol.

  8. Protein specific polymeric immunomicrospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such as hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  9. A high-throughput multivariate optimization for the simultaneous enantioseparation and detection of barbiturates in micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; He, Jun; Shamsi, Shahab A

    2010-08-01

    The R- and S-configurations of barbiturates display differences in potency and biological activity. In this study, multivariate micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry (MEKC-MS) approach for the simultaneous analysis of three chiral barbiturates (mephobarbital, pentobarbital, and secobarbital) is developed using a polymeric chiral surfactant. After screening 11 amino acid polymeric surfactants, polysodium N-undecenoxycarbonyl-L-isoleucinate (poly-L-SUCIL) was found to be the best chiral selector. The multivariate central composite design (CCD) is used to optimize the chiral resolution, decrease the total analysis time, and improve the ESI-MS signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. In the preliminary set of experiments, the ranges of the factors investigated in the multivariate approaches are determined. Next, the CCD design is conducted to determine the best overall chiral resolution with shortest possible run times. This optimization resulted in simultaneous enantioseparation in less than 32 min of all three barbiturates with 3-5 fold higher sensitivity by MS compared to UV detection. The adequacy of the multivariate model is validated by three replicate experimental runs at the predicted optimum conditions. The predicted results of MEKC-MS are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data for migration times, resolution, and S/N ratio. The optimized method provided good results in terms of linearity and recovery values of chiral barbiturates spiked in human serum after solid-phase extraction procedure.

  10. A high-throughput multivariate optimization for the simultaneous enantioseparation and detection of barbiturates in micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry (MEKC-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; He, Jun; Shamsi, Shahab A.

    2011-01-01

    The R- and S-configurations of barbiturates display differences in potency and biological activity. In this study, multivariate micellar electrokinetic chromatography-mass spectrometry (MEKC-MS) approach for the simultaneous analysis of three chiral barbiturates (mephobarbital, pentobarbital, and secobarbital) is developed using a polymeric chiral surfactant. After screening eleven amino acid polymeric surfactants, polysodium N-undecenoxycarbonyl-L-isoleucinate (poly-L-SUCIL) was found to be the best chiral selector. The multivariate central composite design (CCD) is used to optimize the chiral resolution, decrease the total analysis time, and improve the ESI-MS signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. In the preliminary set of experiments, the ranges of the factors investigated in the multivariate approaches are determined. Next, the CCD design is conducted to determine the best overall chiral resolution with shortest possible run times. This optimization resulted in simultaneous enantioseparation in less than 32 minutes of all three barbiturates with 3–5 fold higher sensitivity by MS compared to UV detection. The adequacy of the multivariate model is validated by three replicate experimental runs at the predicted optimum conditions. The predicted results of MEKC-MS are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data for migration times, resolution and S/N ratio. The optimized method provided good results in terms of linearity and recovery values of chiral barbiturates spiked in human serum after solid phase extraction procedure. PMID:20819283

  11. Phase I trial of cremophor EL with bolus doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Millward, M J; Webster, L K; Rischin, D; Stokes, K H; Toner, G C; Bishop, J F; Olver, I N; Linahan, B M; Linsenmeyer, M E; Woodcock, D M

    1998-10-01

    Cremophor EL (cremophor), a component of the paclitaxel formulation, can potentially reverse P-glycoprotein-associated multidrug resistance. A Phase I trial of cremophor as a 6-h infusion every 3 weeks was performed with bolus doxorubicin (50 mg/m2). The cremophor dose was escalated from 1 to 60 ml/m2. A standard paclitaxel premedication was given before cremophor. Using a bioassay, potentially active cremophor levels (> or = 1 microl/ml) were measured in plasma from patients receiving cremophor doses of 30, 45, and 60 ml/m2. A cross-over design was used to assess the influence of cremophor 30 ml/m2 on the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol. The plasma area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) of doxorubicin increased from 1448 +/- 350 to 1786 +/- 264 ng/ml x h (P = 0.02) in the presence of cremophor, whereas the AUC of doxorubicinol increased from 252 +/- 104 to 486 +/- 107 ng/ml x h (P = 0.02). This pharmacokinetic interaction was associated with significantly increased neutropenia. With reduction of the doxorubicin dose to 35 mg/m2, the cremophor dose was increased to 60 ml/m2. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in two of six patients after 45 ml/m2 and two of four patients after 60 ml/m2, which included febrile neutropenia and grade III cremophor-related toxicities of rash, pruritus, headache, and hypotension. All patients who received 45 ml/m2 cremophor reached plasma levels > or = 1.5 microl/ml, but at 60 ml/m2, only two of four reached this level, and the calculated plasma clearance of cremophor was significantly faster at this dose. One patient with hepatoma resistant to epirubicin achieved a near-complete response. Cremophor 45 ml/m2 over 6 h with 35 mg/m2 doxorubicin is recommended for further studies. The pharmacokinetic interaction between cremophor and doxorubicin is quantitatively similar to that described in trials of paclitaxel with doxorubicin and suggests that the cremophor in the paclitaxel formulation is responsible.

  12. Lenghty reverse poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) polymeric micelles and gels for sustained release of antifungal drugs.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Ochoa, Edgar B; Villar-Alvarez, Eva M; Cambón, Adriana; Mistry, Dharmista; Llovo, José; Attwood, David; Barbosa, Silvia; Soltero, J F Armando; Taboada, Pablo

    2016-08-20

    In this work, we present a detailed study of the potential application of polymeric micelles and gels of four different reverse triblock poly(butylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(butylene oxide) copolymers (BOnEOmBOn, where n denotes the respective block lengths), specifically BO8EO90BO8, BO14EO378BO14, BO20EO411BO20 and BO21EO385BO21, as effective drug transport nanocarriers. In particular, we tested the use of this kind of polymeric nanostructures as reservoirs for the sustained delivery of the antifungals griseofulvin and fluconazole for oral and topical administration. Polymeric micelles and gels formed by these copolymers were shown to solubilize important amounts of these two drugs and to have a good stability in physiologically relevant conditions for oral or topical administration. These polymeric micellar nanocarriers were able to release drugs in a sustained manner, being the release rate slower as the copolymer chain hydrophobicity increased. Different sustained drug release profiles were observed depending on the medium conditions. Gel nanocarriers were shown to display longer sustained release rates than micellar formulations, with the existence of a pulsatile-like release mode under certain solution conditions as a result of their inner network structure. Certain bioadhesive properties were observed for the polymeric physical gels, being moderately tuned by the length and hydrophobicity of the polymeric chains. Furthermore, polymeric gels and micelles showed activity against the yeast Candida albicans and the mould demartophytes (Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis) and, thus, may be useful for the treatment of different cutaneous fungal infections.

  13. HPLC-MS/MS determination of a peptide conjugate prodrug of doxorubicin, and its active metabolites, leucine-doxorubicin and doxorubicin, in dog and rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Mazuel, Claude; Grove, Jeffrey; Gerin, Geneviève; Keenan, Kevin P

    2003-12-04

    A HPLC-MS/MS Electrospray (ESI) method was developed and validated to quantify a peptide conjugate prodrug of doxorubicin (Dox-Con) and its active metabolites leucine-doxorubicin (Leu-Dox) and doxorubicin (Dox) in dog and rat plasma. The analytes were extracted from plasma by solid-phase extraction on a Bond Elut C8 cartridge and eluted with chloroform-methanol (2:1). Eluates were evaporated and reconstituted in acetonitrile-5 microM sodium trifluoroacetate in 0.1% aqueous formic acid (20:80) and injected onto a Waters Oasis HLB column. Analytes were eluted from the column with a solvent gradient into the mass analyzer. The ions were quantified in the selected reaction-monitoring mode (SRM), using positive ions, on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The lower limits of quantification for Dox-Con, Leu-Dox, and Dox in plasma, were approximately 5, 1 (dog)/6 (rat), and 0.5 ng/ml, respectively. Intra- and inter-assay accuracy (% of nominal concentration) and precision (%CV) for all analytes were within 15 and 16%, respectively.

  14. Effect of ripening, heat processing, and fat type on the micellarization of pigments from jalapeño peppers.

    PubMed

    Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Yahia, Elhadi M; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A; Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime David; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar

    2013-10-16

    Raw and heat-processed (boiled and grilled) jalapeño peppers at three intermediate ripening stages (brown, 50% red, and 75% red) were digested in vitro without fat and in the presence of soybean oil (SO) or beef tallow (BT), and the micellarization of their lipid soluble pigments (LSP) was measured. The micelles from digestions with brown, 50% red, and 75% red peppers contained up to 27, 35, and 29 different LSP, respectively. Boiling and grilling decreased the micellarization of LSP from brown peppers, whereas the opposite was observed with 75% red peppers. Heat processing did not clearly affect the micellarization of LSP from 50% red fruits. The impact of fat on LSP micellarization was ripening-dependent, but the micellarization of the less polar carotenoids was always increased by SO or BT. This positive effect of fat was higher with SO than with BT.

  15. Comparison of doxorubicin and weekly paclitaxel efficacy in metastatic angiosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Antoine; Cioffi, Angela; Penel, Nicolas; Levra, Matteo Giaj; Delcambre, Corinne; Kalbacher, Elsa; Chevreau, Christine; Bertucci, François; Isambert, Nicolas; Blay, Jean-Yves; Bui, Binh; Antonescu, Cristina; D'Adamo, David R; Maki, Robert G; Keohan, Mary Louise

    2012-07-01

    Data regarding the role of anthracyclines and taxanes as first-line treatments of metastatic angiosarcoma are limited. Records of 117 metastatic angiosarcoma patients who were treated with either doxorubicin or weekly paclitaxel were reviewed. Seventy-five patients (64%) were treated with weekly paclitaxel and 42 (36%) with single-agent doxorubicin. Patients in the weekly paclitaxel group were older and more frequently had angiosarcomas arising from the skin. In the doxorubicin group, 34 patients were evaluable for response: 2 (6%) had complete response, 8 (23.5%) had partial response, 10 (29.5%) had stable disease, and 14 (41%) had progressive disease. In the weekly paclitaxel group, 68 patients were evaluable for response: 9 (13%) had complete response, 27 (40%) had partial response, 20 (29.5%) had stable disease, and 12 (17.5%) had progressive disease. Objective responses to weekly paclitaxel were more frequent in cutaneous angiosarcomas, whereas tumor location did not impact response to doxorubicin. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4.9 months (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.9-6.0 months). Median overall survival (OS) was 8.5 months (95% CI, 6.4-10.7 months). On multivariate analysis, ECOG performance status (PS) was the sole independent factor associated with PFS and OS. First-line single-agent doxorubicin and weekly paclitaxel seem to have similar efficacy in metastatic angiosarcomas. Cutaneous angiosarcomas respond favorably to weekly paclitaxel. Best supportive care should be considered in patients with poor PS. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  16. The influence of bile acids on the oral bioavailability of vitamin K encapsulated in polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    van Hasselt, P M; Janssens, G E P J; Slot, T K; van der Ham, M; Minderhoud, T C; Talelli, M; Akkermans, L M; Rijcken, C J F; van Nostrum, C F

    2009-01-19

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ability of polymeric micelles to enable gastrointestinal absorption of the extremely hydrophobic compound vitamin K, by comparison of its absorption in bile duct ligated and sham operated rats. Hereto, vitamin K was encapsulated in micelles composed of mPEG(5000)-b-p(HPMAm-lac(2)), a thermosensitive block copolymer. Vitamin K plasma levels rose significantly upon gastric administration of 1 mg vitamin K encapsulated in polymeric micelles in sham operated rats, but not after bile duct ligation (AUC 4543 and 1.64 ng/mL/h respectively, p<0.01). Duodenal administration of polymeric micelles together with bile acids in bile duct ligated rats fully restored absorption. Dynamic light scattering time series showed a significant and dose dependent rise in micellar size in the presence of bile acids in vitro, indicating the gradual formation of mixed micelles during the first 3 h of incubation. The highest bile acid amounts (11 mM deoxycholic acid and 41 mM taurocholic acid) eventually caused aggregation of the loaded micelles after the formation of mixed micelles. These data suggest that the gastrointestinal absorption of encapsulated vitamin K from polymeric micelles is mediated by free bile and that uptake of intact micelles through pinocytosis is insignificant.

  17. Solute-solvent interactions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography: VII. Characterization of sodium cholate-sodium deoxycholate mixed-micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Rodríguez, Marta; Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Rosés, Martí

    2010-03-05

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) systems with mixed pseudostationary phases of the bile surfactants sodium cholate (SC) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) have been characterized by means of the solvation parameter model. The importance of characterizing systems with an appropriate set of solutes that embrace a wide range of descriptor values has been proven as they can significantly influence the value of the system constants. The fit of the solvation parameter model to the experimental log k data has been compared for each SC-SDC system when the Abraham descriptors and the Poole optimized descriptors, recently proposed, are used. In both cases, the variation in MEKC surfactant composition results in similar changes in the coefficients of the correlation equations, which in turn leads to similar information on solute-solvent and solute-micelle interactions. It is demonstrated that SDC is more hydrogen-bond acidic and hydrophobic but slightly less polarizable than SC. Systems with intermediate selectivity are obtained through mixtures of both surfactants.

  18. Interaction between Tea Polyphenols and Bile Acid Inhibits Micellar Cholesterol Solubility.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kazuki; Hirose, Sayumi; Nagaoka, Satoshi; Yanase, Emiko

    2016-01-13

    The molecular mechanism by which tea polyphenols decrease the micellar solubility of cholesterol is not completely clear. To clarify this mechanism, this study investigated the interaction between tea polyphenols (catechins and oolongtheanins) and cholesterol micelles. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study was performed on a micellar solution containing taurocholic acid and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out on the precipitate and the supernatant that formed when EGCg was added to a cholesterol-micelle solution. The data indicated a regiospecific interaction of EGCg with taurocholic acid. Therefore, the ability of EGCg to lower the solubility of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol in micellar solutions can be attributed to their elimination from the micelles due to interaction between taurocholic acids and EGCg.

  19. Demonstrating Chemical and Analytical Concepts in the Undergraduate Laboratory Using Capillary Electrophoresis and Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Christopher P.

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes instrumental analysis laboratory exercises that utilize capillary electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic chromatography to demonstrate several analytical and chemical principles. Alkyl parabens (4-hydroxy alkyl benzoates), which are common ingredients in cosmetic formulations, are separated by capillary electrophoresis. The electrophoretic mobilities of the parabens can be explained on the basis of their relative size. 3-Hydroxy ethylbenzoate is also separated to demonstrate the effect of substituent position on the acid dissociation constant and the effect this has on electrophoretic mobility. Homologous series of alkyl benzoates and alkyl phthalates (common plasticizers) are separated by micellar electrokinetic chromatography at four surfactant concentrations. This exercise demonstrates the separation mechanism of micellar electrokinetic chromatography, the concept of chromatographic phase ratio, and the concepts of micelle formation. A photodiode array detector is used in both exercises to demonstrate the advantages and limitations of the detector and to demonstrate the effect of pH and substituent position on the spectra of the analytes.

  20. Wheat alkylresorcinols reduce micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro and increase cholesterol excretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Kazumasa; Hashimoto, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Makita, Miki; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Okita, Kimiko; Wada, Naoyuki; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of whole grains can reduce risk for metabolic disorders. We recently showed that chronic supplementation with wheat alkylresorcinols (ARs) prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance with hepatic lipid accumulation induced in mice by a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). This study examines the effects of ARs on the micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro, as well as the effects of transient AR supplementation on faecal lipid excretion and plasma lipid levels in mice. We found that ARs formed bile micelles with taurocholate independently of phospholipids, and dose-dependently decreased the micellar solubility of cholesterol in a biliary micelle model. Transient AR supplementation with HFHSD increased faecal cholesterol and triglyceride contents and decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations. These suggest that one underlying mechanism through which ARs suppress diet-induced obesity is by interfering with the micellar cholesterol solubilisation in the digestive tract, which subsequently decreases cholesterol absorption.

  1. Partitioning of quencher ions in the micellar microenvironment of polyoxyethylene nonyl phenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sujit Kumar; Khatua, Pijus Kanti; Ghosh, Jayanta Kumar; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2005-01-01

    This paper has explored the quenching of fluorescence of the dye safranine T (ST) by the inorganic cations viz Cu 2+, Co 2+, Ni 2+ and Mn 2+ in micellar solutions of the surfactant dioxyethylene nonyl phenol (Igepal CO-210), pentaoxyethylene nonyl phenol (Igepal CO-520) and dodecaoxyethylene nonyl phenol (Igepal CO-720). The quenching results have been calculated in light of stern volmer equation (SV) to evaluate the extent of interaction between the fluorophore (ST) and quencher. The average concentration of the quencher ions in the micelle have been determined. The quenching efficiency of ST by inorganic ions in micellar medium is lower than that in aqueous medium. The results show that the ions get partitioned in the micellar medium. The values of the partition coefficient of the ions decrease with increase in HLB value and number of oxyethylene groups in Igepal.

  2. Partitioning of quencher ions in the micellar microenvironment of polyoxyethylene nonyl phenol.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sujit Kumar; Khatua, Pijus Kanti; Ghosh, Jayanta Kumar; Bhattacharya, Subhash Chandra

    2005-01-14

    This paper has explored the quenching of fluorescence of the dye safranine T (ST) by the inorganic cations viz Cu2+, Co2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+ in micellar solutions of the surfactant dioxyethylene nonyl phenol (Igepal CO-210), pentaoxyethylene nonyl phenol (Igepal CO-520) and dodecaoxyethylene nonyl phenol (Igepal CO-720). The quenching results have been calculated in light of stern volmer equation (SV) to evaluate the extent of interaction between the fluorophore (ST) and quencher. The average concentration of the quencher ions in the micelle have been determined. The quenching efficiency of ST by inorganic ions in micellar medium is lower than that in aqueous medium. The results show that the ions get partitioned in the micellar medium. The values of the partition coefficient of the ions decrease with increase in HLB value and number of oxyethylene groups in Igepal.

  3. Use of reverse micellar systems for the extraction and purification of bromelain from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Umesh Hebbar, H; Sumana, B; Raghavarao, K S M S

    2008-07-01

    Reverse micellar systems of CTAB/isooctane/hexanol/butanol and AOT/isooctane are used for the extraction and primary purification of bromelain from crude aqueous extract of pineapple wastes (core, peel, crown and extended stem). The effect of forward as well as back extraction process parameters on the extraction efficiency, activity recovery and purification fold is studied in detail for the pineapple core extract. The optimized conditions for the extraction from core resulted in forward and back extraction efficiencies of 45% and 62%, respectively, using reverse micellar system of cationic surfactant CTAB. A fairly good activity recovery (106%) and purification (5.2-fold) of bromelain is obtained under these conditions. Reverse micellar extraction from peel, extended stem and crown using CTAB system resulted in purification folds of 2.1, 3.5, and 1.7, respectively. Extraction from extended stem using anionic surfactant AOT in isooctane did not yield good results under the operating conditions employed.

  4. Molecular motion of micellar solutes: a /sup 13/C NMR relaxation study

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, R.E.; Kasakevich, M.L.; Granger, J.W.

    1982-02-04

    A series of simple NMR relaxation experiments have been performed on nitrobenzene and aniline dissolved in the ionic detergents sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Using /sup 13/C relaxation rates at various molecular sites, and comparing data obtained in organic media with those for micellar solutions, the viscosity at the solubilization site was estimated and a detailed picture of motional restrictions imposed by the micellar enviroment was derived. Viscosities of 8 to 17 cp indicate a rather fluid environment for solubilized nitrobenzene; both additives exhibit altered motional preferences in CTAB solutions only. As an aid in interpretation of the NMR data, quasi-elastic light scattering and other physical techniques have been used to evaluate the influence of organic solutes on micellar size and shape. The NMR methods are examined critically in terms of their general usefulness for studies of solubilization in detergent mice

  5. Oseltamivir-conjugated polymeric micelles prepared by RAFT living radical polymerization as a new active tumor targeting drug delivery platform.

    PubMed

    Kapishon, Vitaliy; Allison, Stephanie; Whitney, Ralph A; Cunningham, Michael F; Szewczuk, Myron R; Neufeld, Ronald J

    2016-03-01

    Targeted drug delivery using polymeric nanostructures has been at the forefront of cancer research, engineered for safer, more efficient and effective use of chemotherapy. Here, we designed a new polymeric micelle delivery system for active tumor targeting followed by micelle-drug internalization via receptor-induced endocytosis. We recently reported that oseltamivir phosphate targets and inhibits Neu1 sialidase activity associated with receptor tyrosine kinases such as epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) which are overexpressed in cancer cells. By decorating micelles with oseltamivir, we investigated whether they actively targeted human pancreatic PANC1 cancer cells. Amphiphilic block copolymers with oseltamivir conjugated at the hydrophilic end, oseltamivir-pPEGMEMA-b-pMMA (oseltamivir-poly(polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate), were synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) living radical polymerization. Oseltamivir-conjugated micelles have self-assembling properties to give worm-like micellar structures with molecular weight of 80 000 g mol(-1). Oseltamivir-conjugated water soluble pPEGMEMA, dose dependently, both inhibited sialidase activity associated with Neu1, and reduced viability of PANC1 cells. In addition, oseltamivir-conjugated micelles, labelled with a hydrophobic fluorescent dye within the micelle core, were subsequently internalized by PANC1 cells. Blocking cell surface Neu1 with anti-Neu1 antibody, reduced internalization of oseltamivir-conjugated micelles, demonstrating that Neu1 binding linked to sialidase inhibition were prerequisite steps for subsequent internalization of the micelles. The mechanism of internalization is likely that of receptor-induced endocytosis demonstrating potential as a new nanocarrier system for not only targeting a tumor cell, but also for directly reducing viability through Neu1 inhibition, followed by intracellular delivery of hydrophobic

  6. Polymeric micelles for the solubilization and delivery of STAT3 inhibitor cucurbitacins in solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Molavi, Ommoleila; Ma, Zengshuan; Mahmud, Abdullah; Alshamsan, Aws; Samuel, John; Lai, Raymond; Kwon, Glen S.; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2009-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) and newly developed poly(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(α-benzyl carboxylate ε-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PBCL) micelles were evaluated for the solubilization and delivery of cucurbitacin I and B, poorly water soluble inhibitors of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Encapsulation of cucurbitacins in PEO-b-PCL and PEO-b-PBCL by co-solvent evaporation technique resulted in polymeric micelles <90 nm in diameter. The aqueous solubility of both derivatives increased from less than 0.05 mg/mL in the absence of the copolymer to around 0.30–0.44 and 0.65–0.68 mg/mL in the presence of 5000–5000 and 5000–24,000 PEO-b-PCL micelles, respectively. Maximum cucurbitacin solubilization was achieved with PEO-b-PBCL micelles for both derivatives. PEO-b-PCL micelles having longer PCL block were found to be more efficient in sustaining the rate of release for cucurbitacins. The anti-cancer and STAT3 inhibitory activity of polymeric micellar cucurbitacins were comparable with free drugs in B16.F10 melanoma cell line in vitro. Intratumoral injection of 1 mg/kg/day cucurbitacin I resulted in the regression of established B16.F10 mouse melanoma tumors in vivo. In comparison to free cucurbitacin I, PEO-b-PBCL micellar cucurbitacin I was found to provide comparable anti-cancer effects against B16.F10 tumors and limit drug levels in animal serum while maintaining high drug levels in tumor following intratumoral administration. The results indicate the potential of polymeric micelles as suitable vehicles for the delivery of cucurbitacin- I and B. PMID:17681440

  7. Cisplatin crosslinked pH-sensitive nanoparticles for efficient delivery of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingqiang; Tang, Zhaohui; Lv, Shixian; Song, Wantong; Hong, Hua; Jing, Xiabin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xuesi

    2014-04-01

    pH responsive cisplatin prodrug crosslinked polysaccharide-based nanoparticles were developed from succinic acid decorated dextran (Dex-SA) for active loading and triggered intracellular release of doxorubicin (DOX). Nanoparticles with uniform size were formed spontaneously in aqueous medium via electrostatic interaction between anionic Dex-SA and cationic DOX, and subsequently transformed into crosslinked nanoparticles (CL-Nanoparticles) in situ by readily crosslinking the micelles via chelate interactions between the ionic polymeric carrier and the platinum (II) antitumor drug. This strategy eliminated the need of organic solvents and sophisticated processes in the drug loading procedure. The in vitro release studies showed that DOX was released from the CL-Nanoparticles in a controlled and pH-dependent manner. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution investigations indicated that, as compared to the non-crosslinked nanoparticles (NCL-Nanoparticles) and free DOX, the CL-Nanoparticles significantly prolonged the blood circulation time of drug, decreased accumulation in the normal tissues and enriched drug into the tumors. As a consequence, the DOX-loaded CL-Nanoparticles exhibited enhanced therapeutic efficacy in tumor-bearing mice compared with the NCL-Nanoparticles and free DOX, which were further confirmed by the histological and immunohistochemical analyses. These cisplatin prodrug crosslinked polysaccharide nanoparticles proved to be a promising nanomedicine drug delivery system for tumor-targeted delivery of DOX. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reduced in vivo toxicity of doxorubicin by encapsulation in cholesterol-containing self-assembled nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Fajardo, Laura; Mahajan, Lalit H; Ndaya, Dennis; Hargrove, Derek; Manautou, José E; Liang, Bruce T; Chen, Ming-Hui; Kasi, Rajeswari M; Lu, Xiuling

    2016-05-01

    We previously reported the development of an amphiphilic brush-like block copolymer composed of polynorbornene-cholesterol/polyethylene glycol (P(NBCh9-b-NBPEG)) that self-assembles in aqueous media to form long circulating nanostructures capable of encapsulating doxorubicin (DOX-NPs). Biodistribution studies showed that this formulation preferentially accumulates in tumor tissue with markedly reduced accumulation in the heart and other major organs. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the in vivo efficacy and toxicity of DOX containing self-assembled polymer nanoparticles in a mouse xenograft tumor model and compare its effects with the hydrochloride non-encapsulated form (free DOX). DOX-NPs significantly reduced the growth of tumors without inducing any apparent toxicity. Conversely, mice treated with free DOX exhibited significant weight loss, early toxic cardiomyopathy, acute toxic hepatopathy, reduced hematopoiesis and fatal toxicity. The improved safety profile of the polymeric DOX-NPs can be explained by the low circulating concentration of non-nanoparticle-associated drug as well as the reduced accumulation of DOX in non-target organs. These findings support the use of P(NBCh9-b-NBPEG) nanoparticles as delivery platforms for hydrophobic anticancer drugs intended to reduce the toxicity of conventional treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhanced antitumoral activity of doxorubicin against lung cancer cells using biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Melguizo, Consolación; Cabeza, Laura; Prados, Jose; Ortiz, Raúl; Caba, Octavio; Rama, Ana R; Delgado, Ángel V; Arias, José L

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used for the combined chemotherapy of solid tumors. However, the use of these drug associations in lung cancer has low antitumor efficacy. To improve its efficacious delivery and activity in lung adenocarcinoma cells, we developed a biodegradable and noncytotoxic nanoplatform based on biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA). The reproducible formulation method was based on an anionic polymerization process of the PBCA monomer, with the antitumor drug being entrapped within the nanoparticle (NP) matrix during its formation. Improved drug-entrapment efficiencies and sustained (biphasic) drug-release properties were made possible by taking advantage of the synthesis conditions (drug, monomer, and surfactant-agent concentrations). Dox-loaded NPs significantly enhanced cellular uptake of the drug in the A549 and LL/2 lung cancer cell lines, leading to a significant improvement of the drug's antitumoral activity. In vivo studies demonstrated that Dox-loaded NPs clearly reduced tumor volumes and increased mouse-survival rates compared to the free drug. These results demonstrated that PBCA NPs may be used to optimize the antitumor activity of Dox, thus exhibiting a potential application in chemotherapy against lung adenocarcinoma.

  10. Enhanced antitumoral activity of doxorubicin against lung cancer cells using biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Melguizo, Consolación; Cabeza, Laura; Prados, Jose; Ortiz, Raúl; Caba, Octavio; Rama, Ana R; Delgado, Ángel V; Arias, José L

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is widely used for the combined chemotherapy of solid tumors. However, the use of these drug associations in lung cancer has low antitumor efficacy. To improve its efficacious delivery and activity in lung adenocarcinoma cells, we developed a biodegradable and noncytotoxic nanoplatform based on biodegradable poly(butylcyanoacrylate) (PBCA). The reproducible formulation method was based on an anionic polymerization process of the PBCA monomer, with the antitumor drug being entrapped within the nanoparticle (NP) matrix during its formation. Improved drug-entrapment efficiencies and sustained (biphasic) drug-release properties were made possible by taking advantage of the synthesis conditions (drug, monomer, and surfactant-agent concentrations). Dox-loaded NPs significantly enhanced cellular uptake of the drug in the A549 and LL/2 lung cancer cell lines, leading to a significant improvement of the drug’s antitumoral activity. In vivo studies demonstrated that Dox-loaded NPs clearly reduced tumor volumes and increased mouse-survival rates compared to the free drug. These results demonstrated that PBCA NPs may be used to optimize the antitumor activity of Dox, thus exhibiting a potential application in chemotherapy against lung adenocarcinoma. PMID:26715840

  11. In Vitro Evaluation of Doxorubicin Conjugates Based on Sugar Core Nonlinear Polymethacrylates toward Anticancer Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mielańczyk, A; Skonieczna, M; Mielańczyk, Ł; Neugebauer, D

    2016-04-20

    V-shaped and star-shaped hydroxylamine-functionalized polymethacrylates designed as nanosized conjugates (<120 nm) with anticancer agent, namely, doxorubicin (DOX), were evaluated in vitro toward their potential usage as drug delivery systems in breast cancer (MCF-7) treatment. Statistical analysis of MTS assay results showed that the 4-arm conjugate (n(DOX) = 16) was the most effective polymeric system against MCF-7/W (wild type) and MCF-7/R (DOX resistant) cell lines. Apoptosis assay analysis showed that MCF-7/R cells cultured with nonlinear copolymers died due to necrosis and late apoptotis, whereas MCF-7/W cells were in early and late apoptosis. Among all tested conjugates, the most promising results with induction of apoptosis without inducing necrosis in both MCF-7 cell lines were obtained for conjugate based on 4-arm stars with low content of DOX. The cell cycle assay revealed that increase of MMA units in 4-arm copolymers induced MCF-7/R cell arrest in the SubG1 phase. In the same cell line, the corresponding conjugates triggered S and G2/M arrest. Gradual internalization of the chosen conjugate by MCF-7/R cells was monitored via fluorescence microscopy showing its main localization in the cytoplasm.

  12. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (-53.8 and -74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs.

  13. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (−53.8 and −74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs. PMID:25833688

  14. Effect of Doxorubicin/Pluronic SP1049C on Tumorigenicity, Aggressiveness, DNA Methylation and Stem Cell Markers in Murine Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Pluronic block copolymers are potent sensitizers of multidrug resistant cancers. SP1049C, a Pluronic-based micellar formulation of doxorubicin (Dox) has completed Phase II clinical trial and demonstrated safety and efficacy in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. This study elucidates the ability of SP1049C to deplete cancer stem cells (CSC) and decrease tumorigenicity of cancer cells in vivo. Experimental Design P388 murine leukemia ascitic tumor was grown in BDF1 mice. The animals were treated with: (a) saline, (b) Pluronics alone, (c) Dox or (d) SP1049C. The ascitic cancer cells were isolated at different passages and examined for 1) in vitro colony formation potential, 2) in vivo tumorigenicity and aggressiveness, 3) development of drug resistance and Wnt signaling activation 4) global DNA methylation profiles, and 5) expression of CSC markers. Results SP1049C treatment reduced tumor aggressiveness, in vivo tumor formation frequency and in vitro clonogenic potential of the ascitic cells compared to drug, saline and polymer controls. SP1049C also prevented overexpression of BCRP and activation of Wnt-β-catenin signaling observed with Dox alone. Moreover, SP1049C significantly altered the DNA methylation profiles of the cells. Finally, SP1049C decreased CD133+ P388 cells populations, which displayed CSC-like properties and were more tumorigenic compared to CD133− cells. Conclusions SP1049C therapy effectively suppresses the tumorigenicity and aggressiveness of P388 cells in a mouse model. This may be due to enhanced activity of SP1049C against CSC and/or altered epigenetic regulation restricting appearance of malignant cancer cell phenotype. PMID:23977261

  15. Human placental cell and tissue uptake of doxorubicin and its liposomal formulations.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Suvi K; Repo, Jenni K; Karttunen, Vesa; Auriola, Seppo; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H; Ruponen, Marika

    2015-12-03

    The anticancer drug doxorubicin and its liposomal formulations are in clinical use, doxorubicin also during pregnancy. However, little is known about how doxorubicin and its liposomal formulations are taken up by placental cells and whether they can cross human placenta. We therefore investigated quantitative cellular uptake and toxicity of doxorubicin and its two liposomal formulations, pH-sensitive liposomal doxorubicin (L-DOX) and commercially available pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PL-DOX), in human placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. PL-DOX showed significantly lower cellular uptake and toxicity compared with doxorubicin and L-DOX. In preliminary studies with human placental perfusion, PL-DOX did not cross the placenta at all in 4h, whereas doxorubicin and L-DOX crossed the placenta at low levels (max 12% of the dose). Furthermore, PL-DOX did not accumulate in placental tissue while doxorubicin did (up to 70% of the dose). Surface pegylation probably explains the low placental cell and tissue uptake of PL-DOX. Formulation of doxorubicin thus seems to enable a decrease of fetal exposure.

  16. C-phycocyanin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmood; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; Shobha, Jagdish C; Naidu, Madireddi U; Parinandi, Narasimham L; Kutala, Vijay Kumar; Kuppusamy, Periannan

    2006-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX), a potent antineoplastic agent, poses limitations for its therapeutic use due to the associated risk of developing cardiomyopathy and congestive heart failure. The cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. We have recently shown that Spirulina, a blue-green alga with potent antioxidant properties, offered significant protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. The aim of the present study was to establish the possible protective role of C-phycocyanin, one of the active ingredients of Spirulina, against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. The study was carried out using cardiomyocytes isolated from adult rat hearts. Doxorubicin significantly enhanced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells as measured by the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and dihydroethidium fluorescence. The doxorubicin-induced reactive oxygen species formation was significantly attenuated in cells pretreated with C-phycocyanin. It was further observed that the doxorubicin-induced DNA fragmentation and apoptosis, as assayed by TUNEL assay and flow cytometry coupled with BrdU-FITC/propidium iodide staining, were markedly attenuated by C-phycocyanin. C-phycocyanin also significantly attenuated the doxorubicin-induced increase in the expression of Bax protein, release of cytochrome c, and increase in the activity of caspase-3 in cells. In summary, C-phycocyanin ameliorated doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. This study further supports the crucial role of the antioxidant nature of C-phycocyanin in its cardioprotection against doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  17. Probing the binding sites of antibiotic drugs doxorubicin and N-(trifluoroacetyl) doxorubicin with human and bovine serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Daniel; Bourassa, Philippe; Bruneau, Julie; Bérubé, Gervais; Asselin, Eric; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2012-01-01

    We located the binding sites of doxorubicin (DOX) and N-(trifluoroacetyl) doxorubicin (FDOX) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumins (HSA) at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration and various drug contents. FTIR, CD and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to analyse drug binding sites, the binding constant and the effect of drug complexation on BSA and HSA stability and conformations. Structural analysis showed that doxorubicin and N-(trifluoroacetyl) doxorubicin bind strongly to BSA and HSA via hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts with overall binding constants of K(DOX-BSA) = 7.8 (± 0.7) × 10(3) M(-1), K(FDOX-BSA) = 4.8 (± 0.5)× 10(3) M(-1) and K(DOX-HSA) = 1.1 (± 0.3)× 10(4) M(-1), K(FDOX-HSA) = 8.3 (± 0.6)× 10(3) M(-1). The number of bound drug molecules per protein is 1.5 (DOX-BSA), 1.3 (FDOX-BSA) 1.5 (DOX-HSA), 0.9 (FDOX-HSA) in these drug-protein complexes. Docking studies showed the participation of several amino acids in drug-protein complexation, which stabilized by H-bonding systems. The order of drug-protein binding is DOX-HSA > FDOX-HSA > DOX-BSA > FDOX>BSA. Drug complexation alters protein conformation by a major reduction of α-helix from 63% (free BSA) to 47-44% (drug-complex) and 57% (free HSA) to 51-40% (drug-complex) inducing a partial protein destabilization. Doxorubicin and its derivative can be transported by BSA and HSA in vitro.

  18. Probing the Binding Sites of Antibiotic Drugs Doxorubicin and N-(trifluoroacetyl) Doxorubicin with Human and Bovine Serum Albumins

    PubMed Central

    Agudelo, Daniel; Bourassa, Philippe; Bruneau, Julie; Bérubé, Gervais; Asselin, Éric; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali

    2012-01-01

    We located the binding sites of doxorubicin (DOX) and N-(trifluoroacetyl) doxorubicin (FDOX) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumins (HSA) at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration and various drug contents. FTIR, CD and fluorescence spectroscopic methods as well as molecular modeling were used to analyse drug binding sites, the binding constant and the effect of drug complexation on BSA and HSA stability and conformations. Structural analysis showed that doxorubicin and N-(trifluoroacetyl) doxorubicin bind strongly to BSA and HSA via hydrophilic and hydrophobic contacts with overall binding constants of KDOX-BSA = 7.8 (±0.7)×103 M−1, KFDOX-BSA = 4.8 (±0.5)×103 M−1 and KDOX-HSA = 1.1 (±0.3)×104 M−1, KFDOX-HSA = 8.3 (±0.6)×103 M−1. The number of bound drug molecules per protein is 1.5 (DOX-BSA), 1.3 (FDOX-BSA) 1.5 (DOX-HSA), 0.9 (FDOX-HSA) in these drug-protein complexes. Docking studies showed the participation of several amino acids in drug-protein complexation, which stabilized by H-bonding systems. The order of drug-protein binding is DOX-HSA > FDOX-HSA > DOX-BSA > FDOX>BSA. Drug complexation alters protein conformation by a major reduction of α-helix from 63% (free BSA) to 47–44% (drug-complex) and 57% (free HSA) to 51–40% (drug-complex) inducing a partial protein destabilization. Doxorubicin and its derivative can be transported by BSA and HSA in vitro. PMID:22937101

  19. The magnetoviscous effect of micellar solutions doped with water based ferrofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arantes, Fabiana R.; Odenbach, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a magnetorheological study of micellar solutions of potassium laurate and water doped with magnetite nanoparticles, accompanied by auxiliary dynamic light scattering measurements. An increase in the viscosity of the samples under applied field was observed and, furthermore, a considerable magnetoviscous effect was revealed even at magnetic particles' concentrations as low as 0.005-0.01 vol%. This indicates that the rheological behavior of the micelles is changed by the interaction of the magnetic particles with the applied field, leading to different microscopic arrangements in the micellar solutions.

  20. Lamellar and Inverse Micellar Structures of Skin Lipids: Effect of Templating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Chinmay; Noro, Massimo G.; Olmsted, Peter D.

    2013-10-01

    The outermost layer of skin comprises rigid nonviable cells (corneocytes) in a layered lipid matrix. Using atomistic simulations we find that the equilibrium phase of the skin lipids is inverse micellar. A model of the corneocyte is used to demonstrate that lamellar layering is induced by the patterned corneocyte wall. The inverse micellar phase is consistent with in vivo observations in regions where corneocyte walls are well separated (lacunar spaces) and in the inner layers of skin, and suggests a functional role in the lipid synthesis pathway in vivo.

  1. Direct measurement of depletion and structural forces in a micellar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richetti, P.; Kékicheff, P.

    1992-03-01

    The force as a function of separation is measured between two mica surfaces coated with adsorbed bilayers of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and immersed in aqueous ionic micellar solutions of CTAB. At low separations double-layer forces are observed and arise soley from the dissociated counterions and free CTA+. At large separations, the repulsion is reduced and a secondary minimum in the interaction potential deepens when the micellar concentration is increased. Finally, at higher concentrations, structural effects superimpose an oscillatory force profile at further separations.

  2. Micropolarity and water penetration in micellar aggregates of linear and branched hydrocarbon surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Varadaraj, R.; Bock, J.; Valint, P. Jr.; Brons, N. )

    1990-08-01

    The micropolarity of aqueous micellar solutions of ethoxylates, sodium ethoxy sulfates, and sulfates derived from linear and branched hydrocarbon alcohols was investigated by using a solvatochromic pyridinio-N-phenoxide betaine, ET-30, polarity probe. Branching of the hydrophobe resulted in a more porous micellar aggregate. Thermosolvatochromism of ET-30 allowed an investigation of the effect of temperature on micropolarity. Increase in temperature was observed to expel water from the hydrophobic regions of the aggregate and decrease the effective micropolarity in linear and branched surfactants.

  3. Identification of CREB3L1 as a Biomarker Predicting Doxorubicin Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Denard, Bray; Pavia-Jimenez, Andrea; Chen, Weina; Williams, Noelle S.; Naina, Harris; Collins, Robert; Brugarolas, James; Ye, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Doxorubicin has been shown to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells through proteolytic activation of CREB3L1 (cAMP response element binding protein 3-like 1), a transcription factor synthesized as a membrane-bound precursor. Upon doxorubicin treatment, CREB3L1 is cleaved so that the N-terminal domain of the protein can reach the nucleus where it activates transcription of genes that inhibit cell proliferation. These results suggest that the level of CREB3L1 in cancer cells may determine their sensitivity to doxorubicin. Methods Mice transplanted with 6 lines of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were injected with doxorubicin to observe the effect of the chemotherapy on tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry and bioinformatics analyses were performed to compare CREB3L1 levels in types of cancer known to respond to doxorubicin versus those resistant to doxorubicin. Results Higher levels of CREB3L1 protein are correlated with increased doxorubicin sensitivity of xenograft RCC tumors (p = 0.017 by Pearson analysis). From patient tumor biopsies we analyzed, CREB3L1 was expressed in 19% of RCC, which is generally resistant to doxorubicin, but in 70% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that is sensitive to doxorubicin. Doxorubicin is used as the standard treatment for cancers that express the highest levels of CREB3L1 such as osteosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma but is not generally used to treat those that express the lowest levels of CREB3L1 such as RCC. Conclusion Identification of CREB3L1 as the biomarker for doxorubicin sensitivity may markedly improve the doxorubicin response rate by applying doxorubicin only to patients with cancers expressing CREB3L1. PMID:26110425

  4. Mobilization and micellar solubilization of NAPL contaminants in aquifer rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javanbakht, Gina; Goual, Lamia

    2016-02-01

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is often performed to overcome the capillary forces that keep residual NAPL phases trapped within contaminated aquifers. The surfactant selection and displacement mechanism usually depend on the nature of NAPL constituents. For example, micellar solubilization is often used to cleanup DNAPLs from aquifers whereas mobilization is desirable in aquifers contaminated by LNAPLs. Although the majority of crude oils are LNAPLs, they often contain heavy organic macromolecules such as asphaltenes that are classified as DNAPLs. Asphaltenes contain surface-active components that tend to adsorb on rocks, altering their wettability. Previous studies revealed that surfactants that formed Winsor type III microemulsions could promote both mobilization and solubilization. However the extent by which these two mechanisms occur is still unclear, particularly in oil-contaminated aquifers. In this study we investigated the remediation of oil-contaminated aquifers using an environmentally friendly surfactant such as n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside. Focus was given on asphaltenes to better understand the mechanisms of surfactant cleanup. Through phase behavior, spontaneous imbibition, dynamic interfacial tension and contact angle measurements, we showed that microemulsions formed by this surfactant are able to mobilize bulk NAPL (containing 9 wt.% asphaltenes) in the porous rock and solubilize DNAPL (i.e., 4-6 wt.% adsorbed asphaltenes) from the rock surface. Spontaneous imbibition tests, in particular, indicated that the ratio of mobilized to solubilized NAPL is about 6:1. Furthermore, aging the cores in NAPL beyond 3 days allowed for more NAPL to be trapped in the large pores of the rock but did not alter the amount of asphaltenes adsorbed on the mineral surface.

  5. Micellar electrokinetic chromatography of organic and peroxide-based explosives.

    PubMed

    Johns, Cameron; Hutchinson, Joseph P; Guijt, Rosanne M; Hilder, Emily F; Haddad, Paul R; Macka, Mirek; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Gaudry, Adam J; Dicinoski, Greg W; Breadmore, Michael C

    2015-05-30

    CE methods have been developed for the analysis of organic and peroxide-based explosives. These methods have been developed for deployment on portable, in-field instrumentation for rapid screening. Both classes of compounds are neutral and were separated using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). The effects of sample composition, separation temperature, and background electrolyte composition were investigated. The optimised separation conditions (25 mM sodium tetraborate, 75 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate at 25°C, detection at 200 nm) were applied to the separation of 25 organic explosives in 17 min, with very high efficiency (typically greater than 300,000 plates m(-1)) and high sensitivity (LOD typically less than 0.5 mg L(-1); around 1-1.5 μM). A MEKC method was also developed for peroxide-based explosives (10 mM sodium tetraborate, 100 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate at 25°C, detection at 200 nm). UV detection provided LODs between 5.5 and 45.0 mg L(-1) (or 31.2-304 μM), which is comparable to results achieved using liquid chromatography. Importantly, no sample pre-treatment or post-column reaction was necessary and the peroxide-based explosives were not decomposed to hydrogen peroxide. Both MEKC methods have been applied to pre-blast analysis and for the detection of post-blast residues recovered from controlled, small scale detonations of organic and peroxide-based explosive devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Mobilization and micellar solubilization of NAPL contaminants in aquifer rocks.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Gina; Goual, Lamia

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant-enhanced aquifer remediation is often performed to overcome the capillary forces that keep residual NAPL phases trapped within contaminated aquifers. The surfactant selection and displacement mechanism usually depend on the nature of NAPL constituents. For example, micellar solubilization is often used to cleanup DNAPLs from aquifers whereas mobilization is desirable in aquifers contaminated by LNAPLs. Although the majority of crude oils are LNAPLs, they often contain heavy organic macromolecules such as asphaltenes that are classified as DNAPLs. Asphaltenes contain surface-active components that tend to adsorb on rocks, altering their wettability. Previous studies revealed that surfactants that formed Winsor type III microemulsions could promote both mobilization and solubilization. However the extent by which these two mechanisms occur is still unclear, particularly in oil-contaminated aquifers. In this study we investigated the remediation of oil-contaminated aquifers using an environmentally friendly surfactant such as n-Dodecyl β-D-maltoside. Focus was given on asphaltenes to better understand the mechanisms of surfactant cleanup. Through phase behavior, spontaneous imbibition, dynamic interfacial tension and contact angle measurements, we showed that microemulsions formed by this surfactant are able to mobilize bulk NAPL (containing 9wt.% asphaltenes) in the porous rock and solubilize DNAPL (i.e., 4-6wt.% adsorbed asphaltenes) from the rock surface. Spontaneous imbibition tests, in particular, indicated that the ratio of mobilized to solubilized NAPL is about 6:1. Furthermore, aging the cores in NAPL beyond 3days allowed for more NAPL to be trapped in the large pores of the rock but did not alter the amount of asphaltenes adsorbed on the mineral surface.

  7. Modeling of Polyelectrolyte Adsorption from Micellar Solutions onto Biomimetic Substrates.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Soumi; Cazeneuve, Colette; Baghdadli, Nawel; Ringeissen, Stéphanie; Léonforte, Fabien; Leermakers, Frans A M; Luengo, Gustavo S

    2017-09-21

    Depositing cationic polyelectrolytes (PEs) from micellar solutions that include surfactants (SU) onto surfaces is a rich, complex, highly relevant, and challenging topic that covers a broad field of practical applications (e.g., from industrial to personal care). The role of the molecular architecture of the constituents of the PEs are often overruled, or at least and either, underestimated in regard to the surface properties. In this work, we aim to evaluate the effect of a model biomimetic surface that shares the key characteristics of the extreme surface of hair and its concomitant chemo- and physisorbed properties onto the deposition of a complex PEs:SU system. To tackle out the effect of the molecular architecture of the PEs, we consider (i) a purely linear and hydrophilic PE (P100) and (ii) a PE with lateral amphiphilic chains (PegPE). Using numerical self-consistent field calculations, we show that the architecture of the constituents interfere with the surface properties in a nonintuitive way such that, depending on the amphiphilicity and hydrophilicity of the PEs and the hydrophobicity of the surface, a re-entrant adsorbing transition can be observed, the lipid coverage of the model hair surface being the unique control parameter. Such a behavior is rationalized by the anticooperative associative properties of the coacervate micelles in solution, which is also controlled by the architecture of the PEs and SU. We now expect that PEs adsorption, as a rule, is governed by the molecular details of the species in solution as well as the surface specificities. We emphasize that molecular realistic modeling is essential to rationalize and optimize the adsorption process of, for example, polymer conditioning agents in water-rinsed cosmetic or textile applications.

  8. Flow of wormlike micellar solutions around confined microfluidic cylinders.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya; Shen, Amy Q; Haward, Simon J

    2016-10-26

    Wormlike micellar (WLM) solutions are frequently used in enhanced oil and gas recovery applications in porous rock beds where complex microscopic geometries result in mixed flow kinematics with strong shear and extensional components. Experiments with WLM solutions through model microfluidic porous media have revealed a variety of complex flow phenomena, including the formation of stable gel-like structures known as a Flow-Induced Structured Phase (FISP), which undoubtedly play an important role in applications of WLM fluids, but are still poorly understood. A first step in understanding flows of WLM fluids through porous media can be made by examining the flow around a single micro-scale cylinder aligned on the flow axis. Here we study flow behavior of an aqueous WLM solution consisting of cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and a stable hydrotropic salt 3-hydroxy naphthalene-2-carboxylate (SHNC) in microfluidic devices with three different cylinder blockage ratios, β. We observe a rich sequence of flow instabilities depending on β as the Weissenberg number (Wi) is increased to large values while the Reynolds number (Re) remains low. Instabilities upstream of the cylinder are associated with high stresses in fluid that accelerates into the narrow gap between the cylinder and the channel wall; vortex growth upstream is reminiscent of that seen in microfluidic contraction geometries. Instability downstream of the cylinder is associated with stresses generated at the trailing stagnation point and the resulting flow modification in the wake, coupled with the onset of time-dependent flow upstream and the asymmetric division of flow around the cylinder.

  9. Polymeric ion conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Nagai, J.; Mizuhashi, M.; Kamimori, T.

    1990-12-31

    There are several requirements for (polymeric) ion conductors in electrochromic window applications: (1) they have high ionic conductivity (desirably, > 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} Scm{sup {minus}1}); (2) they have high chemical and electrochemical stabilities with respect to the wide usable potential window and thermal and UV stabilities; (3) they are transparent in a specific wavelength region, which is, however, dependent of applications; and (4) they have enough adhesiveness to the substrates and have acceptable mechanical properties. Many kinds of polymeric ionic conductors have since been reported and some of them were applied to electrochromic uses. In this chapter, electrochemical and physicochemical properties of these materials are reviewed. However, certain aspects such as crystallographic studies and conduction models in detail have been omitted, which are still controversial.

  10. Organometallic polymerization catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Waymouth, R.M.

    1993-12-31

    Well-defined transition metal catalysts have resulted in exciting new opportunities in polymer synthesis. The stereochemistry of vinyl polymers can be rationally controlled with choice of the appropriate catalysts. Studies with optically active catalyst precursors have revealed considerable information on the absolute stereochemistry of olefin polymerization and have led to the synthesis of novel chiral polyolefins. The development of homogeneous olefin metathesis catalysts has also led to a variety of well-defined new polymer structures with controlled molecular weight and molecular weight distribution. Recent advances in understanding the mechanisms and stereochemistry of homogeneous transition metal catalyzed polymerization will be discussed. The ability to control polymer structure through catalyst design presents exciting opportunities in the synthesis of {open_quotes}tailor-made{close_quotes} macromolecules.

  11. A Novel Submicron Emulsion System Loaded with Doxorubicin Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance in MCF-7/ADR Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, W. P.; Hua, H. Y.; Sun, P. C.; Zhao, Y. X.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop the Solutol HS15-based doxorubicin submicron emulsion with good stability and overcoming multi-drug resistance. In this study, we prepared doxorubicin submicron emulsion, and examined the stability after autoclaving, the in vitro cytotoxic activity, the intracellular accumulation and apoptpsis of doxorubicin submicron emulsion in MCF-7/ADR cells. The physicochemical properties of doxorubicin submicron emulsion were not significantly affected after autoclaving. The doxorubicin submicron emulsion significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin submicron emulsion and enhanced cytotoxic activity and apoptotic effects of doxorubicin. These results may be correlated to doxorubicin submicron emulsion inhibitory effects on efflux pumps through the progressive release of intracellular free Solutol HS15 from doxorubicin submicron emulsion. Furthermore, these in vitro results suggest that the Solutol HS15-based submicron emulsion may be a potentially useful drug delivery system to circumvent multi-drug resistance of tumor cells. PMID:26664069

  12. Polymeric Microcapsule Arrays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-24

    support, microencapsulation and entrapment within a membrane/film or gel. The ideal enzyme immobilization method would (1) Employ mild chemical...yields hollow polymeric microcapsules of uniform diameter and length. These microcapsules are arranged in a high density array in which the...individual capsules protrude from a surface like the bristles of a brush. We have developed procedures for filling these microcapsules with high

  13. Frontal Polymerization in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pojman, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Frontal polymerization systems, with their inherent large thermal and compositional gradients, are greatly affected by buoyancy-driven convection. Sounding rocket experiments allowed the preparation of benchmark materials and demonstrated that methods to suppress the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in ground-based research did not significantly affect the molecular weight of the polymer. Experiments under weightlessness show clearly that bubbles produced during the reaction interact very differently than under 1 g.

  14. Developments in polymerization lamps.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Planas, Amparo; Martín, Juan; Abalos, Camilo; Llamas, Rafael

    2008-02-01

    Polymerization shrinkage of composite resins and the consequent stress generated at the composite-tooth interface continue to pose a serious clinical challenge. The development of high-intensity halogen lamps and the advent of curing units providing higher energy performance, such as laser lamps, plasma arc units, and, most recently, light-emitting diode (LED) curing units, have revolutionized polymerization lamp use and brought major changes in light-application techniques. A comprehensive review of the literature yielded the following conclusions: (1) the most reliable curing unit for any type of composite resin is the high-density halogen lamp, fitted with a programming device to enable both pulse-delay and soft-start techniques; (2) if any other type of curing unit is used, information must be available on the compatibility of the unit with the composite materials to be used; (3) polymerization lamp manufacturers need to focus on the ongoing development of LED technology; (4) further research is required to identify the most reliable light-application techniques.

  15. Doxorubicin and resveratrol co-delivery nanoparticle to overcome doxorubicin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuan; Huan, Meng-lei; Liu, Miao; Cheng, Ying; Sun, Yang; Cui, Han; Liu, Dao-zhou; Mei, Qi-bing; Zhou, Si-yuan

    2016-01-01

    With the extensive application of doxorubicin (DOX), DOX resistance has become one of the main obstacles to the effective treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, DOX and resveratrol (RES) were co-encapsulated in a modified PLGA nanoparticle (NPS) to overcome the DOX resistance. CLSM results indicated that DOX and RES were simultaneously delivered into the nucleus of DOX-resistant human breast cancer cells by DOX/RES-loaded NPS. Consequently, DOX/RES-loaded NPS showed significant cytotoxicity on MDA-MB-231/ADR cells and MCF-7/ADR cells. Furthermore, DOX/RES-loaded NPS could overcome DOX resistance by inhibiting the expression of drug resistance-related protein such as P-gp, MRP-1 and BCRP, and induce apoptosis through down-regulating the expression of NF-κB and BCL-2. In tumor-bearing mice, DOX/RES-loaded NPS mainly delivered DOX and RES to tumor tissue. Compared with free DOX, DOX/RES-loaded NPS significantly inhibited the DOX-resistant tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice without causing significant systemic toxicity. In a word, DOX/RES-loaded NPS could overcome the DOX resistance and had the potential in the treatment of DOX-resistant breast cancer. PMID:27731405

  16. Multifunctional polymeric nanoconstructs for biomedical applications (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decuzzi, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Multifunctional nanoconstructs are particle-based nano-scale systems designed for the `smart' delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents. The Laboratory of Nanotechnology for Precision Medicine at the Italian Institute of Technology synthesizes polymeric nanoconstructs with different sizes, ranging from a few tens of nanometers to a few microns; shapes, including spherical, cubical and discoidal; surface properties, with positive, negative, neutral coatings; and mechanical stiffness, varying from that of cells to rigid, inorganic materials, such as iron oxide. These are the 4S parameters - size, shape, surface, stiffness - which can be precisely tuned in the synthesis process enabling disease- and patient-specific designs of multifunctional nanoconstructs. In this lecture, the application of these nanoconstructs to the detection and treatment of cancer lesions and cardiovascular diseases, such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis, is discussed. The contribution of the 4S parameters in modulating nanoconstruct sequestration by the mononuclear phagocyte system, organ specific accumulation, and blood longevity is also critically presented. These polymeric nanoconstructs can be loaded with a variety of therapeutic payloads - anti-cancer molecules (docetaxel, paclitaxel, doxorubicin), anti-inflammatory molecules (curcumin, diclofenac, celecoxib) and small biologicals (peptides, siRNAs, miRNAs); and imaging agents - optical probes; Gd and iron oxide nanoparticles for MR imaging; and radio-isotopes for Nuclear Imaging.

  17. Doxorubicin-loaded nanosized micelles of a star-shaped poly(ε-caprolactone)-polyphosphoester block co-polymer for treatment of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Chen, Yung-Tsung; Liau, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Star-shaped co-polymers based on the backbone of poly(ε-caprolactone) were synthesized by a ring-opening reaction using pentaerythritol as initiator and Sn(Oct)(2) as catalyst. The star-shaped poly(ε-caprolactone) polymer was then chain extended with a terminal block of poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) to form a copolymer, poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate), when using the cyclic ethyl ethylene phosphate monomer. The amphiphilic block co-polymers can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles with a mean diameter of 150 nm and a spherical shape. Additionally, the prepared micelles did not induce hemolysis and nitric oxide production in vitro based on nitric oxide, hemolytic tests and MTT assays. The hydrophobic micellar cores encapsulated doxorubicin (DOX) in an aqueous solution with a loading efficiency of 55.2%. The in vitro release of DOX from DOX-loaded micelles was pH dependent. DOX-loaded micelles present significantly enhanced cytotoxicity to both MCF-7/drug-sensitive and MCF-7/drug-resistant cells after second incubation. Moreover, results of confocal microscopy and flow cytometry of DOX-loaded micelles demonstrate the feasibility of this delivery system for effective therapy of drug-resistant tumours.

  18. Micelles of d-α-Tocopheryl Polyethylene Glycol 2000 Succinate (TPGS 2K) for Doxorubicin Delivery with Reversal of Multidrug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Hao, Tangna; Chen, Dawei; Liu, Kexin; Qi, Yan; Tian, Yan; Sun, Pengyuan; Liu, Yuanhong; Li, Zhen

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the ability of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 2000 succinate (TPGS 2K) micelles to overcome MDR in breast cancer treatment. The DOX-loaded TPGS 2K micelles exhibited an average size of around 23 nm, a near neutral zeta potential of around 4 mv and high encapsulation efficiency (85.22 ± 1.89%). The TPGS 2K conjugate did not have significant influences on the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the depletion of intracellular ATP level of MCF-7/ADR cells but had an evident effect on the inhibition of Verapamil-induced P-gp ATPase activity. In vitro cell culture experiments demonstrated the DOX-loaded TPGS 2K micelles, resulting in higher cellular uptake and more significant cytotoxicity effect against MCF-7/MDR cells than the free DOX solution. Additionally, the in vivo imaging study revealed DiR-loaded TPGS 2K micelles distributed selectively in MCF-7/ADR tumor-bearing nude mice and had a sufficient residence time. In the anticancer efficacy test with MCF-7/ADR tumor bearing nude mice, the DOX-loaded TPGS 2K micelles displayed significantly higher antitumor activity compared with free DOX solution at the same DOX dosage but less toxicity evaluated by the change of body weight and histological examination. Therefore, this drug delivery micellar system based on TPGS 2K conjugates can serve as a potential nanomedicine for reversing MDR.

  19. Antioxidant activities of celery and parsley juices in rats treated with doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Kolarovic, Jovanka; Popovic, Mira; Zlinská, Janka; Trivic, Svetlana; Vojnovic, Matilda

    2010-09-03

    We have examined the influence of diluted pure celery and parsley leaf and root juices and their combinations with doxorubicin on the antioxidant status [as measured by the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)] in liver homogenate and hemolysate and on the contents of cytochrome P450 in liver homogenate. It was found that doxorubicin significantly decreased the content of reduced glutathione and the total antioxidative status (FRAP) in liver homogenate and hemolysate, while celery and parsley juices alone and in combination with doxorubicin had different actions. Doxorubicin and celery juice had no effect on content of cytochrome P450. However, in combination with doxorubicin, parsley root juice significant increased, and parsley leaves juice decreased the cytochrome P450 content (compared to doxorubicin treated animals). Only parsley root juice significantly increased the content of cytochrome P450.

  20. A permeation method for detection of self-aggregation of doxorubicin in aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Fülöp, Zoltán; Gref, Ruxandra; Loftsson, Thorsteinn

    2013-09-15

    For pharmaceutical scientists, it is important to know if dissolved drug molecules are present only as monomers or in the form of aggregates in a test solution or formulation. Amphiphilic or hydrophobic drugs frequently self-associate to form dimers, trimers or higher order aggregates. Doxorubicin aggregation was examined by a previously developed permeation technique to detect oligosaccharide aggregation in aqueous solutions. At very low doxorubicin concentrations dimers and trimers have been observed, but in aqueous 0.5mg/ml doxorubicin solutions aggregates containing about 40 molecules were observed. The permeation studies were supported by TEM studies. The results indicate that neutral doxorubicin molecules aggregate more readily than the protonated ones. Doxorubicin aggregation is a stepwise process resulting in formation of aggregates of variable sizes are enhanced aggregation with increasing doxorubicin concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Doxorubicin induces cardiotoxicity through upregulation of death receptors mediated apoptosis in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liqun; Zhang, Baolin

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a highly effective anticancer agent but causes cardiotoxicity in many patients. The mechanisms of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity remain incompletely understood. Here we investigated doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in human induced pluripotent stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs). We found that doxorubicin and related anthracycline agents (e.g., daunorubicin, idarubicin, and epirubicin) significantly upregulated the expression of death receptors (DRs) (TNFR1, Fas, DR4 and DR5) in iPS-derived cardiomyocytes at both protein and mRNA levels. The resulting iPS-CMs cells underwent spontaneous apoptosis which was further enhanced by physiologically relevant death ligands including TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). Furthermore, TRAIL potentiated doxorubicin-induced decrease in beating rate and amplitude of iPS-derived cardiomyocytes. These data demonstrate that the induction of death receptors in cardiomyocytes is likely a critical mechanism by which doxorubicin causes cardiotoxicity. PMID:28300219

  2. Dietary fat composition, food matrix and relative polarity modulate the micellarization and intestinal uptake of carotenoids from vegetables and fruits.

    PubMed

    Mashurabad, Purna Chandra; Palika, Ravindranadh; Jyrwa, Yvette Wilda; Bhaskarachary, K; Pullakhandam, Raghu

    2017-02-01

    Dietary fat increases carotenoid bioavailability by facilitating their transfer to the aqueous micellar fraction during digestion. However, the specific effect of both quantity and type of dietary fat required for optimal carotenoid absorption remained unexplored. In the present study, the effect of amount and type of vegetable oils on carotenoid micellarization from carrot, spinach, drumstick leaves and papaya using in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model have been assessed. Although, dietary fat (0.5-10% w/w) significantly increased the micellarization of carotenoids from all the test foods, the extent of increase was determined by the food matrix (papaya > drumstick = spinach > carrot) and polarity of carotenoids (lutein > β-carotene = α-carotene > lycopene). Among the dietary fats tested the carotenoid micellarization was twofold to threefold higher with dietary fat rich in unsaturated fatty acids (olive oil = soybean oil = sunflower oil) compared to saturated fatty acids (peanut oil = palm oil > coconut oil). Intestinal cell uptake of lutein exceeded that of β-carotene from micellar fraction of spinach leaves digested with various oils. However, cellular uptake of β-carotene is depended on the carotenoid content in micellar fraction rather than the type of fat used. Together these results suggest that food matrix, polarity of carotenoids and type of dietary fat determines the extent of carotenoid micellarization from vegetables and fruits.

  3. Determination of selected synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites by micellar electrokinetic chromatography--mass spectrometry employing perfluoroheptanoic acid-based micellar phase.

    PubMed

    Švidrnoch, Martin; Přibylka, Adam; Maier, Vítězslav

    2016-04-01

    Perfluoroheptanoic acid was employed as a volatile micellar phase in background electrolyte for micellar electrokinetic chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry separation and determination of 15 selected naphthoyl- and phenylacetylindole- synthetic cannabinoids and main metabolites derived from JWH-018, JWH-019, JWH-073, JWH-200 and JWH-250. The influence of concentration of perfluoroheptanoic acid in background electrolytes on the separation was studied as well as the influence of perfluoroheptanoic acid on mass spectrometry detection. The background electrolyte consisted of 75 mM perfluoroheptanoic acid, 150 mM ammonium hydroxide pH 9.2 with 10% (v/v) propane-2-ol allowed micellar electrokinetic chromatography separation together with mass spectrometry identification of the studied parent synthetic cannabinoids and their metabolites. The limits of detection of studied synthetic cannabinoids and metabolites were in the range from 0.9 ng/mL for JWH-073 to 3.0 ng/mL for JWH-200 employing liquid-liquid extraction. The developed method was applied on the separation and identification of studied analytes after liquid-liquid extraction of spiked urine and serum samples to demonstrate the potential of the method applicability for forensic and toxicological purposes.

  4. Electron spin echo modulation study of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide micellar solutions in the presence of urea: Evidence for urea interaction at the micellar surface

    SciTech Connect

    Baglioni, P. ); Ferroni, E. ); Kevan, L. )

    1990-05-17

    Electron spin echo studies have been carried out for a series of x-doxylstearic acid (x-DSA, x = 5,7,10,12,16) and 4-octanoyl-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy (C{sub 8}-TEMPO) spin probes in micellar solutions of anionic sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cationic dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) in D{sub 2}O and in the presence of 2 or 6 M urea or urea-d{sub 4}. Modulation effects due to the interaction of the unpaired electron with urea and water deuteriums show that urea does not affect the bent conformation of the x-DSA probe in the micelle. The analysis of the deuterium modulation depth and the Fourier transformation of the two-pulse electron spin echo spectra show that urea interacts with the surfactant polar headgroups at the micelle surface. These results support recent molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo calculations of micellar systems and are in agreement with direct interaction of urea at micellar surfaces in which it replaces some water molecules in the surface region.

  5. Comparative study of multi walled carbon nanotubes-based electrodes in micellar media and their application to micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, Manuel; Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Moreno, Mónica; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio

    2007-12-15

    This work reports on a comparative study of the electrochemical performance of carbon nanotubes-based electrodes in micellar media and their application for amperometric detection in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) separations. These electrodes were prepared in two different ways: immobilization of a layer of carbon nanotubes dispersed in polyethylenimine (PEI), ethanol or Nafion onto glassy carbon electrodes or preparation of paste electrodes using mineral oil as binder. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed for surface morphology characterization while cyclic voltammetry of background electrolyte was used for capacitance estimation. The amperometric responses to hydrogen peroxide, amitrol, diuron and 2,3-dichlorophenol (2,3CP) in the presence and in the absence of sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) were studied by flow injection analysis (FIA), demonstrating that the electrocatalytic activity, background current and electroanalytical performance were strongly dependent on the electrodes preparation procedure. Glassy carbon electrodes modified with carbon nanotubes dispersed in PEI (GC/(CNT/PEI)) displayed the most adequate performance in micellar media, maintaining good electrocatalytic properties combined with acceptable background currents and resistance to passivation. The advantages of using GC/(CNT/PEI) as detectors in capillary electrophoresis were illustrated for the MEKC separations of phenolic pollutants (phenol, 3-chlorophenol, 2,3-dichlorophenol and 4-nitrophenol) and herbicides (amitrol, asulam, diuron, fenuron, monuron and chlortoluron).

  6. Solute-solvent interactions in micellar electrokinetic chromatography. 6. Optimization of the selectivity of lithium dodecyl sulfate-lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate mixed micellar buffers.

    PubMed

    Fuguet, Elisabet; Ràfols, Clara; Torres-Lapasió, José Ramón; García-Alvarez-Coque, María Celia; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí

    2002-09-01

    The optimization of the composition of mixed surfactants used as micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) pseudostationary phases is proposed as an effective method for the separation of complex mixtures of analytes. The solvation parameter model is used to select two surfactants (lithium dodecyl sulfate, LDS, and lithium perfluorooctanesulfonate, LPFOS) with contrasting solvation properties. Combination of these two surfactants allows variations of the solvation properties of MEKC pseudostationary phase along a wide range. Thus, the convenient variation of the proportion of both surfactants allows an effective control of the selectivity in such systems. An algorithm that predicts the overall resolution of a given mixture of compounds is described and applied to optimize the composition of the mixed surfactant for the separation of the mixture. The algorithm is based on the calculation of peak purities on simulated chromatograms as a function of the composition of the mixed LDS/LPFOS micellar buffer from data at several micellar buffer compositions. Successful separations were achieved for mixtures containing up to 20 compounds, in less than 12 min.

  7. Introduction of Living Polymerization. Living and/or Controlled Polymerization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-30

    separated into kinetic and synthetic. The intention of this paper is not to review existing and proclaimed living systems but to discuss the essence of a...o1 OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH S4 CONTRACT N00014-94-1-0101 I R&T Code 31321075 Technical Report No. 10 INTRODUCTION TO LIVING POLYMERIZATION. LIVING ...TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Introduction to Living Polymerization. Living and/or Controlled Polymerization N00014-94-1-0101 6. AUTHOR(S

  8. Hierarchical self-assembly: Self-organized nanostructures in a nematically ordered matrix of self-assembled polymeric chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubeena, Shaikh; Chatterji, Apratim

    2015-03-01

    We report many different nanostructures which are formed when model nanoparticles of different sizes (diameter σn) are allowed to aggregate in a background matrix of semiflexible self-assembled polymeric wormlike micellar chains. The different nanostructures are formed by the dynamical arrest of phase-separating mixtures of micellar monomers and nanoparticles. The different morphologies obtained are the result of an interplay of the available free volume, the elastic energy of deformation of polymers, the density (chemical potential) of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix, and, of course, the ratio of the size of self-assembling nanoparticles and self-avoidance diameter of polymeric chains. We have used a hybrid semi-grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulation scheme to obtain the (nonequilibrium) phase diagram of the self-assembled nanostructures. We observe rodlike structures of nanoparticles which get self-assembled in the gaps between the nematically ordered chains, as well as percolating gel-like network of conjoined nanotubes. We also find a totally unexpected interlocked crystalline phase of nanoparticles and monomers, in which each crystal plane of nanoparticles is separated by planes of perfectly organized polymer chains. We identified the condition which leads to such interlocked crystal structure. We suggest experimental possibilities of how the results presented in this paper could be used to obtain different nanostructures in the laboratory.

  9. Hierarchical self-assembly: Self-organized nanostructures in a nematically ordered matrix of self-assembled polymeric chains.

    PubMed

    Mubeena, Shaikh; Chatterji, Apratim

    2015-03-01

    We report many different nanostructures which are formed when model nanoparticles of different sizes (diameter σn) are allowed to aggregate in a background matrix of semiflexible self-assembled polymeric wormlike micellar chains. The different nanostructures are formed by the dynamical arrest of phase-separating mixtures of micellar monomers and nanoparticles. The different morphologies obtained are the result of an interplay of the available free volume, the elastic energy of deformation of polymers, the density (chemical potential) of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix, and, of course, the ratio of the size of self-assembling nanoparticles and self-avoidance diameter of polymeric chains. We have used a hybrid semi-grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulation scheme to obtain the (nonequilibrium) phase diagram of the self-assembled nanostructures. We observe rodlike structures of nanoparticles which get self-assembled in the gaps between the nematically ordered chains, as well as percolating gel-like network of conjoined nanotubes. We also find a totally unexpected interlocked crystalline phase of nanoparticles and monomers, in which each crystal plane of nanoparticles is separated by planes of perfectly organized polymer chains. We identified the condition which leads to such interlocked crystal structure. We suggest experimental possibilities of how the results presented in this paper could be used to obtain different nanostructures in the laboratory.

  10. Attenuation of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by mdivi-1: A Mitochondrial Division/Mitophagy Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Gharanei, Mayel; Hussain, Afthab; Janneh, Omar; Maddock, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Doxorubicin is one of the most effective anti-cancer agents. However, its use is associated with adverse cardiac effects, including cardiomyopathy and progressive heart failure. Given the multiple beneficial effects of the mitochondrial division inhibitor (mdivi-1) in a variety of pathological conditions including heart failure and ischaemia and reperfusion injury, we investigated the effects of mdivi-1 on doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction in naïve and stressed conditions using Langendorff perfused heart models and a model of oxidative stress was used to assess the effects of drug treatments on the mitochondrial depolarisation and hypercontracture of cardiac myocytes. Western blot analysis was used to measure the levels of p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2 and flow cytometry analysis was used to measure the levels p-Drp1 and p-p53 upon drug treatment. The HL60 leukaemia cell line was used to evaluate the effects of pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial division on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in a cancer cell line. Doxorubicin caused a significant impairment of cardiac function and increased the infarct size to risk ratio in both naïve conditions and during ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Interestingly, co-treatment of doxorubicin with mdivi-1 attenuated these detrimental effects of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin also caused a reduction in the time taken to depolarisation and hypercontracture of cardiac myocytes, which were reversed with mdivi-1. Finally, doxorubicin caused a significant elevation in the levels of signalling proteins p-Akt, p-Erk 1/2, p-Drp1 and p-p53. Co-incubation of mdivi-1 with doxorubicin did not reduce the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin against HL-60 cells. These data suggest that the inhibition of mitochondrial fission protects the heart against doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury and identify mitochondrial fission as a new therapeutic target in ameliorating doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity without affecting its anti-cancer properties. PMID

  11. Calcium flux and metabolism in the pigeon heart following doxorubicin treatment: an acute study

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.

    1981-01-01

    The present studies were performed to determine in vivo the initial and secondary acute effects of doxorubicin on the influx of calcium into myocardial cells. Studies are also described showing the effect of doxorubicin on a calcium-activated neutral protease from cardiac tissue. These latter studies were performed in an attempt to explain the loss of myofibrilular structures in myocardial cells following doxorubicin treatment.

  12. Apoferritin Modified Magnetic Particles as Doxorubicin Carriers for Anticancer Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Blazkova, Iva; Nguyen, Hoai Viet; Dostalova, Simona; Kopel, Pavel; Stanisavljevic, Maja; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Stiborova, Marie; Eckschlager, Tomas; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic particle mediated transport in combination with nanomaterial based drug carrier has a great potential for targeted cancer therapy. In this study, doxorubicin encapsulation into the apoferritin and its conjugation with magnetic particles was investigated by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CE-LIF). The quantification of encapsulated doxorubicin was performed by fluorescence spectroscopy and compared to CE-LIF. Moreover, the significant enhancement of the doxorubicin signal was observed by addition of methanol into the sample solution. PMID:23807501

  13. Effect of salt addition on the micellar composition of milk subjected to pH reversible CO2 acidification.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, C; Marchesseau, S; Lagaude, A; Cuq, J L

    2002-09-01

    Response surface methodology was used to investigate the effect of salt supplementation on the micellar composition of reconstituted skim milk subjected to acidification by CO2 pressure to pH 5.8, followed by depressurization under vacuum. Using a Doehlert design, calcium and phosphate were added to skim milk in the range of 0 to 25 mmol/kg and 0 to 16 mmol/kg of milk, respectively, and the pH was adjusted to 6.65 +/- 0.02. After carbonation, the milk sample was depressurized, and the pH returned to its initial value without modification of the ionic strength. Micellar composition was assessed by the concentration of micellar Ca, P, Mg, and protein, and the buffering properties of milk. The second order polynomial models satisfactorily predicted the effect of salt supplementation on the micellar composition (R2adj > 0.75). Added calcium was the most determinant factor, and favored the removal of Ca, P, Mg, and proteins from the soluble phase to the micellar phase when this addition was less than 17.5 mmol/kg of milk. Above this concentration, only the concentration of micellar Ca increased. The buffering response surface showed that the amount of micellar calcium phosphate increased to a maximum upon addition of 17.5 mmol of Ca/kg. By comparison with a control sample (supplemented but untreated skim milk), changes were essentially due to salt supplementation and not to the CO2 treatment. We suggest that Ca formed micellar calcium phosphate when added at a concentration less than 17.5 mmol/kg; whereas above this concentration, Ca bound directly to micellar proteins.

  14. Accelerating Strain-Promoted Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Using Micellar Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Anderton, Grant I; Bangerter, Alyssa S; Davis, Tyson C; Feng, Zhiyuan; Furtak, Aric J; Larsen, Jared O; Scroggin, Triniti L; Heemstra, Jennifer M

    2015-08-19

    Bioorthogonal conjugation reactions such as strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) have become increasingly popular in recent years, as they enable site-specific labeling of complex biomolecules. However, despite a number of improvements to cyclooctyne design, reaction rates for SPAAC remain significantly lower than those of the related copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Here we explore micellar catalysis as a means to increase reaction rate between a cyclooctyne and hydrophobic azide. We find that anionic and cationic surfactants provide the most efficient catalysis, with rate enhancements of up to 179-fold for reaction of benzyl azide with DIBAC cyclooctyne. Additionally, we find that the presence of surfactant can provide up to 51-fold selectivity for reaction with a hydrophobic over hydrophilic azide. A more modest, but still substantial, 11-fold rate enhancement is observed for micellar catalysis of the reaction between benzyl azide and a DIBAC-functionalized DNA sequence, demonstrating that micellar catalysis can be successfully applied to hydrophilic biomolecules. Together, these results demonstrate that micellar catalysis can provide higher conjugation yields in reduced time when using hydrophobic SPAAC reagents.

  15. Retention mechanism and implications for selectivity for a group of dihydropyridines in ionic micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Saz, J M; Marina, M L

    1994-12-09

    The retention behaviour of a group of dihydropyridines in micellar liquid chromatography was studied using sodium dodecyl sulphate and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactants in the mobile phase containing 5% of n-butanol and a C18 column. When the surfactant concentration in the mobile phase is increased, a tendency to change from a three partition equilibria mechanism to direct transfer of solutes from micelles to the stationary phase is observed for both surfactants. This progressive change in the retention mechanism is explained through the large micellar phase-water partition coefficients of these compounds and the increase produced in the fraction of solute molecules in the micellar phase due to the increase in the volume of this phase originating from the increase in surfactant concentration. As a result, the selectivity coefficients show a tendency to match the ratio of the stationary phase to micellar phase partition coefficients of these compounds, constituting further proof of the progressive change in the retention mechanism when the surfactant concentration is increased.

  16. Deracemization of bilirubin as the marker of the chirality of micellar aggregates.

    PubMed

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Altieri, Barbara; Ceccacci, Francesca; Di Profio, Pietro; Germani, Raimondo; Giansanti, Luisa; Savelli, Gianfranco; Mancini, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The deracemization of bilirubin in micellar aggregates of structurally correlated chiral surfactants was studied by circular dichroism experiments and exploited as the marker of the expression of chirality of the aggregates. The obtained results suggest that the hydrophobic interactions control the transfer of chirality from the monomers to the aggregates, and that different regions of the same aggregate might feature opposite enantiorecognition capabilities.

  17. SANS study of the micellar structure of PEO/PPO/PEO aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, G.; Chu, B.; Schneider, D.K.

    1995-04-06

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used to investigate the micellar structure formed by a poly(oxyethylene-oxypropylene-oxyethylene) (PEO{sub 13}PPO{sub 30}PEO{sub 13}, Pluronic L64) copolymer in D{sub 2}O over a temperature range of 8.4-35.0{degree}C. The intermicellar interactions were corrected by using an equivalent hard sphere approximation with an equivalent hard sphere radius. The aggregation number of the micelles decreased with decreasing temperature. The micellar scattering behavior could be well described by a core-shell structure. Based on the core-shell model, the volume fraction of the polymer segments in the micellar shell was less than 0.2. The micellar molar mass became larger after having introduced an organic solvent (xylene) into the system and increased with increasing amount of solubilized xylene. The maximum amount of solubilized xylene in the micelle was of the order of 0.3-0.4 xylene molecule per PO unit. 35 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. [Solubilization of nitrobenzene in micellar solutions of Tween 80 and inorganic salts].

    PubMed

    Li, Sui; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Xu, Wei; Dai, Ning

    2008-04-01

    The solubilization of nitrobenzene by a nonionic surfactant Tween 80 was investigated at 10 degrees C. Experimental results indicated that the solubility of nitrobenzene in water was greatly enhanced by Tween 80 at surfactant concentration above CMC(critical micelle concentration) and a linear relationship was obtained between surfactant concentration and nitrobenzene concentration from the solubility curve. The molar solubilization ratio (MSR) value was 5.093 and IgKm was 3.499. The solubilization was attributed to the ethoxylation group in Tween 80 micellar. Effect of four inorganic salts such as NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 , MgCl2 on water solubilities of nitrobenzene in Tween 80 micellar solutions was also investigated by a matrix of batch experiments. Mix the Tween 80-inorganic salts at the total mass ratios of 2:1, 5:1 and 10:1. The results show that the inorganic salts at a high concentration( > or = 500 mg x L(-1)) can enhance the solubilization capacities of Tween 80 micellar solution and increase the value of MSR and IgKm . Because of the salting-out effect between the micellar of Tween 80 and inorganic salts, the volume of micelle turns bigger, which may provide larger solubility volume for nitrobenzene. The mixture of nonionic surfactant and inorganic salts can be used in subsurface remediation as a flushing solution.

  19. Bioavailability of mixtures of PAHs partitioned into the micellar phase of a nonionic surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Guha, S.; Jaffe, P.R.; Peters, C.A.

    1998-08-01

    This study extends the understanding of the bioavailability of the micellar phase for a single compound to a multicomponent system of contaminants. Biodegradation experiments were conducted with binary and ternary mixtures of naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene in the presence of a nonionic surfactant, Triton X-100. A mixed bacterial culture, isolated and enriched from a PAH-contaminated soil at the Wurstsmith Air Force Base, MI, was used for the biodegradation experiments. In the absence of the surfactant and at surfactant concentrations below cmc, the multisubstrate Monod kinetics adequately simulated the biodegradation kinetics of the binary and ternary mixtures. In the multicomponent systems, as in single solute systems, the solutes in the micelle were found to be directly bioavailable, and the bioavailability of each compound in the micellar phase decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. For a given surfactant concentration, the bioavailability was higher for the lower molecular weight PAHs. There was little difference in the bioavailability of the same compound as a dingle solute or in different binary and ternary mixtures. To predict the bioavailability of the micellar phase substrates, a mass transfer-based model was formulated that describes the transfer of substrate from the micellar phase to the microorganisms. The predictions matched the experimental observations well, indicating the validity of the model and its potential for applications in remediation designs.

  20. Observation of an unprecedented body centered cubic micellar mesophase from rod-coil molecules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunji; Ryu, Ja-Hyoung; Park, Myoung-Hwan; Lee, Myongsoo; Han, Kyung-Hee; Chung, Yeon-Wook; Cho, Byoung-Ki

    2007-07-28

    We have demonstrated that rod-coil molecules based on a tetra-p-phenylene rod and a poly(propylene oxide) coil self-assemble into an unprecedented body centered cubic micellar structure in the melt, through detailed morphological analysis by X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy experiments.

  1. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro studies of doxorubicin-loaded magnetic nanoparticles grafted to smart copolymers on A549 lung cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of present study was to develop the novel methods for chemical and physical modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with polymers via covalent bonding entrapment. These modified SPIONs were used for encapsulation of anticancer drug doxorubicin. Method At first approach silane–grafted magnetic nanoparticles was prepared and used as a template for polymerization of the N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and methacrylic acid (MAA) via radical polymerization. This temperature/pH-sensitive copolymer was used for preparation of DOX–loaded magnetic nanocomposites. At second approach Vinyltriethoxysilane-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were used as a template to polymerize PNIPAAm-MAA in 1, 4 dioxan and methylene-bis-acrylamide (BIS) was used as a cross-linking agent. Chemical composition and magnetic properties of Dox–loaded magnetic hydrogel nanocomposites were analyzed by FT-IR, XRD, and VSM. Results The results demonstrate the feasibility of drug encapsulation of the magnetic nanoparticles with NIPAAm–MAA copolymer via covalent bonding. The key factors for the successful prepardtion of magnetic nanocomposites were the structure of copolymer (linear or cross-linked), concentration of copolymer and concentration of drug. The influence of pH and temperature on the release profile of doxorubicin was examined. The in vitro cytotoxicity test (MTT assay) of both magnetic DOx–loaded nanoparticles was examined. The in vitro tests showed that these systems are no toxicity and are biocompatible. Conclusion IC50 of DOx–loaded Fe3O4 nanoparticles on A549 lung cancer cell line showed that systems could be useful in treatment of lung cancer. PMID:23244711

  2. Protective effect of Co-enzyme Q10 On doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy of rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Yu; Hou, Chien-Wen; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Day, Cecilia Hsuan; Pai, Peiying; Liu, Zhao-Rong; Lin, Tze-Yi; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-02-01

    Q10 is a powerful antioxidant often used in medical nutritional supplements for cancer treatment. This study determined whether Q10 could effectively prevent cardio-toxicity caused by doxorubicin treatment. Four week old SD rats were segregated into groups namely control, doxorubicin group (challenged with doxorubicin), Dox + Q10 group (with doxorubicin challenge and oral Q10 treatment), and Q10 group (with oral Q10 treatment). Doxorubicin groups received IP doxorubicin (2.5 mg/kg) every 3 days and Q10 groups received Q10 (10 mg/kg) every day. Three weeks of doxorubicin challenge caused significant reduction in heart weight, disarray in cardiomyocyte arrangement, elevation of collagen accumulation, enhancement of fibrosis and cell death associated proteins, and inhibition of survival proteins. However, Q10 effectively protected cardiomyocytes and ameliorated fibrosis and cell death induced by doxorubicin. Q10 is, therefore, evidently a potential drug to prevent heart damage caused by doxorubicin. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 679-689, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Visnagin protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy through modulation of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Asnani, Aarti; Zou, Lin; Bentley, Victoria L.; Yu, Min; Wang, You; Dellaire, Graham; Sarkar, Kumar S.; Dai, Matthew; Chen, Howard H.; Sosnovik, David E.; Shin, Jordan T.; Haber, Daniel A.; Berman, Jason N.; Chao, Wei; Peterson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a highly effective anti-cancer chemotherapy agent, but its usage is limited by its cardiotoxicity. To develop a drug that prevents the cardiac toxicity of doxorubicin while preserving its anti-tumor potency, we established a doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy model in zebrafish that recapitulated the cardiomyocyte apoptosis and contractility decline observed in patients. Using this model, we screened 3000 compounds and discovered that visnagin (VIS) and diphenylurea (DPU) rescue cardiac performance and circulatory defects caused by doxorubicin treatment in zebrafish. VIS and DPU reduced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cultured cardiomyocytes and in vivo in zebrafish and mouse hearts. Furthermore, VIS treatment improved cardiac contractility in doxorubicin-treated mice. Importantly, VIS and DPU caused no reduction in the chemotherapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin in several cultured tumor lines or in zebrafish and mouse xenograft models. Using affinity chromatography, we discovered that VIS binds to mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH2), one of the key enzymes in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. As with VIS, treatment with the MDH2 inhibitors mebendazole, thyroxine, and iodine prevented doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, as did treatment with malate itself, suggesting that modulation of MDH2 activity is responsible for VIS’s cardioprotective effects. Taken together, this study identified VIS and DPU as potent cardioprotective compounds and implicates MDH2 as a previously undescribed, druggable target for doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:25504881

  4. Human colon cancer HT-29 cell death responses to doxorubicin and Morus Alba leaves flavonoid extract.

    PubMed

    Fallah, S; Karimi, A; Panahi, G; Gerayesh Nejad, S; Fadaei, R; Seifi, M

    2016-03-31

    The mechanistic basis for the biological properties of Morus alba flavonoid extract (MFE) and chemotherapy drug of doxorubicin on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line death are unknown. The effect of doxorubicin and flavonoid extract on colon cancer HT-29 cell line death and identification of APC gene expression and PARP concentration of HT-29 cell line were investigated. The results showed that flavonoid extract and doxorubicin induce a dose dependent cell death in HT-29 cell line. MFE and doxorubicin exert a cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT-29 cell line by probably promoting or induction of apoptosis.

  5. Astragalus polysaccharide restores autophagic flux and improves cardiomyocyte function in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Huang, Xiuqing; Lin, Yajun; Chen, Beidong; Pang, Jing; Li, Guoping; Wang, Que; Zohrabian, Sylvia; Duan, Chao; Ruan, Yang; Man, Yong; Wang, Shu; Li, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Doxorubicin (adriamycin), an anthracycline antibiotic, is commonly used to treat many types of solid and hematological malignancies. Unfortunately, clinical usage of doxorubicin is limited due to the associated acute and chronic cardiotoxicity. Previous studies demonstrated that Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), the extracts of Astragalus membranaceus, had strong anti-tumor activities and anti-inflammatory effects. However, whether APS could mitigate chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is unclear thus far. We used a doxorubicin-induced neonatal rat cardiomyocyte injury model and a mouse heart failure model to explore the function of APS. GFP-LC3 adenovirus-mediated autophagic vesicle assays, GFP and RFP tandemly tagged LC3 (tfLC3) assays and Western blot analyses were performed to analyze the cell function and cell signaling changes following APS treatment in cardiomyocytes. First, doxorubicin treatment led to C57BL/6J mouse heart failure and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis, with a disturbed cell autophagic flux. Second, APS restored autophagy in doxorubicin-treated primary neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and in the doxorubicin-induced heart failure mouse model. Third, APS attenuated doxorubicin-induced heart injury by regulating the AMPK/mTOR pathway. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin significantly abrogated the protective effect of APS. These results suggest that doxorubicin could induce heart failure by disturbing cardiomyocyte autophagic flux, which may cause excessive cell apoptosis. APS could restore normal autophagic flux, ameliorating doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by regulating the AMPK/mTOR pathway. PMID:27902477

  6. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin and silymarin on human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yurtcu, E; İşeri, Öd; Sahin, Fi

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin, silymarin, or in combination on HepG2 cells for 24 and 48 h. Both doxorubicin and silymarin caused dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. After 48 h of treatment, doxorubicin application caused dramatically increased ratio of apoptotic cells. Both 24 and 48 h of silymarin and doxorubicin-silymarin combination caused significant increases in the rate of apoptotic cells. Applications of doxorubicin and silymarin separately for 24 h led to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damages. After 48 h of incubation, doxorubicin-induced genotoxic damage was 2-fold higher than the silymarin-induced damage. After 24 and 48 h, DNA damage in response to combined applications of doxorubicin and silymarin was indifferent from silymarin- and doxorubicin-induced damage respectively. There was not any difference in genotoxicity levels between incubation periods in combined applications of doxorubicin and silymarin. Lipid peroxidation levels increased in all applications. Biopharmacotherapy with chemotherapeutic agents are of interest in the issue of adjuvant therapy. Here, we demonstrate in vitro potential genotoxic and cytotoxic antitumor effect of silymarin on HepG2 cells at achievable plasma level concentrations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. The antitumor agent doxorubicin binds to Fanconi anemia group F protein.

    PubMed

    Kusayanagi, Tomoe; Tsukuda, Senko; Shimura, Satomi; Manita, Daisuke; Iwakiri, Kanako; Kamisuki, Shinji; Takakusagi, Yoichi; Takeuchi, Toshifumi; Kuramochi, Kouji; Nakazaki, Atsuo; Sakaguchi, Kengo; Kobayashi, Susumu; Sugawara, Fumio

    2012-11-01

    Doxorubicin, a commonly used cancer chemotherapy agent, elicits several potent biological effects, including synergistic-antitumor activity in combination with cisplatin. However, the mechanism of this synergism remains obscure. Here, we employed an improved T7 phage display screening method to identify Fanconi anemia group F protein (FANCF) as a doxorubicin-binding protein. The FANCF-doxorubicin interaction was confirmed by pull-down assay and SPR analysis. FANCF is a component of the Fanconi anemia complex, which monoubiquitinates D2 protein of Fanconi anemia group as a cellular response against DNA cross-linkers such as cisplatin. We observed that the monoubiquitination was inhibited by doxorubicin treatment.

  8. TFEB ameliorates the impairment of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in neurons induced by doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Moruno Manchon, Jose Felix; Uzor, Ndidi-Ese; Kesler, Shelli R.; Wefel, Jeffrey S.; Townley, Debra M.; Nagaraja, Archana Sidalaghatta; Pradeep, Sunila; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Sood, Anil K.; Tsvetkov, Andrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin, a commonly used chemotherapy agent, induces severe cardio- and neurotoxicity. Molecular mechanisms of cardiotoxicity have been extensively studied, but mechanisms by which doxorubicin exhibits its neurotoxic properties remain unclear. Here, we show that doxorubicin impairs neuronal autophagy, leading to the accumulation of an autophagy substrate p62. Neurons treated with doxorubicin contained autophagosomes, damaged mitochondria, and lipid droplets. The brains from mice treated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin exhibited autophagosomes, often with mitochondria, lipofuscin, and lipid droplets. Interestingly, lysosomes were less acidic in doxorubicin-treated neurons. Overexpression of the transcription factor EB (TFEB), which controls the autophagy-lysosome axis, increased survival of doxorubicin-treated neurons. 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), an activator of TFEB, also promoted neuronal survival, decreased the levels of p62, and lowered the pH in lysosomes. Taken together, substantial changes induced by doxorubicin contribute to neurotoxicity, cognitive disturbances in cancer patients and survivors, and accelerated brain aging. The TFEB pathway might be a new approach for mitigating damage of neuronal autophagy caused by doxorubicin. PMID:27992857

  9. Serial exercise gated radionuclide ventriculograms (RVG) in monitoring doxorubicin cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, H.A.; Lahoda, J.; Fox, L.

    1985-05-01

    The resting RVG (Radionuclide Ventriculograms) are demonstrated to be an effective monitor of the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. The exercise RVG has not been as well studied to see if it yields additional information or detects toxicity effects earlier. Sixteen patients receiving doxorubicin for chemotherapy had 2-6 serial exercise studies with intervals between studies of 1 month to 15 months. The patients exercised varying amounts with cardiac work indicated by their double products (HR x Sys. BP). Although all patients started with a normal resting LVEF (>50%), 5 of the 16 did not have a normal response (greater than or equal to5% increase in LVEF) with initial exercise study. Of the 11 patients with an initially normal response to exercise, on at least one subsequent study, 3 had an abnormal response to exercise. On a later follow up study 1 of these 3 patients again had a normal response to exercise. Six of these 11 patients had had RVG evidence of cardiotoxicity. Four of these 6 patients had continually normal exercise responses, while 2 of these 5 patients had had an abnormal exercise response. An initial exercise RVG may be reasonable to detect unsuspected CAD in cancer victims. These patients are reported to be more sensitive to the toxic effects of doxorubicin. Follow up exercise RVGs do not contribute useful information, do not predict cardiotoxicity, and may be misleading.

  10. Hafnocene-Based Olefin Polymerizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diesner, T.; Troll, C.; Rieger, B.

    Zirconocenes have been used for a long time in the field of olefin polymerization using MAO as cocatalyst. The equivalent hafnocenes were seldom used due to a lack of productivity while using MAO activation. In the last few years borane and borate activation has come into the focus of research for olefin polymerization. A variety of different hafnocenes were used to investigate the polymerization mechanism and the different cocatalysts.

  11. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, R.R.; Baumann, R.

    1999-03-30

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  12. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  13. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Baumann, Robert

    2003-08-26

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  14. Living olefin polymerization processes

    DOEpatents

    Schrock, Richard R.; Bauman, Robert

    2006-11-14

    Processes for the living polymerization of olefin monomers with terminal carbon-carbon double bonds are disclosed. The processes employ initiators that include a metal atom and a ligand having two group 15 atoms and a group 16 atom or three group 15 atoms. The ligand is bonded to the metal atom through two anionic or covalent bonds and a dative bond. The initiators are particularly stable under reaction conditions in the absence of olefin monomer. The processes provide polymers having low polydispersities, especially block copolymers having low polydispersities. It is an additional advantage of these processes that, during block copolymer synthesis, a relatively small amount of homopolymer is formed.

  15. Bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S. (Inventor); Curley, Michael J. (Inventor); Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor); Sarkisov, Jr., Sergey S. (Inventor); Fields, Aisha B. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A bimorphic polymeric photomechanical actuator, in one embodiment using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as a photosensitive body, transmitting light over fiber optic cables, and controlling the shape and pulse duration of the light pulse to control movement of the actuator. Multiple light beams are utilized to generate different ranges of motion for the actuator from a single photomechanical body and alternative designs use multiple light beams and multiple photomechanical bodies to provide controlled movement. Actuator movement using one or more ranges of motion is utilized to control motion to position an actuating element in three dimensional space.

  16. Composition-insensitive highly viscous wormlike micellar solutions formed in anionic and cationic surfactant systems.

    PubMed

    Aramaki, Kenji; Iemoto, Suzuka; Ikeda, Naoaki; Saito, Keitaro

    2010-01-01

    We investigated phase behavior and rheological properties of aqueous micellar phase formed in water/cocoyl glutamate neutralized with triethanol amine (CGT-n)/hexadecyl trimethylammonium salt (CTAB or CTAC) systems, where n is a degree of neutralization. Micellar phase appears in wide composition range with respect to the surfactant mixing fraction in ternary phase diagrams at 25 degrees C. At high mixing fraction of cationic surfactant in the water/CGT-n/CTAB systems, one can observe a highly viscous micellar phase in which worm-like micelles are expected to form. Contrary to conventional systems in which worm-like micelles are formed, the zero-shear viscosity of the micellar solution in the water/CGT-n/CTAB system with n=1.2 increases with the addition of cationic cosurfactant and once decreases after a maximum, then increases again and decreases after the second maximum. At n=1.5 and 2, highly viscous solution is observed in the relatively wide range of surfactant mixing fraction instead of two maxima of the viscosity curve observed at n=1.2. In the case of CTAC instead of CTAB we can observe narrow composition range for the maximum viscosity. Frequency sweep measurements were performed on the highly viscous samples in the water/CGT-1.5/CTAB system. Typical viscoelastic behavior of worm-like micellar solutions is observed; i.e. the curves of storage (G') and loss (G") moduli make a crossover and the data points of G' and G" can be fitted to the Maxwell model. Relaxation time against the mixing fraction of two surfactants behaves similarly to the zero-shear viscosity change, whereas the plateau modulus continuously increases in the plateau region for the zero-shear viscosity curve.

  17. Stepwise dynamics of an anionic micellar film - Formation of crown lenses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongju; Nikolov, Alex; Wasan, Darsh

    2017-06-15

    We studied the stepwise thinning of a microscopic circular foam film formed from an anionic micellar solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The foam film formed from the SDS micellar solution thins in a stepwise manner by the formation and expansion of a dark spot(s) of one layer less than the film thickness. During the last stages of film thinning (e.g., a film with one micellar layer), the dark spot expansion occurs via two steps. Initially, a small dark circular spot inside a film of several microns in size is formed, which expands at a constant rate. Then, a ridge along the expanding spot is formed. As the ridge grows, it becomes unstable and breaks into regular crown lenses, which are seen as white spots in the reflected light at the border of the dark spot with the surrounding thicker film. The Rayleigh type of instability contributes to the formation of the lenses, which results in the increase of the dark spot expansion rate with time. We applied the two-dimensional micellar-vacancy diffusion model and took into consideration the effects of the micellar layering and film volume on the rate of the dark spot expansion [Lee et al., 2016] to predict the rate of the dark spot expansion for a 0.06M SDS film in the presence of lenses. We briefly discuss the Rayleigh type of instability in the case of a 0.06M SDS foam film. The goals of this study are to reveal why the crown lenses are formed during the foam film stratification and to elucidate their effect on the rate of spot expansion.

  18. Flow of viscoelastic fluids around a sharp microfluidic bend: Role of wormlike micellar structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Margaret Y.; Mohammadigoushki, Hadi; Muller, Susan J.

    2017-04-01

    We examine the flow and instabilities of three viscoelastic fluids—a semidilute aqueous solution of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and two wormlike micellar solutions of cetylpyridinium chloride and sodium salicylate—around a microfluidic 90∘ bend, in which shear deformation and streamline curvature dominate. Similar to results reported by Gulati et al. [S. Gulati et al., Phys. Rev. E 78, 036314 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevE.78.036314; S. Gulati et al., J. Rheol. 54, 375 (2010), 10.1122/1.3308643] for PEO solutions, we report a critical Weissenberg number (Wi) for the onset of lip vortex formation upstream of the corner. However, the decreased aspect ratio (channel depth to width) results in a slightly higher critical Wi and a vortex that grows more slowly. We consider wormlike micellar solutions of two salt to surfactant concentration ratios R =0.55 and R =0.79 . At R =0.55 , the wormlike micelles are linear and exhibit strong viscoelastic behavior, but at R =0.79 , the wormlike micelles become branched and exhibit shear-banding behavior. Microfluidic experiments on the R =0.55 solution reveal two flow transitions. The first transition, at Wi =6 , is characterized by the formation of a stationary lip vortex upstream of the bend; at the second transition, at Wi =20 , the vortex fluctuates in time and changes size. The R =0.79 solution also exhibits two transitions. The first transition at Wi =4 is characterized by the appearance of two intermittent vortices, one at the lip and one at the far outside corner. Increasing the flow rate to Wi >160 results in a transition to a second unstable regime, where there is only a lip vortex that fluctuates in size. The difference in flow transitions in PEO and wormlike micellar solutions presumably arises from the additional contribution of wormlike micellar breakage and reformation under shear. The flow transitions in wormlike micellar solutions are also significantly affected by chain branching.

  19. Wetting properties and critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Bukiet, Frédéric; Couderc, Guillaume; Camps, Jean; Tassery, Hervé; Cuisinier, Frederic; About, Imad; Charrier, Anne; Candoni, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (1) assess the effect of the addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite on its wetting properties, contact angle, and surface energy; (2) determine the critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite; and (3) investigate the influence of addition of benzalkonium chloride on the free chlorine level, cytotoxicity, and antiseptic properties of the mixture. Solutions of benzalkonium chloride, with concentrations ranging from 0%-1%, were mixed in 2.4% sodium hypochlorite and tested as follows. The wetting properties were investigated by measuring the contact angle of the solutions on a nondehydrated dentin surface by using the static sessile drop method. The pending drop technique was subsequently used to determine the surface energy of the solutions. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite was calculated from the data. When 2.4% NaOCl was mixed with benzalkonium chloride at the critical micellar concentration, 3 parameters were tested: free chloride content, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis. The contact angle (P < .001) as well as the surface energy (P < .001) significantly decreased with increasing benzalkonium chloride concentrations. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite was 0.008%. At this concentration, the addition of benzalkonium chloride had no effect on the free chlorine content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial efficiency of the mixture. The addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite at the critical micellar concentration reduced the contact angle by 51.2% and the surface energy by 53.4%, without affecting the free chloride content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial properties of the mixture. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Sustainable polymerizations in recoverable microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenzhen; Yan, Feng; Qiu, Lihua; Lu, Jianmei; Zhou, Yinxia; Chen, Jiaxin; Tang, Yishan; Texter, John

    2010-03-16

    Free radical and atom-transfer radical polymerizations were conducted in monomer/ionic liquid microemulsions. After the polymerization and isolation of the resultant polymers, the mixture of the catalyst and ionic liquids (surfactant and continuous phase) can be recovered and reused, thereby dramatically improving the environmental sustainability of such chemical processing. The addition of monomer to recovered ionic liquid mixtures regenerates transparent, stable microemulsions that are ready for the next polymerization cycle upon addition of initiator. The method combines the advantages of IL recycling and microemulsion polymerization and minimizes environmental disposable effects from surfactants and heavy metal ions.

  1. Polymerization Evaluation by Spectrophotometric Measurements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunach, Jaume

    1985-01-01

    Discusses polymerization evaluation by spectrophotometric measurements by considering: (1) association degrees and molar absorptivities; (2) association degrees and equilibrium constants; and (3) absorbance and equilibrium constants. (JN)

  2. Salinomycin enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in multidrug resistant MCF-7/MDR human breast cancer cells via decreased efflux of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Youn; Kim, Sang-Hun; Yu, Sun-Nyoung; Park, Suel-Ki; Choi, Hyeun-Deok; Yu, Hak-Sun; Ji, Jae-Hoon; Seo, Young-Kyo; Ahn, Soon-Cheol

    2015-08-01

    Salinomycin is a monocarboxylic polyether antibiotic, which is widely used as an anticoccidial agent. The anticancer property of salinomycin has been recognized and is based on its ability to induce apoptosis in human multidrug resistance (MDR). The present study investigated whether salinomycin reverses MDR towards chemotherapeutic agents in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/MDR human breast cancer cells. The results demonstrated that doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxicity was significantly enhanced by salinomycin in the MCF-7/MDR cells, and this occurred in a dose-dependent manner. This finding was consistent with subsequent observations made under a confocal microscope, in which the doxorubicin fluorescence signals of the salinomycin-treated cells were higher compared with the cells treated with doxorubicin alone. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that salinomycin significantly increased the net cellular uptake and decreased the efflux of doxorubicin. The expression levels of MDR-1 and MRP-1 were not altered at either the mRNA or protein levels in the cells treated with salinomycin. These results indicated that salinomycin was mediated by its ability to increase the uptake and decrease the efflux of doxorubicin in MCF-7/MDR cells. Salinomycin reversed the resistance of doxorubicin, suggesting that chemotherapy in combination with salinomycin may benefit MDR cancer therapy.

  3. Ultrasonic-Activated Micellar Drug Delivery for Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Husseini, Ghaleb A.; Pitt, William G.

    2008-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles and ultrasound in medicine continues to evolve. Great strides have been made in the areas of producing micelles, nanoemulsions and solid nanoparticles that can be used in drug delivery. An effective nanocarrier allows for the delivery of a high concentration of potent medications to targeted tissue while minimizing the side effect of the agent to the rest of the body. Polymeric micelles have been shown to encapsulate therapeutic agents and maintain their structural integrity at lower concentrations. Ultrasound is currently being used in drug delivery as well as diagnostics, and has many advantages that elevate its importance in drug delivery. The technique is non-invasive, thus no surgery is needed; the ultrasonic waves can be easily controlled by advanced electronic technology so that they can be focused on the desired target volume. Additionally, the physics of ultrasound are widely used and well understood; thus ultrasonic application can be tailored towards a particular drug delivery system. In this article, we review the recent progress made in research that utilizes both polymeric micelles and ultrasonic power in drug delivery. PMID:18506804

  4. An equilibrium model for ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration. Selective separation of metal ions using iminoacetic substituted polyamines and a theoretical model for the titration behavior of polyamines

    SciTech Connect

    Dharmawardana, Udeni Rajaratna

    1992-01-01

    This thesis consists of three chapters. Chapter 1, An equilibrium model for ligand-modified micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration, describes a theoretical model and experimental investigations which used the semi-equilibrium-dialysis method with N-n-dodecyl iminodiacetic acid as the ligand. In Chapter 2, Selective separation of metal ions using iminoacetic substituted polyamines, polyamines with a substituted ligand group are synthesized and used in investigating selective separation of copper ions from aqueous solution. In Chapter 3, A theoretical model for the titration behavior of polyamines, a novel approach to explain the titration behavior of polymeric amines based on the binding behavior of counterions is described. The application of this study is to the investigation of inexpensive and efficient methods of industrial waste water treatment.

  5. Micellar and sub-micellar ultra-high performance liquid chromatography of hydroxybenzoic acid and phthalic acid positional isomers.

    PubMed

    Fasciano, Jennifer M; Danielson, Neil D

    2016-03-18

    Micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) has been used primarily for the separation of neutral analytes of varying polarities, most commonly phenols and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, but does not seem to have been used to study aromatic hydroxy acids in detail. We have studied the separation of hydroxybenzoic acid mixtures, including monohydroxybenzoic and dihydroxybenzoic acid positional isomers by MLC. Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) is investigated as the modifying surfactant on a C18 ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) column (100 × 2.1mm, 1.8 μm). The addition of only SDS (no organic solvent) to the mobile phase reduced the influence of hydrophobic interactions while improving the retention times, resolution, and peak shapes, even at concentrations below the critical micellization concentration (CMC). The UHPLC separation of 7 hydroxybenzoic acids, including 6 dihydroxybenzoic acid positional isomers and one trihydroxybenzoic acid, is achieved with high efficiency using 0.1% SDS in 1.84 mM sulfuric acid (pH 2.43) mobile phase, in less than 6 min with a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1), and in less than four min with a flow rate of 0.7 mL min(-1). Six monohydroxybenzoic acid isomers are also effectively separated by MLC, using a 0.5% SDS mobile phase modifier, in less than 20 min with a flow rate of 0.3 mL min(-1), and in less than 14 min with a flow rate of 0.7 mL min(-1). The 3 phthalic acid isomers could be separated using a similar mobile phase and flow rates in less than 6 and 4 min. Solute-micelle equilibrium constants and partition coefficients are calculated for 6 monohydroxybenzoic acids based on a plot of MLC retention factor vs. mobile phase micelle concentration. All aromatic acid isomers studied can be classified as binding solutes in the MLC retention mechanism. Less effective separations are observed with shorter chain surfactants, leading to higher retention times and poor peak shapes. It is concluded that increasing chain length led to more

  6. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. The highest conductivities reported (approximately 4/Scm) were achieved with polythiophene in a polystyrene host polymer. The best films using a polyamide as base polymer were four orders of magnitude less conductive than the polystyrene films. The authors suggested that this was because polyimides were unable to swell sufficiently for infiltration of monomer as in the polystyrene. It was not clear, however, if the different conductivities obtained were merely the result of differing oxidation conditions. Oxidation time, temperature and oxidant concentration varied widely among the studies.

  7. Gratings in polymeric waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishakov, G.; Sokolov, V.; Kocabas, A.; Aydinli, A.

    2007-04-01

    Laser-induced formation of polymer Bragg grating filters for Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) applications is discussed. Acrylate monomers halogenated with both fluorine and chlorine, which possess absorption losses less than 0.25 dB/cm and wide choice of refractive indices (from 1.3 to 1.5) in the 1.5 μm telecom wavelength region were used. The monomers are highly intermixable thus permitting to adjust the refractive index of the composition within +/-0.0001. Moreover they are photocurable under UV exposure and exhibit high contrast in polymerization. These properties make halogenated acrylates very promising for fabricating polymeric waveguides and photonic circuits. Single-mode polymer waveguides were fabricated on silicon wafers using resistless contact lithography. Submicron index gratings have been written in polymer waveguides using holographic exposure with He-Cd laser beam (325 nm) through a phase mask. Both uniform and apodized gratings have been fabricated. The gratings are stable and are not erased by uniform UV exposure. The waveguide gratings possess narrowband reflection spectra in the 1.5 μm wavelength region of 0.4 nm width, nearly rectangular shape of the stopband and reflectivity R > 99%. The fabricated Bragg grating filters can be used for multiplexing/demultiplexing optical signals in high-speed DWDM optical fiber networks.

  8. Doxorubicin-loaded aromatic imine-contained amphiphilic branched star polymer micelles: synthesis, self-assembly, and drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Liang; Hong, Chun-Yan; Pan, Cai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Redox-and pH-sensitive branched star polymers (BSPs), BP(DMAEMA-co-MAEBA-co-DTDMA)(PMAIGP)ns, have been successively prepared by two steps of reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The first step is RAFT polymerization of 2-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)methacrylate (DMAEMA) and p-(methacryloxyethoxy) benzaldehyde (MAEBA) in the presence of divinyl monomer, 2,2′-dithiodiethoxyl dimethacrylate (DTDMA). The resultant branched polymers were used as a macro-RAFT agent in the subsequent RAFT polymerization. After hydrolysis of the BSPs to form BP(DMAEMA-co-MAEBA-co-DTDMA)(PMAGP)ns (BSP-H), the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was covalently linked to branched polymer chains by reaction of primary amine of DOX and aldehyde groups in the polymer chains. Their compositions, structures, molecular weights, and molecular weight distributions were respectively characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and gel permeation chromatography measurements. The DOX-loaded micelles were fabricated by self-assembly of DOX-containing BSPs in water, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Aromatic imine linkage is stable in neutral water, but is acid-labile; controlled release of DOX from the BSP-H-DOX micelles was realized at pH values of 5 and 6, and at higher acidic solution, fast release of DOX was observed. In vitro cytotoxicity experiment results revealed low cytotoxicity of the BSPs and release of DOX from micelles in HepG2 and HeLa cells. Confocal laser fluorescence microscopy observations showed that DOX-loaded micelles have specific interaction with HepG2 cells. Thus, this type of BSP micelle is an efficient drug delivery system. PMID:26056444

  9. Doxorubicin-loaded aromatic imine-contained amphiphilic branched star polymer micelles: synthesis, self-assembly, and drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Liang; Hong, Chun-Yan; Pan, Cai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Redox-and pH-sensitive branched star polymers (BSPs), BP(DMAEMA-co-MAEBA-co-DTDMA)(PMAIGP)(n)s, have been successively prepared by two steps of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The first step is RAFT polymerization of 2-(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl)methacrylate (DMAEMA) and p-(methacryloxyethoxy) benzaldehyde (MAEBA) in the presence of divinyl monomer, 2,2'-dithiodiethoxyl dimethacrylate (DTDMA). The resultant branched polymers were used as a macro-RAFT agent in the subsequent RAFT polymerization. After hydrolysis of the BSPs to form BP(DMAEMA-co-MAEBA-co-DTDMA)(PMAGP)(n)s (BSP-H), the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) was covalently linked to branched polymer chains by reaction of primary amine of DOX and aldehyde groups in the polymer chains. Their compositions, structures, molecular weights, and molecular weight distributions were respectively characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and gel permeation chromatography measurements. The DOX-loaded micelles were fabricated by self-assembly of DOX-containing BSPs in water, which were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. Aromatic imine linkage is stable in neutral water, but is acid-labile; controlled release of DOX from the BSP-H-DOX micelles was realized at pH values of 5 and 6, and at higher acidic solution, fast release of DOX was observed. In vitro cytotoxicity experiment results revealed low cytotoxicity of the BSPs and release of DOX from micelles in HepG2 and HeLa cells. Confocal laser fluorescence microscopy observations showed that DOX-loaded micelles have specific interaction with HepG2 cells. Thus, this type of BSP micelle is an efficient drug delivery system.

  10. Contribution of Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides 1A/1B to Doxorubicin Uptake and Clearance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hannah H; Leake, Brenda F; Kim, Richard B; Ho, Richard H

    2017-01-01

    The organic anion-transporting polypeptides represent an important family of drug uptake transporters that mediate the cellular uptake of a broad range of substrates including numerous drugs. Doxorubicin is a highly efficacious and well-established anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent commonly used in the treatment of a wide range of cancers. Although doxorubicin is a known substrate for efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1, ABCB1), significantly less is known regarding its interactions with drug uptake transporters. Here, we investigated the role of organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) transporters to the disposition of doxorubicin. A recombinant vaccinia-based method for expressing uptake transporters in HeLa cells revealed that OATP1A2, but not OATP1B1 or OATP1B3, and the rat ortholog Oatp1a4 were capable of significant doxorubicin uptake. Interestingly, transwell assays using Madin-Darby canine kidney II cell line cells stably expressing specific uptake and/or efflux transporters revealed that OATP1B1, OATP1B3, and OATP1A2, either alone or in combination with MDR1, significantly transported doxorubicin. An assessment of polymorphisms in SLCO1A2 revealed that four variants were associated with significantly impaired doxorubicin transport in vitro. In vivo doxorubicin disposition studies revealed that doxorubicin plasma area under the curve was significantly higher (1.7-fold) in Slco1a/1b(-/-) versus wild-type mice. The liver-to-plasma ratio of doxorubicin was significantly decreased (2.3-fold) in Slco1a/1b2(-/-) mice and clearance was reduced by 40% compared with wild-type mice, suggesting Oatp1b transporters are important for doxorubicin hepatic uptake. In conclusion, we demonstrate important roles for OATP1A/1B in transporter-mediated uptake and disposition of doxorubicin. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Propofol ameliorates doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress and cellular apoptosis in rat cardiomyocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.C.; Yeh, Y.C.; Wang, L.C.; Ting, C.T.; Lee, W.L.; Lee, H.W.; Wang, K.Y.; Wu, A.; Su, C.S.; Liu, T.J.

    2011-12-15

    Background: Propofol is an anesthetic with pluripotent cytoprotective properties against various extrinsic insults. This study was designed to examine whether this agent could also ameliorate the infamous toxicity of doxorubicin, a widely-used chemotherapeutic agent against a variety of cancer diseases, on myocardial cells. Methods: Cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were administrated with vehicle, doxorubicin (1 {mu}M), propofol (1 {mu}M), or propofol plus doxorubicin (given 1 h post propofol). After 24 h, cells were harvested and specific analyses regarding oxidative/nitrative stress and cellular apoptosis were conducted. Results: Trypan blue exclusion and MTT assays disclosed that viability of cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced by doxorubicin. Contents of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species were increased and antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, and GPx were decreased in these doxorubicin-treated cells. Mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and membrane potential were also depressed, along with activation of key effectors downstream of mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic signaling. Besides, abundance of p53 was elevated and cleavage of PKC-{delta} was induced in these myocardial cells. In contrast, all of the above oxidative, nitrative and pro-apoptotic events could be suppressed by propofol pretreatment. Conclusions: Propofol could extensively counteract oxidative/nitrative and multiple apoptotic effects of doxorubicin in the heart; hence, this anesthetic may serve as an adjuvant agent to assuage the untoward cardiac effects of doxorubicin in clinical application. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluate how propofol prevents doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol reduces doxorubicin-imposed nitrative and oxidative stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol suppresses mitochondrion-, p53- and PKC-related apoptotic signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Propofol ameliorates apoptosis and

  12. Baicalein alleviates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity via suppression of myocardial oxidative stress and apoptosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Kumar, Jerald Mahesh; Kuncha, Madhusudana; Borkar, Roshan M; Srinivas, R; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin is a widely used anthracycline derivative anticancer drug. Unfortunately, the clinical use of doxorubicin has the serious drawback of cardiotoxicity. In this study, we investigated whether baicalein, a bioflavonoid, can prevent doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo and we delineated the possible underlying mechanisms. Male BALB/c mice were treated with either intraperitoneal doxorubicin (15 mg/kg divided into three equal doses for 15 days) and/or oral baicalein (25 and 50 mg/kg for 15 days). Serum markers of cardiac injury, histology of heart, parameters related to myocardial oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation were investigated. Treatment with baicalein reduced doxorubicin-induced elevation of serum creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and ameliorated the histopathological damage. Baicalein restored the doxorubicin-induced decrease in both enzymatic and non-enzymatic myocardial antioxidants and increased the myocardial expression of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1). Further studies showed that baicalein could inverse the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, suppress doxorubicin-induced p53, cleaved caspase-3 and PARP expression and prevented doxorubicin-induced DNA damage. Baicalein treatment also interferes with doxorubicin-induced myocardial NF-κB signaling through inhibition of IκBα phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 subunit. Doxorubicin elevated iNOS and nitrites levels were also significantly decreased in baicalein treated mice. However, we did not find any significant change (p>0.05) in the myocardial TNF-α and IL-6 levels in control and treated animals. Our finding suggests that baicalein might be a promising molecule for the prevention of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anticancer effect of atorvastatin nanostructured polymeric micelles based on stearyl-grafted chitosan.

    PubMed

    Mekhail, George M; Kamel, Amany O; Awad, Gehanne A S; Mortada, Nahed D

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new therapeutic approach for atorvastatin (ATV) adopting nanostructured polymeric micelles for its controlled delivery to the cancer cells. Amphiphilic block copolymers of stearyl chitosan (SC) and sulfated stearyl chitosan (S-SC) that could self assemble to form polymeric micelles with different degree of substitution (DS) were synthesized and characterized. The synthesized chitosan derivatives were able to self assemble and form micelles encapsulating ATV with critical micellar concentrations ranging from 6.9 to 21μg/ml, drug-loading ranging from 40% to 84.1% and encapsulation efficiency ranging from 10.4% to 35%. ATV caused a significant decrease in particle size and zeta potential of both SC and S-SC micelles. Micelles encapsulating ATV exhibited a sustained release and more cytotoxic activity against MCF 7 and HCT 116 cell lines than ATV alone. The 50% cellular growth inhibition (IC50%) of the drug decreased from 10.4 to 3.7 in case of MCF 7 and from 9.4 to 3.4 in case of HCT 116 after its loading in micelles. These results indicate that SC ATV polymeric micelles can be considered as a promising system for site specific controlled delivery of ATV to tumor cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. TRACE ANALYSIS OF FLUORESCEIN-DERIVATIZED PHENOXY ACID HERBICIDES BY MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH LASER-INDUCTED FLUORESCENCE DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was used for the trace analysis of phenoxy acid herbicides. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with LIF detection, which has not previously been used for pesticide analysis, overcomes the po...

  15. TRACE ANALYSIS OF FLUORESCEIN-DERIVATIZED PHENOXY ACID HERBICIDES BY MICELLAR ELECTROKINETIC CHROMATOGRAPHY WITH LASER-INDUCTED FLUORESCENCE DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection was used for the trace analysis of phenoxy acid herbicides. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) with LIF detection, which has not previously been used for pesticide analysis, overcomes the po...

  16. Thermoresponsive supramolecular micellar drug delivery system based on star-linear pseudo-block polymer consisting of β-cyclodextrin-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and adamantyl-poly(ethylene glycol).

    PubMed

    Song, Xia; Zhu, Jing-Ling; Wen, Yuting; Zhao, Feng; Zhang, Zhong-Xing; Li, Jun

    2017-03-15

    Chemotherapy is facing several limitations such as low water solubility of anticancer drugs and multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. To overcome these limitations, a thermoresponsive micellar drug delivery system formed by a non-covalently connected supramolecular block polymer was developed. The system is based on the host-guest interaction between a well-defined β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) based poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) star host polymer and an adamantyl-containing poly(ethylene glycol) (Ad-PEG) guest polymer. The structures of the host and guest polymers were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR, GPC and FTIR. Subsequently, they formed a pseudo-block copolymer via inclusion complexation between β-CD core and adamantyl-moiety, which was confirmed by 2D NMR. The thermoresponsive micellization of the copolymer was investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, DLS and TEM. At 37°C, the copolymer at a concentration of 0.2mg/mL in PBS formed micelles with a hydrodynamic diameter of ca. 282nm. The anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), was successfully loaded into the core of the micelles with a loading level of 6% and loading efficiency of 17%. The blank polymer micelles showed good biocompatibility in cell cytotoxicity studies. Moreover, the DOX-loaded micelles demonstrated superior therapeutic effects in AT3B-1-N (MDR-) and AT3B-1 (MDR+) cell lines as compared to free DOX control, overcoming MDR in cancer cells.

  17. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  18. Amplification of actin polymerization forces

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton drives many essential processes in vivo, using molecular motors and actin assembly as force generators. We discuss here the propagation of forces caused by actin polymerization, highlighting simple configurations where the force developed by the network can exceed the sum of the polymerization forces from all filaments. PMID:27002174

  19. Amplification of actin polymerization forces.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2016-03-28

    The actin cytoskeleton drives many essential processes in vivo, using molecular motors and actin assembly as force generators. We discuss here the propagation of forces caused by actin polymerization, highlighting simple configurations where the force developed by the network can exceed the sum of the polymerization forces from all filaments.

  20. Platelet interaction with polymerizing fibrin.

    PubMed

    Niewiarowski, S; Regoeczi, E; Stewart, G J; Senyl, A F; Mustard, J F

    1972-03-01

    Interaction of washed pig, rabbit, or human platelets with fibrinogen was studied during its transition to fibrin using photometric, isotopic, and electron microscopic techniques. Untreated fibrinogen and fully polymerized fibrin had no detectable effect on platelets. Fibrinogen, incubated with low concentrations of reptilase or thrombin, formed intermediate products which readily became associated with platelets and caused their aggregation. Neutralization of the thrombin did not prevent this interaction. In the absence of fibrinogen, reptilase did not affect platelets. The interaction of polymerizing fibrin with platelets was accompanied by small losses of platelet constituents (serotonin, adenine nucleotides, platelet factor 4, and lactic dehydrogenase). This loss did not appear to be the result of the platelet release reaction. Inhibitors of the release reaction or of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation did not prevent the interaction of platelets with polymerizing fibrin. Apyrase or prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) reduced the extent of platelet aggregation by polymerizing fibrin, but the amount of protein associated with platelets was slightly increased. The interaction of polymerizing fibrin with platelets was completely inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) or ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether) N, N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA).Fibers formed in solutions of polymerizing fibrin were larger in the presence than in the absence of washed platelets, suggesting that platelets affect fibrin polymerization. The adherence of platelets to polymerizing fibrin may be responsible for the establishment of links between platelets and fibrin in hemostatic plugs and thrombi.

  1. Identification of the active protein in rice bran protein having an inhibitory activity of cholesterol micellar solubility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jilite; Shimada, Masaya; Nagaoka, Satoshi

    2017-06-01

    In our previous study, rice bran protein (RBP) inhibited cholesterol micellar solubility in vitro and decreased serum cholesterol level in rats. In the present study, RBP was separated and purified by size-exclusion chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography. The active protein of RBP related to cholesterol micellar solubility was identified as lectin and non-specific lipid-transfer protein 1 using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis.

  2. Physico-chemical characterization of polymeric micelles loaded with platinum derivatives by capillary electrophoresis and related methods.

    PubMed

    Oukacine, Farid; Bernard, Stephane; Bobe, Iulian; Cottet, Hervé

    2014-12-28

    (1,2-diamino-cyclohexane)Platinum(II) ((DACH)Pt) loaded polymeric micelles of poly(ethylene glycol-b-sodium glutamate) (PEG-b-PGlu) are currently studied as a potential candidate to replace oxaliplatin in the treatment of cancers with the aim to reduce side effects like cumulative peripheral distal neurotoxicity and acute dysesthesias. As for all synthetic polymeric drug delivery systems, the characterization of the (co)polymer precursors and of the final drug delivery system (polymeric micelles) is crucial to control the repeatability of the different batches and to get correlation between physico-chemical structure and biological activity. In this work, the use of capillary electrophoresis (CE) and related methods for the characterization of (DACH)Pt-loaded polymeric micelles and their precursor (PEG-b-PGlu copolymer) has been investigated in detail. The separation and quantification of residual PGlu homopolymer in the PEG-b-PGlu sample were performed by free solution capillary zone electrophoresis mode. This mode brought also information on the PEG-b-PGlu copolymer composition and polydispersity. It also permitted to monitor the decomposition of polymeric micelles in the presence of NaCl at room temperature. Interactions between PEG-b-PGlu unimers, on one hand, and polymeric micelles or surfactants, on the other hand, were studied by using the Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography and Frontal Analysis Capillary Electrophoresis modes. Finally, weight-average hydrodynamic radii of the loaded polymeric micelles and of the PEG-b-PGlu unimers were determined by Taylor Dispersion Analysis (an absolute size determination method that can be easily implemented on CE apparatus). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human cytosolic sulfotransferase SULT1C4 mediates the sulfation of doxorubicin and epirubicin.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lijun; Zhou, Chunyang; Hui, Ying; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2016-04-01

    Doxorubicin, an anthracycline, has been reported to be excreted in sulfate conjugated form. The current study aimed to identify the human cytosolic sulfotransferase(s) (SULT(s)) that is(are) capable of sulfating doxorubicin and its analog epirubicin, and to verify whether sulfation of doxorubicin and epirubicin may occur under metabolic conditions. A systematic analysis of thirteen known human SULTs, previously cloned, expressed, and purified, revealed SULT1C4 as the only human SULT capable of sulfating doxorubicin and epirubicin. Cultured HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cells were labeled with [(35)S]sulfate in the presence of different concentrations of doxorubicin or epirubicin. Analysis of spent labeling media showed the generation and release of [(35)S]sulfated doxorubicin and epirubicin by HepG2 cells and Caco-2 cells. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed the expression of SULT1C4 in both HepG2 cells and Caco-2 cells. These results provided a molecular basis underlying the previous finding that sulfate-conjugated doxorubicin was excreted in the urine of patients treated with doxorubicin. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TRIB3 downregulation enhances doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, I-Jung; Lin, Rong-Jaan; Wang, Hsin-Chiao; Yuan, Tein-Ming; Chuang, Show-Mei

    2017-05-15

    TRIB3, which is a pseudokinase known to regulate multiple pro-survival pathways, appears to be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human tumors. However, its precise role in cancer is controversial, as TRIB3 protein levels have been associated with both good and poor prognosis in cancer patients. Here, we investigated the significance of TRIB3 expression in the survival of gastric cancer cells exposed to anticancer drugs. We found that the tested anticancer drug, doxorubicin, induced cytotoxicity by decreasing TRIB3 transcription, which was followed by apoptotic cell death. Moreover, TRIB3 siRNA knockdown appeared to enhance doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells, concurrently with altering the expression of downstream apoptotic factors. Conversely, overexpression of TRIB3 significantly protected cells against doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that downregulation of TRIB3 appears to promote cell death and enhance doxorubicin-induced apoptosis, supporting the anti-apoptotic role of TRIB3. The inductions of three classes of MAPKs failed to affect doxorubicin-mediated TRIB3 downregulation, while TRIB3 overexpression did not affect doxorubicin-induced MAPK activation. In sum, our findings indicate that TRIB3 plays an anti-apoptotic role in doxorubicin-treated gastric cancer cell lines, perhaps indicating that the status of TRIB3 expression in response to anticancer drugs, such as doxorubicin, irinotecan or oxaliplatin, may reflect the efficiency for cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Liposomal delivery of doxorubicin to hepatocytes in vivo by targeting heparan sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Longmuir, Kenneth J.; Haynes, Sherry M.; Baratta, Janie L.; Kasabwalla, Natasha; Robertson, Richard T.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work demonstrated that liposomes, containing an amino acid sequence that binds to hepatic heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan, show effective targeting to liver hepatocytes. These liposomes were tested to determine whether they can deliver doxorubicin selectively to liver and hepatocytes in vivo. Fluid-phase liposomes contained a lipid-anchored 19-amino acid glycosaminoglycan targeting peptide. Liposomes were loaded with doxorubicin and were non-leaky in the presence of serum. After intravenous administration to mice, organs were harvested and the doxorubicin content extracted and measured by fluorescence intensity and by fluorescence microscopy. The liposomal doxorubicin was recovered almost entirely from liver, with only trace amounts detectable in heart, lung, and kidney. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated doxorubicin preferentially in hepatocytes, also in non-parenchymal cells of the liver, but not in cells of heart, lung or kidney. The doxorubicin was localized within liver cell nuclei within five minutes after intravenous injection. These studies demonstrated that liposomal doxorubicin can be effectively delivered to hepatocytes by targeting the heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan of liver tissue. With the composition described here, the doxorubicin was rapidly released from the liposomes without the need for an externally supplied stimulus. PMID:19664697

  6. Antitumor Properties of Modified Detonation Nanodiamonds and Sorbed Doxorubicin on the Model of Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Medvedeva, N N; Zhukov, E L; Inzhevatkin, E V; Bezzabotnov, V E

    2016-01-01

    We studied antitumor properties of modified detonation nanodiamonds loaded with doxorubicin on in vivo model of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The type of tumor development and morphological characteristics of the liver, kidneys, and spleen were evaluated in experimental animals. Modified nanodiamonds injected intraperitoneally produced no antitumor effect on Ehrlich carcinoma. However, doxorubicin did not lose antitumor activity after sorption on modified nanodiamonds.

  7. Use of Anionic Liposomes for the Reduction of Chronic Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forssen, Eric A.; Tokes, Zoltan A.

    1981-03-01

    Anionic liposomes containing doxorubicin were evaluated in mice for therapeutic potential in reducing the risks of chronic cardiotoxicity characteristic of long-term high-dose anthracycline therapy. Doxorubicin first was complexed to phosphatidylcholine and then entrapped in anionic vesicles. Quantitation of myocardial injury was accomplished through examination of thin sections of cardiac tissue by light microscopy. At treatment levels of either 20 or 40 mg/kg (total dose), mice receiving liposomal doxorubicin had toxicity scores indistinguishable from or only slightly greater than those of saline-treated controls. Similar total doses of free drug produced moderate to severe myocardial damage and yielded much higher toxicity scores. Mixture of free doxorubicin with empty liposomes did not alleviate cardiac toxicity, indicating that the drug must be entrapped within phospholipid vesicles for reduction in toxicity. The inhibition of body growth produced by free doxorubicin at both dose levels was also completely eliminated by encapsulation in liposomes. Doxorubicin liposomes were also tested for chemotherapeutic potential against L-1210 and P-388 murine leukemias. In all cases, treatment with liposomal doxorubicin produced increases in life-span greater than that observed for free drug. We conclude that anionic liposomes can function as efficacious carriers of doxorubicin. These vesicles possess improved therapeutic action as reflected by their ability to reduce cardiac toxicity, overcome growth inhibition, and increase antileukemic activity.

  8. Polyelectrolyte-Mediated Transport of Doxorubicin Through the Bilayer Lipid Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A.; Kitaeva, Marina V.; Melik-Nubarov, Nikolay S.; Menger, Frederic M.

    A model is developed for the effect of ionic polymers on the transport of doxorubicin, an antitumor drug, through a bilayer membrane. Accordingly, a protonated (cationic) form of doxorubicin binds to an anionic polymer, poly(acrylic acid), the resulting complex being several hundred nanometers in size. Nevertheless, large complex species associate with neutral egg lecithin liposomes by means of hydrophobic attraction between the doxorubicin and the liposome bilayer. Then, the doxorubicin enters the liposome interior which has been imparted with an acidic buffer to protonate the doxorubicin. The rate of transmembrane Dox permeation decreases when elevating the polyacid-to-doxorubicin ratio. A cationic polymer, polylysine, being coupled with liposomes containing the negative lipid cardiolipin, accelerates membrane transport of doxorubicin with the maximum rate at a complete neutralization of the membrane charge by an interacting polycation. The effect of a polycation on doxorubicin transport becomes more pronounced as small negative liposomes (60-80 nm in diameter) are changed to larger ones (approx. 600 nm in diameter). An opportunity thus opens up for the manipulation of the kinetics of drug uptake by cells and, ultimately, the control of the pharmaceutical action of drugs.

  9. The sulphydryl containing ACE inhibitor Zofenoprilat protects coronary endothelium from Doxorubicin-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Monti, Martina; Terzuoli, Erika; Ziche, Marina; Morbidelli, Lucia

    2013-10-01

    Pediatric and adult cancer patients, following the use of the antitumor drug Doxorubicin develop cardiotoxicity. Pharmacological protection of microvascular endothelium might produce a double benefit: (i) reduction of myocardial toxicity (the primary target of Doxorubicin action) and (ii) maintenance of the vascular functionality for the adequate delivery of chemotherapeutics to tumor cells. This study was aimed to evaluate the mechanisms responsible of the protective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) Zofenoprilat against the toxic effects exerted by Doxorubicin on coronary microvascular endothelium. We found that exposure of endothelial cells to Doxorubicin (0.1-1μM range) impaired cell survival by promoting their apoptosis. ERK1/2 related p53 activation, but not reactive oxygen species, was responsible for Doxorubicin induced caspase-3 cleavage. P53 mediated-apoptosis and impairment of survival were reverted by treatment with Zofenoprilat. The previously described PI-3K/eNOS/endogenous fibroblast growth factor signaling was not involved in the protective effect, which, instead, could be ascribed to cystathionine gamma lyase dependent availability of H2S from Zofenoprilat. Furthermore, considering the tumor environment, the treatment of endothelial/tumor co-cultures with Zofenoprilat did not affect the antitumor efficacy of Doxorubicin. In conclusion the ACEI Zofenoprilat exerts a protective effect on Doxorubicin induced endothelial damage, without affecting its antitumor efficacy. Thus, sulfhydryl containing ACEI may be a useful therapy for Doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.

  10. The regulatory mechanisms of myogenin expression in doxorubicin-treated rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Ting; Huang, Shih-Ming; Ho, Ching-Liang; Yen, Li-Chen; Huang, Chi-Jung; Lin, Wei-Shiang; Chan, James Yi-Hsin

    2015-11-10

    Doxorubicin, an anthracycline antibiotic, has been used as an anti-neoplastic drug for almost 60 years. However, the mechanism(s) by which anthracyclines cause irreversible myocardial injury remains unclear. In order to delineate possible molecular signals involved in the myocardial toxicity, we assessed candidate genes using mRNA expression profiling in the doxorubicin-treated rat cardiomyocyte H9c2 cell line. In the study, it was confirmed that myogenin, an important transcriptional factor for muscle terminal differentiation, was significantly reduced by doxorubicin in a dose-dependent manner using both RT-PCR and western blot analyses. Also, it was identified that the doxorubicin-reduced myogenin gene level could not be rescued by most cardio-protectants. Furthermore, it was demonstrated how the signaling of the decreased myogenin expression by doxorubicin was altered at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and translational levels. Based on these findings, a working model was proposed for relieving doxorubicin-associated myocardial toxicity by down-regulating miR-328 expression and increasing voltage-gated calcium channel β1 expression, which is a repressor of myogenin gene regulation. In summary, this study provides several lines of evidence indicating that myogenin is the target for doxorubicin-induced cardio-toxicity and a novel therapeutic strategy for doxorubicin clinical applications based on the regulatory mechanisms of myogenin expression.

  11. Impact of body composition on pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin in children: A Glaser Pediatric Research Network study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied the relationship between doxorubicin pharmacokinetics and body composition in children with cancer. Children between 1 and 21 years of age, receiving doxorubicin as an infusion of any duration <24 h on either a 1-day or 2-day schedule, were eligible if they had no significant abnormality ...

  12. Kinetics and mechanism of bimolecular electron transfer reaction in quinone-amine systems in micellar solution

    SciTech Connect

    Kumbhakar, Manoj; Nath, Sukhendu; Mukherjee, Tulsi; Pal, Haridas

    2005-02-22

    Photoinduced electron transfer (ET) reactions between anthraquinone derivatives and aromatic amines have been investigated in sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) micellar solutions. Significant static quenching of the quinone fluorescence due to high amine concentration in the micellar phase has been observed in steady-state measurements. The bimolecular rate constants for the dynamic quenching in the present systems k{sub q}{sup TR}, as estimated from the time-resolved measurements, have been correlated with the free energy changes {delta}G{sup 0} for the ET reactions. Interestingly it is seen that the k{sub q}{sup TR} vs {delta}G{sup 0} plot displays an inversion behavior with maximum k{sub q}{sup TR} at around 0.7 eV, a trend similar to that predicted in Marcus ET theory. Like the present results, Marcus inversion in the k{sub q}{sup TR} values was also observed earlier in coumarin-amine systems in SDS and TX-100 micellar solutions, with maximum k{sub q}{sup TR} at around the same exergonicity. These results thus suggest that Marcus inversion in bimolecular ET reaction is a general phenomenon in micellar media. Present observations have been rationalized on the basis of the two-dimensional ET (2DET) theory, which seems to be more suitable for micellar ET reactions than the conventional ET theory. For the quinone-amine systems, it is interestingly seen that k{sub q}{sup TR} vs {delta}G{sup 0} plot is somewhat wider in comparison to that of the coumarin-amine systems, even though the maxima in the k{sub q}{sup TR} vs {delta}G{sup 0} plots appear at almost similar exergonicity for both the acceptor-donor systems. These observations have been rationalized on the basis of the differences in the reaction windows along the solvation axis, as envisaged within the framework of the 2DET theory, and arise due to the differences in the locations of the quinones and coumarin dyes in the micellar phase.

  13. Conformational transition and mass transfer in extraction of proteins by AOT--alcohol--isooctane reverse micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Hong, D P; Lee, S S; Kuboi, R

    2000-06-23

    We examined quantitatively the effect of alcohols on protein and reverse micellar structure. We used circular dichroism (CD) to compare the effects of various alcohols on the protein structure, and percolation phenomena to evaluate the effects of various alcohols on reverse micellar structure. Upon the addition of alcohols to the bulk aqueous phase, proteins were denatured significantly, depending on the alcohol species and concentration, suggesting that use of alcohol directly to the stripping solution is not effective in back-extraction processes of proteins. In the present study, a new method, a small amount of alcohol is added to the surfactant-organic solution to improve the back-extraction behaviors of proteins. Practically, in the back-extraction process, the alcohols suppressing the cluster formation of reverse micelles (high value of beta1), remarkably improved the back-extraction behavior of proteins. In addition, the same alcohol molecules showed a positive effect on the rate and fraction of protein back-extraction. From a result of the CD measurement of the back-extracted proteins, it was known that the alcohols added to reverse micellar solution allowed the proteins to back-extract safely without causing structural changes. These results show that the values of beta(t), defined by the variation of percolation processes, and the back-extraction behaviors of proteins have a good relationship, suggesting that the back-extraction processes were controlled by the micellar-micellar and protein-micellar interactions.

  14. Conductometric, surface tension, and kinetic studies in mixed SDS-Tween 20 and SDS-SB3-12 micellar solutions.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, María; Rodríguez, Amalia; Graciani, María Del Mar; Moyá, María Luisa

    2004-12-07

    Micellization in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-N-dodecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propanesulfonate and SDS-polyoxyethylenesorbitan monolaurate binary surfactant solutions was studied by means of conductivity and surface tension measurements. These studies showed that two types of micellar aggregates are present in the mixed micellar solutions. Two reactions were investigated in these micellar media, the oxidation of 1-methoxy-4-(methylthio)benzene by IO(4)(-) and the spontaneous hydrolysis of phenyl chloroformate. Information on the distribution of reagents in the micellar reaction media was obtained through conductivity and spectroscopic measurements. Discussion of the kinetic data showed that the redox reaction takes place mainly in the aqueous phase of the mixed solutions, whereas hydrolysis occurs in the aqueous as well as in the micellar pseudophase. Variations in the observed rate constants of the two processes studied are gradual within the whole surfactant concentration range investigated, revealing little information about the mixed micellar medium.

  15. Chemical screening identifies the β-Carboline alkaloid harmine to be synergistically lethal with doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Atteya, Reham; Ashour, Mohamed E; Ibrahim, Elsayed E; Farag, Mohamed A; El-Khamisy, Sherif F

    2017-01-01

    Despite being an invaluable chemotherapeutic agent for several types of cancer, the clinical utility of doxorubicin is hampered by its age-related and dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Co-administration of dexrazoxane as a cardioprotective agent has been proposed, however recent studies suggest that it attenuates doxorubicin-induced antitumor activity. Since compounds of natural origin present a rich territory for drug discovery, we set out to identify putative natural compounds with the view to mitigate or minimize doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. We identify the DYRK1A kinase inhibitor harmine, which phosphorylates Tau that is deregulated in Alzheimer's disease, as a potentiator of cell death induced by non-toxic doses of doxorubicin. These observations suggest that harmine or other compounds that target the DYRK1A kinase my offer a new therapeutic opportunity to suppress doxorubicin age-related and dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the paclitaxel vehicle, Cremophor EL, on the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Webster, L. K.; Cosson, E. J.; Stokes, K. H.; Millward, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of the paclitaxel vehicle Cremophor on the pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol was studied in two groups of mice given intravenously either 2.5 ml kg-1 Cremophor or saline followed 5 min later by 10 mg kg-1 doxorubicin. In each group three mice were sacrificed at ten time points and doxorubicin and doxorubicinol were measured in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). With Cremophor present, doxorubicin AUC increased from 1420+/-440 to 2770+/-660 ng h ml(-1) (P<0.05) and doxorubicinol AUC increased from 130+/-76 to 320+/-88 ng h ml(-1) (p<0.05). Neither the terminal elimination half-lives nor the doxorubicinol-doxorubicin AUC ratio changed in the presence of Cremophor, suggesting a lack of a direct effect on drug metabolism. The possibility exists the Cremophor may change the pharmacokinetics of both paclitaxel and other drugs given concurrently. PMID:8595168

  17. Modified-chitosan nanoparticles: Novel drug delivery systems improve oral bioavailability of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Khdair, Ayman; Hamad, Islam; Alkhatib, Hatim; Bustanji, Yasser; Mohammad, Mohammad; Tayem, Rabab; Aiedeh, Khaled

    2016-10-10

    The efficacy of most anticancer drugs is highly limited in vivo due mainly to poor pharmacokinetics behavior including poor bioavailability after extravascular administration. We have developed novel chitosan-modified polymeric nanoparticles for oral as well as i.v. administration. Nanoparticles were developed utilizing the double emulsion solvent evaporation technique for sustained delivery of various anticancer drugs. Chitosan diacetate (CDA) and chitosan triacetate (CTA) polymers were previously modified in our laboratory and used as novel matrix. Nanoparticles, loaded with various anticancer drugs, were characterized for particle size using dynamic light scattering as well as transmission electron microscopy and net surface charge using dynamic light scattering. Particles size was below 100nm in diameter and zeta potential ranged - (25-30). Encapsulation efficiency of anticancer drugs varied considerably and was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the encapsulated drug. However, chitosan triacetate nanoparticles showed relatively higher encapsulation efficiency than chitosan diacetate nanoparticles. In vitro release of encapsulated drugs was sustained over a period of 14days. Nanoparticles enhanced cellular accumulation of encapsulated drugs, compared to the free drugs, in vitro in MCF-7 and Caco-II tumor cell lines. In conclusion, diacetate and triacetate chitosan are novel polymers that can be used to formulate nanoparticles which efficiently encapsulated anticancer drugs, and sustained the release and enhanced tumor cellular uptake of these drugs. Further, chitosan triacetate nanoparticles enhanced oral bioavailability of doxorubicin. CDA and CTA nanoparticles can be used to efficiently deliver anticancer drugs and improve their in vivo profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication of doxorubicin nanoparticles by controlled antisolvent precipitation for enhanced intracellular delivery.

    PubMed

    Tam, Yu Tong; To, Kenneth Kin Wah; Chow, Albert Hee Lum

    2016-03-01

    Over-expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters is one of the most important mechanisms responsible for multidrug resistance. Here, we aimed to develop a stable polymeric nanoparticle system by flash nanoprecipitation (FNP) for enhanced anticancer drug delivery into drug resistant cancer cells. As an antisolvent precipitation process, FNP works best for highly lipophilic solutes (logP>6). Thus we also aimed to evaluate the applicability of FNP to drugs with relatively low lipophilicity (logP=1-2). To this end, doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline anticancer agent and a P-gp substrate with a logP of 1.3, was selected as a model drug for the assessment. DOX was successfully incorporated into the amphiphilic diblock copolymer, polyethylene glycol-b-polylactic acid (PEG-b-PLA), by FNP using a four-stream multi-inlet vortex mixer. Optimization of key processing parameters and co-formulation with the co-stabilizer, polyvinylpyrrolidone, yielded highly stable, roughly spherical DOX-loaded PEG-b-PLA nanoparticles (DOX.NP) with mean particle size below 100nm, drug loading up to 14%, and drug encapsulation efficiency up to 49%. DOX.NP exhibited a pH-dependent drug release profile with higher cumulative release rate at acidic pHs. Surface analysis of DOX.NP by XPS revealed an absence of DOX on the particle surface, indicative of complete drug encapsulation. While there were no significant differences in cytotoxic effect on P-gp over-expressing LCC6/MDR cell line between DOX.NP and free DOX in buffered aqueous media, DOX.NP exhibited a considerably higher cellular uptake and intracellular retention after efflux. The apparent lack of cytotoxicity enhancement with DOX.NP may be attributable to its slow DOX release inside the cells.

  19. Kinetic study of the reaction *[Ru(bpy) 3] 2++S 2O 82- in solutions of Brij-35 at premicellar and micellar concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Cornejo, P.; Mozo, J. D.; Roldán, E.; Domínguez, M.; Sánchez, F.

    2002-01-01

    The title reaction was studied in solutions of polyoxyethylene(23) lauryl ether (Brij-35) at premicellar and micellar concentrations. The reaction rate goes through a maximum, which appears at a concentration close to the critical micellar concentration (cmc). The results can be rationalized by an extension of previous models on premicellar and micellar effects on the kinetics of reactions. This model can explain similar results from other groups.

  20. Doxorubicin-induced canine CHF: advantages and disadvantages.

    PubMed

    Astra, Louis I; Hammond, Robert; Tarakji, Khaldoun; Stephenson, Larry W

    2003-01-01

    The dog is the most commonly used laboratory animal for heart surgery research. It has been difficult, however, to develop a canine chronic heart failure model, particularly without associated significant tachycardia. Our objective is to utilize intracoronary doxorubicin at various doses to evaluate a chronic model of left ventricular dysfunction and develop a dose-response relationship. In 18 dogs, we evaluated their hemodynamic function, placed an in-dwelling intracoronary catheter, and then administered four weekly infusions of doxorubicin at 5 mg (n = 6), 10 mg (n = 6), or 15 mg (n = 6). Hemodynamic measurements were taken again at 4-5 weeks after infusion, and a final measurement at 14-18 weeks. RESULTS (See table): In the low dose group, all six animals survived the post-infusion period. Cardiac output changed from 2.9 +/- 0.2 to 2.2 +/- 0.5. The medium dose group had a mortality of 33% (2/6 dogs), with a moderate decrease in cardiac output (3.1 +/- 0.4 to 2.3 +/- 0.3 L/min). The high dose group had a mortality of 67% (4/6 dogs), with a dramatic decrease in cardiac output (3.0 +/- 0.2 L/min to 1.6 +/- 0.7 L/min (p < 0.05). None of the dogs developed a significant tachycardia. This study reconfirms that doxorubicin, when given into the coronary arteries, induces cardiac dysfunction. It appears to be dose-dependent, but more importantly, in doses where the LV dysfunction yields overt heart failure; the mortality over 14 weeks is significant and likely unacceptable for most chronic heart failure studies.

  1. Novel tetrapeptide, RGDF, mediated tumor specific liposomal doxorubicin (DOX) preparations.

    PubMed

    Du, Huirui; Cui, Chunying; Wang, Lili; Liu, Hu; Cui, Guohui

    2011-08-01

    Arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) has been shown to possess a strong affinity for the integrins overexpressed in tumor cells, especially during tumor invasion, angiogenesis and metasis. Based on work from others, a novel tetrapeptide, arginine-glycine-aspartate-phenylanaline (RGDF), has been designed and studied as a homing device to direct liposomal doxorubicin (DOX) to tumor cells in this work. In order to incorporate RGDF into liposomal DOX preparations, RGDF was conjugated with three different fatty alcohols to achieve RGDF-fatty alcohol conjugates. Glycine-glycine-aspartate-phenylanaline (GGDF)-lauryl alcohol conjugate was synthesized as a negative control. RGDF-fatty alcohol conjugates (RGDFO(CH(2))(n)CH(3)) and GGDF-lauryl alcohol conjugate (L-GGDFC12-DOX) incorporated liposomal preparations were obtained by first preparing liposomes using the film dispersion method followed by loading DOX using a transmembrane pH gradient method. Because of their amphipathic nature, RGDF- or GGDF-fatty alcohol conjugates are expected to be readily incorporated into liposomes with their fatty alkanyl chains being intercalated between fatty acyl chains of liposomal bilayers and the hydrophilic peptide moiety (RGDF or GGDF) being anchored on the surface of liposomes. The particle size and zeta potential of liposomal DOX preparations containing RGDF-fatty alcohol conjugate (L-RGDF-DOXs) or L-GGDFC12-DOX were measured, and their morphology was studied using transmission electron microscopy. In vitro DOX release profile from RGDF incorporated liposomal DOX was measured. The antitumor activities of RGDF incorporated liposomal DOX preparations were evaluated in ICR mice inoculated with sarcoma S(180), which is known to express α(v)β(3) integrin. Both conventional liposomal DOX preparation (L-DOX) without RGDFO(CH(2))(n)CH(3) and L-GGDFC12-DOX were used as negative controls. Our results showed improved tumor growth inhibition with L-RGDF-DOXs over doxorubicin hydrochloride solution

  2. Zero order delivery of itraconazole via polymeric micelles incorporated in situ ocular gel for the management of fungal keratitis.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Munmun; Kumar, Manish; Pathak, Kamla

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the role of amphiphilic block copolymer-based polymeric micelles of itraconazole for the management of fungal keratitis to overcome the limitations of the conventional dosage form. The polymeric micelles were made using pluronics above critical micelle concentration. Itraconazole-loaded polymeric micelles prepared by rotary evaporation method were characterized and the optimized micellar formulation (M5) was selected on the basis of least micelle size (79.99 nm), maximum entrapment efficiency (91.32%±1.73%) and in vitro permeation (90.28%±0.31%) in 8h, that best fitted zero-order kinetics. M5 was developed as pH sensitive in situ gel and characterized for various parameters. The optimized in situ gel (F5) proved to be superior in its ex vivo transcorneal permeation when compared with Itral(®) eye drop and pure drug suspension, exhibiting 41.45%±0.87% permeation with zero-order kinetics (r(2)=0.994) across goat cornea. Transmission electron microscopy revealed spherical polymeric micelles entrapped in the gel matrix. A spectrum of tests revealed hydration capability, non-irritancy, and histologically safe gel formulation that had appropriate handling characteristics. Conclusively, a controlled release pH-sensitive ocular formulation capable of carrying drug to the anterior segment of the eye via topical delivery was successfully developed for the treatment of fungal keratitis.

  3. Stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in isolated rat heart

    SciTech Connect

    Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Baccouch, Riadh; Modine, Thomas; Preau, Sebastien; Zannis, Konstantinos; Marchetti, Philippe; Lancel, Steve; Neviere, Remi

    2010-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of doxorubicin on left ventricular function and cellular energy state in intact isolated hearts, and, to test whether inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation would prevent doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial and myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial contractile performance and mitochondrial respiration were evaluated by left ventricular tension and its first derivatives and cardiac fiber respirometry, respectively. NADH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose uptake were monitored non-invasively via epicardial imaging of the left ventricular wall of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Heart performance was reduced in a time-dependent manner in isolated rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 1 muM doxorubicin. Compared with controls, doxorubicin induced acute myocardial dysfunction (dF/dt{sub max} of 105 +- 8 mN/s in control hearts vs. 49 +- 7 mN/s in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). In cardiac fibers prepared from perfused hearts, doxorubicin induced depression of mitochondrial respiration (respiratory control ratio of 4.0 +- 0.2 in control hearts vs. 2.2 +- 0.2 in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05) and cytochrome c oxidase kinetic activity (24 +- 1 muM cytochrome c/min/mg in control hearts vs. 14 +- 3 muM cytochrome c/min/mg in doxorubicin-treated hearts; *p < 0.05). Acute cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin was accompanied by NADH redox state, mitochondrial membrane potential, and glucose uptake reduction. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening by cyclosporine A largely prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cardiac energy state and dysfunction. These results suggest that in intact hearts an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is involved in the development of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity.

  4. Stabilization of mitochondrial membrane potential prevents doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in isolated rat heart.

    PubMed

    Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Baccouch, Riadh; Modine, Thomas; Preau, Sebastien; Zannis, Konstantinos; Marchetti, Philippe; Lancel, Steve; Neviere, Remi

    2010-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of doxorubicin on left ventricular function and cellular energy state in intact isolated hearts, and, to test whether inhibition of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation would prevent doxorubicin-induced mitochondrial and myocardial dysfunction. Myocardial contractile performance and mitochondrial respiration were evaluated by left ventricular tension and its first derivatives and cardiac fiber respirometry, respectively. NADH levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and glucose uptake were monitored non-invasively via epicardial imaging of the left ventricular wall of Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Heart performance was reduced in a time-dependent manner in isolated rat hearts perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 1 microM doxorubicin. Compared with controls, doxorubicin induced acute myocardial dysfunction (dF/dt(max) of 105+/-8 mN/s in control hearts vs. 49+/-7 mN/s in doxorubicin-treated hearts; p<0.05). In cardiac fibers prepared from perfused hearts, doxorubicin induced depression of mitochondrial respiration (respiratory control ratio of 4.0+/-0.2 in control hearts vs. 2.2+/-0.2 in doxorubicin-treated hearts; p<0.05) and cytochrome c oxidase kinetic activity (24+/-1 microM cytochrome c/min/mg in control hearts vs. 14+/-3 microM cytochrome c/min/mg in doxorubicin-treated hearts; p<0.05). Acute cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin was accompanied by NADH redox state, mitochondrial membrane potential, and glucose uptake reduction. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening by cyclosporine A largely prevented mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation, cardiac energy state and dysfunction. These results suggest that in intact hearts an impairment of mitochondrial metabolism is involved in the development of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modulation of Induced Cytotoxicity of Doxorubicin by Using Apoferritin and Liposomal Cages

    PubMed Central

    Gumulec, Jaromir; Fojtu, Michaela; Raudenska, Martina; Sztalmachova, Marketa; Skotakova, Anna; Vlachova, Jana; Skalickova, Sylvie; Nejdl, Lukas; Kopel, Pavel; Knopfova, Lucia; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene; Stiborova, Marie; Babula, Petr; Masarik, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Doxorubicin is an effective chemotherapeutic drug, however, its toxicity is a significant limitation in therapy. Encapsulation of doxorubicin inside liposomes or ferritin cages decreases cardiotoxicity while maintaining anticancer potency. We synthesized novel apoferritin- and liposome-encapsulated forms of doxorubicin (“Apodox” and “lip-8-dox”) and compared its toxicity with doxorubicin and Myocet on prostate cell lines. Three different prostatic cell lines PNT1A, 22Rv1, and LNCaP were chosen. The toxicity of the modified doxorubicin forms was compared to conventional doxorubicin using the MTT assay, real-time cell impedance-based cell growth method (RTCA), and flow cytometry. The efficiency of doxorubicin entrapment was 56% in apoferritin cages and 42% in the liposome carrier. The accuracy of the RTCA system was verified by flow-cytometric analysis of cell viability. The doxorubicin half maximal inhibition concentrations (IC50) were determined as 170.5, 234.0, and 169.0 nM for PNT1A, 22Rv1, and LNCaP, respectively by RTCA. Lip8-dox is less toxic on the non-tumor cell line PNT1A compared to doxorubicin, while still maintaining the toxicity to tumorous cell lines similar to doxorubicin or epirubicin (IC50 = 2076.7 nM for PNT1A vs. 935.3 and 729.0 nM for 22Rv1 and LNCaP). Apodox IC50 was determined as follows: 603.1, 1344.2, and 931.2 nM for PNT1A, 22Rv1, and LNCaP. PMID:25514405

  6. LC-MS/MS method development for quantification of doxorubicin and its metabolite 13-hydroxy doxorubicin in mice biological matrices: Application to a pharmaco-delivery study.

    PubMed

    Mazzucchelli, Serena; Ravelli, Alessandro; Gigli, Fausto; Minoli, Mauro; Corsi, Fabio; Ciuffreda, Pierangela; Ottria, Roberta

    2017-04-01

    This study describes the development of simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of doxorubicin and its major metabolite, doxorubicinol, in mouse plasma, urine and tissues. The calibration curves were linear over the range 5-250 ng/mL for doxorubicin and 1.25-25 ng/mL for doxorubicinol in plasma and tumor, over the range 25-500 ng/mL for doxorubicin and 1.25-25 ng/mL for doxorubicinol in liver and kidney, and over the range 25-1000 ng/mL for doxorubicin and doxorubicinol in urine. The study was validated, using quality control samples prepared in all different matrices, for accuracy, precision, linearity, selectivity, lower limit of quantification and recovery in accordance with the US Food & Drug Administration guidelines. The method was successfully applied in determining the pharmaco-distribution of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol after intravenously administration in tumor-bearing mice of drug, free or nano-formulated in ferritin nanoparticles or in liposomes. Obtained results demonstrate an effective different distribution and doxorubicin protection against metabolism linked to nano-formulation. This method, thanks to its validation in plasma and urine, could be a powerful tool for pharmaceutical research and therapeutic drug monitoring, which is a clinical approach currently used in the optimization of oncologic treatments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Application of micellar electrokinetic chromatography to the determination of sultamicillin in oral pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Pajchel, Genowefa; Tyski, Stefan

    2002-12-06

    A micellar electrokinetic capillary electrophoretic method for determination of sultamicillin in Unasyn oral preparations--tablets and suspension--was evaluated. Phosphate-borate buffer at pH 7.0 containing 1.0% sodium dodecylsulfate was used as a mobile phase. The elaborated method ensures separation of sultamicillin from p-toluenesulfonic acid and the impurities, ampicillin, sulbactam and penicillamine. The method was validated for specificity, reproducibility, precision, accuracy and assay linearity (in a concentration range of sultamicillin of 0.05-1.5 mg/ml). Statistical analysis by Student's t-test showed no significant differences between the results obtained by micellar electrokinetic chromatography and HPLC, t(calculated) 0.519 for suspension assays and 0.284 for tablets assays were smaller then t(tabulated).

  8. Epigallocatechin gallate decreases the micellar solubility of cholesterol via specific interaction with phosphatidylcholine.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Nishizawa, Masato; Inoue, Nao; Hosoya, Takahiro; Yoshida, Masahito; Ukawa, Yuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M; Doi, Takayuki; Nakayama, Tsutomu; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2014-04-02

    The mechanisms underlying the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the micellar solubility of cholesterol were examined. EGCG eliminated both cholesterol and phosphatidylcholine (PC) from bile salt micelles in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. When the bile salt micelles contained a phospholipid other than PC, neither cholesterol nor the phospholipid was eliminated following the addition of EGCG. When vesicles comprised of various phospholipids were prepared and, EGCG was added to the vesicles, EGCG effectively and exclusively eliminated only PC. An intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) was observed between PC and EGCG in bile salt micelles with EGCG added, but not between cholesterol and EGCG, by using a NOE-correlated spectroscopy nuclear magnetic resonance method. The results of binding analyses using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) showed that EGCG did not bind to cholesterol. These observations strongly suggest that EGCG decreases the micellar solubility of cholesterol via specific interaction with PC.

  9. Structural micellar transition for fluorinated and hydrogenated sodium carboxylates induced by solubilization of benzyl alcohol.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Alfredo; Ruso, Juan M; Prieto, Gerardo; Sarmiento, Félix

    2004-09-28

    The solubility of benzyl alcohol in micellar solutions of sodium octanoate and sodium perfluorooctanoate was studied. From the isotherms of specific conductivity versus molality at different alcohol concentrations, the critical micelle concentration and the degree of ionization of the micelles were determined. The cmc linearly decreases upon increasing the amount of benzyl alcohol present in aqueous solutions with two distinct slopes. This phenomenon was interpreted as a clustering of alcohol molecules above a critical point, around 0.1 mol kg(-1). Attending to the equivalent conductivity versus square root of molality, the presence of a second micellar structure for the fluorinated compound was assumed. The thermodynamic parameters associated with the process of micellization were estimated by applying Motomura's model for binary surfactant mixtures, modified by Pérez-Villar et al. (Colloid Polym. Sci 1990, 268, 965) for the case of alcohol-surfactant solutions. A comparison of the hydrogenated and fluorinated compounds was carried out and discussed.

  10. Sedimentary facies analysis, El Dorado Field, Kansas, micellar chemical pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Tillman, R.W.; Jordan, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    The Permian 650-ft sand, one of several productive sands in the El Dorado Field, has yielded 36.5 million bbl by primary and secondary methods, with 71 million bbl remaining. During initial stages of the micellar-polymer tertiary recovery pilot project drilling in 1974, a phase I geologic analysis, using 7 cores, identified distributary channels and associated smaller splay channels as productive facies. The western edge of the pilot area was determined to have the best channel sandstone development. A 2-layer geologic facies model was proposed. Oriented cores were included in the drilling of 24 wells in Phase II. North and northeast flow directions were indicated for the channel sandstones. During Phase III four observation wells were cored. These wells were drilled at internals of 90ft (27 m) diagonally from earlier wells in the north and south block. Micellar injection for the pilot was completed in early 1979 and polmer injection followed.

  11. Laboratory core floods to support the El Dorado micellar/polymer project

    SciTech Connect

    Kellerhals, G.E.

    1982-06-01

    Two distinct micellar/polymer processes are being tested in the El Dorado project. In one pilot area, an oil-external micellar system followed by partically hydrolyzed polyacrylamide solution is being tested. In the north pattern, an aqueous surfactant system followed by xanthan gum solution is being implemented. From this work, the following conclusions are made. (1) Both the oleic and aqueous systems effectively displace residual oil from Berea sandstone. (2) Not surprisingly, oil recoveries with either the oil-external or the aqueous system were lower with stacked El Dorado cores than with Berea cores. (3) Higher concentrations of polymer in the polymer drive for the high-water content system appears to be more important to oil recovery than higher concentrations of surfactant in the surfactant slug. 27 refs.

  12. On-line micellar electrokinetic chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using anodically migrating micelles

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.; Harrata, A.K.; Lee, C.S. |

    1997-05-15

    On-line micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC)-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) is demonstrated for the analysis of chlorotriazine herbicides and barbiturates. In this study, the micellar velocity is directly manipulated by the adjustment of electroosmosis rather than the electrophoretic velocity of the micelle. The electroosmotic flow is adjusted against the electrophoretic velocity of the micelle by changing the solution pH in MEKC. The elimination of MEKC surfactant introduction into ESIMS is achieved with an anodically migrating micelle, moving away from the electrospray interface. The effects of moving surfactant boundary in the MEKC capillary on separation efficiency and resolution of triazine herbicides and barbiturates are investigated. The mass detection of herbicides and barbiturates sequentially eluted from the MEKC capillary is acquired using the positive and negative electrospray modes, respectively. 30 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Light-induced redox reactions of proflavin in aqueous and micellar solution

    SciTech Connect

    Pileni, M.P.; Graetzel, M.

    1980-09-18

    Primary photoprocesses and photochemical behavior of proflavin (PF) were investigated in aqueous and anionic micellar solution. Micellar effects are noted in the pK of the singlet and triplet excited states, which are due to differences in surface and bulk pH. The photoredox behavior is distinguished by (1) a monophotonic photoionization process and T-T annihilation leading to production of oxidized and reduced proflavin radicals in water solution, and (2) a biphotonic photoionization process in NaLS solution. Because of strong adsorption of PF on the surface of anionic micelles, the T-T annihilation is impaired in the surfactant solutions. Reduced PF radicals are also produced in aqueous solution in the presence of triethanolamine, where reductive quenching of the triplet states is dominant. They are distinguished by a long lifetime and a high reactivity toward colloidal platinum. The kinetics of intervention of this catalyst in the radical reaction is illustrated directly. 8 figures.

  14. Analysis of different beta-lactams antibiotics in pharmaceutical preparations using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pérez, M I Bailón; Rodríguez, L Cuadros; Cruces-Blanco, C

    2007-01-17

    The potential of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) for analyzing nine beta-lactams antibiotics (cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, penicillin G, penicillin V, ampicillin, nafcillin, piperacillin, amoxicillin) in different pharmaceutical preparations, have been demonstrated. An experimental design strategy has been applied to optimize the main variables: pH and buffer concentration, concentration of the micellar medium, separation voltage and capillary temperature. Borate buffer (26mM) at pH 8.5 containing 100mM sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used as the background electrolyte. The method was validated. Linearity, limit of detection and quantitation and precision were established for each compound. The analysis of some of the beta-lactams in Orbenin capsules, Britapen tables and in Veterin-Micipen injectable, all used in human and veterinary medicine, have demonstrated the applicability of these technique for quality control in the pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Prediction of the Reverse Micellar Extraction of Papain Using Dissipative Particle Dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mingxiang; Yu, Tingting; Wan, Junfen; Cao, Xuejun

    2017-04-01

    Reverse micellar extraction is a promising technology for large-scale protein purification, but its molecular interaction mechanisms have not been thoroughly characterized. In this study, a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) molecular simulation method was employed to study the interactions among the surfactant, organic phase, water, and proteins on the mesoscopic scale. This study simulated the self-assembly process of the reverse micelle extraction of papain. The results showed that the papain could be extracted by a CTAB/isooctane/n-hexanol system, which was validated by extraction experiments. The optimized extraction recovery was 76.9 %. This study elucidates the molecular process of the reverse micellar extraction of proteins and provides a method to predict its efficacy.

  16. Modeling of formation of nanoparticles in reverse micellar systems: Ostwald ripening of silver halide particles.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Diwakar; Joshi, Abhijeet A; Mehra, Anurag

    2009-04-09

    There are many possible size enhancement processes that affect the formation of nanoparticles in reverse micelles, such as coagulation and Ostwald ripening, and different physical systems are likely to follow one or more of these mechanisms depending upon the properties of the system. It has been suggested that silver halide particles, prepared from a reverse micellar system of AgNO3 and KCl in NP-6/cyclohexane solution, increase in size due to Ostwald ripening (Kimijima, K.; Sugimoto, T. J. Phys. Chem. B 2004, 108, 3735), which occurs due to the dependence of the solubility of the particles on the particle size so that the larger particles grow at the expense of smaller particles. This study provides a modeling framework to quantitatively analyze the ripening process of nanoparticles produced in reverse micellar systems.

  17. Mixed-micellar proliposomal systems for enhanced oral delivery of progesterone.

    PubMed

    Potluri, Praveen; Betageri, Guru V

    2006-01-01

    The objective of our study was to develop a mixed-micellar proliposomal formulation of poorly water-soluble drug progesterone and evaluate the dissolution profile and membrane transport. Several formulations of proliposomes were prepared by mixing different concentrations of lipid, progesterone, polysorbate 80, and microcrystalline cellulose. The mixed-micellar formulation of drug:dimyristoyl-phosphatidycholine:polysorbate 80 (1:20:3.3) exhibited the maximum dissolution (75.27%), while pure progesterone resulted in low dissolution. The above formulation showed a 4-fold increase in transport in Caco-2 cells and a 6-fold increase in transport across the everted rat intestinal sac experiments compared with control. Proliposomal formulations enhance the extent of dissolution and membrane transport of progesterone and serve as ideal carriers for oral delivery of drugs with low water solubility.

  18. Regulation of catalytic activity of acid phosphatase by lipids in a reverse micellar system.

    PubMed

    Kudryashova, E V; Bronza, V L; Levashov, A V

    2009-03-01

    The influence of biomembrane lipids on the catalytic activity of a peripheral membrane enzyme, acid phosphatase (AP), was studied in a reverse micellar system. It was found that the interaction of AP with lipids led to a number of kinetic effects depending on lipid nature on enzyme function. The observed effects might be caused by the formation of lipoprotein complexes as well as by the influence of lipids on structure and properties of the micellar matrix. The results are important for clear understanding of molecular mechanisms of regulation of the catalytic activity of the membrane-associated enzyme in vivo. These data can also be used as a physicochemical basis for application of AP in medical fields as a diagnostic tool for diseases caused by changes in lipid metabolism, e.g. urinary, orthopedic, and allergic diseases.

  19. Regulation of acid phosphatase in reverse micellar system by lipids additives: structural aspects.

    PubMed

    Kudryashova, E V; Bronza, V L; Vinogradov, A A; Kamyshny, A; Magdassi, S; Levashov, A V

    2011-01-15

    Reverse micelles system is suggested as a direct tool to study the influence of membrane matrix composition on the activity and structure of membrane-associated enzymes with the use of acid phosphatase (AP) as an example. In reverse micelles the functioning of the monomeric and dimeric forms of AP could be separately observed by variation of the size of the micelles. We found that including the lipids into the micellar system can dramatically affect the enzyme functioning even at low lipid content (2% w/w), and this effect depends on the lipid nature. Structural studies using CD spectroscopy and DLS methods have shown that the influence of lipid composition on the enzyme properties might be caused by the interaction of lipids with the enzyme as well as by the influence of lipids on structure and properties of the micellar matrix. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrated extraction and purification of soy isoflavones by using aqueous micellar systems.

    PubMed

    Cordisco, Estefanía; Haidar, Carla N; Coscueta, Ezequiel R; Nerli, Bibiana B; Malpiedi, Luciana P

    2016-12-15

    In this work, an integration of solid-liquid and liquid-liquid extractions by using aqueous micellar two-phase systems was evaluated as potential tool to purify soy isoflavones. Additionally, the proposed methodology aimed to preserve the protein content of the processed soy flour. The extractive assays were performed in AMTPS formed by Triton X-114 and sodium tartrate. In order to optimize the purification process, temperature and time were evaluated as independent variables. Under optimal working conditions, i.e. 100min and 33°C of incubation, IF were purified with a recovery percentage of 93 and a purification factor of almost 10. More importantly, the obtained sample presented an aglycone proportion superior to the reported by other methodologies. These results open perspectives to the use of aqueous micellar two-phase systems as an integrative methodology to extract, concentrate and purify isoflavones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Production of monodisperse, polymeric microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Rhim, Won-Kyu (Inventor); Hyson, Michael T. (Inventor); Chang, Manchium (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Very small, individual polymeric microspheres with very precise size and a wide variation in monomer type and properties are produced by deploying a precisely formed liquid monomer droplet, suitably an acrylic compound such as hydroxyethyl methacrylate into a containerless environment. The droplet which assumes a spheroid shape is subjected to polymerizing radiation such as ultraviolet or gamma radiation as it travels through the environment. Polymeric microspheres having precise diameters varying no more than plus or minus 5 percent from an average size are recovered. Many types of fillers including magnetic fillers may be dispersed in the liquid droplet.

  2. Melting line of polymeric nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakub, L. N.

    2013-05-01

    We made an attempt to predict location of the melting line of polymeric nitrogen using two equations for Helmholtz free energy: proposed earlier for cubic gauche-structure and developed recently for liquid polymerized nitrogen. The P-T relation, orthobaric densities and latent heat of melting were determined using a standard double tangent construction. The estimated melting temperature decreases with increasing pressure, alike the temperature of molecular-nonmolecular transition in solid. We discuss the possibility of a triple point (solid-molecular fluid-polymeric fluid) at ˜80 GPa and observed maximum of melting temperature of nitrogen.

  3. Transepithelial Transport of Curcumin in Caco-2 Cells Is significantly Enhanced by Micellar Solubilisation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jan; Schiborr, Christina; Kocher, Alexa; Meins, Jürgen; Behnam, Dariush; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin, the active constituent of Curcuma longa L. (family Zingiberaceae), has gained increasing interest because of its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-rheumatic properties associated with good tolerability and safety up to very high doses of 12 g. Nanoscaled micellar formulations on the base of Tween 80 represent a promising strategy to overcome its low oral bioavailability. We therefore aimed to investigate the uptake and transepithelial transport of native curcumin (CUR) vs. a nanoscaled micellar formulation (Sol-CUR) in a Caco-2 cell model. Sol-CUR afforded a higher flux than CUR (39.23 vs. 4.98 μg min(-1) cm(-2), respectively). This resulted in a higher Papp value of 2.11 × 10(-6) cm/s for Sol-CUR compared to a Papp value of 0.56 × 10(-6) cm/s for CUR. Accordingly a nearly 9.5 fold higher amount of curcumin was detected on the basolateral side at the end of the transport experiments after 180 min with Sol-CUR compared to CUR. The determined 3.8-fold improvement in the permeability of curcumin is in agreement with an up to 185-fold increase in the AUC of curcumin observed in humans following the oral administration of the nanoscaled micellar formulation compared to native curcumin. The present study demonstrates that the enhanced oral bioavailability of micellar curcumin formulations is likely a result of enhanced absorption into and increased transport through small intestinal epithelial cells.

  4. Kinetic Glass Transition in a Micellar System with Short-Range Attractive Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Mallamace, F.; Gambadauro, P.; Micali, N.; Chen, S.-H.

    2000-06-05

    We show that percolation and structural arrest transitions coexist in different regions of the phase diagram of a copolymer-micellar system and relate them to short-range intermicellar attraction. The intermediate scattering function shows a nonergodic transition along a temperature and concentration dependent line. Analyses show a logarithmic time dependence, attributed to a higher-order glass transition singularity predicted by mode-coupling theory, followed by a power law. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. Huisgen cycloaddition reaction of C-alkynyl ribosides under micellar catalysis: synthesis of ribavirin analogues.

    PubMed

    Youcef, Ramzi Aït; Dos Santos, Mickaël; Roussel, Sandrine; Baltaze, Jean-Pierre; Lubin-Germain, Nadège; Uziel, Jacques

    2009-06-05

    Carbonated analogues of ribavirin were synthesized from ethyl C-ribosylpropiolate obtained by an alkynylation reaction mediated by indium(0). The C-ribosides were then engaged in a Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction under a micellar catalysis. In these conditions, formation of 1,2,3-triazoles with control of the regioselectivity was observed. The regiochemistry of the adducts was determined by HMBC 2D-NMR analysis.

  6. Temperature-dependent hydration at micellar surface: activation energy barrier crossing model revisited.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Rajib Kumar; Sinha, Sudarson Sekhar; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2007-07-05

    In recent years, the validity of the activation energy barrier crossing model at the micellar surface brings notable controversy (Sen, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Halder, A.; Bhattacharyya, K. Chem. Phys. Lett. 2004, 385, 357-361. Kumbhakar, M.; Goel, T.; Mukherjee, T.; Pal, H. J. Phys. Chem. B 2004, 108, 19246-19254.) in the literature. In order to check the validity of the model by time-resolved solvation of a probe fluorophore, a wider range of temperature must be considered. At the same time, spatial heterogeneity (solubilization) of the probe and structural perturbation of the host micelle should carefully be avoided, which was not strictly maintained in the earlier studies. We report here the solvation dynamics of 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6(p-dimethylamino-styryl) 4H-pyran (DCM) in the SDS micelle at 298, 323, and 348 K. The probe DCM is completely insoluble in bulk water in this wide range of temperature. The size of the micelle at different temperatures using the dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique is found to have insignificant change. The hydration number of the micelle, determined by sound velocity measurements, decreases with increasing temperature. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy reveals the retention of the probe in the micellar interface within the temperature range. The average solvation time decreases with increasing temperature. The result of the solvation study has been analyzed in the light of energetics of bound to free water conversion at a constant size and decreasing hydration number at the micellar surface. The solvation process at the micellar surface has been found to be the activation energy barrier crossing type, in which interfacially bound type water molecules get converted into free type molecules. We have calculated Ea to be 3.5 kcal mol-1, which is in good agreement with that obtained by molecular dynamics simulation studies.

  7. Organometallic Polymeric Conductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngs, Wiley J.

    1997-01-01

    For aerospace applications, the use of polymers can result in tremendous weight savings over metals. Suitable polymeric materials for some applications like EMI shielding, spacecraft grounding, and charge dissipation must combine high electrical conductivity with long-term environmental stability, good processability, and good mechanical properties. Recently, other investigators have reported hybrid films made from an electrically conductive polymer combined with insulating polymers. In all of these instances, the films were prepared by infiltrating an insulating polymer with a precursor for a conductive polymer (either polypyrrole or polythiophene), and oxidatively polymerizing the precursor in situ. The resulting composite films have good electrical conductivity, while overcoming the brittleness inherent in most conductive polymers. Many aerospace applications require a combination of properties. Thus, hybrid films made from polyimides or other engineering resins are of primary interest, but only if conductivities on the same order as those obtained with a polystyrene base could be obtained. Hence, a series of experiments was performed to optimize the conductivity of polyimide-based composite films. The polyimide base chosen for this study was Kapton. 3-MethylThiophene (3MT) was used for the conductive phase. Three processing variables were identified for producing these composite films, namely time, temperature, and oxidant concentration for the in situ oxidation. Statistically designed experiments were used to examine the effects of these variables and synergistic/interactive effects among variables on the electrical conductivity and mechanical strength of the films. Multiple linear regression analysis of the tensile data revealed that temperature and time have the greatest effect on maximum stress. The response surface of maximum stress vs. temperature and time (for oxidant concentration at 1.2 M) is shown. Conductivity of the composite films was measured for

  8. High temperature structural, polymeric foams from high internal emulsion polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Hoisington, M.A.; Duke, J.R.; Apen, P.G.

    1996-02-01

    In 1982, a high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization process to manufacture microcellular, polymeric foam systems was patented by Unilever. This patent discloses a polymerization process that occurs in a water-in-oil emulsion in which the water represents at least 76% of the emulsion by volume. The oil phase consists of vinyl monomers such as styrene and acrylates that are crosslinked by divinyl monomers during polymerization. After polymerization and drying to remove the water phase, the result is a crosslinked polymer foam with an open cell microstructure that is homogeneous throughout in terms of morphology, density, and mechanical properties. Since 1982, numerous patents have examined various HIPE polymerized foam processing techniques and applications that include absorbents for body fluids, cleaning materials, and ion exchange systems. All the published HIPE polymerized foams have concentrated on materials for low temperature applications. Copolymerization of styrene with maleic anhydride and N-substituted maleimides to produce heat resistant thermoplastics has been studied extensively. These investigations have shown that styrene will free radically copolymerize with N-substituted maleimides to create an alternating thermoplastic copolymer with a Tg of approximately 200{degrees}C. However, there are many difficulties in attempting the maleimide styrene copolymerization in a HIPE such as lower polymerization temperatures, maleimide solubility difficulties in both styrene and water, and difficulty obtaining a stable HIPE with a styrene/maleimide oil phase. This work describes the preparation of copolymer foams from N-ethylmaleimide and Bis(3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-maleimide-phenyl)methane with styrene based monomers and crosslinking agents.

  9. Self-assemblies of pH-activatable PEGylated multiarm poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-doxorubicin prodrugs with improved long-term antitumor efficacies.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jianxun; Li, Di; Zhuang, Xiuli; Chen, Xuesi

    2013-10-01

    Two pH-activatable star-shaped prodrugs are synthesized through the condensation reaction between Y- or dumbbell-shaped poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) copolymer and acid-sensitive cis-aconityl-doxorubicin. The prodrugs self-assemble into micelles with favorable hydrodynamic radii and relatively low critical micelle concentrations. In vitro DOX release from prodrug micelles is accelerated by the decrease of the PLGA content or at the late endosomal pH. The efficient cellular uptake and intracellular DOX release of the prodrug micelles are confirmed and the improved long-term anti-proliferative activities of prodrug micelles are revealed. These features suggest that the prodrugs provide a favorable approach to construct effective polymeric drug delivery systems for malignancy therapy.

  10. Use of micellar liquid chromatography to analyze darunavir, ritonavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir in plasma.

    PubMed

    Peris-Vicente, Juan; Villarreal-Traver, Mónica; Casas-Breva, Inmaculada; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep

    2014-10-01

    Danuravir, ritonavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir are together prescribed against AIDS as a highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen. Micellar liquid chromatography has been applied to determine these four antiretroviral drugs in plasma. The sample preparation is shortened to the dilution of the sample in a micellar solution, filtration, and injection. Clean-up steps are avoided, due to the solubilization of plasma matrix in micellar media. The drugs were analyzed in <20 min using a mobile phase of 0.06 M sodium dodecyl sulfate/2.5% 1-pentanol (pH 7) running under isocratic mode through a C18 column at 1 mL/min at room temperature. Absorbance wavelength detection was set at 214 nm. The method was successfully validated following the ICH Harmonized Tripartite Guideline in terms of selectivity, limit of detection (0.080-0.110 μg/mL), limit of quantification (0.240-0.270 μg/mL), linearity between 0.25 and 25 μg/mL (r(2) > 0.995), accuracy (89.3-103.2%), precision (<8.2%) and robustness (<7.5%). Real plasma sample from patients taking this therapy were analyzed. This is the first paper showing the simultaneous detection of this four drugs. Therefore, the methodology was proven useful for the routine analysis of these samples in a hospital laboratory for clinical purposes.

  11. Can neutral analytes be concentrated by transient isotachophoresis in micellar electrokinetic chromatography and how much?

    PubMed

    Matczuk, Magdalena; Foteeva, Lidia S; Jarosz, Maciej; Galanski, Markus; Keppler, Bernhard K; Hirokawa, Takeshi; Timerbaev, Andrei R

    2014-06-06

    Transient isotachophoresis (tITP) is a versatile sample preconcentration technique that uses ITP to focus electrically charged analytes at the initial stage of CE analysis. However, according to the ruling principle of tITP, uncharged analytes are beyond its capacity while being separated and detected by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). On the other hand, when these are charged micelles that undergo the tITP focusing, one can anticipate the concentration effect, resulting from the formation of transient micellar stack at moving sample/background electrolyte (BGE) boundary, which increasingly accumulates the analytes. This work expands the enrichment potential of tITP for MEKC by demonstrating the quantitative analysis of uncharged metal-based drugs from highly saline samples and introducing to the BGE solution anionic surfactants and buffer (terminating) co-ions of different mobility and concentration to optimize performance. Metallodrugs of assorted lipophilicity were chosen so as to explore whether their varying affinity toward micelles plays the role. In addition to altering the sample and BGE composition, optimization of the detection capability was achieved due to fine-tuning operational variables such as sample volume, separation voltage and pressure, etc. The results of optimization trials shed light on the mechanism of micellar tITP and render effective determination of selected drugs in human urine, with practical limits of detection using conventional UV detector.

  12. Simultaneous isocratic separation of phenolic acids and flavonoids using micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hadjmohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Nazari, S Saman S J

    2013-12-01

    The simultaneous isocratic separation of a mixture of five phenolic acids and four flavonoids (two important groups of natural polyphenolic compounds with very different polarities) was investigated in three different RPLC modes using a hydro-organic mobile phase, and mobile phases containing SDS at concentrations below and above the critical micellar concentration (submicellar LC and micellar LC (MLC), respectively). In the hydro-organic mode, methanol and acetonitrile; in the submicellar mode methanol; and in the micellar mode, methanol and 1-propanol were examined individually as organic modifiers. Regarding the other modes, MLC provided more appropriate resolutions and analysis time and was preferred for the separation of the selected compounds. Optimization of separation in MLC was performed using an interpretative approach for each alcohol. In this way, the retention of phenolic acids and flavonoids were modeled using the retention factors obtained from five different mobile phases, then the Pareto optimality method was applied to find the best compatibility between analysis time and quality of separation. The results of this study showed some promising advantages of MLC for the simultaneous separation of phenolic acids and flavonoids, including low consumption of organic solvent, good resolution, short analysis time, and no requirement of gradient elution.

  13. Isocratic and gradient elution in micellar liquid chromatography with Brij-35.

    PubMed

    Peris-García, Ester; Ortiz-Bolsico, Casandra; Baeza-Baeza, Juan José; García-Alvarez-Coque, María Celia

    2015-06-01

    Polyoxyethylene(23)lauryl ether (known as Brij-35) is a nonionic surfactant, which has been considered as an alternative to the extensively used in micellar liquid chromatography anionic surfactant sodium lauryl (dodecyl) sulfate, for the analysis of drugs and other types of compounds. Brij-35 is the most suitable nonionic surfactant for micellar liquid chromatography, owing to its commercial availability, low cost, low toxicity, high cloud temperature, and low background absorbance. However, it has had minor use. In this work, we gather and discuss some results obtained in our laboratory with several β-blockers, sulfonamides, and flavonoids, concerning the use of Brij-35 as mobile phase modifier in the isocratic and gradient modes. The chromatographic performance for purely micellar eluents (with only surfactant) and hybrid eluents (with surfactant and acetonitrile) is compared. Brij-35 increases the polarity of the alkyl-bonded stationary phase and its polyoxyethylene chain with the hydroxyl end group allows hydrogen-bond interactions, especially for phenolic compounds. This offers the possibility of using aqueous solutions of Brij-35 as mobile phases with sufficiently short retention times. The use of gradients of acetonitrile to keep the concentration of Brij-35 constant is another interesting strategy that yields a significant reduction in the peak widths, which guarantee high resolution.

  14. Self-assembled micellar nanocomplexes comprising green tea catechin derivatives and protein drugs for cancer therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Joo Eun; Tan, Susi; Gao, Shu Jun; Yongvongsoontorn, Nunnarpas; Kim, Soon Hee; Lee, Jeong Heon; Choi, Hak Soo; Yano, Hirohisa; Zhuo, Lang; Kurisawa, Motoichi; Ying, Jackie Y.

    2014-11-01

    When designing drug carriers, the drug-to-carrier ratio is an important consideration, because the use of high quantities of carriers can result in toxicity as a consequence of poor metabolism and elimination of the carriers. However, these issues would be of less concern if both the drug and carrier had therapeutic effects. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), a major ingredient of green tea, has been shown, for example, to possess anticancer effects, anti-HIV effects, neuroprotective effects and DNA-protective effects. Here, we show that sequential self-assembly of the EGCG derivative with anticancer proteins leads to the formation of stable micellar nanocomplexes, which have greater anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo than the free protein. The micellar nanocomplex is obtained by complexation of oligomerized EGCG with the anticancer protein Herceptin to form the core, followed by complexation of poly(ethylene glycol)-EGCG to form the shell. When injected into mice, the Herceptin-loaded micellar nanocomplex demonstrates better tumour selectivity and growth reduction, as well as longer blood half-life, than free Herceptin.

  15. Study of complex micellar systems by static and dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Chumakov, Eugene M.; Semyonov, Sergei V.; Chumakov, Mikhail I.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2004-07-01

    The static and dynamic light scattering (DLS) methods were applied to study the thermodynamic properties and disperse structure of water+surfactant+solubilizer systems. It is supposed that such systems possess a micellar structure that can be used to develop new effective forms of veterinary drugs. For preparation of drugs (antibiotics) in micellar form, water solutions of the surfactant Cremafor-EL (CR) with the co-solvent dimethylacetamide (DMA) were used. To evaluate the stability of micellar solutions, we measured the light scattering intensity at 90 degrees as a function of temperature (20-80° C) in a water+CR+DMA system. The size distribution of micelles was determined by DLS measurements followed by DynaLS software processing. As thermodynamic characteristics of solutions, the so-called cloud point temperatures (CPT) and absolute instability temperatures (AIT) were used. Specifically, the CPT was determined as the intersection point of two linear fittings for scattering intensity vs temperature plots. AIT was determined using the inverse light scattering intensity data plotted vs temperature and then extrapolated to zero. The micelle-size distributions were measured for three types of surfactants (CR, Tween-80, and Tween-20), as well as for water+CR+DMA systems.

  16. Intratumoral Concentrations and Effects of Orally Administered Micellar Curcuminoids in Glioblastoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Dützmann, Stephan; Schiborr, Christina; Kocher, Alexa; Pilatus, Ulrich; Hattingen, Elke; Weissenberger, Jakob; Geßler, Florian; Quick-Weller, Johanna; Franz, Kea; Seifert, Volker; Frank, Jan; Senft, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The oral bioavailability of curcuminoids is low, but can be enhanced by incorporation into micelles. The major curcuminoid curcumin has antitumor effects on glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. We therefore aimed to determine intratumoral concentrations and the clinical tolerance of highly bioavailable micellar curcuminoids in glioblastoma patients. Thirteen glioblastoma patients ingested 70 mg micellar curcuminoids [57.4 mg curcumin, 11.2 mg demethoxycurcumin (DMC), and 1.4 mg bis-demethoxycurcumin (BDMC)] three times per day for 4 days (total amount of 689 mg curcumin, 134 mg DMC, and 17 mg BDMC) prior to planned resection of their respective brain tumors. Tumor and blood samples were taken during the surgery and analyzed for total curcuminoid concentrations. (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was performed before and after curcuminoid consumption. Ten patients completed the study. The mean intratumoral concentration of curcumin was 56 pg/mg of tissue (range 9-151), and the mean serum concentration was 253 ng/ml (range 129-364). Inorganic phosphate was significantly increased within the tumor (P = 0.034). The mean ratio of phosphocreatine to inorganic phosphate decreased, and the mean intratumoral pH increased (P = 0.08) after curcuminoid intervention. Oral treatment with micellar curcuminoids led to quantifiable concentrations of total curcuminoids in glioblastomas and may alter intratumoral energy metabolism.

  17. Physicochemical assessment of dextran-g-poly (ɛ-caprolactone) micellar nanoaggregates as drug nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Saldías, César; Velásquez, Luis; Quezada, Caterina; Leiva, Angel