Science.gov

Sample records for polymerization promoting protein

  1. Protein specific polymeric immunomicrospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Small, round, bio-compatible microspheres capable of covalently bonding proteins and having a uniform diameter below about 3500 A are prepared by substantially instantaneously initiating polymerization of an aqueous emulsion containing no more than 35% total monomer including an acrylic monomer substituted with a covalently bondable group such as hydroxyl, amino or carboxyl and a minor amount of a cross-linking agent.

  2. Natively unfolded tubulin polymerization promoting protein TPPP/p25 is a common marker of alpha-synucleinopathies.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Gábor G; László, Lajos; Kovács, János; Jensen, Poul Henning; Lindersson, Evo; Botond, Gergo; Molnár, Tamás; Perczel, András; Hudecz, Ferenc; Mezo, Gábor; Erdei, Anna; Tirián, László; Lehotzky, Attila; Gelpi, Ellen; Budka, Herbert; Ovádi, Judit

    2004-11-01

    The novel basic, heat-stable tubulin polymerization promoting protein TPPP/p25 is associated with microtubules in vitro and can induce the formation of aberrant microtubule assemblies. We show by 1H-NMR spectroscopy that TPPP/p25 is natively unfolded. Antisera against peptide 186GKGKAGRVDLVDESG200NH2 (186-200) are highly specific to TPPP/p25. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy demonstrates that TPPP/p25 is enriched in filamentous alpha-synuclein bearing Lewy bodies of Parkinson's (PD) and diffuse Lewy body disease (DLBD), as well as glial inclusions of multiple system atrophy (MSA). There is a correlation between TPPP/p25 and alpha-synuclein immunoreactivity in Western blot. In contrast, TPPP/p25 is not associated with abnormally phosphorylated tau in various inclusions of Pick's disease (PiD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and corticobasal degeneration (CBD). However, electron microscopy confirms clusters of TPPP/p25 immunoreactivity along filaments of unstructured but not compact neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease (AD). TPPP/p25 seems to be a novel marker of alpha-synucleinopathies.

  3. Tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) as a marker for oligodendroglial changes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Höftberger, Romana; Fink, Stephanie; Aboul-Enein, Fahmy; Botond, Gergö; Olah, Judit; Berki, Timea; Ovadi, Judit; Lassmann, Hans; Budka, Herbert; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2010-11-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an idiopathic chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with variable extent of remyelination. Remyelination originates from oligodendrocyte (OG) precursor cells, which migrate and differentiate into mature OG. Tubulin polymerization promoting protein (TPPP/p25) is located in mature OG and aggregates in oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions in multiple system atrophy. We developed a novel monoclonal anti-TPPP/p25 antibody to quantify OG in different subtypes and disease stages of MS, and possible degenerative changes in OG. We evaluated autopsy material from 25 MS cases, including acute, primary progressive, secondary progressive, relapsing remitting MS, and five controls. Demyelinated lesions revealed loss of TPPP/p25-positive OG within the plaques. In remyelination, TPPP/p25 was first expressed in OG cytoplasms and later became positive in myelin sheaths. We observed increased numbers of TPPP/p25 immunoreactive OG in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) in MS patients. In MS cases, the cytoplasmic area of TPPP/p25 immunoreactivity in the OG was higher in the periplaque area when compared with NAWM and the plaque, and TPPP/p25 immunoreactive OG cytoplasmic area inversely correlated with the disease duration. There was a lack of phospho-TDP-43, phospho-tau, α-synuclein, and ubiquitin immunoreactivity in OG with enlarged cytoplasm. Our data suggest impaired differentiation, migration, and activation capacity of OG in later disease stages of MS. Upregulation of TPPP/p25 in the periplaque white matter OG without evidence for inclusion body formation might reflect an activation state. Distinct and increased expression of TPPP/p25 in MS renders it a potential prognostic and diagnostic marker of MS.

  4. Caspase-11 and caspase-1 differentially modulate actin polymerization via RhoA and Slingshot proteins to promote bacterial clearance

    PubMed Central

    Caution, Kyle; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.; Tazi, Mia; Kanneganti, Apurva; Layman, Daniel; Hoque, Sheshadri; Krause, Kathrin; Amer, Amal O.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that include members of the NOD-like receptor family and caspase-1. Caspase-1 is required for the fusion of the Legionella vacuole with lysosomes. Caspase-11, independently of the inflammasome, also promotes phagolysosomal fusion. However, it is unclear how these proteases alter intracellular trafficking. Here, we show that caspase-11 and caspase-1 function in opposing manners to phosphorylate and dephosphorylate cofilin, respectively upon infection with Legionella. Caspase-11 targets cofilin via the RhoA GTPase, whereas caspase-1 engages the Slingshot phosphatase. The absence of either caspase-11 or caspase-1 maintains actin in the polymerized or depolymerized form, respectively and averts the fusion of pathogen-containing vacuoles with lysosomes. Therefore, caspase-11 and caspase-1 converge on the actin machinery with opposing effects to promote vesicular trafficking. PMID:26686473

  5. Knockdown of Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein Family Member 3 Suppresses Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yintao; Xu, Yali; Ye, Kuanping; Wu, Nan; Li, Junfeng; Liu, Naijia; He, Min; Lu, Bin; Zhou, Wenbai; Hu, Renming

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated that depletion of tubulin polymerization promoting protein family member 3 (TPPP3) inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of HeLa cells. However, the expression and roles of TPPP3 in cancers remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of TPPP3 in clinicopathological correlations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples by immunohistochemistry. TPPP3 expression was significantly upregulated in NSCLC tissues, and high TPPP3 expression was positively associated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, clinical stage, and poor survival. Furthermore, knockdown of TPPP3 by shRNA significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in vitro. In addition, depletion of TPPP3 inhibited lung cancer growth in vivo in the xenografts of H1299 cells; this effect was accompanied by the suppression of Ki67 expression. Our data suggested that TPPP3 might act as an oncogene in NSCLC. TPPP3 warrants consideration as a therapeutic candidate with anti-tumor potential. PMID:27390593

  6. Tubulin polymerization promoting protein 1 (Tppp1) phosphorylation by Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (rock) and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) inhibits microtubule dynamics to increase cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Alice V; Gamell, Cristina; Suryadinata, Randy; Sarcevic, Boris; Bernard, Ora

    2013-03-15

    Tubulin polymerization promoting protein 1 (Tppp1) regulates microtubule (MT) dynamics via promoting MT polymerization and inhibiting histone deacetylase 6 (Hdac6) activity to increase MT acetylation. Our results reveal that as a consequence, Tppp1 inhibits cell proliferation by delaying the G1/S-phase and the mitosis to G1-phase transitions. We show that phosphorylation of Tppp1 by Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (Rock) prevents its Hdac6 inhibitory activity to enable cells to enter S-phase. Whereas, our analysis of the role of Tppp1 during mitosis revealed that inhibition of its MT polymerizing and Hdac6 regulatory activities were necessary for cells to re-enter the G1-phase. During this investigation, we also discovered that Tppp1 is a novel Cyclin B/Cdk1 (cyclin-dependent kinase) substrate and that Cdk phosphorylation of Tppp1 inhibits its MT polymerizing activity. Overall, our results show that dual Rock and Cdk phosphorylation of Tppp1 inhibits its regulation of the cell cycle to increase cell proliferation.

  7. Elevated Glucose Levels Promote Contractile and Cytoskeletal Gene Expression in Vascular Smooth Muscle via Rho/Protein Kinase C and Actin Polymerization*

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Tran Thi; Turczyńska, Karolina M.; Dahan, Diana; Ekman, Mari; Grossi, Mario; Sjögren, Johan; Nilsson, Johan; Braun, Thomas; Boettger, Thomas; Garcia-Vaz, Eliana; Stenkula, Karin; Swärd, Karl; Gomez, Maria F.; Albinsson, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This is in part attributed to the effects of hyperglycemia on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In diabetic animal models, hyperglycemia results in hypercontractility of vascular smooth muscle possibly due to increased activation of Rho-kinase. The aim of the present study was to investigate the regulation of contractile smooth muscle markers by glucose and to determine the signaling pathways that are activated by hyperglycemia in smooth muscle cells. Microarray, quantitative PCR, and Western blot analyses revealed that both mRNA and protein expression of contractile smooth muscle markers were increased in isolated smooth muscle cells cultured under high compared with low glucose conditions. This effect was also observed in hyperglycemic Akita mice and in diabetic patients. Elevated glucose activated the protein kinase C and Rho/Rho-kinase signaling pathways and stimulated actin polymerization. Glucose-induced expression of contractile smooth muscle markers in cultured cells could be partially or completely repressed by inhibitors of advanced glycation end products, L-type calcium channels, protein kinase C, Rho-kinase, actin polymerization, and myocardin-related transcription factors. Furthermore, genetic ablation of the miR-143/145 cluster prevented the effects of glucose on smooth muscle marker expression. In conclusion, these data demonstrate a possible link between hyperglycemia and vascular disease states associated with smooth muscle contractility. PMID:26683376

  8. Degradable PEGylated Protein Conjugates Utilizing RAFT Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Decker, Caitlin G; Maynard, Heather D

    2015-04-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-protein therapeutics exhibit enhanced pharmacokinetics, but have drawbacks including decreased protein activities and polymer accumulation in the body. Therefore a major aim for second-generation polymer therapeutics is to introduce degradability into the backbone. Herein we describe the synthesis of poly(poly(ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate)) (pPEGMA) degradable polymers with protein-reactive end-groups via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization, and the subsequent covalent attachment to lysozyme through a reducible disulfide linkage. RAFT copolymerization of cyclic ketene acetal (CKA) monomer 5,6-benzo-2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane (BMDO) with PEGMA yielded two polymers with number-average molecular weight (Mn ) (GPC) of 10.9 and 20.9 kDa and molecular weight dispersities (Ð) of 1.34 and 1.71, respectively. Hydrolytic degradation of the polymers was analyzed by (1)H-NMR and GPC under basic and acidic conditions. The reversible covalent attachment of these polymers to lysozyme, as well as the hydrolytic and reductive cleavage of the polymer from the protein, was analyzed by gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Following reductive cleavage of the polymer, an increase in activity was observed for both conjugates, with the released protein having full activity. This represents a method to prepare PEGylated proteins, where the polymer is readily cleaved from the protein and the main chain of the polymer is degradable.

  9. Protein Kinase D Controls Actin Polymerization and Cell Motility through Phosphorylation of Cortactin*

    PubMed Central

    Eiseler, Tim; Hausser, Angelika; De Kimpe, Line; Van Lint, Johan; Pfizenmaier, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    We here identify protein kinase D (PKD) as an upstream regulator of the F-actin-binding protein cortactin and the Arp actin polymerization machinery. PKD phosphorylates cortactin in vitro and in vivo at serine 298 thereby generating a 14-3-3 binding motif. In vitro, a phosphorylation-deficient cortactin-S298A protein accelerated VCA-Arp-cortactin-mediated synergistic actin polymerization and showed reduced F-actin binding, indicative of enhanced turnover of nucleation complexes. In vivo, cortactin co-localized with the nucleation promoting factor WAVE2, essential for lamellipodia extension, in the actin polymerization zone in Heregulin-treated MCF-7 cells. Using a 3-dye FRET-based approach we further demonstrate that WAVE2-Arp and cortactin prominently interact at these structures. Accordingly, cortactin-S298A significantly enhanced lamellipodia extension and directed cell migration. Our data thus unravel a previously unrecognized mechanism by which PKD controls cancer cell motility. PMID:20363754

  10. Promiscuous stimulation of ParF protein polymerization by heterogeneous centromere binding factors.

    PubMed

    Machón, Cristina; Fothergill, Timothy J G; Barillà, Daniela; Hayes, Finbarr

    2007-11-16

    The segrosome is the nucleoprotein complex that mediates accurate segregation of bacterial plasmids. The segrosome of plasmid TP228 comprises ParF and ParG proteins that assemble on the parH centromere. ParF, which exemplifies one clade of the ubiquitous ParA superfamily of segregation proteins, polymerizes extensively in response to ATP binding. Polymerization is modulated by the ParG centromere binding factor (CBF). The segrosomes of plasmids pTAR, pVT745 and pB171 include ParA homologues of the ParF subgroup, as well as diverse homodimeric CBFs with no primary sequence similarity to ParG, or each other. Centromere binding by these analogues is largely specific. Here, we establish that the ParF homologues of pTAR and pB171 filament modestly with ATP, and that nucleotide hydrolysis is not required for this polymerization, which is more prodigious when the cognate CBF is also present. By contrast, the ParF homologue of plasmid pVT745 did not respond appreciably to ATP alone, but polymerized extensively in the presence of both its cognate CBF and ATP. The co-factors also stimulated nucleotide-independent polymerization of cognate ParF proteins. Moreover, apart from the CBF of pTAR, the disparate ParG analogues promoted polymerization of non-cognate ParF proteins suggesting that filamentation of the ParF proteins is enhanced by a common mechanism. Like ParG, the co-factors may be modular, possessing a centromere-specific interaction domain linked to a flexible region containing determinants that promiscuously stimulate ParF polymerization. The CBFs appear to function as bacterial analogues of formins, microtubule-associated proteins or related ancillary factors that regulate eucaryotic cytoskeletal dynamics.

  11. Actin Polymerization is Stimulated by Actin Crosslinking Protein Palladin

    PubMed Central

    Gurung, Ritu; Yadav, Rahul; Brungardt, Joseph G.; Orlova, Albina; Egelman, Edward H.; Beck, Moriah R.

    2016-01-01

    The actin scaffold protein palladin regulates both normal cell migration and invasive cell motility, processes that require the coordinated regulation of actin dynamics. However, the potential effect of palladin on actin dynamics has remained elusive. Here we show that the actin binding immunoglobulin-like domain of palladin, which is directly responsible for both actin binding and bundling, also stimulates actin polymerization in vitro. Palladin eliminated the lag phase that is characteristic of the slow nucleation step of actin polymerization. Furthermore, palladin dramatically reduced depolymerization, slightly enhanced the elongation rate, and did not alter the critical concentration. Microscopy and in vitro crosslinking assays reveal differences in actin bundle architecture when palladin is incubated with actin before or after polymerization. These results suggest a model whereby palladin stimulates a polymerization-competent form of G-actin, akin to metal ions, either through charge neutralization or conformational changes. PMID:26607837

  12. Polymeric Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Protein and DNA Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Jyothi U.; Ravikumar, Priya; Pise, Amruta; Gyawali, Dipendra; Hsia, Connie C.W.; Nguyen, Kytai T.

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) are promising carriers of biological agents to lung due to advantages including biocompatibility, ease of surface modification, localized action and reduced systemic toxicity. However, there have been no studies extensively characterizing and comparing the behavior of polymeric NPs for pulmonary protein/DNA delivery both in vitro and in vivo. We screened six polymeric NPs: gelatin, chitosan, alginate, poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), PLGA-chitosan, and PLGA-polyethylene glycol (PEG), for inhalational protein/ DNA delivery. All NPs except PLGA-PEG and alginate were <300 nm in size with bi-phasic core compound release profile. Gelatin, PLGA NPs and PLGA-PEG NPs remained stable in deionized water, serum, saline and simulated lung fluid (Gamble’s solution) over 5 days. PLGA-based NPs and natural polymer NPs exhibited highest cytocompatibility and dose-dependent in vitro uptake respectively by human alveolar type-1 epithelial cells. Based on these profiles, gelatin and PLGA NPs were used to encapsulate a) plasmid DNA encoding yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) or b) rhodamine-conjugated erythropoietin (EPO) for inhalational delivery to rats. Following a single inhalation, widespread pulmonary EPO distribution persisted for up to 10 days while increasing YFP expression was observed for at least 7 days for both NPs. The overall results support both PLGA and gelatin NPs as promising carriers for pulmonary protein/DNA delivery. PMID:24512977

  13. Oligomeric and polymeric aggregates formed by proteins containing expanded polyglutamine

    PubMed Central

    Iuchi, S.; Hoffner, G.; Verbeke, P.; Djian, P.; Green, H.

    2003-01-01

    Neurological diseases resulting from proteins containing expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) are characteristically associated with insoluble neuronal inclusions, usually intranuclear, and neuronal death. We describe here oligomeric and polymeric aggregates formed in cells by expanded polyQ. These aggregates are not dissociated by concentrated formic acid, an extremely effective solvent for otherwise insoluble proteins. Perinuclear inclusions formed in cultured cells by expanded polyQ can be completely dissolved in concentrated formic acid, but a soluble protein oligomer containing the expanded polyQ and released by the formic acid is not dissociated to monomer. In Huntington's disease, a formic acid-resistant oligomer is present in cerebral cortex, but not in cerebellum. Cortical nuclei contain a polymeric aggregate of expanded polyQ that is insoluble in formic acid, does not enter polyacrylamide gels, but is retained on filters. This finding shows that the process of polymerization is more advanced in the cerebral cortex than in cultured cells. The resistance of oligomer and polymer to formic acid suggests the participation of covalent bonds in their stabilization. PMID:12591956

  14. Polymeric-based particulate systems for delivery of therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid; Rehman, Kanwal; Chen, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    Polymeric-based particulate systems have been intensively developed to increase the short biological half-life and prevent enzymatic degradation of therapeutic proteins. These techniques demonstrate the useful characteristics for the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides to the targeted site of application and prevent the interaction of encapsulated drug with the normal cells. In this article, we have described the in depth of different pharmaceutical-based techniques that are currently being practiced for efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides. A comprehensive English literature was searched using different electronic search databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, google scholar and library search. Different search terms and advanced search were made by combining all the search fields in abstract, keywords and/or titles. Findings of various studies that have been discussed in this article clearly indicate that polymeric-based techniques can significantly increase the therapeutic potentials of incorporated proteins with no known toxic effects. These techniques have shown to maintain the stability and retain biological activity of protein therapeutics. Hence it can be suggested that pharmaceutical-based techniques are promising drug carriers for efficient delivery of therapeutic proteins.

  15. Antagonistic regulation of F-BAR protein assemblies controls actin polymerization during podosome formation.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Kazuya; Kondo, Akihiro; Kurisu, Shusaku; Hasegawa, Junya; Itoh, Toshiki; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2013-05-15

    FBP17, an F-BAR domain protein, has emerged as a crucial factor linking the plasma membrane to WASP-mediated actin polymerization. Although it is well established that FBP17 has a powerful self-polymerizing ability that promotes actin nucleation on membranes in vitro, knowledge of inhibitory factors that counteract this activity in vivo is limited. Here, we demonstrate that the assembly of FBP17 on the plasma membranes is antagonized by PSTPIP2, another F-BAR protein implicated in auto-inflammatory disorder. Knockdown of PSTPIP2 in macrophage promotes the assembly of FBP17 as well as subsequent actin nucleation at podosomes, resulting in an enhancement of matrix degradation. This phenotype is rescued by expression of PSTPIP2 in a manner dependent on its F-BAR domain. Time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy observations reveal that the self-assembly of FBP17 at the podosomal membrane initiates actin polymerization, whereas the clustering of PSTPIP2 has an opposite effect. Biochemical analysis and live-cell imaging show that PSTPIP2 inhibits actin polymerization by competing with FBP17 for assembly at artificial as well as the plasma membrane. Interestingly, the assembly of FBP17 is dependent on WASP, and its dissociation by WASP inhibition strongly induces a self-organization of PSTPIP2 at podosomes. Thus, our data uncover a previously unappreciated antagonism between different F-BAR domain assemblies that determines the threshold of actin polymerization for the formation of functional podosomes and may explain how the absence of PSTPIP2 causes auto-inflammatory disorder.

  16. Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Kent, Michael S.; Saunders, Randall

    1997-01-01

    Coupling agents based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization.

  17. Block copolymer adhesion promoters via ring-opening metathesis polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Kent, M.S.; Saunders, R.

    1997-02-18

    Coupling agents are disclosed based on functionalized block copolymers for bonding thermoset polymers to solid materials. These are polymers which possess at least two types of functional groups, one which is able to attach to and react with solid surfaces, and another which can react with a thermoset resin, which are incorporated as pendant groups in monomers distributed in blocks (typically two) along the backbone of the chain. The block copolymers in this invention are synthesized by living ring-opening metathesis polymerization. 18 figs.

  18. Electrospray deposition in vacuum as method to create functionally active protein immobilization on polymeric substrates.

    PubMed

    Fornari, Enzo; Roberts, Clive J; Temperton, Robert H; O'Shea, James N

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate in this work the deposition of a large biological molecule (fibronectin) on polymeric substrates in a high vacuum environment using an electrospray deposition system. Fibronectin was deposited and its distribution and structure investigated and retention of function (ability to promote cell adhesion) on return to liquid environment is shown. AFM was used to monitor changes in the morphology of the surface before and after fibronectin deposition, whilst the biological activity of the deposited protein is assessed through a quantitative analysis of the biomolecular adhesion and migration of fibroblast cells to the modified surfaces. For the first time we have demonstrated that using high vacuum electrospray deposition it is possible to deposit large protein molecules on polymeric surfaces whilst maintaining the protein activity. The deposition of biological molecules such as proteins with the retention of their activity onto clean well-controlled surfaces under vacuum condition, offers the possibility for future studies utilizing high resolution vacuum based techniques at the atomic and molecular scale providing a greater understanding of protein-surface interface behaviour of relevance to a wide range of applications such as in sensors, diagnostics and tissue engineering.

  19. Protein adsorption resistance of PVP-modified polyurethane film prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Huihui; Qian, Bin; Zhang, Wei; Lan, Minbo

    2016-02-01

    An anti-fouling surface of polyurethane (PU) film grafted with Poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was prepared through surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). And the polymerization time was investigated to obtain PU films with PVP brushes of different lengths. The surface properties and protein adsorption of modified PU films were evaluated. The results showed that the hydrophilicity of PU-PVP films were improved with the increase of polymerization time, which was not positive correlation with the surface roughness due to the brush structure. Additionally, the protein resistance performance was promoted when prolonging the polymerization time. The best antifouling PU-PVP (6.0 h) film reduced the adsoption level of bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and brovin serum fibrinogen (BFG) by 93.4%, 68.3%, 85.6%, respectively, compared to the unmodified PU film. The competitive adsorption of three proteins indicated that LYS preferentially adsorbed on the modified PU film, while BFG had the lowest adsorption selectivity. And the amount of BFG on PU-PVP (6.0 h) film reduced greatly to 0.08 μg/cm2, which was almost one-tenth of its adsorption from the single-protein system. Presented results suggested that both hydrophilicity and surface roughness might be the important factors in all cases of protein adsorption, and the competitive or selective adsorption might be related to the size of the proteins, especially on the non-charged films.

  20. Signal amplification strategies for DNA and protein detection based on polymeric nanocomposites and polymerization: A review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shaohong; Yuan, Liang; Hua, Xin; Xu, Lingling; Liu, Songqin

    2015-06-02

    Demand is increasing for ultrasensitive bioassays for disease diagnosis, environmental monitoring and other research areas. This requires novel signal amplification strategies to maximize the signal output. In this review, we focus on a series of significant signal amplification strategies based on polymeric nanocomposites and polymerization. Some common polymers are used as carriers to increase the local concentration of signal probes and/or biomolecules on their surfaces or in their interiors. Some polymers with special fluorescence and optical properties can efficiently transfer the excitation energy from a single site to the whole polymer backbone. This results in superior fluorescence signal amplification due to the resulting collective effort (integration of signal). Recent polymerization-based signal amplification strategies that employ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and photo-initiated polymerization are also summarized. Several distinctive applications of polymers in ultrasensitive bioanalysis are highlighted.

  1. In vitro polymerization of mussel polyphenolic proteins catalyzed by mushroom tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Burzio, L A; Burzio, V A; Pardo, J; Burzio, L O

    2000-07-01

    The in vitro enzymatic polymerization of the polyphenolic protein purified from the mussels Aulacomya ater, Mytilus edulis chilensis and Choromytilus chorus was studied. Mushroom tyrosinase was used to oxidize the dopa residues present in these proteins, and polymerization was monitored by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The protein from A. ater polymerized at a faster rate than the other two. Amino acid analysis of the crosslinked protein showed a notable decrease in the content of dopa, but no significant change of other amino acids. This suggests that crosslink formation may be limited to the oxidized dopa derivatives of the protein molecules.

  2. Ascertaining effects of nanoscale polymeric interfaces on competitive protein adsorption at the individual protein level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Xie, Tian; Ravensbergen, Kristina; Hahm, Jong-In

    2016-02-01

    With the recent development of biomaterials and biodevices with reduced dimensionality, it is critical to comprehend protein adhesion processes to nanoscale solid surfaces, especially those occurring in a competitive adsorption environment. Complex sequences of adhesion events in competitive adsorption involving multicomponent protein systems have been extensively investigated, but our understanding is still limited primarily to macroscopic adhesion onto chemically simple surfaces. We examine the competitive adsorption behavior from a binary protein mixture containing bovine serum albumin and fibrinogen at the single protein level. We subsequently evaluate a series of adsorption and displacement processes occurring on both the macroscopic homopolymer and nanoscopic diblock copolymer surfaces, while systematically varying the protein concentration and incubation time. We identify the similarities and dissimilarities in competitive protein adsorption behavior between the two polymeric surfaces, the former presenting chemical uniformity at macroscale versus the latter exhibiting periodic nanointerfaces of chemically alternating polymeric segments. We then present our novel experimental finding of a large increase in the nanointerface-engaged residence time of the initially bound proteins and further explain the origin of this phenomenon manifested on nanoscale diblock copolymer surfaces. The outcomes of this study may provide timely insight into nanoscale competitive protein adsorption that is much needed in designing bioimplant and tissue engineering materials. In addition, the fundamental understanding gained from this study can be beneficial for the development of highly miniaturized biodevices and biomaterials fabricated by using nanoscale polymeric materials and interfaces.With the recent development of biomaterials and biodevices with reduced dimensionality, it is critical to comprehend protein adhesion processes to nanoscale solid surfaces, especially those

  3. Isolation and characterization of a polymerized prion protein.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bao-Yuan; Chang, Jui-Yoa

    2002-01-01

    A polymerized form of recombinant mouse prion protein (mPrP) domain 23-231 [mPrP-(23-231)], designated mPrP-z, was generated at acidic pH (pH 2-5) in the presence of selected concentrations of denaturant (2 M guanidinium chloride or 5 M urea). This isoform of mPrP is stable in acidic solution after removal of denaturant. It can be isolated and purified using reversed-phase HPLC or size-exclusion HPLC. mPrP-z bears structural properties that partially resemble those of scrapie prion. Unlike the native mPrP-(23-231) (mPrP-N), mPrP-z exhibits a high content of beta-sheet structure, as shown by CD spectroscopy, and exists as an oligomer with an approximate molecular mass of 340000 Da, as measured by light scattering. However, similarly to mPrP-N, mPrP-z contains the intact disulphide bond and is sensitive to digestion by proteinase K. PMID:11988079

  4. Reactivity of polymeric proanthocyanidins toward salivary proteins and their contribution to young red wine astringency.

    PubMed

    Sun, Baoshan; de Sá, Marta; Leandro, Conceição; Caldeira, Ilda; Duarte, Filomena L; Spranger, Isabel

    2013-01-30

    Recent studies have indicated the presence of significant amount of highly polymerized and soluble proanthocyanidins in red wine and such compounds interacted readily with proteins, suggesting that they might be particularly astringent. Thus, the objective of this work was to verify the astringency of polymeric proanthocyanidins and their contribution to red wine astringency. The precipitation reactions of the purified oligomeric procyanidins (degree of polymerization ranging from 2 to 12-15) and polymeric procyanidins (degree of polymerization ranging from 12-15 to 32-34) with human salivary proteins were studied; salivary proteins composition changes before and after the reaction was verified by SDS-PAGE and procyanidins composition changes by spectrometric, direct HPLC and thiolysis-HPLC methods. The astringency intensity of these two procyanidin fractions was evaluated by a sensory analysis panel. For verifying the correlation between polymeric proanthocyanidins and young red wine astringency, the levels of total oligomeric and total polymeric proanthocyanidins and other phenolic composition in various young red wines were quantified and the astringency intensities of these wines were evaluated by a sensory panel. The results showed that polymeric proanthocyanidins had much higher reactivity toward human salivary proteins and higher astringency intensity than the oligomeric ones. Furthermore, young red wine astringency intensities were highly correlated to levels of polymeric proanthocyanidins, particularly at low concentration range (correlation coefficient r = 0.9840) but not significant correlated to total polyphenols (r = 0.2343) or other individual phenolic compounds (generally r < 0.3). These results indicate the important contribution of polymeric proanthocyanidins to red wine astringency and the levels of polymeric polyphenols in red wines may be used as an indicator for its astringency.

  5. Structural and Functional Studies of H. seropedicae RecA Protein – Insights into the Polymerization of RecA Protein as Nucleoprotein Filament

    PubMed Central

    Galvão, Carolina W.; Saab, Sérgio C.; Iulek, Jorge; Etto, Rafael M.; Steffens, Maria B. R.; Chitteni-Pattu, Sindhu; Stanage, Tyler; Keck, James L.; Cox, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial RecA protein plays a role in the complex system of DNA damage repair. Here, we report the functional and structural characterization of the Herbaspirillum seropedicae RecA protein (HsRecA). HsRecA protein is more efficient at displacing SSB protein from ssDNA than Escherichia coli RecA protein. HsRecA also promotes DNA strand exchange more efficiently. The three dimensional structure of HsRecA-ADP/ATP complex has been solved to 1.7 Å resolution. HsRecA protein contains a small N-terminal domain, a central core ATPase domain and a large C-terminal domain, that are similar to homologous bacterial RecA proteins. Comparative structural analysis showed that the N-terminal polymerization motif of archaeal and eukaryotic RecA family proteins are also present in bacterial RecAs. Reconstruction of electrostatic potential from the hexameric structure of HsRecA-ADP/ATP revealed a high positive charge along the inner side, where ssDNA is bound inside the filament. The properties of this surface may explain the greater capacity of HsRecA protein to bind ssDNA, forming a contiguous nucleoprotein filament, displace SSB and promote DNA exchange relative to EcRecA. Our functional and structural analyses provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of polymerization of bacterial RecA as a helical nucleoprotein filament. PMID:27447485

  6. Structural and Functional Studies of H. seropedicae RecA Protein – Insights into the Polymerization of RecA Protein as Nucleoprotein Filament

    SciTech Connect

    Leite, Wellington C.; Galvão, Carolina W.; Saab, Sérgio C.; Iulek, Jorge; Etto, Rafael M.; Steffens, Maria B. R.; Chitteni-Pattu, Sindhu; Stanage, Tyler; Keck, James L.; Cox, Michael M.; Spies, Maria

    2016-07-22

    The bacterial RecA protein plays a role in the complex system of DNA damage repair. Here, we report the functional and structural characterization of the Herbaspirillum seropedicae RecA protein (HsRecA). HsRecA protein is more efficient at displacing SSB protein from ssDNA than Escherichia coli RecA protein. HsRecA also promotes DNA strand exchange more efficiently. The three dimensional structure of HsRecA-ADP/ATP complex has been solved to 1.7 Å resolution. HsRecA protein contains a small N-terminal domain, a central core ATPase domain and a large C-terminal domain, that are similar to homologous bacterial RecA proteins. Comparative structural analysis showed that the N-terminal polymerization motif of archaeal and eukaryotic RecA family proteins are also present in bacterial RecAs. Reconstruction of electrostatic potential from the hexameric structure of HsRecA-ADP/ATP revealed a high positive charge along the inner side, where ssDNA is bound inside the filament. The properties of this surface may explain the greater capacity of HsRecA protein to bind ssDNA, forming a contiguous nucleoprotein filament, displace SSB and promote DNA exchange relative to EcRecA. In conclusion, our functional and structural analyses provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of polymerization of bacterial RecA as a helical nucleoprotein filament.

  7. The putative pocket protein binding site of Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus BV/ODV-C42 is required for virus-induced nuclear actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Wang, Yun; Bai, Huimin; Wang, Qian; Song, Jianhua; Zhou, Yuan; Wu, Chunchen; Chen, Xinwen

    2010-08-01

    Nuclear filamentous actin (F-actin) is essential for nucleocapsid morphogenesis of lepidopteran nucleopolyhedroviruses. Previously, we had demonstrated that Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) BV/ODV-C42 (C42) is involved in nuclear actin polymerization by recruiting P78/83, an AcMNPV orf9-encoded N-WASP homology protein that is capable of activating an actin-related-protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex to initiate actin polymerization, to the nucleus. To further investigate the role of C42 in virus-induced actin polymerization, the recombinant bacmid vAc(p78/83nls-gfp), with a c42 knockout, p78/83 tagged with a nuclear localization signal coding sequence, and egfp as a reporter gene under the control of the Pp10 promoter, was constructed and transfected to Sf9 cells. In the nuclei of vAc(p78/83nls-gfp)-transfected cells, polymerized F-actin filaments were absent, whereas other actin polymerization elements (i.e., P78/83, G-actin, and Arp2/3 complex) were present. This in vivo evidence indicated that C42 actively participates in the nuclear actin polymerization process as a key element, besides its role in recruiting P78/83 to the nucleus. In order to collect in vitro evidence for the participation of C42 in actin polymerization, an anti-C42 antibody was used to neutralize the viral nucleocapsid, which is capable of initiating actin polymerization in vitro. Both the kinetics of pyrene-actin polymerization and F-actin-specific staining by phalloidin indicated that anti-C42 can significantly attenuate the efficiency of F-actin formation compared to that with control antibodies. Furthermore, we have identified the putative pocket protein binding sequence (PPBS) on C42 that is essential for C42 to exert its function in nuclear actin polymerization.

  8. Novel Polymeric Scaffolds Using Protein Microbubbles as Porogen and Growth Factor Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Ashwin; Thevenot, Paul; Dey, Jagannath; Shen, Jinhui; Sun, Man-Wu; Yang, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric tissue engineering scaffolds prepared by conventional techniques like salt leaching and phase separation are greatly limited by their poor biomolecule-delivery abilities. Conventional methods of incorporation of various growth factors, proteins, and/or peptides on or in scaffold materials via different crosslinking and conjugation techniques are often tedious and may affect scaffold's physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. To overcome such deficiencies, a novel two-step porous scaffold fabrication procedure has been created in which bovine serum albumin microbubbles (henceforth MB) were used as porogen and growth factor carriers. Polymer solution mixed with MB was phase separated and then lyophilized to create porous scaffold. MB scaffold triggered substantially lesser inflammatory responses than salt-leached and conventional phase-separated scaffolds in vivo. Most importantly, the same technique was used to produce insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)–eluting porous scaffolds, simply by incorporating IGF-1–loaded MB (MB-IGF-1) with polymer solution before phase separation. In vitro such MB-IGF-1 scaffolds were able to promote cell growth to a much greater extent than scaffold soaked in IGF-1, confirming the bioactivity of the released IGF-1. Further, such MB-IGF-1 scaffolds elicited IGF-1–specific collagen production in the surrounding tissue in vivo. This novel growth factor–eluting scaffold fabrication procedure can be used to deliver a range of single or combination of bioactive biomolecules to substantially promote cell growth and function in degradable scaffold. PMID:19327002

  9. Novel polymeric scaffolds using protein microbubbles as porogen and growth factor carriers.

    PubMed

    Nair, Ashwin; Thevenot, Paul; Dey, Jagannath; Shen, Jinhui; Sun, Man-Wu; Yang, Jian; Tang, Liping

    2010-02-01

    Polymeric tissue engineering scaffolds prepared by conventional techniques like salt leaching and phase separation are greatly limited by their poor biomolecule-delivery abilities. Conventional methods of incorporation of various growth factors, proteins, and/or peptides on or in scaffold materials via different crosslinking and conjugation techniques are often tedious and may affect scaffold's physical, chemical, and mechanical properties. To overcome such deficiencies, a novel two-step porous scaffold fabrication procedure has been created in which bovine serum albumin microbubbles (henceforth MB) were used as porogen and growth factor carriers. Polymer solution mixed with MB was phase separated and then lyophilized to create porous scaffold. MB scaffold triggered substantially lesser inflammatory responses than salt-leached and conventional phase-separated scaffolds in vivo. Most importantly, the same technique was used to produce insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)-eluting porous scaffolds, simply by incorporating IGF-1-loaded MB (MB-IGF-1) with polymer solution before phase separation. In vitro such MB-IGF-1 scaffolds were able to promote cell growth to a much greater extent than scaffold soaked in IGF-1, confirming the bioactivity of the released IGF-1. Further, such MB-IGF-1 scaffolds elicited IGF-1-specific collagen production in the surrounding tissue in vivo. This novel growth factor-eluting scaffold fabrication procedure can be used to deliver a range of single or combination of bioactive biomolecules to substantially promote cell growth and function in degradable scaffold.

  10. Hydrophilic crosslinked-polymeric surface capable of effective suppression of protein adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamon, Yuri; Inoue, Naoko; Mihara, Erika; Kitayama, Yukiya; Ooya, Tooru; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the nonspecific adsorption of proteins towards three hydrophilic crosslinked-polymeric thin layers prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization using N,N‧-methylenebisacrylamide, 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl-[N-(2-methacryloyloxy)ethyl]phosphorylcholine (MMPC), or 6,6‧-diacryloyl-trehalose crosslinkers. Protein binding experiments were performed by surface plasmon resonance with six proteins of different pI values including α-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin, ribonuclease A, cytochrome C, and lysozyme in buffer solution at pH 7.4. All of the obtained crosslinked-polymeric thin layers showed low nonspecific adsorption of negatively charged proteins at pH 7.4 such as α-lactalbumin, BSA, and myoglobin. Nonspecific adsorption of positively charged proteins including ribonuclease A, cytochrome C, and lysozyme was the lowest for poly(MMPC). These results suggest poly(MMPC) can effectively reduce nonspecific adsorption of a wide range of proteins that are negatively or positively charged at pH 7.4. MMPC is a promising crosslinker for a wide range of polymeric materials requiring low nonspecific protein binding.

  11. Actin polymerization is stimulated by actin cross-linking protein palladin.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Ritu; Yadav, Rahul; Brungardt, Joseph G; Orlova, Albina; Egelman, Edward H; Beck, Moriah R

    2016-02-15

    The actin scaffold protein palladin regulates both normal cell migration and invasive cell motility, processes that require the co-ordinated regulation of actin dynamics. However, the potential effect of palladin on actin dynamics has remained elusive. In the present study, we show that the actin-binding immunoglobulin-like domain of palladin, which is directly responsible for both actin binding and bundling, also stimulates actin polymerization in vitro. Palladin eliminated the lag phase that is characteristic of the slow nucleation step of actin polymerization. Furthermore, palladin dramatically reduced depolymerization, slightly enhanced the elongation rate, and did not alter the critical concentration. Microscopy and in vitro cross-linking assays reveal differences in actin bundle architecture when palladin is incubated with actin before or after polymerization. These results suggest a model whereby palladin stimulates a polymerization-competent form of globular or monomeric actin (G-actin), akin to metal ions, either through charge neutralization or through conformational changes.

  12. Actin polymerization-dependent activation of Cas-L promotes immunological synapse stability

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Luís C; Blair, David A; Kumari, Sudha; Cammer, Michael; Iskratsch, Thomas; Herbin, Olivier; Alexandropoulos, Konstantina; Dustin, Michael L; Sheetz, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The immunological synapse formed between a T-cell and an antigen-presenting cell is important for cell–cell communication during T-cell-mediated immune responses. Immunological synapse formation begins with stimulation of the T-cell receptor (TCR). TCR microclusters are assembled and transported to the center of the immunological synapse in an actin polymerization-dependent process. However, the physical link between TCR and actin remains elusive. Here we show that lymphocyte-specific Crk-associated substrate (Cas-L), a member of a force sensing protein family, is required for transport of TCR microclusters and for establishing synapse stability. We found that Cas-L is phosphorylated at TCR microclusters in an actin polymerization-dependent fashion. Furthermore, Cas-L participates in a positive feedback loop leading to amplification of Ca2+ signaling, inside–out integrin activation, and actomyosin contraction. We propose a new role for Cas-L in T-cell activation as a mechanical transducer linking TCR microclusters to the underlying actin network and coordinating multiple actin-dependent structures in the immunological synapse. Our studies highlight the importance of mechanotransduction processes in T-cell-mediated immune responses. PMID:27359298

  13. Prediction of heat-induced polymerization of different globular food proteins in mixtures with wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Marlies A; Rombouts, Ine; De Ketelaere, Bart; Delcour, Jan A

    2017-04-15

    Egg, soy or whey protein co-exists with wheat gluten in different food products. Different protein types impact each other during heat treatment. A positive co-protein effect occurs when heat-induced polymerization of a mixture of proteins is more intense than that of the isolated proteins. The intrinsic protein characteristics of globular proteins which enhance polymerization in mixtures with gluten are unknown. In this report, a model was developed to predict potential co-protein effects in mixtures of gluten and globular proteins during heating at 100°C. A negative co-protein effect with addition of lysozyme, no co-protein effect with soy glycinin or egg yolk and positive co-protein effects with bovine serum albumin, (S-)ovalbumin, egg white, whole egg, defatted egg yolk, wheat albumins and wheat globulins were detected. The level of accessible free sulfhydryl groups and the surface hydrophobicity of unfolded globular proteins were the main characteristics in determining the co-protein effects in gluten mixtures.

  14. Recent Advances in Protein and Peptide Drug Delivery: A Special Emphasis on Polymeric Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ashaben; Patel, Mitesh; Yang, Xiaoyan; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Proteins and peptides are widely indicated in many diseased states. Parenteral route is the most commonly employed method of administration for therapeutic proteins and peptides. However, requirement of frequent injections due to short in vivo half-life results in poor patient compliance. Non-invasive drug delivery routes such as nasal, transdermal, pulmonary, and oral offer several advantages over parenteral administration. Intrinsic physicochemical properties and low permeability across biological membrane limit protein delivery via non-invasive routes. One of the strategies to improve protein and peptide absorption is by delivering through nanostructured delivery carriers. Among nanocarriers, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have demonstrated significant advantages over other delivery systems. This article summarizes the application of polymeric NPs for protein and peptide drug delivery following oral, nasal, pulmonary, parenteral, transdermal, and ocular administrations. PMID:25106908

  15. Molecularly imprinted protein recognition thin films constructed by controlled/living radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shogo; Ooya, Tooru; Kitayama, Yukiya; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrated the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with binding affinity toward a target protein, ribonuclease A (RNase) by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of acrylic acid, acrylamide, and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide in the presence of RNase. The binding activity of the MIPs was evaluated by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the MIP thin layers prepared on the gold-coated sensor chips. The MIPs prepared by ATRP (MIP-ATRP) had a binding affinity toward RNase with larger binding amount compared to MIPs prepared by conventional free radical polymerization methods (MIP-RP). Moreover, protein selectivity was evaluated using reference proteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin, and α-lactalbumin) and was confirmed in MIP-ATRP of optimum film thickness determined experimentally to be 15-30 nm; however, protein selectivity was not achieved in all MIP-RP. We have shown that ATRP is powerful technique for preparing protein recognition materials by molecular imprinting.

  16. Effect of flour polymeric proteins on dough thermal properties and breadmaking characteristics for hard red spring wheat genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of variation of flour polymeric proteins on rheological properties of dough under continuous mixing and thermal treatment for hard red spring (HRS) wheat genotypes grown in North Dakota, USA. Flour polymeric proteins were analyzed by size exclus...

  17. Advances in Polymer and Polymeric Nanostructures for Protein Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    González-Toro, Daniella C.; Thayumanavan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Linear polymers have been considered the best molecular structures for the formation of efficient protein conjugates due to their biological advantages, synthetic convenience and ease of functionalization. In recent years, much attention has been dedicated to develop synthetic strategies that produce the most control over protein conjugation utilizing linear polymers as scaffolds. As a result, different conjugate models, such as semitelechelic, homotelechelic, heterotelechelic and branched or star polymer conjugates, have been obtained that take advantage of these well-controlled synthetic strategies. Development of protein conjugates using nanostructures and the formation of said nanostructures from protein-polymer bioconjugates are other areas in the protein bioconjugation field. Although several polymer-protein technologies have been developed from these discoveries, few review articles have focused on the design and function of these polymers and nanostructures. This review will highlight some recent advances in protein-linear polymer technologies that employ protein covalent conjugation and successful protein-nanostructure bioconjugates (covalent conjugation as well) that have shown great potential for biological applications. PMID:24058205

  18. Polymerization and nucleic acid-binding properties of human L1 ORF1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Kathryn E.; Hickman, Alison B.; Jones, Charles E.; Ghirlando, Rodolfo; Furano, Anthony V.

    2012-01-01

    The L1 (LINE 1) retrotransposable element encodes two proteins, ORF1p and ORF2p. ORF2p is the L1 replicase, but the role of ORF1p is unknown. Mouse ORF1p, a coiled-coil-mediated trimer of ∼42-kDa monomers, binds nucleic acids and has nucleic acid chaperone activity. We purified human L1 ORF1p expressed in insect cells and made two findings that significantly advance our knowledge of the protein. First, in the absence of nucleic acids, the protein polymerizes under the very conditions (0.05 M NaCl) that are optimal for high (∼1 nM)-affinity nucleic acid binding. The non-coiled-coil C-terminal half mediates formation of the polymer, an active conformer that is instantly resolved to trimers, or multimers thereof, by nucleic acid. Second, the protein has a biphasic effect on mismatched double-stranded DNA, a proxy chaperone substrate. It protects the duplex from dissociation at 37°C before eventually melting it when largely polymeric. Therefore, polymerization of ORF1p seemingly affects its interaction with nucleic acids. Additionally, polymerization of ORF1p at its translation site could explain the heretofore-inexplicable phenomenon of cis preference—the favored retrotransposition of the actively translated L1 transcript, which is essential for L1 survival. PMID:21937507

  19. The effect of polymer surface modification on polymer-protein interaction via interfacial polymerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Membrane separation is an important processing technology used for separating food ingredients and fractionating value-added components from food processing by-products. Long-term performance of polymeric membranes in food protein processing is impeded by formation of fouled layers on the membrane ...

  20. Pearling instability of membrane tubes driven by curved proteins and actin polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelerčič, U.; Gov, N. S.

    2015-12-01

    Membrane deformation inside living cells is crucial for the proper shaping of various intracellular organelles and is necessary during the fission/fusion processes that allow membrane recycling and transport (e.g. endocytosis). Proteins that induce membrane curvature play a key role in such processes, mostly by adsorbing to the membrane and forming a scaffold that deforms the membrane according to the curvature of the proteins. In this paper we explore the possibility of membrane tube destabilization through a pearling mechanism enabled by the combined effects of the adsorbed curved proteins and the actin polymerization that they recruit. The pearling instability can serve as the initiation for fission of the tube into vesicles. We find that adsorbed curved proteins are more likely to stabilize the tubes, while the actin polymerization can provide the additional constrictive force needed for the robust instability. We discuss the relevance of the theoretical results to in vivo and in vitro experiments.

  1. Protein-surface interactions on stimuli-responsive polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Cross, Michael C; Toomey, Ryan G; Gallant, Nathan D

    2016-03-04

    Responsive surfaces: a review of the dependence of protein adsorption on the reversible volume phase transition in stimuli-responsive polymers. Specifically addressed are a widely studied subset: thermoresponsive polymers. Findings are also generalizable to other materials which undergo a similarly reversible volume phase transition. As of 2015, over 100,000 articles have been published on stimuli-responsive polymers and many more on protein-biomaterial interactions. Significantly, fewer than 100 of these have focused specifically on protein interactions with stimuli-responsive polymers. These report a clear trend of increased protein adsorption in the collapsed state compared to the swollen state. This control over protein interactions makes stimuli-responsive polymers highly useful in biomedical applications such as wound repair scaffolds, on-demand drug delivery, and antifouling surfaces. Outstanding questions are whether the protein adsorption is reversible with the volume phase transition and whether there is a time-dependence. A clear understanding of protein interactions with stimuli-responsive polymers will advance theoretical models, experimental results, and biomedical applications.

  2. Protein- and Peptide-Modified Synthetic Polymeric Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Krishna, Ohm D.; Kiick, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview on biohybrid approaches of integrating the structural and functional features of proteins and peptides with synthetic polymers and the resulting unique properties in such hybrids, with a focus on bioresponsive/bioactive systems with biomaterials applications. The review is divided in two broad sections. First, we describe several examples of biohybrids produced by combining versatile synthetic polymers with proteins/enzymes and drugs that have resulted in (1) hybrid materials based on responsive polymers, (2) responsive hydrogels based on enzyme-catalyzed reactions, protein–protein interactions and protein–drug sensing, and (3) dynamic hydrogels based on conformational changes of a protein. Next, we present hybrids produced by combining synthetic polymers with peptides, classified based on the properties of the peptide domain: (1) peptides with different conformations, such as α-helical, coiled-coil, and β-sheet; (2) peptides derived from structural protein domains such as silk, elastin, titin, and collagen; and (3) peptides with other biofunctional properties such as cell-binding domains and enzyme-recognized degradation domains. PMID:20091878

  3. Caspase-11 promotes the fusion of phagosomes harboring pathogenic bacteria with lysosomes by modulating actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Anwari; Caution, Kyle; Abu Khweek, Arwa; Tazi, Mia; Abdulrahman, Basant A; Abdelaziz, Dalia H A; Voss, Oliver H; Doseff, Andrea I; Hassan, Hoda; Azad, Abul K; Schlesinger, Larry S; Wewers, Mark D; Gavrilin, Mikhail A; Amer, Amal O

    2012-07-27

    Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that include members of the NLR (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing) family and caspase-1. Once bacterial molecules are sensed within the macrophage, the inflammasome is assembled, mediating the activation of caspase-1. Caspase-11 mediates caspase-1 activation in response to lipopolysaccharide and bacterial toxins, and yet its role during bacterial infection is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that caspase-11 was dispensable for caspase-1 activation in response to Legionella, Salmonella, Francisella, and Listeria. We also determined that active mouse caspase-11 was required for restriction of L. pneumophila infection. Similarly, human caspase-4 and caspase-5, homologs of mouse caspase-11, cooperated to restrict L. pneumophila infection in human macrophages. Caspase-11 promoted the fusion of the L. pneumophila vacuole with lysosomes by modulating actin polymerization through cofilin. However, caspase-11 was dispensable for the fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes containing nonpathogenic bacteria, uncovering a fundamental difference in the trafficking of phagosomes according to their cargo.

  4. Caspase-11 promotes the fusion of phagosomes harboring pathogenic bacteria with lysosomes by modulating actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Anwari; Caution, Kyle; Khweek, Arwa Abu; Tazi, Mia; Abdulrahman, Basant A.; Abdelaziz, Dalia H.A.; Voss, Oliver H.; Doseff, Andrea I.; Hassan, Hoda; Azad, Abul K.; Schlesinger, Larry S.; Wewers, Mark D.; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.; Amer, Amal O.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that include members of the NLR (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat containing) family and caspase-1. Once bacterial molecules are sensed within the macrophage, the inflammasome is assembled mediating the activation of caspase-1. Caspase-11 mediates caspase-1 activation in response to lipopolysaccharide and bacterial toxins. Yet, its role during bacterial infection is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that caspase-11 was dispensable for caspase-1 activation in response to Legionella, Salmonella, Francisella and Listeria. We also determined that active mouse caspase-11 was required for restriction of L. pneumophila infection. Similarly, human caspase-4 and 5, homologs of mouse caspase-11, cooperated to restrict L. pneumophila infection in human macrophages. Caspase-11 promoted the fusion of the L. pneumophila- vacuole with lysosomes by modulating actin polymerization through cofilin. However, caspase-11 was dispensable for the fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes containing non-pathogenic bacteria, uncovering a fundamental difference in the trafficking of phagosomes according to their cargo. PMID:22658523

  5. Ethyl acetate extract from marine sponge Hyattella cribriformis exhibit potent anticancer activity by promoting tubulin polymerization as evidenced mitotic arrest and induction of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Pazhanimuthu; Thayman, Malini; Rajan, Sowmiya; Raman, Lakshmi Sundaram; Ramasubbu, Sankar; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marine sponges are important sources of bioactive compounds. Objective: This study investigated the anticancer properties of Hyattella cribriformis ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in various cancer and normal cell lines. Materials and Methods: anticancer assay was carried out in 15 cell lines to evaluate the anticancer potential of the EA fraction. Impact on cell cycle distribution was determined using flow cytometry. The fraction was investigated for interfering microtubules assembly in both in vitro and cellular assay. Further studies were conducted to determine the fraction induced cell death (apoptosis) using calcein/propidium iodide dual staining, activated caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 protein at Ser70. DNA fragmentation assay was performed to confirm the apoptosis. Results: EA fraction exhibited potent inhibition of cancer cell growth and resulted in 50% growth inhibition (GI50) of 0.27 μg/mL in A673 cell line. Sarcoma (MG-63, Saos-2) and ovarian (SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3) cancer cell lines also showed superior anticancer activity GI50 of 1.0 μg/mL. Colon and breast cancer cell lines exhibited moderate GI compare other cancer cell lines and normal human lung fibroblast showed GI50 of 15.6 μg/mL. EA fraction showed potent G2/M phase arrest in A673 cell line and induced apoptosis at 48 h exposure. EA fraction promoted microtubule polymerization in tubulin polymerization assay and increased level of polymerized tubulin in the HeLa cells. Fraction induced the activation of caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein. Fraction induced DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells as evidence of apoptosis. Conclusion: Marine sponge H. cribriformis EA fraction exhibited potent anticancer activity through tubulin polymerization and induction of apoptosis. PMID:25829774

  6. Bacterial DNA segregation dynamics mediated by the polymerizing protein ParF

    PubMed Central

    Barillà, Daniela; Rosenberg, Mark F; Nobbmann, Ulf; Hayes, Finbarr

    2005-01-01

    Prokaryotic DNA segregation most commonly involves members of the Walker-type ParA superfamily. Here we show that the ParF partition protein specified by the TP228 plasmid is a ParA ATPase that assembles into extensive filaments in vitro. Polymerization is potentiated by ATP binding and does not require nucleotide hydrolysis. Analysis of mutations in conserved residues of the Walker A motif established a functional coupling between filament dynamics and DNA partitioning. The partner partition protein ParG plays two separable roles in the ParF polymerization process. ParF is unrelated to prokaryotic polymerizing proteins of the actin or tubulin families, but is a homologue of the MinD cell division protein, which also assembles into filaments. The ultrastructures of the ParF and MinD polymers are remarkably similar. This points to an evolutionary parallel between DNA segregation and cytokinesis in prokaryotic cells, and reveals a potential molecular mechanism for plasmid and chromosome segregation mediated by the ubiquitous ParA-type proteins. PMID:15775965

  7. Enhanced protein retention on poly(caprolactone) via surface initiated polymerization of acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuhao; Cai, Mengtan; He, Liu; Luo, Xianglin

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the biocompatibility or extend the biomedical application of poly(caprolactone) (PCL), protein retention on PCL surface is often required. In this study, poly(acrylamide) (PAAm) brushes were grown from PCL surface via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and served as a protein-capturing platform. Grafted PAAm was densely packed on surface and exhibited superior protein retention ability. Captured protein was found to be resistant to washing under detergent environment. Furthermore, protein structure after being captured was investigated by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and the CD spectra verified that secondary structure of captured proteins was maintained, indicating no denaturation of protein happened for retention process.

  8. Biomimetic Hydrogels Incorporating Polymeric Cell-Adhesive Peptide to Promote the 3D Assembly of Tumoroids

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ying; Zerdoum, Aidan B.; Stuffer, Alexander J.; Rajasekaran, Ayyappan K.; Jia, Xinqiao

    2016-01-01

    Towards the goal of establishing physiologically relevant in vitro tumor models, we synthesized and characterized a biomimetic hydrogel using thiolated hyaluronic acid (HA-SH) and an acrylated copolymer carrying multiple copies of cell adhesive peptide (PolyRGD-AC). PolyRGD-AC was derived from a random copolymer of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) and oligomeric (ethylene glycol) methacrylate (OEGMA), synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Acid hydrolysis of tert-butyl moieties revealed the carboxylates, through which acrylate groups were installed. Partial modification of the acrylate groups with a cysteine-containing RGD peptide generated PolyRGD-AC. When PolyRGD-AC was mixed with HA-SH under physiological conditions, a macroscopic hydrogel with an average elastic modulus of 630 Pa was produced. LNCaP prostate cancer cells encapsulated in HA-PolyRGD gels as dispersed single cells formed multicellular tumoroids by day 4 and reached an average diameter of ~95 μm by day 28. Cells in these structures were viable, formed cell-cell contacts through E-cadherin (E-CAD and displayed cortical organization of F-actin. Compared to the control gels prepared using PolyRDG, multivalent presentation of the RGD signal in the HA matrix increased cellular metabolism, promoted the development of larger tumoroids and enhanced the expression of E-CAD and integrins. Overall, hydrogels with multivalently immobilized RGD is a promising 3D culture platform for dissecting principles of tumorigenesis and for screening anticancer drugs. PMID:27723964

  9. High throughput atmospheric pressure plasma-induced graft polymerization for identifying protein-resistant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gu, Minghao; Kilduff, James E; Belfort, Georges

    2012-02-01

    Three critical aspects of searching for and understanding how to find highly resistant surfaces to protein adhesion are addressed here with specific application to synthetic membrane filtration. They include the (i) discovery of a series of previously unreported monomers from a large library of monomers with high protein resistance and subsequent low fouling characteristics for membrane ultrafiltration of protein-containing fluids, (ii) development of a new approach to investigate protein-resistant mechanisms from structure-property relationships, and (iii) adaptation of a new surface modification method, called atmospheric pressure plasma-induced graft polymerization (APP), together with a high throughput platform (HTP), for low cost vacuum-free synthesis of anti-fouling membranes. Several new high-performing chemistries comprising two polyethylene glycol (PEG), two amines and one zwitterionic monomers were identified from a library (44 commercial monomers) of five different classes of monomers as strong protein-resistant monomers. Combining our analysis here, using the Hansen solubility parameters (HSP) approach, and data from the literature, we conclude that strong interactions with water (hydrogen bonding) and surface flexibility are necessary for producing the highest protein resistance. Superior protein-resistant surfaces and subsequent anti-fouling performance was obtained with the HTP-APP as compared with our earlier HTP-photo graft-induced polymerization (PGP).

  10. Chemical potential measurements of deoxyhemoglobin S polymerization. Determination of the phase diagram of an assembling protein.

    PubMed

    Prouty, M S; Schechter, A N; Parsegian, V A

    1985-08-05

    We have used the "osmotic stress" method to determine the phase diagram of deoxyhemoglobin S polymerization. This method involves equilibration, through a semipermeable membrane, of the protein with solutions of inert polymers of known osmotic pressure. With deoxyhemoglobin A and S solutions, in which we have demonstrated achievement of equilibrium, plots of osmotic pressure versus concentration initially agree closely with the results of other methods of measurement of colligative properties. However, once the known solubility value is exceeded for the deoxyhemoglobin S solutions at various temperatures, there is a rapid rise in hemoglobin concentration over a narrow osmotic pressure range and then a more gradual increase in concentration. We believe that these two regions correspond, respectively, to the onset of the polymerization process, and of subsequent continuing growth and compression or alignment of polymer. We derive the thermodynamic values for these processes and show that the behavior of the deoxyhemoglobin S system is analogous to the phase transition for a simple chemical system. These results are relevant to understanding the intracellular polymerization of deoxyhemoglobin S in sickle cell disease, and these concepts are applicable to other protein assembly systems.

  11. Polycomb group protein ezh2 controls actin polymerization and cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Su, I-hsin; Dobenecker, Marc-Werner; Dickinson, Ephraim; Oser, Matthew; Basavaraj, Ashwin; Marqueron, Raphael; Viale, Agnes; Reinberg, Danny; Wülfing, Christoph; Tarakhovsky, Alexander

    2005-05-06

    Polycomb group protein Ezh2, one of the key regulators of development in organisms from flies to mice, exerts its epigenetic function through regulation of histone methylation. Here, we report the existence of the cytosolic Ezh2-containing methyltransferase complex and tie the function of this complex to regulation of actin polymerization in various cell types. Genetic evidence supports the essential role of cytosolic Ezh2 in actin polymerization-dependent processes such as antigen receptor signaling in T cells and PDGF-induced dorsal circular ruffle formation in fibroblasts. Revealed function of Ezh2 points to a broader usage of lysine methylation in regulation of both nuclear and extra-nuclear signaling processes.

  12. A Steric Antagonism of Actin Polymerization by a Salmonella Virulence Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Margarit,S.; Davidson, W.; Frego, L.; Stebbins, F.

    2006-01-01

    Salmonella spp. require the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the SpvB protein for intracellular growth and systemic virulence. SpvB covalently modifies actin, causing cytoskeletal disruption and apoptosis. We report here the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of SpvB, and we show by mass spectrometric analysis that SpvB modifies actin at Arg177, inhibiting its ATPase activity. We also describe two crystal structures of SpvB-modified, polymerization-deficient actin. These structures reveal that ADP-ribosylation does not lead to dramatic conformational changes in actin, suggesting a model in which this large family of toxins inhibits actin polymerization primarily through steric disruption of intrafilament contacts.

  13. A method to tune the shape of protein-encapsulated polymeric microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alteriis, Renato De; Vecchione, Raffaele; Attanasio, Chiara; Gregorio, Maria De; Porzio, Massimiliano; Battista, Edmondo; Netti, Paolo A.

    2015-07-01

    Protein encapsulation technologies of polymeric microspheres currently in use have been optimized to effectively protect their “protein cargo” from inactivation occurring in biological environments, preserving its bioactivity during release up to several weeks. The scenario of protein delivery would greatly benefit by strategies enabling the production of non-spherical particles. Herein we report an easy and effective stamp-based method to produce poly-lactic-glycolic-acid (PLGA) microparticles encapsulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) of different shapes. We demonstrate that PLGA microspheres can be deformed at room temperature exploiting solvent/non-solvent plasticization in order to preserve the properties of the starting microspheres. This gentle method allows the production of shaped particles that provide a prolonged release of VEGF in active form, as verified by an angiogenic assay. The retention of the biological activity of an extremely labile molecule, i.e. VEGF, lets us hypothesize that a wide variety of drug and protein encapsulated polymeric microspheres can be processed using this method.

  14. Reversible Interactions of Proteins with Mixed Shell Polymeric Micelles: Tuning the Surface Hydrophobic/Hydrophilic Balance toward Efficient Artificial Chaperones.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzu; Song, Yiqing; Sun, Pingchuan; An, Yingli; Zhang, Zhenkun; Shi, Linqi

    2016-03-22

    Molecular chaperones can elegantly fine-tune its hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance to assist a broad spectrum of nascent polypeptide chains to fold properly. Such precious property is difficult to be achieved by chaperone mimicking materials due to limited control of their surface characteristics that dictate interactions with unfolded protein intermediates. Mixed shell polymeric micelles (MSPMs), which consist of two kinds of dissimilar polymeric chains in the micellar shell, offer a convenient way to fine-tune surface properties of polymeric nanoparticles. In the current work, we have fabricated ca. 30 kinds of MSPMs with finely tunable hydrophilic/hydrophobic surface properties. We investigated the respective roles of thermosensitive and hydrophilic polymeric chains in the thermodenaturation protection of proteins down to the molecular structure. Although the three kinds of thermosensitive polymers investigated herein can form collapsed hydrophobic domains on the micellar surface, we found distinct capability to capture and release unfolded protein intermediates, due to their respective affinity for proteins. Meanwhile, in terms of the hydrophilic polymeric chains in the micellar shell, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) excels in assisting unfolded protein intermediates to refold properly via interacting with the refolding intermediates, resulting in enhanced chaperone efficiency. However, another hydrophilic polymer-poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) severely deteriorates the chaperone efficiency of MSPMs, due to its protein-resistant properties. Judicious combination of thermosensitive and hydrophilic chains in the micellar shell lead to MSPM-based artificial chaperones with optimal efficacy.

  15. Promoters and proteins from Clostridium thermocellum and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wu, J. H. David; Newcomb, Michael

    2012-11-13

    The present invention relates to an inducible and a high expression nucleic acid promoter isolated from Clostridium thermocellum. These promoters are useful for directing expression of a protein or polypeptide encoded by a nucleic acid molecule operably associated with the nucleic acid promoters. The present invention also relates to nucleic acid constructs including the C. thermocellum promoters, and expression vectors and hosts containing such nucleic acid constructs. The present invention also relates to protein isolated from Clostridium thermocellum, including a repressor protein. The present invention also provides methods of using the isolated promoters and proteins from Clostridium thermocellum, including methods for directing inducible in vitro and in vivo expression of a protein or polypeptide in a host, and methods of producing ethanol from a cellulosic biomass.

  16. Promotion of the halide effect in the formation of shaped metal nanocrystals via a hybrid cationic, polymeric stabilizer: Octahedra, cubes, and anisotropic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneed, Brian T.; Golden, Matthew C.; Liu, Yejing; Lee, Hiang K.; Andoni, Ilektra; Young, Allison P.; McMahon, Greg; Erdman, Natasha; Shibata, Masateru; Ling, Xing Yi; Tsung, Chia-Kuang

    2016-06-01

    To promote the effect of halide ions (Cl-, Br-, and I-) in facet-selective growth of {111} and {100} of shaped metal nanocrystals, we utilize PDADMAC, a hybrid cationic, polymeric stabilizer. SERS and synthesis experiments provide evidence supporting that the higher amount of PDADMA+ at surfaces promotes the local adsorption of halides, allowing the creation of Pd cubes, octahedra, and cuboctopods.

  17. A Visible Light Initiating System for Free Radical Promoted Cationic Polymerization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-02

    bis-(4, 4’-dimethylaminoihenyl)methane as the main product and crystal violet, methyl violet, as well as the leuco rorms of these dyes as minor...cation in chain polymerization is reported. The system is based on electron transfer photoreduction of xanthene dye triplets by aromatic amines...Previously, Crivello and Lam 9 had reported attempts to use visible light absorbing dyes to sensitize the decomposition of iodonium salts to initiate

  18. Polymeric biomaterials for nerve regeneration applications: From promoting cellular organization to the delivery of bioactive molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Rivera, Roberto L.

    Thousands of new cases of injury to the central nervous system (CNS) occur each year in the USA and all over the world. However, despite recent advances, at present there is no cure for the resulting paraplegia or quadriplegia. This research is directed towards engineering biomaterial platforms to promote cellular organization at the surface of polymer scaffolds that will be conducive to proper regeneration of injured CNS. In addition, the formulation of a delivery system for neuroactive molecules using polymer-based materials will be evaluated to establish its potential to treat CNS disorders. Initial studies involved the chemical modification of an electrospun nonwoven matrix of nanofibers with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2). Nanofibers alone up-regulated FGF-2, albeit to a lesser extent than nanofibers covalently modified with FGF-2. These results underscore the importance of both surface topography and growth factor presentation on cellular function. Moreover, that FGF-2 modified nanofibrillar scaffolds may demonstrate utility in tissue engineering applications for replacement and regeneration of damaged tissue following CNS injury or disease. Subsequent research efforts focused on a novel micropatterning technique called microscale plasma-initiated patterning (microPIP). This patterning method uses a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp to selectively protect regions of an underlying substrate from oxygen plasma treatment resulting in hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions. FGF-2 and laminin-1 were applied to an electrospun polyamide nanofibrillar matrix following plasma treatment. In this work it, was possible to demonstrate that textured surfaces, such as nanofibrillar scaffolds, can be micropatterned to provide external chemical cues for cellular organization. Finally, a microsphere system capable of encapsulating proteins while minimizing the mechanisms of protein degradation and providing a controlled release was investigated. Microspheres were comprised of

  19. Enhanced Degradation of Misfolded Proteins Promotes Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Brewer, Michael D; Guo, Lili; Wang, Ruoxing; Jiang, Peng; Yang, Xiaolu

    2017-03-28

    An adequate cellular capacity to degrade misfolded proteins is critical for cell survival and organismal health. A diminished capacity is associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases; however, the consequences of an enhanced capacity remain undefined. Here, we report that the ability to clear misfolded proteins is increased during oncogenic transformation and is reduced upon tumor cell differentiation. The augmented capacity mitigates oxidative stress associated with oncogenic growth and is required for both the initiation and maintenance of malignant phenotypes. We show that tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins select misfolded proteins for proteasomal degradation. The higher degradation power in tumor cells is attributed to the upregulation of the proteasome and especially TRIM proteins, both mediated by the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2. These findings establish a critical role of TRIMs in protein quality control, connect the clearance of misfolded proteins to antioxidant defense, and suggest an intrinsic characteristic of tumor cells.

  20. Polymeric adsorbent for removing toxic proteins from blood of patients with kidney failure.

    PubMed

    Davankov, V; Pavlova, L; Tsyurupa, M; Brady, J; Balsamo, M; Yousha, E

    2000-02-28

    A hypercrosslinked styrenic polymer with an enhanced proportion of mesopores in the range 2-20 nm has been developed. The principle of the synthesis consists of the suspension polymerization of divinylbenzene (or copolymerization of styrene with divinylbenzene) in the presence of a porogen that is a theta-solvent for polystyrene. On the scale of thermodynamic affinity, theta-solvents occupy a border position between good solvents and precipitating media for the growing polymer chains. In this case, microphase separation takes place during the final stages of the polymerization process. The polymer was shown to adsorb 93-98% of beta2-microglobulin from the blood or plasma of patients with chronic kidney failure. At the same time, large essential proteins, like albumin, are not removed to a significant extent, obviously, due to the size-exclusion effect and the difference in the hydrophobicity of the proteins. By replacing surface exposed pendant vinyl groups of the polymer with hydrophilic functional groups, the material was made hemocompatible, according to the standard battery of biocompatibility tests required by ISO 10993 guidelines. No adverse effects such as fever or hypotension were noted in dogs in direct hemoperfusion experiments with the polymer.

  1. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Systems for Controlled Protein and Peptide Delivery: Future Implications for Ocular Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mahlumba, Pakama; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Pillay, Viness

    2016-07-30

    Therapeutic proteins and peptides have become notable in the drug delivery arena for their compatibility with the human body as well as their high potency. However, their biocompatibility and high potency does not negate the existence of challenges resulting from physicochemical properties of proteins and peptides, including large size, short half-life, capability to provoke immune responses and susceptibility to degradation. Various delivery routes and delivery systems have been utilized to improve bioavailability, patient acceptability and reduce biodegradation. The ocular route remains of great interest, particularly for responsive delivery of macromolecules due to the anatomy and physiology of the eye that makes it a sensitive and complex environment. Research in this field is slowly gaining attention as this could be the breakthrough in ocular drug delivery of macromolecules. This work reviews stimuli-responsive polymeric delivery systems, their use in the delivery of therapeutic proteins and peptides as well as examples of proteins and peptides used in the treatment of ocular disorders. Stimuli reviewed include pH, temperature, enzymes, light, ultrasound and magnetic field. In addition, it discusses the current progress in responsive ocular drug delivery. Furthermore, it explores future prospects in the use of stimuli-responsive polymers for ocular delivery of proteins and peptides. Stimuli-responsive polymers offer great potential in improving the delivery of ocular therapeutics, therefore there is a need to consider them in order to guarantee a local, sustained and ideal delivery of ocular proteins and peptides, evading tissue invasion and systemic side-effects.

  2. Nucleocapsid protein structures from orthobunyaviruses reveal insight into ribonucleoprotein architecture and RNA polymerization.

    PubMed

    Ariza, Antonio; Tanner, Sian J; Walter, Cheryl T; Dent, Kyle C; Shepherd, Dale A; Wu, Weining; Matthews, Susan V; Hiscox, Julian A; Green, Todd J; Luo, Ming; Elliott, Richard M; Fooks, Anthony R; Ashcroft, Alison E; Stonehouse, Nicola J; Ranson, Neil A; Barr, John N; Edwards, Thomas A

    2013-06-01

    All orthobunyaviruses possess three genome segments of single-stranded negative sense RNA that are encapsidated with the virus-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein to form a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex, which is uncharacterized at high resolution. We report the crystal structure of both the Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) N-RNA complex and the unbound Schmallenberg virus (SBV) N protein, at resolutions of 3.20 and 2.75 Å, respectively. Both N proteins crystallized as ring-like tetramers and exhibit a high degree of structural similarity despite classification into different orthobunyavirus serogroups. The structures represent a new RNA-binding protein fold. BUNV N possesses a positively charged groove into which RNA is deeply sequestered, with the bases facing away from the solvent. This location is highly inaccessible, implying that RNA polymerization and other critical base pairing events in the virus life cycle require RNP disassembly. Mutational analysis of N protein supports a correlation between structure and function. Comparison between these crystal structures and electron microscopy images of both soluble tetramers and authentic RNPs suggests the N protein does not bind RNA as a repeating monomer; thus, it represents a newly described architecture for bunyavirus RNP assembly, with implications for many other segmented negative-strand RNA viruses.

  3. 'Catalysts' for polyacrylamide gel polymerization and detection of proteins by silver staining.

    PubMed

    Hochstrasser, D F; Merril, C R

    1988-01-01

    The crosslinker diacrylyl-piperazine produces polyacrylamide gels which display improved electrophoretic separation of proteins and better physical strength. It also produces gels with improved detection of proteins by ammoniacal silver staining by reducing the background. This reduced background provided us with an opportunity to investigate residual background staining caused by the catalytic reagents utilized in the polymerization of acrylamide gels. The commonly used catalyst system, tetramethyl-ethylenediamine and ammonium persulfate was shown to be responsible for the yellow staining background found after a prolonged development time with silver staining. An alternate catalyst system has been designed to decrease further the formation of this background staining. Dimethyl-piperazine or tetramethylethylenediamine, potassium or ammonium persulfate, and sodium thiosulfate are shown to provide for gels which have excellent mechanical and staining characteristics. These catalytic systems produce little background staining despite prolonged development time with the ammoniacal silver stain, and they reduce background staining with the dichromate silver stain.

  4. Actin-binding Protein Drebrin Regulates HIV-1-triggered Actin Polymerization and Viral Infection*

    PubMed Central

    Gordón-Alonso, Mónica; Rocha-Perugini, Vera; Álvarez, Susana; Ursa, Ángeles; Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Muñoz-Fernández, María A.; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 contact with target cells triggers F-actin rearrangements that are essential for several steps of the viral cycle. Successful HIV entry into CD4+ T cells requires actin reorganization induced by the interaction of the cellular receptor/co-receptor complex CD4/CXCR4 with the viral envelope complex gp120/gp41 (Env). In this report, we analyze the role of the actin modulator drebrin in HIV-1 viral infection and cell to cell fusion. We show that drebrin associates with CXCR4 before and during HIV infection. Drebrin is actively recruited toward cell-virus and Env-driven cell to cell contacts. After viral internalization, drebrin clustering is retained in a fraction of the internalized particles. Through a combination of RNAi-based inhibition of endogenous drebrin and GFP-tagged expression of wild-type and mutant forms, we establish drebrin as a negative regulator of HIV entry and HIV-mediated cell fusion. Down-regulation of drebrin expression promotes HIV-1 entry, decreases F-actin polymerization, and enhances profilin local accumulation in response to HIV-1. These data underscore the negative role of drebrin in HIV infection by modulating viral entry, mainly through the control of actin cytoskeleton polymerization in response to HIV-1. PMID:23926103

  5. Cyclase-associated proteins: CAPacity for linking signal transduction and actin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hubberstey, Andrew V; Mottillo, Emilio P

    2002-04-01

    Many extracellular signals elicit changes in the actin cytoskeleton, which are mediated through an array of signaling proteins and pathways. One family of proteins that plays a role in regulating actin remodeling in response to cellular signals are the cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs). CAPs are highly conserved monomeric actin binding proteins present in a wide range of organisms including yeast, fly, plants, and mammals. The original CAP was isolated as a component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase complex that serves as an effector of Ras during nutritional signaling. CAPs are multifunctional molecules that contain domains involved in actin binding, adenylyl cyclase association in yeast, SH3 binding, and oligomerization. Genetic studies in yeast have implicated CAPs in vesicle trafficking and endocytosis. CAPs play a developmental role in multicellular organisms, and studies of Drosophila have illuminated the importance of the actin cytoskeleton during eye development and in establishing oocyte polarity. This review will highlight the critical structural and functional domains of CAPs, describe recent studies that have implied important roles for these proteins in linking cell signaling with actin polymerization, and highlight their roles in vesicle trafficking and development.

  6. The fabrication of superlow protein absorption zwitterionic coating by electrochemically mediated atom transfer radical polymerization and its application.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yichuan; Yang, Guang; Liang, Bo; Fang, Lu; Ma, Guanglong; Zhu, Qin; Chen, Shengfu; Ye, Xuesong

    2015-02-01

    A well-controllable electrochemically mediated surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (e-siATRP) method for the fabrication of superlow protein absorption zwitterionic hydrogel coatings based on poly(sulbetaine methacrylate) (pSBMA) was developed in this work. The effects of the electric condition on polymerization as well as its antifouling performances both in vitro and in vivo were also investigated. Different potentials (-0.08 V, -0.15 V and -0.22 V) and polymerization times (from 8 to 48 h) were chosen to study the polymerization procedure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize the properties of the polymer layers. Ellipsometry measurements showed that a higher potential provided faster polymerization and thicker polymer layers; however, the protein absorption experiments showed that the best polymerization condition was under a constant potential of -0.15 V and 32 h, under which the protein absorption was 0.8% in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (compared to a bare gold electrode). The electrodes with a pSBMA coating effectively deduced the current sensitivity decay both in undiluted serum and in vivo. The usage of the commercially available polymerization monomer of SBMA, the simple convenient synthesis process regardless of the presence of oxygen and the excellent controllability of e-siATRP make it a very promising and universal technique in the preparation of zwitterionic polymer coatings, especially in the development of biocompatible material for implantable devices such as neural and biosensor electrodes.

  7. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies.

  8. Transport proteins promoting Escherichia coli pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fengyi; Saier, Milton H.

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species infecting hundreds of millions of people worldwide annually. We examined seven well-characterized E. coli pathogens causing urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, pyelonephritis and haemorrhagic colitis. Their transport proteins were identified and compared with each other and a non-pathogenic E. coli K12 strain to identify transport proteins related to pathogenesis. Each pathogen possesses a unique set of protein secretion systems for export to the cell surface or for injecting effector proteins into host cells. Pathogens have increased numbers of iron siderophore receptors and ABC iron uptake transporters, but the numbers and types of low-affinity secondary iron carriers were uniform in all strains. The presence of outer membrane iron complex receptors and high-affinity ABC iron uptake systems correlated, suggesting co-evolution. Each pathovar encodes a different set of pore-forming toxins and virulence-related outer membrane proteins lacking in K12. Intracellular pathogens proved to have a characteristically distinctive set of nutrient uptake porters, different from those of extracellular pathogens. The results presented in this report provide information about transport systems relevant to various types of E. coli pathogenesis that can be exploited in future basic and applied studies. PMID:24747185

  9. Characterization of poly(allylamine) as a polymeric ligand for ion-exchange protein chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Li, Yanying; Yu, Linling; Sun, Yan

    2017-02-24

    This work reports poly(allylamine) (PAA), as a polymeric ion-exchange ligand for protein chromatography. Sepharose FF was modified with PAA, and six anion exchangers with ionic capacities (ICs) from 165 to 618mmol/L were prepared. Inverse size exclusion chromatography, adsorption equilibrium, uptake kinetics and column elution were performed. It was found that both the adsorption capacity and effective diffusivity maintained low values in the IC range of 165-373mmol/L, but they started to increase beyond 373mmol/L, and increased by 80% and 23 times, respectively, when the IC reached 618mmol/L. Interestingly, a drastic decrease of pore size was observed around the IC of 373mmol/L. The results suggest that the PAA chains played an important role in protein adsorption by altering the inner pore structure of the gels. It is considered that, PAA chains turn from inextensible states with multipoint-grafting on the pore surface at low coupling densities (IC<373mmol/L) to closer, extended and flexible grafting states with less coupling points at higher coupling densities (IC>373mmol/L). These characters of the grafted chains at higher IC values benefit in protein adsorption by three-dimensional binding and encouraged the happening of "chain delivery" of bound proteins on the chains. Besides, the ion exchangers showed favorable adsorption and uptake properties in a wide ionic strength range, 0-500mmol/L NaCl, indicating much better salt tolerance feature than the so-far reported ion exchangers. Moreover, a mild condition of pH 5.0 offered effective recovery of bound proteins in elution chromatography. The results indicate that the PAA-based anion exchanger of a high IC value is promising for high-capacity protein chromatography dealing with feedstock of a wide range of ionic strengths.

  10. The β2 clamp in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA polymerase III αβ2ε replicase promotes polymerization and reduces exonuclease activity

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shoujin; Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Hongtai; Fleming, Joy; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Shihua; Wei, Wenjing; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Guofeng; Deng, Jiaoyu; Hou, Jian; Zhou, Ying; Lin, Shiqiang; Zhang, Xian-En; Bi, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase III (DNA pol III) is a multi-subunit replication machine responsible for the accurate and rapid replication of bacterial genomes, however, how it functions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires further investigation. We have reconstituted the leading-strand replication process of the Mtb DNA pol III holoenzyme in vitro, and investigated the physical and functional relationships between its key components. We verify the presence of an αβ2ε polymerase-clamp-exonuclease replicase complex by biochemical methods and protein-protein interaction assays in vitro and in vivo and confirm that, in addition to the polymerase activity of its α subunit, Mtb DNA pol III has two potential proofreading subunits; the α and ε subunits. During DNA replication, the presence of the β2 clamp strongly promotes the polymerization of the αβ2ε replicase and reduces its exonuclease activity. Our work provides a foundation for further research on the mechanism by which the replication machinery switches between replication and proofreading and provides an experimental platform for the selection of antimicrobials targeting DNA replication in Mtb. PMID:26822057

  11. Annexin A1–containing extracellular vesicles and polymeric nanoparticles promote epithelial wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Giovanna; Neumann, Philipp-Alexander; Kamaly, Nazila; Quiros, Miguel; Nishio, Hikaru; Jones, Hefin R.; Sumagin, Ronen; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Alam, Ashfaqul; Fredman, Gabrielle; Argyris, Ioannis; Rijcken, Emile; Kusters, Dennis; Reutelingsperger, Chris; Perretti, Mauro; Parkos, Charles A.; Farokhzad, Omid C.; Neish, Andrew S.; Nusrat, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial restitution is an essential process that is required to repair barrier function at mucosal surfaces following injury. Prolonged breaches in epithelial barrier function result in inflammation and further damage; therefore, a better understanding of the epithelial restitution process has potential for improving the development of therapeutics. In this work, we demonstrate that endogenous annexin A1 (ANXA1) is released as a component of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from intestinal epithelial cells, and these ANXA1-containing EVs activate wound repair circuits. Compared with healthy controls, patients with active inflammatory bowel disease had elevated levels of secreted ANXA1-containing EVs in sera, indicating that ANXA1-containing EVs are systemically distributed in response to the inflammatory process and could potentially serve as a biomarker of intestinal mucosal inflammation. Local intestinal delivery of an exogenous ANXA1 mimetic peptide (Ac2-26) encapsulated within targeted polymeric nanoparticles (Ac2-26 Col IV NPs) accelerated healing of murine colonic wounds after biopsy-induced injury. Moreover, one-time systemic administration of Ac2-26 Col IV NPs accelerated recovery following experimentally induced colitis. Together, our results suggest that local delivery of proresolving peptides encapsulated within nanoparticles may represent a potential therapeutic strategy for clinical situations characterized by chronic mucosal injury, such as is seen in patients with IBD. PMID:25664854

  12. Improving the binding capacities of protein A chromatographic materials by means of ligand polymerization.

    PubMed

    Freiherr von Roman, Matthias; Berensmeier, Sonja

    2014-06-20

    Protein A chromatography is one of the most important techniques used in the purification of monoclonal antibodies. Due to the low dynamic binding capacity of protein A chromatographic materials compared to other stationary phases, protein A chromatography is often discussed to be the bottleneck among current purification processes. Several approaches were tested within this study in order to maximize IgG binding capacities of current acrylamido-based based resins. Genetic engineering techniques were used in order to polymerize one of the IgG binding domains (B-domain) of protein A from Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) to achieve ligands with an increased length. The solution-binding ratio and the total size of ligand-antibody complexes were used to characterize the interaction potential of novel ligands, revealing a relatively linear dependency between the number of binding domains upon the amount of bound antibody molecules. This relationship was also valid up to a ligand which was comprised of 8 B-domains after attaching them onto acrylamido-based based stationary phases using epoxy coupling techniques. Equilibrium binding capacities of more than 80mghIgGmL(-1) were achieved using the B8 ligand. Furthermore, static binding capacities, especially for smaller ligands comprised of fewer B-domains, were improved up to 87mghIgGmL(-1) using site-specific coupling chemistry, which is an improvement of more than 20% compared to commercially available materials. In order to evaluate pore exclusion effects due to the use of prolonged affinity ligands, prepared materials were characterized regarding their effective intraparticle porosity and breakthrough capacity.

  13. Photoinduced graft polymerization of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine on silicone hydrogels for reducing protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing Jing; Liu, Fang

    2011-12-01

    The biomimetic synthetic methacrylate monomer containing a phosphorylcholine group, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), has been widely used to improve the surface property of biomaterials. In the current report, both hydrophilic and antifouling surfaces were prepared on silicone hydrogels with MPC grafted by UV-induced free radical polymerization. The MPC-grafted silicone hydrogels were characterized by graft yield and static water contact angle (SCA) measurements. According to the results, the graft yield reached a maximum at 5 min of UV exposure time and 8 wt% MPC concentration. The modified silicone hydrogels possessed hydrophilic surfaces with the lowest water contact angle of 20º. The oxygen permeability of the MPC-grafted silicone hydrogels was as high as the unmodified silicone hydrogel. The mechanical property of silicone hydrogels was maintained at about 95% of the tensile strength and elastic modulus after the MPC grafting. The results of the in vitro single protein adsorption on the MPC-grafted silicone hydrogels were in agreement with the SCA measurements. The smaller the water contact angle, the greater was the protein repelling ability. The MPC-grafted silicone hydrogel is expected to be a novel biomaterial which possesses excellent surface hydrophilicity, antifouling property, oxygen permeability and mechanical property.

  14. Highly permeable polymeric membranes based on the incorporation of the functional water channel protein Aquaporin Z

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manish; Grzelakowski, Mariusz; Zilles, Julie; Clark, Mark; Meier, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The permeability and solute transport characteristics of amphiphilic triblock-polymer vesicles containing the bacterial water-channel protein Aquaporin Z (AqpZ) were investigated. The vesicles were made of a block copolymer with symmetric poly-(2-methyloxazoline)-poly-(dimethylsiloxane)-poly-(2-methyloxazoline) (PMOXA15-PDMS110-PMOXA15) repeat units. Light-scattering measurements on pure polymer vesicles subject to an outwardly directed salt gradient in a stopped-flow apparatus indicated that the polymer vesicles were highly impermeable. However, a large enhancement in water productivity (permeability per unit driving force) of up to ≈800 times that of pure polymer was observed when AqpZ was incorporated. The activation energy (Ea) of water transport for the protein-polymer vesicles (3.4 kcal/mol) corresponded to that reported for water-channel-mediated water transport in lipid membranes. The solute reflection coefficients of glucose, glycerol, salt, and urea were also calculated, and indicated that these solutes are completely rejected. The productivity of AqpZ-incorporated polymer membranes was at least an order of magnitude larger than values for existing salt-rejecting polymeric membranes. The approach followed here may lead to more productive and sustainable water treatment membranes, whereas the variable levels of permeability obtained with different concentrations of AqpZ may provide a key property for drug delivery applications. PMID:18077364

  15. Promoters, transcripts, and regulatory proteins of Mungbean yellow mosaic geminivirus.

    PubMed

    Shivaprasad, P V; Akbergenov, Rashid; Trinks, Daniela; Rajeswaran, R; Veluthambi, K; Hohn, Thomas; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2005-07-01

    Geminiviruses package circular single-stranded DNA and replicate in the nucleus via a double-stranded intermediate. This intermediate also serves as a template for bidirectional transcription by polymerase II. Here, we map promoters and transcripts and characterize regulatory proteins of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV), a bipartite geminivirus in the genus Begomovirus. The following new features, which might also apply to other begomoviruses, were revealed in MYMV. The leftward and rightward promoters on DNA-B share the transcription activator AC2-responsive region, which does not overlap the common region that is nearly identical in the two DNA components. The transcription unit for BC1 (movement protein) includes a conserved, leader-based intron. Besides negative-feedback regulation of its own leftward promoter on DNA-A, the replication protein AC1, in cooperation with AC2, synergistically transactivates the rightward promoter, which drives a dicistronic transcription unit for the coat protein AV1. AC2 and the replication enhancer AC3 are expressed from one dicistronic transcript driven by a strong promoter mapped within the upstream AC1 gene. Early and constitutive expression of AC2 is consistent with its essential dual function as an activator of viral transcription and a suppressor of silencing.

  16. Promoters, Transcripts, and Regulatory Proteins of Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Geminivirus†

    PubMed Central

    Shivaprasad, P. V.; Akbergenov, Rashid; Trinks, Daniela; Rajeswaran, R.; Veluthambi, K.; Hohn, Thomas; Pooggin, Mikhail M.

    2005-01-01

    Geminiviruses package circular single-stranded DNA and replicate in the nucleus via a double-stranded intermediate. This intermediate also serves as a template for bidirectional transcription by polymerase II. Here, we map promoters and transcripts and characterize regulatory proteins of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-Vigna (MYMV), a bipartite geminivirus in the genus Begomovirus. The following new features, which might also apply to other begomoviruses, were revealed in MYMV. The leftward and rightward promoters on DNA-B share the transcription activator AC2-responsive region, which does not overlap the common region that is nearly identical in the two DNA components. The transcription unit for BC1 (movement protein) includes a conserved, leader-based intron. Besides negative-feedback regulation of its own leftward promoter on DNA-A, the replication protein AC1, in cooperation with AC2, synergistically transactivates the rightward promoter, which drives a dicistronic transcription unit for the coat protein AV1. AC2 and the replication enhancer AC3 are expressed from one dicistronic transcript driven by a strong promoter mapped within the upstream AC1 gene. Early and constitutive expression of AC2 is consistent with its essential dual function as an activator of viral transcription and a suppressor of silencing. PMID:15956560

  17. Polymerized ionic liquid-wrapped carbon nanotubes: the promising composites for direct electrochemistry and biosensing of redox protein.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chunhui; Chu, Xiaochen; Wu, Bohua; Pang, Haili; Zhang, Xiaohua; Chen, Jinhua

    2010-03-15

    Polymerized ionic liquid-wrapped carbon nanotubes (PIL-CNTs) were firstly designed for direct electrochemistry and biosensing of redox proteins. The CNTs were coated successfully with polymerized ionic liquid (PIL) layer, as verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The PIL-CNTs were dispersed better in water and showed superior electrocatalysis toward O(2) and H(2)O(2) comparing to pristine CNTs and the mixture of IL monomer and CNTs. With glucose oxidase (GOD) as a protein model, the direct electrochemistry of the redox protein was investigated on the PIL-CNTs modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode and excellent direct electrochemical performance of GOD molecules was observed. The proposed biosensor (GOD/PIL-CNTs/GC electrode) displayed good analytical performance for glucose with linear response up to 6mM, response sensitivity of 0.853 microA mM(-1), good stability and selectivity.

  18. Thermal analysis evaluation of mechanical properties changes promoted by gamma radiation on surgical polymeric textiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. M.; Casimiro, M. H.; Oliveira, C.; Cabeço Silva, M. E.; Marques Abreu, M. J.; Coelho, A.

    2002-05-01

    The large number of surgical operations with post-operative infection problems and the appearing of new infectious diseases, contribute to the development of new materials in order to answer the needs of health care services. This development must take into account the modifications promoted by sterilisation methods in materials, namely by gamma radiation. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA) techniques show that a nonwoven and a laminate textiles maintain a good molecular cohesion, do not showing high levels of degradation, for gamma radiation dose values lower than 100 kGy in nonwoven and 200 kGy in laminate materials. The tensile strength and the elongation decrease slowly for the nonwoven textile and decrease faster for the laminate textile for 25 and 80 kGy absorbed dose. This paper shows that the DSC and TGA techniques can be helpful for the prevision of mechanical changes occurred in the materials as a consequence of the gamma irradiation.

  19. Functional interactions between a glutamine synthetase promoter and MYB proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Maldonado, Josefa; Avila, Concepción; Torre, Fernando; Cañas, Rafael; Cánovas, Francisco M; Campbell, Malcolm M

    2004-08-01

    In Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), ammonium assimilation is catalysed by glutamine synthetase (GS) [EC 6.3.1.2], which is encoded by two genes, PsGS1a and PsGS1b. PsGS1b is expressed in the vascular tissue throughout the plant body, where it is believed to play a role in recycling ammonium released by various facets of metabolism. The mechanisms that may underpin the transcriptional regulation of PsGS1b were explored. The PsGS1b promoter contains a region that is enriched in previously characterized cis-acting elements, known as AC elements. Pine nuclear proteins bound these AC element-rich regions in a tissue-specific manner. As previous experiments had shown that R2R3-MYB transcription factors could interact with AC elements, the capacity of the AC elements in the PsGS1b promoter to interact with MYB proteins was examined. Two MYB proteins from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), PtMYB1 and PtMYB4, bound to the PsGS1b promoter were able to activate transcription from this promoter in yeast, arabidopsis and pine cells. Immunolocalization experiments revealed that the two MYB proteins were most abundant in cells previously shown to accumulate PsGS1b transcripts. Immunoprecipitation analysis and supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assays implicated these same two proteins in the formation of complexes between pine nuclear extracts and the PsGS1b promoter. Given that these MYB proteins were previously shown to have the capacity to activate gene expression related to lignin biosynthesis, we hypothesize that they may function to co-regulate lignification, a process that places significant demands on nitrogen recycling, and GS, the major enzyme involved in the nitrogen recycling pathway.

  20. Role of non-prolamin proteins and low molecular weight redox agents in protein folding and polymerization in wheat grains and influence on baking quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Osipova, Svetlana V; Permyakova, Marina D; Permyakov, Aleksey V

    2012-12-12

    The various enzyme systems and low molecular weight (LMW) redox agents are related to the folding and polymerization of prolamins in the ripening wheat grains and the formation of baking quality. Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) and cyclophylins accelerate "correct" folding of prolamins, which is most likely necessary for the subsequent formation of the macromolecular structure of the gluten protein matrix. PDIs are also involved in the polymerization of prolamins, catalyzing the oxidation of protein sulfhydryl groups. Molecular chaperone binding BiP protein facilitates folding of prolamins, with its role increasing in the stressful conditions. Reducing systems of thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, LMW redox pairs GSH/GSSG and Asc/DHAsc, thiol oxidases, and lipoxygenases (LOXs) regulate redox balance and the rate of polymerization of prolamins at the different stages of grain ripening. Additionally, LOX is probably involved in the protein-starch-lipid interactions between the starch granule and the protein matrix, mediated by puroindolines, determining the formation of grain texture. It is assumed that the high variability of baking quality in different environmental conditions is due to the interaction of labile enzyme systems with the storage proteins in the developing wheat caryopsis.

  1. Mussel-inspired new approach for polymerization and cross-linking of peptides and proteins containing tyrosines by Fremy's salt oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wilchek, Meir; Miron, Talia

    2015-03-18

    Our objective was to develop a method mimicking the natural process of coherence in marine mollusks, by direct chemical conversion of protein tyrosine residues to DOPA-o-quinones, which consequently generates polymerization and cross-linking. Fremy's salt, (ON(SO3K)2, was used to convert tyrosine residues in peptides and proteins to reactive o-quinones. The conversion of tyrosines to DOPA-o-quinones, and their ability to polymerize or cross-link, was tested on tyramine, peptides, and proteins. The peptides tested were as follows: biotin-PEG4-tyramine (PEG-BT), and two decapeptides (identical to the repeating units comprising the mussel's adhesive protein). The proteins tested were as follows: bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase), lysozyme, IgG, avidin, and streptavidin. The oxidized peptides and proteins were all shown to incorporate oxygen atoms and undergo polymerization and cross-linking, depending on the availability of nucleophiles, mostly lysine amino groups of proteins. All the peptides and the noninteracting proteins such as RNase and lysozyme underwent homopolymerization upon Fremy's salt oxidation. When Fremy's salt oxidaized PEG-BT was mixed with the above proteins, it did not react with any of these proteins because PEG-BT underwent fast self-polymerization. Conversely, streptavidin or avidin cross-linked with PEG-BT after preincubation, thus showing that biorecognition is a prerequisite for cross-linking. Polymerization and cross-linking also occurred, following Fremy's salt oxidation of interacting proteins such as avidin and strepavidin with biotinyilated lysozyme or biotinylated RNase. This indicates that only proteins in very close proximity readily cross-link and polymerize via tyrosine residues. Attempts to convert DOPA-quinone to DOPA by reduction with sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4), was successful as far as small peptides were used. Fremy's salt oxidation can serve as an easy and useful tool to polymerize and cross-link proteins, for

  2. Protein-Nanocrystal Conjugates Support a Single Filament Polymerization Model in R1 Plasmid Segregation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Charina L.; Claridge, Shelley A.; Garner, Ethan C.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Mullins, R. Dyche

    2008-07-15

    To ensure inheritance by daughter cells, many low-copy number bacterial plasmids, including the R1 drug-resistance plasmid, encode their own DNA segregation systems. The par operon of plasmid R1 directs construction of a simple spindle structure that converts free energy of polymerization of an actin-like protein, ParM, into work required to move sister plasmids to opposite poles of rod-shaped cells. The structures of individual components have been solved, but little is known about the ultrastructure of the R1 spindle. To determine the number of ParM filaments in a minimal R1 spindle, we used DNA-gold nanocrystal conjugates as mimics of the R1 plasmid. Wefound that each end of a single polar ParM filament binds to a single ParR/parC-gold complex, consistent with the idea that ParM filaments bind in the hollow core of the ParR/parC ring complex. Our results further suggest that multifilament spindles observed in vivo are associated with clusters of plasmidssegregating as a unit.

  3. Protein nanocoatings on synthetic polymeric nanofibrous membranes designed as carriers for skin cells

    PubMed Central

    Bacakova, Marketa; Pajorova, Julia; Stranska, Denisa; Hadraba, Daniel; Lopot, Frantisek; Riedel, Tomas; Brynda, Eduard; Zaloudkova, Margit; Bacakova, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Protein-coated resorbable synthetic polymeric nanofibrous membranes are promising for the fabrication of advanced skin substitutes. We fabricated electrospun polylactic acid and poly(lactide-co-glycolic acid) nanofibrous membranes and coated them with fibrin or collagen I. Fibronectin was attached to a fibrin or collagen nanocoating, in order further to enhance the cell adhesion and spreading. Fibrin regularly formed a coating around individual nanofibers in the membranes, and also formed a thin noncontinuous nanofibrous mesh on top of the membranes. Collagen also coated most of the fibers of the membrane and randomly created a soft gel on the membrane surface. Fibronectin predominantly adsorbed onto a thin fibrin mesh or a collagen gel, and formed a thin nanofibrous structure. Fibrin nanocoating greatly improved the attachment, spreading, and proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts, whereas collagen nanocoating had a positive influence on the behavior of human HaCaT keratinocytes. In addition, fibrin stimulated the fibroblasts to synthesize fibronectin and to deposit it as an extracellular matrix. Fibrin coating also showed a tendency to improve the ultimate tensile strength of the nanofibrous membranes. Fibronectin attached to fibrin or to a collagen coating further enhanced the adhesion, spreading, and proliferation of both cell types. PMID:28223803

  4. Polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bolhassani, Azam; Javanzad, Shabnam; Saleh, Tayebeh; Hashemi, Mehrdad; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Nanocarriers with various compositions and biological properties have been extensively applied for in vitro/in vivo drug and gene delivery. The family of nanocarriers includes polymeric nanoparticles, lipid-based carriers (liposomes/micelles), dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and gold nanoparticles (nanoshells/nanocages). Among different delivery systems, polymeric carriers have several properties such as: easy to synthesize, inexpensive, biocompatible, biodegradable, non-immunogenic, non-toxic, and water soluble. In addition, cationic polymers seem to produce more stable complexes led to a more protection during cellular trafficking than cationic lipids. Nanoparticles often show significant adjuvant effects in vaccine delivery since they may be easily taken up by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Natural polymers such as polysaccharides and synthetic polymers have demonstrated great potential to form vaccine nanoparticles. The development of new adjuvants or delivery systems for DNA and protein immunization is an expanding research field. This review describes polymeric carriers especially PLGA, chitosan, and PEI as vaccine delivery systems. PMID:24128651

  5. An Artificial Reaction Promoter Modulates Mitochondrial Functions via Chemically Promoting Protein Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Yutaka; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Hotta, Kohji; Ariga, Katsuhiko; Oka, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation, which modulates protein function, is an important process in intracellular signalling. In mitochondria, protein acetylation regulates a number of enzymatic activities and, therefore, modulates mitochondrial functions. Our previous report showed that tributylphosphine (PBu3), an artificial reaction promoter that promotes acetylransfer reactions in vitro, also promotes the reaction between acetyl-CoA and an exogenously introduced fluorescent probe in mitochondria. In this study, we demonstrate that PBu3 induces the acetylation of mitochondrial proteins and a decrease in acetyl-CoA concentration in PBu3-treated HeLa cells. This indicates that PBu3 can promote the acetyltransfer reaction between acetyl-CoA and mitochondrial proteins in living cells. PBu3-induced acetylation gradually reduced mitochondrial ATP concentrations in HeLa cells without changing the cytoplasmic ATP concentration, suggesting that PBu3 mainly affects mitochondrial functions. In addition, pyruvate, which is converted into acetyl-CoA in mitochondria and transiently increases ATP concentrations in the absence of PBu3, elicited a further decrease in mitochondrial ATP concentrations in the presence of PBu3. Moreover, the application and removal of PBu3 reversibly alternated mitochondrial fragmentation and elongation. These results indicate that PBu3 enhances acetyltransfer reactions in mitochondria and modulates mitochondrial functions in living cells. PMID:27374857

  6. Tumor promotion by depleting cells of protein kinase C delta.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Z; Hornia, A; Jiang, Y W; Zang, Q; Ohno, S; Foster, D A

    1997-01-01

    Tumor-promoting phorbol esters activate, but then deplete cells of, protein kinase C (PKC) with prolonged treatment. It is not known whether phorbol ester-induced tumor promotion is due to activation or depletion of PKC. In rat fibroblasts overexpressing the c-Src proto-oncogene, the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) induced anchorage-independent growth and other transformation-related phenotypes. The appearance of transformed phenotypes induced by TPA in these cells correlated not with activation but rather with depletion of expressed PKC isoforms. Consistent with this observation, PKC inhibitors also induced transformed phenotypes in c-Src-overexpressing cells. Bryostatin 1, which inhibited the TPA-induced down-regulation of the PKCdelta isoform specifically, blocked the tumor-promoting effects of TPA, implicating PKCdelta as the target of the tumor-promoting phorbol esters. Consistent with this hypothesis, expression of a dominant negative PKCdelta mutant in cells expressing c-Src caused transformation of these cells, and rottlerin, a protein kinase inhibitor with specificity for PKCdelta, like TPA, caused transformation of c-Src-overexpressing cells. These data suggest that the tumor-promoting effect of phorbol esters is due to depletion of PKCdelta, which has an apparent tumor suppressor function. PMID:9154841

  7. Functional analysis of bipartite begomovirus coat protein promoter sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Lacatus, Gabriela; Sunter, Garry

    2008-06-20

    We demonstrate that the AL2 gene of Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) activates the CP promoter in mesophyll and acts to derepress the promoter in vascular tissue, similar to that observed for Tomato golden mosaic virus (TGMV). Binding studies indicate that sequences mediating repression and activation of the TGMV and CaLCuV CP promoter specifically bind different nuclear factors common to Nicotiana benthamiana, spinach and tomato. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates that TGMV AL2 can interact with both sequences independently. Binding of nuclear protein(s) from different crop species to viral sequences conserved in both bipartite and monopartite begomoviruses, including TGMV, CaLCuV, Pepper golden mosaic virus and Tomato yellow leaf curl virus suggests that bipartite begomoviruses bind common host factors to regulate the CP promoter. This is consistent with a model in which AL2 interacts with different components of the cellular transcription machinery that bind viral sequences important for repression and activation of begomovirus CP promoters.

  8. Optimal Hydrophobicity in Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization-Based Protein Mimics Required for siRNA Internalization.

    PubMed

    deRonde, Brittany M; Posey, Nicholas D; Otter, Ronja; Caffrey, Leah M; Minter, Lisa M; Tew, Gregory N

    2016-06-13

    Exploring the role of polymer structure for the internalization of biologically relevant cargo, specifically siRNA, is of critical importance to the development of improved delivery reagents. Herein, we report guanidinium-rich protein transduction domain mimics (PTDMs) based on a ring-opening metathesis polymerization scaffold containing tunable hydrophobic moieties that promote siRNA internalization. Structure-activity relationships using Jurkat T cells and HeLa cells were explored to determine how the length of the hydrophobic block and the hydrophobic side chain compositions of these PTDMs impacted siRNA internalization. To explore the hydrophobic block length, two different series of diblock copolymers were synthesized: one series with symmetric block lengths and one with asymmetric block lengths. At similar cationic block lengths, asymmetric and symmetric PTDMs promoted siRNA internalization in the same percentages of the cell population regardless of the hydrophobic block length; however, with 20 repeat units of cationic charge, the asymmetric block length had greater siRNA internalization, highlighting the nontrivial relationships between hydrophobicity and overall cationic charge. To further probe how the hydrophobic side chains impacted siRNA internalization, an additional series of asymmetric PTDMs was synthesized that featured a fixed hydrophobic block length of five repeat units that contained either dimethyl (dMe), methyl phenyl (MePh), or diphenyl (dPh) side chains and varied cationic block lengths. This series was further expanded to incorporate hydrophobic blocks consisting of diethyl (dEt), diisobutyl (diBu), and dicyclohexyl (dCy) based repeat units to better define the hydrophobic window for which our PTDMs had optimal activity. High-performance liquid chromatography retention times quantified the relative hydrophobicities of the noncationic building blocks. PTDMs containing the MePh, diBu, and dPh hydrophobic blocks were shown to have superior

  9. Regulatory elements of the Staphylococcus aureus protein A (Spa) promoter.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinxin; Stewart, George C

    2004-06-01

    Staphylococcal protein A (Spa) is an important virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus. Transcription of the spa determinant occurs during the exponential growth phase and is repressed when the cells enter the postexponential growth phase. Regulation of spa expression has been found to be complicated, with regulation involving multiple factors, including Agr, SarA, SarS, SarT, Rot, and MgrA. Our understanding of how these factors work on the spa promoter to regulate spa expression is incomplete. To identify regulatory sites within the spa promoter, analysis of deletion derivatives of the promoter in host strains deficient in one or more of the regulatory factors was undertaken, and several critical features of spa regulation were revealed. The transcriptional start sites of spa were determined by primer extension. The spa promoter sequences were subcloned in front of a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. Various lengths of spa truncations with the same 3' end were constructed, and the resultant plasmids were transduced into strains with different regulatory genetic backgrounds. Our results identified upstream promoter sequences necessary for Agr system regulation of spa expression. The cis elements for SarS activity, an activator of spa expression, and for SarA activity, a repressor of spa expression, were identified. The well-characterized SarA consensus sequence on the spa promoter was found to be insufficient for SarA repression of the spa promoter. Full repression required the presence of a second consensus site adjacent to the SarS binding site. Sequences directly upstream of the core promoter sequence were found to stimulate transcription.

  10. Protein binding elements in the human beta-polymerase promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Englander, E W; Wilson, S H

    1990-01-01

    The core promoter for human DNA polymerase beta contains discrete binding sites for mammalian nuclear proteins, as revealed by DNasel footprinting and gel mobility shift assays. Two sites correspond to sequences identical with the Sp1 factor binding element, and a third site includes an eight residue palindromic sequence, TGACGTCA, known as the CRE element of several cAMP responsive promoters; the 5 to 10 residues flanking this palindrome on each side have no apparent sequence homology with known elements in other promoters. Nuclear extract from a variety of tissues and cells were examined; these included rat liver and testes and cultured cells of human and hamster origin. The DNasel footprint is strong over and around the palindromic element for each of the extracts and is equivalent in size (approximately 22 residues); footprinting over the Sp1 binding sites is seen also. Two potential tissue-specific binding sites, present in liver but not in testes, were found corresponding to residues -13 to -10 and +33 to +48, respectively. Protein binding to the palindromic element was confirmed by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay with the core promoter as probe. Binding specificity of the 22 residue palindromic element, as revealed by oligonucleotide competition, is different from that of AP-1 binding element. Controlled proteolysis with trypsin was used to study structural properties of proteins forming the mobility shift bands. Following digestion with trypsin, most of the palindrome binding activity of each extract corresponded to a sharp, faster migrating band, potentially representing a DNA binding domain of the palindrome binding protein. Images PMID:2315044

  11. Ampakines promote spine actin polymerization, long-term potentiation, and learning in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Michel; Kramar, Eniko; Xu, Xiaobo; Zadran, Homera; Moreno, Stephanie; Lynch, Gary; Gall, Christine; Bi, Xiaoning

    2012-08-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder largely due to abnormal maternal expression of the UBE3A gene leading to the deletion of E6-associated protein. AS subjects have severe cognitive impairments for which there are no therapeutic interventions. Mouse models (knockouts of the maternal Ube3a gene: 'AS mice') of the disorder have substantial deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning. Here we report a clinically plausible pharmacological treatment that ameliorates both deficits. AS mice were injected ip twice daily for 5 days with vehicle or the ampakine CX929; drugs of this type enhance fast EPSCs by positively modulating AMPA receptors. Theta burst stimulation (TBS) produced a normal enhancement of field EPSPs in hippocampal slices prepared from vehicle-treated AS mice but LTP decreased steadily to baseline; however, LTP in slices from ampakine-treated AS mice stabilized at levels found in wild-type controls. TBS-induced actin polymerization within dendritic spines, an essential event for stabilizing LTP, was severely impaired in slices from vehicle-treated AS mice but not in those from ampakine-treated AS mice. Long-term memory scores in a fear conditioning paradigm were reduced by 50% in vehicle-treated AS mice but were comparable to values for littermate controls in the ampakine-treated AS mice. We propose that AS is associated with a profound defect in activity-driven spine cytoskeletal reorganization, resulting in a loss of the synaptic plasticity required for the encoding of long-term memory. Notably, the spine abnormality along with the LTP and learning impairments can be reduced by a minimally invasive drug treatment.

  12. Interplay between Penicillin-binding proteins and SEDS proteins promotes bacterial cell wall synthesis.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Sophie; Derouaux, Adeline; Olatunji, Samir; Fraipont, Claudine; Egan, Alexander J F; Vollmer, Waldemar; Breukink, Eefjan; Terrak, Mohammed

    2017-02-24

    Bacteria utilize specialized multi-protein machineries to synthesize the essential peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall during growth and division. The divisome controls septal PG synthesis and separation of daughter cells. In E. coli, the lipid II transporter candidate FtsW is thought to work in concert with the PG synthases penicillin-binding proteins PBP3 and PBP1b. Yet, the exact molecular mechanisms of their function in complexes are largely unknown. We show that FtsW interacts with PBP1b and lipid II and that PBP1b, FtsW and PBP3 co-purify suggesting that they form a trimeric complex. We also show that the large loop between transmembrane helices 7 and 8 of FtsW is important for the interaction with PBP3. Moreover, we found that FtsW, but not the other flippase candidate MurJ, impairs lipid II polymerization and peptide cross-linking activities of PBP1b, and that PBP3 relieves these inhibitory effects. All together the results suggest that FtsW interacts with lipid II preventing its polymerization by PBP1b unless PBP3 is also present, indicating that PBP3 facilitates lipid II release and/or its transfer to PBP1b after transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. This tight regulatory mechanism is consistent with the cell's need to ensure appropriate use of the limited pool of lipid II.

  13. Interplay between Penicillin-binding proteins and SEDS proteins promotes bacterial cell wall synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie; Derouaux, Adeline; Olatunji, Samir; Fraipont, Claudine; Egan, Alexander J. F.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Breukink, Eefjan; Terrak, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria utilize specialized multi-protein machineries to synthesize the essential peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall during growth and division. The divisome controls septal PG synthesis and separation of daughter cells. In E. coli, the lipid II transporter candidate FtsW is thought to work in concert with the PG synthases penicillin-binding proteins PBP3 and PBP1b. Yet, the exact molecular mechanisms of their function in complexes are largely unknown. We show that FtsW interacts with PBP1b and lipid II and that PBP1b, FtsW and PBP3 co-purify suggesting that they form a trimeric complex. We also show that the large loop between transmembrane helices 7 and 8 of FtsW is important for the interaction with PBP3. Moreover, we found that FtsW, but not the other flippase candidate MurJ, impairs lipid II polymerization and peptide cross-linking activities of PBP1b, and that PBP3 relieves these inhibitory effects. All together the results suggest that FtsW interacts with lipid II preventing its polymerization by PBP1b unless PBP3 is also present, indicating that PBP3 facilitates lipid II release and/or its transfer to PBP1b after transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. This tight regulatory mechanism is consistent with the cell’s need to ensure appropriate use of the limited pool of lipid II. PMID:28233869

  14. Growth promoting hormonal implant pellets coated with a polymeric, porous film promote weight gain by grazing beef heifers and steers for up to 200 days.

    PubMed

    Cleale, R M; Edmonds, J D; Edmonds, M; Hunsaker, B D; Kraft, L A; Smith, L L; Yazwinski, T A

    2015-04-01

    Two studies evaluated growth promoting effects of implant pellets (IP), each containing 3.5 mg estradiol benzoate (EB) and 25 mg trenbolone acetate (TBA), to which a polymeric, porous coating was applied. Trial 1 evaluated performance of heifers (n = 70/treatment, initial BW = 188 ± 2.2 kg) and steers (n = 70/treatment, initial BW = 194 ± 2.2 kg) implanted subcutaneously in the ear with 0 (SC), 2 (2IP), 4 (4IP), or 6 (6IP) pellets that delivered EB/TBA (mg/mg) doses of 0/0, 7/50, 14/100, and 21/150, respectively, over grazing periods of 202 d (heifers) or 203 d (steers). Animals received experimental treatments on d 0 and over the grazing period were managed as single groups by sex in a rotational grazing system. When pasture forage availability became limited, cattle were supplemented with preserved forage but not concentrate supplements. Weight gains by heifers treated with 2IP, 4IP, and 6IP were greater (P < 0.05) than SC heifers but not different from each other. Weight gains by steers treated with 2IP, 4IP, and 6IP were greater than SC steers (P < 0.05), and ADG by steers treated with 6IP was greater (P < 0.05) than steers given 2IP or 4IP. Trial 2 was a multisite grazing study performed with heifers and steers to compare ADG after treatment with one 6-pellet, coated implant delivering 21 mg EB and 150 mg TBA (6IP) to sham treated negative controls (SC) over a grazing period of at least 200 d. A completely random design was used at each site, with the goal to treat 70 cattle per site, treatment, and sex; data were pooled across sites. Heifers (n = 558, initial BW = 229 ± 16 kg) and steers (n = 555, initial BW = 235 ± 20 kg) grazed in rotational programs consistent with regional practices for an average of 202 d. When necessary, cattle were supplemented with preserved forage, but no concentrate supplements were fed. Over 202 d, ADG by heifers treated with 6IP was 11.3% greater (P = 0.0035) than SC heifers (0.64 ± 0.06 kg/d), and ADG by steers treated with

  15. Identification of protein pheromones that promote aggressive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chamero, Pablo; Marton, Tobias F; Logan, Darren W; Flanagan, Kelly; Cruz, Jason R; Saghatelian, Alan; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Stowers, Lisa

    2007-12-06

    Mice use pheromones, compounds emitted and detected by members of the same species, as cues to regulate social behaviours such as pup suckling, aggression and mating. Neurons that detect pheromones are thought to reside in at least two separate organs within the nasal cavity: the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). Each pheromone ligand is thought to activate a dedicated subset of these sensory neurons. However, the nature of the pheromone cues and the identity of the responding neurons that regulate specific social behaviours are largely unknown. Here we show, by direct activation of sensory neurons and analysis of behaviour, that at least two chemically distinct ligands are sufficient to promote male-male aggression and stimulate VNO neurons. We have purified and analysed one of these classes of ligand and found its specific aggression-promoting activity to be dependent on the presence of the protein component of the major urinary protein (MUP) complex, which is known to comprise specialized lipocalin proteins bound to small organic molecules. Using calcium imaging of dissociated vomeronasal neurons (VNs), we have determined that the MUP protein activates a sensory neuron subfamily characterized by the expression of the G-protein Galpha(o) subunit (also known as Gnao) and Vmn2r putative pheromone receptors (V2Rs). Genomic analysis indicates species-specific co-expansions of MUPs and V2Rs, as would be expected among pheromone-signalling components. Finally, we show that the aggressive behaviour induced by the MUPs occurs exclusively through VNO neuronal circuits. Our results substantiate the idea of MUP proteins as pheromone ligands that mediate male-male aggression through the accessory olfactory neural pathway.

  16. Strand invasion promoted by recombination protein of coliphage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybalchenko, Nataliya; Golub, Efim I.; Bi, Baoyuan; Radding, Charles M.

    2004-12-01

    Studies of phage in vivo have indicated that its own recombination enzymes, protein and exonuclease, are capable of catalyzing two dissimilar pathways of homologous recombination that are widely distributed in nature: single-strand annealing and strand invasion. The former is an enzymatic splicing of overlapping ends of broken homologous DNA molecules, whereas the latter is characterized by the formation of a three-stranded synaptic intermediate and subsequent strand exchange. Previous studies in vitro have shown that protein has annealing activity, and that exonuclease, acting on branched substrates, can produce a perfect splice that requires only ligation for completion. The present study shows that protein can initiate strand invasion in vitro, as evidenced both by the formation of displacement loops (D-loops) in superhelical DNA and by strand exchange between colinear single-stranded and double-stranded molecules. Thus, protein can catalyze steps that are central to both strand annealing and strand invasion pathways of recombination. These observations add protein to a set of diverse proteins that appear to promote recognition of homology by a unitary mechanism governed by the intrinsic dynamic properties of base pairs in DNA. genetic recombination | phage λ

  17. ATP hydrolysis by a domain related to translation factor GTPases drives polymerization of a static bacterial morphogenetic protein.

    PubMed

    Castaing, Jean-Philippe; Nagy, Attila; Anantharaman, Vivek; Aravind, L; Ramamurthi, Kumaran S

    2013-01-08

    The assembly of static supramolecular structures is a culminating event of developmental programs. One such structure, the proteinaceous shell (called the coat) that surrounds spores of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, is composed of about 70 different proteins and represents one of the most durable biological structures known. The coat is built atop a basement layer that contains an ATPase (SpoIVA) that forms a platform required for coat assembly. Here, we show that SpoIVA belongs to the translation factors class of P-loop GTPases and has evolutionarily lost the ability to bind GTP; instead, it uses ATP hydrolysis to drive its self-assembly into static filaments. We demonstrate that ATP hydrolysis is required by every subunit for incorporation into the growing polymer by inducing a conformational change that drives polymerization of a nucleotide-free filament. SpoIVA therefore differs from other self-organizing polymers (dynamic cytoskeletal structures and static intermediate filaments) in that it uses ATP hydrolysis to self-assemble, not disassemble, into a static polymer. We further show that polymerization requires a critical concentration that we propose is only achieved once SpoIVA is recruited to the surface of the developing spore, thereby ensuring that SpoIVA polymerization only occurs at the correct subcellular location during spore morphogenesis.

  18. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Polymerization of Acrylamide for Gel Electrophoresis (TIPPAGE) of Proteins and Structural Identification by Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenyang; Yuan, Zhiwei; Huang, Lulu; Kang, Jie; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2016-02-11

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry has been well established for separating, identifying and quantifying protein mixtures from cell lines, tissues or other biological samples. The copolymerization process of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide is the key to mastering this powerful technique. In general, this is a vinyl addition reaction initiated by free radical-generating reagents such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under basic pH and degassing experimental condition. We report herein a photocatalytic polymerization approach that is based on photo-generated hydroxyl radicals with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide. It was shown that the polymerization process is greatly accelerated in acidic condition when ultraviolet light shots on the gel solution containing TiO2 nanoparticles without degassing. This feature makes it very useful in preparing Triton X-100 acid urea (TAU) gel that has been developed for separating basic proteins such as histones and variants in acidic experimental condition. Additionally, the presence of titanium dioxide in the gel not only improves mechanistic property of gels but also changes the migration pattern of different proteins that have different affinities to titanium dioxide.

  19. Highly protein-resistant coatings and suspension cell culture thereon from amphiphilic block copolymers prepared by RAFT polymerization.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Kazutoshi; Kubota, Kazuomi; Takada, Tetsuo; Mahara, Saori

    2014-06-09

    Novel amphiphilic block copolymers composed of hydrophobic (poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate): M) and hydrophilic (poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide): D) segments were synthesized by living radical polymerization: a reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. Two types of amphiphilic block copolymers, triblock (MDM) and 4-arm block ((MD)4) copolymers with specific compositions (D/M = (750-1500)/250), were prepared by a versatile one-pot synthesis. These copolymers show good adhesion to various types of substrates (e.g., polystyrene, polycarbonate, polypropylene, Ti, and glass), and the surface coating showed high protein repellency and a low contact angle for water, regardless of the substrate. The two opposing characteristics of high protein repellency and good substrate adhesion were achieved by the combined effects of the molecular architecture of the block copolymers, the high molecular weight, and the characteristics of each segment, that is, low protein adsorption capability of both segments and low glass transition temperature of the hydrophobic segment. Further, a polystyrene dish coated with the MDM block copolymer could be sterilized by γ-ray irradiation and used as a good substrate for a suspension cell culture that exhibits low cell adhesion and good cell growth.

  20. Tubulin binding protein, CacyBP/SIP, induces actin polymerization and may link actin and tubulin cytoskeletons.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gabriela; Nieznanski, Krzysztof; Jozwiak, Jolanta; Slomnicki, Lukasz P; Redowicz, Maria J; Filipek, Anna

    2010-11-01

    CacyBP/SIP, originally identified as a S100A6 target, was shown to interact with some other S100 proteins as well as with Siah-1, Skp1, tubulin and ERK1/2 kinases (reviewed in Schneider and Filipek, Amino Acids, 2010). Here, we show that CacyBP/SIP interacts and co-localizes with actin in NB2a cells. Using a zero-length cross-linker we found that both proteins bound directly to each other. Co-sedimentation assays revealed that CacyBP/SIP induced G-actin polymerization and formation of unique circular actin filament bundles. The N-terminal fragment of CacyBP/SIP (residues 1-179) had similar effect on actin polymerization as the entire CacyBP/SIP protein, while the C-terminal one (residues 178-229) had not. To check the influence of CacyBP/SIP on cell morphology as well as on cell adhesion and migration, a stable NIH 3T3 cell line with an increased level of CacyBP/SIP was generated. We found that the adhesion and migration rates of the modified cells were changed in comparison with the control ones. Interestingly, the co-sedimentation and proximity ligation assays indicated that CacyBP/SIP could simultaneously interact with tubulin and actin, suggesting that CacyBP/SIP might link actin and tubulin cytoskeletons.

  1. Titanium Dioxide Photocatalytic Polymerization of Acrylamide for Gel Electrophoresis (TIPPAGE) of Proteins and Structural Identification by Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenyang; Yuan, Zhiwei; Huang, Lulu; Kang, Jie; Jiang, Ruowei; Zhong, Hongying

    2016-02-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) coupled with mass spectrometry has been well established for separating, identifying and quantifying protein mixtures from cell lines, tissues or other biological samples. The copolymerization process of acrylamide and bis-acrylamide is the key to mastering this powerful technique. In general, this is a vinyl addition reaction initiated by free radical-generating reagents such as ammonium persulfate (APS) and tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED) under basic pH and degassing experimental condition. We report herein a photocatalytic polymerization approach that is based on photo-generated hydroxyl radicals with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide. It was shown that the polymerization process is greatly accelerated in acidic condition when ultraviolet light shots on the gel solution containing TiO2 nanoparticles without degassing. This feature makes it very useful in preparing Triton X-100 acid urea (TAU) gel that has been developed for separating basic proteins such as histones and variants in acidic experimental condition. Additionally, the presence of titanium dioxide in the gel not only improves mechanistic property of gels but also changes the migration pattern of different proteins that have different affinities to titanium dioxide.

  2. Efficiency of serum protein removal from skim milk with ceramic and polymeric membranes at 50 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Zulewska, J; Newbold, M; Barbano, D M

    2009-04-01

    Raw milk (2,710 kg) was separated at 4 degrees C, the skim milk was pasteurized (72 degrees C, 16 s), split into 3 batches, and microfiltered using pilot-scale ceramic uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP; Membralox model EP1940GL0.1microA, 0.1 microm alumina, Pall Corp., East Hills, NY), ceramic graded permeability (GP; Membralox model EP1940GL0.1microAGP1020, 0.1 microm alumina, Pall Corp.), and polymeric spiral-wound (SW; model FG7838-OS0x-S, 0.3 microm polyvinylidene fluoride, Parker-Hannifin, Process Advanced Filtration Division, Tell City, IN) membranes. There were differences in flux among ceramic UTP, ceramic GP, and polymeric SW microfiltration membranes (54.08, 71.79, and 16.21 kg/m2 per hour, respectively) when processing skim milk at 50 degrees C in a continuous bleed-and-feed 3x process. These differences in flux among the membranes would influence the amount of membrane surface area required to process a given volume of milk in a given time. Further work is needed to determine if these differences in flux are maintained over longer processing times. The true protein contents of the microfiltration permeates from UTP and GP membranes were higher than from SW membranes (0.57, 0.56, and 0.38%, respectively). Sodium-dodecyl-sulfate-PAGE gels for permeates revealed a higher casein proportion in GP and SW permeate than in UTP permeate, with the highest passage of casein through the GP membrane under the operational conditions used in this study. The slight cloudiness of the permeates produced using the GP and SW systems may have been due to the presence of a small amount of casein, which may present an obstacle in their use in applications when clarity is an important functional characteristic. More beta-lactoglobulin passed through the ceramic membranes than through the polymeric membrane. The efficiency of removal of serum proteins in a continuous bleed-and-feed 3x process at 50 degrees C was 64.40% for UTP, 61.04% for GP, and 38.62% for SW microfiltration

  3. The enamel protein amelotin is a promoter of hydroxyapatite mineralization.

    PubMed

    Abbarin, Nastaran; San Miguel, Symone; Holcroft, James; Iwasaki, Kengo; Ganss, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    Amelotin (AMTN) is a recently discovered protein that is specifically expressed during the maturation stage of dental enamel formation. It is localized at the interface between the enamel surface and the apical surface of ameloblasts. AMTN knock-out mice have hypomineralized enamel, whereas transgenic mice overexpressing AMTN have a compact but disorganized enamel hydroxyapatite (HA) microstructure, indicating a possible involvement of AMTN in regulating HA mineralization directly. In this study, we demonstrated that recombinant human (rh) AMTN dissolved in a metastable buffer system, based on light scattering measurements, promotes HA precipitation. The mineral precipitates were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Colloidal gold immunolabeling of AMTN in the mineral deposits showed that protein molecules were associated with HA crystals. The binding affinity of rh-AMTN to HA was found to be comparable to that of amelogenin, the major protein of the forming enamel matrix. Overexpression of AMTN in mouse calvaria cells also increased the formation of calcium deposits in the culture medium. Overexpression of AMTN during the secretory stage of enamel formation in vivo resulted in rapid and uncontrolled enamel mineralization. Site-specific mutagenesis of the potential serine phosphorylation motif SSEEL reduced the in vitro mineral precipitation to less than 25%, revealing that this motif is important for the HA mineralizing function of the protein. A synthetic short peptide containing the SSEEL motif was only able to facilitate mineralization in its phosphorylated form ((P)S(P) SEEL), indicating that this motif is necessary but not sufficient for the mineralizing properties of AMTN. These findings demonstrate that AMTN has a direct influence on biomineralization by promoting HA mineralization and suggest a critical role for AMTN in the formation of the compact aprismatic enamel surface layer during the maturation

  4. Protein-resistant polyurethane via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhilin; Feng, Wei; Zhu, Shiping; Sheardown, Heather; Brash, John L

    2009-12-15

    Protein-resistant polyurethane (PU) surfaces were prepared by surface-initiated simultaneous normal and reverse atom transfer radical polymerization (s-ATRP) of poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (poly (OEGMA)). Oxygen plasma treatment was employed for initial activation of the PU surface. The grafted polymer chain length was adjusted by varying the molar ratio of monomer to sacrificial initiator in solution from 5:1 to 200:1. The modified PU surfaces were characterized by water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Protein adsorption experiments from tris-buffered saline (TBS) and plasma were carried out to evaluate the protein-resistance of the surfaces. Adsorption from single and binary protein solutions as well as from plasma was significantly reduced after modification. Adsorption decreased with increasing poly(OEGMA) chain length. Fibrinogen (Fg) adsorption on the 200:1 monomer/initiator surface was in the range of 3-33 ng/cm(2) representing 96-99% reduction compared with the unmodified PU. Fg adsorption from 0.01-10% plasma was as low as 1-5 ng/cm(2). Moreover, binary protein adsorption experiments using Fg and lysozyme (Lys) showed that protein size is a factor in the protein resistance of these surfaces.

  5. Multi-protein Delivery by Nanodiamonds Promotes Bone Formation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, L.; Gatica, M.; Kim, H.; Osawa, E.; Ho, D.

    2013-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE® for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation. PMID:24045646

  6. Multi-protein delivery by nanodiamonds promotes bone formation.

    PubMed

    Moore, L; Gatica, M; Kim, H; Osawa, E; Ho, D

    2013-11-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are well-studied regulators of cartilage and bone development that have been Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the promotion of bone formation in certain procedures. BMPs are seeing more use in oral and maxillofacial surgeries because of recent FDA approval of InFUSE(®) for sinus augmentation and localized alveolar ridge augmentation. However, the utility of BMPs in medical and dental applications is limited by the delivery method. Currently, BMPs are delivered to the surgical site by the implantation of bulky collagen sponges. Here we evaluate the potential of detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) as a delivery vehicle for BMP-2 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Nanodiamonds are biocompatible, 4- to 5-nm carbon nanoparticles that have previously been used to deliver a wide variety of molecules, including proteins and peptides. We find that both BMP-2 and bFGF are readily loaded onto NDs by physisorption, forming a stable colloidal solution, and are triggered to release in slightly acidic conditions. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF by ND induces differentiation and proliferation in osteoblast progenitor cells. Overall, we find that NDs provide an effective injectable alternative for the delivery of BMP-2 and bFGF to promote bone formation.

  7. A small subunit processome protein promotes cancer by altering translation.

    PubMed

    Yang, H W; Kim, T-M; Song, S S; Menon, L; Jiang, X; Huang, W; Black, P M; Park, P J; Carroll, R S; Johnson, M D

    2015-08-20

    Dysregulation of ribosome biogenesis or translation can promote cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. UTP18 is a component of the small subunit processome, a nucleolar multi-protein complex whose only known function is to cleave pre-ribosomal RNA to yield the 18S ribosomal RNA component of 40S ribosomal subunits. Here, we show that UTP18 also alters translation to promote stress resistance and growth, and that UTP18 is frequently gained and overexpressed in cancer. We observed that UTP18 localizes to the cytoplasm in a subset of cells, and that serum withdrawal increases cytoplasmic UTP18 localization. Cytoplasmic UTP18 associates with the translation complex and Hsp90 to upregulate the translation of IRES-containing transcripts such as HIF1a, Myc and VEGF, thereby inducing stress resistance. Hsp90 inhibition decreases cytoplasmic UTP18 and UTP18-induced increases in translation. Importantly, elevated UTP18 expression correlates with increased aggressiveness and decreased survival in numerous cancers. Enforced UTP18 overexpression promotes transformation and tumorigenesis, whereas UTP18 knockdown inhibits these processes. This stress adaptation mechanism is thus co-opted for growth by cancers, and its inhibition may represent a promising new therapeutic target.

  8. Multilayered films fabricated from an oligoarginine-conjugated protein promote efficient surface-mediated protein transduction.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Christopher M; Fuchs, Stephen M; Flessner, Ryan M; Raines, Ronald T; Lynn, David M

    2007-03-01

    The conjugation of cationic protein transduction domains to proteins results in an increase in the extent to which proteins are internalized by cells. This investigation sought to determine whether the conjugation of a protein transduction domain to a functional protein could be used to facilitate the incorporation of the protein into multilayered polyelectrolyte films and, subsequently, whether these films could be used to promote surface-mediated protein transduction. We demonstrate that it is possible to fabricate multilayered assemblies 80 nm thick using sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) and bovine pancreatic ribonuclease (RNase A) conjugated to the cationic protein transduction domain nonaarginine (R(9)) using an entirely aqueous layer-by-layer process. We demonstrate further that the conjugation of R(9) to RNase A permits the assembly of multilayered films under conditions that do not allow for the incorporation of the unmodified protein. This result suggests that R(9) functions as a cationic anchor and serves to increase the strength of electrostatic interactions with SPS and facilitate layer-by-layer assembly. We also demonstrate that RNase A-R(9)/SPS films dissolve rapidly in physiologically relevant media and that macroscopic objects coated with these materials can be used to mediate high levels of protein transduction in mammalian cells. These results suggest the basis of general methods that could contribute to the design of materials that permit spatial and temporal control over the delivery of therapeutic proteins to cells and tissues.

  9. Basic Equations in Statics and Kinetics of Protein Polymerization and the Mechanism of the Formation and Dissociation of Amyloid Fibrils Revealed by Pressure Perturbation.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the pressure-dissociation of several amyloid or amyloid-like fibrils have shown that the fibril state is considerably voluminous. Quantitative characterization of the protein fibrillation reaction with respect to volumetric parameters is necessary to elucidate mechanisms of amyloid fibrillation in molecular terms such as protein cavity and hydration. Here we discuss, firstly, basic equations in statics and kinetics of protein polymerization as employed to obtain thermodynamic, volumetric, and kinetic parameters. Equilibrium treatment of the reactions with the scheme such as one-step polymerization, linear-association polymerization, or nucleation-dependent polymerization, and kinetic treatment of seeded linear-polymerization or spontaneous nucleation-elongation polymerization are described. In particular we will detail kinetics of the dissociation of fibrils which have been produced under the linear-association mechanism and therefore the length-distribution of which conforms to a geometric sequence in the degree of polymerization with a common ratio r, which is less than, and usually very close to, unity. In this case, an observed macroscopic rate of dissociation is shown to be a product of the microscopic elementary dissociation rate constant and a factor (1-r), extremely reduced compared with the intrinsic elementary rate. Secondly, we discuss protein conformational states in fibrillogenesis with molecular and volumetric observations reported, such as the unfolded state responsible for the association with seeds and the extension of amyloid fibrils, the transition state in which protein cavity formation and dehydration occur to intermediate levels, and the fibril state in which they occur to final respective levels which, in some cases, depend on the maturity of the fibril.

  10. Host SAMHD1 Protein Promotes HIV-1 Recombination in Macrophages*

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Laura A.; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Daly, Michele B.; Allan, Kevin C.; Kim, Baek

    2014-01-01

    Template switching can occur during the reverse transcription of HIV-1. Deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) concentrations have been biochemically shown to impact HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT)-mediated strand transfer. Lowering the dNTP concentrations promotes RT pausing and RNA template degradation by RNase H activity of the RT, subsequently leading to strand transfer. Terminally differentiated/nondividing macrophages, which serve as a key HIV-1 reservoir, contain extremely low dNTP concentrations (20–50 nm), which results from the cellular dNTP hydrolyzing sterile α motif and histidine aspartic domain containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) protein, when compared with activated CD4+ T cells (2–5 μm). In this study, we first observed that HIV-1 template switching efficiency was nearly doubled in human primary macrophages when compared with activated CD4+ T cells. Second, SAMHD1 degradation by viral protein X (Vpx), which elevates cellular dNTP concentrations, decreased HIV-1 template switching efficiency in macrophages to the levels comparable with CD4+ T cells. Third, differentiated SAMHD1 shRNA THP-1 cells have a 2-fold increase in HIV-1 template switching efficiency. Fourth, SAMHD1 degradation by Vpx did not alter HIV-1 template switching efficiency in activated CD4+ T cells. Finally, the HIV-1 V148I RT mutant that is defective in dNTP binding and has DNA synthesis delay promoted RT stand transfer when compared with wild type RT, particularly at low dNTP concentrations. Here, we report that SAMHD1 regulation of the dNTP concentrations influences HIV-1 template switching efficiency, particularly in macrophages. PMID:24352659

  11. CHIP Regulates Osteoclast Formation through Promoting TRAF6 Protein Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shan; Shu, Bing; Zhang, Yanquan; Li, Jia; Guo, Junwei; Wang, Yinyin; Ren, Fangli; Xiao, Guozhi; Chang, Zhijie; Chen, Di

    2014-01-01

    Objective Carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP or STUB1) is an E3 ligase and regulates the stability of several proteins which are involved in tumor growth and metastasis. However, the role of CHIP in bone growth and bone remodeling in vivo has not been reported. The objective of this study is to investigate the role and mechanism of CHIP in regulation of bone mass and bone remodeling. Methods The bone phenotype of Chip−/− mice was examined by histology, histomorphometry and micro-CT analyses. The regulatory mechanism of CHIP on the degradation of TRAF6 and the inhibition of NF-κB signaling was examined by immunoprecipitation (IP), western blotting and luciferase reporter assays. Results In this study, we found that deletion of the Chip gene leads to osteopenic phenotype and increased osteoclast formation. We further found that TRAF6, as a novel substrate of CHIP, is up-regulated in Chip−/− osteoclasts. TRAF6 is critical for RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. TRAF6 is an adaptor protein which functions as an E3 ligase to regulate the activation of TAK1 and the I-κB kinase (IKK) and is a key regulator of NF-κB signaling. CHIP interacts with TRAF6 to promote TRAF6 ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. CHIP inhibits p65 nuclear translocation, leading to the repression of the TRAF6-mediated NF-κB transcription. Conclusion CHIP inhibits NF-κB signaling via promoting TRAF6 degradation and plays an important role in osteoclastogenesis and bone remodeling, suggesting that it may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of bone loss associated diseases. PMID:24578159

  12. Monocyte/macrophage and protein interactions with non-fouling plasma polymerized tetraglyme and chemically modified polystyrene surfaces: In vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Mingchao

    2001-07-01

    Biomaterials become encapsulated by fibrous tissues after implantation in soft tissues. Monocytes and macrophages are believed to play important roles in this response. The hypothesis tested in this dissertation is that material surface chemistry determines the amount of adsorbed proteins, which mediate monocyte adhesion, activation, and the foreign body response. On chemically modified polystyrene surfaces, monocyte adhesion in vitro was promoted by preadsorbed fibrinogen, fibronectin, and IgG, and increased with increasing amount of adsorbed fibrinogen. Adsorbed proteins and material surface chemistry mediated monocyte activation. TNFalpha release, procoagulant activity, and multinucleated foreign body giant cell (FBGC) formation was at least two-fold higher on IgG than other protein adsorbed surfaces. Adsorbed IgG and fibrinogen triggered monocyte intracellular calcium changes. FBGC formation was the highest on the hydrophobic polystyrene surface. Materials that greatly reduce non-specific protein adsorption may reduce the foreign body response to implanted materials. Radio-frequency plasma polymerized tetraglyme (CH3O(CH2CH2O)4CH 3) surfaces contained PEO-like chemical species and reduced fibrinogen adsorption to less than 10 ng/cm2. Monocyte adhesion to tetraglyme in vitro was also greatly reduced. Monocyte adhesion correlated linearly to the amount of adsorbed fibrinogen on a series of tetraglyme surfaces deposited at different plasma powers. Multivariate analysis using partial least squares regression identified the key surface spectra variables from electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) that contributed to the non-fouling properties of tetraglyme. However, leukocyte adhesion to surfaces implanted subcutaneously in mice for 1 or 28 days did not correlate with protein adsorption and was higher on tetraglyme than the FEP control. Fibrous encapsulation to tetraglyme implanted for 28 days

  13. Step-by-step strategy for protein enrichment and proteome characterisation of extracellular polymeric substances in wastewater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana F; Carvalho, Gilda; Soares, Renata; Coelho, Ana V; Barreto Crespo, M Teresa

    2012-08-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are keys in biomass aggregation and settleability in wastewater treatment systems. In membrane bioreactors (MBR), EPS are an important factor as they are considered to be largely responsible for membrane fouling. Proteins were shown to be the major component of EPS produced by activated sludge and to be correlated with the properties of the sludge, like settling, hydrophobicity and cell aggregation. Previous EPS proteomic studies of activated sludge revealed several problems, like the interference of other EPS molecules in protein analysis. In this study, a successful strategy was outlined to identify the proteins from soluble and bound EPS extracted from activated sludge of a lab-scale MBR. EPS samples were first subjected to pre-concentration through lyophilisation, centrifugal ultrafiltration or concentration with a dialysis membrane coated by a highly absorbent powder of polyacrylate-polyalcohol, preceded or not by a dialysis step. The highest protein concentration factors were achieved with the highly absorbent powder method without previous dialysis step. Four protein precipitation methods were then tested: acetone, trichloroacetic acid (TCA), perchloric acid and a commercial kit. Protein profiles were compared in 4-12 % sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. Both acetone and TCA should be applied for the highest coverage for soluble EPS proteins, whereas TCA was the best method for bound EPS proteins. All visible bands of selected profiles were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. A high number of proteins (25-32 for soluble EPS and 17 for bound EPS) were identified. As a conclusion of this study, a workflow is proposed for the successful proteome characterisation of soluble and bound EPS from activated sludge samples.

  14. Lytic Promoters Express Protein during Herpes Simplex Virus Latency

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tiffany A.; Tscharke, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has provided the prototype for viral latency with previously well-defined acute or lytic and latent phases. More recently, the deep quiescence of HSV latency has been questioned with evidence that lytic genes can be transcribed in this state. However, to date the only evidence that these transcripts might be translated has come from immunological studies that show activated T cells persist in the nervous system during latency. Here we use a highly sensitive Cre-marking model to show that lytic and latent phases are less clearly defined in two significant ways. First, around half of the HSV spread leading to latently infected sites occurred beyond the initial acute infection and second, we show direct evidence that lytic promoters can drive protein expression during latency. PMID:27348812

  15. Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase Activated Protein Kinase 2 Regulates Actin Polymerization and Vascular Leak in Ventilator Associated Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Damarla, Mahendra; Hasan, Emile; Boueiz, Adel; Le, Anne; Pae, Hyun Hae; Montouchet, Calypso; Kolb, Todd; Simms, Tiffany; Myers, Allen; Kayyali, Usamah S.; Gaestel, Matthias; Peng, Xinqi; Reddy, Sekhar P.; Damico, Rachel; Hassoun, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation, a fundamental therapy for acute lung injury, worsens pulmonary vascular permeability by exacting mechanical stress on various components of the respiratory system causing ventilator associated lung injury. We postulated that MK2 activation via p38 MAP kinase induced HSP25 phosphorylation, in response to mechanical stress, leading to actin stress fiber formation and endothelial barrier dysfunction. We sought to determine the role of p38 MAP kinase and its downstream effector MK2 on HSP25 phosphorylation and actin stress fiber formation in ventilator associated lung injury. Wild type and MK2−/− mice received mechanical ventilation with high (20 ml/kg) or low (7 ml/kg) tidal volumes up to 4 hrs, after which lungs were harvested for immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting and lung permeability assays. High tidal volume mechanical ventilation resulted in significant phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase, MK2, HSP25, actin polymerization, and an increase in pulmonary vascular permeability in wild type mice as compared to spontaneous breathing or low tidal volume mechanical ventilation. However, pretreatment of wild type mice with specific p38 MAP kinase or MK2 inhibitors abrogated HSP25 phosphorylation and actin polymerization, and protected against increased lung permeability. Finally, MK2−/− mice were unable to phosphorylate HSP25 or increase actin polymerization from baseline, and were resistant to increases in lung permeability in response to HVT MV. Our results suggest that p38 MAP kinase and its downstream effector MK2 mediate lung permeability in ventilator associated lung injury by regulating HSP25 phosphorylation and actin cytoskeletal remodeling. PMID:19240800

  16. Harmine promotes osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, Takayuki; Lee, Ji-Won; Hibino, Ayaka; Asai, Midori; Hojo, Hironori; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Teruya, Toshiaki; Nagai, Kazuo; Chung, Ung-Il; Yagasaki, Kazumi; and others

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Harmine promotes the activity and mRNA expression of ALP. {yields} Harmine enhances the expressions of osteocalcin mRNA and protein. {yields} Harmine induces osteoblastic mineralization. {yields} Harmine upregulates the mRNA expressions of BMPs, Runx2 and Osterix. {yields} BMP signaling pathways are involved in the actions of harmine. -- Abstract: Bone mass is regulated by osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. We previously reported that harmine, a {beta}-carboline alkaloid, inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effects of harmine on osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and mineralization. Harmine promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in MC3T3-E1 cells without affecting their proliferation. Harmine also increased the mRNA expressions of the osteoblast marker genes ALP and Osteocalcin. Furthermore, the mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells was enhanced by treatment with harmine. Harmine also induced osteoblast differentiation in primary calvarial osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 cells. Structure-activity relationship studies using harmine-related {beta}-carboline alkaloids revealed that the C3-C4 double bond and 7-hydroxy or 7-methoxy group of harmine were important for its osteogenic activity. The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist noggin and its receptor kinase inhibitors dorsomorphin and LDN-193189 attenuated harmine-promoted ALP activity. In addition, harmine increased the mRNA expressions of Bmp-2, Bmp-4, Bmp-6, Bmp-7 and its target gene Id1. Harmine also enhanced the mRNA expressions of Runx2 and Osterix, which are key transcription factors in osteoblast differentiation. Furthermore, BMP-responsive and Runx2-responsive reporters were activated by harmine treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that harmine enhances osteoblast differentiation probably by inducing the expressions of

  17. Generation of an Artificial Double Promoter for Protein Expression in Bacillus subtilis through a Promoter Trap System

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingming; Zhang, Weiwei; Ji, Shengyue; Cao, Pinghua; Chen, Yulin; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is an attractive host for production of recombinant proteins. Promoters and expression plasmid backbones have direct impacts on the efficiency of gene expression. To screen and isolate strong promoters, a promoter trap vector pShuttleF was developed in this study. Using the vector, approximately 1000 colonies containing likely promoters from Bacillus licheniformis genomic DNA were obtained. Amongst them, pShuttle-09 exhibited the highest β-Gal activities in both Escherichia coli and B. subtilis. The activity of pShuttle-09 in B. subtilis was eight times of that of the P43 promoter, a commonly used strong promoter for B. subtilis. A sequence analysis showed that pShuttle-09 contained PluxS and truncated luxS in-frame fused with the reporter gene as well as another fragment upstream of PluxS containing a putative promoter. This putative promoter was a hybrid promoter and its β-Gal activity was higher than PluxS. Reconstructing the hybrid promoter from pShuttle-09 to PlapS further improved the β-Gal production by 60%. The usefulness of our promoter trap system is likely due to random shuffling and recombination of DNA fragments and adoption of a rapid and high-throughput screening. Thus, our data provide additional evidence to support the concept of using a promoter trap system to create new promoters. PMID:23409173

  18. Polymerization degrees, molecular weights and protein-binding affinities of condensed tannin fractions from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid.

    PubMed

    Saminathan, Mookiah; Tan, Hui Yin; Sieo, Chin Chin; Abdullah, Norhani; Wong, Clemente Michael Vui Ling; Abdulmalek, Emilia; Ho, Yin Wan

    2014-06-12

    Condensed tannins (CTs) form insoluble complexes with proteins and are able to protect them from degradation, which could lead to rumen bypass proteins. Depending on their degrees of polymerization (DP) and molecular weights, CT fractions vary in their capability to bind proteins. In this study, purified condensed tannins (CTs) from a Leucaena leucocephala hybrid were fractionated into five different molecular weight fractions. The structures of the CT fractions were investigated using 13C-NMR. The DP of the CT fractions were determined using a modified vanillin assay and their molecular weights were determined using Q-TOF LC-MS. The protein-binding affinities of the respective CT fractions were determined using a protein precipitation assay. The DP of the five CT fractions (fractions F1-F5) measured by the vanillin assay in acetic acid ranged from 4.86 to 1.56. The 13C-NMR results showed that the CT fractions possessed monomer unit structural heterogeneity. The number-average molecular weights (Mn) of the different fractions were 1265.8, 1028.6, 652.2, 562.2, and 469.6 for fractions F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5, respectively. The b values representing the CT quantities needed to bind half of the maximum precipitable bovine serum albumin increased with decreasing molecular weight--from fraction F1 to fraction F5 with values of 0.216, 0.295, 0.359, 0.425, and 0.460, respectively. This indicated that higher molecular weight fractions of CTs from L. leucocephala have higher protein-binding affinities than those with lower molecular weights.

  19. A Lumry-Eyring Nucleated-Polymerization (LENP) Model of Protein Aggregation Kinetics 2. Competing Growth via Condensation- and Chain-Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Roberts, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    The Lumry-Eyring with nucleated-polymerization (LENP) model from part 1 (Andrews and Roberts, J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 7897 7913) is expanded to explicitly account for kinetic contributions from aggregate-aggregate condensation polymerization. Experimentally accessible quantities described by the resulting model include monomer mass fraction (m), weight-average molecular weight (Mw), and ratio of Mw to number-average molecular weight (Mn) as a function of time (t). Analysis of global model behavior illustrates ways to identify which steps in the overall aggregation process are kinetically important, based on the qualitative behavior of m, Mw, and Mw/Mn vs. t, and based on whether bulk phase separation or precipitation occurs. For cases in which all aggregates remain soluble, moment equations are provided that permit straightforward numerical regression of experimental data to give separate time scales or inverse rate coefficients for nucleation and for growth by chain and condensation polymerization. Analysis of simulated data indicates that it may be possible to neglect condensation reactions if only early-time data are considered, and also highlights difficulties in conclusively distinguishing between alternative mechanisms of condensation even when kinetics are monitored with both m and wM. PMID:19368365

  20. Succination of thiol groups in adipose tissue proteins in diabetes: succination inhibits polymerization and secretion of adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Frizzell, Norma; Rajesh, Mathur; Jepson, Matthew J; Nagai, Ryoji; Carson, James A; Thorpe, Suzanne R; Baynes, John W

    2009-09-18

    S-(2-Succinyl)cysteine (2SC) is formed by reaction of the Krebs cycle intermediate fumarate with cysteine residues in protein, a process termed succination of protein. Both fumarate and succination of proteins are increased in adipocytes cultured in high glucose medium (Nagai, R., Brock, J. W., Blatnik, M., Baatz, J. E., Bethard, J., Walla, M. D., Thorpe, S. R., Baynes, J. W., and Frizzell, N. (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 34219-34228). We show here that succination of protein is also increased in epididymal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue of diabetic (db/db) mice and that adiponectin is a major target for succination in both adipocytes and adipose tissue. Cys-39, which is involved in cross-linking of adiponectin monomers to form trimers, was identified as a key site of succination of adiponectin in adipocytes. 2SC was detected on two of seven monomeric forms of adiponectin immunoprecipitated from adipocytes and epididymal adipose tissue. Based on densitometry, 2SC-adiponectin accounted for approximately 7 and 8% of total intracellular adiponectin in cells and tissue, respectively. 2SC was found only in the intracellular, monomeric forms of adiponectin and was not detectable in polymeric forms of adiponectin in cell culture medium or plasma. We conclude that succination of adiponectin blocks its incorporation into trimeric and higher molecular weight, secreted forms of adiponectin. We propose that succination of proteins is a biomarker of mitochondrial stress and accumulation of Krebs cycle intermediates in adipose tissue in diabetes and that succination of adiponectin may contribute to the decrease in plasma adiponectin in diabetes.

  1. Integrin β4 regulates SPARC protein to promote invasion.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Kristin D; Shearstone, Jeffrey R; Maddula, V S R Krishna; Seligmann, Bruce E; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2012-03-23

    The α6β4 integrin (referred to as "β4" integrin) is a receptor for laminins that promotes carcinoma invasion through its ability to regulate key signaling pathways and cytoskeletal dynamics. An analysis of published Affymetrix GeneChip data to detect downstream effectors involved in β4-mediated invasion of breast carcinoma cells identified SPARC, or secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine. This glycoprotein has been shown to play an important role in matrix remodeling and invasion. Our analysis revealed that manipulation of β4 integrin expression and signaling impacted SPARC expression and that SPARC facilitates β4-mediated invasion. Expression of β4 in β4-deficient cells reduced the expression of a specific microRNA (miR-29a) that targets SPARC and impedes invasion. In cells that express endogenous β4, miR-29a expression is low and β4 ligation facilitates the translation of SPARC through a TOR-dependent mechanism. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that β4 can regulate SPARC expression and that SPARC is an effector of β4-mediated invasion. They also highlight a potential role for specific miRNAs in executing the functions of integrins.

  2. Colonic protein fermentation and promotion of colon carcinogenesis by thermolyzed casein

    PubMed Central

    Corpet, Denis E.; Yin, Y.; Zhang, X. M.; Rémésy, C.; Stamp, D.; Medline, A.; Thompson, L.U.; Bruce, W. R.; Archer, M. C.

    1995-01-01

    Thermolyzed casein is known to promote the growth of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and colon cancer when it is fed to rats that have been initiated with azoxymethane. We speculated that the promotion was a consequence of increased colonic protein fermentation (i.e., that the thermolysis of the casein decreases its digestibility, increases the amount of protein reaching the colon, and increases colonic protein fermentation and that the potentially toxic products of this fermentation promote colon carcinogenesis). We found that the thermolysis of casein reduces its digestibility and increases colonic protein fermentation, as assessed by fecal ammonium and urinary phenol, cresol, and indol-3-ol. Thermolysis of two other proteins, soy and egg white protein, also increases colonic protein fermentation with increased fecal ammonia and urinary phenols, and thermolysis of all three proteins increases the levels of ammonia and butyric, valeric, and i-valeric acids in the cecal contents. We found, however, that the increased protein fermentation observed with thermolysis is not associated with promotion of colon carcinogenesis. With casein, the kinetics of protein fermentation with increasing thermolysis time are clearly different from the kinetics of promotion of ACF growth. The formation of the fermentation products was highest when the protein was thermolyzed for one hour, whereas promotion was highest for protein that had been thermolyzed for two or more hours. With soy and egg white, thermolysis increased colonic protein fermentation but did not promote colon carcinogenesis. Thus, although thermolysis of dietary casein increases colonic protein fermentation, products of this fermentation do not appear to be responsible for the promotion of colon carcinogenesis. Indeed, the results suggest that protein fermentation products do not play an important role in colon cancer promotion. PMID:7603887

  3. Self-assembling polymeric nanoparticles for enhanced intra-articular anti-inflammatory protein delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmire, Rachel Elisabeth

    Osteoarthritis (OA) affects 26 million Americans, or approximately 14% of the adult population. The incidence of OA is predicted to dramatically increase in the next 20 years as the US grows older and the rate of obesity continues to increase. There are currently no clinical interventions that cure OA. Current biomaterial delivery systems exhibit several limitations. First, most drug-delivery particles are hydrophobic, which is not optimal for hydrophilic protein encapsulation. Second, hydrophobic particles, such as PLGA, could cause wear damage to the already-fragile OA cartilage structure. Additionally, these particles usually suffer from non-specific protein adsorption, which causes increased phagocytosis and can lead to increased inflammation. New therapies that increase the effectiveness of OA treatments or reverse OA disease progression will greatly decrease the economic costs and individual pain associated with this disease. The goal of this thesis was to develop a new drug-delivering material to deliver anti-inflammatory protein for treating OA. Our central hypothesis for this work is that a controlled release/presentation system will more effectively deliver anti-inflammatory protein therapies to the OA joint. The primary goal of this work was to synthesize a block copolymer that could self-assemble into injectable, sub-micron-scale particles and would allow an anti-inflammatory protein, IL-1ra, to be tethered to its surface for efficient protein delivery. The block copolymer incorporated an oligo-ethylene monomer for tissue compatibility and non-fouling behavior, a 4-nitrophenol group for efficient protein tethering, and cyclohexyl methacrylate, a hydrophobic monomer, for particle stability. We engineered the copolymer and tested it in both in vitro culture experiments and an in vivo model to evaluate protein retention in the knee joint. The rationale for this project was that the rational design and synthesis of a new drug- and protein

  4. Polymeric microspheres

    DOEpatents

    Walt, David R.; Mandal, Tarun K.; Fleming, Michael S.

    2004-04-13

    The invention features core-shell microsphere compositions, hollow polymeric microspheres, and methods for making the microspheres. The microspheres are characterized as having a polymeric shell with consistent shell thickness.

  5. Plasma-induced graft-polymerization of polyethylene glycol acrylate on polypropylene films: chemical characterization and evaluation of the protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Stefano; Riccardi, Claudia; Grimoldi, Elisa; Colombo, Claudia; Villa, Anna Maria; Natalello, Antonino; Gatti-Lafranconi, Pietro; Lotti, Marina; Doglia, Silvia Maria

    2010-01-01

    This work deals with the optimization of argon plasma-induced graft-polymerization of polyethylene glycol acrylate (PEGA) on polypropylene (PP) films in order to obtain surfaces with a reduced protein adsorption for possible biomedical applications. To this end, we examined the protein adsorption on the treated and untreated surfaces. The graft-polymerization process consisted of four steps: (a) plasma pre-activation of the PP substrates; (b) immersion in a PEGA solution; (c) argon plasma-induced graft-polymerization; (d) washing and drying of the samples. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated in terms of the amount of grafted polymer, coverage uniformity and substrates wettability. The process was monitored by contact angle measurements, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. The stability of the obtained thin films was evaluated in water and in Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) at 37 degrees C. The adsorption of fibrinogen and green fluorescent protein (GFP)--taken as model proteins--on the differently prepared surfaces was evaluated through a fluorescence approach using laser scanning confocal microscopy with photon counting detection. After plasma treatments of short duration, the protein adsorption decreases by about 60-70% with respect to that of the untreated film, while long plasma exposure resulted in a higher protein adsorption, due to damaging of the grafted polymer.

  6. Superparamagnetic lysozyme surface-imprinted polymer prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization and its application for protein separation.

    PubMed

    Gai, Qing-Qing; Qu, Feng; Liu, Zong-Jian; Dai, Rong-Ji; Zhang, Yu-Kui

    2010-07-30

    Molecular imprinting as a promising and facile separation technique has received much attention because of their high selectivity for target molecules. In this study, the superparamagnetic lysozyme surface-imprinted polymer was prepared by a novel fabricating protocol, the grafting of the imprinted polymer on magnetic particles in aqueous media was done by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and the properties of the imprinted polymer were characterized in detail. Its high selective adsorption and recognition to lysozyme demonstrated the separation ability of the magnetic imprinted material to template molecule, and it has been used for quick and direct separation of lysozyme from the mixture of standard proteins and real egg white samples under an external magnetic field. Furthermore, the elution of lysozyme from the imprinted material was achieved by PEG/sulphate aqueous two-phase system, which caused lysozyme not only desorption from the imprinted materials but also redistribution in the top and bottom phase of aqueous two-phase system. The aqueous two-phase system exhibited some of the extraction and enrichment effect to desorbed lysozyme. Our results showed that ATRP is a promising method for the protein molecularly imprinted polymer preparation.

  7. Protein purification with polymeric affinity membranes containing functionalized poly(acid) brushes.

    PubMed

    Jain, Parul; Vyas, Mukesh Kumar; Geiger, James H; Baker, Gregory L; Bruening, Merlin L

    2010-04-12

    Porous nylon membranes modified with poly(acid) brushes and their derivatives can rapidly purify proteins via ion-exchange and metal-ion affinity interactions. Membranes containing poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl succinate) (poly(MES)) brushes bind 118 +/- 8 mg of lysozyme per cm(3) of membrane and facilitate purification of lysozyme from chicken egg white. Moreover, functionalization of the poly(MES) brushes with nitrilotriacetate (NTA)-Ni(2+) complexes yields membranes that bind poly(histidine)-tagged (His-tagged) ubiquitin with a capacity of 85 +/- 2 mg of protein per cm(3) of membrane. Most importantly, the membranes modified with poly(MES)-NTA-Ni(2+) allow isolation of His-tagged cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein directly from a cell extract in <10 min, and the protein purity is comparable to that achieved with commercial affinity columns. Therefore, porous nylon membranes containing functionalized poly(MES) brushes are attractive candidates for rapid, high-capacity purification of His-tagged proteins from cell extracts.

  8. Localized surface plasmon resonance nanosensing of C-reactive protein with poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted gold nanoparticles prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Yukiya; Takeuchi, Toshifumi

    2014-06-03

    Highly sensitive and selective protein nanosensing based on localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on which polymerized specific ligands were grafted as an artificial protein recognition layer for the target protein were demonstrated. As a model, optical nanosensing for C-reactive protein (CRP), a known biomarker for chronic inflammation that predicts the risk of arteriosclerosis or heart attacks, was achieved by measuring the shift of LSPR spectra derived from the change of permittivity of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)-grafted AuNPs (PMPC-g-AuNPs) upon interacting with CRP, in which the PMPC-g-AuNPs layer were grafted on AuNPs by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). This nanosensing system was effective even for detecting CRP concentrations in a human serum solution diluted to 1% (w/w), at which point a limit of detection was ~50 ng/mL and nonspecific adsorption of other proteins was negligible. The nanosensing system using specific ligand-grafted AuNPs has several strengths, such as low preparation cost, avoiding the need for expensive instruments, no necessary complex pretreatments, and high stability, because it does not contain biobased molecules. We believe this novel synthetic route for protein nanosensors, composed of AuNPs and a polymerized specific ligand utilizing surface-initiated controlled/living radical polymerization, will provide a foundation for the design and synthesis of nanosensors targeting various other biomarker proteins, paving the way for future advances in the field of biosensing.

  9. The Postsynaptic Density Proteins Homer and Shank Form a Polymeric Network Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, M.; Tang, C; Verpelli, C; Narayanan, R; Stearns, M; Xu, R; Li, H; Sala, C; Hayashi, Y

    2009-01-01

    The postsynaptic density (PSD) is crucial for synaptic functions, but the molecular architecture retaining its structure and components remains elusive. Homer and Shank are among the most abundant scaffolding proteins in the PSD, working synergistically for maturation of dendritic spines. Here, we demonstrate that Homer and Shank, together, form a mesh-like matrix structure. Crystallographic analysis of this region revealed a pair of parallel dimeric coiled coils intercalated in a tail-to-tail fashion to form a tetramer, giving rise to the unique configuration of a pair of N-terminal EVH1 domains at each end of the coiled coil. In neurons, the tetramerization is required for structural integrity of the dendritic spines and recruitment of proteins to synapses. We propose that the Homer-Shank complex serves as a structural framework and as an assembly platform for other PSD proteins.

  10. Promotion of Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling by Tetraspanins and Glycosphingolipids

    PubMed Central

    Szymczak, Lindsey C.; Aydin, Taner; Yun, Sijung; Constas, Katharine; Schaeffer, Arielle; Ranjan, Sinthu; Kubba, Saad; Alam, Emad; McMahon, Devin E.; He, Jingpeng; Shwartz, Neta; Tian, Chenxi; Plavskin, Yevgeniy; Lindy, Amanda; Dad, Nimra Amir; Sheth, Sunny; Amin, Nirav M.; Zimmerman, Stephanie; Liu, Dennis; Schwarz, Erich M.; Smith, Harold; Krause, Michael W.; Liu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) belong to the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily of secreted molecules. BMPs play essential roles in multiple developmental and homeostatic processes in metazoans. Malfunction of the BMP pathway can cause a variety of diseases in humans, including cancer, skeletal disorders and cardiovascular diseases. Identification of factors that ensure proper spatiotemporal control of BMP signaling is critical for understanding how this pathway is regulated. We have used a unique and sensitive genetic screen to identify the plasma membrane-localized tetraspanin TSP-21 as a key new factor in the C. elegans BMP-like “Sma/Mab” signaling pathway that controls body size and postembryonic M lineage development. We showed that TSP-21 acts in the signal-receiving cells and genetically functions at the ligand-receptor level. We further showed that TSP-21 can associate with itself and with two additional tetraspanins, TSP-12 and TSP-14, which also promote Sma/Mab signaling. TSP-12 and TSP-14 can also associate with SMA-6, the type I receptor of the Sma/Mab pathway. Finally, we found that glycosphingolipids, major components of the tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, are required for Sma/Mab signaling. Our findings suggest that the tetraspanin-enriched membrane microdomains are important for proper BMP signaling. As tetraspanins have emerged as diagnostic and prognostic markers for tumor progression, and TSP-21, TSP-12 and TSP-14 are all conserved in humans, we speculate that abnormal BMP signaling due to altered expression or function of certain tetraspanins may be a contributing factor to cancer development. PMID:25978409

  11. Energetics of Polymerization: A Contribution to an Understanding of Protein Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedmann, Herbert C.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the various ways that textbooks treat the energetics of protein synthesis. Offers an approach to explaining the phenomenon by emphasizing the ordering aspects of the process. Describes the participation of compounds such as ATP and GTP in the ordering process. (TW)

  12. Pennycress protein isolate: Pilot plant production and application in films polymeric composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work scaled up the process of producing pennycress protein isolates (PPI) using 5 kg starting material (previously 100 g in bench-scale research). Defatted press cake, produced by prepressing and hexane extraction, was mixed with preheated 50 L of aqueous NaOH (pH 10) for 90 min in a jacketed k...

  13. Impact by condensed tannins with different mean degrees of polymerization on protein precipitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Condensed tannins (CTs) isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens) flowers and big trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus) leaves were evaluated in precipitation studies with bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and alfalfa leaf protein (ALF). The CTs were of similar compositions, but differed in the...

  14. Ubiquitin promoter-terminator cassette promotes genetically stable expression of the taste-modifying protein miraculin in transgenic lettuce.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Shohael, Abdullah Mohammad; Kim, You-Wang; Yano, Megumu; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    Lettuce is a commercially important leafy vegetable that is cultivated worldwide, and it is also a target crop for plant factories. In this study, lettuce was selected as an alternative platform for recombinant miraculin production because of its fast growth, agronomic value, and wide availability. The taste-modifying protein miraculin is a glycoprotein extracted from the red berries of the West African native shrub Richadella dulcifica. Because of its limited natural availability, many attempts have been made to produce this protein in suitable alternative hosts. We produced transgenic lettuce with miraculin gene driven either by the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette from lettuce or a 35S promoter/nos terminator cassette. Miraculin gene expression and miraculin accumulation in both cassettes were compared by quantitative real-time PCR analysis, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression level of the miraculin gene and protein in transgenic lettuce was higher and more genetically stable in the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette than in the 35S promoter/nos terminator cassette. These results demonstrated that the ubiquitin promoter/terminator cassette is an efficient platform for the genetically stable expression of the miraculin protein in lettuce and hence this platform is of benefit for recombinant miraculin production on a commercial scale.

  15. A FRET-based method for monitoring septin polymerization and binding of septin-associated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Booth, E.A.; Thorner, J.

    2016-01-01

    Much about septin function has been inferred from in vivo studies using mainly genetic methods, and much of what we know about septin organization has been obtained through examination of static structures in vitro primarily by electron microscopy. Deeper mechanistic insight requires real-time analysis of the dynamics of the assembly of septin-based structures and how other proteins associate with them. We describe here a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based approach for measuring in vitro the rate and extent of filament formation from septin complexes, binding of other proteins to septin structures, and the apparent affinities of these interactions. FRET is particularly well suited for interrogating protein–protein interactions, especially on a rapid timescale; the spectral change provides an unambiguous indication of whether two elements within the system under study are associating and serves as a molecular-level “ruler” because it is very sensitive to the separation between the donor and acceptor fluorophores over biologically relevant distances (≤ 10 nm). The necessary procedures involve generation of appropriate cysteine-less and single cysteine-containing septin variants, expression and purification of the heterooctameric complexes containing them, efficient labeling of the purified complexes with desired fluorophores, fluorimetric measurement of FRET, and appropriate safeguards and controls in data acquisition and analysis. Our methods can be used to interrogate the effects of buffer conditions, small molecules, and septin-binding proteins on septin filament assembly or stability; determine the effect of alternative septin subunits, mutational alterations, or posttranslational modifications on assembly; and, delineate the location of septin-binding proteins. PMID:27473902

  16. Effects of proteins on absorption by the rat of iron from polymeric and low-molecular-weight iron species

    SciTech Connect

    Berner, L.; Miller, D.

    1986-03-05

    To examine effects of proteins on Fe absorption from polymeric ferric hydroxides (polys) or low-molecular-weight complexes (LMW Fe), 2 studies were conducted. First, anemic rats were given /sup 59/Fe-labeled polys or LMW Fe in the presence and absence of pepsin-digested soy protein isolate, casein, and BSA. The doses were introduced into ligated duodenal segments for 1 hr. Uptake into the carcass of /sup 59/Fe from polys was doubled in the presence of BSA (7.8 vs 16.1%, p < .05) while casein and soy had no effect (5.5 and 6.5%). Absorption of /sup 59/Fe from LMW Fe was 7X greater than from polys; BSA and casein had no effect but soy depressed Fe uptake by almost 50% (57.4 vs 35.5%, p < .05). The second experiment repeated the first except that the proteins were not pepsin-digested and the doses were given by gastric intubation. All Fe, whether from polys or LMW Fe, was highly available (although in vitro digestions reveal that polys are not depolymerized to a large degree under simulated stomach conditions). Soy depressed Fe uptake from both sources (92.9 vs. 81.6%, LMW Fe and 85.4 vs 73.7%, polys) while casein and BSA had no effect. These results show: (1) BSA can depolymerize polys in the rat duodenum, thus enhancing absorption; (2) soy isolate generally depressed Fe uptake; and (3) the rat stomach appears to have an exceptional capacity for equalizing Fe sources.

  17. The synthesis of magnetic lysozyme-imprinted polymers by means of distillation-precipitation polymerization for selective protein enrichment.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiali; Zhang, Xihao; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2014-02-01

    A protein imprinting approach for the synthesis of core-shell structure nanoparticles with a magnetic core and molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) shell was developed using a simple distillation-precipitation polymerization method. In this work, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were first synthesized through a solvothermal method and then were conveniently surface-modified with 3-(methacryloyloxy)propyltrimethoxylsilane as anchor molecules to donate vinyl groups. Next a high-density MIP shell was coated onto the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles by the copolymerization of functional monomer acrylamide (AAm), cross-linking agent N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA), the initiator azodiisobutyronitrile (AIBN), and protein in acetonitrile heated at reflux. The morphology, adsorption, and recognition properties of the magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and rebinding experiments. The resulting MIP showed a high adsorption capacity (104.8 mg g(-1)) and specific recognition (imprinting factor=7.6) to lysozyme (Lyz). The as-prepared Fe3O4@Lyz-MIP nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 320 nm were coated with an MIP shell that was 20 nm thick, which enabled Fe3O4@Lyz-MIP to easily reach adsorption equilibrium. The high magnetization saturation (40.35 emu g(-1)) endows the materials with the convenience of magnetic separation under an external magnetic field and allows them to be subsequently reused. Furthermore, Fe3O4@Lyz-MIP could selectively extract a target protein from real egg-white samples under an external magnetic field.

  18. Microfluidics-assisted engineering of polymeric microcapsules with high encapsulation efficiency for protein drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Pessi, Jenni; Santos, Hélder A; Miroshnyk, Inna; JoukoYliruusi; Weitz, David A; Mirza, Sabiruddin

    2014-09-10

    In this study, microfluidic technology was employed to develop protein formulations. The microcapsules were produced with a biphasic flow to create water-oil-water (W/O/W) double emulsion droplets with ultrathin shells. Optimized microcapsule formulations containing 1% (w/w) bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the inner phase were prepared with poly(vinyl alcohol), polycaprolactone and polyethylene glycol. All the particles were found to be intact and with a particle size of 23-47 μm. Furthermore, the particles were monodisperse, non-porous and stable up to 4 weeks. The encapsulation efficiency of BSA in the microcapsules was 84%. The microcapsules released 30% of their content within 168 h. This study demonstrates that microfluidics is a powerful technique for engineering formulations for therapeutic proteins.

  19. Monomeric, Oligomeric and Polymeric Proteins in Huntington Disease and Other Diseases of Polyglutamine Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Hoffner, Guylaine; Djian, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease and other diseases of polyglutamine expansion are each caused by a different protein bearing an excessively long polyglutamine sequence and are associated with neuronal death. Although these diseases affect largely different brain regions, they all share a number of characteristics, and, therefore, are likely to possess a common mechanism. In all of the diseases, the causative protein is proteolyzed, becomes abnormally folded and accumulates in oligomers and larger aggregates. The aggregated and possibly the monomeric expanded polyglutamine are likely to play a critical role in the pathogenesis and there is increasing evidence that the secondary structure of the protein influences its toxicity. We describe here, with special attention to huntingtin, the mechanisms of polyglutamine aggregation and the modulation of aggregation by the sequences flanking the polyglutamine. We give a comprehensive picture of the characteristics of monomeric and aggregated polyglutamine, including morphology, composition, seeding ability, secondary structure, and toxicity. The structural heterogeneity of aggregated polyglutamine may explain why polyglutamine-containing aggregates could paradoxically be either toxic or neuroprotective. PMID:24961702

  20. Facile trypsin immobilization in polymeric membranes for rapid, efficient protein digestion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Wang, Wei-Han; Tan, Yu-Jing; Bruening, Merlin L

    2010-12-15

    Sequential adsorption of poly(styrene sulfonate) and trypsin in nylon membranes provides a simple, inexpensive method to create stable, microporous reactors for fast protein digestion. The high local trypsin concentration and short radial diffusion distances in membrane pores facilitate proteolysis in residence times of a few seconds, and the minimal pressure drop across the thin membranes allows their use in syringe filters. Membrane digestion and subsequent MS analysis of bovine serum albumin provide 84% sequence coverage, which is higher than the 71% coverage obtained with in-solution digestion for 16 h or the <50% sequence coverages of other methods that employ immobilized trypsin. Moreover, trypsin-modified membranes digest protein in the presence of 0.05 wt % sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), whereas in-solution digestion under similar conditions yields no peptide signals in mass spectra even after removal of SDS. These membrane reactors, which can be easily prepared in any laboratory, have a shelf life of several months and continuously digest protein for at least 33 h without significant loss of activity.

  1. A Balance of Capping Protein and Profilin Functions Is Required to Regulate Actin Polymerization in Drosophila Bristle

    PubMed Central

    Hopmann, Roberta; Miller, Kathryn G.

    2003-01-01

    Profilin is a well-characterized protein known to be important for regulating actin filament assembly. Relatively few studies have addressed how profilin interacts with other actin-binding proteins in vivo to regulate assembly of complex actin structures. To investigate the function of profilin in the context of a differentiating cell, we have studied an instructive genetic interaction between mutations in profilin (chickadee) and capping protein (cpb). Capping protein is the principal protein in cells that caps actin filament barbed ends. When its function is reduced in the Drosophila bristle, F-actin levels increase and the actin cytoskeleton becomes disorganized, causing abnormal bristle morphology. chickadee mutations suppress the abnormal bristle phenotype and associated abnormalities of the actin cytoskeleton seen in cpb mutants. Furthermore, overexpression of profilin in the bristle mimics many features of the cpb loss-of-function phenotype. The interaction between cpb and chickadee suggests that profilin promotes actin assembly in the bristle and that a balance between capping protein and profilin activities is important for the proper regulation of F-actin levels. Furthermore, this balance of activities affects the association of actin structures with the membrane, suggesting a link between actin filament dynamics and localization of actin structures within the cell. PMID:12529431

  2. Protein microarrays on hybrid polymeric thin films prepared by self-assembly of polyelectrolytes for multiple-protein immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xichun; Zhou, Jizhong

    2006-03-01

    We report here the development and characterization of protein microarrays fabricated on nanoengineered 3-D polyelectrolyte thin films (PET) deposited on glass slide by consecutive adsorption of polyelectrolytes via self-assembly technique. Antibodies or antigens were immobilized in the PET-coated glass slides by electrostatic adsorption and entrapment of porous structure of the 3-D polymer film and thus establishing a platform for parallel analysis. Both antigen and antibody microarrays were fabricated on the PET-coated slides, and direct and indirect immunoassays on protein microarrays for multiple-analyte detection were demonstrated. Microarrays produced on these PET-coated slides have consistent spot morphology and provide performance features needed for proteomic analysis. The protein microarrays on the PET films provide LOD as low as 6 pg/mL and dynamic ranges up to three orders of magnitude, which are wider than the protein microarrays fabricated on aldehyde and poly-L-lysine functionalized slides. The PET films constructed by self-assembly technique in aqueous solution is green chemistry based, cost-effective method to generate 3-D thin film coatings on glass surface, and the coated slide is well suited for immobilizing many types of biological molecules so that a wide variety of microarray formats can be developed on this type of slide.

  3. Identification of procollagen promoter DNA-binding proteins: effects of dexamethasone

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, C.; Cutroneo, K.R.

    1987-05-01

    Glucocorticoids selectively decrease procollagen synthesis by decreasing procollagen mRNA transcription. Dexamethasone coordinately decreased total cellular type I and type III procollagen mRNAs in mouse embryonic skin fibroblasts. Since sequence specific DNA-binding proteins are known to modulate eukaryotic gene expression the authors identified in mouse fibroblasts nuclear proteins which bind to types I and III procollagen promoter DNAs. Nuclear proteins were electrophoresed, blotted onto nitrocellulose and probed with /sup 32/P-end-labeled type I and type III procollagen promoter DNAs in the presence of equimolar amounts of /sup 32/P-end-labeled vector DNA. Differences in total DNA binding were noted by the densitometric scans of the nuclear proteins. Dexamethasone treatment enhanced total DNA binding. Increasing the NaCl concentration decreased the number of promoter DNA-binding proteins without altering the relative specificity for the promoter DNAs. Promoter DNA binding to nuclear proteins was also inhibited by increasing concentrations of E. coli DNA. The number of DNA-binding proteins was greater for type III procollagen promoter DNA. The effect of dexamethasone treatment on promoter DNA binding to nuclear proteins was determined.

  4. Use of polymeric membranes for purification of an E. coli expressed biotherapeutic protein.

    PubMed

    Muthukumar, S; Rathore, Anurag S

    2016-01-01

    Polymers have had a significant impact on the field of bioseparations in the past few decades. Most recently, membrane chromatography has emerged as an efficient alternative to the conventional packed-bed chromatography by eliminating the diffusion-related limitations associated with the traditional resin beads. In this article, we examine six membrane adsorbers for purification of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), an Escherichia coli-based biotherapeutic. These adsorbers differ either in their base matrix or in the surface chemistry. The role of interactions between the filter surfaces and the protein molecules in effecting these separations is the focus of the article.

  5. Group B Streptococcus pilus sortase regulation: a single mutation in the lid region induces pilin protein polymerization in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Roberta; Zerbini, Francesca; Assfalg, Michael; D'Onofrio, Mariapina; Biagini, Massimiliano; Martinelli, Manuele; Nuccitelli, Annalisa; Norais, Nathalie; Telford, John L; Maione, Domenico; Rinaudo, C Daniela

    2013-08-01

    Gram-positive bacteria build pili on their cell surface via a class C sortase-catalyzed transpeptidation mechanism from pilin protein substrates. Despite the availability of several crystal structures, pilus-related C sortases remain poorly characterized to date, and their mechanisms of transpeptidation and regulation need to be further investigated. The available 3-dimensional structures of these enzymes reveal a typical sortase fold, except for the presence of a unique feature represented by an N-terminal highly flexible loop known as the "lid." This region interacts with the residues composing the catalytic triad and covers the active site, thus maintaining the enzyme in an autoinhibited state and preventing the accessibility to the substrate. It is believed that enzyme activation may occur only after lid displacement from the catalytic domain. In this work, we provide the first direct evidence of the regulatory role of the lid, demonstrating that it is possible to obtain in vitro an efficient polymerization of pilin subunits using an active C sortase lid mutant carrying a single residue mutation in the lid region. Moreover, biochemical analyses of this recombinant mutant reveal that the lid confers thermodynamic and proteolytic stability to the enzyme.

  6. Development of a Gastric Absorptive, Immediate Responsive, Oral Protein-Loaded Versatile Polymeric Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Kondiah, Pierre P D; Choonara, Yahya E; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Marimuthu, Thashree; Modi, Girish; Pillay, Viness

    2017-02-15

    A multifunctional platform to deliver three diverse proteins of insulin, interferon beta (INF-β) and erythropoietin (EPO), using a novel copolymeric microparticulate system of TMC-PEGDMA-MAA, was synthesised as an intelligent pH-responsive 2-fold gastric and intestinal absorptive system. Physiochemical and physicomechanical studies proved the degree of crystallinity that supported the controlled protein delivery of the microparticulate system. The copolymer was tableted before undertaking in vitro and in vivo analysis. After 2.5 h in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), insulin showed a fractional release of 3.2% in comparison to simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), in which a maximum of 83% of insulin was released. Similarly, INF-β and EPO released 3 and 9.7% in SGF and a maximum of 74 and 81.3% in SIF, respectively. In vivo studies demonstrated a significant decrease in blood glucose by 54.19% within 4 h post-dosing, and the comparator formulation provided 74.6% decrease in blood glucose within the same time period. INF-β peak bioavailable dose in serum was calculated to be 1.3% in comparison to an SC formulation having a peak concentration of 0.9%, demonstrating steady-state release for 24 h. EPO-loaded copolymeric microparticles had a 1.6% peak bioavailable concentration, in comparison to the 6.34% peak concentration after 8 h from the SC comparator formulation.

  7. Differential polymerization of the two main protein components of dragline silk during fibre spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sponner, Alexander; Unger, Eberhard; Grosse, Frank; Weisshart, Klaus

    2005-10-01

    Spider silks are some of the strongest materials found in nature. Achieving the high tensile strength and elasticity of the dragline of orb-weaving spiders, such as Nephila clavipes, is a principal goal in biomimetics research. The dragline has a composite nature and is predominantly made up by two proteins, the major ampullate spidroins 1 and 2 (refs 3,6,7), which can be considered natural block copolymers. On the basis of their molecular structures both spidroins are thought to contribute, in different ways, to the mechanical properties of dragline silk. The spinning process itself is also considered important for determining the observed features by shaping the hierarchical structure of the fibre. Here we study the heterogeneous distribution of proteins along the radial axis of the fibre. This heterogeneity is generated during the conversion of the liquid spinning dope into solid fibre. Whereas spidroin 1 is distributed almost uniformly within the fibre core, spidroin 2 is missing in the periphery and is tightly packed in certain core areas. Our findings suggest that the role of spidroin 2 in the spinning process could be to facilitate the formation of fibrils and contribute directly to the elasticity of the silk.

  8. Differential polymerization of the two main protein components of dragline silk during fibre spinning.

    PubMed

    Sponner, Alexander; Unger, Eberhard; Grosse, Frank; Weisshart, Klaus

    2005-10-01

    Spider silks are some of the strongest materials found in nature. Achieving the high tensile strength and elasticity of the dragline of orb-weaving spiders, such as Nephila clavipes, is a principal goal in biomimetics research. The dragline has a composite nature and is predominantly made up by two proteins, the major ampullate spidroins 1 and 2 (refs 3, 6, 7), which can be considered natural block copolymers. On the basis of their molecular structures both spidroins are thought to contribute, in different ways, to the mechanical properties of dragline silk. The spinning process itself is also considered important for determining the observed features by shaping the hierarchical structure of the fibre. Here we study the heterogeneous distribution of proteins along the radial axis of the fibre. This heterogeneity is generated during the conversion of the liquid spinning dope into solid fibre. Whereas spidroin 1 is distributed almost uniformly within the fibre core, spidroin 2 is missing in the periphery and is tightly packed in certain core areas. Our findings suggest that the role of spidroin 2 in the spinning process could be to facilitate the formation of fibrils and contribute directly to the elasticity of the silk.

  9. Use of amino acid-based polymeric material for isolation of a protein from poison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erol, Kadir; Köse, Kazım; Güngüneş, Hakan; Köse, Dursun Ali

    2017-02-01

    Melittin is a small protein with 126 amino acid residues which exists in the bee and snake venom. In this study, the Fe(II)-Ni(II) double-salt incorporated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-N-methacryloyl-L-aspartic acid), poly(HEMA-MAsp), magnetic microparticles were synthesized for the separation of melittin. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and Mossbauer spectroscopy techniques were used for the characterization. The melittin adsorption capacity of magnetic microparticles in aqueous solution were identified as 69.60 mg/g, whereas that in real be venom solution was 46.80 mg/g microparticle. The adsorption-desorption cycle was repeated 5 times and no significant decrease were observed in the adsorption capacity.

  10. Promotion of tribological and hydrophobic properties of a coating on TPE substrates by atmospheric plasma-polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainz-García, Elisa; Alba-Elías, Fernando; Múgica-Vidal, Rodolfo; Pantoja-Ruiz, Mariola

    2016-05-01

    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPE) are used in the automotive sealing industry with the objective of producing anti-friction and hydrophobic components. At present, the anti-friction property is achieved by the electrostatic flocking, which sometimes produces an irregular coating. Therefore, this paper's objective is the promotion of adhesion of an anti-friction (based on the silane aminopropyltriethoxysilane-APTES-) and hydrophobic (based on the fluorinated precursor 1-perfluorohexene-PFH-) coating by the adhesion promoter, APTES. Different mixtures of APTES and PFH have been applied to a TPE substrate by an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ) system with Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) in order to determine the optimal mixture of precursors. The main difficulty in this work lies in the hydrophilic character of APTES and the low adhesion of the fluorinated coatings. The sample coated with a mixture of 50% APTES and 50% PFH (A50P50) was found to be the best one to satisfy both properties at the same time, despite not having the highest dynamic water contact angle (WCA) or the lowest friction coefficient.

  11. Inaccurate measurement of a polymeric IgA myeloma protein by nephelometric and fluorometric instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Levinson, S S; Goldman, J O; Markyvech, L; Nathan, L E

    1986-11-01

    The concentration of IgA in a serum was 5.99 g/L as assayed nephelometrically with reagent from one company, but varied between 5 and 3 g/L (for sixfold and 36-fold dilutions, respectively) without giving a definitive answer when assayed with reagent from another source. Immunofixation electrophoresis indicated an IgA lambda monoclonal protein of 45 g/L. Radial immunodiffusion showed two components, having a total concentration of 41 g/L. By fluorometry the IgA was 3.1 g/L. Increasing the dilution caused the (dilution-corrected) lower values to increase. Although the most frequent cause of such discrepant findings is an IgA2 myeloma, which occurs in about one of every 100 myeloma cases, Ouchterlony double diffusion indicated the major component to be IgA1. A polymer, Mr 670,000, was identified by column chromatography. Contrary to the usual behavior of polymers assayed with radial immunodiffusion, which underestimates their concentration, this polymer reached equivalency in agreement with its true concentration as assayed by the Mancini-Heremans technique.

  12. Insights into the variability of nucleated amyloid polymerization by a minimalistic model of stochastic protein assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugène, Sarah; Xue, Wei-Feng; Robert, Philippe; Doumic, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Self-assembly of proteins into amyloid aggregates is an important biological phenomenon associated with human diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Amyloid fibrils also have potential applications in nano-engineering of biomaterials. The kinetics of amyloid assembly show an exponential growth phase preceded by a lag phase, variable in duration as seen in bulk experiments and experiments that mimic the small volumes of cells. Here, to investigate the origins and the properties of the observed variability in the lag phase of amyloid assembly currently not accounted for by deterministic nucleation dependent mechanisms, we formulate a new stochastic minimal model that is capable of describing the characteristics of amyloid growth curves despite its simplicity. We then solve the stochastic differential equations of our model and give mathematical proof of a central limit theorem for the sample growth trajectories of the nucleated aggregation process. These results give an asymptotic description for our simple model, from which closed form analytical results capable of describing and predicting the variability of nucleated amyloid assembly were derived. We also demonstrate the application of our results to inform experiments in a conceptually friendly and clear fashion. Our model offers a new perspective and paves the way for a new and efficient approach on extracting vital information regarding the key initial events of amyloid formation.

  13. Promoter-specific trans activation and repression by human cytomegalovirus immediate-early proteins involves common and unique protein domains.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, R M; Fortney, J; Barlow, S W; Magrane, B P; Nelson, J A; Ghazal, P

    1990-01-01

    trans activation of promoters by viral regulatory proteins provides a useful tool to study coordinate control of gene expression. Immediate-early (IE) regions 1 and 2 of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) code for a series of proteins that originate from differentially spliced mRNAs. These IE proteins are proposed to regulate the temporal expression of the viral genome. To examine the structure and function of the IE proteins, we used linker insertion mutagenesis of the IE gene region as well as cDNA expression vector cloning of the abundant IE mRNAs. We showed that IE1 and IE2 proteins of CMV exhibit promoter-specific differences in their modes of action by either trans activating early and IE promoters or repressing the major IE promoter (MIEP). Transient cotransfection experiments with permissive human cells revealed a synergistic interaction between the 72- and the 86-kilodalton (kDa) IE proteins in trans activating an early promoter. In addition, transfection studies revealed that the 72-kDa protein was capable of trans activating the MIEP. In contrast, the 86-kDa protein specifically repressed the MIEP and this repression was suppressed by the 72-kDa protein. Furthermore, observations based on the primary sequence structure revealed a modular arrangement of putative regulatory motifs that could either potentiate or repress gene expression. These modular domains are either shared or unique among the IE proteins. From these data, we propose a model for IE protein function in the coordinate control of CMV gene expression. Images PMID:2157043

  14. Effect of heparin on protein aggregation: inhibition versus promotion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yisheng; Seeman, Daniel; Yan, Yunfeng; Sun, Lianhong; Post, Jared; Dubin, Paul L

    2012-05-14

    The effect of heparin on both native and denatured protein aggregation was investigated by turbidimetry and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Turbidimetric data show that heparin is capable of inhibiting and reversing the native aggregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA), β-lactoglobulin (BLG), and Zn-insulin at a pH near pI and at low ionic strength I; however, the results vary with regard to the range of pH, I, and protein-heparin stoichiometry required to achieve these effects. The kinetics of this process were studied to determine the mechanism by which interaction with heparin could result in inhibition or reversal of native protein aggregates. For each protein, the binding of heparin to distinctive intermediate aggregates formed at different times in the aggregation process dictates the outcome of complexation. This differential binding was explained by changes in the affinity of a given protein for heparin, partly due to the effects of protein charge anisotropy as visualized by electrostatic modeling. The heparin effect can be further extended to include inhibition of denaturing protein aggregation, as seen from the kinetics of BLG aggregation under conditions of thermally induced unfolding with and without heparin.

  15. Response gene to complement 32 protein promotes macrophage phagocytosis via activation of protein kinase C pathway.

    PubMed

    Tang, Rui; Zhang, Gui; Chen, Shi-You

    2014-08-15

    Macrophage phagocytosis plays an important role in host defense. The molecular mechanism, especially factors regulating the phagocytosis, however, is not completely understood. In the present study, we found that response gene to complement 32 (RGC-32) is an important regulator of phagocytosis. Although RGC-32 is induced and abundantly expressed in macrophage during monocyte-macrophage differentiation, RGC-32 appears not to be important for this process because RGC-32-deficient bone marrow progenitor can normally differentiate to macrophage. However, both peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages with RGC-32 deficiency exhibit significant defects in phagocytosis, whereas RGC-32-overexpressed macrophages show increased phagocytosis. Mechanistically, RGC-32 is recruited to macrophage membrane where it promotes F-actin assembly and the formation of phagocytic cups. RGC-32 knock-out impairs F-actin assembly. RGC-32 appears to interact with PKC to regulate PKC-induced phosphorylation of F-actin cross-linking protein myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that RGC-32 is a novel membrane regulator for macrophage phagocytosis.

  16. Multistage skin tumor promotion: involvement of a protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Mamrack, M.; Slaga, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Current information suggests that chemical carcinogenesis is a multistep process with one of the best studied models in this regard being the two-stage carcinogenesis system using mouse skin. The effects of several carcinogens and tumor promoters in various sequences of application were studied to examine the nature of the process. The actions of several tumor inhibitors were compared. (ACR)

  17. Determination of paclitaxel in hyaluronic acid polymeric micelles in rat blood by protein precipitation-micelle breaking method: application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhua; Sun, Jin; Lian, He; Li, Xin; Cao, Wen; Bai, Liming; Wang, Yongjun; He, Zhonggui

    2013-09-15

    An efficient dissociation of paclitaxel (PTX) from the home-made hyaluronic acid-octadecyl (HA-C18) polymeric micelles formulation in rat blood could not be achieved using previously published PTX analytical methods. So, we intended to develop the micelle-breaking method to determine paclitaxel encapsulated in the HA-C18 polymeric micelles in blood. The pretreatment method of blood samples adopted a simple one-step protein precipitation-micelle breaking process with methanol as micelle-breaking and protein precipitant solvents for complete extraction of PTX from HA-C18 micelles in blood. The micelle breaking efficiency of methanol was as high as 97.7%. Separation was carried out by gradient elution on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of water (containing 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile. A total single run time was as short as 3.0min. Detection was performed by triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization as source ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode at m/z 854.3→286.2 for PTX and m/z 808.5→527.3 for the internal standard, docetaxel. The method demonstrated good linearity at the concentrations ranging from 20 to 10,000ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 9.9%. The mean extraction recoveries of PTX and IS were 94.7% and 87.5%, respectively. In summary, the methanol protein precipitation-micelle breaking method could extract PTX completely from the polymeric micelles. Finally, the method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of the home-made PTX-loaded HA-C18 polymeric micelles and Taxol solution after intravenous administration in rats.

  18. Combination of electrografting and atom-transfer radical polymerization for making the stainless steel surface antibacterial and protein antiadhesive.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Milena; Voccia, Samuel; Gilbert, Bernard; Markova, Nadya; Cossement, Damien; Gouttebaron, Rachel; Jérôme, Robert; Jérôme, Christine

    2006-01-03

    A two-step "grafting from" method has been successfully carried out, which is based on the electrografting of polyacrylate chains containing an initiator for the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of 2-(tert-butylamino)ethyl methacrylate (TBAEMA) or copolymerization of TBAEMA with either monomethyl ether of poly(ethylene oxide) methacrylate (PEOMA) or acrylic acid (AA) or styrene. The chemisorption of this type of polymer brushes onto stainless steel surfaces has potential in orthopaedic surgery. These films have been characterized by ATR-FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and measurement of contact angles of water. The polymer formed in solution by ATRP and that one detached on purpose from the surface have been analyzed by size exclusion chromathography (SEC) and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The strong adherence of the films onto stainless steel has been assessed by peeling tests. AFM analysis has shown that addition of hydrophilic comonomers to the grafted chains decreases the surface roughness. According to dynamic quartz crystal microbalance experiments, proteins (e.g., fibrinogen) are more effectively repelled whenever copolymer brushes contain neutral hydrophilic (PEOMA) co-units rather than negatively charged groups (PAA salt). Moreover, a 2- to 3-fold decrease in the fibrinogen adsorption is observed when TBAEMA is copolymerized with either PEOMA or AA rather than homopolymerized or copolymerized with styrene. Compared to the bare stainless steel surface, brushes of polyTBAEMA, poly(TBAEMA-co-PEOMA) and poly(TBAEMA-co-AA) decrease the bacteria adhesion by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude as revealed by Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus adhesion tests.

  19. Methods for promoting wound healing and muscle regeneration with the cell signaling protein Nell1

    SciTech Connect

    Culiat, Cymbeline T

    2014-11-04

    The present invention provides methods for promoting wound healing and treating muscle atrophy in a mammal in need. The method comprises administering to the mammal a Nell1 protein or a Nell1 nucleic acid molecule.

  20. Methods for promoting wound healing and muscle regeneration with the cell signaling protein Nell1

    SciTech Connect

    Culiat, Cymbeline T

    2011-03-22

    The present invention provides methods for promoting wound healing and treating muscle atrophy in a mammal in need. The method comprises administering to the mammal a Nell1 protein or a Nell1 nucleic acid molecule.

  1. Prefoldin Promotes Proteasomal Degradation of Cytosolic Proteins with Missense Mutations by Maintaining Substrate Solubility

    PubMed Central

    Young, Barry P.; Loewen, Christopher J.; Mayor, Thibault

    2016-01-01

    Misfolded proteins challenge the ability of cells to maintain protein homeostasis and can accumulate into toxic protein aggregates. As a consequence, cells have adopted a number of protein quality control pathways to prevent protein aggregation, promote protein folding, and target terminally misfolded proteins for degradation. In this study, we employed a thermosensitive allele of the yeast Guk1 guanylate kinase as a model misfolded protein to investigate degradative protein quality control pathways. We performed a flow cytometry based screen to identify factors that promote proteasomal degradation of proteins misfolded as the result of missense mutations. In addition to the E3 ubiquitin ligase Ubr1, we identified the prefoldin chaperone subunit Gim3 as an important quality control factor. Whereas the absence of GIM3 did not impair proteasomal function or the ubiquitination of the model substrate, it led to the accumulation of the poorly soluble model substrate in cellular inclusions that was accompanied by delayed degradation. We found that Gim3 interacted with the Guk1 mutant allele and propose that prefoldin promotes the degradation of the unstable model substrate by maintaining the solubility of the misfolded protein. We also demonstrated that in addition to the Guk1 mutant, prefoldin can stabilize other misfolded cytosolic proteins containing missense mutations. PMID:27448207

  2. AraC protein contacts asymmetric sites in the Escherichia coli araFGH promoter.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Flaherty, C; Hendrickson, W

    1992-12-05

    AraC protein regulates the transcription of arabinose transport and catabolic operons in Escherichia coli through interaction with specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of the operons. The interaction of AraC protein with two binding sites in the araFGH promoter was determined and compared to previously studied AraC binding sites in the araBAD promoter. Methylation and ethylation interference assays show that AraC protein binds along one side of the DNA to four adjacent major groove regions at each of the araFG1 and araFG2 sites. Mutations within any of the four regions of araFG1 greatly reduce protein binding in vitro. The promoter function in vivo is also greatly reduced, indicating that all four regions of the binding site are required. The chemical interference and genetic data, combined with the consensus sequence for AraC protein binding to ara promoters, support a binding motif in which two directly repeated units each span two adjacent turns of the DNA helix. The function of the two AraC binding sites was also examined. The proximal araFG1 site is required for promoter activation, whereas the distal araFG2 site has only a slight effect on the promoter activity.

  3. High levels of protein expression using different mammalian CMV promoters in several cell lines.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Bringmann, Peter; McClary, John; Jones, Patrick P; Manzana, Warren; Zhu, Ying; Wang, Soujuan; Liu, Yi; Harvey, Susan; Madlansacay, Mary Rose; McLean, Kirk; Rosser, Mary P; MacRobbie, Jean; Olsen, Catherine L; Cobb, Ronald R

    2006-01-01

    With the recent completion of the human genome sequencing project, scientists are faced with the daunting challenge of deciphering the function of these newly found genes quickly and efficiently. Equally as important is to produce milligram quantities of the therapeutically relevant gene products as quickly as possible. Mammalian expression systems provide many advantages to aid in this task. Mammalian cell lines have the capacity for proper post-translational modifications including proper protein folding and glycosylation. In response to the needs described above, we investigated the protein expression levels driven by the human CMV in the presence or absence of intron A, the mouse and rat CMV promoters with intron A, and the MPSV promoter in plasmid expression vectors. We evaluated the different promoters using an in-house plasmid vector backbone. The protein expression levels of four genes of interest driven by these promoters were evaluated in HEK293EBNA and CHO-K1 cells. Stable and transient transfected cells were utilized. In general, the full-length human CMV, in the presence of intron A, gave the highest levels of protein expression in transient transfections in both cell lines. However, the MPSV promoter resulted in the highest levels of stable protein expression in CHO-K1 cells. Using the CMV driven constitutive promoters in the presence of intron A, we have been able to generate >10 microg/ml of recombinant protein using transient transfections.

  4. Atom transfer radical polymerization to fabricate monodisperse poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate] microspheres and its application for protein affinity purification.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ling; Shi, Zhuan Zhuan; Li, Chang Ming

    2015-09-01

    Poly[glycidyl methacrylate-co-poly (ethylene glycol) methacrylate] microspheres for the first time were successfully synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method at room temperature. The co-polymerization approach was investigated to delicately control the microsphere morphology and size-distribution by reaction conditions including solvent percentage, monomer loading and rotation speed. The results show that the average size of the microspheres is ∼5.7 μm with coexistence of epoxy, hydroxyl and ether groups, which provide plentiful functional sites for protein anchoring. The mechanism of the microsphere formation is proposed. The microsphere successfully demonstrates its unique application for affinity purification of proteins, in which the functional epoxy group facilitates a simple and efficient protein covalent immobilization to purify immunoglobulin G on the microspheres, while the hydrophilic poly (ethylene glycol) motif can repulse nonspecific protein adsorption for good specificity. This microspheres can be used in broad protein biosensors due to their abundant functional groups and high surface to volume ratio.

  5. Phylum-wide analysis of genes/proteins related to the last steps of assembly and export of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sara B; Mota, Rita; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Tamagnini, Paula

    2015-10-06

    Many cyanobacteria produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with particular characteristics (e.g. anionic nature and presence of sulfate) that make them suitable for industrial processes such as bioremediation of heavy metals or thickening, suspending or emulsifying agents. Nevertheless, their biosynthetic pathway(s) are still largely unknown, limiting their utilization. In this work, a phylum-wide analysis of genes/proteins putatively involved in the assembly and export of EPS in cyanobacteria was performed. Our results demonstrated that most strains harbor genes encoding proteins related to the three main pathways: Wzy-, ABC transporter-, and Synthase-dependent, but often not the complete set defining one pathway. Multiple gene copies are mainly correlated to larger genomes, and the strains with reduced genomes (e.g. the clade of marine unicellular Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), seem to have lost most of the EPS-related genes. Overall, the distribution of the different genes/proteins within the cyanobacteria phylum raises the hypothesis that cyanobacterial EPS production may not strictly follow one of the pathways previously characterized. Moreover, for the proteins involved in EPS polymerization, amino acid patterns were defined and validated constituting a novel and robust tool to identify proteins with similar functions and giving a first insight to which polymer biosynthesis they are related to.

  6. Phylum-wide analysis of genes/proteins related to the last steps of assembly and export of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in cyanobacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Sara B.; Mota, Rita; Vieira, Cristina P.; Vieira, Jorge; Tamagnini, Paula

    2015-10-01

    Many cyanobacteria produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with particular characteristics (e.g. anionic nature and presence of sulfate) that make them suitable for industrial processes such as bioremediation of heavy metals or thickening, suspending or emulsifying agents. Nevertheless, their biosynthetic pathway(s) are still largely unknown, limiting their utilization. In this work, a phylum-wide analysis of genes/proteins putatively involved in the assembly and export of EPS in cyanobacteria was performed. Our results demonstrated that most strains harbor genes encoding proteins related to the three main pathways: Wzy-, ABC transporter-, and Synthase-dependent, but often not the complete set defining one pathway. Multiple gene copies are mainly correlated to larger genomes, and the strains with reduced genomes (e.g. the clade of marine unicellular Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), seem to have lost most of the EPS-related genes. Overall, the distribution of the different genes/proteins within the cyanobacteria phylum raises the hypothesis that cyanobacterial EPS production may not strictly follow one of the pathways previously characterized. Moreover, for the proteins involved in EPS polymerization, amino acid patterns were defined and validated constituting a novel and robust tool to identify proteins with similar functions and giving a first insight to which polymer biosynthesis they are related to.

  7. Soy protein isolate inhibits hepatic tumor promotion in mice fed a high-fat liquid diet.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Kelly E; Pulliam, Casey F; Pedersen, Kim B; Hennings, Leah; Ronis, Martin Jj

    2017-03-01

    Alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases are risk factors for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. On the other hand, ingestion of soy-containing diets may oppose the development of certain cancers. We previously reported that replacing casein with a soy protein isolate reduced tumor promotion in the livers of mice with alcoholic liver disease after feeding a high fat ethanol liquid diet following initiation with diethylnitrosamine. Feeding soy protein isolate inhibited processes that may contribute to tumor promotion including inflammation, sphingolipid signaling, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. We have extended these studies to characterize liver tumor promotion in a model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease produced by chronic feeding of high-fat liquid diets in the absence of ethanol. Mice treated with diethylnitrosamine on postnatal day 14 were fed a high-fat liquid diet made with casein or SPI as the sole protein source for 16 weeks in adulthood. Relative to mice fed normal chow, a high fat/casein diet led to increased tumor promotion, hepatocyte proliferation, steatosis, and inflammation. Replacing casein with soy protein isolate counteracted these effects. The high fat diets also resulted in a general increase in transcripts for Wnt/β-catenin pathway components, which may be an important mechanism, whereby hepatic tumorigenesis is promoted. However, soy protein isolate did not block Wnt signaling in this nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model. We conclude that replacing casein with soy protein isolate blocks development of steatosis, inflammation, and tumor promotion in diethylnitrosamine-treated mice fed high fat diets. Impact statement The impact of dietary components on cancer is a topic of great interest for both the general public and the scientific community. Liver cancer is currently the second leading form of cancer deaths worldwide. Our study has addressed the effect of the protein

  8. Effect of microfiltration concentration factor on serum protein removal from skim milk using spiral-wound polymeric membranes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, S L; Barbano, D M

    2013-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of concentration factor (CF) on the removal of serum protein (SP) from skim milk during microfiltration (MF) at 50 °C using a 0.3-μm-pore-size spiral-wound (SW) polymeric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Pasteurized (72°C for 16 s) skim milk was MF (50 °C) at 3 CF (1.50, 2.25, and 3.00×), each on a separate day of processing starting with skim milk. Two phases of MF were used at each CF, with an initial startup-stabilization phase (40 min in full recycle mode) to achieve the desired CF, followed by a steady-state phase (90-min feed-and-bleed with recycle) where data was collected. The experiment was replicated 3 times, and SP removal from skim milk was quantified at each CF. System pressures, flow rates, CF, and fluxes were monitored during the 90-min run. Permeate flux increased (12.8, 15.3, and 19.0 kg/m(2) per hour) with decreasing CF from 3.00 to 1.50×, whereas fouled water flux did not differ among CF, indicating that the effect of membrane fouling on hydraulic resistance of the membrane was similar at all CF. However, the CF used when microfiltering skim milk (50°C) with a 0.3-μm polymeric SW PVDF membrane did affect the percentage of SP removed. As CF increased from 1.50 to 3.00×, the percentage of SP removed from skim milk increased from 10.56 to 35.57%, in a single stage bleed-and-feed MF system. Percentage SP removal from skim milk was lower than the theoretical value. Rejection of SP during MF of skim milk with SW PVDF membranes was caused by fouling of the membrane, not by the membrane itself and differences in the foulant characteristic among CF influenced SP rejection more than it influenced hydraulic resistance. We hypothesize that differences in the conditions near the surface of the membrane and within the pores during the first few minutes of processing, when casein micelles pass through the membrane, influenced the rejection of SP because more pore size narrowing and plugging occurred at

  9. JNK inhibitor SP600125 promotes the formation of polymerized tubulin, leading to G2/M phase arrest, endoreduplication, and delayed apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong Oh; Kim, Mun Ock; Kang, Chang Hee; Lee, Jae Dong; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gi Young

    2009-09-30

    The JNK inhibitor SP600125 strongly inhibits cell proliferation in many human cancer cells by blocking cell-cycle progression and inducing apoptosis. Despite extensive study, the mechanism by which SP600125 inhibits mitosis-related effects in human leukemia cells remains unclear. We investigated the effects of SP600125 on the inhibition of cell proliferation and the cell cycle, and on microtubule dynamics in vivo and in vitro. Treatment of synchronized leukemia cells with varying concentrations of SP600125 results in significant G2/M cell cycle arrest with elevated p21 levels, phosphorylation of histone H3 within 24 h, and endoreduplication with elevated Cdk2 protein levels after 48 h. SP600125 also induces significant abnormal microtubule dynamics in vivo. High concentrations of SP600125 (200 microM) were required to disorganize microtubule polymerization in vitro. Additionally, SP600125- induced delayed apoptosis and cell death was accompanied by significant poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage and caspase-3 activity in the late phase (at 72 h). Endoreduplication showed a greater increase in ectopic Bcl-2-expressing U937 cells at 72 h than in wild-type U937 cells without delayed apoptosis. These results indicate that Bcl-2 suppresses apoptosis and SP600125-induced G2/M arrest and endoreduplication. Therefore, we suggest that SP600125 induces mitotic arrest by inducing abnormal spindle microtubule dynamics.

  10. Fibronectin matrix polymerization regulates smooth muscle cell phenotype through a Rac1 dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Long, Xiaochun; Hendershot, Allison; Miano, Joseph M; Sottile, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are maintained in a differentiated state in the vessel wall, but can be modulated to a synthetic phenotype following injury. Smooth muscle phenotypic modulation is thought to play an important role in the pathology of vascular occlusive diseases. Phenotypically modulated smooth muscle cells exhibit increased proliferative and migratory properties that accompany the downregulation of smooth muscle cell marker proteins. Extracellular matrix proteins, including fibronectin, can regulate the smooth muscle phenotype when used as adhesive substrates. However, cells produce and organize a 3-dimensional fibrillar extracellular matrix, which can affect cell behavior in distinct ways from the protomeric 2-dimensional matrix proteins that are used as adhesive substrates. We previously showed that the deposition/polymerization of fibronectin into the extracellular matrix can regulate the deposition and organization of other extracellular matrix molecules in vitro. Further, our published data show that the presence of a fibronectin polymerization inhibitor results in increased expression of smooth muscle cell differentiation proteins and inhibits vascular remodeling in vivo. In this manuscript, we used an in vitro cell culture system to determine the mechanism by which fibronectin polymerization affects smooth muscle phenotypic modulation. Our data show that fibronectin polymerization decreases the mRNA levels of multiple smooth muscle differentiation genes, and downregulates the levels of smooth muscle α-actin and calponin proteins by a Rac1-dependent mechanism. The expression of smooth muscle genes is transcriptionally regulated by fibronectin polymerization, as evidenced by the increased activity of luciferase reporter constructs in the presence of a fibronectin polymerization inhibitor. Fibronectin polymerization also promotes smooth muscle cell growth, and decreases the levels of actin stress fibers. These data define a Rac1-dependent pathway wherein

  11. Iron promotes protein insolubility and aging in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Klang, Ida M.; Schilling, Birgit; Sorensen, Dylan J.; Sahu, Alexandria K.; Kapahi, Pankaj; Andersen, Julie K.; Swoboda, Peter; Killilea, David W.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Lithgow, Gordon J.

    2014-01-01

    Many late-onset proteotoxic diseases are accompanied by a disruption in homeostasis of metals (metallostasis) including iron, copper and zinc. Although aging is the most prominent risk factor for these disorders, the impact of aging on metallostasis and its role in proteotoxic disease remain poorly understood. Moreover, it is not clear whether a loss of metallostasis influences normal aging. We have investigated the role of metallostasis in longevity of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that calcium, copper, iron, and manganese levels increase as a function of age, while potassium and phosphorus levels tend to decrease. Increased dietary iron significantly accelerated the age-related accumulation of insoluble protein, a molecular pathology of aging. Proteomic analysis revealed widespread effects of dietary iron in multiple organelles and tissues. Pharmacological interventions to block accumulation of specific metals attenuated many models of proteotoxicity and extended normal lifespan. Collectively, these results suggest that a loss of metallostasis with aging contributes to age-related protein aggregation. PMID:25554795

  12. Several different upstream promoter elements can potentiate transactivation by the BPV-1 E2 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Ham, J; Dostatni, N; Arnos, F; Yaniv, M

    1991-01-01

    The enhancer and upstream promoter regions of RNA polymerase II transcribed genes modulate the rate of transcription initiation and establish specific patterns of gene expression. Both types of region consist of clusters of DNA binding sites for nuclear proteins. To determine how efficiently the same factor can activate transcription when acting as an enhancer or promoter factor, we have studied transactivation by the BPV-1 E2 protein, a papillomavirus transcriptional regulator. By cotransfecting a BPV-1 E2 expression vector and a series of reporter plasmids containing well-defined chimeric promoters we have found that whilst E2 can strongly stimulate complex promoters such as that of the HSV tk gene, it does not efficiently activate constructions containing only a TATA box and initiation site. We show that insertion of upstream promoter elements, but not of spacer DNA, between E2 binding sites and the TATA box greatly increases E2 activation. This effect was observed with more than one type of upstream promoter element, is not related to the strength of the promoter and is unlikely to result from co-operative DNA binding by E2 and the transcription factors tested. These results would suggest that E2 has the properties of an enhancer rather than promoter factor and that in certain cases promoter and enhancer factors may affect different steps in the process of transcriptional activation. Images PMID:1655407

  13. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and tumor necrosis factor-alpha attenuate Clara cell secretory protein promoter function.

    PubMed

    Harrod, Kevin S; Jaramillo, Richard J

    2002-02-01

    The Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP, also CC-10/uterglobin) is a 16-kD homodimeric protein abundantly expressed in the airways of mammals. Although the molecular function is unknown, gene-targeting studies indicate CCSP as a regulator of lung inflammation following acute respiratory infection or injury. CCSP is decreased in the lungs of mice following acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) infection. In the present study, the role of decreased promoter function in the regulation of CCSP by P.a. was assessed using an in vitro co-culture system and in vivo studies of transgenic mice. CCSP promoter activity in lung epithelial cells was markedly decreased by P.a. or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in a dose-dependent manner. Regulation of CCSP promoter function by either P.a. or TNF-alpha was localized to the proximal 166 bp flanking region of the CCSP promoter activity. Decreased regulation of the CCSP promoter by P.a. or TNF-alpha was specific to CCSP, as human surfactant protein D (SP-D) promoter activity was unaffected or increased by P.a. or TNF-alpha, respectively. A neutralizing antibody against human TNF-alpha was able to reverse both the TNF-alpha- mediated as well as P.a.-mediated decrease in CCSP promoter function in lung epithelial cells. TNF-alpha secretion by lung epithelial cells coincided with the decrease in CCSP promoter function following P.a. administration. Using a transgenic mouse model, P.a. administration to the lung markedly attenuated CCSP promoter-conferred gene expression in vivo. The attenuation of CCSP promoter activity in lung epithelial cells by P.a. involves, in part, autocrine/paracrine secretion of TNF-alpha, which in turn regulates CCSP transcription through cis-active elements in the proximal promoter region.

  14. Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Hasan B.

    2013-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the promotion process in an academic medical center. A description of different promotional tracks, tenure and endowed chairs, and the process of submitting an application is provided. Finally, some practical advice about developing skills and attributes that can help with academic growth and promotion is dispensed. PMID:24436683

  15. The molecular chaperone Hsp70 promotes the proteolytic removal of oxidatively damaged proteins by the proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Reeg, Sandra; Jung, Tobias; Castro, José P.; Davies, Kelvin J.A.; Henze, Andrea; Grune, Tilman

    2016-01-01

    One hallmark of aging is the accumulation of protein aggregates, promoted by the unfolding of oxidized proteins. Unraveling the mechanism by which oxidized proteins are degraded may provide a basis to delay the early onset of features, such as protein aggregate formation, that contribute to the aging phenotype. In order to prevent aggregation of oxidized proteins, cells recur to the 20S proteasome, an efficient turnover proteolysis complex. It has previously been shown that upon oxidative stress the 26S proteasome, another form, dissociates into the 20S form. A critical player implicated in its dissociation is the Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70), which promotes an increase in free 20S proteasome and, therefore, an increased capability to degrade oxidized proteins. The aim of this study was to test whether or not Hsp70 is involved in cooperating with the 20S proteasome for a selective degradation of oxidatively damaged proteins. Our results demonstrate that Hsp70 expression is induced in HT22 cells as a result of mild oxidative stress conditions. Furthermore, Hsp70 prevents the accumulation of oxidized proteins and directly promotes their degradation by the 20S proteasome. In contrast the expression of the Heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) was not changed in recovery after oxidative stress and Hsc70 has no influence on the removal of oxidatively damaged proteins. We were able to demonstrate in HT22 cells, in brain homogenates from 129/SV mice and in vitro, that there is an increased interaction of Hsp70 with oxidized proteins, but also with the 20S proteasome, indicating a role of Hsp70 in mediating the interaction of oxidized proteins with the 20S proteasome. Thus, our data clearly implicate an involvement of Hsp70 oxidatively damaged protein degradation by the 20S proteasome. PMID:27498116

  16. Drosophila Golgi membrane protein Ema promotes autophagosomal growth and function.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungsu; Naylor, Sarah A; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2012-05-01

    Autophagy is a self-degradative process in which cellular material is enclosed within autophagosomes and trafficked to lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosomal biogenesis is well described; however mechanisms controlling the growth and ultimate size of autophagosomes are unclear. Here we demonstrate that the Drosophila membrane protein Ema is required for the growth of autophagosomes. In an ema mutant, autophagosomes form in response to starvation and developmental cues, and these autophagosomes can mature into autolysosomes; however the autophagosomes are very small, and autophagy is impaired. In fat body cells, Ema localizes to the Golgi complex and is recruited to the membrane of autophagosomes in response to starvation. The Drosophila Golgi protein Lva also is recruited to the periphery of autophagosomes in response to starvation, and this recruitment requires ema. Therefore, we propose that Golgi is a membrane source for autophagosomal growth and that Ema facilitates this process. Clec16A, the human ortholog of Ema, is a candidate autoimmune susceptibility locus. Expression of Clec16A can rescue the autophagosome size defect in the ema mutant, suggesting that regulation of autophagosome morphogenesis may be a fundamental function of this gene family.

  17. pH-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles to improve oral bioavailability of peptide/protein drugs and poorly water-soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Qiang

    2012-10-01

    pH-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles are promising for oral drug delivery, especially for peptide/protein drugs and poorly water-soluble medicines. This review describes current status of pH-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles for oral drug delivery and introduces the mechanisms of drug release from them as well as possible reasons for absorption improvement, with emphasis on our contribution to this field. pH-sensitive polymeric nanoparticles are prepared mainly with polyanions, polycations, their mixtures or cross-linked polymers. The mechanisms of drug release are the result of carriers' dissolution, swelling or both of them at specific pH. The possible reasons for improvement of oral bioavailability include the following: improve drug stability, enhance mucoadhesion, prolong resident time in GI tract, ameliorate intestinal permeability and increase saturation solubility and dissolution rate for poorly water-soluble drugs. As for the advantages of pH-sensitive nanoparticles over conventional nanoparticles, we conclude that (1) most carriers used are enteric-coating materials and their safety has been approved. (2) The rapid dissolution or swelling of carriers at specific pH results in quick drug release and high drug concentration gradient, which is helpful for absorption. (3) At the specific pH carriers dissolve or swell, and the bioadhesion of carriers to mucosa becomes high because nanoparticles turn from solid to gel, which can facilitate drug absorption.

  18. Characterization and protein-adsorption behavior of deposited organic thin film onto titanium by plasma polymerization with hexamethyldisiloxane.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Tohru; Yoshinari, Masao; Nemoto, Kimiya

    2004-01-01

    Plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) thin film was deposited onto titanium using a radio-frequency apparatus for the surface modification of titanium. A titanium disk was first polished using colloidal silica at pH=9.8. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO films were firmly attached to the titanium by heating the titanium to a temperature of approximately 250 degrees C. The thickness of the deposited film was 0.07-0.35mum after 10-60min of plasma polymerization. The contact angle with respect to double distilled water significantly increased after HMDSO coating. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the deposited thin film consisted of Si, C, and O atoms. No Ti peaks were observed on the deposited surface. The deposited HMDSO film was stable during 2-weeks immersion in phosphate buffer saline solution. Fourier transform reflection-absorption spectroscopy showed the formation of Si-H, Si-C, C-H, and Cz.dbnd6;O bonds in addition to Si-O-Si bonds. Quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation measurement demonstrated that the deposition of HMDSO thin films on titanium has a benefit for fibronectin adsorption at the early stage. In conclusion, plasma polymerization is a promising technique for the surface modification of titanium. HMDSO-coated titanium has potential application as a dental implant material.

  19. AmpA protein functions by different mechanisms to influence early cell type specification and to modulate cell adhesion and actin polymerization in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    PubMed

    Cost, Hoa N; Noratel, Elizabeth F; Blumberg, Daphne D

    2013-01-01

    The Dictyostelium discoideum ampA gene encodes a multifunctional regulator protein that modulates cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesions and actin polymerization during growth and is necessary for correct cell type specification and patterning during development. Insertional inactivation of the ampA gene results in defects that define two distinct roles for the ampA gene during development. AmpA is necessary in a non-cell autonomous manner to prevent premature expression of a prespore gene marker. It is also necessary in a cell autonomous manner for the anterior like cells, which express the ampA gene, to migrate to the upper cup during culmination. It is also necessary to prevent excessive cell-cell agglutination when cells are developed in a submerged suspension culture. Here, we demonstrate that a supernatant source of AmpA protein, added extracellularly, can prevent the premature mis-expression of the prespore marker. Synthetic oligopeptides are used to identify the domain of the AmpA protein that is important for preventing cells from mis-expressing the prespore gene. We further demonstrate that a factor capable of inducing additional cells to express the prespore gene marker accumulates extracellularly in the absence of AmpA protein. While the secreted AmpA acts extracellularly to suppress prespore gene expression, the effects of AmpA on cell agglutination and on actin polymerization in growing cells are not due to an extracellular role of secreted AmpA protein. Rather, these effects appear to reflect a distinct cell autonomous role of the ampA gene. Finally, we show that secretion of AmpA protein is brought about by elevating the levels of expression of ampA so that the protein accumulates to an excessive level.

  20. Transactivation of the parathyroid hormone promoter by specificity proteins and the nuclear factor Y complex.

    PubMed

    Alimov, Alexander P; Park-Sarge, Ok-Kyong; Sarge, Kevin D; Malluche, Hartmut H; Koszewski, Nicholas J

    2005-08-01

    We previously identified a highly conserved specificity protein 1 (Sp1) DNA element in mammalian PTH promoters that acted as an enhancer of gene transcription and bound Sp1 and Sp3 proteins present in parathyroid gland nuclear extracts. More recently, a nuclear factor (NF)-Y element (NF-Y(prox)) was also described by our group, which was located approximately 30 bp downstream from the Sp1 site in the human PTH (hPTH) promoter and by itself acted as a weak enhancer of gene transcription. We now report that Sp proteins and NF-Y can synergistically enhance transcription of a minimal hPTH promoter construct. Positioning of the Sp1 DNA element appears to be critical for this synergism because deviations of one half of a helical turn caused an approximate 60% decrease in transactivation. Finally, examination of the bovine PTH (bPTH) promoter also revealed Sp1/NF-Y synergism, in conjunction with the identification of an analogous NF-Y binding site similarly positioned downstream from the bPTH Sp1 element. In summary, synergistic transactivation of the hPTH and bPTH promoters is observed by Sp proteins and the NF-Y complex. The conservation of this transactivation in the human and bovine promoters suggests that this may be a principle means of enhancing PTH gene transcription.

  1. Correlation of MGMT promoter methylation status with gene and protein expression levels in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Miyuki; Oba-Shinjo, Sueli Mieko; Camargo, Anamaria Aranha; Moura, Ricardo Pereira; de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique; Cabrera, Hector Navarro; Begnami, Marcos; Rosemberg, Sérgio; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Marie, Suely Kazue Nagahashi

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: 1) To correlate the methylation status of the O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter to its gene and protein expression levels in glioblastoma and 2) to determine the most reliable method for using MGMT to predict the response to adjuvant therapy in patients with glioblastoma. BACKGROUND: The MGMT gene is epigenetically silenced by promoter hypermethylation in gliomas, and this modification has emerged as a relevant predictor of therapeutic response. METHODS: Fifty-one cases of glioblastoma were analyzed for MGMT promoter methylation by methylation-specific PCR and pyrosequencing, gene expression by real time polymerase chain reaction, and protein expression by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: MGMT promoter methylation was found in 43.1% of glioblastoma by methylation-specific PCR and 38.8% by pyrosequencing. A low level of MGMT gene expression was correlated with positive MGMT promoter methylation (p = 0.001). However, no correlation was found between promoter methylation and MGMT protein expression (p = 0.297). The mean survival time of glioblastoma patients submitted to adjuvant therapy was significantly higher among patients with MGMT promoter methylation (log rank = 0.025 by methylation-specific PCR and 0.004 by pyrosequencing), and methylation was an independent predictive factor that was associated with improved prognosis by multivariate analysis. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: MGMT promoter methylation status was a more reliable predictor of susceptibility to adjuvant therapy and prognosis of glioblastoma than were MGMT protein or gene expression levels. Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing methods were both sensitive methods for determining MGMT promoter methylation status using DNA extracted from frozen tissue. PMID:22012047

  2. Cytomegalovirus immediate early proteins promote stemness properties in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Soroceanu, Liliana; Matlaf, Lisa; Khan, Sabeena; Akhavan, Armin; Singer, Eric; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Decker, Stacy; Ghanny, Saleena; Hadaczek, Piotr; Bengtsson, Henrik; Ohlfest, John; Luciani-Torres, Maria-Gloria; Harkins, Lualhati; Perry, Arie; Guo, Hong; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Cobbs, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive human brain tumor. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early (IE) proteins that are endogenously expressed in GBM cells are strong viral transactivators with onconcogenic properties. Here, we show how HCMV IE are preferentially expressed in glioma stem-like cells (GSC), where they co-localize with the other GBM stemness markers, CD133, Nestin, and Sox2. In patient-derived GSC that are endogenously infected with HCMV, attenuating IE expression by an RNA-i-based strategy, was sufficient to inhibit tumorsphere formation, Sox2 expression, cell cycle progression, and cell survival. Conversely, HCMV infection of HMCV-negative GSC elicited robust self-renewal and proliferation of cells that could be partially reversed by IE attenuation. In HCMV-positive GSC, IE attenuation induced a molecular program characterized by enhanced expression of mesenchymal markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines, resembling the therapeutically-resistant GBM phenotype. Mechanistically, HCMV/IE regulation of Sox2 occurred via inhibition of miRNA-145, a negative regulator of Sox2 protein expression. In a spontaneous mouse model of glioma, ectopic expression of the IE1 gene (UL123) specifically increased Sox2 and Nestin levels in the IE1-positive tumors, upregulating stemness and proliferation markers in vivo. Similarly, human GSC infected with the HCMV strain Towne but not the IE1-deficient strain CR208 showed enhanced growth as tumorspheres and intracranial tumor xenografts, compared to mock-infected human GSC. Overall, our findings offer new mechanistic insights into how HCMV/IE control stemness properties in glioblastoma cells. PMID:26239477

  3. Zwitterionic sulfobetaine-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane surface with stably anti-protein-fouling performance via a two-step surface polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Bi, Qiu-Yan; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Lin

    2012-03-01

    A zwitterionic polymer, poly(3-(methacryloylamino) propyl-dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide) (poly(MPDSAH)) was successfully grafted in high density from the surface of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fiber membrane via a two-step polymerization. Poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (poly(HEMA)) chains were firstly grafted from outside surface of PVDF membrane through atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) to provide the initiation sites for subsequent cerium (Ce (IV))-induced graft copolymerization of polyMPDSAH in the presence of N,N'-ethylene bisacrylamide (EBAA) as a cross-linking agent. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed that the EBAA could stimulate zwitterionic polymers grafting onto the membrane surface. The dense poly(MPDSAH) layers on the PVDF membrane surface were revealed by the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mechanical property of PVDF membrane was improved by the zwitterionic surface layers. The gravimetry results indicated the grafting amount increased to 520 μg/cm2 for a copolymerization time of more than 3 h. Static and dynamic water contact angle measurements showed that the surface hydrophilicity of the PVDF membranes was significantly enhanced. As the grafting amount reached 513 μg cm-2, the value of contact angle dropped to 22.1° and the amount of protein adsorption decreased to zero. The cyclic experiments for BSA solution filtration demonstrated that the extent of protein fouling was significantly reduced and most of the fouling was reversible. The grafted polymer layer on the PVDF membrane showed a good stability during the membrane cleaning process. The experimental results concluded a good prospect in obtaining the sulfobetaine-modified PVDF membranes with high mechanical strength, good anti-protein-fouling performance, and long-term stability via the two-step polymerization.

  4. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors.

  5. Facile preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid polymeric ionic liquid monolithic column with a one-pot process for protein separation in capillary electrochromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cuicui; Deng, Qiliang; Fang, Guozhen; Feng, Xue; Qian, Hailong; Wang, Shuo

    2014-11-01

    An organic-inorganic hybrid monolithic column based on 1-vinyl-3-dodecylimidazolium bromide (VC12Im(+)Br(-)) has been prepared in a single step by combining radical copolymerization with a non-hydrolytic sol-gel (NHSG) process. The NHSG process was significantly shortened to 6 h by using formic acid as catalyst. For comparison, we also prepared polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) monolithic columns by hydrolytic sol-gel and organic polymeric process, respectively. The resulting monolithic columns were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. Under the capillary electrochromatography mode, these columns were applied to separate alkylbenzenes, anilines, and proteins, respectively. The results indicated that the NHSG-based hybrid PIL monolithic column exhibited the highest column efficiency among the three types of columns; organic solvent, commonly required by the traditional columns to achieve satisfactory separation efficiency for proteins, was absent in the NHSG-based hybrid PIL monolithic column because of the biocompatibility of the VC12Im(+)Br(-), which was beneficial to analysis of protein containing samples. In order to demonstrate its application potential, the developed NHSG-based hybrid PIL monolithic column was also employed to separate egg white sample.

  6. Use of the arabinose p(bad) promoter for tightly regulated display of proteins on bacteriophage.

    PubMed

    Huang, W; McKevitt, M; Palzkill, T

    2000-06-27

    Phage display is a widely used method to optimize the binding characteristics of protein-ligand interactions. In addition, it has been used to clone genes from genomic and cDNA libraries based on their ligand-binding characteristics. One difficulty often encountered when expressing heterologous proteins by phage display is the toxicity of the protein on the Escherichia coli host. Previous studies have shown that heterologous protein expression can be tightly controlled using plasmids with the P(BAD) promoter of the arabinose operon of E. coli, and the araC gene, which is both a positive and negative regulator of the promoter. We constructed a set of phage display vectors that utilize the P(BAD) promoter to control the expression of proteins on the surface of the M13 bacteriophage. These vectors exhibit tightly controlled expression of proteins on the surface of the phage. In addition, the amount of protein displayed on the phage is modulated by the amount of arabinose present in the growth medium during phage propagation. This may be useful for altering the stringency of binding enrichment during phage display.

  7. The human cut homeodomain protein represses transcription from the c-myc promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Dufort, D; Nepveu, A

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the c-myc promoter have shown that efficient transcription initiation at the P2 start site as well as the block to elongation of transcription require the presence of the ME1a1 protein binding site upstream of the P2 TATA box. Following fractionation by size exclusion chromatography, three protein-ME1a1 DNA complexes, a, b, and c, were detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. A cDNA encoding a protein present in complex c was isolated by screening of an expression library with an ME1a1 DNA probe. This cDNA was found to encode the human homolog of the Drosophila Cut homeodomain protein. The bacterially expressed human Cut (hu-Cut) protein bound to the ME1a1 site, and antibodies against hu-Cut inhibited the ME1a1 binding activity c in nuclear extracts. In cotransfection experiments, the hu-Cut protein repressed transcription from the c-myc promoter, and this repression was shown to be dependent on the presence of the ME1a1 site. Using a reporter construct with a heterologous promoter, we found that c-myc exon 1 sequences were also necessary, in addition to the ME1a1 site, for repression by Cut. Taken together, these results suggest that the human homolog of the Drosophila Cut homeodomain protein is involved in regulation of the c-myc gene. Images PMID:8196661

  8. P5-type sulfhydryl oxidoreductase promotes the sorting of proteins to protein body I in rice endosperm cells

    PubMed Central

    Onda, Yayoi; Kawagoe, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    In rice (Oryza sativa) endosperm cells, oxidative protein folding is necessary for the sorting of storage proteins to protein bodies, PB-I and PB-II. Here we examined the role of sulfhydryl oxidoreductase PDIL2;3 (a human P5 ortholog) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), using GFP-AB, a PB-I marker in which the N-terminal region (AB) of α-globulin is fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). RNAi knockdown of PDIL2;3 inhibited the accumulation of GFP-AB in PB-I and promoted its exit from the ER. We discuss the role of PDIL2;3 in retaining proteins within the ER and specifying their localization to PB-I through disulfide bond formation. PMID:23299424

  9. Influence of casein on flux and passage of serum proteins during microfiltration using polymeric spiral-wound membranes at 50°C.

    PubMed

    Zulewska, Justyna; Barbano, David M

    2013-04-01

    Raw milk (approximately 1,800 kg) was separated at 4°C, pasteurized (at 72°C for 16s), and split into 2 batches. One batch (620 kg) was microfiltered (MF) using pilot-scale ceramic uniform transmembrane pressure Membralox membranes (model EP1940GL0.1 μA, 0.1-μm alumina; Pall Corp., East Hills, NY) to produce retentate and permeate. The permeate from the MF uniform transmembrane pressure was casein-free skim milk (CFSM). The CFSM was MF using polymeric spiral-wound (SW) membranes (model FG7838-OS0x-S, 0.3 μm; Parker-Hannifin Corp., Process Advanced Filtration Division, Tell City, IN) at a concentration factor of 3× and temperature of 50°C. Following the processing of CFSM, the second batch of skim milk (1,105 kg) was processed using the same polymeric membranes to determine how casein content in the feed material for MF with polymeric membranes affects the performance of the system. There was little resistance to passage of milk serum proteins (SP) through a 0.3-μm polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) SW membrane at 50°C and no detectable increase in hydraulic resistance of the membrane when processing CFSM. Therefore, milk SP contributed little, if any, to fouling of the PVDF membrane. In contrast, when processing skim milk containing a normal concentration of casein, the flux was much lower than when processing CFSM (17.2 vs. 80.2 kg/m(2) per hour, respectively) and the removal of SP from skim milk with a single-pass 3× bleed-and-feed MF system was also much lower than from CFSM (35.2 vs. 59.5% removal, respectively). Thus, when processing skim milk with a PVDF SW membrane, casein was the major protein foulant that increased hydraulic resistance and reduced passage of SP through the membrane.

  10. Preparation of a thick polymer brush layer composed of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization and analysis of protein adsorption resistance.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuuki; Onodera, Yuya; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a thick polymer brush layer composed of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)) and assess its resistance to protein adsorption from the dissolved state of poly(MPC) chains in an aqueous condition. The thick poly(MPC) brush layer was prepared through the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of MPC with a free initiator from an initiator-immobilized substrate at given [Monomer]/[Free initiator] ratios. The ellipsometric thickness of the poly(MPC) brush layers could be controlled by the polymerization degree of the poly(MPC) chains. The thickness of the poly(MPC) brush layer in an aqueous medium was larger than that in air, and this tendency became clearer when the polymerization degree of the poly(MPC) increased. The maximum thickness of the poly(MPC) brush layer in an aqueous medium was around 110 nm. The static air contact angle of the poly(MPC) brush layer in water indicated a reasonably hydrophilic nature, which was independent of the thickness of the poly(MPC) brush layer at the surface. This result occurred because the hydrated state of the poly(MPC) chains is not influenced by the environment surrounding them. Finally, as measured with a quartz crystal microbalance, the amount of protein adsorbed from a fetal bovine serum solution (10% in phosphate-buffered saline) on the original substrate was 420 ng/cm(2). However, the poly(MPC) brush layer reduced this value dramatically to less than 50 ng/cm(2). This effect was independent of the thickness of the poly(MPC) brush layer for thicknesses between 20 nm and about 110 nm. These results indicated that the surface covered with a poly(MPC) brush layer is a promising platform to avoid biofouling and could also be applied to analyze the reactions of biological molecules with a high signal/noise ratio.

  11. Surface density of the Hendra G protein modulates Hendra F protein-promoted membrane fusion: Role for Hendra G protein trafficking and degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Whitman, Shannon D.; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis . E-mail: rdutc2@uky.edu

    2007-07-05

    Hendra virus, like most paramyxoviruses, requires both a fusion (F) and attachment (G) protein for promotion of cell-cell fusion. Recent studies determined that Hendra F is proteolytically processed by the cellular protease cathepsin L after endocytosis. This unique cathepsin L processing results in a small percentage of Hendra F on the cell surface. To determine how the surface densities of the two Hendra glycoproteins affect fusion promotion, we performed experiments that varied the levels of glycoproteins expressed in transfected cells. Using two different fusion assays, we found a marked increase in fusion when expression of the Hendra G protein was increased, with a 1:1 molar ratio of Hendra F:G on the cell surface resulting in optimal membrane fusion. Our results also showed that Hendra G protein levels are modulated by both more rapid protein turnover and slower protein trafficking than is seen for Hendra F.

  12. Water promotes the sealing of nanoscale packing defects in folding proteins.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel

    2014-05-21

    A net dipole moment is shown to arise from a non-Debye component of water polarization created by nanoscale packing defects on the protein surface. Accordingly, the protein electrostatic field exerts a torque on the induced dipole, locally impeding the nucleation of ice at the protein-water interface. We evaluate the solvent orientation steering (SOS) as the reversible work needed to align the induced dipoles with the Debye electrostatic field and computed the SOS for the variable interface of a folding protein. The minimization of the SOS is shown to drive protein folding as evidenced by the entrainment of the total free energy by the SOS energy along trajectories that approach a Debye limit state where no torque arises. This result suggests that the minimization of anomalous water polarization at the interface promotes the sealing of packing defects, thereby maintaining structural integrity and committing the protein chain to fold.

  13. Promoter methylation of yes-associated protein (YAP1) gene in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li-Le; Xie, Juan-Ke; Cui, Jin-Quan; Wei, Duo; Yin, Bao-Li; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Yuan-Hui; Han, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Cui-Lian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: DNA methylation modification has been proved to influence the phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) demonstrate that yes-associated protein (YAP1) genetic sites are associated with PCOS. The study aims to detect the methylation status of YAP1 promoter in ovary granulosa cells (GCs) of PCOS patients and explore novel therapeutic targets for PCOS. Methods: Randomized controlled trial was applied and a total of 72 women were included in the study, including 36 cases of PCOS patients and 36 cases of health controls. Ovary GCs were extracted from in vitro fertilization embryo transfer. Methylation status of YAP1 promoter was detected by bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP). Protein and mRNA expression of YAP1 were measured by western blotting and real-time quantitate PCR. Results: Overall methylation level of YAP1 promoter region from PCOS group was significantly lower than that from control group. CpG sites analysis revealed that 12 sites (−443, −431, −403, −371, −331, −120, −49, −5, +1, +9, +15, +22) were significantly hypomethylated in women with PCOS (P < 0.05). A significant upregulation of YAP1 mRNA and protein expression levels was observed. Testosterone concentration could alleviate the methylation status and demonstrate obvious dose–dependent relation. Conclusion: Our research achievements manifest that hypomethylation of YAP1 promoter promotes the YAP1 expression, which plays a key role in the pathogenesis and accelerate PCOS. PMID:28079802

  14. NSs protein of rift valley fever virus promotes posttranslational downregulation of the TFIIH subunit p62.

    PubMed

    Kalveram, Birte; Lihoradova, Olga; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2011-07-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus) is an important emerging pathogen of humans and ruminants. Its NSs protein has previously been identified as a major virulence factor that suppresses host defense through three distinct mechanisms: it directly inhibits beta interferon (IFN-β) promoter activity, it promotes the degradation of double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), and it suppresses host transcription by disrupting the assembly of the basal transcription factor TFIIH through sequestration of its p44 subunit. Here, we report that in addition to PKR, NSs also promotes the degradation of the TFIIH subunit p62. Infection of cells with the RVFV MP-12 vaccine strain reduced p62 protein levels to below the detection limit early in the course of infection. This NSs-mediated downregulation of p62 was posttranslational, as it was unaffected by pharmacological inhibition of transcription or translation and MP-12 infection had no effect on p62 mRNA levels. Treatment of cells with proteasome inhibitors but not inhibition of lysosomal acidification or nuclear export resulted in a stabilization of p62 in the presence of NSs. Furthermore, p62 could be coprecipitated with NSs from lysates of infected cells. These data suggest that the RVFV NSs protein is able to interact with the TFIIH subunit p62 inside infected cells and promotes its degradation, which can occur directly in the nucleus.

  15. Discovery of a super-strong promoter enables efficient production of heterologous proteins in cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Haifeng; Meng, Hengkai; Zhu, Yan; Bao, Guanhui; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-03-28

    Cyanobacteria are oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes that play important roles in the global carbon cycle. Recently, engineered cyanobacteria capable of producing various small molecules from CO2 have been developed. However, cyanobacteria are seldom considered as factories for producing proteins, mainly because of the lack of efficient strong promoters. Here, we report the discovery and verification of a super-strong promoter P(cpc560), which contains two predicted promoters and 14 predicted transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). Using P(cpc560), functional proteins were produced at a level of up to 15% of total soluble protein in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. 6803, a level comparable to that produced in Escherichia coli. We demonstrated that the presence of multiple TFBSs in P(cpc560) is crucial for its promoter strength. Genetically transformable cyanobacteria neither have endotoxins nor form inclusion bodies; therefore, P(cpc560) opens the possibility to use cyanobacteria as alternative hosts for producing heterogeneous proteins from CO2 and inorganic nutrients.

  16. An OmpA-Like Protein from Acinetobacter spp. Stimulates Gastrin and Interleukin-8 Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Ofori-Darko, Ernest; Zavros, Yana; Rieder, Gabriele; Tarlé, Susan A.; Van Antwerp, Mary; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2000-01-01

    Bacterial overgrowth in the stomach may occur under conditions of diminished or absent acid secretion. Under these conditions, secretion of the hormone gastrin is elevated. Alternatively, bacterial factors may directly stimulate gastrin. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that mice colonized for 2 months with a mixed bacterial culture of opportunistic pathogens showed an increase in serum gastrin. To examine regulation of gene expression by bacterial proteins, stable transformants of AGS cells expressing gastrin or interleukin-8 (IL-8) promoters were cocultured with live organisms. Both whole-cell sonicates and a heat-stable fraction were also coincubated with the cells. A level of 108 organisms per ml stimulated both the gastrin and IL-8 promoters. Heat-stable proteins prepared from these bacterial sonicates stimulated the promoter significantly more than the live organism or unheated sonicates. A 38-kDa heat-stable protein stimulating the gastrin and IL-8 promoters was cloned and found to be an OmpA-related protein. Immunoblotting using antibody to the OmpA-like protein identified an Acinetobacter sp. as the bacterial species that expressed this protein and colonized the mouse stomach. Moreover, reintubation of mice with a pure culture of the Acinetobacter sp. caused gastritis. We conclude that bacterial colonization of the stomach may increase serum gastrin levels in part through the ability of the bacteria to produce OmpA-like proteins that directly stimulate gastrin and IL-8 gene expression. These results implicate OmpA-secreting bacteria in the activation of gastrin gene expression and raise the possibility that a variety of organisms may contribute to the increase in serum gastrin and subsequent epithelial cell proliferation in the hypochlorhydric stomach. PMID:10816525

  17. Identification of a novel DNA-binding protein to osmotin promoter.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Ling, J; Li, D; Hasegawa, P M; Bressan, R A

    1998-12-01

    One novel osmotin promoter, binding-protein (OPBP1) gene, was isolated from salt-adapted tobacco suspension cells using yeast one-hybrid system. The OPBP1 interacted specifically in vivo with FA, a DNA sequence from the 5 upstream region of osmotin gene, which was essential for osmotin responsiveness. The deduced amino acid sequence of OPBP1 contained a conserved motif of a new gene family, AP2 family. This protein did not contain the typical motif found in the most known DNA-binding proteins and transcription factors.

  18. G-Protein Signaling Protein-17 (RGS17) is Upregulated and Promotes Tumor Growth and Migration in Human Colorectal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Luo, He-Sheng

    2017-03-23

    Colorectal carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths and has a high tendency for metastasis, which makes it a priority to find novel methods to diagnose and treat colorectal carcinoma in the very early stage. Herein, we studied the role of regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) family protein RGS17 in colorectal carcinoma growth and metastasis. We found that RGS17 was upregulated in both clinical colorectal carcinoma tissues and cultured colorectal carcinoma cells. Knockdown of RGS17 by specific siRNA decreased, whereas overexpression of RGS17 with expression plasmid increased cell proliferation rate in cultured cells. Consistently, a mouse model of colorectal carcinoma also showed that depletion of RGS17 significantly inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, transwell assay showed that RGS17 promoted colorectal carcinoma cell migration and invasion abilities. These data suggest that RGS17 is overexpressed in colorectal carcinoma and promotes cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

  19. Stimulation of basal transcription from the mouse mammary tumor virus promoter by Oct proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, M H; Peterson, D O

    1995-01-01

    The steroid hormone-inducible promoter of mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) contains three overlapping sequences related to the consensus octamer motif ATGCAAAT. Basal promoter activity in the absence of hormone induction from a template in which all three octamer elements were mutated was decreased by two-to threefold in in vitro transcription assays. Oct-1 protein purified from HeLa cell nuclear extracts, as well as recombinant Oct-1 expressed in bacteria, recognized MMTV octamer-related sequences, as shown by DNase I footprinting. Furthermore, rabbit polyclonal antiserum directed against recombinant Oct-1 completely inhibited the formation of specific complexes between MMTV octamer-related sequences and proteins present in nuclear extracts of HeLa cells, indicating that Oct-1 is the major protein in HeLa nuclear extracts that recognizes octamer-related sequences in the MMTV promoter. In addition, depletion of Oct-1 from the nuclear extract by using Oct-1-specific antiserum or a sequence-specific DNA affinity resin decreased in vitro transcription from the wild-type MMTV promoter to a level identical to that obtained from a promoter in which all three octamer-related sequences were mutated. Addition of purified HeLa Oct-1 or recombinant Oct-1 to the depleted extract selectively increased transcription from the wild-type relative to the mutated promoter, demonstrating that Oct-1 transcription factor stimulates basal transcription from the MMTV promoter. A similar effect was observed when purified recombinant Oct-2 was added to the Oct-1-depleted extract, suggesting that Oct-2 may play an important role in MMTV transcription in B cells. PMID:7609037

  20. Microfilament regulatory protein MENA increases activity of RhoA and promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Yang, Xiao-Mei; Li, Jun; Zhang, Yan-Li; Qin, Wenxin; Zhang, Zhi-Gang

    2014-09-10

    Mammalian enabled (MENA), usually known as a direct regulator of microfilament polymerization and bundling, promotes metastasis in various cancers. Here we focus on the role of MENA in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis and the relevant mechanism from the view of RhoA activity regulation. By HCC tissue microarray analysis, we found that MENA expression was positively associated with satellite lesions (P<0.01) and vascular invasion (P<0.01). Cases with membrane reinforcement of MENA staining in HCC tissues had significantly higher rates of early recurrence in the intermediate MENA expression group. Knockdown of MENA significantly suppressed HCC cell migration and invasion in vitro, as well as their intrahepatic and distant metastasis in vivo. Knockdown of MENA also decreased filopodia and stress fibers in SMMC-7721 cells. Furthermore, a decrease of RhoA activity was detected by a pull-down assay in SMMC-7721-shMENA cells. The ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632, suppressed migration of both MENA knockdown SMMC-7721 cells and control cells, but diminished their difference. Thus, our findings suggest that MENA promotes HCC cell motility by activating RhoA.

  1. Isolation and characterization of oil palm constitutive promoter derived from ubiquitin extension protein (uep1) gene.

    PubMed

    Masura, Subhi Siti; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Ismail, Ismanizan

    2010-09-30

    The ubiquitin extension protein (uep1) gene was identified as a constitutively expressed gene in oil palm. We have isolated and characterized the 5' region of the oil palm uep1 gene, which contains an 828 bp sequence upstream of the uep1 translational start site. Construction of a pUEP1 transformation vector, which contains gusA reporter gene under the control of uep1 promoter, was carried out for functional analysis of the promoter through transient expression studies. It was found that the 5' region of uep1 functions as a constitutive promoter in oil palm and could drive GUS expression in all tissues tested, including embryogenic calli, embryoid, immature embryo, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and meristematic tissues (shoot tip). This promoter could also be used in dicot systems as it was demonstrated to be capable of driving gusA gene expression in tobacco.

  2. Platelet interaction with polymerizing fibrin.

    PubMed

    Niewiarowski, S; Regoeczi, E; Stewart, G J; Senyl, A F; Mustard, J F

    1972-03-01

    Interaction of washed pig, rabbit, or human platelets with fibrinogen was studied during its transition to fibrin using photometric, isotopic, and electron microscopic techniques. Untreated fibrinogen and fully polymerized fibrin had no detectable effect on platelets. Fibrinogen, incubated with low concentrations of reptilase or thrombin, formed intermediate products which readily became associated with platelets and caused their aggregation. Neutralization of the thrombin did not prevent this interaction. In the absence of fibrinogen, reptilase did not affect platelets. The interaction of polymerizing fibrin with platelets was accompanied by small losses of platelet constituents (serotonin, adenine nucleotides, platelet factor 4, and lactic dehydrogenase). This loss did not appear to be the result of the platelet release reaction. Inhibitors of the release reaction or of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation did not prevent the interaction of platelets with polymerizing fibrin. Apyrase or prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) reduced the extent of platelet aggregation by polymerizing fibrin, but the amount of protein associated with platelets was slightly increased. The interaction of polymerizing fibrin with platelets was completely inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) or ethylene glycol bis (beta-aminoethyl ether) N, N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA).Fibers formed in solutions of polymerizing fibrin were larger in the presence than in the absence of washed platelets, suggesting that platelets affect fibrin polymerization. The adherence of platelets to polymerizing fibrin may be responsible for the establishment of links between platelets and fibrin in hemostatic plugs and thrombi.

  3. Uniform accumulation of recombinant miraculin protein in transgenic tomato fruit using a fruit-ripening-specific E8 promoter.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Tadayoshi; Kim, You-Wang; Kato, Kazuhisa; Hiwasa-Tanase, Kyoko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    The E8 promoter, a tomato fruit-ripening-specific promoter, and the CaMV 35S promoter, a constitutive promoter, were used to express the miraculin gene encoding the taste-modifying protein in tomato. The accumulation of miraculin protein and mRNA was compared among transgenic tomatoes expressing the miraculin gene driven by these promoters. Recombinant miraculin protein predominantly accumulated in transgenic tomato lines using the E8 promoter (E8-MIR) only at the red fruit stage. The accumulations were almost uniform among all fruit tissues. When the 35S promoter (35S-MIR) was used, miraculin accumulation in the exocarp was much higher than in other tissues, indicating that the miraculin accumulation pattern can be regulated by using different types of promoters. We also discuss the potential of the E8-MIR lines for practical use.

  4. Pineapple translation factor SUI1 and ribosomal protein L36 promoters drive constitutive transgene expression patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Koia, Jonni; Moyle, Richard; Hendry, Caroline; Lim, Lionel; Botella, José Ramón

    2013-03-01

    The availability of a variety of promoter sequences is necessary for the genetic engineering of plants, in basic research studies and for the development of transgenic crops. In this study, the promoter and 5' untranslated regions of the evolutionally conserved protein translation factor SUI1 gene and ribosomal protein L36 gene were isolated from pineapple and sequenced. Each promoter was translationally fused to the GUS reporter gene and transformed into the heterologous plant system Arabidopsis thaliana. Both the pineapple SUI1 and L36 promoters drove GUS expression in all tissues of Arabidopsis at levels comparable to the CaMV35S promoter. Transient assays determined that the pineapple SUI1 promoter also drove GUS expression in a variety of climacteric and non-climacteric fruit species. Thus the pineapple SUI1 and L36 promoters demonstrate the potential for using translation factor and ribosomal protein genes as a source of promoter sequences that can drive constitutive transgene expression patterns.

  5. Neural regeneration protein is a novel chemoattractive and neuronal survival-promoting factor

    SciTech Connect

    Gorba, Thorsten; Bradoo, Privahini; Antonic, Ana; Marvin, Keith; Liu, Dong-Xu; Lobie, Peter E.; Reymann, Klaus G.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Sieg, Frank . E-mail: fsieg@neurenpharma.com

    2006-10-01

    Neurogenesis and neuronal migration are the prerequisites for the development of the central nervous system. We have identified a novel rodent gene encoding for a neural regeneration protein (NRP) with an activity spectrum similar to the chemokine stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1, but with much greater potency. The Nrp gene is encoded as a forward frameshift to the hypothetical alkylated DNA repair protein AlkB. The predicted protein sequence of NRP contains domains with homology to survival-promoting peptide (SPP) and the trefoil protein TFF-1. The Nrp gene is first expressed in neural stem cells and expression continues in glial lineages. Recombinant NRP and NRP-derived peptides possess biological activities including induction of neural migration and proliferation, promotion of neuronal survival, enhancement of neurite outgrowth and promotion of neuronal differentiation from neural stem cells. NRP exerts its effect on neuronal survival by phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 and Akt kinases, whereas NRP stimulation of neural migration depends solely on p44/42 MAP kinase activity. Taken together, the expression profile of Nrp, the existence in its predicted protein structure of domains with similarities to known neuroprotective and migration-inducing factors and the high potency of NRP-derived synthetic peptides acting in femtomolar concentrations suggest it to be a novel gene of relevance in cellular and developmental neurobiology.

  6. Activation of Hsp70 reduces neurotoxicity by promoting polyglutamine protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Adrienne M; Miyata, Yoshinari; Klinedinst, Susan; Peng, Hwei-Ming; Chua, Jason P; Komiyama, Tomoko; Li, Xiaokai; Morishima, Yoshihiro; Merry, Diane E; Pratt, William B; Osawa, Yoichi; Collins, Catherine A; Gestwicki, Jason E; Lieberman, Andrew P

    2013-02-01

    We sought new strategies to reduce amounts of the polyglutamine androgen receptor (polyQ AR) and achieve benefits in models of spinobulbar muscular atrophy, a protein aggregation neurodegenerative disorder. Proteostasis of the polyQ AR is controlled by the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90)- and Hsp70-based chaperone machinery, but mechanisms regulating the protein's turnover are incompletely understood. We demonstrate that overexpression of Hsp70 interacting protein (Hip), a co-chaperone that enhances binding of Hsp70 to its substrates, promotes client protein ubiquitination and polyQ AR clearance. Furthermore, we identify a small molecule that acts similarly to Hip by allosterically promoting Hsp70 binding to unfolded substrates. Like Hip, this synthetic co-chaperone enhances client protein ubiquitination and polyQ AR degradation. Both genetic and pharmacologic approaches targeting Hsp70 alleviate toxicity in a Drosophila model of spinobulbar muscular atrophy. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of allosteric regulators of Hsp70 and provide new insights into the role of the chaperone machinery in protein quality control.

  7. Tobacco arabinogalactan protein NtEPc can promote banana (Musa AAA) somatic embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shu, H; Xu, L; Li, Z; Li, J; Jin, Z; Chang, S

    2014-12-01

    Banana is an important tropical fruit worldwide. Parthenocarpy and female sterility made it impossible to improve banana varieties through common hybridization. Genetic transformation for banana improvement is imperative. But the low rate that banana embryogenic callus was induced made the transformation cannot be performed in many laboratories. Finding ways to promote banana somatic embryogenesis is critical for banana genetic transformation. After tobacco arabinogalactan protein gene NtEPc was transformed into Escherichia coli (DE3), the recombinant protein was purified and filter-sterilized. A series of the sterilized protein was added into tissue culture medium. It was found that the number of banana immature male flowers developing embryogenic calli increased significantly in the presence of NtEPc protein compared with the effect of the control medium. Among the treatments, explants cultured on medium containing 10 mg/l of NtEPc protein had the highest chance to develop embryogenic calli. The percentage of lines that developed embryogenic calli on this medium was about 12.5 %. These demonstrated that NtEPc protein can be used to promote banana embryogenesis. This is the first paper that reported that foreign arabinogalactan protein (AGP) could be used to improve banana somatic embryogenesis.

  8. The innate immune protein calprotectin promotes Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wakeman, Catherine A.; Moore, Jessica L.; Noto, Michael J.; Zhang, Yaofang; Singleton, Marc D.; Prentice, Boone M.; Gilston, Benjamin A.; Doster, Ryan S.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Chazin, Walter J.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Skaar, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms form biofilms containing differentiated cell populations. To determine factors driving differentiation, we herein visualize protein and metal distributions within Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms using imaging mass spectrometry. These in vitro experiments reveal correlations between differential protein distribution and metal abundance. Notably, zinc- and manganese-depleted portions of the biofilm repress the production of anti-staphylococcal molecules. Exposure to calprotectin (a host protein known to sequester metal ions at infectious foci) recapitulates responses occurring within metal-deplete portions of the biofilm and promotes interaction between P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Consistent with these results, the presence of calprotectin promotes co-colonization of the murine lung, and polymicrobial communities are found to co-exist in calprotectin-enriched airspaces of a cystic fibrosis lung explant. These findings, which demonstrate that metal fluctuations are a driving force of microbial community structure, have clinical implications because of the frequent occurrence of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus co-infections. PMID:27301800

  9. Evaluation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter for protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, K Michael; DaSilva, Nancy A

    2005-04-30

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 promoter (P(ADH2)) is repressed several hundred-fold in the presence of glucose; transcription is initiated once the glucose in the medium is exhausted. The promoter can thus be utilized for effective regulation of recombinant gene expression in S. cerevisiae without the addition of an inducer. To evaluate this promoter in the absence of plasmid copy number and stability variations, the P(ADH2)-lacZ cassette was integrated into the yeast chromosomes. The effects of medium composition, glucose concentration and cultivation time on promoter derepression and expression level were investigated. Maximum protein activity was obtained after 48 h of growth in complex YPD medium containing 1% glucose. The widely used S. cerevisiae GAL1 and CUP1 promoters both require the addition of an inducer [galactose and copper(II) ion, respectively] before regulated genes will be expressed. The strengths of these three different promoters were compared for cells containing one copy of an integrated lacZ gene under their control. The ADH2 promoter was superior for all induction strategies investigated.

  10. Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol)acrylamide) brushes by surface initiated polymerization: effect of macromonomer chain length on brush growth and protein adsorption from blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Janzen, Johan; Le, Yevgeniya; Kainthan, Rajesh K; Brooks, Donald E

    2009-04-09

    Three hydrolytically stable polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-based N-substituted acrylamide macromonomers, methoxypolyethyleneglycol (350) acrylamide (MPEG350Am) methoxypolyethyleneglycol (750) acrylamide(MPEG750Am) and methoxypolyethyleneglycol (2000)acrylamide (MPEG2000Am) with increasing PEG chain length were synthesized. Surface-initiated aqueous atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using CuCl/1,1,4,7,10,10-hexamethyl triethylene tetramine (HMTETA) catalyst was utilized to generate dense polymer brushes from these monomers via an ester linker group on the surface of model polystyrene (PS) particles. The molecular weight, hydrodynamic thickness, and graft densities of the grafted polymer layers were controlled by changing the reaction parameters of monomer concentration, addition of Cu(II)Cl2, and sodium chloride. The graft densities of surface-grafted brushes decreased with increasing PEG macromonomer chain length, 350 > 750 > 2000, under similar experimental conditions. The molecular weight of grafts increased with increase in monomer concentration, and only selected conditions produced narrow distributed polymer chains. The molecular weight of grafted polymer chains differs significantly to those formed in solution. The hydrodynamic thicknesses of the grafted polymer layers were fitted to the Daoud and Cotton model (DCM) for brush height on spherical surfaces. The results show that the size of the pendent groups on the polymer chains has a profound effect on the hydrodynamic thickness of the brush for a given degree of polymerization. The new PEG-based surfaces show good protection against nonspecific protein adsorption from blood plasma compared to the bare surface. Protein adsorption decreased with increasing surface density of grafted polymer chains. Poly(MPEG750Am) brushes were more effective in preventing protein adsorption than poly(MPEG350Am) even at low graft densities, presumably due to the increase in PEG content in the grafted layer.

  11. Differential expression and ligand binding indicate alternative functions for zebrafish polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) and a family of pIgR-like (PIGRL) proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kortum, Amanda N.; Rodriguez-Nunez, Ivan; Yang, Jibing; Shim, Juyoung; Runft, Donna; O’Driscoll, Marci L; Haire, Robert N.; Cannon, John P.; Turner, Poem M.; Litman, Ronda T.; Kim, Carol H.; Neely, Melody N.; Litman, Gary W.; Yoder, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    The polymeric immunoglobulin (Ig) receptor (pIgR) is an integral transmembrane glycoprotein that plays an important role in the mammalian immune response by transporting soluble polymeric Igs across mucosal epithelial cells. Single pIgR genes, which are expressed in lymphoid organs including mucosal tissues, have been identified in several teleost species. A single pigr gene has been identified on zebrafish chromosome 2 along with a large multigene family consisting of 29 pigr-like (PIGRL) genes. Full length transcripts from 10 different PIGRL genes that encode secreted and putative inhibitory membrane bound receptors have been characterized. Although PIGRL and pigr transcripts are detected in immune tissues, only PIGRL transcripts can be detected in lymphoid and myeloid cells. In contrast to pIgR which binds Igs, certain PIGRL proteins bind phospholipids. PIGRL transcript levels are increased after infection with Streptococcus iniae, suggesting a role for PIGRL genes during bacterial challenge. Transcript levels of PIGRL genes are decreased after infection with Snakehead rhabdovirus, suggesting that viral infection may suppress PIGRL function. PMID:24469064

  12. Role of Ingested Amino Acids and Protein in the Promotion of Resistance Exercise–Induced Muscle Protein Anabolism123

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Blake B

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this critical review is to comprehensively assess the evidence for the molecular, physiologic, and phenotypic skeletal muscle responses to resistance exercise (RE) combined with the nutritional intervention of protein and/or amino acid (AA) ingestion in young adults. We gathered the literature regarding the translational response in human skeletal muscle to acute exposure to RE and protein/AA supplements and the literature describing the phenotypic skeletal muscle adaptation to RE and nutritional interventions. Supplementation of protein/AAs with RE exhibited clear protein dose–dependent effects on translational regulation (protein synthesis) through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, which was most apparent through increases in p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) phosphorylation, compared with postexercise recovery in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. These acute findings were critically tested via long-term exposure to RE training (RET) and protein/AA supplementation, and it was determined that a diminishing protein/AA supplement effect occurs over a prolonged exposure stimulus after exercise training. Furthermore, we found that protein/AA supplements, combined with RET, produced a positive, albeit minor, effect on the promotion of lean mass growth (when assessed in >20 participants/treatment); a negligible effect on muscle mass; and a negligible to no additional effect on strength. A potential concern we discovered was that the majority of the exercise training studies were underpowered in their ability to discern effects of protein/AA supplementation. Regardless, even when using optimal methodology and large sample sizes, it is clear that the effect size for protein/AA supplementation is low and likely limited to a subset of individuals because the individual variability is high. With regard to nutritional intakes, total protein intake per day, rather than protein timing or quality, appears to be more of a factor

  13. Do DEAD-box proteins promote group II intron splicing without unwinding RNA?

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Mark; Tijerina, Pilar; Bhaskaran, Hari; Mohr, Sabine; Yang, Quansheng; Jankowsky, Eckhard; Russell, Rick; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2007-10-12

    The DEAD-box protein Mss116p promotes group II intron splicing in vivo and in vitro. Here we explore two hypotheses for how Mss116p promotes group II intron splicing: by using its RNA unwinding activity to act as an RNA chaperone or by stabilizing RNA folding intermediates. We show that an Mss116p mutant in helicase motif III (SAT/AAA), which was reported to stimulate splicing without unwinding RNA, retains ATP-dependent unwinding activity and promotes unfolding of a structured RNA. Its unwinding activity increases sharply with decreasing duplex length and correlates with group II intron splicing activity in quantitative assays. Additionally, we show that Mss116p can promote ATP-independent RNA unwinding, presumably via single-strand capture, also potentially contributing to DEAD-box protein RNA chaperone activity. Our findings favor the hypothesis that DEAD-box proteins function in group II intron splicing as in other processes by using their unwinding activity to act as RNA chaperones.

  14. Cdc37 Promotes the Stability of Protein Kinases Cdc28 and Cak1

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Alison; Morgan, David O.

    2000-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cdc37 is required for the productive formation of Cdc28-cyclin complexes. The cdc37-1 mutant arrests at Start with low levels of Cdc28 protein, which is predominantly unphosphorylated at Thr169, fails to bind cyclin, and has little protein kinase activity. We show here that Cdc28 and not cyclin is specifically defective in the cdc37-1 mutant and that Cdc37 likely does not act as an assembly factor for Cdc28-cyclin complex formation. We have also found that the levels and activity of the protein kinase Cak1 are significantly reduced in the cdc37-1 mutant. Pulse-chase analysis indicates that Cdc28 and Cak1 proteins are both destabilized when Cdc37 function is absent during but not after translation. In addition, Cdc37 promotes the production of Cak1, but not that of Cdc28, when coexpressed in insect cells. We conclude that budding yeast Cdc37, like its higher eukaryotic homologs, promotes the physical integrity of multiple protein kinases, perhaps by virtue of a cotranslational role in protein folding. PMID:10629030

  15. KLHL40 deficiency destabilizes thin filament proteins and promotes nemaline myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ankit; O’Rourke, Jason; Long, Chengzu; Doering, Jonathan; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Bezprozvannaya, Svetlana; Nelson, Benjamin R.; Beetz, Nadine; Li, Lin; Chen, She; Laing, Nigel G.; Grange, Robert W.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.

    2014-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a congenital myopathy that can result in lethal muscle dysfunction and is thought to be a disease of the sarcomere thin filament. Recently, several proteins of unknown function have been implicated in NM, but the mechanistic basis of their contribution to disease remains unresolved. Here, we demonstrated that loss of a muscle-specific protein, kelch-like family member 40 (KLHL40), results in a nemaline-like myopathy in mice that closely phenocopies muscle abnormalities observed in KLHL40-deficient patients. We determined that KLHL40 localizes to the sarcomere I band and A band and binds to nebulin (NEB), a protein frequently implicated in NM, as well as a putative thin filament protein, leiomodin 3 (LMOD3). KLHL40 belongs to the BTB-BACK-kelch (BBK) family of proteins, some of which have been shown to promote degradation of their substrates. In contrast, we found that KLHL40 promotes stability of NEB and LMOD3 and blocks LMOD3 ubiquitination. Accordingly, NEB and LMOD3 were reduced in skeletal muscle of both Klhl40–/– mice and KLHL40-deficient patients. Loss of sarcomere thin filament proteins is a frequent cause of NM; therefore, our data that KLHL40 stabilizes NEB and LMOD3 provide a potential basis for the development of NM in KLHL40-deficient patients. PMID:24960163

  16. Promoter architecture and transcriptional regulation of Abf1-dependent ribosomal protein genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Fermi, Beatrice; Bosio, Maria Cristina; Dieci, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ribosomal protein gene (RPG) promoters display binding sites for either Rap1 or Abf1 transcription factors. Unlike Rap1-associated promoters, the small cohort of Abf1-dependent RPGs (Abf1-RPGs) has not been extensively investigated. We show that RPL3, RPL4B, RPP1A, RPS22B and RPS28A/B share a common promoter architecture, with an Abf1 site upstream of a conserved element matching the sequence recognized by Fhl1, a transcription factor which together with Ifh1 orchestrates Rap1-associated RPG regulation. Abf1 and Fhl1 promoter association was confirmed by ChIP and/or gel retardation assays. Mutational analysis revealed a more severe requirement of Abf1 than Fhl1 binding sites for RPG transcription. In the case of RPS22B an unusual Tbf1 binding site promoted both RPS22B and intron-hosted SNR44 expression. Abf1-RPG down-regulation upon TOR pathway inhibition was much attenuated at defective mutant promoters unable to bind Abf1. TORC1 inactivation caused the expected reduction of Ifh1 occupancy at RPS22B and RPL3 promoters, but unexpectedly it entailed largely increased Abf1 association with Abf1-RPG promoters. We present evidence that Abf1 recruitment upon nutritional stress, also observed for representative ribosome biogenesis genes, favours RPG transcriptional rescue upon nutrient replenishment, thus pointing to nutrient-regulated Abf1 dynamics at promoters as a novel mechanism in ribosome biogenesis control. PMID:27016735

  17. Modulation of cellular and viral promoters by mutant human p53 proteins found in tumor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deb, S; Jackson, C T; Subler, M A; Martin, D W

    1992-01-01

    Wild-type p53 has recently been shown to repress transcription from several cellular and viral promoters. Since p53 mutations are the most frequently reported genetic defects in human cancers, it becomes important to study the effects of mutations of p53 on promoter functions. We, therefore, have studied the effects of wild-type and mutant human p53 on the human proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) promoter and on several viral promoters, including the herpes simplex virus type 1 UL9 promoter, the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter-enhancer, and the long terminal repeat promoters of Rous sarcoma virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. HeLa cells were cotransfected with a wild-type or mutant p53 expression vector and a plasmid containing a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene under viral (or cellular) promoter control. As expected, expression of the wild-type p53 inhibited promoter function. Expression of a p53 with a mutation at any one of the four amino acid positions 175, 248, 273, or 281, however, correlated with a significant increase of the PCNA promoter activity (2- to 11-fold). The viral promoters were also activated, although to a somewhat lesser extent. We also showed that activation by a mutant p53 requires a minimal promoter containing a lone TATA box. A more significant increase (25-fold) in activation occurs when the promoter contains a binding site for the activating transcription factor or cyclic AMP response element-binding protein. Using Saos-2 cells that do not express p53, we showed that activation by a mutant p53 was a direct enhancement. The mutant forms of p53 used in this study are found in various cancer cells. The activation of PCNA by mutant p53s may indicate a way to increase cell proliferation by the mutant p53s. Thus, our data indicate a possible functional role for the mutants of p53 found in cancer cells in activating several important loci, including PCNA. Images PMID:1356162

  18. Lamellipodin promotes actin assembly by clustering Ena/VASP proteins and tethering them to actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Scott D; Mullins, R Dyche

    2015-01-01

    Enabled/Vasodilator (Ena/VASP) proteins promote actin filament assembly at multiple locations, including: leading edge membranes, focal adhesions, and the surface of intracellular pathogens. One important Ena/VASP regulator is the mig-10/Lamellipodin/RIAM family of adaptors that promote lamellipod formation in fibroblasts and drive neurite outgrowth and axon guidance in neurons. To better understand how MRL proteins promote actin network formation we studied the interactions between Lamellipodin (Lpd), actin, and VASP, both in vivo and in vitro. We find that Lpd binds directly to actin filaments and that this interaction regulates its subcellular localization and enhances its effect on VASP polymerase activity. We propose that Lpd delivers Ena/VASP proteins to growing barbed ends and increases their polymerase activity by tethering them to filaments. This interaction represents one more pathway by which growing actin filaments produce positive feedback to control localization and activity of proteins that regulate their assembly. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06585.001 PMID:26295568

  19. Zinc-Induced Polymerization of Killer-Cell Ig-like Receptor into Filaments Promotes Its Inhibitory Function at Cytotoxic Immunological Synapses.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santosh; Rajagopalan, Sumati; Sarkar, Pabak; Dorward, David W; Peterson, Mary E; Liao, Hsien-Shun; Guillermier, Christelle; Steinhauser, Matthew L; Vogel, Steven S; Long, Eric O

    2016-04-07

    The inhibitory function of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) that bind HLA-C and block activation of human natural killer (NK) cells is dependent on zinc. We report that zinc induced the assembly of soluble KIR into filamentous polymers, as detected by electron microscopy, which depolymerized after zinc chelation. Similar KIR filaments were isolated from lysates of cells treated with zinc, and membrane protrusions enriched in zinc were detected on whole cells by scanning electron microscopy and imaging mass spectrometry. Two independent mutations in the extracellular domain of KIR, away from the HLA-C binding site, impaired zinc-driven polymerization and inhibitory function. KIR filaments formed spontaneously, without the addition of zinc, at functional inhibitory immunological synapses of NK cells with HLA-C(+) cells. Adding to the recent paradigm of signal transduction through higher order molecular assemblies, zinc-induced polymerization of inhibitory KIR represents an unusual mode of signaling by a receptor at the cell surface.

  20. PIP3-binding proteins promote age-dependent protein aggregation and limit survival in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Ayyadevara, Srinivas; Balasubramaniam, Meenakshisundaram; Johnson, Jay; Alla, Ramani; Mackintosh, Samuel G; Shmookler Reis, Robert J

    2016-08-02

    Class-I phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3KI) converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 comprises two fatty-acid chains that embed in lipid-bilayer membranes, joined by glycerol to inositol triphosphate. Proteins with domains that specifically bind that head-group (e.g. pleckstrin-homology [PH] domains) are thus tethered to the inner plasma-membrane surface where they have an enhanced likelihood of interaction with other PIP3-bound proteins, in particular other components of their signaling pathways. Null alleles of the C. elegans age-1 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of PI3KI, lack any detectable class-I PI3K activity and so cannot form PIP3. These mutant worms survive almost 10-fold longer than the longest-lived normal control, and are highly resistant to a variety of stresses including oxidative and electrophilic challenges. Traits associated with age-1 mutation are widely believed to be mediated through AKT-1, which requires PIP3 for both tethering and activation. Active AKT complex phosphorylates and thereby inactivates the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor. However, extensive evidence indicates that pleiotropic effects of age-1-null mutations, including extreme longevity, cannot be explained by insulin like-receptor/AKT/FOXO signaling alone, suggesting involvement of other PIP3-binding proteins. We used ligand-affinity capture to identify membrane-bound proteins downstream of PI3KI that preferentially bind PIP3. Computer modeling supports a subset of candidate proteins predicted to directly bind PIP3 in preference to PIP2, and functional testing by RNAi knockdown confirmed candidates that partially mediate the stress-survival, aggregation-reducing and longevity benefits of PI3KI disruption. PIP3-specific candidate sets are highly enriched for proteins previously reported to affect translation, stress responses, lifespan, proteostasis, and lipid transport.

  1. Opioid peptides derived from food proteins suppress aggregation and promote reactivation of partly unfolded stressed proteins.

    PubMed

    Artemova, N V; Bumagina, Z M; Kasakov, A S; Shubin, V V; Gurvits, B Ya

    2010-02-01

    A new view of the opioid peptides is presented. The potential of small peptides derived from precursor food proteins, to bind to partly unfolded stressed proteins to prevent their irreversible aggregation and inactivation has been demonstrated in various in vitro test systems: dithiothreitol-induced aggregation of alpha-lactalbumin (LA), heat-induced aggregation of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and aggregation and inactivation of bovine erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the process of its refolding after removal of stress conditions. Using dynamic light scattering (DLS), turbidimetry, fluorescence, and circular dichroism measurements protective effects of the synthetic opioid peptides: exorphin C from wheat gluten (Tyr-Pro-Ile-Ser-Leu), rubiscolin-5 from spinach ribulose-bisphosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) (Tyr-Pro-Leu-Asp-Leu), and hemorphin-6 from bovine hemoglobin (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Thr-Gln-Arg) have been revealed. We have demonstrated the concentration-dependent suppression of light scattering intensity of aggregates of LA and ADH in the presence of the peptides, the population of nanoparticles with higher hydrodynamic radii being shifted to the lower ones, accompanied by an increase in the lag period of aggregation. The presence of the peptides in the refolding solution was shown to assist reactivation of CA and enhance the yield of the CA soluble protein. The results suggest that bioactive food protein fragments may be regarded as exogenous supplements to the endogenous defense mechanisms of the human organism under stress conditions.

  2. F-box protein 7 mutations promote protein aggregation in mitochondria and inhibit mitophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhi Dong; Xie, Shao Ping; Sathiyamoorthy, Sushmitha; Saw, Wuan Ting; Sing, Tan Ye; Ng, Shin Hui; Chua, Heidi Pek Hup; Tang, Alyssa Mei Yan; Shaffra, Fathima; Li, Zeng; Wang, Hongyan; Ho, Patrick Ghim Hoe; Lai, Mitchell Kim Peng; Angeles, Dario C; Lim, Tit Meng; Tan, Eng-King

    2015-11-15

    The mutations of F-box protein 7 (FBXO7) gene (T22M, R378G and R498X) are associated with a severe form of autosomal recessive juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) (PARK 15). Here we demonstrated that wild-type (WT) FBXO7 is a stress response protein and it can play both cytoprotective and neurotoxic roles. The WT FBXO7 protein is vital to cell mitophagy and can facilitate mitophagy to protect cells, whereas mutant FBXO7 inhibits mitophagy. Upon stress, the endogenous WT FBXO7 gets up-regulated, concentrates into mitochondria and forms FBXO7 aggregates in mitochondria. However, FBXO7 mutations aggravate deleterious FBXO7 aggregation in mitochondria. The FBXO7 aggregation and toxicity can be alleviated by Proline, glutathione (GSH) and coenzyme Q10, whereas deleterious FBXO7 aggregation in mitochondria can be aggravated by prohibitin 1 (PHB1), a mitochondrial protease inhibitor. The overexpression of WT FBXO7 could lead to FBXO7 protein aggregation and dopamine neuron degeneration in transgenic Drosophila heads. The elevated FBXO7 expression and aggregation were identified in human fibroblast cells from PD patients. FBXO7 can also form aggregates in brains of PD and Alzheimer's disease. Our study provides novel pathophysiologic insights and suggests that FBXO7 may be a potential therapeutic target in FBXO7-linked neuron degeneration in PD.

  3. Application of RGS box proteins to evaluate G-protein selectivity in receptor-promoted signaling.

    PubMed

    Hains, Melinda D; Siderovski, David P; Harden, T Kendall

    2004-01-01

    Regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) domains bind directly to GTP-bound Galpha subunits and accelerate their intrinsic GTPase activity by up to several thousandfold. The selectivity of RGS proteins for individual Galpha subunits has been illustrated. Thus, the expression of RGS proteins can be used to inhibit signaling pathways activated by specific G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This article describes the use of specific RGS domain constructs to discriminate among G(i/o), Gq-and G(12/13)-mediated activation of phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes in COS-7 cells. Overexpression of the N terminus of GRK2 (amino acids 45-178) or p115 RhoGEF (amino acids 1-240) elicited selective inhibition of Galphaq- or Galpha(12/13)-mediated signaling to PLC activation, respectively. In contrast, RGS2 overexpression was found to inhibit PLC activation by both G(i/o)- and Gq-coupled GPCRs. RGS4 exhibited dramatic receptor selectivity in its inhibitory actions; of the G(i/o)- and Gq-coupled GPCRs tested (LPA1, LPA2, P2Y1, S1P3), only the Gq-coupled lysophosphatidic acid-activated LPA2 receptor was found to be inhibited by RGS4 overexpression.

  4. Promoting Tag Removal of a MBP-Fused Integral Membrane Protein by TEV Protease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanke; Li, Qichang; Yang, Jun; Xie, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Tag removal is a prerequisite issue for structural and functional analysis of affinity-purified membrane proteins. The present study took a MBP-fused membrane protein, MrpF, as a model to investigate the tag removal by TEV protease. Influences of the linking sequence between TEV cleavage site and MrpF on protein expression and predicted secondary structure were investigated. The steric accessibility of TEV protease to cleavage site of MBP-fused MrpF was explored. It was found that reducing the size of hydrophilic group of detergents and/or extending the linking sequence between cleavage site and target protein can significantly improve the accessibility of the cleavage site and promote tag removal by TEV protease.

  5. Promotion of protein crystal growth by actively switching crystal growth mode via femtosecond laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, Yusuke; Maruyama, Mihoko; Yoshimura, Masashi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Tachibana, Masaru; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Adachi, Hiroaki; Tsukamoto, Katsuo; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Mori, Yusuke

    2016-11-01

    Large single crystals with desirable shapes are essential for various scientific and industrial fields, such as X-ray/neutron crystallography and crystalline devices. However, in the case of proteins the production of such crystals is particularly challenging, despite the efforts devoted to optimization of the environmental, chemical and physical parameters. Here we report an innovative approach for promoting the growth of protein crystals by directly modifying the local crystal structure via femtosecond laser ablation. We demonstrate that protein crystals with surfaces that are locally etched (several micrometers in diameter) by femtosecond laser ablation show enhanced growth rates without losing crystal quality. Optical phase-sensitive microscopy and X-ray topography imaging techniques reveal that the local etching induces spiral growth, which is energetically advantageous compared with the spontaneous two-dimensional nucleation growth mode. These findings prove that femtosecond laser ablation can actively switch the crystal growth mode, offering flexible control over the size and shape of protein crystals.

  6. Phage phi 29 regulatory protein p4 stabilizes the binding of the RNA polymerase to the late promoter in a process involving direct protein-protein contacts.

    PubMed

    Nuez, B; Rojo, F; Salas, M

    1992-12-01

    Transcription from the late promoter, PA3, of Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29 is activated by the viral regulatory protein p4. A kinetic analysis of the activation process has revealed that the role of protein p4 is to stabilize the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter as a closed complex without significantly affecting further steps of the initiation process. Electrophoretic band-shift assays performed with a DNA fragment spanning only the protein p4 binding site showed that RNA polymerase could efficiently retard the complex formed by protein p4 bound to the DNA. Similarly, when a DNA fragment containing only the RNA polymerase-binding region of PA3 was used, p4 greatly stimulated the binding of RNA polymerase to the DNA. These results strongly suggest that p4 and RNA polymerase contact each other at the PA3 promoter. In the light of current knowledge of the p4 activation mechanism, we propose that direct contacts between the two proteins participate in the activation process.

  7. TPA-inducible proteins may account for sensitivity to promotion of transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, K.; Smith, B.; Colburn, N.H.

    1986-05-01

    The preneoplastic JB6 mouse epidermal cell system includes cell lines sensitive (P/sup +/) or resistant (P/sup -/) to tumor promoter induced neoplastic transformation. The authors investigated whether a difference in TPA-inducible proteins may explain this differential sensitivity. The synthesis of a 39 Kd cytoplasmic protein (Major Excreted Protein) was TPA-inducible, but to a similar extent in both P/sup +/ and P/sup -/ cells. TPA stimulated phosphorylation but not synthesis of the previously described stress protein pp80 in both P/sup +/ and P/sup -/ cells from 1 to 5 hr after treatment. Pulse labelling of P/sup +/ and P/sup -/ cells with /sup 35/S-methionine revealed a TPA dependent P/sup +/ specific transient increase in the synthesis of 58Kd protein. Induction was observed at 1 hr, and returned to basal levels by 4 hr and 20 hr, in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, respectively. This protein is not phosphorylated in response to TPA treatment. P/sup +/ cells differ from P/sup -/ cells in one or more genes that specify sensitivity to promotion of transformation, designated pro genes. Antibodies to three peptides representing the pro-1 open reading frame were used in immunoprecipitation and Western blotting to isolate the pro-1 gene product. A 43 Kd protein was immunologically responsive to the pro-1 peptide antibodies, and showed an increased signal 40 min after TPA treatment. Since the predicted molecular weight of a pro-1 gene product is only 7 Kd, the possibility of a modification of the protein by poly(ADP-ribosylation) or glycosylation is being investigated.

  8. Ets-1 facilitates nuclear entry of NFAT proteins and their recruitment to the IL-2 promoter.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Hsiao-Wei; Tai, Tzong-Shyuan; Tseng, William; Chang, Hui-Hsin; Grenningloh, Roland; Miaw, Shi-Chuen; Ho, I-Cheng

    2013-09-24

    E26 transformation-specific sequence 1 (Ets-1), the prototype of the ETS family of transcription factors, is critical for the expression of IL-2 by murine Th cells; however, its mechanism of action is still unclear. Here we show that Ets-1 is also essential for optimal production of IL-2 by primary human Th cells. Although Ets-1 negatively regulates the expression of Blimp1, a known suppressor of IL-2 expression, ablation of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) does not rescue the expression of IL-2 by Ets-1-deficient Th cells. Instead, Ets-1 physically and functionally interacts with the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and is required for the recruitment of NFAT to the IL-2 promoter. In addition, Ets-1 is located in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of resting Th cells. Nuclear Ets-1 quickly exits the nucleus in response to calcium-dependent signals and competes with NFAT proteins for binding to protein components of noncoding RNA repressor of NFAT complex (NRON), which serves as a cytoplasmic trap for phosphorylated NFAT proteins. This nuclear exit of Ets-1 precedes rapid nuclear entry of NFAT and Ets-1 deficiency results in impaired nuclear entry, but not dephosphorylation, of NFAT proteins. Thus, Ets-1 promotes the expression of IL-2 by modulating the activity of NFAT.

  9. The transmembrane LRR protein DMA-1 promotes dendrite branching and growth in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Oliver W; Shen, Kang

    2011-12-04

    Dendrites often adopt complex branched structures. The development and organization of these arbors fundamentally determine the potential input and connectivity of a given neuron. The cell-surface receptors that control dendritic branching remain poorly understood. We found that, in Caenorhabditis elegans, a previously uncharacterized transmembrane protein containing extracellular leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, which we named DMA-1 (dendrite-morphogenesis-abnormal), promotes dendrite branching and growth. Sustained expression of dma-1 was found only in the elaborately branched sensory neurons PVD and FLP. Genetic analysis revealed that the loss of dma-1 resulted in much reduced dendritic arbors, whereas overexpression of dma-1 resulted in excessive branching. Forced expression of dma-1 in neurons with simple dendrites was sufficient to promote ectopic branching. Worms lacking dma-1 were defective in sensing harsh touch. DMA-1 is the first transmembrane LRR protein to be implicated in dendritic branching and expands the breadth of roles of LRR receptors in nervous system development.

  10. Relating Promoter Sequences to the Proteins that Bind to Them: A Comparison Study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Kimberly

    2007-03-01

    Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP-on-ChIP) microarray data reveals that the proteins H3K9dimethyl and RNA-Polymerase II are exclusive regarding their binding to the promoter region of genes. When comparing the base pair sequences of the promoters that bind to Pol2 versus H3K9, striking differences appear. The mononucleotides have fundamentally different behaviors in each group. In addition, motifs that cluster before the transcriptional start site also generally have a strong enrichment in one group compared to the other. Using this knowledge a model can be developed that allows one to calculate a probability that a promoter will bind to either H3K9 or Pol2 based on its base pair sequence.

  11. The Potyviral P3 Protein Targets Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1A to Promote the Unfolded Protein Response and Viral Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Luan, Hexiang; Shine, M B; Cui, Xiaoyan; Chen, Xin; Ma, Na; Kachroo, Pradeep; Zhi, Haijan; Kachroo, Aardra

    2016-09-01

    The biochemical function of the potyviral P3 protein is not known, although it is known to regulate virus replication, movement, and pathogenesis. We show that P3, the putative virulence determinant of soybean mosaic virus (SMV), targets a component of the translation elongation complex in soybean. Eukaryotic elongation factor 1A (eEF1A), a well-known host factor in viral pathogenesis, is essential for SMV virulence and the associated unfolded protein response (UPR). Silencing GmEF1A inhibits accumulation of SMV and another ER-associated virus in soybean. Conversely, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducing chemicals promote SMV accumulation in wild-type, but not GmEF1A-knockdown, plants. Knockdown of genes encoding the eEF1B isoform, which is important for eEF1A function in translation elongation, has similar effects on UPR and SMV resistance, suggesting a link to translation elongation. P3 and GmEF1A promote each other's nuclear localization, similar to the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport of eEF1A by the Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Nef protein. Our results suggest that P3 targets host elongation factors resulting in UPR, which in turn facilitates SMV replication and place eEF1A upstream of BiP in the ER stress response during pathogen infection.

  12. TACC3 is a microtubule plus end–tracking protein that promotes axon elongation and also regulates microtubule plus end dynamics in multiple embryonic cell types

    PubMed Central

    Nwagbara, Belinda U.; Faris, Anna E.; Bearce, Elizabeth A.; Erdogan, Burcu; Ebbert, Patrick T.; Evans, Matthew F.; Rutherford, Erin L.; Enzenbacher, Tiffany B.; Lowery, Laura Anne

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule plus end dynamics are regulated by a conserved family of proteins called plus end–tracking proteins (+TIPs). It is unclear how various +TIPs interact with each other and with plus ends to control microtubule behavior. The centrosome-associated protein TACC3, a member of the transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC) domain family, has been implicated in regulating several aspects of microtubule dynamics. However, TACC3 has not been shown to function as a +TIP in vertebrates. Here we show that TACC3 promotes axon outgrowth and regulates microtubule dynamics by increasing microtubule plus end velocities in vivo. We also demonstrate that TACC3 acts as a +TIP in multiple embryonic cell types and that this requires the conserved C-terminal TACC domain. Using high-resolution live-imaging data on tagged +TIPs, we show that TACC3 localizes to the extreme microtubule plus end, where it lies distal to the microtubule polymerization marker EB1 and directly overlaps with the microtubule polymerase XMAP215. TACC3 also plays a role in regulating XMAP215 stability and localizing XMAP215 to microtubule plus ends. Taken together, our results implicate TACC3 as a +TIP that functions with XMAP215 to regulate microtubule plus end dynamics. PMID:25187649

  13. Human leucine zipper protein promotes hepatic steatosis via induction of apolipoprotein A-IV.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsoo; Kim, Jeonghan; An, Hyoung-Tae; Ko, Jesang

    2017-02-28

    The molecular mechanism of stress-induced hepatic steatosis is not well known. Human leucine zipper protein (LZIP) regulates the expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell migration, and stress response. The aim of this study was to determine the regulatory role of LZIP in stress-induced hepatic steatosis. We used a microarray analysis to identify LZIP-induced genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism. LZIP increased the expression of apolipoprotein A-IV (APOA4) mRNA. In the presence of stress inducer, APOA4 promoter analysis was performed and LZIP-induced lipid accumulation was monitored in mouse primary cells and human tissues. Under Golgi stress conditions, LZIP underwent proteolytic cleavage and was phosphorylated by AKT to protect against proteasome degradation. The stabilized N-terminal LZIP was translocated to the nucleus, where it directly bound to the APOA4 promoter, leading to APOA4 induction. LZIP-induced APOA4 expression resulted in increased absorption of surrounding free fatty acids. LZIP also promoted hepatic steatosis in mouse liver. Both LZIP and APOA4 were highly expressed in human steatosis samples. Our findings indicate that LZIP is a novel modulator of APOA4 expression and hepatic lipid metabolism. LZIP might be a therapeutic target for developing treatment strategies for hepatic steatosis and related metabolic diseases.-Kang, M., Kim, J., An, H.-T., Ko, J. Human leucine zipper protein promotes hepatic steatosis via induction of apolipoprotein A-IV.

  14. Activator protein 1 promotes the transcriptional activation of IRAK-M.

    PubMed

    Jin, Peipei; Bo, Lulong; Liu, Yongjian; Lu, Wenbin; Lin, Shengwei; Bian, Jinjun; Deng, Xiaoming

    2016-10-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M) is a well-known negative regulator for Toll-like receptor signaling, which can regulate immune homeostasis and tolerance in a number of pathological settings. However, the mechanism for IRAK-M regulation at transcriptional level remains largely unknown. In this study, a 1.4kb upstream sequence starting from the major IRAK-M transcriptional start site was cloned into luciferase reporter vector pGL3-basic to construct the full-length IRAK-M promoter. Luciferase reporter plasmids harboring the full-length and the deletion mutants of IRAK-M were transfected into 293T and A549 cells, and their relative luciferase activity was measured. The results demonstrated that activator protein 1(AP-1) cis-element plays a crucial role in IRAK-M constitutive gene transcription. Silencing of c-Fos and/or c-Jun expression suppressed the IRAK-M promoter activity as well as its mRNA and protein expressions. As a specific inhibitor for AP-1 activation, SP600125 also significantly suppressed the basal transcriptional activity of IRAK-M, the binding activity of c-Fos/c-Jun with IRAK-M promoter, and IRAK-M protein expression. Taken together, the result of this study highlights the importance of AP-1 in IRAK-M transcription, which offers more information on the role of IRAK-M in infectious and non-infectious diseases.

  15. A-kinase anchoring protein-Lbc promotes pro-fibrotic signaling in cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Cavin, Sabrina; Maric, Darko; Diviani, Dario

    2014-02-01

    In response to stress or injury the heart undergoes an adverse remodeling process associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis. Transformation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts is a crucial event initiating the fibrotic process. Cardiac myofibroblasts invade the myocardium and secrete excess amounts of extracellular matrix proteins, which cause myocardial stiffening, cardiac dysfunctions and progression to heart failure. While several studies indicate that the small GTPase RhoA can promote profibrotic responses, the exchange factors that modulate its activity in cardiac fibroblasts are yet to be identified. In the present study, we show that AKAP-Lbc, an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) with an intrinsic Rho-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) activity, is critical for activating RhoA and transducing profibrotic signals downstream of type I angiotensin II receptors (AT1Rs) in cardiac fibroblasts. In particular, our results indicate that suppression of AKAP-Lbc expression by infecting adult rat ventricular fibroblasts with lentiviruses encoding AKAP-Lbc specific short hairpin (sh) RNAs strongly reduces the ability of angiotensin II to promote RhoA activation, differentiation of cardiac fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, collagen deposition as well as myofibroblast migration. Interestingly, AT1Rs promote AKAP-Lbc activation via a pathway that requires the α subunit of the heterotrimeric G protein G12. These findings identify AKAP-Lbc as a key Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor modulating profibrotic responses in cardiac fibroblasts.

  16. Myb and Ets proteins cooperate in transcriptional activation of the mim-1 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Dudek, H; Tantravahi, R V; Rao, V N; Reddy, E S; Reddy, E P

    1992-01-01

    In the generation of the acutely transforming avian retrovirus E26, both myb and ets genes have been transduced, leading to the production of a Gag-Myb-Ets fusion protein. This co-occurrence of v-myb and v-ets oncogenes suggests that the two might have a functional relationship. To look for such a relationship, we tested the transcriptional activation activity of Myb alone or with coexpressed Ets-1 or Ets-2. Using the promoter of the v-Myb-inducible mim-1 gene as a target, we found that full-length c-Myb gene products were poor activators of transcription, while an oncogenic (truncated) form of this protein was a strong trans-activator. However, coexpression of Ets-2 with full-length or truncated forms of Myb greatly increased trans-activation. Coexpression of Ets-1, Fos, Jun, or Myc with Myb did not increase trans-activation of the mim-1 promoter. The ability of Myb and Ets-2 to transactivate was cooperative, since Ets-2 alone gave little or no activation. Bacterially synthesized Ets-2 protein was found to bind specifically to the mim-1 promoter, suggesting that it may be a target for both Myb and Ets proteins. Thus, Myb and Ets proteins can cooperate in transcriptional activation, and their co-occurrence in the E26 virus may reflect a functional relationship between these two oncoproteins. Truncated forms of Myb may have a reduced need for cooperating factors such as Ets-2, and this might constitute an important mechanism associated with oncogenic activation. Images PMID:1741383

  17. Chain Reaction Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, James E.

    1981-01-01

    The salient features and importance of chain-reaction polymerization are discussed, including such topics as the thermodynamics of polymerization, free-radical polymerization kinetics, radical polymerization processes, copolymers, and free-radical chain, anionic, cationic, coordination, and ring-opening polymerizations. (JN)

  18. Metastasis-associated protein 1 promotes tumor invasion by downregulation of E-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wenhao; Yin, Jiayi; Zhang, Yue; Qiu, Jin; Wang, Xinghe

    2014-03-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors. Upregulation of metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1) has been reported to contribute to the development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, the objective of our study was to identify the molecular mechanisms of MTA1 underlying the invasion and metastasis of ESCC. We overexpressed MTA1 in ESCC cells to examine the role of MTA1 in the regulation of the cell invasion. In addition, using luciferase reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we evaluated the binding of MTA1 to the promoter of E-cadherin. We found that MTA1 overexpression promotes invasiveness of the human esophageal carcinoma cell line EC-9706. This effect was accompanied by downregulation of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin and upregulation of vimentin and MMP-9 luciferase reporter assays showed that MTA1 inhibited the promoter activity of E-cadherin and that this was dependent on Snail, Slug and HDAC1. We also found that Snail and Slug bound the E-boxes in the promoter of E-cadherin and recruited MTA1 and HDAC1 to suppress E-cadherin expression, as confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. MTA1 promotes tumor invasion by downregulation of E-cadherin. These results demonstrate a novel role for MTA1 in the regulation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma invasion and provide insight into the mechanisms involved in this process.

  19. The Lipid Droplet Protein Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 Promotes Hepatic Triglyceride Deposition by Inhibiting Lipolysis*

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Marina T.; Danai, Laura V.; Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Chawla, Anil; Pedersen, David J.; Guilherme, Adilson; Czech, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a major site of glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride (TG) synthesis and serves as a major regulator of whole body nutrient homeostasis. Chronic exposure of humans or rodents to high-calorie diets promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by neutral lipid accumulation in lipid droplets (LD) of hepatocytes. Here we show that the LD protein hypoxia-inducible gene 2 (Hig2/Hilpda) functions to enhance lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by attenuating TG hydrolysis. Hig2 expression increased in livers of mice on a high-fat diet and during fasting, two states associated with enhanced hepatic TG content. Hig2 expressed in primary mouse hepatocytes localized to LDs and promoted LD TG deposition in the presence of oleate. Conversely, tamoxifen-inducible Hig2 deletion reduced both TG content and LD size in primary hepatocytes from mice harboring floxed alleles of Hig2 and a cre/ERT2 transgene controlled by the ubiquitin C promoter. Hepatic TG was also decreased by liver-specific deletion of Hig2 in mice with floxed Hig2 expressing cre controlled by the albumin promoter. Importantly, we demonstrate that Hig2-deficient hepatocytes exhibit increased TG lipolysis, TG turnover, and fatty acid oxidation as compared with controls. Interestingly, mice with liver-specific Hig2 deletion also display improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, these data indicate that Hig2 plays a major role in promoting lipid sequestration within LDs in mouse hepatocytes through a mechanism that impairs TG degradation. PMID:25922078

  20. The Lipid Droplet Protein Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 Promotes Hepatic Triglyceride Deposition by Inhibiting Lipolysis.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Marina T; Danai, Laura V; Roth Flach, Rachel J; Chawla, Anil; Pedersen, David J; Guilherme, Adilson; Czech, Michael P

    2015-06-12

    The liver is a major site of glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride (TG) synthesis and serves as a major regulator of whole body nutrient homeostasis. Chronic exposure of humans or rodents to high-calorie diets promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by neutral lipid accumulation in lipid droplets (LD) of hepatocytes. Here we show that the LD protein hypoxia-inducible gene 2 (Hig2/Hilpda) functions to enhance lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by attenuating TG hydrolysis. Hig2 expression increased in livers of mice on a high-fat diet and during fasting, two states associated with enhanced hepatic TG content. Hig2 expressed in primary mouse hepatocytes localized to LDs and promoted LD TG deposition in the presence of oleate. Conversely, tamoxifen-inducible Hig2 deletion reduced both TG content and LD size in primary hepatocytes from mice harboring floxed alleles of Hig2 and a cre/ERT2 transgene controlled by the ubiquitin C promoter. Hepatic TG was also decreased by liver-specific deletion of Hig2 in mice with floxed Hig2 expressing cre controlled by the albumin promoter. Importantly, we demonstrate that Hig2-deficient hepatocytes exhibit increased TG lipolysis, TG turnover, and fatty acid oxidation as compared with controls. Interestingly, mice with liver-specific Hig2 deletion also display improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, these data indicate that Hig2 plays a major role in promoting lipid sequestration within LDs in mouse hepatocytes through a mechanism that impairs TG degradation.

  1. Polymerized supramolecular assemblies and biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, David F.

    2001-03-01

    The creation of durable, biomembrane-mimetic coatings for inorganic and polymeric surfaces that are biocompatible, i.e. resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption, remains an important goal that is expected to impact numerous fields. It has already been shown that the physical stability of lipid bilayer vesicles can be dramatically enhanced by cross-linking polymerization of reactive lipids, such as phosphatidylcholines. Bilayers of these same lipids on clean silicon dioxide surfaces can be formed by fusion of small bilayer vesicles with the surface. Radical initiated polymerization of these supported bilayers yields a stable poly(lipid) film that is not perturbed upon exposure to surfactant. Moreover, the cross-linked bilayer film can be removed from water into air with retention of the poly(lipid) bilayer structure. These polymerized bilayer films could be repeatedly transferred from water to air to water with no obvious change in their biocompatibility. The supported bilayer films were equally resistant to non-specific protein adsorption before and after polymerization. This indicates that biocompatible nature of the phosphorylcholine head group of the lipids was not compromised by polymerization of the lipids. The ability to maintain surface biocompatibility of membranes while substantially increasing their stability would appear to extend the technological uses of supramolecular assemblies of lipids.

  2. Label-free detection and identification of protein ligands captured by receptors in a polymerized planar lipid bilayer using MALDI-TOF MS

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Boying; Ju, Yue; Joubert, James R.; Kaleta, Erin J.; Lopez, Rodrigo; Jones, Ian W.; Hall, Henry K.; Ratnayaka, Saliya N.; Wysocki, Vicki H.; Saavedra, S. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) coupled with affinity capture is a well-established method to extract biological analytes from complex samples followed by label-free detection and identification. Many bioanalytes of interest bind to membrane-associated receptors, however, the matrices and high vacuum conditions inherent to MALDI-TOF MS make it largely incompatible with the use of artificial lipid membranes with incorporated receptors as platforms for detection of captured proteins and peptides. Here we show that cross-linking polymerization of a planar supported lipid bilayer (PSLB) provides the stability needed for MALDI-TOF MS analysis of proteins captured by receptors embedded in the membrane. PSLBs composed of poly(bis-SorbPC) and doped with the ganglioside receptors GM1 and GD1a were used for affinity capture of the B-subunits of cholera toxin, heat-labile enterotoxin, and pertussis toxin. The three toxins were captured simultaneously, then detected and identified by MS based on differences in their molecular weights. Poly(bis-SorbPC) PSLBs are inherently resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption, which allowed selective toxin detection to be achieved in complex matrices (bovine serum and shrimp extract). Using GM1-cholera toxin B as a model receptor-ligand pair, the minimal detectable concentration of toxin was estimated to be 4 nM. On-plate trypsin digestion of bound cholera toxin B followed by MS/MS analysis of digested peptides was performed successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of using the PSLB-based affinity capture platform for identification of unknown, membrane-associated proteins. Overall, this work demonstrates that combining a poly(lipid) affinity capture platform with MALDI-TOF MS detection is a viable approach for capture and proteomic characterization of membrane-associated proteins in a label-free manner. PMID:25694144

  3. Label-free detection and identification of protein ligands captured by receptors in a polymerized planar lipid bilayer using MALDI-TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Liang, Boying; Ju, Yue; Joubert, James R; Kaleta, Erin J; Lopez, Rodrigo; Jones, Ian W; Hall, Henry K; Ratnayaka, Saliya N; Wysocki, Vicki H; Saavedra, S Scott

    2015-04-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) coupled with affinity capture is a well-established method to extract biological analytes from complex samples followed by label-free detection and identification. Many bioanalytes of interest bind to membrane-associated receptors; however, the matrices and high-vacuum conditions inherent to MALDI-TOF MS make it largely incompatible with the use of artificial lipid membranes with incorporated receptors as platforms for detection of captured proteins and peptides. Here we show that cross-linking polymerization of a planar supported lipid bilayer (PSLB) provides the stability needed for MALDI-TOF MS analysis of proteins captured by receptors embedded in the membrane. PSLBs composed of poly(bis-sorbylphosphatidylcholine) (poly(bis-SorbPC)) and doped with the ganglioside receptors GM1 and GD1a were used for affinity capture of the B subunits of cholera toxin, heat-labile enterotoxin, and pertussis toxin. The three toxins were captured simultaneously, then detected and identified by MS on the basis of differences in their molecular weights. Poly(bis-SorbPC) PSLBs are inherently resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption, which allowed selective toxin detection to be achieved in complex matrices (bovine serum and shrimp extract). Using GM1-cholera toxin subunit B as a model receptor-ligand pair, we estimated the minimal detectable concentration of toxin to be 4 nM. On-plate tryptic digestion of bound cholera toxin subunit B followed by MS/MS analysis of digested peptides was performed successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of using the PSLB-based affinity capture platform for identification of unknown, membrane-associated proteins. Overall, this work demonstrates that combining a poly(lipid) affinity capture platform with MALDI-TOF MS detection is a viable approach for capture and proteomic characterization of membrane-associated proteins in a label-free manner.

  4. Achieving efficient protein expression in Trichoderma reesei by using strong constitutive promoters

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgrounds The fungus Trichoderma reesei is an important workhorse for expression of homologous or heterologous genes, and the inducible cbh1 promoter is generally used. However, constitutive expression is more preferable in some cases than inducible expression that leads to production of unwanted cellulase components. In this work, constitutive promoters of T. reesei were screened and successfully used for high level homologous expression of xylanase II. Results The transcriptional profiles of 13 key genes that participate in glucose metabolism in T. reesei were analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The results indicated that the mRNA levels of pdc (encoding pyruvate decarboxylase) and eno (encoding enolase) genes were much higher than other genes under high glucose conditions. Recombinant T. reesei strains that homologously expressed xylanase II were constructed by using the promoters of the pdc and eno genes, and they respectively produced 9266 IU/ml and 8866 IU/ml of xylanase activities in the cultivation supernatant in a medium with high glucose concentration. The productivities of xylanase II were 1.61 g/L (with the pdc promoter) and 1.52 g/L (with the eno promoter), approximately accounted for 83% and 82% of the total protein secreted by T. reesei, respectively. Conclusions This work demonstrates the screening of constitutive promoters by using RT-qPCR in T. reesei, and has obtained the highest expression of recombinant xylanase II to date by using these promoters. PMID:22709462

  5. Promoter Recognition by Extracytoplasmic Function σ Factors: Analyzing DNA and Protein Interaction Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Guzina, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors are the largest and the most diverse group of alternative σ factors, but their mechanisms of transcription are poorly studied. This subfamily is considered to exhibit a rigid promoter structure and an absence of mixing and matching; both −35 and −10 elements are considered necessary for initiating transcription. This paradigm, however, is based on very limited data, which bias the analysis of diverse ECF σ subgroups. Here we investigate DNA and protein recognition motifs involved in ECF σ factor transcription by a computational analysis of canonical ECF subfamily members, much less studied ECF σ subgroups, and the group outliers, obtained from recently sequenced bacteriophages. The analysis identifies an extended −10 element in promoters for phage ECF σ factors; a comparison with bacterial σ factors points to a putative 6-amino-acid motif just C-terminal of domain σ2, which is responsible for the interaction with the identified extension of the −10 element. Interestingly, a similar protein motif is found C-terminal of domain σ2 in canonical ECF σ factors, at a position where it is expected to interact with a conserved motif further upstream of the −10 element. Moreover, the phiEco32 ECF σ factor lacks a recognizable −35 element and σ4 domain, which we identify in a homologous phage, 7-11, indicating that the extended −10 element can compensate for the lack of −35 element interactions. Overall, the results reveal greater flexibility in promoter recognition by ECF σ factors than previously recognized and raise the possibility that mixing and matching also apply to this group, a notion that remains to be biochemically tested. IMPORTANCE ECF σ factors are the most numerous group of alternative σ factors but have been little studied. Their promoter recognition mechanisms are obscured by the large diversity within the ECF σ factor group and the limited similarity with the well

  6. cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulate the human heat shock protein 70 gene promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, H S; Li, B; Lin, Z; Huang, E; Liu, A Y

    1991-06-25

    The theme of this study is an evaluation of the involvement of cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in the regulation of the human heat shock protein (hsp) 70 gene promoter. Expression of a highly specific protein inhibitor of PKA (pRSVPKI) inhibited the basal as well as heat- and cadmium-induced expression of the cotransfected pHBCAT, a human hsp 70 promoter-driven reporter gene; this inhibition was dependent on the amount of pRSVPKI used. The effect of an expression vector of the RI regulatory subunit of PKA, pMTREV, was similar to that of pRSVPKI; pMTREV inhibited both the basal as well as the heat-induced expression of pHBCAT. The specificity of effects of these expression vectors was demonstrated by the lack of effect of a mutant PKI gene and by the unaffected expression of a reference gene (pRSV beta gal) under these conditions. Analysis of the effects of dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM), forskolin (10 microM), and 8-Br-cAMP (1 mM) on the transient expression of pHBCAT showed that these cAMP-elevating agents stimulated the hsp 70 promoter activity, whereas cAMP (1 mM) was without effect. Chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene constructs with truncated or mutated hsp 70 promoter were used to define the cis-acting DNA element(s) that confer this cAMP stimulation; the heat induced (42 degrees C) expression was used as a control. Mutation of the adenovirus transcription factor element (pLSN-40/-26) greatly reduced the basal level of expression; forskolin had little or no effect on this adenovirus transcription factor-minus promoter, although the promoter activity was very heat inducible. The absence of a functional heat shock consensus element (HSE) in the construct pLSPNWT rendered the promoter heat insensitive; this construct was forskolin responsive although the magnitude of this stimulation was reduced when compared with that of a control construct with HSE. These results were corroborated by studies using consensus sequence of ATF (ATFE) and HSE as competitors

  7. Biokompatible Polymere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Suk-Woo; Wintermantel, Erich; Maier, Gerhard

    Der klinische Einsatz von synthetischen Polymeren begann in den 60-er Jahren in Form von Einwegartikeln, wie beispielsweise Spritzen und Kathetern, vor allem aufgrund der Tatsache, dass Infektionen infolge nicht ausreichender Sterilität der wiederverwendbaren Artikel aus Glas und metallischen Werkstoffen durch den Einsatz von sterilen Einwegartikeln signifikant reduziert werden konnten [1]. Die Einführung der medizinischen Einwegartikel aus Polymeren erfolgte somit nicht nur aus ökonomischen, sondern auch aus hygienischen Gründen. Wegen der steigenden Anzahl synthetischer Polymere und dem zunehmenden Bedarf an ärztlicher Versorgung reicht die Anwendung von Polymeren in der Medizin von preisgünstigen Einwegartikeln, die nur kurzzeitig intrakorporal eingesetzt werden, bis hin zu Implantaten, welche über eine längere Zeit grossen Beanspruchungen im menschlichen Körper ausgesetzt sind. Die steigende Verbreitung von klinisch eingesetzten Polymeren ist auf ihre einfache und preisgünstige Verarbeitbarkeit in eine Vielzahl von Formen und Geometrien sowie auf ihr breites Eigenschaftsspektrum zurückzuführen. Polymere werden daher in fast allen medizinischen Bereichen eingesetzt.

  8. A liver stress-endocrine nexus promotes metabolic integrity during dietary protein dilution

    PubMed Central

    Maida, Adriano; Zota, Annika; Sjøberg, Kim A.; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P.; Pfenninger, Anja; Christensen, Marie M.; Gantert, Thomas; Fuhrmeister, Jessica; Rothermel, Ulrike; Schmoll, Dieter; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Iovanna, Juan L.; Stemmer, Kerstin; Herzig, Stephan; Rose, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary protein intake is linked to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although dietary protein dilution (DPD) can slow the progression of some aging-related disorders, whether this strategy affects the development and risk for obesity-associated metabolic disease such as T2D is unclear. Here, we determined that DPD in mice and humans increases serum markers of metabolic health. In lean mice, DPD promoted metabolic inefficiency by increasing carbohydrate and fat oxidation. In nutritional and polygenic murine models of obesity, DPD prevented and curtailed the development of impaired glucose homeostasis independently of obesity and food intake. DPD-mediated metabolic inefficiency and improvement of glucose homeostasis were independent of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), but required expression of liver-derived fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in both lean and obese mice. FGF21 expression and secretion as well as the associated metabolic remodeling induced by DPD also required induction of liver-integrated stress response–driven nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1). Insufficiency of select nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) was necessary and adequate for NUPR1 and subsequent FGF21 induction and secretion in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that DPD promotes improved glucose homeostasis through an NEAA insufficiency–induced liver NUPR1/FGF21 axis. PMID:27548521

  9. Tumor suppressor protein C53 antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai; Wu, Jianchun; He, Chen; Yang, Wending; Li, Honglin

    2009-04-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint. More recently, Wang et al. (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor by way of inhibiting NF-kappaB signaling. We report here the identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexpression. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with Chk1 and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53 protein is localized at the centrosome, and centrosome-targeting C53 potently promotes local Cdk1 activation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that C53 is a novel negative regulator of checkpoint response. By counteracting Chk1, C53 promotes Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry in both unperturbed cell-cycle progression and DNA damage response.

  10. Type II integral membrane protein, TM of J paramyxovirus promotes cell-to-cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuo; Hung, Cher; Paterson, Reay G; Michel, Frank; Fuentes, Sandra; Place, Ryan; Lin, Yuan; Hogan, Robert J; Lamb, Robert A; He, Biao

    2015-10-06

    Paramyxoviruses include many important animal and human pathogens. Most paramyxoviruses have two integral membrane proteins: fusion protein (F) and attachment proteins hemagglutinin, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase, or glycoprotein (G), which are critical for viral entry into cells. J paramyxovirus (JPV) encodes four integral membrane proteins: F, G, SH, and transmembrane (TM). The function of TM is not known. In this work, we have generated a viable JPV lacking TM (JPV∆TM). JPV∆TM formed opaque plaques compared with JPV. Quantitative syncytia assays showed that JPV∆TM was defective in promoting cell-to-cell fusion (i.e., syncytia formation) compared with JPV. Furthermore, cells separately expressing F, G, TM, or F plus G did not form syncytia whereas cells expressing F plus TM formed some syncytia. However, syncytia formation was much greater with coexpression of F, G, and TM. Biochemical analysis indicates that F, G, and TM interact with each other. A small hydrophobic region in the TM ectodomain from amino acid residues 118 to 132, the hydrophobic loop (HL), was important for syncytial promotion, suggesting that the TM HL region plays a critical role in cell-to-cell fusion.

  11. A liver stress-endocrine nexus promotes metabolic integrity during dietary protein dilution.

    PubMed

    Maida, Adriano; Zota, Annika; Sjøberg, Kim A; Schumacher, Jonas; Sijmonsma, Tjeerd P; Pfenninger, Anja; Christensen, Marie M; Gantert, Thomas; Fuhrmeister, Jessica; Rothermel, Ulrike; Schmoll, Dieter; Heikenwälder, Mathias; Iovanna, Juan L; Stemmer, Kerstin; Kiens, Bente; Herzig, Stephan; Rose, Adam J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary protein intake is linked to an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although dietary protein dilution (DPD) can slow the progression of some aging-related disorders, whether this strategy affects the development and risk for obesity-associated metabolic disease such as T2D is unclear. Here, we determined that DPD in mice and humans increases serum markers of metabolic health. In lean mice, DPD promoted metabolic inefficiency by increasing carbohydrate and fat oxidation. In nutritional and polygenic murine models of obesity, DPD prevented and curtailed the development of impaired glucose homeostasis independently of obesity and food intake. DPD-mediated metabolic inefficiency and improvement of glucose homeostasis were independent of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), but required expression of liver-derived fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) in both lean and obese mice. FGF21 expression and secretion as well as the associated metabolic remodeling induced by DPD also required induction of liver-integrated stress response-driven nuclear protein 1 (NUPR1). Insufficiency of select nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) was necessary and adequate for NUPR1 and subsequent FGF21 induction and secretion in hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, these data indicate that DPD promotes improved glucose homeostasis through an NEAA insufficiency-induced liver NUPR1/FGF21 axis.

  12. The Arabidopsis PLAT domain protein1 promotes abiotic stress tolerance and growth in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Albacete, Alfonso; van der Graaff, Eric; Eom, Seung Hee; Großkinsky, Dominik K; Böhm, Hannah; Janschek, Ursula; Rim, Yeonggil; Ali, Walid Wahid; Kim, Soo Young; Roitsch, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    Plant growth and consequently crop yield can be severely compromised by abiotic and biotic stress conditions. Transgenic approaches that resulted in increased tolerance against abiotic stresses often were typically accompanied by adverse effects on plant growth and fitness under optimal growing conditions. Proteins that belong to the PLAT-plant-stress protein family harbour a single PLAT (Polycystin, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-toxin and Triacylglycerol lipase) domain and are ubiquitously present in monocot and dicot plant species. Until now, only limited data is available for PLAT-plant-stress family members, which suggested that these proteins in general could promote tolerance towards stress responses. We studied the function of the Arabidopsis PLAT-plant-stress protein AtPLAT1 employing heterologous gain-of-function analysis in tobacco. AtPLAT1 conferred increased abiotic stress tolerance in tobacco, evident by improved tolerance towards cold, drought and salt stresses, and promoted growth, reflected by a faster development under non-stressed conditions. However, the overexpression of AtPLAT1 in tobacco reduced the tolerance towards biotic stress conditions and, therefore, could be involved in regulating the crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress responses. Thus, we showed that heterologously expressed AtPLAT1 functions as positive regulator of abiotic stress tolerance and plant growth, which could be an important new asset for strategies to develop plants with improved abiotic stress tolerance, without growth and subsequent yield penalties under optimal growth conditions.

  13. Ubiquitin-like protein UBL5 promotes the functional integrity of the Fanconi anemia pathway.

    PubMed

    Oka, Yasuyoshi; Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Mailand, Niels

    2015-05-12

    Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) function in a wide array of cellular processes. UBL5 is an atypical UBL that does not form covalent conjugates with cellular proteins and which has a known role in modulating pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we report an unexpected involvement of human UBL5 in promoting the function of the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway for repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), mediated by a specific interaction with the central FA pathway component FANCI. UBL5-deficient cells display spliceosome-independent reduction of FANCI protein stability, defective FANCI function in response to DNA damage and hypersensitivity to ICLs. By mapping the sequence determinants underlying UBL5-FANCI binding, we generated separation-of-function mutants to demonstrate that key aspects of FA pathway function, including FANCI-FANCD2 heterodimerization, FANCD2 and FANCI monoubiquitylation and maintenance of chromosome stability after ICLs, are compromised when the UBL5-FANCI interaction is selectively inhibited by mutations in either protein. Together, our findings establish UBL5 as a factor that promotes the functionality of the FA DNA repair pathway.

  14. Heterologous protein expression in Trichoderma reesei using the cbhII promoter.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanju; Wei, Dongzhi; Wang, Wei

    2013-09-01

    To express homologous or heterologous proteins in fungi, a protein expression system using the promoter of cellobiohydrolase II gene (cbhII) was constructed by generating an expression vector called pWEIIF00. The obtained vector possesses the left and right borders, a hygromycin phosphotransferase B selective marker and a strong promoter and terminator of cbhII from Trichoderma reesei. It can easily undergo random recombination. The applicability of the vector was tested by red fluorescent protein gene (DsRed2) expression detection in T. reesei Rut C30. Using this system, a recombinant Cel5A variant, N342R (Qin et al., 2008), was then selected to express in Rut-C30. Compared to that of the parent strain, integration of the N342R gene resulted in 31.09% increased carboxymethyl-cellulose-degrading (CMCase) activity at pH 5.0 and 56.06% increased activity at pH 6.0. The increased CMCase activity of the recombinant strains would be beneficial for its application uses in multiple industries. The vector constructed in this study can used in fungi to produce industrial proteins.

  15. Antibodies against a Surface Protein of Streptococcus pyogenes Promote a Pathological Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Fredrik; Mörgelin, Matthias; Shannon, Oonagh; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Herwald, Heiko; Olin, Anders I.; Björck, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) caused by Streptococcus pyogenes is a clinical condition with a high mortality rate despite modern intensive care. A key feature of STSS is excessive plasma leakage leading to hypovolemic hypotension, disturbed microcirculation and multiorgan failure. Previous work has identified a virulence mechanism in STSS where M1 protein of S. pyogenes forms complexes with fibrinogen that activate neutrophils to release heparin-binding protein (HBP), an inducer of vascular leakage. Here, we report a marked inter-individual difference in the response to M1 protein–induced HBP release, a difference found to be related to IgG antibodies directed against the central region of the M1 protein. To elicit massive HBP release, such antibodies need to be part of the M1 protein–fibrinogen complexes. The data add a novel aspect to bacterial pathogenesis where antibodies contribute to the severity of disease by promoting a pathologic inflammatory response. PMID:18787689

  16. CDK6 binds and promotes the degradation of the EYA2 protein

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Dawn; Crary, Jennifer; Zimmer, Marc; Patrick, Aaron N; Ford, Heide L; Hinds, Philip W; Grossel, Martha J

    2014-01-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) is a D-Cyclin-activated kinase that is directly involved in driving the cell cycle through inactivation of pRB in G1 phase. Increasingly, evidence suggests that CDK6, while directly driving the cell cycle, may only be essential for proliferation of specialized cell types, agreeing with the notion that CDK6 also plays an important role in differentiation. Here, evidence is presented that CDK6 binds to and promotes degradation of the EYA2 protein. The EYA proteins are a family of proteins that activate genes essential for the development of multiple organs, regulate cell proliferation, and are misregulated in several types of cancer. This interaction suggests that CDK6 regulates EYA2 activity, a mechanism that could be important in development and in cancer. PMID:24196439

  17. Are the interactions between recombinant prion proteins and polymeric surfaces related to the hydrophilic/hydrophobic balance?

    PubMed

    Vrlinic, Tjasa; Debarnot, Dominique; Legeay, Gilbert; Coudreuse, Arnaud; El Moualij, Benaissa; Zorzi, Willy; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Quadrio, Isabelle; Mozetic, Miran; Poncin-Epaillard, Fabienne

    2012-06-01

    New non-fouling tubes are developed and their influence on the adhesion of neuroproteins is studied. Recombinant prion proteins are considered as a single component representative of hydrophobic proteins. Samples are stored for 24 h at 4 °C in tubes coated with two different coatings: poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) as a hydrophilic surface and a plasma-fluorinated coating as a hydrophobic one. The protein adhesion is monitored by ELISA tests, XPS and confocal microscopy. It appears that the highest recovery of recombinant prion protein in the liquid phase is obtained with the hydrophilic surface while the hydrophobic character of the storage tube induces an important amount of biological loss. However, the recovery is not complete even for tubes coated with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide).

  18. A phagemid vector using the E. coli phage shock promoter facilitates phage display of toxic proteins.

    PubMed

    Beekwilder, J; Rakonjac, J; Jongsma, M; Bosch, D

    1999-03-04

    Phage display is a powerful tool with which to adapt the specificity of protease inhibitors. To this end, a library of variants of the potato protease inhibitor PI2 was introduced in a canonical phagemid vector. Although PI2 is a natural trypsin inhibitor, we were unable to select trypsin-binding variants from the library. Instead, only mutants carrying deletions or amber stop codons were found. Bacteria carrying these mutations had a much faster growth rate than those carrying the wt PI2-encoding gene, even when the promoter was repressed. To overcome these problems, two new phagemid vectors for g3-mediated phage display were constructed. The first vector has a lower plasmid copy number, as compared to the canonical vector. Bacteria harboring this new vector are much less affected by the presence of the PI2-g3 fusion gene, which appears from a markedly reduced growth retardation. A second vector was equipped with the promoter of the Escherichia coli psp operon, instead of the lac promoter, to control the PI2-g3 gene fusion expression. The psp promoter is induced upon helper phage infection. A phagemid vector with this promoter controlling a PI2-g3 gene fusion did not affect the viability of the host. Furthermore, both new vectors were shown to produce phage particles that display the inhibitor protein and were therefore considered suitable for phage display. The inhibitor library was introduced in both new vectors. Trypsin-binding phages with inhibitory sequences were selected, instead of sequences with stop codons or deletions. This demonstrates the usefulness of these new vectors for phage display of proteins that affect the viability of E. coli.

  19. Promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity in corn microsomal membranes by calcium and protein phosphorylation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paliyath, G.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    1988-01-01

    Regulation of the activity of beta-glucan synthase was studied using microsomal preparations from corn coleoptiles. The specific activity as measured by the incorporation of glucose from uridine diphospho-D-[U-14C]glucose varied between 5 to 15 pmol (mg protein)-1 min-1. Calcium promoted beta-glucan synthase activity and the promotion was observed at free calcium concentrations as low as 1 micromole. Kinetic analysis of substrate-velocity curve showed an apparent Km of 1.92 x 10(-4) M for UDPG. Calcium increased the Vmax from 5.88 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 in the absence of calcium to 9.52 x 10(-7) mol liter-1 min-1 and 1.66 x 10(-6) mol liter-1 min-1 in the presence of 0.5 mM and 1 mM calcium, respectively. The Km values remained the same under these conditions. Addition of ATP further increased the activity above the calcium-promoted level. Sodium fluoride, a phosphoprotein phosphatase inhibitor, promoted glucan synthase activity indicating that phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are involved in the regulation of the enzyme activity. Increasing the concentration of sodium fluoride from 0.25 mM to 10 mM increased glucan synthase activity five-fold over the + calcium + ATP control. Phosphorylation of membrane proteins also showed a similar increase under these conditions. Calmodulin, in the presence of calcium and ATP stimulated glucan synthase activity substantially, indicating that calmodulin could be involved in the calcium-dependent phosphorylation and promotion of beta-glucan synthase activity. The role of calcium in mediating auxin action is discussed.

  20. Radiation-induced graft polymerization is the key to develop high-performance functional materials for protein purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Kyoichi; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Kim, Min; Kubota, Noboru; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Sugo, Takanobu

    1999-05-01

    We have described a preparation scheme for immobilizing polymer chains at a uniformly high density onto a microfiltration membrane. Highly efficient protein recovery was demonstrated by the results of the determination of breakthrough and elution curves. The three requirements of high rate, high capacity, and repeated use for the protein recovery were satisfied by ensuring the occurrence of convection, multilayer binding, and hydrophilization, respectively. In addition, easy scale-up to fabrication of a membrane module was verified on a small scale.

  1. Gadd45a Protein Promotes Skeletal Muscle Atrophy by Forming a Complex with the Protein Kinase MEKK4*♦

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Steven A.; Seo, Seongjin; Schilling, Birgit; Dyle, Michael C.; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Ebert, Scott M.; DeLau, Austin D.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a serious and highly prevalent condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Previous work found that skeletal muscle atrophy involves an increase in skeletal muscle Gadd45a expression, which is necessary and sufficient for skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. However, the direct mechanism by which Gadd45a promotes skeletal muscle atrophy was unknown. To address this question, we biochemically isolated skeletal muscle proteins that associate with Gadd45a as it induces atrophy in mouse skeletal muscle fibers in vivo. We found that Gadd45a interacts with multiple proteins in skeletal muscle fibers, including, most prominently, MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that was not previously known to play a role in skeletal muscle atrophy. Furthermore, we found that, by forming a complex with MEKK4 in skeletal muscle fibers, Gadd45a increases MEKK4 protein kinase activity, which is both sufficient to induce skeletal muscle fiber atrophy and required for Gadd45a-mediated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. Together, these results identify a direct biochemical mechanism by which Gadd45a induces skeletal muscle atrophy and provide new insight into the way that skeletal muscle atrophy occurs at the molecular level. PMID:27358404

  2. A novel lumazine synthase molecule from Brucella significantly promotes the immune-stimulation effects of antigenic protein.

    PubMed

    Du, Z Q; Wang, J Y

    2015-10-27

    Brucella, an intracellular parasite that infects some livestock and humans, can damage or destroy the reproductive system of livestock. The syndrome is referred to as brucellosis and often occurs in pastoral areas; it is contagious from livestock to humans. In this study, the intact Brucella suis outer membrane protein 31 (omp31) gene was cloned, recombinantly expressed, and examined as a subunit vaccine candidate. The intact Brucella lumazine synthase (bls) gene was cloned and recombinantly expressed to study polymerization function in vitro. Non-reducing gel electrophoresis showed that rBs-BLS existed in different forms in vitro, including as a dimer and a pentamer. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay result showed that rOmp31 protein could induce production of an antibody in rabbits. However, the rOmp31-BLS fusion protein could elicit a much higher antibody titer in rabbits; this construct involved fusion of the Omp31 molecule with the BLS molecule. Our results indicate that Omp31 is involved in immune stimulation, while BLS has a polymerizing function based on rOmp31-BLS fusion protein immunogenicity. These data suggest that Omp31 is an ideal subunit vaccine candidate and that the BLS molecule is a favorable transport vector for antigenic proteins.

  3. HyCCAPP as a tool to characterize promoter DNA-protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Guillen-Ahlers, Hector; Rao, Prahlad K; Levenstein, Mark E; Kennedy-Darling, Julia; Perumalla, Danu S; Jadhav, Avinash Y L; Glenn, Jeremy P; Ludwig-Kubinski, Amy; Drigalenko, Eugene; Montoya, Maria J; Göring, Harald H; Anderson, Corianna D; Scalf, Mark; Gildersleeve, Heidi I S; Cole, Regina; Greene, Alexandra M; Oduro, Akua K; Lazarova, Katarina; Cesnik, Anthony J; Barfknecht, Jared; Cirillo, Lisa A; Gasch, Audrey P; Shortreed, Michael R; Smith, Lloyd M; Olivier, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Currently available methods for interrogating DNA-protein interactions at individual genomic loci have significant limitations, and make it difficult to work with unmodified cells or examine single-copy regions without specific antibodies. In this study, we describe a physiological application of the Hybridization Capture of Chromatin-Associated Proteins for Proteomics (HyCCAPP) methodology we have developed. Both novel and known locus-specific DNA-protein interactions were identified at the ENO2 and GAL1 promoter regions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and revealed subgroups of proteins present in significantly different levels at the loci in cells grown on glucose versus galactose as the carbon source. Results were validated using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Overall, our analysis demonstrates that HyCCAPP is an effective and flexible technology that does not require specific antibodies nor prior knowledge of locally occurring DNA-protein interactions and can now be used to identify changes in protein interactions at target regions in the genome in response to physiological challenges.

  4. Thermal Conductive and Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Composites Based on Solution-Exfoliated Boron Nitride and Graphene Nanosheets: A Morphology-Promoted Synergistic Effect.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xieliang; Ding, Peng; Zhuang, Nan; Shi, Liyi; Song, Na; Tang, Shengfu

    2015-09-02

    In this work, we reported a synergistic effect of boron nitride (BN) with graphene nanosheets on the enhancement of thermal conductive and mechanical properties of polymeric composites. Here, few layered BN (s-BN) and graphene (s-GH) were used and obtained by liquid exfoliation method. The polystyrene (PS) and polyamide 6 (PA) composites were obtained via solution blending method and subsequently hot-pressing. The experimental results suggested that the thermal conductivity (TC) of the PS and PA composites increases with additional introduction of s-BN. For example, compared with the composites containing 20 wt % s-GH, additional introduction of only 1.5 wt % s-BN could increase the TC up to 38 and 34% in polystyrene (PS) and polyamide 6 (PA) matrix, respectively. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties of the composites were synchronously enhanced. It was found that s-BN filled in the interspaces of s-GH sheets and formed s-BN/s-GH stacked structure, which were helpful for the synchronously improving TC and mechanical properties of the polymeric materials.

  5. Identification of regions within the Legionella pneumophila VipA effector protein involved in actin binding and polymerization and in interference with eukaryotic organelle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Bugalhão, Joana N; Mota, Luís Jaime; Franco, Irina S

    2016-02-01

    The Legionella pneumophila effector protein VipA is an actin nucleator that co-localizes with actin filaments and early endosomes in infected macrophages and which interferes with organelle trafficking when expressed in yeast. To identify the regions of VipA involved in its subcellular localization and functions, we ectopically expressed specific VipA mutant proteins in eukaryotic cells. This indicated that the characteristic punctate distribution of VipA depends on its NH2 -terminal (amino acid residues 1-133) and central coiled-coil (amino acid residues 133-206) regions, and suggested a role for the COOH-terminal (amino acid residues 206-339) region in association with actin filaments and for the NH2 -terminal in co-localization with early endosomes. Co-immunoprecipitation and in vitro assays showed that the COOH-terminal region of VipA is necessary and sufficient to mediate actin binding, and is essential but insufficient to induce microfilament formation. Assays in yeast revealed that the NH2 and the COOH-terminal regions, and possibly an NPY motif within the NH2 region of VipA, are necessary for interference with organelle trafficking. Overall, this suggests that subversion of eukaryotic vesicular trafficking by VipA involves both its ability to associate with early endosomes via its NH2 -terminal region and its capacity to bind and polymerize actin through its COOH-terminal region.

  6. Phosphoinositides and membrane curvature switch the mode of actin polymerization via selective recruitment of toca-1 and Snx9.

    PubMed

    Gallop, Jennifer L; Walrant, Astrid; Cantley, Lewis C; Kirschner, Marc W

    2013-04-30

    The membrane-cytosol interface is the major locus of control of actin polymerization. At this interface, phosphoinositides act as second messengers to recruit membrane-binding proteins. We show that curved membranes, but not flat ones, can use phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P] along with phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] to stimulate actin polymerization. In this case, actin polymerization requires the small GTPase cell cycle division 42 (Cdc42), the nucleation-promoting factor neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and the actin nucleator the actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex. In liposomes containing PI(4,5)P2 as the sole phosphoinositide, actin polymerization requires transducer of Cdc42 activation-1 (toca-1). In the presence of phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, polymerization is both more efficient and independent of toca-1. Under these conditions, sorting nexin 9 (Snx9) can be implicated as a specific adaptor that replaces toca-1 to mobilize neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein and the Arp2/3 complex. This switch in phosphoinositide and adaptor specificity for actin polymerization from membranes has implications for how different types of actin structures are generated at precise times and locations in the cell.

  7. PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATORs stabilize CONSTANS protein to promote flowering in response to day length.

    PubMed

    Hayama, Ryosuke; Sarid-Krebs, Liron; Richter, René; Fernández, Virginia; Jang, Seonghoe; Coupland, George

    2017-04-03

    Seasonal reproduction in many organisms requires detection of day length. This is achieved by integrating information on the light environment with an internal photoperiodic time-keeping mechanism. Arabidopsis thaliana promotes flowering in response to long days (LDs), and CONSTANS (CO) transcription factor represents a photoperiodic timer whose stability is higher when plants are exposed to light under LDs. Here, we show that PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR) proteins directly mediate this stabilization. PRRs interact with and stabilize CO at specific times during the day, thereby mediating its accumulation under LDs. PRR-mediated stabilization increases binding of CO to the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), leading to enhanced FT transcription and early flowering under these conditions. PRRs were previously reported to contribute to timekeeping by regulating CO transcription through their roles in the circadian clock. We propose an additional role for PRRs in which they act upon CO protein to promote flowering, directly coupling information on light exposure to the timekeeper and allowing recognition of LDs.

  8. Platelet adhesion and protein adsorption on silicone rubber surface by ozone-induced grafted polymerization with carboxybetaine monomer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Yuan, Jiang; Zang, Xiaopeng; Shen, Jian; Lin, Sicong

    2005-03-10

    Platelet adhesion and protein adsorption on the silicone rubber film grafted with N,N'-dimethyl-N-methacryloyloxyethyl-N-(2-carboxyethyl) ammonium (DMMCA) was studied. The grafting was carried out by means of ozone-induced method and was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and XPS investigations. The grafted films possessed relatively hydrophilic surface revealed by contact angle measurement. The blood compatibility of the grafted film was evaluated in vitro by platelet adhesion in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and protein absorption in bovine fibrinogen (BFG) using silicone film as the reference. No substantial platelet adhesion was observed for the grafted films incubated in PRP for 60 and 180 min. The protein absorption was also significantly reduced after incubated in bovine fibrinogen for 60 min. Both the results indicated that the blood compatibility of silicone rubber was greatly improved by ozone-induced grafting of carboxybetaine zwitterionic polymer onto its surface.

  9. Ixodes scapularis dystroglycan-like protein promotes Borrelia burgdorferi migration from the gut.

    PubMed

    Coumou, Jeroen; Narasimhan, Sukanya; Trentelman, Jos J; Wagemakers, Alex; Koetsveld, Joris; Ersoz, Jasmin I; Oei, Anneke; Fikrig, Erol; Hovius, Joppe W

    2016-03-01

    The causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by Ixodes ticks. During tick feeding, B. burgdorferi migrates from the tick gut to the salivary glands from where transmission to the host occurs. B. burgdorferi-interacting tick proteins might serve as vaccine targets to thwart B. burgdorferi transmission. A previous screening for B. burgdorferi-interacting Ixodes scapularis gut proteins identified an I. scapularis putative dystroglycan protein (ISCW015049). Here, we describe the ISCW015049's protein structure and its cellular location in the tick gut in relation to B. burgdorferi migration. Secondly, in vivo B. burgdorferi-tick attachment murine models were performed to study the role of ISCW015049 during B. burgdorferi migration and transmission. In silico analysis confirmed that ISCW015049 is similar to dystroglycan and was named I. scapularis dystroglycan-like protein (ISDLP). Confocal microscopy of gut tissue showed that ISDLP is expressed on the surface of gut cells, is upregulated during tick feeding, and is expressed significantly higher in infected ticks compared to uninfected ticks. Inhibition of ISDLP by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in lower B. burgdorferi transmission to mice. In conclusion, we have identified a dystroglycan-like protein in I. scapularis gut that can bind to B. burgdorferi and promotes B. burgdorferi migration from the tick gut. Key messages: B. burgdorferi exploits tick proteins to orchestrate its transmission to the host. B. burgdorferi is able bind to an I. scapularis dystroglycan-like protein (ISDLP). Inhibition of ISDLP in ticks results in lower B. burgdorferi transmission to mice. ISDLP is a potential target to prevent Lyme borreliosis.

  10. Effects of protein molecular weight on the intrinsic material properties and release kinetics of wet spun polymeric microfiber delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Danya M; Zhang, Linda; Furtado, Stacia; Hopkins, Richard A; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Wet spun microfibers have great potential for the design of multifunctional controlled release scaffolds. Understanding aspects of drug delivery and mechanical strength, specific to protein molecular weight, may aid in the optimization and development of wet spun fiber platforms. This study investigated the intrinsic material properties and release kinetics of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) wet spun microfibers encapsulating proteins with varying molecular weights. A cryogenic emulsion technique developed in our laboratory was used to encapsulate insulin (5.8 kDa), lysozyme (14.3 kDa) and bovine serum albumin (BSA, 66.0 kDa) within wet spun microfibers (~100 μm). Protein loading was found to significantly influence mechanical strength and drug release kinetics of PLGA and PLLA microfibers in a molecular-weight-dependent manner. BSA encapsulation resulted in the most significant decrease in strength and ductility for both PLGA and PLLA microfibers. Interestingly, BSA-loaded PLGA microfibers had a twofold increase (8±2 MPa to 16±1 MPa) in tensile strength and a fourfold increase (3±1% to 12±6%) in elongation until failure in comparison to PLLA microfibers. PLGA and PLLA microfibers exhibited prolonged protein release up to 63 days in vitro. Further analysis with the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model determined that the mechanism of protein release was dependent on Fickian diffusion. These results emphasize the critical role protein molecular weight has on the properties of wet spun filaments, highlighting the importance of designing small molecular analogues to replace growth factors with large molecular weights.

  11. Pax3 and regulation of the melanocyte-specific tyrosinase-related protein-1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Galibert, M D; Yavuzer, U; Dexter, T J; Goding, C R

    1999-09-17

    Previous work has established that the melanocyte-specific tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1) promoter is regulated positively by the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor Mitf, acting through the conserved M box and negatively by the T-box factor Tbx2, which can bind two "melanocyte-specific elements" termed the MSEu and MSEi. Both the MSEu and MSEi, which share a 6-base pair GTGTGA consensus, are also recognized by a previously unidentified melanocyte-specific factor, MSF. Here we show using a combination of DNA binding assays, proteolytic clipping, and anti-Pax3 antibodies that MSF is indistinguishable from Pax3, a paired homeodomain transcription factor implicated genetically in melanocyte development and the regulation of the Mitf promoter. Consistent with Pax3 being able to bind the TRP-1 promoter, Pax3 is expressed in melanocytes and melanomas, and TRP-1 promoter activity is up-regulated by Pax3. The results identify a novel role for Pax3 in the expression of TRP-1, and the potential role of Pax3 in the melanocyte lineage is discussed.

  12. Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein promotes the secretion of Xenopus laevis vitellogenin A1.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Jeremy A; Hou, Li; Schoenberg, Daniel R; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia R; Wahli, Walter; Shelness, Gregory S

    2005-04-08

    Vitellogenins (Vtg) are ancient lipid transport and storage proteins and members of the large lipid transfer protein (LLTP) gene family, which includes insect apolipophorin II/I, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and the microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). Lipidation of Vtg occurs at its site of synthesis in vertebrate liver, insect fat body, and nematode intestine; however, the mechanism of Vtg lipid acquisition is unknown. To explore whether Vtg biogenesis requires the apoB cofactor and LLTP family member, MTP, Vtg was expressed in COS cells with and without coexpression of the 97-kDa subunit of human MTP. Expression of Vtg alone gave rise to a approximately 220-kDa apoprotein, which was predominantly confined to an intracellular location. Coexpression of Vtg with human MTP enhanced Vtg secretion by 5-fold, without dramatically affecting its intracellular stability. A comparison of wild type and a triglyceride transfer-defective form of MTP revealed that both were capable of promoting Vtg secretion, whereas only wild type MTP could promote the secretion of apoB41 (amino-terminal 41% of apoB). These studies demonstrate that the biogenesis of Vtg is MTP-dependent and that MTP is the likely ancestral member of the LLTP gene family.

  13. Loss of Par3 promotes lung adenocarcinoma metastasis through 14-3-3ζ protein.

    PubMed

    Song, Tong; Tian, Xia; Kai, Fan; Ke, Jiang; Wei, Zhai; Jing-Song, Li; Si-Hua, Wang; Jian-Jun, Wang

    2016-09-27

    Partitioning defective protein 3 (Par3) can activate the Tiam1/Rac pathway to inhibit invasion and metastasis in many cancers; however, the role of Par3 in lung adenocarcinoma remains unknown. Here we show that Par3 is downregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and is associated with higher rates of lymph node metastasis and recurrence. Our functional study demonstrated that knock-down of Par3 promoted lung adenocarcinoma cell growth, cell migration, tumor formation, and metastasis, all of which were effectively inhibited when 14-3-3ζ was silenced. We found that Par3 binded with 14-3-3ζ protein and also showed that Par3 abrogated the binding of 14-3-3ζ to Tiam1, which was responsible for Rac1 activation. Knock-down of 14-3-3ζ inhibited Tiam1/Rac-GTP activation and blocked the invasive behavior of cells lacking Par3. These data suggest that loss of Par3 promotes metastatic behavior in lung adenocarcinoma cells through 14-3-3ζ protein.

  14. A novel DNA replication origin identified in the human heat shock protein 70 gene promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Taira, T; Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Ariga, H

    1994-01-01

    A general and sensitive method for the mapping of initiation sites of DNA replication in vivo, developed by Vassilev and Johnson, has revealed replication origins in the region of simian virus 40 ori, in the regions upstream from the human c-myc gene and downstream from the Chinese hamster dihydrofolate reductase gene, and in the enhancer region of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene. Here we report that the region containing the promoter of the human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) gene was identified as a DNA replication origin in HeLa cells by this method. Several segments of the region were cloned into pUC19 and examined for autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) activity. The plasmids carrying the segments replicated episomally and semiconservatively when transfected into HeLa cells. The segments of ARS activity contained the sequences previously identified as binding sequences for a c-myc protein complex (T. Taira, Y. Negishi, F. Kihara, S. M. M. Iguchi-Ariga, and H. Ariga, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1130:166-174, 1992). Mutations introduced within the c-myc protein complex binding sequences abolished the ARS activity. Moreover, the ARS plasmids stably replicated at episomal state for a long time in established cell lines. The results suggest that the promoter region of the human hsp70 gene plays a role in DNA replication as well as in transcription. Images PMID:8065368

  15. Introduction of the carbohydrate-activated promoter P(malK) for recombinant protein production.

    PubMed

    Boström, M; Larsson, G

    2002-07-01

    A production protocol for the use of the malK promoter was established. The protocol includes two phases: an initial fed-batch phase on glucose to reach a high cell density and a fed-batch phase on maltose for production of the desired recombinant protein. It is suggested that this cultivation scheme could be used for all promoters that are catabolite repressed by glucose and where growth and production need to be separated. The specific feature of this system is shown by its ability to control the rate of synthesis of the product protein, ss-galactosidase. In the production phase with a constant feed or an exponential feeding of 0.1 h(-1) it took 4 h longer to reach the maximum specific production rate than with the higher dilution rates of 0.25 h(-1) and 0.4 h(-1), respectively. In the above experiments a dilution rate of 0.3 h(-1) in the growth phase was used. The volumetric production of this system could furthermore be extended to 40 h. All protocol procedures so far tested resulted in the same maximum production rate, but reached in different lengths of time. It is argued that this system is particularly well suited for the production of proteins that have a complex structure and/or need to be produced in a soluble form or to be exported to the periplasm.

  16. Loss of Par3 promotes lung adenocarcinoma metastasis through 14-3-3ζ protein

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Song; Xia, Tian; Fan, Kai; Jiang, Ke; Zhai, Wei; Li, Jing-Song; Wang, Si-Hua; Wang, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Partitioning defective protein 3 (Par3) can activate the Tiam1/Rac pathway to inhibit invasion and metastasis in many cancers; however, the role of Par3 in lung adenocarcinoma remains unknown. Here we show that Par3 is downregulated in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and is associated with higher rates of lymph node metastasis and recurrence. Our functional study demonstrated that knock-down of Par3 promoted lung adenocarcinoma cell growth, cell migration, tumor formation, and metastasis, all of which were effectively inhibited when 14-3-3ζ was silenced. We found that Par3 binded with 14-3-3ζ protein and also showed that Par3 abrogated the binding of 14-3-3ζ to Tiam1, which was responsible for Rac1 activation. Knock-down of 14-3-3ζ inhibited Tiam1/Rac-GTP activation and blocked the invasive behavior of cells lacking Par3. These data suggest that loss of Par3 promotes metastatic behavior in lung adenocarcinoma cells through 14-3-3ζ protein. PMID:27588399

  17. Human hedgehog interacting protein expression and promoter methylation in medulloblastoma cell lines and primary tumor samples

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Mehdi H.; Afzal, Mohammad; Sinha, Subrata; Eberhart, Charles G.; Rey, Juan A.; Fan, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most common pediatric brain tumor and its development is affected by genetic and epigenetic factors. In this study we found there is low or no expression of the hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP), a negative regulator of the sonic hedgehog pathway, in most medulloblastoma cell lines and primary samples explored. We proceeded to promoter methylation assays of this gene by MCA-Meth, and found that HHIP was hypermethylated in all medulloblastoma cell lines, but only in 2 out of 14 (14%) primary tumor samples. Methylation correlated with low or unexpressed HHIP in cell lines but not in primary tumor samples. These results suggest the possibility of epigenetic regulation of HHIP in medulloblastoma, similarly to gastric, hepatic and pancreatic cancer. However, HHIP seems to be not only under regulation of promoter methylation, but under other factors involved in the control of its low levels of expression in medulloblastoma. PMID:20853133

  18. A new method for the production of gelatin microparticles for controlled protein release from porous polymeric scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Ozkizilcik, Asya; Tuzlakoglu, Kadriye

    2014-03-01

    Tissue engineering using scaffolds and growth factors is a crucial approach in bone regeneration and repair. The combination of bioactive agents carrying microparticles with porous scaffolds can be an efficient solution when controlled release of bio-signalling molecules is required. The present study was based on a recent approach using a biodegradable scaffold and protein-loaded microparticles produced in an innovative manner in which protein loss is minimized during the loading process. Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded gelatin microparticles were obtained by grinding freeze-dried membranes of gelatin and BSA. Porous scaffolds (250-355 µm pore size) produced from a polyactide (PLLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL) blend by salt leaching/supercritical CO₂ methods were used for the experiments. Gelatin microparticles containing three different BSA amounts were incorporated into the porous scaffolds by using a surfactant. In vitro release profiles showed up to 90% protein loading efficiency. This novel method appears to be an effective approach for producing particles that can minimize protein loss during the loading process.

  19. Protein precipitation behavior of condensed tannins from Lotus pedunculatus and Trifolium repens with different mean degrees of polymerization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The precipitation of bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme (LYS), and alfalfa leaf protein (ALF) by two large- and two medium-sized condensed tannin (CT) fractions of similar flavan-3-ol subunit composition is described. CT fractions isolated from white clover flowers and big trefoil leaves exhibited...

  20. AlkB homolog 3-mediated tRNA demethylation promotes protein synthesis in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yuko; Ooshio, Ikumi; Fusamae, Yasuyuki; Kitae, Kaori; Kawaguchi, Megumi; Jingushi, Kentaro; Hase, Hiroaki; Harada, Kazuo; Hirata, Kazumasa; Tsujikawa, Kazutake

    2017-01-01

    The mammalian AlkB homolog (ALKBH) family of proteins possess a 2-oxoglutarate- and Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase domain. A similar domain in the Escherichia coli AlkB protein catalyzes the oxidative demethylation of 1-methyladenine (1-meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3-meC) in both DNA and RNA. AlkB homolog 3 (ALKBH3) was also shown to demethylate 1-meA and 3-meC (induced in single-stranded DNA and RNA by a methylating agent) to reverse the methylation damage and retain the integrity of the DNA/RNA. We previously reported the high expression of ALKBH3 in clinical tumor specimens and its involvement in tumor progression. In this study, we found that ALKBH3 effectively demethylated 1-meA and 3-meC within endogenously methylated RNA. Moreover, using highly purified recombinant ALKBH3, we identified N6-methyladenine (N6-meA) in mammalian transfer RNA (tRNA) as a novel ALKBH3 substrate. An in vitro translation assay showed that ALKBH3-demethylated tRNA significantly enhanced protein translation efficiency. In addition, ALKBH3 knockdown in human cancer cells impaired cellular proliferation and suppressed the nascent protein synthesis that is usually accompanied by accumulation of the methylated RNAs. Thus, our data highlight a novel role for ALKBH3 in tumor progression via RNA demethylation and subsequent protein synthesis promotion. PMID:28205560

  1. G-protein coupled receptor BAI3 promotes myoblast fusion in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Hamoud, Noumeira; Tran, Viviane; Croteau, Louis-Philippe; Kania, Artur; Côté, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Muscle fibers form as a result of myoblast fusion, yet the cell surface receptors regulating this process are unknown in vertebrates. In Drosophila, myoblast fusion involves the activation of the Rac pathway by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Myoblast City and its scaffolding protein ELMO, downstream of cell-surface cell-adhesion receptors. We previously showed that the mammalian ortholog of Myoblast City, DOCK1, functions in an evolutionarily conserved manner to promote myoblast fusion in mice. In search for regulators of myoblast fusion, we identified the G-protein coupled receptor brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI3) as a cell surface protein that interacts with ELMO. In cultured cells, BAI3 or ELMO1/2 loss of function severely impaired myoblast fusion without affecting differentiation and cannot be rescued by reexpression of BAI3 mutants deficient in ELMO binding. The related BAI protein family member, BAI1, is functionally distinct from BAI3, because it cannot rescue the myoblast fusion defects caused by the loss of BAI3 function. Finally, embryonic muscle precursor expression of a BAI3 mutant unable to bind ELMO was sufficient to block myoblast fusion in vivo. Collectively, our findings provide a role for BAI3 in the relay of extracellular fusion signals to their intracellular effectors, identifying it as an essential transmembrane protein for embryonic vertebrate myoblast fusion. PMID:24567399

  2. Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Alters Substrate Metabolism While Promoting Protein Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-08-19

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after ECMO remains high.Cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown and may impact recovery. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis. Fourteen immature piglets (7.8-15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8 hour-ECMO (UNLOAD) and post-wean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused [2-13C]-pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [13C6]-L-leucine, as a tracer of amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis into the coronary artery. RELOAD showed marked elevations in myocardial oxygen consumption above baseline and UNLOAD. Pyruvate uptake was markedly increased though RELOAD decreased pyruvate contribution to oxidative CAC metabolism.RELOAD also increased absolute concentrations of all CAC intermediates, while maintaining or increasing 13C-molar percent enrichment. RELOAD also significantly increased cardiac fractional protein synthesis rates by >70% over UNLOAD. Conclusions: RELOAD produced high energy metabolic requirement and rebound protein synthesis. Relative pyruvate decarboxylation decreased with RELOAD while promoting anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation and amino acid incorporation into protein rather than to the CAC for oxidation. These perturbations may serve as therapeutic targets to improve contractile function after ECMO.

  3. Telomere binding protein TRB1 is associated with promoters of translation machinery genes in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schrumpfová, Petra Procházková; Vychodilová, Ivona; Hapala, Jan; Schořová, Šárka; Dvořáček, Vojtěch; Fajkus, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Recently we characterised TRB1, a protein from a single-myb-histone family, as a structural and functional component of telomeres in Arabidopsis thaliana. TRB proteins, besides their ability to bind specifically to telomeric DNA using their N-terminally positioned myb-like domain of the same type as in human shelterin proteins TRF1 or TRF2, also possess a histone-like domain which is involved in protein-protein interactions e.g., with POT1b. Here we set out to investigate the genome-wide localization pattern of TRB1 to reveal its preferential sites of binding to chromatin in vivo and its potential functional roles in the genome-wide context. Our results demonstrate that TRB1 is preferentially associated with promoter regions of genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, in addition to its roles at telomeres. This preference coincides with the frequent occurrence of telobox motifs in the upstream regions of genes in this category, but it is not restricted to the presence of a telobox. We conclude that TRB1 shows a specific genome-wide distribution pattern which suggests its role in regulation of genes involved in biogenesis of the translational machinery, in addition to its preferential telomeric localization.

  4. Crystal structure of the tumor-promoter okadaic acid bound to protein phosphatase-1.

    PubMed

    Maynes, J T; Bateman, K S; Cherney, M M; Das, A K; Luu, H A; Holmes, C F; James, M N

    2001-11-23

    Protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) plays a key role in dephosphorylation in numerous biological processes such as glycogen metabolism, cell cycle regulation, smooth muscle contraction, and protein synthesis. Microorganisms produce a variety of inhibitors of PP1, which include the microcystin class of inhibitors and okadaic acid, the latter being the major cause of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning and a powerful tumor promoter. We have determined the crystal structure of the molecular complex of okadaic acid bound to PP1 to a resolution of 1.9 A. This structure reveals that the acid binds in a hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site of the protein and interacts with basic residues within the active site. Okadaic acid exhibits a cyclic structure, which is maintained via an intramolecular hydrogen bond. This is reminiscent of other macrocyclic protein phosphatase inhibitors. The inhibitor-bound enzyme shows very little conformational change when compared with two other PP1 structures, except in the inhibitor-sensitive beta12-beta13 loop region. The selectivity of okadaic acid for protein phosphatases-1 and -2A but not PP-2B (calcineurin) may be reassessed in light of this study.

  5. RNF20 promotes the polyubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of AP-2α protein.

    PubMed

    Ren, Peng; Sheng, Zhifeng; Wang, Yijun; Yi, Xin; Zhou, Qiuzhi; Zhou, Jianlin; Xiang, Shuanglin; Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Jian

    2014-02-01

    Transcription factor activator protein 2α (AP-2α) is a negative regulator of adipogenesis by repressing the transcription of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBPα) gene. During adipogenesis, AP-2α is degraded, leading to transcriptional up-regulation of C/EBPα. However, the mechanism for AP-2α degradation is not clear. Here, using immunoprecipitation assay and mass spectrometry, we identified ring finger protein 20 (RNF20) as an AP-2α-interacting protein in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. RNF20 has been proved to be an E3 ubiquitin ligase for both histone H2B and tumor suppressor ErbB3-binding protein 1 (Ebp1). In this study, we demonstrated that RNF20 co-localized and interacted with AP-2α, and promoted its polyubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation. Over-expression of RNF20 inhibited the activity of AP-2α and rescued the C/EBPα expression which was inhibited by AP-2α. These results suggested that RNF20 may play roles in adipocyte differentiation by stimulating ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation of AP-2α.

  6. Dopamine polymerization promoted by a catecholase biomimetic Cu(II)(μ-OH)Cu(II) complex containing a triazine-based ligand.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, José A F; da Silva, Marcos P; de Souza, Bernardo; Camargo, Tiago P; Szpoganicz, Bruno; Neves, Ademir; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J

    2016-10-04

    We describe herein the catecholase-like catalytic activity and dopamine polymerization by using a dinuclear [LCu(II)(μ-OH)2Cu(II)](ClO4)2 (1) complex where L is the dinucleating triazine-based ligand 6-chloro-N(2),N(2),N(4),N(4)-tetrakis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine. The kinetic parameters (kcat = 0.318 s(-1), KM = 1.6 × 10(-3) mol L(-1), and kcat/KM = 198.8 L s(-1) mol(-1)), mechanistic insights into the oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol and early characterization of poly(dopamine) are presented.

  7. Insight in the role of bovine serum albumin for promoting the in situ surface growth of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on patterned surfaces via enzymatic surface-initiated polymerization.

    PubMed

    Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Bergkvist, Magnus; Delamarre, Soazig C; Cady, Nathan C; Coates, Geoffrey W; Ober, Christopher K; Batt, Carl A

    2007-10-15

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are a family of aliphatic polyesters produced by a variety of microorganisms as a reserve of carbon and energy. Enzymes involved in the synthesis of PHAs can be utilized to produce polymers in vitro, both in bulk and on solid surfaces. Here, site-specific attachment of the key catalytic enzyme, PHA synthase, on lithographically patterned surfaces and subsequent addition of (R)-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA substrate allowed us to fabricate spatially ordered polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymeric structures via an in situ enzymatic surface-initiated polymerization (ESIP). By varying the reaction conditions, we enhanced the growth of PHB on solid surfaces and analyzed the resulting structures by fluorescence microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). We found that stabilization of smaller PHB granule structures by an addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was the most important factor for a successful synthesis of a PHB layer up to 1mum in thickness, consisting mainly of larger cluster assemblies of PHB granules that cover the entire patterned area. Immunofluorescence detection and surface contact angle analysis revealed that BSA was physically bound to the PHB polymer all through the cluster, and reduced the overall hydrophobicity of the polymer surface. Based on information obtained from AFM, kinetic measurements and various polymer characterization methods, a plausible model for roles of BSA in the enhancement of PHB formation on surfaces is discussed. Furthermore, by using biotinylated BSA conjugates, we were able to incorporate biotin groups into the PHB polymer matrix, thus generating a bioactive surface that can be used for displaying other functional biomolecules through streptavidin-biotin interaction on the PHB structures. Because of its versatility, our fabrication strategy is expected to be a useful surface

  8. MGMT promoter methylation and correlation with protein expression in primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Toffolatti, L; Scquizzato, E; Cavallin, S; Canal, F; Scarpa, M; Stefani, P M; Gherlinzoni, F; Dei Tos, A P

    2014-11-01

    The O (6)-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) gene encodes for a DNA repairing enzyme of which silencing by promoter methylation is involved in brain tumorigenesis. MGMT promoter methylation represents a favorable prognostic factor and has been associated with a better response to alkylating agents in glioma and systemic lymphoma. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare and aggressive extranodal malignant lymphoma. The current standard of care, based on high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy, has improved prognosis but outcome remains poor for a majority of patients. Therapeutic progress in this field is conditioned by limited biological and molecular knowledge about the disease. Temozolomide has recently emerged as an alternative option for PCNSL treatment. We aimed to analyze the MGMT gene methylation status in a series of 24 PCNSLs, to investigate the relationship between methylation status of the gene and immunohistochemical expression of MGMT protein and to evaluate the possible prognostic significance of these biomarkers. Our results confirm that methylation of the MGMT gene and loss of MGMT protein are frequent events in these lymphomas (54 % of our cases) and suggest that they are gender and age related. MGMT methylation showed high correlation with loss of protein expression (concordance correlation coefficient = -0.49; Fisher exact test: p < 0.01), different from what has been observed in other brain tumors. In the subgroup of ten patients who received high dose chemotherapy, the presence of methylated MGMT promoter (n = 4), seems to be associated with a prolonged overall survival (>60 months in three of four patients). The prognostic significance of these molecular markers in PCNSL needs to be further studied in groups of patients treated in a homogeneous way.

  9. A biodegradable polymeric system for peptide–protein delivery assembled with porous microspheres and nanoparticles, using an adsorption/infiltration process

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Alcalá, Sergio; Urbán-Morlán, Zaida; Aguilar-Rosas, Irene; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

    2013-01-01

    A biodegradable polymeric system is proposed for formulating peptides and proteins. The systems were assembled through the adsorption of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles onto porous, biodegradable microspheres by an adsorption/infiltration process with the use of an immersion method. The peptide drug is not involved in the manufacturing of the nanoparticles or in obtaining the microspheres; thus, contact with the organic solvent, interfaces, and shear forces required for the process are prevented during drug loading. Leuprolide acetate was used as the model peptide, and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was used as the biodegradable polymer. Leuprolide was adsorbed onto different amounts of PLGA nanoparticles (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL) in a first stage; then, these were infiltrated into porous PLGA microspheres (100 mg) by dipping the structures into a microsphere suspension. In this way, the leuprolide was adsorbed onto both surfaces (ie, nanoparticles and microspheres). Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of a nanoparticle film on the porous microsphere surface that becomes more continuous as the amount of infiltrated nanoparticles increases. The adsorption efficiency and release rate are dependent on the amount of adsorbed nanoparticles. As expected, a greater adsorption efficiency (~95%) and a slower release rate were seen (~20% of released leuprolide in 12 hours) when a larger amount of nanoparticles was adsorbed (100 mg/mL of nanoparticles). Leuprolide acetate begins to be released immediately when there are no infiltrated nanoparticles, and 90% of the peptide is released in the first 12 hours. In contrast, the systems assembled in this study released less than 44% of the loaded drug during the same period of time. The observed release profiles denoted a Fickian diffusion that fit Higuchi’s model (t1/2). The manufacturing process presented here may be useful as a potential alternative for formulating

  10. Understanding the molecular basis of plant growth promotional effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on rice through protein profiling

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens strain KH-1 was found to exhibit plant growth promotional activity in rice under both in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. But the mechanism underlying such promotional activity of P. fluorescens is not yet understood clearly. In this study, efforts were made to elucidate the molecular responses of rice plants to P. fluorescens treatment through protein profiling. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis strategy was adopted to identify the PGPR responsive proteins and the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Results Priming of P. fluorescens, 23 different proteins found to be differentially expressed in rice leaf sheaths and MS analysis revealed the differential expression of some important proteins namely putative p23 co-chaperone, Thioredoxin h- rice, Ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large chain precursor, Nucleotide diPhosphate kinase, Proteosome sub unit protein and putative glutathione S-transferase protein. Conclusion Functional analyses of the differential proteins were reported to be directly or indirectly involved in growth promotion in plants. Thus, this study confirms the primary role of PGPR strain KH-1 in rice plant growth promotion. PMID:20034395

  11. Common Functional Genetic Variants in Catecholamine Storage Vesicle Protein Promoter Motifs Interact to Trigger Systemic Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kuixing; Rao, Fangwen; Wang, Lei; Rana, Brinda K.; Ghosh, Sajalendu; Mahata, Manjula; Salem, Rany M.; Rodriguez-Flores, Juan L.; Fung, Maple M.; Waalen, Jill; Tayo, Bamidele; Taupenot, Laurent; Mahata, Sushil K.; O'Connor, Daniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to explore transcriptional mechanisms whereby genetic variation in the CHGB promoter influence BP and hypertension. Background Hypertension is a complex trait in which deranged autonomic control of the circulation may be an etiological culprit. Chromogranin B (CHGB) is a major soluble protein in the core of catecholamine storage vesicles, playing a necessary (catalytic) role in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles. Previously we found that genetic variation at CHGB influenced plasma CHGB expression as well as autonomic function, and that BP association was maximal towards the 5′ end of the gene. Methods After polymorphism discovery, we functionally characterized the 2 common variants in the proximal CHGB promoter, A-296C and A-261T, which lay within the same haplotype block in black and white populations. CHGB promoter activity was studied by haplotype/luciferase reporter transfection. Transcriptional mechanisms were probed by EMSA and ChIP. Results The A-296C variant disrupted a c-FOS motif, and exhibited differential mobility shifting to chromaffin cell nuclear proteins during EMSA, differential binding of endogenous c-FOS on ChIP, and differential transcriptional response to exogenous c-FOS. A-261T disrupted motifs for SRY and YY1, with similar consequences for gel mobility during EMSA, endogenous factor binding during ChIP, and transcriptional responses to the exogenous factors. 2-SNP haplotype analyses demonstrated a profound (p∼3×10-20) effect of CHGB promoter variation on BP in the European ancestry population, with a rank order of CTpromoter activity in cella. Site-by-site interactions at A-296C and A-261T yielded highly non-additive effects on SBP and DBP. CHGB haplotype effects on BP were also noted in an independent (African ancestry) sample. In a

  12. TP53 Promoter Methylation in Primary Glioblastoma: Relationship with TP53 mRNA and Protein Expression and Mutation Status

    PubMed Central

    Szybka, Malgorzata; Malachowska, Beata; Fendler, Wojciech; Potemski, Piotr; Piaskowski, Sylwester; Jaskolski, Dariusz; Papierz, Wielislaw; Skowronski, Wieslaw; Och, Waldemar; Kordek, Radzislaw

    2014-01-01

    Reduced expression of TP53 by promoter methylation has been reported in several neoplasms. It remains unclear whether TP53 promoter methylation is associated with reduced transcriptional and protein expression in glioblastoma (GB). The aim of our work was to study the impact of TP53 methylation and mutations on TP53 mRNA level and protein expression in 42 molecularly characterized primary GB tumors. We also evaluate the impact of all molecular alterations on the overall patient survival. The frequency of TP53 promoter methylation was found in 21.4%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing such high frequency of TP53 promoter methylation in primary GB. There was no relation between TP53 promoter methylation and TP53 mRNA level (p=0.5722) and between TP53 promoter methylation and TP53 protein expression (p=0.2045). No significant associations were found between TP53 mRNA expression and mutation of TP53 gene (p=0.9076). However, significant association between TP53 mutation and TP53 protein expression was found (p=0.0016). Our data suggest that in primary GB TP53 promoter methylation does not play a role in silencing of TP53 transcriptional and protein expression and is probably regulated by other genetic and epigenetic mechanisms associated with genes involved in the TP53 pathway. PMID:24506545

  13. A comparative study of a range of polymeric microspheres as potential carriers for the inhalation of proteins.

    PubMed

    Sivadas, Neeraj; O'Rourke, Desmond; Tobin, Aoife; Buckley, Vivienne; Ramtoola, Zeibun; Kelly, John G; Hickey, Anthony J; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2008-06-24

    The aim of this study was to compare protein-loaded inhalable microparticles manufactured using a range of biocompatible polymers including hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), chitosan, hyaluronic acid, alginate, gelatin, ovalbumin and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA). Spray-drying was used to prepare microparticles containing bovine serum albumin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA-FITC). Particles of respirable size and high protein loading were obtained. No evidence of BSA degradation was seen from PAGE analysis. The microparticles were mixed with mannitol as a carrier and powder aerosolization was assessed with a multi-dose dry powder inhaler (DPI) using a multi-stage cascade impactor. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) ranged between 2.9 and 4.7 microm. Potential polymer toxicity in the lungs was compared by impinging the particles on Calu-3 monolayers and assessing the cytotoxicity, induction of cytokine release, changes in transepithelial permeability and electrical resistance. No toxic effects were observed with most of the polymers though some evidence of compromised cell monolayer integrity was seen for PLGA and ovalbumin. PLGA and gelatin microparticles caused a significant increase in IL-8 release. Of the polymers studied, PLGA showed the greatest toxicity. Certain polymers showed particular promise for specific protein delivery needs in the lungs, such as HPC to improve flow properties, sodium hyaluronate for controlled release, and chitosan and ovalbumin for systemic delivery.

  14. The tumour suppressor APC promotes HIV-1 assembly via interaction with Gag precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Kei; Nishi, Mayuko; Matsunaga, Satoko; Okayama, Akiko; Anraku, Masaki; Kudoh, Ayumi; Hirano, Hisashi; Kimura, Hirokazu; Morikawa, Yuko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ono, Akira; Ryo, Akihide

    2017-01-30

    Diverse cellular proteins and RNAs are tightly regulated in their subcellular localization to exert their local function. Here we report that the tumour suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) directs the localization and assembly of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Gag polyprotein at distinct membrane components to enable the efficient production and spread of infectious viral particles. A proteomic analysis and subsequent biomolecular interaction assay reveals that the carboxyl terminus of APC interacts with the matrix region of Gag. Ectopic expression of APC, but not its familial adenomatous polyposis-related truncation mutant, prominently enhances HIV-1 production. Conversely, the depletion of APC leads to a significant decrease in membrane targeting of viral components, resulting in the severe loss of production of infectious virions. Furthermore, APC promotes the directional assembly of viral components at virological synapses, thereby facilitating cell-to-cell viral transmission. These findings reveal an unexpected role of APC in the directional spread of HIV-1.

  15. Activation of the beta interferon promoter by paramyxoviruses in the absence of virus protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Killip, M J; Young, D F; Precious, B L; Goodbourn, S; Randall, R E

    2012-02-01

    Conflicting reports exist regarding the requirement for virus replication in interferon (IFN) induction by paramyxoviruses. Our previous work has demonstrated that pathogen-associated molecular patterns capable of activating the IFN-induction cascade are not normally generated during virus replication, but are associated instead with the presence of defective interfering (DI) viruses. We demonstrate here that DIs of paramyxoviruses, including parainfluenza virus 5, mumps virus and Sendai virus, can activate the IFN-induction cascade and the IFN-β promoter in the absence of virus protein synthesis. As virus protein synthesis is an absolute requirement for paramyxovirus genome replication, our results indicate that these DI viruses do not require replication to activate the IFN-induction cascade.

  16. The tumour suppressor APC promotes HIV-1 assembly via interaction with Gag precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    Miyakawa, Kei; Nishi, Mayuko; Matsunaga, Satoko; Okayama, Akiko; Anraku, Masaki; Kudoh, Ayumi; Hirano, Hisashi; Kimura, Hirokazu; Morikawa, Yuko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Ono, Akira; Ryo, Akihide

    2017-01-01

    Diverse cellular proteins and RNAs are tightly regulated in their subcellular localization to exert their local function. Here we report that the tumour suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli protein (APC) directs the localization and assembly of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 Gag polyprotein at distinct membrane components to enable the efficient production and spread of infectious viral particles. A proteomic analysis and subsequent biomolecular interaction assay reveals that the carboxyl terminus of APC interacts with the matrix region of Gag. Ectopic expression of APC, but not its familial adenomatous polyposis-related truncation mutant, prominently enhances HIV-1 production. Conversely, the depletion of APC leads to a significant decrease in membrane targeting of viral components, resulting in the severe loss of production of infectious virions. Furthermore, APC promotes the directional assembly of viral components at virological synapses, thereby facilitating cell-to-cell viral transmission. These findings reveal an unexpected role of APC in the directional spread of HIV-1. PMID:28134256

  17. Construction and validation of a mCherry protein vector for promoter analysis in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Mohedano, M Luz; García-Cayuela, Tomás; Pérez-Ramos, Adrián; Gaiser, Rogier A; Requena, Teresa; López, Paloma

    2015-02-01

    Lactobacilli are widespread in natural environments and are increasingly being investigated as potential health modulators. In this study, we have adapted the broad-host-range vector pNZ8048 to express the mCherry protein (pRCR) to expand the usage of the mCherry protein for analysis of gene expression in Lactobacillus. This vector is also able to replicate in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The usage of pRCR as a promoter probe was validated in Lactobacillus acidophilus by characterizing the regulation of lactacin B expression. The results show that the regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level, with lbaB gene expression being specifically induced by co-culture of the L. acidophilus bacteriocin producer and the S. thermophilus STY-31 inducer bacterium.

  18. TIPE3 Is The Transfer Protein Of Lipid Second Messengers That Promote Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fayngerts, Svetlana A.; Wu, Jianping; Oxley, Camilla L.; Liu, Xianglan; Vourekas, Anastassios; Cathopoulis, Terry; Wang, Zhaojun; Cui, Jian; Liu, Suxia; Sun, Honghong; Lemmon, Mark A.; Zhang, Lining

    2014-01-01

    Summary More than half of human cancers have aberrantly upregulated phosphoinositide signals; yet how phospholipid signals are controlled during tumorigenesis is not fully understood. We report here that TIPE3 (TNFAIP8L3) is the transfer protein of phosphoinositide second messengers that promote cancer. High-resolution crystal structure of TIPE3 shows a large hydrophobic cavity that is occupied by a phospholipid-like molecule. TIPE3 preferentially captures and shuttles two lipid second messengers, i.e., phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate, and increases their levels in the plasma membrane. Importantly, human cancers have markedly upregulated TIPE3 expression. Knocking out TIPE3 diminishes tumorigenesis whereas enforced TIPE3 expression enhances it in vivo. Thus, the function and metabolism of phosphoinositide second messengers are controlled by a specific transfer protein during tumorigenesis. PMID:25242044

  19. Hypusine-containing protein eIF5A promotes translation elongation.

    PubMed

    Saini, Preeti; Eyler, Daniel E; Green, Rachel; Dever, Thomas E

    2009-05-07

    Translation elongation factors facilitate protein synthesis by the ribosome. Previous studies identified two universally conserved translation elongation factors, EF-Tu in bacteria (known as eEF1A in eukaryotes) and EF-G (eEF2), which deliver aminoacyl-tRNAs to the ribosome and promote ribosomal translocation, respectively. The factor eIF5A (encoded by HYP2 and ANB1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae), the sole protein in eukaryotes and archaea to contain the unusual amino acid hypusine (N(epsilon)-(4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl)lysine), was originally identified based on its ability to stimulate the yield (endpoint) of methionyl-puromycin synthesis-a model assay for first peptide bond synthesis thought to report on certain aspects of translation initiation. Hypusine is required for eIF5A to associate with ribosomes and to stimulate methionyl-puromycin synthesis. Because eIF5A did not stimulate earlier steps of translation initiation, and depletion of eIF5A in yeast only modestly impaired protein synthesis, it was proposed that eIF5A function was limited to stimulating synthesis of the first peptide bond or that eIF5A functioned on only a subset of cellular messenger RNAs. However, the precise cellular role of eIF5A is unknown, and the protein has also been linked to mRNA decay, including the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway, and to nucleocytoplasmic transport. Here we use molecular genetic and biochemical studies to show that eIF5A promotes translation elongation. Depletion or inactivation of eIF5A in the yeast S. cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of polysomes and an increase in ribosomal transit times. Addition of recombinant eIF5A from yeast, but not a derivative lacking hypusine, enhanced the rate of tripeptide synthesis in vitro. Moreover, inactivation of eIF5A mimicked the effects of the eEF2 inhibitor sordarin, indicating that eIF5A might function together with eEF2 to promote ribosomal translocation. Because eIF5A is a structural homologue of the bacterial

  20. Vegan proteins may reduce risk of cancer, obesity, and cardiovascular disease by promoting increased glucagon activity.

    PubMed

    McCarty, M F

    1999-12-01

    Amino acids modulate the secretion of both insulin and glucagon; the composition of dietary protein therefore has the potential to influence the balance of glucagon and insulin activity. Soy protein, as well as many other vegan proteins, are higher in non-essential amino acids than most animal-derived food proteins, and as a result should preferentially favor glucagon production. Acting on hepatocytes, glucagon promotes (and insulin inhibits) cAMP-dependent mechanisms that down-regulate lipogenic enzymes and cholesterol synthesis, while up-regulating hepatic LDL receptors and production of the IGF-I antagonist IGFBP-1. The insulin-sensitizing properties of many vegan diets--high in fiber, low in saturated fat--should amplify these effects by down-regulating insulin secretion. Additionally, the relatively low essential amino acid content of some vegan diets may decrease hepatic IGF-I synthesis. Thus, diets featuring vegan proteins can be expected to lower elevated serum lipid levels, promote weight loss, and decrease circulating IGF-I activity. The latter effect should impede cancer induction (as is seen in animal studies with soy protein), lessen neutrophil-mediated inflammatory damage, and slow growth and maturation in children. In fact, vegans tend to have low serum lipids, lean physiques, shorter stature, later puberty, and decreased risk for certain prominent 'Western' cancers; a vegan diet has documented clinical efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis. Low-fat vegan diets may be especially protective in regard to cancers linked to insulin resistance--namely, breast and colon cancer--as well as prostate cancer; conversely, the high IGF-I activity associated with heavy ingestion of animal products may be largely responsible for the epidemic of 'Western' cancers in wealthy societies. Increased phytochemical intake is also likely to contribute to the reduction of cancer risk in vegans. Regression of coronary stenoses has been documented during low-fat vegan diets

  1. St. John's Wort protein, p27SJ, regulates the MCP-1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, Ruma; Deshmane, Satish L; Darbinian, Nune; Czernik, Marta; Khalili, Kamel; Amini, Shohreh; Sawaya, Bassel E

    2008-09-01

    St. John's Wort is commonly known for its antiviral, antidepressant, and cytotoxic properties, but traditionally St. John's Wort has also been used to treat inflammation. In this study, we sought to characterize the mechanisms used by St. John's Wort to treat inflammation by examining the effect of the recently isolated protein from St. John's Wort, p27SJ on the expression of MCP-1. By employing an adenovirus expression vector, we demonstrate that a low concentration of p27SJ upregulates the MCP-1 promoter through the transcription factor C/EBPbeta. In addition, we found that C/EBPbeta-homologous protein (CHOP) or siRNA-C/EBPbeta significantly reduced the ability of p27SJ to activate MCP-1 gene expression. Results from protein-protein interaction studies illustrate the existence of a physical interaction between p27SJ and C/EBPbeta in microglial cells. The use of chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP) led to the identification of a new cis-element that is responsive to C/EBPbeta within the MCP-1 promoter. Association of C/EBPbeta with MCP-1 DNA was not affected by the presence of p27SJ. The biological activity of MCP-1 produced by cultures of adenovirus-p27SJ transduced cells was increased relative to controls as measured by the transmigration of human Jurkat cells. Thus, we conclude that at high concentration, p27SJ is a potential agent that may be developed as a modulator of MCP-1 leading to the inhibition of the cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses.

  2. Transcriptionally active immediate-early protein of pseudorabies virus binds to specific sites on class II gene promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Cromlish, W A; Abmayr, S M; Workman, J L; Horikoshi, M; Roeder, R G

    1989-01-01

    In the presence of partially purified pseudorabies virus immediate-early protein, multiple sites of DNase I protection were observed on the adenovirus major late and human hsp 70 promoters. Southwestern (DNA-protein blot) analysis demonstrated that the immediate-early protein bound directly to the sequences contained in these sites. These sequences share only limited homology, differ in their affinities for the immediate-early protein, and are located at different positions on these two promoters. In addition, the site-specific binding of a temperature-sensitive immediate-early protein was eliminated by the same heat treatment which eliminates its transcriptional activating function, whereas the binding of the wild-type protein was unaffected by heat treatment. Thus, site-specific binding requires a functionally active immediate-early protein. Furthermore, immediate-early-protein-dependent in vitro transcription from the major late promoter was preferentially inhibited by oligonucleotides which are homologous to the high-affinity binding sites on the major late or hsp 70 promoters. These observations suggest that transcriptional stimulation by the immediate-early protein involves binding to cis-acting elements. Images PMID:2539489

  3. Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced Hyperinsulinemia*

    PubMed Central

    Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Danai, Laura V.; DiStefano, Marina T.; Kelly, Mark; Menendez, Lorena Garcia; Jurczyk, Agata; Sharma, Rohit B.; Jung, Dae Young; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jason K.; Bortell, Rita; Alonso, Laura C.; Czech, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo. After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal. Interestingly, the reduced plasma insulin in M4K4 iKO mice exposed to chronic (16 weeks) HFD was not observed in response to acute HFD challenge or short term treatment with the insulin receptor antagonist S961. Furthermore, the improved insulin sensitivity in obese M4K4 iKO mice was abrogated by high exogenous insulin over the course of a euglycemic clamp study, indicating that hypoinsulinemia promotes insulin sensitivity in chronically obese M4K4 iKO mice. These results demonstrate that protein kinase Map4k4 drives obesity-induced hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in part by promoting insulin secretion from β cells in mice. PMID:27226575

  4. The promotion of angiogenesis by growth factors integrated with ECM proteins through coiled-coil structures.

    PubMed

    Assal, Yasmine; Mie, Masayasu; Kobatake, Eiry

    2013-04-01

    An appropriate method to bind extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and growth factors using advanced protein engineering techniques has the potential to enhance cell proliferation and differentiation for tissue regeneration and repair. In this study we developed a method to co-immobilize non-covalently an ECM protein to three different types of growth factors: basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and single-chain vascular endothelial growth factor (scVEGF121) through a coiled-coil structure formed by helixA/helixB in order to promote angiogenesis. The designed ECM was established by fusing two repeats of elastin-derived unit (APGVGV)(12), cell-adhesive sequence (RGD), laminin-derived IKVAV sequence and collagen-binding domain (CBD) to obtain CBDEREI2. HelixA was fused to each growth factor and helixB to the engineered ECM. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured on engineered ECM and growth factors connected through the coiled-coil formation between helixA and helixB. Cell proliferation and capillary tube-like formation were monitored. Moreover, the differentiated cells with high expression of Ang-2 suggested the ECM remodeling. Our approach of non-covalent coupling method should provide a protein-release control system as a new contribution in biomaterial for tissue engineering field.

  5. Nitrite promotes protein carbonylation and Strecker aldehyde formation in experimental fermented sausages: are both events connected?

    PubMed

    Villaverde, A; Ventanas, J; Estévez, M

    2014-12-01

    The role played by curing agents (nitrite, ascorbate) on protein oxidation and Strecker aldehyde formation is studied. To fulfill this objective, increasing concentrations of nitrite (0, 75 and 150ppm) and ascorbate (0, 250 and 500ppm) were added to sausages subjected to a 54day drying process. The concurrence of intense proteolysis, protein carbonylation and formation of Strecker aldehydes during processing of sausages suggests that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) may be implicated in the formation of Strecker aldehydes. The fact that nitrite (150ppm, ingoing amount) significantly promoted the formation of protein carbonyls at early stages of processing and the subsequent formation of Strecker aldehydes provides strength to this hypothesis. Ascorbate (125 and 250ppm) controlled the overall extent of protein carbonylation in sausages without declining the formation of Strecker aldehydes. These results may contribute to understanding the chemistry fundamentals of the positive influence of nitrite on the flavor and overall acceptability of cured muscle foods.

  6. The anaphase promoting complex: a critical target for viral proteins and anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Heilman, Destin W; Green, Michael R; Teodoro, Jose G

    2005-04-01

    The study of animal viruses has provided extraordinary insights into cell cycle dynamics and tumor biology. The significance of the p53 and Rb tumor suppressor proteins, for example, was discovered due to their interactions with viral oncogenes. In the past several years, investigations with four viral proteins, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr, adenovirus E4orf4, chicken anemia virus (CAV) apoptin and human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) Tax, have indicated that there are also critical viral targets involved in G2/M control. In particular, recent studies with E4orf4 and apoptin have shown that they induce G2/M arrest by targeting and inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Notably, these two viral proteins induce apoptosis selectively in transformed cells in a p53-independent manner; thus pathways affected by these proteins are of significant therapeutic interest. Further investigation of the underlying mechanism of G2/M arrest and subsequent apoptosis induced by viral APC/C inhibitors may shed light on the mechanisms of current cancer therapies and provide the foundation for developing novel therapeutic targets.

  7. Knockdown of Lingo1b protein promotes myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wu; Hu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Demyelinating diseases include multiple sclerosis, which is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by immune attacks on the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in myelin sheath damage and axonal loss. Leucine-rich repeat and immunoglobulin domain-containing neurite outgrowth inhibitory protein (Nogo) receptor-interacting protein-1 (LINGO-1) have been identified as a negative regulator of oligodendrocytes differentiation. Targeted LINGO-1 inhibition promotes neuron survival, axon regeneration, oligodendrocyte differentiation, and remyelination in diverse animal models. Although studies in rodent models have extended our understanding of LINGO-1, its roles in neural development and myelination in zebrafish (Danio rerio) are not yet clear. In this study, we cloned the zebrafish homolog of the human LINGO-1 and found that lingo1b regulated myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation. The expression of lingo1b started 1 (mRNA) and 2 (protein) days post-fertilization (dpf) in the CNS. Morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown of lingo1b resulted in developmental abnormalities, including less dark pigment, small eyes, and a curly spinal cord. The lack of lingo1b enhanced myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation during embryogenesis. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry and movement analysis showed that lingo1b was involved in the axon development of primary motor neurons. These results suggested that Lingo1b protein functions as a negative regulator of myelination and oligodendrocyte differentiation during zebrafish development.

  8. PAK proteins and YAP-1 signalling downstream of integrin beta-1 in myofibroblasts promote liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Katherine; Pritchett, James; Llewellyn, Jessica; Mullan, Aoibheann F.; Athwal, Varinder S.; Dobie, Ross; Harvey, Emma; Zeef, Leo; Farrow, Stuart; Streuli, Charles; Henderson, Neil C.; Friedman, Scott L.; Hanley, Neil A.; Piper Hanley, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Fibrosis due to extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion from myofibroblasts complicates many chronic liver diseases causing scarring and organ failure. Integrin-dependent interaction with scar ECM promotes pro-fibrotic features. However, the pathological intracellular mechanism in liver myofibroblasts is not completely understood, and further insight could enable therapeutic efforts to reverse fibrosis. Here, we show that integrin beta-1, capable of binding integrin alpha-11, regulates the pro-fibrotic phenotype of myofibroblasts. Integrin beta-1 expression is upregulated in pro-fibrotic myofibroblasts in vivo and is required in vitro for production of fibrotic ECM components, myofibroblast proliferation, migration and contraction. Serine/threonine-protein kinase proteins, also known as P21-activated kinase (PAK), and the mechanosensitive factor, Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP-1) are core mediators of pro-fibrotic integrin beta-1 signalling, with YAP-1 capable of perpetuating integrin beta-1 expression. Pharmacological inhibition of either pathway in vivo attenuates liver fibrosis. PAK protein inhibition, in particular, markedly inactivates the pro-fibrotic myofibroblast phenotype, limits scarring from different hepatic insults and represents a new tractable therapeutic target for treating liver fibrosis. PMID:27535340

  9. A Bacterial Virulence Protein Promotes Pathogenicity by Inhibiting the Bacterium's Own F1Fo ATP Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Jin; Pontes, Mauricio H.; Groisman, Eduardo A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Several intracellular pathogens including Salmonella enterica and Mycobacterium tuberculosis require the virulence protein MgtC to survive within macrophages and to cause a lethal infection in mice. We now report that, unlike secreted virulence factors that target the host vacuolar ATPase to withstand phagosomal acidity, the MgtC protein acts on Salmonella's own F1Fo ATP synthase. This complex couples proton translocation to ATP synthesis/ hydrolysis and is required for virulence. We establish that MgtC interacts with the a subunit of the F1Fo ATP synthase, hindering ATP-driven proton translocation and NADH-driven ATP synthesis in inverted vesicles. An mgtC null mutant displays heightened ATP levels and an acidic cytoplasm whereas mgtC overexpression decreases ATP levels. A single amino acid substitution in MgtC that prevents binding to the F1Fo ATP synthase abolishes control of ATP levels and attenuates pathogenicity. MgtC provides a singular example of a virulence protein that promotes pathogenicity by interfering with another virulence protein. PMID:23827679

  10. Three SAUR proteins SAUR76, SAUR77 and SAUR78 promote plant growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Hao-Wei; Li, Qing-Tian; Tao, Jian-Jun; Bian, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Biao; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene perceived by a family of five receptors regulates many developmental processes in Arabidopsis. Here we conducted the yeast two-hybrid assay to screen for additional unidentified proteins that interact with subfamily II ethylene receptor ETR2. Three SAUR proteins, named SAUR76, 77 and 78, were identified to associate with both ETR2 and EIN4 in different assays. Interaction of SAUR76 and SAUR78 with ETR2 was further verified by co-immunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. Expressions of SAUR76-78 are induced by auxin and ethylene treatments. Compared with wild type, SAUR-overexpressing plants exhibit reduced ethylene sensitivity, while SAUR-RNAi lines exhibit enhanced ethylene sensitivity. Overexpressing the three SAURs partially complements the phenotype of subfamily II ethylene receptor loss-of-function double mutant etr2-3ein4-4, which has increased ethylene response and small cotyledon and rosette. saur76 mutation partially suppresses the reduced ethylene sensitivity of etr2-2. SAUR76/78 proteins are regulated by 26S proteasome system and larger tag increases their protein stability. These findings suggest that SAUR76-78 may affect ethylene receptor signaling and promote plant growth in Arabidopsis. PMID:26207341

  11. Protein Mass-Modulated Effects in the Catalytic Mechanism of Dihydrofolate Reductase: Beyond Promoting Vibrations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The role of fast protein dynamics in enzyme catalysis has been of great interest in the past decade. Recent “heavy enzyme” studies demonstrate that protein mass-modulated vibrations are linked to the energy barrier for the chemical step of catalyzed reactions. However, the role of fast dynamics in the overall catalytic mechanism of an enzyme has not been addressed. Protein mass-modulated effects in the catalytic mechanism of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (ecDHFR) are explored by isotopic substitution (13C, 15N, and non-exchangeable 2H) of the wild-type ecDHFR (l-DHFR) to generate a vibrationally perturbed “heavy ecDHFR” (h-DHFR). Steady-state, pre-steady-state, and ligand binding kinetics, intrinsic kinetic isotope effects (KIEint) on the chemical step, and thermal unfolding experiments of both l- and h-DHFR show that the altered protein mass affects the conformational ensembles and protein–ligand interactions, but does not affect the hydride transfer at physiological temperatures (25–45 °C). Below 25 °C, h-DHFR shows altered transition state (TS) structure and increased barrier-crossing probability of the chemical step compared with l-DHFR, indicating temperature-dependent protein vibrational coupling to the chemical step. Protein mass-modulated vibrations in ecDHFR are involved in TS interactions at cold temperatures and are linked to dynamic motions involved in ligand binding at physiological temperatures. Thus, mass effects can affect enzymatic catalysis beyond alterations in promoting vibrations linked to chemistry. PMID:24820793

  12. The Membrane Protein LasM Promotes the Culturability of Legionella pneumophila in Water

    PubMed Central

    Li, Laam; Faucher, Sébastien P.

    2016-01-01

    The water-borne pathogen Legionella pneumophila (Lp) strongly expresses the lpg1659 gene in water. This gene encodes a hypothetical protein predicted to be a membrane protein using in silico analysis. While no conserved domains were identified in Lpg1659, similar proteins are found in many Legionella species and other aquatic bacteria. RT-qPCR showed that lpg1659 is positively regulated by the alternative sigma factor RpoS, which is essential for Lp to survive in water. These observations suggest an important role of this novel protein in the survival of Lp in water. Deletion of lpg1659 did not affect cell morphology, membrane integrity or tolerance to high temperature. Moreover, lpg1659 was dispensable for growth of Lp in rich medium, and during infection of the amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii and of THP-1 human macrophages. However, deletion of lpg1659 resulted in an early loss of culturability in water, while over-expression of this gene promoted the culturability of Lp. Therefore, these results suggest that lpg1659 is required for Lp to maintain culturability, and possibly long-term survival, in water. Since the loss of culturability observed in the absence of Lpg1659 was complemented by the addition of trace metals into water, this membrane protein is likely a transporter for acquiring essential trace metal for maintaining culturability in water and potentially in other metal-deprived conditions. Given its role in the survival of Lp in water, Lpg1659 was named LasM for Legionella aquatic survival membrane protein. PMID:27734007

  13. The cellular transcription factor SP1 and an unknown cellular protein are required to mediate Rep protein activation of the adeno-associated virus p19 promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, D J; Muzyczka, N

    1997-01-01

    Control of adeno-associated virus (AAV) transcription from the three AAV promoters (p5, p19, and p40) requires the adenovirus E1a protein and the AAV nonstructural (Rep) proteins. The Rep proteins have been shown to repress the AAV p5 promoter yet facilitate activation of the p19 and p40 promoters during a productive infection. To elucidate the mechanism of promoter regulation by the AAV Rep proteins, the cellular factors involved in mediating Rep activation of the p19 promoter were characterized. A series of protein-DNA binding experiments using extracts derived from uninfected HeLa cells was performed to identify cellular factors that bind to the p19 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, DNase I protection analyses, and UV cross-linking experiments demonstrated specific interactions with the cellular factor SP1 (or an SP1-like protein) at positions -50 and -130 relative to the start of p19 transcription. Additionally, an unknown cellular protein (cellular AAV activating protein [cAAP]) with an approximate molecular mass of 34 kDa was found to interact with a CArG-like element at position -140. Mutational analysis of the p19 promoter suggested that the SP1 site at -50 and the cAAP site at -140 were necessary to mediate Rep activation of p19. Antibody precipitation experiments demonstrated that Rep-SP1 protein complexes can exist in vivo. Although Rep was demonstrated to interact with p19 DNA directly, the affinity of Rep binding was much lower than that seen for the Rep binding elements within the terminal repeat and the p5 promoter. Furthermore, the interaction of purified Rep68 with the p19 promoter in vitro was negligible unless purified SP1 was also added to the reaction. Thus, the ability of Rep to transactivate the p19 promoter is likely to involve SP1-Rep protein contacts that facilitate Rep interaction with p19 DNA. PMID:9032303

  14. DMA Modulus as a Screening Parameter for Compatibility of Polymeric Containment Materials with Various Solutions for use in Space Shuttle Microgravity Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Charles Doug; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Protein crystals are grown in microgravity experiments inside the Space Shuttle during orbit. Such crystals are basically grown in a five-component system containing a salt, buffer, polymer, organic and water. During these experiments, a number of different polymeric containment materials must be compatible with up to hundreds of different PCG solutions in various concentrations for durations up to 180 days. When such compatibility experiments are performed at NASA/MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) simultaneously on containment material samples immersed in various solutions in vials, the samples are rather small out of necessity. DMA4 modulus was often used as the primary screening parameter for such small samples as a pass/fail criterion for incompatibility issues. In particular, the TA Instruments DMA 2980 film tension clamp was used to test rubber O-rings as small in I.D. as 0.091 in. by cutting through the cross-section at one place, then clamping the stretched linear cord stock at each end. The film tension clamp was also used to successfully test short length samples of medical/surgical grade tubing with an O.D. of 0.125 in.

  15. Tripartite motif containing 28 (TRIM28) promotes breast cancer metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chunli; Cheng, Jingliang; Zhou, Boxv; Zhu, Li; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; He, Tao; Zhou, Sufang; He, Jian; Lu, Xiaoling; Chen, Hanchun; Zhang, Dianzheng; Zhao, Yongxiang; Fu, Junjiang

    2016-01-01

    TRIM28 regulates its target genes at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Here we report that a TRIM28-TWIST1-EMT axis exists in breast cancer cells and TRIM28 promotes breast cancer metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1 and subsequently enhancing EMT. We find that TRIM28 is highly expressed in both cancer cell lines and advanced breast cancer tissues, and the levels of TRIM28 and TWIST1 are positively correlated with the aggressiveness of breast carcinomas. Overexpression and depletion of TRIM28 up- and down-regulates the protein, but not the mRNA levels of TWIST1, respectively, suggesting that TRIM28 upregulates TWIST1 post-transcriptionally. Overexpression of TRIM28 in breast cancer cell line promotes cell migration and invasion. Knockdown of TRIM28 reduces the protein level of TWIST1 with concurrent upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin and consequently inhibits cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, Immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays demonstrated that TRIM28 interacts with TWIST1 directly and this interaction is presumed to protect TWIST1 from degradation. Our study revealed a novel mechanism in breast cancer cells that TRIM28 enhances metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1, suggesting that targeting TRIM28 could be an efficacious strategy in breast cancer treatment. PMID:27412325

  16. Axl Phosphorylates Elmo Scaffold Proteins To Promote Rac Activation and Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Thuraia, Afnan; Gauthier, Rosemarie; Chidiac, Rony; Fukui, Yoshinori; Screaton, Robert A.; Gratton, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase Axl contributes to cell migration and invasion. Expression of Axl correlates with metastatic progression in cancer patients, yet the specific signaling events promoting invasion downstream of Axl are poorly defined. Herein, we report Elmo scaffolds to be direct substrates and binding partners of Axl. Elmo proteins are established to interact with Dock family guanine nucleotide exchange factors to control Rac-mediated cytoskeletal dynamics. Proteomics and mutagenesis studies reveal that Axl phosphorylates Elmo1/2 on a conserved carboxyl-terminal tyrosine residue. Upon Gas6-dependent activation of Axl, endogenous Elmo2 becomes phosphorylated on Tyr-713 and enters into a physical complex with Axl in breast cancer cells. Interfering with Elmo2 expression prevented Gas6-induced Rac1 activation in breast cancer cells. Similarly to blocking of Axl, Elmo2 knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of Dock1 abolishes breast cancer cell invasion. Interestingly, Axl or Elmo2 knockdown diminishes breast cancer cell proliferation. Rescue of Elmo2 knockdown cells with the wild-type protein but not with Elmo2 harboring Tyr-713-Phe mutations restores cell invasion and cell proliferation. These results define a new mechanism by which Axl promotes cell proliferation and invasion and identifies inhibition of the Elmo-Dock pathway as a potential therapeutic target to stop Axl-induced metastases. PMID:25332238

  17. Translationally controlled tumor protein supplemented chitosan modified glass ionomer cement promotes osteoblast proliferation and function.

    PubMed

    Sangsuwan, Jiraporn; Wanichpakorn, Supreya; Kedjarune-Leggat, Ureporn

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) supplemented in a novel glass ionomer cement (BIO-GIC) on normal human osteoblasts (NHost cells). BIO-GIC was a glass ionomer cement (GIC) modified by adding chitosan and albumin to promote the release of TCTP. NHost cells were seeded on specimens of GIC, GIC+TCTP, BIO-GIC and BIO-GIC+TCTP. Cell proliferation was determined by BrdU assay. It was found that BIO-GIC+TCTP had significantly higher proliferation of cells than other specimens. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and osteopontin (OPN) gene expressions assessed by quantitative real time PCR and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were used to determine cell differentiation. Bone cell function was investigated by calcium deposition using alizarin assay. Both BMP-2 and OPN gene expressions of cells cultured on specimens with added TCTP increased gradually up-regulation after day 1 and reached the highest on day 3 then down-regulation on day 7. The ALP activity of cells cultured on BIO-GIC+TCTP for 7 days and calcium content after 14 days were significantly higher than other groups. BIO-GIC+TCTP can promote osteoblast cells proliferation, differentiation and function.

  18. LINGO-1 promotes lysosomal degradation of amyloid-β protein precursor.

    PubMed

    de Laat, Rian; Meabon, James S; Wiley, Jesse C; Hudson, Mark P; Montine, Thomas J; Bothwell, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Sequential proteolytic cleavages of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase generate amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which are thought to contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Much of this processing occurs in endosomes following endocytosis of AβPP from the plasma membrane. However, this pathogenic mode of processing AβPP may occur in competition with lysosomal degradation of AβPP, a common fate of membrane proteins trafficking through the endosomal system. Following up on published reports that LINGO-1 binds and promotes the amyloidogenic processing of AβPP we have examined the consequences of LINGO-1/AβPP interactions. We report that LINGO-1 and its paralogs, LINGO-2 and LINGO-3, decrease processing of AβPP in the amyloidogenic pathway by promoting lysosomal degradation of AβPP. We also report that LINGO-1 levels are reduced in AD brain, representing a possible pathogenic mechanism stimulating the generation of Aβ peptides in AD.

  19. Transcriptional factor DLX3 promotes the gene expression of enamel matrix proteins during amelogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhichun; Tian, Hua; Lv, Ping; Wang, Weiping; Jia, Zhuqing; Wang, Sainan; Zhou, Chunyan; Gao, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    Mutation of distal-less homeobox 3 (DLX3) is responsible for human tricho-dento-osseous syndrome (TDO) with amelogenesis imperfecta, indicating a crucial role of DLX3 in amelogenesis. However, the expression pattern of DLX3 and its specific function in amelogenesis remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of DLX3 on enamel matrix protein (EMP) genes. By immunohistochemistry assays of mouse tooth germs, stronger immunostaining of DLX3 protein was identified in ameloblasts in the secretory stage than in the pre-secretory and maturation stages, and the same pattern was found for Dlx3 mRNA using Realtime PCR. In a mouse ameloblast cell lineage, forced expression of DLX3 up-regulated the expression of the EMP genes Amelx, Enam, Klk4, and Odam, whereas knockdown of DLX3 down-regulated these four EMP genes. Further, bioinformatics, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and luciferase assays revealed that DLX3 transactivated Enam, Amelx, and Odam through direct binding to their enhancer regions. Particularly, over-expression of mutant-DLX3 (c.571_574delGGGG, responsible for TDO) inhibited the activation function of DLX3 on expression levels and promoter activities of the Enam, Amelx, and Odam genes. Together, our data show that DLX3 promotes the expression of the EMP genes Amelx, Enam, Klk4, and Odam in amelogenesis, while mutant-DLX3 disrupts this regulatory function, thus providing insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the enamel defects of TDO disease.

  20. Repression of the Drosophila proliferating-cell nuclear antigen gene promoter by zerknuellt protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Hirose, Fumiko; Nishida, Yasuyoshi; Matsukage, Akio )

    1991-10-01

    A 631-bp fragment containing the 5{prime}-flanking region of the Drosophila melanogaster proliferating-cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) gene was placed upstream of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene of a CAT vector. A transient expression assay of CAT activity in Drosophila Kc cells transfected with this plasmid and a set of 5{prime}-deletion derivatives revealed that the promoter function resided within a 192-bp region. Cotransfection with a zerknuellt (zen)-expressing plasmid specifically repressed CAT expression. However, cotransfection with expression plasmids for a nonfunctional zen mutation, even skipped, or bicoid showed no significant effect on CAT expression. RNase protection analysis revealed that the repression by zen was at the transcription step. The target sequence of zen was mapped within the 34-bp region of the PCNA gene promoter, even though it lacked zen protein-binding sites. Transgenic flies carrying the PCNA gene regulatory region fused with lacZ were established. These results indicate that zen indirectly represses PCNA gene expression, probably by regulating the expression of some transcription factor(s) that binds to the PCNA gene promoter.

  1. Alternative promoters regulate transcription of the gene that encodes stem cell surface protein AC133.

    PubMed

    Shmelkov, Sergey V; Jun, Lin; St Clair, Ryan; McGarrigle, Deirdre; Derderian, Christopher A; Usenko, Jaroslav K; Costa, Carla; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Xinzheng; Rafii, Shahin

    2004-03-15

    AC133 is a member of a novel family of cell surface proteins with 5 transmembrane domains. The function of AC133 is unknown. Although AC133 mRNA is detected in different tissues, its expression in the hematopoietic system is restricted to CD34+ stem cells. AC133 is also expressed on stem cells of other tissues, including endothelial progenitor cells. However, despite the potential importance of AC133 to the field of stem cell biology, nothing is known about the transcriptional regulation of AC133 expression. In this report we showed that the human AC133 gene has at least 9 distinctive 5'-untranslated region (UTR) exons, resulting in the formation of at least 7 alternatively spliced 5'-UTR isoforms of AC133 mRNA, which are expressed in a tissue-dependent manner. We found that transcription of these AC133 isoforms is controlled by 5 alternative promoters, and we demonstrated their activity on AC133-expressing cell lines using a luciferase reporter system. We also showed that in vitro methylation of 2 of these AC133 promoters completely suppresses their activity, suggesting that methylation plays a role in their regulation. Identification of tissue-specific AC133 promoters may provide a novel method to isolate tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells.

  2. Direct inhibition of TNF-α promoter activity by Fanconi anemia protein FANCD2.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Nobuko; Endo, Yujiro; Sato, Koichi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Takayuki; Takata, Minoru; Yanagi, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA), an inherited disease, is associated with progressive bone marrow failure, predisposition to cancer, and genomic instability. Genes corresponding to 15 identified FA complementation groups have been cloned, and each gene product functions in the response to DNA damage induced by cross-linking agents and/or in protection against genome instability. Interestingly, overproduction of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and aberrant activation of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional activity have been observed in FA cells. Here we demonstrated that FANCD2 protein inhibits NF-κB activity in its monoubiquitination-dependent manner. Furthermore, we detected a specific association between FANCD2 and an NF-κB consensus element in the TNF-α promoter by electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay. Therefore, we propose FANCD2 deficiency promotes transcriptional activity of the TNF-α promoter and induces overproduction of TNF-which then sustains prolonged inflammatory responses. These results also suggest that artificial modulation of TNFα production could be a promising therapeutic approach to FA.

  3. RNA-Binding Protein AUF1 Promotes Myogenesis by Regulating MEF2C Expression Levels

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Amaresh C.; Abdelmohsen, Kotb; Yoon, Je-Hyun; Martindale, Jennifer L.; Yang, Xiaoling; Curtis, Jessica; Mercken, Evi M.; Chenette, Devon M.; Zhang, Yongqing; Schneider, Robert J.; Becker, Kevin G.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian RNA-binding protein AUF1 (AU-binding factor 1, also known as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D [hnRNP D]) binds to numerous mRNAs and influences their posttranscriptional fate. Given that many AUF1 target mRNAs encode muscle-specific factors, we investigated the function of AUF1 in skeletal muscle differentiation. In mouse C2C12 myocytes, where AUF1 levels rise at the onset of myogenesis and remain elevated throughout myocyte differentiation into myotubes, RNP immunoprecipitation (RIP) analysis indicated that AUF1 binds prominently to Mef2c (myocyte enhancer factor 2c) mRNA, which encodes the key myogenic transcription factor MEF2C. By performing mRNA half-life measurements and polysome distribution analysis, we found that AUF1 associated with the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of Mef2c mRNA and promoted MEF2C translation without affecting Mef2c mRNA stability. In addition, AUF1 promoted Mef2c gene transcription via a lesser-known role of AUF1 in transcriptional regulation. Importantly, lowering AUF1 delayed myogenesis, while ectopically restoring MEF2C expression levels partially rescued the impairment of myogenesis seen after reducing AUF1 levels. We propose that MEF2C is a key effector of the myogenesis program promoted by AUF1. PMID:24891619

  4. Nerve Growth Factor Promoter Activity Revealed in Mice Expressing Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kawaja, Michael D.; Smithson, Laura J.; Elliott, Janet; Trinh, Gina; Crotty, Anne-Marie; Michalski, Bernadeta; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) and its precursor proNGF are perhaps the best described growth factors of the mammalian nervous system. There remains, however, a paucity of information regarding the precise cellular sites of proNGF/NGF synthesis. Here we report the generation of transgenic mice in which the NGF promoter controls the ectopic synthesis of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). These transgenic mice provide an unprecedented resolution of both neural cells (e.g., neocortical and hippocampal neurons) and non-neural cells (e.g., renal interstitial cells and thymic reticular cells) that display NGF promoter activity from postnatal development to adulthood. Moreover, the transgene is inducible by injury. At 2 days after sciatic nerve ligation, a robust population of EGFP-positive cells is seen in the proximal nerve stump. These transgenic mice offer novel insights into the cellular sites of NGF promoter activity and can be used as models for investigating the regulation of proNGF/NGF expression after injury. PMID:21456011

  5. Protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2 promotes invadopodia formation through suppression of Rho signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wan-Chen; Chen, Chien-Lin; Chen, Hong-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Invadopodia are actin-enriched membrane protrusions that are important for extracellular matrix degradation and invasive cell motility. Src homolog domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2), a non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase, has been shown to play an important role in promoting cancer metastasis, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, we found that depletion of SHP2 by short-hairpin RNA suppressed invadopodia formation in several cancer cell lines, particularly in the SAS head and neck squamous cell line. In contrast, overexpression of SHP2 promoted invadopodia formation in the CAL27 head and neck squamous cell line, which expresses low levels of endogenous SHP2. The depletion of SHP2 in SAS cells significantly decreased their invasive motility. The suppression of invadopodia formation by SHP2 depletion was restored by the Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme (a Rho GTPase inhibitor) or Y27632 (a specific inhibitor for Rho-associated kinase). Together, our results suggest that SHP2 may promote invadopodia formation through inhibition of Rho signaling in cancer cells. PMID:26204488

  6. Matrix Gla protein (MGP) promoter polymorphic variants and its serum level in stenosis of coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mohammad; Roustazadeh, Abazar; Amirfarhangi, Abdollah; Kazemi, Bahram

    2014-03-01

    Although the role of matrix Gla protein (MGP) is not completely known but, its expression within subendothelial macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells is suggested to be involved in vascular calcification. In this study, we investigated the associations between the serum MGP levels and the MGP promoter high minor allele frequency (MAF) variants with the development of stenosis in coronary arteries. Moreover, we evaluated the allele changes within predicted transcription factor elements with bioinformatics tools. 182 subjects were recruited from who underwent coronary angiography. The MGP promoter rs1800801, rs1800802 and rs1800799 genotypes and haplotypes were detected by ARMS-RFLP PCR techniques. The serum MGP concentration was measured using ELISA method. Jaspar profiles were used for scoring the polymorphic variations within the transcription factor elements. The genotype and two-allelic haplotype distributions were not significant between the patient and control groups (P > 0.05). The serum MGP levels had not significant differences between the genotypes (P > 0.1) and haplotypes (P > 0.4). Based on the prediction studies, we did not observe significant differences between the polymorphic scores in the predicted elements (P > 0.05). We concluded that the genotype and haplotype distributions of the MGP promoter high-MAF polymorphisms, as confirmed in the prediction studies and the serum MGP level are not significantly associated with the coronary artery disease. Based on the study results, the MGP protein did not play an important role in the development of stenosis of coronary arteries.

  7. Method of preparing water purification membranes. [polymerization of allyl amine as thin films in plasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Allyl amine and chemically related compounds are polymerized as thin films in the presence of a plasma discharge. The monomer compound can be polymerized by itself or in the presence of an additive gas to promote polymerization and act as a carrier. The polymerized films thus produced show outstanding advantages when used as reverse osmosis membranes.

  8. Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 promotes house dust mite-induced airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xianglan; Gao, Meixia; Dai, Cuilian; Meyer, Katharine S; Chen, Jichun; Keeran, Karen J; Nugent, Gayle Z; Qu, Xuan; Yu, Zu-Xi; Dagur, Pradeep K; McCoy, J Philip; Levine, Stewart J

    2013-12-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition protein (Pglyrp) 1 is a pattern-recognition protein that mediates antibacterial host defense. Because we had previously shown that Pglyrp1 expression is increased in the lungs of house dust mite (HDM)-challenged mice, we hypothesized that it might modulate the pathogenesis of asthma. Wild-type and Pglyrp1(-/-) mice on a BALB/c background received intranasal HDM or saline, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. HDM-challenged Pglyrp1(-/-) mice showed decreases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophils and lymphocytes, serum IgE, and mucous cell metaplasia, whereas airway hyperresponsiveness was not changed when compared with wild-type mice. T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines were reduced in the lungs of HDM-challenged Pglyrp1(-/-) mice, which reflected a decreased number of CD4(+) Th2 cells. There was also a reduction in C-C chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung homogenates from HDM-challenged Pglyrp1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, secretion of CCL17, CCL22, and CCL24 by alveolar macrophages from HDM-challenged Pglyrp1(-/-) mice was markedly reduced. As both inflammatory cells and airway epithelial cells express Pglyrp1, bone marrow transplantation was performed to generate chimeric mice and assess which cell type promotes HDM-induced airway inflammation. Chimeric mice lacking Pglyrp1 on hematopoietic cells, not structural cells, showed a reduction in HDM-induced eosinophilic and lymphocytic airway inflammation. We conclude that Pglyrp1 expressed by hematopoietic cells, such as alveolar macrophages, mediates HDM-induced airway inflammation by up-regulating the production of C-C chemokines that recruit eosinophils and Th2 cells to the lung. This identifies a new family of innate immune response proteins that promotes HDM-induced airway inflammation in asthma.

  9. Vaccinia virus protein C4 inhibits NF-κB activation and promotes virus virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ember, Stuart W. J.; Ren, Hongwei; Ferguson, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Western Reserve protein C4 has been characterized and its function and contribution to virus virulence assessed. Bioinformatic analysis showed that C4 is conserved in six orthopoxvirus species and shares 43 % amino acid identity with VACV protein C16, a known virulence factor. A recombinant VACV expressing a C-terminally tagged version of C4 showed that, like C16, this 37 kDa protein is expressed early during infection and localizes to both the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Functional assays using a firefly luciferase reporter plasmid under the control of a nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-dependent promoter demonstrated that C4 inhibits NF-κB activation at, or downstream of, the inhibitor of kappa kinase (IKK) complex. Consistent with this, C4 inhibited interleukin-1β-induced translocation of p65 into the nucleus. A VACV lacking the C4L gene (vΔC4) showed no significant differences from wild-type virus in growth kinetics or spread in cell culture, but had reduced virulence in a murine intranasal model of infection. vΔC4-infected mice exhibited fewer symptoms, lost less weight and recovered 7 days earlier than animals infected with control viruses expressing C4. Furthermore, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from vΔC4-infected mice had increased cell numbers at day 5 post-infection, which correlated with reduced lung virus titres from this time onward. C4 represents the ninth VACV protein to inhibit NF-κB activation and remarkably, in every case examined, loss of each protein individually caused an alteration in virus virulence, despite the presence of other NF-κB inhibitors. PMID:22791606

  10. Dynamic Loading and Unloading of Proteins in Polymeric Stomatocytes: Formation of an Enzyme-Loaded Supramolecular Nanomotor.

    PubMed

    Abdelmohsen, Loai K E A; Nijemeisland, Marlies; Pawar, Gajanan M; Janssen, Geert-Jan A; Nolte, Roeland J M; van Hest, Jan C M; Wilson, Daniela A

    2016-02-23

    Self-powered artificial nanomotors are currently attracting increased interest as mimics of biological motors but also as potential components of nanomachinery, robotics, and sensing devices. We have recently described the controlled shape transformation of polymersomes into bowl-shaped stomatocytes and the assembly of platinum-driven nanomotors. However, the platinum encapsulation inside the structures was low; only 50% of the structures contained the catalyst and required both high fuel concentrations for the propelling of the nanomotors and harsh conditions for the shape transformation. Application of the nanomotors in a biological setting requires the nanomotors to be efficiently propelled by a naturally available energy source and at biological relevant concentrations. Here we report a strategy for enzyme entrapment and nanomotor assembly via controlled and reversible folding of polymersomes into stomatocytes under mild conditions, allowing the encapsulation of the proteins inside the stomach with almost 100% efficiency and retention of activity. The resulting enzyme-driven nanomotors are capable of propelling these structures at low fuel concentrations (hydrogen peroxide or glucose) via a one-enzyme or two-enzyme system. The confinement of the enzymes inside the stomach does not hinder their activity and in fact facilitates the transfer of the substrates, while protecting them from the deactivating influences of the media. This is particularly important for future applications of nanomotors in biological settings especially for systems where fast autonomous movement occurs at physiological concentrations of fuel.

  11. ISGylation controls exosome secretion by promoting lysosomal degradation of MVB proteins.

    PubMed

    Villarroya-Beltri, Carolina; Baixauli, Francesc; Mittelbrunn, María; Fernández-Delgado, Irene; Torralba, Daniel; Moreno-Gonzalo, Olga; Baldanta, Sara; Enrich, Carlos; Guerra, Susana; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2016-11-24

    Exosomes are vesicles secreted to the extracellular environment through fusion with the plasma membrane of specific endosomes called multivesicular bodies (MVB) and mediate cell-to-cell communication in many biological processes. Posttranslational modifications are involved in the sorting of specific proteins into exosomes. Here we identify ISGylation as a ubiquitin-like modification that controls exosome release. ISGylation induction decreases MVB numbers and impairs exosome secretion. Using ISG15-knockout mice and mice expressing the enzymatically inactive form of the de-ISGylase USP18, we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that ISG15 conjugation regulates exosome secretion. ISG15 conjugation triggers MVB co-localization with lysosomes and promotes the aggregation and degradation of MVB proteins. Accordingly, inhibition of lysosomal function or autophagy restores exosome secretion. Specifically, ISGylation of the MVB protein TSG101 induces its aggregation and degradation, being sufficient to impair exosome secretion. These results identify ISGylation as a novel ubiquitin-like modifier in the control of exosome production.

  12. The Wnt secretion protein Evi/Gpr177 promotes glioma tumourigenesis.

    PubMed

    Augustin, Iris; Goidts, Violaine; Bongers, Angelika; Kerr, Grainne; Vollert, Gordon; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Hartmann, Christian; Herold-Mende, Christel; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Boutros, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are highly aggressive brain tumours with poor prognosis. While a number of structural genomic changes and dysregulation of signalling pathways in gliomas have been described, the identification of biomarkers and druggable targets remains an important task for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Here, we show that the Wnt-specific secretory protein Evi (also known as GPR177/Wntless/Sprinter) is overexpressed in astrocytic gliomas. Evi/Wls is a core Wnt signalling component and a specific regulator of pan-Wnt protein secretion, affecting both canonical and non-canonical signalling. We demonstrate that its depletion in glioma and glioma-derived stem-like cells led to decreased cell proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, Evi/Wls silencing in glioma cells reduced cell migration and the capacity to form tumours in vivo. We further show that Evi/Wls overexpression is sufficient to promote downstream Wnt signalling. Taken together, our study identifies Evi/Wls as an essential regulator of glioma tumourigenesis, identifying a pathway-specific protein trafficking factor as an oncogene and offering novel therapeutic options to interfere with the aberrant regulation of growth factors at the site of production.

  13. ISGylation controls exosome secretion by promoting lysosomal degradation of MVB proteins

    PubMed Central

    Villarroya-Beltri, Carolina; Baixauli, Francesc; Mittelbrunn, María; Fernández-Delgado, Irene; Torralba, Daniel; Moreno-Gonzalo, Olga; Baldanta, Sara; Enrich, Carlos; Guerra, Susana; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are vesicles secreted to the extracellular environment through fusion with the plasma membrane of specific endosomes called multivesicular bodies (MVB) and mediate cell-to-cell communication in many biological processes. Posttranslational modifications are involved in the sorting of specific proteins into exosomes. Here we identify ISGylation as a ubiquitin-like modification that controls exosome release. ISGylation induction decreases MVB numbers and impairs exosome secretion. Using ISG15-knockout mice and mice expressing the enzymatically inactive form of the de-ISGylase USP18, we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that ISG15 conjugation regulates exosome secretion. ISG15 conjugation triggers MVB co-localization with lysosomes and promotes the aggregation and degradation of MVB proteins. Accordingly, inhibition of lysosomal function or autophagy restores exosome secretion. Specifically, ISGylation of the MVB protein TSG101 induces its aggregation and degradation, being sufficient to impair exosome secretion. These results identify ISGylation as a novel ubiquitin-like modifier in the control of exosome production. PMID:27882925

  14. Heterochromatin protein 1 promotes self-renewal and triggers regenerative proliferation in adult stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zeng, An; Li, Yong-Qin; Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Ge; Wang, Jian-Yong; Li, Dang-Sheng; Qin, Yong-Wen; Shi, Yufang; Brewer, Gary; Jing, Qing

    2013-04-29

    Adult stem cells (ASCs) capable of self-renewal and differentiation confer the potential of tissues to regenerate damaged parts. Epigenetic regulation is essential for driving cell fate decisions by rapidly and reversibly modulating gene expression programs. However, it remains unclear how epigenetic factors elicit ASC-driven regeneration. In this paper, we report that an RNA interference screen against 205 chromatin regulators identified 12 proteins essential for ASC function and regeneration in planarians. Surprisingly, the HP1-like protein SMED-HP1-1 (HP1-1) specifically marked self-renewing, pluripotent ASCs, and HP1-1 depletion abrogated self-renewal and promoted differentiation. Upon injury, HP1-1 expression increased and elicited increased ASC expression of Mcm5 through functional association with the FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) complex, which consequently triggered proliferation of ASCs and initiated blastema formation. Our observations uncover an epigenetic network underlying ASC regulation in planarians and reveal that an HP1 protein is a key chromatin factor controlling stem cell function. These results provide important insights into how epigenetic mechanisms orchestrate stem cell responses during tissue regeneration.

  15. The Wnt secretion protein Evi/Gpr177 promotes glioma tumourigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, Iris; Goidts, Violaine; Bongers, Angelika; Kerr, Grainne; Vollert, Gordon; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Hartmann, Christian; Herold-Mende, Christel; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Boutros, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Malignant astrocytomas are highly aggressive brain tumours with poor prognosis. While a number of structural genomic changes and dysregulation of signalling pathways in gliomas have been described, the identification of biomarkers and druggable targets remains an important task for novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. Here, we show that the Wnt-specific secretory protein Evi (also known as GPR177/Wntless/Sprinter) is overexpressed in astrocytic gliomas. Evi/Wls is a core Wnt signalling component and a specific regulator of pan-Wnt protein secretion, affecting both canonical and non-canonical signalling. We demonstrate that its depletion in glioma and glioma-derived stem-like cells led to decreased cell proliferation and apoptosis. Furthermore, Evi/Wls silencing in glioma cells reduced cell migration and the capacity to form tumours in vivo. We further show that Evi/Wls overexpression is sufficient to promote downstream Wnt signalling. Taken together, our study identifies Evi/Wls as an essential regulator of glioma tumourigenesis, identifying a pathway-specific protein trafficking factor as an oncogene and offering novel therapeutic options to interfere with the aberrant regulation of growth factors at the site of production. PMID:22147553

  16. Regulators of G protein signaling 12 promotes osteoclastogenesis in bone remodeling and pathological bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, X; Cao, J; Liu, T; Li, Y-P; Scannapieco, F; He, X; Oursler, M J; Zhang, X; Vacher, J; Li, C; Olson, D; Yang, S

    2015-01-01

    Regulators of G protein signaling (Rgs) have pivotal roles in controlling various cellular processes, such as cell differentiation. How Rgs proteins regulate osteoclast (OC) differentiation, function and bone homeostasis is poorly understood. It was previously demonstrated that Rgs12, the largest protein in the Rgs family, is predominantly expressed in OCs and regulates OC differentiation in vitro. To further understand the role and mechanism of Rgs12 in OC differentiation and bone diseases in vivo, we created OC-targeted Rgs12 knockout mice by using inducible Mx1-Cre and CD11b-Cre. Deletion of Rgs12 in hematopoietic cells or specifically in OC precursors resulted in increased bone mass with decreased OC numbers. Loss of Rgs12 impaired OC differentiation and function with impaired Ca2+ oscillations and reduced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) 2 expression. The introduction of wild-type osteoblasts did not rescue the defective osteoclastogenesis. Ectopic expression of NFAT2 rescued defective OC differentiation in CD11b;Rgs12fl/fl cells and promoted normal OC differentiation. Moreover, deletion of Rgs12 significantly inhibited pathological osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction in Rgs12-deficient mice that were subjected to ovariectomy and lipodysaccharide for bone loss. Thus our findings demonstrate that Rgs12 is an important regulator in OC differentiation and function and identify Rgs12 as a potential therapeutic target for osteoporosis and inflammation-induced bone loss. PMID:25909889

  17. Procoagulant platelets form an α-granule protein-covered "cap" on their surface that promotes their attachment to aggregates.

    PubMed

    Abaeva, Anastasia A; Canault, Matthias; Kotova, Yana N; Obydennyy, Sergey I; Yakimenko, Alena O; Podoplelova, Nadezhda A; Kolyadko, Vladimir N; Chambost, Herve; Mazurov, Aleksei V; Ataullakhanov, Fazoil I; Nurden, Alan T; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Panteleev, Mikhail A

    2013-10-11

    Strongly activated "coated" platelets are characterized by increased phosphatidylserine (PS) surface expression, α-granule protein retention, and lack of active integrin αIIbβ3. To study how they are incorporated into thrombi despite a lack of free activated integrin, we investigated the structure, function, and formation of the α-granule protein "coat." Confocal microscopy revealed that fibrin(ogen) and thrombospondin colocalized as "cap," a single patch on the PS-positive platelet surface. In aggregates, the cap was located at the point of attachment of the PS-positive platelets. Without fibrin(ogen) retention, their ability to be incorporated in aggregates was drastically reduced. The surface fibrin(ogen) was strongly decreased in the presence of a fibrin polymerization inhibitor GPRP and also in platelets from a patient with dysfibrinogenemia and a fibrinogen polymerization defect. In contrast, a fibrinogen-clotting protease ancistron increased the amount of fibrin(ogen) and thrombospondin on the surface of the PS-positive platelets stimulated with collagen-related peptide. Transglutaminases are also involved in fibrin(ogen) retention. However, platelets from patients with factor XIII deficiency had normal retention, and a pan-transglutaminase inhibitor T101 had only a modest inhibitory effect. Fibrin(ogen) retention was normal in Bernard-Soulier syndrome and kindlin-3 deficiency, but not in Glanzmann thrombasthenia lacking the platelet pool of fibrinogen and αIIbβ3. These data show that the fibrin(ogen)-covered cap, predominantly formed as a result of fibrin polymerization, is a critical mechanism that allows coated (or rather "capped") platelets to become incorporated into thrombi despite their lack of active integrins.

  18. Bromodomain protein Brd3 promotes Ifnb1 transcription via enhancing IRF3/p300 complex formation and recruitment to Ifnb1 promoter in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Wenhui; Wang, Chunmei; Wang, Qinlan; Zhao, Dezhi; Zhao, Kai; Sun, Donghao; Liu, Xingguang; Han, Chaofeng; Hou, Jin; Li, Xia; Zhang, Qian; Cao, Xuetao; Li, Nan

    2017-01-01

    As members of bromodomain and extra-terminal motif protein family, bromodomain-containing proteins regulate a wide range of biological processes including protein scaffolding, mitosis, cell cycle progression and transcriptional regulation. The function of these bromodomain proteins (Brds) in innate immune response has been reported but the role of Brd3 remains unclear. Here we find that virus infection significantly downregulate Brd3 expression in macrophages and Brd3 knockout inhibits virus-triggered IFN-β production. Brd3 interacts with both IRF3 and p300, increases p300-mediated acetylation of IRF3, and enhances the association of IRF3 with p300 upon virus infection. Importantly, Brd3 promotes the recruitment of IRF3/p300 complex to the promoter of Ifnb1, and increases the acetylation of histone3/histone4 within the Ifnb1 promoter, leading to the enhancement of type I interferon production. Therefore, our work indicated that Brd3 may act as a coactivator in IRF3/p300 transcriptional activation of Ifnb1 and provided new epigenetic mechanistic insight into the efficient activation of the innate immune response. PMID:28045112

  19. Arabidopsis AUGMIN Subunit8 Is a Microtubule Plus-End Binding Protein That Promotes Microtubule Reorientation in Hypocotyls[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lingyan; Wang, Linhai; Zheng, Min; Cao, Hong; Ding, Lian; Zhang, Xiaolan; Fu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In plant cells, cortical microtubules provide tracks for cellulose-synthesizing enzymes and regulate cell division, growth, and morphogenesis. The role of microtubules in these essential cellular processes depends on the spatial arrangement of the microtubules. Cortical microtubules are reoriented in response to changes in cell growth status and cell shape. Therefore, an understanding of the mechanism that underlies the change in microtubule orientation will provide insight into plant cell growth and morphogenesis. This study demonstrated that AUGMIN subunit8 (AUG8) in Arabidopsis thaliana is a novel microtubule plus-end binding protein that participates in the reorientation of microtubules in hypocotyls when cell elongation slows down. AUG8 bound to the plus ends of microtubules and promoted tubulin polymerization in vitro. In vivo, AUG8 was recruited to the microtubule branch site immediately before nascent microtubules branched out. It specifically associated with the plus ends of growing cortical microtubules and regulated microtubule dynamics, which facilitated microtubule reorientation when microtubules changed their growth trajectory or encountered obstacle microtubules during microtubule reorientation. This study thus reveals a novel mechanism underlying microtubule reorientation that is critical for modulating cell elongation in Arabidopsis. PMID:23735294

  20. Comparisons of Ribosomal Protein Gene Promoters Indicate Superiority of Heterologous Regulatory Sequences for Expressing Transgenes in Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Poidevin, Laetitia; Andreeva, Kalina; Khachatoorian, Careen; Judelson, Howard S

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetics approaches in Phytophthora research can be hampered by the limited number of known constitutive promoters for expressing transgenes and the instability of transgene activity. We have therefore characterized genes encoding the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins of Phytophthora and studied their suitability for expressing transgenes in P. infestans. Phytophthora spp. encode a standard complement of 79 cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins. Several genes are duplicated, and two appear to be pseudogenes. Half of the genes are expressed at similar levels during all stages of asexual development, and we discovered that the majority share a novel promoter motif named the PhRiboBox. This sequence is enriched in genes associated with transcription, translation, and DNA replication, including tRNA and rRNA biogenesis. Promoters from the three P. infestans genes encoding ribosomal proteins S9, L10, and L23 and their orthologs from P. capsici were tested for their ability to drive transgenes in stable transformants of P. infestans. Five of the six promoters yielded strong expression of a GUS reporter, but the stability of expression was higher using the P. capsici promoters. With the RPS9 and RPL10 promoters of P. infestans, about half of transformants stopped making GUS over two years of culture, while their P. capsici orthologs conferred stable expression. Since cross-talk between native and transgene loci may trigger gene silencing, we encourage the use of heterologous promoters in transformation studies.

  1. The nuclear protein Artemis promotes AMPK activation by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Koji; Uehata, Yasuko; Natsuizaka, Mitsuteru; Kohara, Toshihisa; Darmanin, Stephanie; Asaka, Masahiro; Takeda, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masanobu

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear protein Artemis physically interacts with AMPK{alpha}2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Artemis co-localizes with AMPK{alpha}2 in the nucleus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Artemis promotes phosphorylation and activation of AMPK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The interaction between AMPK{alpha}2 and LKB1 is stabilized by Artemis. -- Abstract: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a hetero-trimeric Ser/Thr kinase composed of a catalytic {alpha} subunit and regulatory {beta} and {gamma} subunits; it functions as an energy sensor that controls cellular energy homeostasis. In response to an increased cellular AMP/ATP ratio, AMPK is activated by phosphorylation at Thr172 in the {alpha}-subunit by upstream AMPK kinases (AMPKKs), including tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1). To elucidate more precise molecular mechanisms of AMPK activation, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening and isolated the complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding the nuclear protein Artemis/DNA cross-link repair 1C (DCLRE1C) as an AMPK{alpha}2-binding protein. Artemis was found to co-immunoprecipitate with AMPK{alpha}2, and the co-localization of Artemis with AMPK{alpha}2 in the nucleus was confirmed by immunofluorescence staining in U2OS cells. Moreover, over-expression of Artemis enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK{alpha}2 and the AMPK substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Conversely, RNAi-mediated knockdown of Artemis reduced AMPK and ACC phosphorylation. In addition, Artemis markedly increased the physical association between AMPK{alpha}2 and LKB1. Taken together, these results suggest that Artemis functions as a positive regulator of AMPK signaling by stabilizing the LKB1-AMPK complex.

  2. Protein depletion using the arabinose promoter in Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, Lilian A; Cavalca, Lucia B; Martins, Paula M M; Govone, José S; Bacci, Maurício; Ferreira, Henrique

    2017-03-23

    Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (X. citri) is a plant pathogen and the etiological agent of citrus canker, a severe disease that affects all the commercially important citrus varieties, and has worldwide distribution. Citrus canker cannot be healed, and the best method known to control the spread of X. citri in the orchards is the eradication of symptomatic and asymptomatic plants in the field. However, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, the main orange producing area in the world, control is evolving to an integrated management system (IMS) in which growers have to use less susceptible plants, windshields to prevent bacterial spread out and sprays of cupric bactericidal formulations. Our group has recently proposed alternative methods to control citrus canker, which are based on the use of chemical compounds able to disrupt vital cellular processes of X. citri. An important step in this approach is the genetic and biochemical characterization of genes/proteins that are the possible targets to be perturbed, a task not always simple when the gene/protein under investigation is essential for the organism. Here, we describe vectors carrying the arabinose promoter that enable controllable protein expression in X. citri. These vectors were used as complementation tools for the clean deletion of parB in X. citri, a widespread and conserved gene involved in the essential process of bacterial chromosome segregation. Overexpression or depletion of ParB led to increased cell size, which is probably a resultant of delayed chromosome segregation with subsequent retard of cell division. However, ParB is not essential in X. citri, and in its absence the bacterium was fully competent to colonize the host citrus and cause disease. The arabinose expression vectors described here are valuable tools for protein expression, and especially, to assist in the deletion of essential genes in X. citri.

  3. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in an ORANGE Protein Promotes Carotenoid Overaccumulation in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hui; Owsiany, Katherine; Sheeja, T.E.; Zhou, Xiangjun; Rodriguez, Caroline; Li, Yongxi; Welsch, Ralf; Chayut, Noam; Yang, Yong; Thannhauser, Theodore W.; Parthasarathy, Mandayam V.; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Fei, Zhangjun; Schaffer, Ari; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Joseph; Tadmor, Yaakov; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoids are crucial for plant growth and human health. The finding of ORANGE (OR) protein as a pivotal regulator of carotenogenesis offers a unique opportunity to comprehensively understand the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid accumulation and develop crops with enhanced nutritional quality. Here, we demonstrated that alteration of a single amino acid in a wild-type OR greatly enhanced its ability to promote carotenoid accumulation. Whereas overexpression of OR from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; AtOR) or from the agronomically important crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbOR) increased carotenoid levels up to 2-fold, expression of AtORHis (R90H) or SbORHis (R104H) variants dramatically enhanced carotenoid accumulation by up to 7-fold in the Arabidopsis calli. Moreover, we found that AtORAla (R90A) functioned similarly to AtORHis to promote carotenoid overproduction. Neither AtOR nor AtORHis greatly affected carotenogenic gene expression. AtORHis exhibited similar interactions with phytoene synthase (PSY) as AtOR in posttranscriptionally regulating PSY protein abundance. AtORHis triggered biogenesis of membranous chromoplasts in the Arabidopsis calli, which shared structures similar to chromoplasts found in the curd of the orange cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) mutant. By contrast, AtOR did not cause plastid-type changes in comparison with the controls, but produced plastids containing larger and electron-dense plastoglobuli. The unique ability of AtORHis in mediating chromoplast biogenesis is responsible for its induced carotenoid overproduction. Our study demonstrates ORHis/Ala as powerful tools for carotenoid enrichment in plants, and provides insights into the mechanisms underlying ORHis-regulated carotenoid accumulation. PMID:26224804

  4. A Single Amino Acid Substitution in an ORANGE Protein Promotes Carotenoid Overaccumulation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hui; Owsiany, Katherine; Sheeja, T E; Zhou, Xiangjun; Rodriguez, Caroline; Li, Yongxi; Welsch, Ralf; Chayut, Noam; Yang, Yong; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Parthasarathy, Mandayam V; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin; Fei, Zhangjun; Schaffer, Ari; Katzir, Nurit; Burger, Joseph; Tadmor, Yaakov; Li, Li

    2015-09-01

    Carotenoids are crucial for plant growth and human health. The finding of ORANGE (OR) protein as a pivotal regulator of carotenogenesis offers a unique opportunity to comprehensively understand the regulatory mechanisms of carotenoid accumulation and develop crops with enhanced nutritional quality. Here, we demonstrated that alteration of a single amino acid in a wild-type OR greatly enhanced its ability to promote carotenoid accumulation. Whereas overexpression of OR from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana; AtOR) or from the agronomically important crop sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; SbOR) increased carotenoid levels up to 2-fold, expression of AtOR(His) (R90H) or SbOR(His) (R104H) variants dramatically enhanced carotenoid accumulation by up to 7-fold in the Arabidopsis calli. Moreover, we found that AtOR(Ala) (R90A) functioned similarly to AtOR(His) to promote carotenoid overproduction. Neither AtOR nor AtOR(His) greatly affected carotenogenic gene expression. AtOR(His) exhibited similar interactions with phytoene synthase (PSY) as AtOR in posttranscriptionally regulating PSY protein abundance. AtOR(His) triggered biogenesis of membranous chromoplasts in the Arabidopsis calli, which shared structures similar to chromoplasts found in the curd of the orange cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) mutant. By contrast, AtOR did not cause plastid-type changes in comparison with the controls, but produced plastids containing larger and electron-dense plastoglobuli. The unique ability of AtOR(His) in mediating chromoplast biogenesis is responsible for its induced carotenoid overproduction. Our study demonstrates OR(His/Ala) as powerful tools for carotenoid enrichment in plants, and provides insights into the mechanisms underlying OR(His)-regulated carotenoid accumulation.

  5. Advanced glycation end products increase carbohydrate responsive element binding protein expression and promote cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hanbei; Wu, Lifang; Li, Yakui; Meng, Jian; Lin, Ning; Yang, Dianqiang; Zhu, Yemin; Li, Xiaoyong; Li, Minle; Xu, Ye; Wu, Yuchen; Tong, Xuemei; Su, Qing

    2014-09-01

    Diabetic patients have increased levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and the role of AGEs in regulating cancer cell proliferation is unclear. Here, we found that treating colorectal and liver cancer cells with AGEs promoted cell proliferation. AGEs stimulated both the expression and activation of a key transcription factor called carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) which had been shown to promote glycolytic and anabolic activity as well as proliferation of colorectal and liver cancer cells. Using siRNAs or the antagonistic antibody for the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) blocked AGEs-induced ChREBP expression or cell proliferation in cancer cells. Suppressing ChREBP expression severely impaired AGEs-induced cancer cell proliferation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AGEs-RAGE signaling enhances cancer cell proliferation in which AGEs-mediated ChREBP induction plays an important role. These findings may provide new explanation for increased cancer progression in diabetic patients.

  6. Secreted Frizzled related protein-4 (sFRP4) promotes epidermal differentiation and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Maganga, Richard; Giles, Natalie; Adcroft, Katharine; Unni, Ambili; Keeney, Diane; Wood, Fiona; Fear, Mark Dharmarajan, Arunasalam

    2008-12-12

    The skin provides vital protection from infection and dehydration. Maintenance of the skin is through a constant program of proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of epidermal cells, whereby proliferating cells in the basal layer differentiating to form the keratinized, anucleated stratum corneum. The WNT signalling pathway is known to be important in the skin. WNT signalling has been shown to be important both in epidermal development and in the maintenance and cycling of hair follicles and epidermal stem cells. However, the precise role for this pathway in epidermal differentiation remains unknown. We investigated the role of the WNT signalling inhibitor sFRP4 in epidermal differentiation. sFRP4 is expressed in both normal skin and keratinocytes in culture. Expression of sFRP4 mRNA and protein increases with keratinocyte differentiation and apoptosis, whilst exposure of keratinocytes to exogenous sFRP4 promotes apoptosis and expression of the terminal differentiation marker Involucrin. These data suggest sFRP4 promotes epidermal differentiation.

  7. Chronic high levels of the RCAN1-1 protein may promote neurodegeneration and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Ermak, Gennady; Davies, Kelvin J A

    2013-09-01

    The RCAN1 gene encodes three different protein isoforms: RCAN1-4, RCAN1-1L, and RCAN1-1S. RCAN1-1L is the RCAN1 isoform predominantly expressed in human brains. RCAN1 proteins have been shown to regulate various other proteins and cellular functions, including calcineurin, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT), stress adaptation, ADP/ATP exchange in mitochondria, and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP). The effects of increased RCAN1 gene expression seem to depend both on the specific RCAN1 protein isoform(s) synthesized and on the length of time the level of each isoform is elevated. Transiently elevated RCAN1-4 and RCAN1-1L protein levels, lasting just a few hours, can be neuroprotective under acute stress conditions, including acute oxidative stress. We propose that, by transiently inhibiting the phosphatase calcineurin, RCAN1-4 and RCAN1-1L may reinforce and extend protective stress-adaptive cell responses. In contrast, prolonged elevation of RCAN1-1L levels is associated with the types of neurodegeneration observed in several diseases, including Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome. RCAN1-1L levels can also be increased by multiple chronic stresses and by glucocorticoids, both of which can cause neurodegeneration. Although increasing levels of RCAN1-1L for just a few months has no overtly obvious neurodegenerative effect, it does suppress neurogenesis. Longer term elevation of RCAN1-1L levels (for at least 16 months), however, can lead to the first signs of neurodegeneration. Such neurodegeneration may be precipitated by (RCAN1-1L-mediated) prolonged calcineurin inhibition and GSK-3β induction/activation, both of which promote tau hyperphosphorylation, and/or by (RCAN1-1L-mediated) effects on the mitochondrial ANT, diminished ATP/ADP ratio, opening of the mtPTP, and mitochondrial autophagy. We propose that RCAN1-1L operates through various molecular mechanisms, primarily dependent upon

  8. Ezrin/Radixin/Moesin proteins and flotillins cooperate to promote uropod formation in T cells.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, Sibylla; Chen, Emily J H; Clarke, Fiona; Lyck, Ruth; Affentranger, Sarah; Burkhardt, Janis K; Niggli, Verena

    2013-01-01

    T cell uropods are enriched in specific proteins including adhesion receptors such as P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), lipid raft-associated proteins such as flotillins and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins which associate with cholesterol-rich raft domains and anchor adhesion receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. Using dominant mutants and siRNA technology we have tested the interactions among these proteins and their role in shaping the T cell uropod. Expression of wild type (WT) ezrin-EGFP failed to affect the morphology of human T cells or chemokine-induced uropod recruitment of PSGL-1 and flotillin-1 and -2. In contrast, expression of constitutively active T567D ezrin-EGFP induced a motile, polarized phenotype in some of the transfected T cells, even in the absence of chemokine. These cells featured F-actin-rich ruffles in the front and uropod enrichment of PSGL-1 and flotillins. T567D ezrin-EGFP was itself strongly enriched in the rear of the polarized T cells. Uropod formation induced by T567D ezrin-EGFP was actin-dependent as it was attenuated by inhibition of Rho-kinase or myosin II, and abolished by disruption of actin filaments. While expression of constitutively active ezrin enhanced cell polarity, expression of a dominant-negative deletion mutant of ezrin, 1-310 ezrin-EGFP, markedly reduced uropod formation induced by the chemokine SDF-1, T cell front-tail polarity, and capping of PSGL-1 and flotillins. Transfection of T cells with WT or T567D ezrin did not affect chemokine-mediated chemotaxis whereas 1-310 ezrin significantly impaired spontaneous 2D migration and chemotaxis. siRNA-mediated downregulation of flotillins in murine T cells attenuated moesin capping and uropod formation, indicating that ERM proteins and flotillins cooperate in uropod formation. In summary, our results indicate that activated ERM proteins function together with flotillins to promote efficient chemotaxis of T cells by structuring the uropod of migrating T cells.

  9. African swine fever virus NP868R capping enzyme promotes reovirus rescue during reverse genetics by promoting reovirus protein expression, virion assembly, and RNA incorporation into infectious virions.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Heather E; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Dermody, Terence S; Johnston, Randal N; Jais, Philippe H; Shmulevitz, Maya

    2017-03-15

    Reoviruses, like many eukaryotic viruses, contain an inverted 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap linked to the 5' nucleotide of mRNA. Traditional functions of capping are to promote mRNA stability, protein translation, and concealment from cellular proteins that recognize foreign RNA. To address the role of mRNA capping during reovirus replication, we assessed the benefits of adding the African swine fever virus NP868R capping enzyme. C3P3, a fusion protein containing T7 RNA polymerase and NP868R, was found to increase protein expression 5 to 10-fold, as compared to T7 RNA polymerase alone, while enhancing reovirus rescue from the current reverse genetics system by 100-fold. Surprisingly, RNA stability was not increased by C3P3, suggesting a direct effect on protein translation. A time course analysis revealed that C3P3 increased protein synthesis within the first 2 days of a reverse genetics transfection. This analysis also revealed that C3P3 enhanced processing of outer capsid μ1 protein to μ1C, a previously described hallmark of reovirus assembly. Finally, to determine the rate of infectious RNA incorporation into new virions, we developed a new recombinant reovirus S1 gene that expressed the fluorescent protein UnaG. Following transfection of cells with UnaG and infection with wild-type virus, passage of UnaG through progeny was significantly enhanced by C3P3. This data suggests that capping provides non-traditional functions to reovirus, such as promoting assembly and infectious RNA incorporation.IMPORTANCE The findings in this manuscript expand our understanding of how viruses utilize capping, suggesting that capping provides non-traditional functions to reovirus such as promoting assembly and infectious RNA incorporation, in addition to enhancing protein translation. Beyond providing mechanistic insight into reovirus replication, our findings also show that reovirus reverse genetics rescue is enhanced 100-fold by the NP868R capping enzyme. Since reovirus shows

  10. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J [Livermore, CA; Hatch, Anson V [Tracy, CA; Wang, Ying-Chih [Pleasanton, CA; Singh, Anup K [Danville, CA; Renzi, Ronald F [Tracy, CA; Claudnic, Mark R [Livermore, CA

    2011-11-01

    Methods for making a micofluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining a cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  11. Method for forming polymerized microfluidic devices

    DOEpatents

    Sommer, Gregory J.; Hatch, Anson V.; Wang, Ying-Chih; Singh, Anup K.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2013-03-12

    Methods for making a microfluidic device according to embodiments of the present invention include defining.about.cavity. Polymer precursor solution is positioned in the cavity, and exposed to light to begin the polymerization process and define a microchannel. In some embodiments, after the polymerization process is partially complete, a solvent rinse is performed, or fresh polymer precursor introduced into the microchannel. This may promote removal of unpolymerized material from the microchannel and enable smaller feature sizes. The polymer precursor solution may contain an iniferter. Polymerized features therefore may be capped with the iniferter, which is photoactive. The iniferter may aid later binding of a polyacrylamide gel to the microchannel surface.

  12. Effects of polymerization and nucleotide identity on the conformational dynamics of the bacterial actin homolog MreB.

    PubMed

    Colavin, Alexandre; Hsin, Jen; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-03-04

    The assembly of protein filaments drives many cellular processes, from nucleoid segregation, growth, and division in single cells to muscle contraction in animals. In eukaryotes, shape and motility are regulated through cycles of polymerization and depolymerization of actin cytoskeletal networks. In bacteria, the actin homolog MreB forms filaments that coordinate the cell-wall synthesis machinery to regulate rod-shaped growth and contribute to cellular stiffness through unknown mechanisms. Like actin, MreB is an ATPase and requires ATP to polymerize, and polymerization promotes nucleotide hydrolysis. However, it is unclear whether other similarities exist between MreB and actin because the two proteins share low sequence identity and have distinct cellular roles. Here, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to reveal surprising parallels between MreB and actin structural dynamics. We observe that MreB exhibits actin-like polymerization-dependent structural changes, wherein polymerization induces flattening of MreB subunits, which restructures the nucleotide-binding pocket to favor hydrolysis. MreB filaments exhibited nucleotide-dependent intersubunit bending, with hydrolyzed polymers favoring a straighter conformation. We use steered simulations to demonstrate a coupling between intersubunit bending and the degree of flattening of each subunit, suggesting cooperative bending along a filament. Taken together, our results provide molecular-scale insight into the diversity of structural states of MreB and the relationships among polymerization, hydrolysis, and filament properties, which may be applicable to other members of the broad actin family.

  13. The Staphylococcus aureus extracellular adherence protein promotes bacterial internalization by keratinocytes independent of fibronectin-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Bur, Stephanie; Preissner, Klaus T; Herrmann, Mathias; Bischoff, Markus

    2013-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus, the leading causal pathogen of skin infections, is strongly associated with skin atopy, and a number of bacterial adhesins allow the microbe to adhere to and invade eukaryotic cells. One of these adhesive molecules is the multifunctional extracellular adherence protein (Eap), which is overexpressed in situ in authentic human wounds and was shown to delay wound healing in experimental models. Yet, its role during invasion of keratinocytes is not clearly defined. By using a gentamicin/lysostaphin protection assay we demonstrate here that preincubation of HaCaT cells or primary keratinocytes with Eap results in a concentration-dependent significant increase in staphylococcal adhesion, followed by an even more pronounced internalization of bacteria by eukaryotic cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that Eap increased both the number of infected eukaryotic cells and the bacterial load per infected cell. Moreover, treatment of keratinocytes with Eap strongly enhanced the internalization of coagulase-negative staphylococci, as well as of E. coli, and markedly promoted staphylococcal invasion into extended-culture keratinocytes, displaying expression of keratin 10 and involucrin as differentiation markers. Thus, wound-related staphylococcal Eap may provide a major cellular invasin function, thereby enhancing the pathogen's ability to hide from the host immune system during acute and chronic skin infection.

  14. Formulations of polymeric biodegradable low-cost foam by melt extrusion to deliver plant growth-promoting bacteria in agricultural systems.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Paulo Ricardo Franco; Milani, Karina Maria Lima; Mali, Suzana; Santos, Odair José Andrade Pais Dos; de Oliveira, André Luiz Martinez

    2016-08-01

    The extrusion technology of blends formed by compounds with different physicochemical properties often results in new materials that present properties distinctive from its original individual constituents. Here, we report the use of melt extrusion of blends made from low-cost materials to produce a biodegradable foam suitable for use as an inoculant carrier of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Six formulations were prepared with variable proportions of the raw materials; the resulting physicochemical and structural properties are described, as well as formulation performance in the maintenance of bacterial viability during 120 days of storage. Differences in blend composition influenced foam density, porosity, expansion index, and water absorption. Additionally, differences in the capability of sustaining bacterial viability for long periods of time were more related to the foam composition than to the resulting physicochemical characteristics. Microscopic analyses showed that the inoculant bacteria had firmly attached to the extruded material by forming biofilms. Inoculation assays using maize plants demonstrated that the bacteria attached to the extruded foams could survive in the soil for up to 10 days before maize sowing, without diminishing its ability to promote plant growth. The results presented demonstrate the viability of the new matrix as a biotechnological material for bacterial delivery not only in agriculture but also in other biotechnological applications, according to the selected bacterial strains.

  15. Operational strategies, monitoring and control of heterologous protein production in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under different promoters: A review

    PubMed Central

    Cos, Oriol; Ramón, Ramón; Montesinos, José Luis; Valero, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has been widely reported as a suitable expression system for heterologous protein production. The use of different phenotypes under PAOX promoter, other alternative promoters, culture medium, and operational strategies with the objective to maximize either yield or productivity of the heterologous protein, but also to obtain a repetitive product batch to batch to get a robust process for the final industrial application have been reported. Medium composition, kinetics growth, fermentation operational strategies from fed-batch to continuous cultures using different phenotypes with the most common PAOX promoter and other novel promoters (GAP, FLD, ICL), the use of mixed substrates, on-line monitoring of the key fermentation parameters (methanol) and control algorithms applied to the bioprocess are reviewed and discussed in detail. PMID:16600031

  16. LAMP-3 (Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein 3) Promotes the Intracellular Proliferation of Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Park, Kwan-Sik; Jeon, In-Sook; Choi, Jae-Woon; Lee, Sang-Jeon; Choy, Hyun E.; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Choi, Joong-Kook

    2016-01-01

    Lysosomes are cellular organelles containing diverse classes of catabolic enzymes that are implicated in diverse cellular processes including phagocytosis, autophagy, lipid transport, and aging. Lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) are major glycoproteins important for maintaining lysosomal integrity, pH, and catabolism. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are constitutively expressed in Salmonella-infected cells and are recruited to Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs) as well as Salmonella-induced filaments (Sifs) that promote the survival and proliferation of the Salmonella. LAMP-3, also known as DC-LAMP/CD208, is a member of the LAMP family of proteins, but its role during Salmonella infection remains unclear. DNA microarray analysis identified LAMP-3 as one of the genes responding to LPS stimulation in THP-1 macrophage cells. Subsequent analyses reveal that LPS and Salmonella induced the expression of LAMP-3 at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Confocal Super resolution N-SIM imaging revealed that LAMP-3, like LAMP-2, shifts its localization from the cell surface to alongside Salmonella. Knockdown of LAMP-3 by specific siRNAs decreased the number of Salmonella recovered from the infected cells. Therefore, we conclude that LAMP-3 is induced by Salmonella infection and recruited to the Salmonella pathogen for intracellular proliferation. PMID:27329040

  17. Tailoring the nanostructured surfaces of hydroxyapatite bioceramics to promote protein adsorption, osteoblast growth, and osteogenic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kaili; Xia, Lunguo; Gan, Jingbo; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Hong; Jiang, Xinquan; Chang, Jiang

    2013-08-28

    To promote and understand the biological responses of the implant via nanostructured surface design is essential for the development of bioactive bone implants. However, the control of the surface topography of the bioceramics in nanoscale is a big challenge because of their brittle property. Herein, the hydroxyapatite (HAp) bioceramics with distinct nanostructured topographies were fabricated via hydrothermal treatment using α-tricalcium phosphate ceramic as hard-template under different reaction conditions. HAp bioceramics with nanosheet, nanorod and micro-nanohybrid structured surface in macroscopical size were obtained by controlling the composition of the reaction media. Comparing with the traditional sample with flat and dense surface, the fabricated HAp bioceramics with hierarchical 3D micro-nanotextured surfaces possessed higher specific surface area, which selectively enhanced adsorption of specific proteins including Fn and Vn in plasma, and stimulated osteoblast adhesion, growth, and osoteogenic differentiation. In particular, the biomimetic features of the hierarchical micro-nanohybrid surface resulted in the best ability for simultaneous enhancement of protein adsorption, osteoblast proliferation, and differentiation. The results suggest that the hierarchical micro-nanohybrid topography might be one of the critical factors to be considered in the design of functional bone grafts.

  18. Myelin Basic Protein Cleaves Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 and Promotes Neuritogenesis and Cell Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, David; Loers, Gabriele; Kleene, Ralf; Oezen, Iris; Kataria, Hardeep; Katagihallimath, Nainesh; Braren, Ingke; Harauz, George; Schachner, Melitta

    2014-01-01

    The cell adhesion molecule L1 is a Lewisx-carrying glycoprotein that plays important roles in the developing and adult nervous system. Here we show that myelin basic protein (MBP) binds to L1 in a Lewisx-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that MBP is released by murine cerebellar neurons as a sumoylated dynamin-containing protein upon L1 stimulation and that this MBP cleaves L1 as a serine protease in the L1 extracellular domain at Arg687 yielding a transmembrane fragment that promotes neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival in cell culture. L1-induced neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival are reduced in MBP-deficient cerebellar neurons and in wild-type cerebellar neurons in the presence of an MBP antibody or L1 peptide containing the MBP cleavage site. Genetic ablation of MBP in shiverer mice and mutagenesis of the proteolytically active site in MBP or of the MBP cleavage site within L1 as well as serine protease inhibitors and an L1 peptide containing the MBP cleavage site abolish generation of the L1 fragment. Our findings provide evidence for novel functions of MBP in the nervous system. PMID:24671420

  19. The matricellular protein CCN1 promotes mucosal healing in murine colitis through IL-6.

    PubMed

    Choi, J S; Kim, K-H; Lau, L F

    2015-11-01

    The matricellular protein CCN1 (CYR61) is known to function in wound healing and is upregulated in colons of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, yet its specific role in colitis is unknown. Here we have used Ccn1(dm/dm) knockin mice expressing a CCN1 mutant unable to bind integrins α6β1 and αMβ2 as a model to probe CCN1 function in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Ccn1(dm/dm) mice exhibited high mortality, impaired mucosal healing, and diminished interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression during the repair phase of DSS-induced colitis compared with wild-type mice, despite having comparable severity of initial inflammation and tissue injury. CCN1-induced IL-6 expression in macrophages through integrin αMβ2 and in fibroblasts through α6β1, and IL-6 promoted intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation. Administration of purified CCN1 protein fully rescued Ccn1(dm/dm) mice from DSS-induced mortality, restored IEC proliferation and enhanced mucosal healing, whereas delivery of IL-6 partially rectified these defects. CCN1 therapy accelerated mucosal healing and recovery from DSS-induced colitis even in wild-type mice. These findings reveal a critical role for CCN1 in restoring mucosal homeostasis after intestinal injury in part through integrin-mediated induction of IL-6 expression, and suggest a therapeutic potential for activating the CCN1/IL-6 axis for treating inflammatory bowel disease.

  20. The Zn Finger protein Iguana impacts Hedgehog signaling by promoting ciliogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Glazer, Andrew; Wilkinson, Alex; Backer, Chelsea B.; Lapan, Sylvain; Gutzman, Jennifer H.; Cheeseman, Iain M.; Reddien, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling is critical for metazoan development and requires cilia for pathway activity. The gene iguana was discovered in zebrafish as required for Hedgehog signaling, and encodes a novel Zn finger protein. Planarians are flatworms with robust regenerative capacities and that utilize epidermal cilia for locomotion. RNA interference of Smed-iguana in the planarian S. mediterranea caused cilia loss and failure to regenerate new cilia, but did not cause defects similar to those observed in hedgehog(RNAi) animals. Smed-iguana gene expression was also similar in pattern to the expression of multiple other ciliogenesis genes, but was not required for expression of these ciliogenesis genes. iguana-defective zebrafish had too few motile cilia in pronephric ducts and in Kupffer's vesicle. Kupffer's vesicle promotes left-right asymmetry and iguana mutant embryos had left-right asymmetry defects. Finally, human Iguana proteins (dZIP1 and dZIP1L) localize to the basal bodies of primary cilia and, together, are required for primary cilia formation. Our results indicate that a critical and broadly conserved function for Iguana is in ciliogenesis and that this function has come to be required for Hedgehog signaling in vertebrates. PMID:19852954

  1. Acupuncture promotes mTOR-independent autophagic clearance of aggregation-prone proteins in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Tian, Tian; Sun, Yanhong; Wu, Huangan; Pei, Jian; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lu; Li, Bin; Wang, Lihua; Shi, Jiye; Hu, Jun; Fan, Chunhai

    2016-01-21

    Acupuncture has historically been practiced to treat medical disorders by mechanically stimulating specific acupoints with fine needles. Despite its well-documented efficacy, its biological basis remains largely elusive. In this study, we found that mechanical stimulation at the acupoint of Yanglingquan (GB34) promoted the autophagic clearance of α-synuclein (α-syn), a well known aggregation-prone protein closely related to Parkinson's disease (PD), in the substantia nigra par compacta (SNpc) of the brain in a PD mouse model. We found the protein clearance arose from the activation of the autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) in a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent approach. Further, we observed the recovery in the activity of dopaminergic neurons in SNpc, and improvement in the motor function at the behavior level of PD mice. Whereas acupuncture and rapamycin, a chemical mTOR inhibitor, show comparable α-syn clearance and therapeutic effects in the PD mouse model, the latter adopts a distinctly different, mTOR-dependent, autophagy induction process. Due to this fundamental difference, acupuncture may circumvent adverse effects of the rapamycin treatment. The newly discovered connection between acupuncture and autophagy not only provides a new route to understanding the molecular mechanism of acupuncture but also sheds new light on cost-effective and safe therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Health-promoting properties of bioactive peptides derived from milk proteins in infant food: a review.

    PubMed

    Raikos, Vassilios; Dassios, Theodore

    2014-01-01

    Milk proteins have attracted extensive interest in terms of their bioavailability following ingestion. Enzymatic digestion of dairy products generates numerous peptides with various biological activities. Both human milk and infant formulas based on cow's milk are potential sources of bioactive peptides. This review aims to present current knowledge on the formation and fate of bioactive peptides from milk feeds intended for infants. Emphasis is placed on the source of the bioactive peptides with the nutritional impact of human milk and cow milk-based formulas on infant health being critically discussed from that perspective. Furthermore, the effect of processing and in vitro or in vivo digestion on the release and availability of peptides with bioactive sequences is evaluated. Considerable differences with respect to bioavailability and metabolic effects between the biologically active fragments generated following ingestion of human milk and infant formulas are documented. Peptides from milk protein of bovine origin could be a valuable supplement to human milk as multiple health-promoting properties are attributed to peptide fractions identified in standard cow milk-based infant formulas.

  3. The Zn finger protein Iguana impacts Hedgehog signaling by promoting ciliogenesis.

    PubMed

    Glazer, Andrew M; Wilkinson, Alex W; Backer, Chelsea B; Lapan, Sylvain W; Gutzman, Jennifer H; Cheeseman, Iain M; Reddien, Peter W

    2010-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling is critical for metazoan development and requires cilia for pathway activity. The gene iguana was discovered in zebrafish as required for Hedgehog signaling, and encodes a novel Zn finger protein. Planarians are flatworms with robust regenerative capacities and utilize epidermal cilia for locomotion. RNA interference of Smed-iguana in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea caused cilia loss and failure to regenerate new cilia, but did not cause defects similar to those observed in hedgehog(RNAi) animals. Smed-iguana gene expression was also similar in pattern to the expression of multiple other ciliogenesis genes, but was not required for expression of these ciliogenesis genes. iguana-defective zebrafish had too few motile cilia in pronephric ducts and in Kupffer's vesicle. Kupffer's vesicle promotes left-right asymmetry and iguana mutant embryos had left-right asymmetry defects. Finally, human Iguana proteins (dZIP1 and dZIP1L) localize to the basal bodies of primary cilia and, together, are required for primary cilia formation. Our results indicate that a critical and broadly conserved function for Iguana is in ciliogenesis and that this function has come to be required for Hedgehog signaling in vertebrates.

  4. Yes-associated protein 1 is widely expressed in human brain tumors and promotes glioblastoma growth.

    PubMed

    Orr, Brent A; Bai, Haibo; Odia, Yazmin; Jain, Deepali; Anders, Robert A; Eberhart, Charles G

    2011-07-01

    The hippo pathway and its downstream mediator yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) regulate mammalian organ size in part through modulating progenitor cell numbers. YAP1 has also been implicated as an oncogene in multiple human cancers. Currently, little is known about the expression of YAP1 either in normal human brain tissue or in central nervous system neoplasms. We used immunohistochemistry to evaluate nuclear YAP1 expression in the fetal and normal adult human brains and in 264 brain tumors. YAP1 was expressed in fetal and adult brain regions known to harbor neural progenitor cells, but there was little YAP1 immunoreactivity in the adult cerebral cortex. YAP1 protein was also readily detected in the nuclei of human brain tumors. In medulloblastoma, the expression varied between histologic subtypes and was most prominent in nodular/desmoplastic tumors. In gliomas, it was frequently expressed in infiltrating astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas but rarely in pilocytic astrocytomas. Using a loss-of-function approach, we show that YAP1 promoted growth of glioblastoma cell lines in vitro. High levels of YAP1 messenger RNA expression were associated with aggressive molecular subsets of glioblastoma and with a nonsignificant trend toward reduced mean survival in human astrocytoma patients. These findings suggest that YAP1 may play an important role in normal human brain development and that it could represent a new target in human brain tumors.

  5. The Highwire Ubiquitin Ligase Promotes Axonal Degeneration by Tuning Levels of Nmnat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xin; Hao, Yan; Sun, Kan; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Xia; Mishra, Bibhudatta; Soppina, Pushpanjali; Wu, Chunlai; Hume, Richard I.; Collins, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is a hallmark of many neuropathies, neurodegenerative diseases, and injuries. Here, using a Drosophila injury model, we have identified a highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase, Highwire (Hiw), as an important regulator of axonal and synaptic degeneration. Mutations in hiw strongly inhibit Wallerian degeneration in multiple neuron types and developmental stages. This new phenotype is mediated by a new downstream target of Hiw: the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase (Nmnat), which acts in parallel to a previously known target of Hiw, the Wallenda dileucine zipper kinase (Wnd/DLK) MAPKKK. Hiw promotes a rapid disappearance of Nmnat protein in the distal stump after injury. An increased level of Nmnat protein in hiw mutants is both required and sufficient to inhibit degeneration. Ectopically expressed mouse Nmnat2 is also subject to regulation by Hiw in distal axons and synapses. These findings implicate an important role for endogenous Nmnat and its regulation, via a conserved mechanism, in the initiation of axonal degeneration. Through independent regulation of Wnd/DLK, whose function is required for proximal axons to regenerate, Hiw plays a central role in coordinating both regenerative and degenerative responses to axonal injury. PMID:23226106

  6. LAMP-3 (Lysosome-Associated Membrane Protein 3) Promotes the Intracellular Proliferation of Salmonella typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Park, Kwan-Sik; Jeon, In-Sook; Choi, Jae-Woon; Lee, Sang-Jeon; Choy, Hyun E; Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Choi, Joong-Kook

    2016-07-01

    Lysosomes are cellular organelles containing diverse classes of catabolic enzymes that are implicated in diverse cellular processes including phagocytosis, autophagy, lipid transport, and aging. Lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) are major glycoproteins important for maintaining lysosomal integrity, pH, and catabolism. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 are constitutively expressed in Salmonella-infected cells and are recruited to Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs) as well as Salmonella-induced filaments (Sifs) that promote the survival and proliferation of the Salmonella. LAMP-3, also known as DC-LAMP/CD208, is a member of the LAMP family of proteins, but its role during Salmonella infection remains unclear. DNA microarray analysis identified LAMP-3 as one of the genes responding to LPS stimulation in THP-1 macrophage cells. Subsequent analyses reveal that LPS and Salmonella induced the expression of LAMP-3 at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Confocal Super resolution N-SIM imaging revealed that LAMP-3, like LAMP-2, shifts its localization from the cell surface to alongside Salmonella. Knockdown of LAMP-3 by specific siRNAs decreased the number of Salmonella recovered from the infected cells. Therefore, we conclude that LAMP-3 is induced by Salmonella infection and recruited to the Salmonella pathogen for intracellular proliferation.

  7. Herpesviral ICP0 Protein Promotes Two Waves of Heterochromatin Removal on an Early Viral Promoter during Lytic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer S.; Raja, Priya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Herpesviruses must contend with host cell epigenetic silencing responses acting on their genomes upon entry into the host cell nucleus. In this study, we confirmed that unchromatinized herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) genomes enter primary human foreskin fibroblasts and are rapidly subjected to assembly of nucleosomes and association with repressive heterochromatin modifications such as histone 3 (H3) lysine 9-trimethylation (H3K9me3) and lysine 27-trimethylation (H3K27me3) during the first 1 to 2 h postinfection. Kinetic analysis of the modulation of nucleosomes and heterochromatin modifications over the course of lytic infection demonstrates a progressive removal that coincided with initiation of viral gene expression. We obtained evidence for three phases of heterochromatin removal from an early gene promoter: an initial removal of histones and heterochromatin not dependent on ICP0, a second ICP0-dependent round of removal of H3K9me3 that is independent of viral DNA synthesis, and a third phase of H3K27me3 removal that is dependent on ICP0 and viral DNA synthesis. The presence of ICP0 in transfected cells is also sufficient to promote removal of histones and H3K9me3 modifications of cotransfected genes. Overall, these results show that ICP0 promotes histone removal, a reduction of H3K9me3 modifications, and a later indirect reduction of H3K27me3 modifications following viral early gene expression and DNA synthesis. Therefore, HSV ICP0 promotes the reversal of host epigenetic silencing mechanisms by several mechanisms. PMID:26758183

  8. Human antimicrobial protein hCAP18/LL-37 promotes a metastatic phenotype in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Günther; Chamorro, Clara Ibel; Granath, Fredrik; Liljegren, Annelie; Zreika, Sami; Saidak, Zuzana; Sandstedt, Bengt; Rotstein, Samuel; Mentaverri, Romuald; Sánchez, Fabio; Pivarcsi, Andor; Ståhle, Mona

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Human cathelicidin antimicrobial protein, hCAP18, and its C-terminal peptide LL-37 is a multifunctional protein. In addition to being important in antimicrobial defense, it induces chemotaxis, stimulates angiogenesis and promotes tissue repair. We previously showed that human breast cancer cells express high amounts of hCAP18, and hypothesised that hCAP18/LL-37 may be involved in tumour progression. Methods hCAP18 mRNA was quantified in 109 primary breast cancers and compared with clinical findings and ERBB2 mRNA expression. Effects of exogenous LL-37 and transgenic overexpression of hCAP18 on ErbB2 signalling were investigated by immunoblotting using extracts from breast cancer cell lines ZR75-1 and derivatives of MCF7. We further analysed the impact of hCAP18/LL-37 on the morphology of breast cancer cells grown in soft agar, on cell migration and on tumour development in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Results The expression of hCAP18 correlated closely with that of ERBB2 and with the presence of lymph node metastases in oestrogen receptor-positive tumours. hCAP18/LL-37 amplified Heregulin-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling through ErbB2, identifying a functional association between hCAP18/LL-37 and ErbB2 in breast cancer. Treatment with LL-37 peptide significantly stimulated the migration of breast cancer cells and their colonies acquired a dispersed morphology indicative of increased metastatic potential. A truncated version of LL-37 competitively inhibited LL-37 induced MAPK phosphorylation and significantly reduced the number of altered cancer cell colonies induced by LL-37 as well as suppressed their migration. Transgenic overexpression of hCAP18 in a low malignant breast cancer cell line promoted the development of metastases in SCID mice, and analysis of hCAP18 transgenic tumours showed enhanced activation of MAPK signalling. Conclusions Our results provide evidence that hCAP18/LL-37 contributes to breast

  9. Mena-GRASP65 interaction couples actin polymerization to Golgi ribbon linking.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Huang, Shijiao; Yuan, Hebao; Li, Jie; Wang, Yanzhuang

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the Golgi reassembly stacking protein 65 (GRASP65) has been implicated in both Golgi stacking and ribbon linking by forming trans-oligomers through the N-terminal GRASP domain. Because the GRASP domain is globular and relatively small, but the gaps between stacks are large and heterogeneous, it remains puzzling how GRASP65 physically links Golgi stacks into a ribbon. To explore the possibility that other proteins may help GRASP65 in ribbon linking, we used biochemical methods and identified the actin elongation factor Mena as a novel GRASP65-binding protein. Mena is recruited onto the Golgi membranes through interaction with GRASP65. Depleting Mena or disrupting actin polymerization resulted in Golgi fragmentation. In cells, Mena and actin were required for Golgi ribbon formation after nocodazole washout; in vitro, Mena and microfilaments enhanced GRASP65 oligomerization and Golgi membrane fusion. Thus Mena interacts with GRASP65 to promote local actin polymerization, which facilitates Golgi ribbon linking.

  10. Polymerization of perfluorobutadiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J.; Toy, M. S.

    1970-01-01

    Diisopropyl peroxydicarbonate dissolved in liquid perfluorobutadiene is conducted in a sealed vessel at the autogenous pressure of polymerization. Reaction temperature, ratio of catalyst to monomer, and amount of agitation determine degree of polymerization and product yield.

  11. Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein Promotes miR-122 Destabilization by Inhibiting GLD-2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geon-Woo; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Cho, Hee; Kim, Minwoo; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Oh, Jong-Won

    2016-01-01

    The liver-specific microRNA miR-122, which has essential roles in liver development and metabolism, is a key proviral factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV). Despite its crucial role in the liver and HCV life cycle, little is known about the molecular mechanism of miR-122 expression regulation by HCV infection. Here, we show that the HCV core protein downregulates the abundance of miR-122 by promoting its destabilization via the inhibition of GLD-2, a non-canonical cytoplasmic poly(A) polymerase. The decrease in miR-122 expression resulted in the dysregulation of the known functions of miR-122, including its proviral activity for HCV. By high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs from human liver biopsies, we found that the 22-nucleotide (nt) prototype miR-122 is modified at its 3′ end by 3′-terminal non-templated and templated nucleotide additions. Remarkably, the proportion of miR-122 isomers bearing a single nucleotide tail of any ribonucleotide decreased in liver specimens from patients with HCV. We found that these single-nucleotide-tailed miR-122 isomers display increased miRNA activity and stability over the 22-nt prototype miR-122 and that the 3′-terminal extension is catalyzed by the unique terminal nucleotidyl transferase activity of GLD-2, which is capable of adding any single ribonucleotide without preference of adenylate to the miR-122 3′ end. The HCV core protein specifically inhibited GLD-2, and its interaction with GLD-2 in the cytoplasm was found to be responsible for miR-122 downregulation. Collectively, our results provide new insights into the regulatory role of the HCV core protein in controlling viral RNA abundance and miR-122 functions through miR-122 stability modulation. PMID:27366906

  12. Fragile X mental retardation protein promotes astrocytoma proliferation via the MEK/ERK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui; Hao, Zhuofang; Long, Yuesheng; Chen, Shengqiang; Su, Hang; Yuan, Zhongmin; Xu, Meng; Chen, Jingqi

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression and astrocytoma characteristics. Methods Pathologic grade and expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Ki67 (proliferation marker), and FMRP were determined in astrocytoma specimens from 74 patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was undertaken. Pathologic grade and protein levels of FMRP were determined in 24 additional patients with astrocytoma and 6 controls (cerebral trauma). In cultured U251 and U87 cell lines, the effects of FMRP knock-down on cell proliferation, AKT/mTOR/GSK-3β and MEK/ERK signaling were studied. The effects of FMRP knock-down on the volumes and weights of U251 cell-derived orthotopic tumors in mice were investigated. Results In patients, FMRP expression was increased in grade IV (5.1-fold, P<0.01) and grade III (3.2-fold, P<0.05) astrocytoma, compared with controls. FMRP and Ki67 expressions were positively correlated (R2=0.877, P<0.001). Up-regulation of FMRP was associated with poorer survival among patients with FMRP integrated optical density >30 (P<0.01). In astrocytoma cell lines, FMRP knock-down slowed proliferation (P<0.05), inhibited total MEK levels P<0.05, and reduced phosphorylation of MEK (Ser217/221) and ERK (Thr202/Tyr204) (P<0.05). In mice with orthotopic tumors, FMRP knock-down decreased FMRP and Ki67 expressions, and reduced tumor volume and weight (36.3% or 61.5% on day 15, both P<0.01). Also, phosphorylation of MEK (Ser217/221) and ERK (Thr202/Tyr204), and total MEK in xenografts were decreased in sh-FMRP xenografts compared with non-transfected ones (all P<0.05). Conclusion Enhanced FMRP expression in astrocytoma may promote proliferation through activation of MEK/ERK signaling. PMID:27683117

  13. TDP1 promotes assembly of non-homologous end joining protein complexes on DNA.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinho; Li, Jing; Summerlin, Matthew; Hays, Annette; Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J; Nitiss, Karin C; Nitiss, John L; Hanakahi, Leslyn A

    2015-06-01

    The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is central to the maintenance of genomic integrity. In tumor cells, the ability to repair DSBs predicts response to radiation and many cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs. DSB repair pathways include homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). NHEJ is a template-independent mechanism, yet many NHEJ repair products carry limited genetic changes, which suggests that NHEJ includes mechanisms to minimize error. Proteins required for mammalian NHEJ include Ku70/80, the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), XLF/Cernunnos and the XRCC4:DNA ligase IV complex. NHEJ also utilizes accessory proteins that include DNA polymerases, nucleases, and other end-processing factors. In yeast, mutations of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP1) reduced NHEJ fidelity. TDP1 plays an important role in repair of topoisomerase-mediated DNA damage and 3'-blocking DNA lesions, and mutation of the human TDP1 gene results in an inherited human neuropathy termed SCAN1. We found that human TDP1 stimulated DNA binding by XLF and physically interacted with XLF to form TDP1:XLF:DNA complexes. TDP1:XLF interactions preferentially stimulated TDP1 activity on dsDNA as compared to ssDNA. TDP1 also promoted DNA binding by Ku70/80 and stimulated DNA-PK activity. Because Ku70/80 and XLF are the first factors recruited to the DSB at the onset of NHEJ, our data suggest a role for TDP1 during the early stages of mammalian NHEJ.

  14. TDP1 promotes assembly of non-homologous end joining protein complexes on DNA

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jinho; Li, Jing; Summerlin, Matthew; Hays, Annette; Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J.; Nitiss, Karin C.; Nitiss, John L.; Hanakahi, Leslyn A.

    2015-01-01

    The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) is central to the maintenance of genomic integrity. In tumor cells, the ability to repair DSBs predicts response to radiation and many cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs. DSB repair pathways include homologous recombination and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). NHEJ is a template-independent mechanism, yet many NHEJ repair products carry limited genetic changes, which suggests that NHEJ includes mechanisms to minimize error. Proteins required for mammalian NHEJ include Ku70/80, the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), XLF/Cernunnos and the XRCC4:DNA ligase IV complex. NHEJ also utilizes accessory proteins that include DNA polymerases, nucleases, and other end-processing factors. In yeast, mutations of tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (TDP1) reduced NHEJ fidelity. TDP1 plays an important role in repair of topoisomerase-mediated DNA damage and 3′-blocking DNA lesions, and mutation of the human TDP1 gene results in an inherited human neuropathy termed SCAN1. We found that human TDP1 stimulated DNA binding by XLF and physically interacted with XLF to form TDP1:XLF:DNA complexes. TDP1:XLF interactions preferentially stimulated TDP1 activity on dsDNA as compared to ssDNA. TDP1 also promoted DNA binding by Ku70/80 and stimulated DNA-PK activity. Because Ku70/80 and XLF are the first factors recruited to the DSB at the onset of NHEJ, our data suggest a role for TDP1 during the early stages of mammalian NHEJ. PMID:25841101

  15. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein promotes cisplatin resistance and regulates CD147 via Sp1 in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Ma, Xiangdong; Yang, Hong; Hua, Wei; Chen, Biliang; Cai, Guoqing

    2017-03-01

    Ovarian cancer is the highest mortality rate of all female reproductive malignancies. Drug resistance is a major cause of treatment failure in malignant tumors. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein acts as an oncoprotein, regulates cell proliferation, and migration in breast cancer. We aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of hepatitis B X-interacting protein on resistance to cisplatin in human ovarian cancer cell lines. The mRNA and protein levels of hepatitis B X-interacting protein were detected using RT-PCR and Western blotting in cisplatin-resistant and cisplatin-sensitive tissues, cisplatin-resistant cell lines A2780/CP and SKOV3/CP, and cisplatin-sensitive cell lines A2780 and SKOV3. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured to evaluate cellular sensitivity to cisplatin in A2780/CP cells. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to determine the relationship between hepatitis B X-interacting protein and CD147. The in vivo function of hepatitis B X-interacting protein on tumor burden was assessed in cisplatin-resistant xenograft models. The results showed that hepatitis B X-interacting protein was highly expressed in ovarian cancer of cisplatin-resistant tissues and cells. Notably, knockdown of hepatitis B X-interacting protein significantly reduced cell viability in A2780/CP compared with cisplatin treatment alone. Hepatitis B X-interacting protein and cisplatin cooperated to induce apoptosis and increase the expression of c-caspase 3 as well as the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. We confirmed that hepatitis B X-interacting protein up-regulated CD147 at the protein expression and transcriptional levels. Moreover, we found that hepatitis B X-interacting protein was able to activate the CD147 promoter through Sp1. In vivo, depletion of hepatitis B X-interacting protein decreased the tumor volume and weight induced by cisplatin. Taken together, these results indicate that hepatitis B X-interacting protein promotes cisplatin resistance and regulated CD147 via Sp1 in

  16. IN-MACA-MCC: Integrated Multiple Attractor Cellular Automata with Modified Clonal Classifier for Human Protein Coding and Promoter Prediction.

    PubMed

    Pokkuluri, Kiran Sree; Inampudi, Ramesh Babu; Nedunuri, S S S N Usha Devi

    2014-01-01

    Protein coding and promoter region predictions are very important challenges of bioinformatics (Attwood and Teresa, 2000). The identification of these regions plays a crucial role in understanding the genes. Many novel computational and mathematical methods are introduced as well as existing methods that are getting refined for predicting both of the regions separately; still there is a scope for improvement. We propose a classifier that is built with MACA (multiple attractor cellular automata) and MCC (modified clonal classifier) to predict both regions with a single classifier. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with Fickett and Tung (1992) datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 54, 108, and 162. This classifier is trained and tested with MMCRI datasets for protein coding region prediction for DNA sequences of lengths 252 and 354. The proposed classifier is trained and tested with promoter sequences from DBTSS (Yamashita et al., 2006) dataset and nonpromoters from EID (Saxonov et al., 2000) and UTRdb (Pesole et al., 2002) datasets. The proposed model can predict both regions with an average accuracy of 90.5% for promoter and 89.6% for protein coding region predictions. The specificity and sensitivity values of promoter and protein coding region predictions are 0.89 and 0.92, respectively.

  17. Polymerization Reactor Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skaates, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    Describes a polymerization reactor engineering course offered at Michigan Technological University which focuses on the design and operation of industrial polymerization reactors to achieve a desired degree of polymerization and molecular weight distribution. Provides a list of the course topics and assigned readings. (TW)

  18. GAL4-NF-kappaB fusion protein augments transgene expression from neuronal promoters in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, B H; Yang, Y; Paton, J F R; Li, F; Boulaire, J; Kasparov, S; Wang, S

    2006-12-01

    Targeted gene expression mediated by a mammalian cellular promoter is desirable for gene therapy in the brain, where there are a variety of different neuronal phenotypes, several types of supportive cells, and blood vessels. However, this approach can be hampered by weak activity of some cellular promoters. In view of the potency of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in regulating neuronal gene expression, we have assessed whether it can be used to enhance the strength of neuron-specific promoters. Our approach was to use a neuronal promoter to drive expression of a chimeric transactivator, which consisted of a part of the transcriptional activation domain of the NF-kappaB p65 protein fused to the DNA-binding domain of GAL4 protein from yeast. The second copy of the neuronal promoter was modified by introducing the unique GAL4 binding sequences at its 5' end and used to drive the expression of a transgene. Binding of the chimeric transcriptional activator upstream of the second promoter was expected to potentiate its transcriptional activity. In this study, the approach was applied to the platelet-derived growth factor beta chain and synapsin-1 neuron-specific promoters and tested in vitro and in vivo using plasmid, lentiviral, and baculoviral vectors. We observed up to a 100-fold improvement in reporter gene expression in cultured neurons and 20-fold improvement in the rat brain in vivo. Moreover, the cell-type specificity of the two tested promoters was well preserved and restricted to neurons. Finally, the expression driven by the new lentiviral vectors with the p65-potentiated synapsin-1 promoter showed no signs of decline or cell damage 4 weeks after injection. This approach should be suitable for constructing powerful and stable gene expression systems based on weak cell-specific promoters in neuronal phenotypes.

  19. Linking ATM Promoter Methylation to Cell Cycle Protein Expression in Brain Tumor Patients: Cellular Molecular Triangle Correlation in ATM Territory.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, P; Karami, F; Javan, Firouzeh; Mehrazin, M

    2015-08-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a key gene in DNA double-strand break (DSB), and therefore, most of its disabling genetic alterations play an important initiative role in many types of cancer. However, the exact role of ATM gene and its epigenetic alterations, especially promoter methylation in different grades of brain tumors, remains elusive. The current study was conducted to query possible correlations among methylation statue of ATM gene, ATM/ retinoblastoma (RB) protein expression, D1853N ATM polymorphism, telomere length (TL), and clinicopathological characteristics of various types of brain tumors. Isolated DNA from 30 fresh tissues was extracted from different types of brain tumors and two brain tissues from deceased normal healthy individuals. DNAs were treated with bisulfate sodium using DNA modification kit (Qiagen). Methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP-PCR) was implicated to determine the methylation status of treated DNA templates confirmed by promoter sequencing. Besides, the ATM and RB protein levels were determined by immunofluorescence (IF) assay using monoclonal mouse antihuman against ATM, P53, and RB proteins. To achieve an interactive correlation, the methylation data were statistically analyzed by considering TL and D1853N ATM polymorphism. More than 73% of the brain tumors were methylated in ATM gene promoter. There was strong correlation between ATM promoter methylation and its protein expression (p < 0.001). As a triangle, meaningful correlation was also found between methylated ATM promoter and ATM protein expression with D1853N ATM polymorphism (p = 0.01). ATM protein expression was not in line with RB protein expression while it was found to be significantly correlated with ATM promoter methylation (p = 0.01). There was significant correlation between TL neither with ATM promoter methylation nor with ATM protein expression nor with D1853N polymorphism. However, TL has shown strong correlation with patient's age and

  20. Inhibition of the hTERT promoter by the proto-oncogenic protein TAL1.

    PubMed

    Terme, J-M; Mocquet, V; Kuhlmann, A-S; Zane, L; Mortreux, F; Wattel, E; Duc Dodon, M; Jalinot, P

    2009-11-01

    Telomerase activity, which has fundamental roles in development and carcinogenesis, strongly depends on the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), its catalytic subunit. In this report, we show that the basic helix-loop-helix factor, TAL1 (T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1), is a negative regulator of the hTERT promoter. Indeed, TAL1 overexpression leads to a decrease in hTERT mRNA abundance and hence to reduced telomerase activity. Conversely, suppression of TAL1 by RNA interference in Jurkat cells increases hTERT expression. Analysis by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TAL1 binds to the hTERT proximal promoter and recruits HDAC1. Considering the relationship recently established between TAL1 and the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein, which was confirmed in T lymphocyte clones derived from adult T-cell leukemia patients, we analyzed the effect of TAL1 with respect to the earlier characterized effects of Tax and HBZ (HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper) on hTERT expression. TAL1 was observed to reinforce the negative effect of Tax, whereas hTERT transactivation by the HBZ-JunD complex was repressed by TAL1 overexpression. Moreover, HBZ was found to induce proteasome-mediated degradation of TAL1. These observations support a model in which Tax and TAL1 by repressing hTERT would initially favor genomic instability, whereas expression of factors such as HBZ allows at a later stage an increase in hTERT production and consequently in telomerase activity.

  1. Tankyrase Polymerization Is Controlled by Its Sterile Alpha Motif and Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Domains

    PubMed Central

    De Rycker, Manu; Price, Carolyn M.

    2004-01-01

    Tankyrases are novel poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases that have SAM and ankyrin protein-interaction domains. They are found at telomeres, centrosomes, nuclear pores, and Golgi vesicles and have been shown to participate in telomere length regulation. Their other function(s) are unknown, and it has been difficult to envision a common role at such diverse cellular locations. We have shown that tankyrase 1 polymerizes through its sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain to assemble large protein complexes. In vitro polymerization is reversible and still allows interaction with ankyrin-domain binding proteins. Polymerization can also occur in vivo, with SAM-dependent association of overexpressed tankyrase leading to formation of large tankyrase-containing vesicles, disruption of Golgi structure, and inhibition of apical secretion. Finally, tankyrase polymers are dissociated efficiently by poly(ADP-ribosy)lation. This disassembly is prevented by mutation of the PARP domain. Our findings indicate that tankyrase 1 has the unique capacity to promote both assembly and disassembly of large protein complexes. Thus, tankyrases appear to be master scaffolding proteins that regulate the formation of dynamic protein networks at different cellular locations. This implies a common scaffolding function for tankyrases at each location, with specific tankyrase interaction partners conferring location-specific roles to each network, e.g., telomere compaction or regulation of vesicle trafficking. PMID:15509784

  2. Post-polymerization photografting on methacrylate-based monoliths for separation of intact proteins and protein digests with comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography hyphenated with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Rudy J; Wouters, Sam; Barcaru, Andrei; Vivó-Truyols, Gabriel; Eeltink, Sebastiaan; de Koning, Leo J; Schoenmakers, Peter J

    2015-05-01

    Post-polymerization photografting is a versatile tool to alter the surface chemistry of organic-based monoliths so as to obtain desired stationary phase properties. In this study, 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid was grafted to a hydrophobic poly(butyl methacrylate-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolith to create a strong cation exchange stationary phase. Both single-step and two-step photografting were addressed, and the effects of grafting conditions were assessed. An experimental design has been applied in an attempt to optimize three of the key parameters of the two-step photografting chemistry, i.e. the grafting time of the initiator, the monomer concentration and the monomer irradiation time. The photografted columns were implemented in a comprehensive two-dimensional column liquid chromatography ( (t) LC ×  (t) LC) workflow and applied for the separation of intact proteins and peptides. A baseline separation of 11 intact proteins was obtained within 20 min by implementing a gradient across a limited RP composition window in the second dimension. (t) LC ×  (t) LC with UV detection was used for the separation of cytochrome c digest, bovine serum insulin digest and a digest of a complex protein mixture. A semi-quantitative estimation of the occupation of separation space, the orthogonality, of the (t) LC ×  (t) LC system yielded 75%. The (t) LC ×  (t) LC setup was hyphenated to a high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer instrument to identify the bovine serum insulin tryptic peptides and to demonstrate the compatibility with MS analysis.

  3. Structure and promoter analysis of the mouse membrane-bound transferrin-like protein (MTf) gene.

    PubMed

    Nakamasu, K; Kawamoto, T; Yoshida, E; Noshiro, M; Matsuda, Y; Kato, Y

    2001-03-01

    Recently, we purified membrane-bound transferrin-like protein (MTf) from the plasma membrane of rabbit chondrocytes and showed that the expression levels of MTf protein and mRNA were much higher in cartilage than in other tissues [Kawamoto T, Pan, H., Yan, W., Ishida, H., Usui, E., Oda, R., Nakamasu, K., Noshiro, M., Kawashima-Ohya, Y., Fujii, M., Shintani, H., Okada, Y. & Kato, Y. (1998) Eur. J. Biochem. 256, 503--509]. In this study, we isolated the MTf gene from a constructed mouse genomic library. The mouse MTf gene was encoded by a single-copy gene spanning approximately 26 kb and consisting of 16 exons. The transcription-initiation site was located 157 bp upstream from the translation-start codon, and a TATA box was not found in the 5' flanking region. The mouse MTf gene was mapped on the B3 band of chromosome 16 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Using primary chondrocytes, SK-MEL-28 (melanoma cell line), ATDC5 (chondrogenic cell line) and NIH3T3 (fibroblast cell line) cells, we carried out transient expression studies on various lengths of the 5' flanking region of the MTf gene fused to the luciferase reporter gene. Luciferase activity in SK-MEL-28 cells was higher than in primary chondrocytes. Although no luciferase activity was detectable in NIH3T3 cells, it was higher in chondrocytes than in ATDC5 chondrogenic cells. These findings were consistent with the levels of expression of MTf mRNA in these cells cultured under similar conditions. The patterns of increase and decrease in the luciferase activity in chondrocytes transfected with various 5' deleted constructs of the MTf promoter were similar to that in ATDC5 cells, but differed from that in SK-MEL-28 cells. The findings obtained with primary chondrocytes suggest that the regions between -693 and -444 and between -1635 and -1213 contain positive and negative cis-acting elements, respectively. The chondrocyte-specific expression of the MTf gene could be regulated via these regulatory elements in

  4. CDH1 promoter hypermethylation and E-cadherin protein expression in infiltrating breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, José Roberto F; Prando, Érika C; Quevedo, Francisco C; Neto, Francisco A Moraes; Rainho, Cláudia A; Rogatto, Silvia R

    2006-01-01

    Background The E-cadherin gene (CDH1) maps, at chromosome 16q22.1, a region often associated with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in human breast cancer. LOH at this site is thought to lead to loss of function of this tumor suppressor gene and was correlated with decreased disease-free survival, poor prognosis, and metastasis. Differential CpG island methylation in the promoter region of the CDH1 gene might be an alternative way for the loss of expression and function of E-cadherin, leading to loss of tissue integrity, an essential step in tumor progression. Methods The aim of our study was to assess, by Methylation-Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MSP), the methylation pattern of the CDH1 gene and its possible correlation with the expression of E-cadherin and other standard immunohistochemical parameters (Her-2, ER, PgR, p53, and K-67) in a series of 79 primary breast cancers (71 infiltrating ductal, 5 infiltrating lobular, 1 metaplastic, 1 apocrine, and 1 papillary carcinoma). Results CDH1 hypermethylation was observed in 72% of the cases including 52/71 ductal, 4/5 lobular carcinomas and 1 apocrine carcinoma. Reduced levels of E-cadherin protein were observed in 85% of our samples. Although not statistically significant, the levels of E-cadherin expression tended to diminish with the CDH1 promoter region methylation. In the group of 71 ductal cancinomas, most of the cases of showing CDH1 hypermethylation also presented reduced levels of expression of ER and PgR proteins, and a possible association was observed between CDH1 methylation and ER expression (p = 0.0301, Fisher's exact test). However, this finding was not considered significant after Bonferroni correction of p-value. Conclusion Our preliminary findings suggested that abnormal CDH1 methylation occurs in high frequencies in infiltrating breast cancers associated with a decrease in E-cadherin expression in a subgroup of cases characterized by loss of expression of other important genes to the mammary

  5. Germin-like protein 2 gene promoter from rice is responsive to fungal pathogens in transgenic potato plants.

    PubMed

    Munir, Faiza; Hayashi, Satomi; Batley, Jacqueline; Naqvi, Syed Muhammad Saqlan; Mahmood, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Controlled transgene expression via a promoter is particularly triggered in response to pathogen infiltration. This is significant for eliciting disease-resistant features in crops through genetic engineering. The germins and germin-like proteins (GLPs) are known to be associated with plant and developmental stages. The 1107-bp Oryza sativa root GLP2 (OsRGLP2) gene promoter fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was transformed into potato plants through an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The OsRGLP2 promoter was activated in response to Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. and Alternaria solani Sorauer. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed 4-5-fold increase in promoter activity every 24 h following infection. There was a 15-fold increase in OsRGLP2 promoter activity after 72 h of F. solani (Mart.) Sacc. treatment and a 12-fold increase observed with A. solani Sorauer. Our results confirmed that the OsRGLP2 promoter activity was enhanced under fungal stress. Furthermore, a hyperaccumulation of H2O2 in transgenic plants is a clear signal for the involvement of OsRGLP2 promoter region in the activation of specific genes in the potato genome involved in H2O2-mediated defense response. The OsRGLP2 promoter evidently harbors copies of GT-I and Dof transcription factors (AAAG) that act in response to elicitors generated in the wake of pathogen infection.

  6. Tailoring Escherichia coli for the l-Rhamnose PBAD Promoter-Based Production of Membrane and Secretory Proteins.

    PubMed

    Hjelm, Anna; Karyolaimos, Alexandros; Zhang, Zhe; Rujas, Edurne; Vikström, David; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    2017-03-03

    Membrane and secretory protein production in Escherichia coli requires precisely controlled production rates to avoid the deleterious saturation of their biogenesis pathways. On the basis of this requirement, the E. coli l-rhamnose PBAD promoter (PrhaBAD) is often used for membrane and secretory protein production since PrhaBAD is thought to regulate protein production rates in an l-rhamnose concentration-dependent manner. By monitoring protein production in real-time in E. coli wild-type and an l-rhamnose catabolism deficient mutant, we demonstrate that the l-rhamnose concentration-dependent tunability of PrhaBAD-mediated protein production is actually due to l-rhamnose consumption rather than regulating production rates. Using this information, a RhaT-mediated l-rhamnose transport and l-rhamnose catabolism deficient double mutant was constructed. We show that this mutant enables the regulation of PrhaBAD-based protein production rates in an l-rhamnose concentration-dependent manner and that this is critical to optimize membrane and secretory protein production yields. The high precision of protein production rates provided by the PrhaBAD promoter in an l-rhamnose transport and catabolism deficient background could also benefit other applications in synthetic biology.

  7. p27 Protein Protects Metabolically Stressed Cardiomyocytes from Apoptosis by Promoting Autophagy*

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuetao; Momen, Abdul; Wu, Jun; Noyan, Hossein; Li, Renke; von Harsdorf, Rüdiger; Husain, Mansoor

    2014-01-01

    p27Kip1 (p27), a key regulator of cell division, has been implicated in autophagy of cancer cells. However, its role in autophagy, the evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that enables cells to remove unwanted proteins and damaged organelles, had not been examined in the heart. Here we report that ectopic delivery of a p27 fusion protein (TAT-p27) was sufficient to induce autophagy in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes in vitro, under basal conditions and after glucose deprivation. Conversely, lentivirus-delivered shRNA against p27 successfully reduced p27 levels and suppressed basal and glucose-deprived levels of autophagy in cardiomyocytes in vitro. Glucose deprivation mimics myocardial ischemia and induces apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. During glucose deprivation, TAT-p27 inhibited apoptosis, whereas down-regulation of p27 decreased survival of cardiomyocytes. However, inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological (3-methyladenine, chloroquine, or bafilomycin A1) or genetic approaches (siRNA-mediated knockdown of Atg5) sensitized cardiomyocytes to glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis, even in the presence of TAT-p27. TAT-p27 was also able to provoke greater levels of autophagy in resting and fasting cardiomyocytes in vivo. Further, TAT-p27 enhanced autophagy and repressed cardiomyocytes apoptosis, improved cardiac function, and reduced infarct size following myocardial infarction. Again, these effects were lost when cardiac autophagy in vivo was blocked by chloroquine. Taken together, these data show that p27 positively regulates cardiac autophagy in vitro and in vivo, at rest and after metabolic stress, and that TAT-p27 inhibits apoptosis by promoting autophagy in glucose-deprived cardiomyocytes in vitro and in post-myocardial infarction hearts in vivo. PMID:24794871

  8. Protein kinase C promotes cardiac fibrosis and heart failure by modulating galectin-3 expression.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiang; Qian, Xiaoqian; Shen, Ming; Jiang, Rong; Wagner, Mary B; Ding, Guoliang; Chen, Guangping; Shen, Baozhong

    2015-02-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) and galectin-3 are two important mediators that play a key pathogenic role in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). However, the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways are not fully understood. In this study, we explored the relationship between and roles of PKC-α and galectin-3 in the development of HF. We found that activation of PKC by phorbol dibutyrate (PDB) increased galectin-3 expression by ~180%, as well as collagen I and fibronection accumulation in cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes. Over-expression of galectin-3 in HL-1 cells increased collagen I protein production. Inhibition of galectin-3 by β-lactose blocked PDB-induced galectin-3 and collagen production, indicating that galectin-3 mediates PKC-induced cardiac fibrosis. In rats subjected to pulmonary artery banding (PAB) to induce right ventricular HF, galectin-3 was increased by ~140% in the right ventricle and also by ~240% in left ventricle compared to control. The elevated galectin-3 is consistent with an increase of total and activated (phosphorylated) PKC-α, α-SMA and collagen I. Finally, we extended our findings to examine the role of angiotensin II (Ang II), which activates the PKC pathway and contributes to cardiac fibrosis and the development of HF. We found that Ang II activated the PKC-α pathway and increased galectin-3 expression and collagen production. This study provides a new insight into the molecular mechanisms of HF mediated by PKC-α and galectin-3. PKC-α promotes cardiac fibrosis and HF by stimulation of galectin-3 expression.

  9. An RNA Binding Protein Promotes Axonal Integrity in Peripheral Neurons by Destabilizing REST

    PubMed Central

    Cargnin, Francesca; Nechiporuk, Tamilla; Müllendorff, Karin; Stumpo, Deborah J.; Blackshear, Perry J.; Ballas, Nurit

    2014-01-01

    The RE1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) acts as a governor of the mature neuronal phenotype by repressing a large consortium of neuronal genes in non-neuronal cells. In the developing nervous system, REST is present in progenitors and downregulated at terminal differentiation to promote acquisition of mature neuronal phenotypes. Paradoxically, REST is still detected in some regions of the adult nervous system, but how REST levels are regulated, and whether REST can still repress neuronal genes, is not known. Here, we report that homeostatic levels of REST are maintained in mature peripheral neurons by a constitutive post-transcriptional mechanism. Specifically, using a three-hybrid genetic screen, we identify the RNA binding protein, ZFP36L2, associated previously only with female fertility and hematopoiesis, and show that it regulates REST mRNA stability. Dorsal root ganglia in Zfp36l2 knock-out mice, or wild-type ganglia expressing ZFP36L2 shRNA, show higher steady-state levels of Rest mRNA and protein, and extend thin and disintegrating axons. This phenotype is due, at least in part, to abnormally elevated REST levels in the ganglia because the axonal phenotype is attenuated by acute knockdown of REST in Zfp36l2 KO DRG explants. The higher REST levels result in lower levels of target genes, indicating that REST can still fine-tune gene expression through repression. Thus, REST levels are titrated in mature peripheral neurons, in part through a ZFP36L2-mediated post-transcriptional mechanism, with consequences for axonal integrity. PMID:25505318

  10. Ena/VASP proteins regulate activated T-cell trafficking by promoting diapedesis during transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Estin, Miriam L; Thompson, Scott B; Traxinger, Brianna; Fisher, Marlie H; Friedman, Rachel S; Jacobelli, Jordan

    2017-04-04

    Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) and Ena-VASP-like (EVL) are cytoskeletal effector proteins implicated in regulating cell morphology, adhesion, and migration in various cell types. However, the role of these proteins in T-cell motility, adhesion, and in vivo trafficking remains poorly understood. This study identifies a specific role for EVL and VASP in T-cell diapedesis and trafficking. We demonstrate that EVL and VASP are selectively required for activated T-cell trafficking but are not required for normal T-cell development or for naïve T-cell trafficking to lymph nodes and spleen. Using a model of multiple sclerosis, we show an impairment in trafficking of EVL/VASP-deficient activated T cells to the inflamed central nervous system of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Additionally, we found a defect in trafficking of EVL/VASP double-knockout (dKO) T cells to the inflamed skin and secondary lymphoid organs. Deletion of EVL and VASP resulted in the impairment in α4 integrin (CD49d) expression and function. Unexpectedly, EVL/VASP dKO T cells did not exhibit alterations in shear-resistant adhesion to, or in crawling on, primary endothelial cells under physiologic shear forces. Instead, deletion of EVL and VASP impaired T-cell diapedesis. Furthermore, T-cell diapedesis became equivalent between control and EVL/VASP dKO T cells upon α4 integrin blockade. Overall, EVL and VASP selectively mediate activated T-cell trafficking by promoting the diapedesis step of transendothelial migration in a α4 integrin-dependent manner.

  11. Developmental and organ-specific changes in promoter DNA-protein interactions in the tomato rbcS gene family.

    PubMed

    Manzara, T; Carrasco, P; Gruissem, W

    1991-12-01

    The five genes encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcS) from tomato are differentially expressed. Transcription of the genes is organ specific and developmentally regulated in fruit and light regulated in cotyledons and leaves. DNase I footprinting assays were used to map multiple sites of DNA-protein interaction in the promoter regions of all five genes and to determine whether the differential transcriptional activity of each gene correlated with developmental or organ-specific changes in DNA-protein interactions. We show organ-specific differences in DNase I protection patterns, suggesting that differential transcription of rbcS genes is controlled at least in part at the level of DNA-protein interactions. In contrast, no changes were detected in the DNase I footprint pattern generated with nuclear extracts from dark-grown cotyledons versus cotyledons exposed to light, implying that light-dependent regulation of rbcS transcription is controlled by protein-protein interactions or modification of DNA binding proteins. During development of tomato fruit, most DNA-protein interactions in the rbcS promoter regions disappear, coincident with the transcriptional inactivation of the rbcS genes. In nuclear extracts from nonphotosynthetic roots and red fruit, the only detectable DNase I protection corresponds to a G-box binding activity. Detection of other DNA binding proteins in extracts from these organs and expression of nonphotosynthetic genes exclude the possibility that roots and red fruit are transcriptionally inactive. The absence of complex promoter protection patterns in these organs suggests either that cooperative interactions between different DNA binding proteins are necessary to form functional transcription complexes or that there is developmental and organ-specific regulation of several rbcS-specific transcription factors in these organs. The DNase I-protected DNA sequences defined in this study are discussed in the context of conserved DNA

  12. The liver X-receptor gene promoter is hypermethylated in a mouse model of prenatal protein restriction.

    PubMed

    van Straten, Esther M E; Bloks, Vincent W; Huijkman, Nicolette C A; Baller, Julius F W; van Meer, Hester; Lütjohann, Dieter; Kuipers, Folkert; Plösch, Torsten

    2010-02-01

    Prenatal nutrition as influenced by the nutritional status of the mother has been identified as a determinant of adult disease. Feeding low-protein diets during pregnancy in rodents is a well-established model to induce programming events in offspring. We hypothesized that protein restriction would influence fetal lipid metabolism by inducing epigenetic adaptations. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to a protein-restriction protocol (9% vs. 18% casein). Shortly before birth, dams and fetuses were killed. To identify putative epigenetic changes, CG-dinucleotide-rich region in the promoter of a gene (CpG island) methylation microarrays were performed on DNA isolated from fetal livers. Two hundred four gene promoter regions were differentially methylated upon protein restriction. The liver X-receptor (Lxr) alpha promoter was hypermethylated in protein-restricted pups. Lxr alpha is a nuclear receptor critically involved in control of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. The mRNA level of Lxra was reduced by 32% in fetal liver upon maternal protein restriction, whereas expression of the Lxr target genes Abcg5/Abcg8 was reduced by 56% and 51%, respectively, measured by real-time quantitative PCR. The same effect, although less pronounced, was observed in the fetal intestine. In vitro methylation of a mouse Lxra-promoter/luciferase expression cassette resulted in a 24-fold transcriptional repression. Our study demonstrates that, in mice, protein restriction during pregnancy interferes with DNA methylation in fetal liver. Lxra is a target of differential methylation, and Lxra transcription is dependent on DNA methylation. It is tempting to speculate that perinatal nutrition may influence adult lipid metabolism by DNA methylation, which may contribute to the epidemiological relation between perinatal/neonatal nutrition and adult disease.

  13. Isolation and characterization of an oil palm constitutive promoter derived from a translationally control tumor protein (TCTP) gene.

    PubMed

    Masura, Subhi Siti; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Ti, Leslie Low Eng

    2011-07-01

    We have characterized an oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) constitutive promoter that is derived from a translationally control tumor protein (TCTP) gene. The TCTP promoter was fused transcriptionally with the gusA reporter gene and transferred to monocot and dicot systems in order to study its regulatory role in a transient expression study. It was found that the 5' region of TCTP was capable of driving the gusA expression in all the oil palm tissues tested, including immature embryo, embryogenic callus, embryoid, young leaflet from mature palm, green leaf, mesocarp and stem. It could also be used in dicot systems as it was also capable of driving gusA expression in tobacco leaves. The results indicate that the TCTP promoter could be used for the production of recombinant proteins that require constitutive expression in the plant system.

  14. SH2B1 and IRSp53 proteins promote the formation of dendrites and dendritic branches.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Jen; Shih, Chien-Hung; Chang, Yu-Jung; Hong, Shao-Jing; Li, Tian-Neng; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching; Chen, Linyi

    2015-03-06

    SH2B1 is an adaptor protein known to enhance neurite outgrowth. In this study, we provide evidence suggesting that the SH2B1 level is increased during in vitro culture of hippocampal neurons, and the β isoform (SH2B1β) is the predominant isoform. The fact that formation of filopodia is prerequisite for neurite initiation suggests that SH2B1 may regulate filopodium formation and thus neurite initiation. To investigate whether SH2B1 may regulate filopodium formation, the effect of SH2B1 and a membrane and actin regulator, IRSp53 (insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53), is investigated. Overexpressing both SH2B1β and IRSp53 significantly enhances filopodium formation, neurite outgrowth, and branching. Both in vivo and in vitro data show that SH2B1 interacts with IRSp53 in hippocampal neurons. This interaction depends on the N-terminal proline-rich domains of SH2B1. In addition, SH2B1 and IRSp53 co-localize at the plasma membrane, and their levels increase in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction of developing neurons. These findings suggest that SH2B1-IRSp53 complexes promote the formation of filopodia, neurite initiation, and neuronal branching.

  15. SH2B1 and IRSp53 Proteins Promote the Formation of Dendrites and Dendritic Branches*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Jen; Shih, Chien-Hung; Chang, Yu-Jung; Hong, Shao-Jing; Li, Tian-Neng; Wang, Lily Hui-Ching; Chen, Linyi

    2015-01-01

    SH2B1 is an adaptor protein known to enhance neurite outgrowth. In this study, we provide evidence suggesting that the SH2B1 level is increased during in vitro culture of hippocampal neurons, and the β isoform (SH2B1β) is the predominant isoform. The fact that formation of filopodia is prerequisite for neurite initiation suggests that SH2B1 may regulate filopodium formation and thus neurite initiation. To investigate whether SH2B1 may regulate filopodium formation, the effect of SH2B1 and a membrane and actin regulator, IRSp53 (insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53), is investigated. Overexpressing both SH2B1β and IRSp53 significantly enhances filopodium formation, neurite outgrowth, and branching. Both in vivo and in vitro data show that SH2B1 interacts with IRSp53 in hippocampal neurons. This interaction depends on the N-terminal proline-rich domains of SH2B1. In addition, SH2B1 and IRSp53 co-localize at the plasma membrane, and their levels increase in the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction of developing neurons. These findings suggest that SH2B1-IRSp53 complexes promote the formation of filopodia, neurite initiation, and neuronal branching. PMID:25586189

  16. The folate-coupled enzyme MTHFD2 is a nuclear protein and promotes cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson Sheppard, Nina; Jarl, Lisa; Mahadessian, Diana; Strittmatter, Laura; Schmidt, Angelika; Madhusudan, Nikhil; Tegnér, Jesper; Lundberg, Emma K; Asplund, Anna; Jain, Mohit; Nilsson, Roland

    2015-10-13

    Folate metabolism is central to cell proliferation and a target of commonly used cancer chemotherapeutics. In particular, the mitochondrial folate-coupled metabolism is thought to be important for proliferating cancer cells. The enzyme MTHFD2 in this pathway is highly expressed in human tumors and broadly required for survival of cancer cells. Although the enzymatic activity of the MTHFD2 protein is well understood, little is known about its larger role in cancer cell biology. We here report that MTHFD2 is co-expressed with two distinct gene sets, representing amino acid metabolism and cell proliferation, respectively. Consistent with a role for MTHFD2 in cell proliferation, MTHFD2 expression was repressed in cells rendered quiescent by deprivation of growth signals (serum) and rapidly re-induced by serum stimulation. Overexpression of MTHFD2 alone was sufficient to promote cell proliferation independent of its dehydrogenase activity, even during growth restriction. In addition to its known mitochondrial localization, we found MTHFD2 to have a nuclear localization and co-localize with DNA replication sites. These findings suggest a previously unknown role for MTHFD2 in cancer cell proliferation, adding to its known function in mitochondrial folate metabolism.

  17. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Promotes Flaviviridae Entry and Replication

    PubMed Central

    Le Sommer, Caroline; Barrows, Nicholas J.; Bradrick, Shelton S.; Pearson, James L.; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.

    2012-01-01

    Flaviviruses cause a wide range of severe diseases ranging from encephalitis to hemorrhagic fever. Discovery of host factors that regulate the fate of flaviviruses in infected cells could provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of infection and therefore facilitate the development of anti-flaviviral drugs. We performed genome-scale siRNA screens to discover human host factors required for yellow fever virus (YFV) propagation. Using a 2×2 siRNA pool screening format and a duplicate of the screen, we identified a high confidence list of YFV host factors. To find commonalities between flaviviruses, these candidates were compared to host factors previously identified for West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV). This comparison highlighted a potential requirement for the G protein-coupled receptor kinase family, GRKs, for flaviviral infection. The YFV host candidate GRK2 (also known as ADRBK1) was validated both in siRNA-mediated knockdown HuH-7 cells and in GRK−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Additionally, we showed that GRK2 was required for efficient propagation of DENV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) indicating that GRK2 requirement is conserved throughout the Flaviviridae. Finally, we found that GRK2 participates in multiple distinct steps of the flavivirus life cycle by promoting both entry and RNA synthesis. Together, our findings identified GRK2 as a novel regulator of flavivirus infection and suggest that inhibition of GRK2 function may constitute a new approach for treatment of flavivirus associated diseases. PMID:23029581

  18. Dual-stage growth factor release within 3D protein-engineered hydrogel niches promotes adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood-Goodwin, Midori; Teasley, Eric S.; Heilshorn, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Engineered biomimetic microenvironments from hydrogels are an emerging strategy to achieve lineage-specific differentiation in vitro. In addition to recapitulating critical matrix cues found in the native three-dimensional (3D) niche, the hydrogel can also be designed to deliver soluble factors that are present within the native inductive microenvironment. We demonstrate a versatile materials approach for the dual-stage delivery of multiple soluble factors within a 3D hydrogel to induce adipogenesis. We use a Mixing-Induced Two-Component Hydrogel (MITCH) embedded with alginate microgels to deliver two pro-adipogenic soluble factors, fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) with two distinct delivery profiles. We show that dual-stage delivery of FGF-1 and BMP-4 to human adipose-derived stromal cells (hADSCs) significantly increases lipid accumulation compared with the simultaneous delivery of both growth factors together. Furthermore, dual-stage growth factor delivery within a 3D hydrogel resulted in substantially more lipid accumulation compared to identical delivery profiles in 2D cultures. Gene expression analysis shows upregulation of key adipogenic markers indicative of brown-like adipocytes. These data suggest that dual-stage release of FGF-1 and BMP-4 within 3D microenvironments can promote the in vitro development of mature adipocytes. PMID:25309741

  19. The RNA-binding protein SFPQ orchestrates an RNA regulon to promote axon viability.

    PubMed

    Cosker, Katharina E; Fenstermacher, Sara J; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F; Elliott, Hunter L; Segal, Rosalind A

    2016-05-01

    To achieve accurate spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) guide nuclear processing, intracellular trafficking and local translation of target mRNAs. In neurons, RBPs direct transport of target mRNAs to sites of translation in remote axons and dendrites. However, it is not known whether an individual RBP coordinately regulates multiple mRNAs within these morphologically complex cells. Here we identify SFPQ (splicing factor, poly-glutamine rich) as an RBP that binds and regulates multiple mRNAs in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons and thereby promotes neurotrophin-dependent axonal viability. SFPQ acts in nuclei, cytoplasm and axons to regulate functionally related mRNAs essential for axon survival. Notably, SFPQ is required for coassembly of LaminB2 (Lmnb2) and Bclw (Bcl2l2) mRNAs in RNA granules and for axonal trafficking of these mRNAs. Together these data demonstrate that SFPQ orchestrates spatial gene expression of a newly identified RNA regulon essential for axonal viability.

  20. Berberine promotes glucose consumption independently of AMP-activated protein kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miao; Xiao, Yuanyuan; Yin, Jun; Hou, Wolin; Yu, Xueying; Shen, Li; Liu, Fang; Wei, Li; Jia, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with anti-diabetic action. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway has been proposed as mechanism for berberine's action. This study aimed to examine whether AMPK activation was necessary for berberine's glucose-lowering effect. We found that in HepG2 hepatocytes and C2C12 myotubes, berberine significantly increased glucose consumption and lactate release in a dose-dependent manner. AMPK and acetyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACC) phosphorylation were stimulated by 20 µmol/L berberine. Nevertheless, berberine was still effective on stimulating glucose utilization and lactate production, when the AMPK activation was blocked by (1) inhibition of AMPK activity by Compound C, (2) suppression of AMPKα expression by siRNA, and (3) blockade of AMPK pathway by adenoviruses containing dominant-negative forms of AMPKα1/α2. To test the effect of berberine on oxygen consumption, extracellular flux analysis was performed in Seahorse XF24 analyzer. The activity of respiratory chain complex I was almost fully blocked in C2C12 myotubes by berberine. Metformin, as a positive control, showed similar effects as berberine. These results suggest that berberine and metformin promote glucose metabolism by stimulating glycolysis, which probably results from inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I, independent of AMPK activation.

  1. Guanylate-binding proteins promote activation of the AIM2 inflammasome during infection with Francisella novicida.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Etienne; Wallet, Pierre; Dreier, Roland F; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Anton, Leonie; Rühl, Sebastian; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Dick, Mathias S; Kistner, Anne; Rigard, Mélanie; Degrandi, Daniel; Pfeffer, Klaus; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Henry, Thomas; Broz, Petr

    2015-05-01

    The AIM2 inflammasome detects double-stranded DNA in the cytosol and induces caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis as well as release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. AIM2 is critical for host defense against DNA viruses and bacteria that replicate in the cytosol, such as Francisella tularensis subspecies novicida (F. novicida). The activation of AIM2 by F. novicida requires bacteriolysis, yet whether this process is accidental or is a host-driven immunological mechanism has remained unclear. By screening nearly 500 interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) through the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA), we identified guanylate-binding proteins GBP2 and GBP5 as key activators of AIM2 during infection with F. novicida. We confirmed their prominent role in vitro and in a mouse model of tularemia. Mechanistically, these two GBPs targeted cytosolic F. novicida and promoted bacteriolysis. Thus, in addition to their role in host defense against vacuolar pathogens, GBPs also facilitate the presentation of ligands by directly attacking cytosolic bacteria.

  2. Syntaxin-binding protein STXBP5 inhibits endothelial exocytosis and promotes platelet secretion

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiuyu; Yamakuchi, Munekazu; Ture, Sara; de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez, Maria; Ko, Kyung Ae; Modjeski, Kristina L.; LoMonaco, Michael B.; Johnson, Andrew D.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Takai, Yoshimi; Morrell, Craig N.; Lowenstein, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, vWF levels predict the risk of myocardial infarction and thrombosis; however, the factors that influence vWF levels are not completely understood. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified syntaxin-binding protein 5 (STXBP5) as a candidate gene linked to changes in vWF plasma levels, though the functional relationship between STXBP5 and vWF is unknown. We hypothesized that STXBP5 inhibits endothelial cell exocytosis. We found that STXBP5 is expressed in human endothelial cells and colocalizes with and interacts with syntaxin 4. In human endothelial cells reduction of STXBP5 increased exocytosis of vWF and P-selectin. Mice lacking Stxbp5 had higher levels of vWF in the plasma, increased P-selectin translocation, and more platelet-endothelial interactions, which suggests that STXBP5 inhibits endothelial exocytosis. However, Stxbp5 KO mice also displayed hemostasis defects, including prolonged tail bleeding times and impaired mesenteric arteriole and carotid artery thrombosis. Furthermore, platelets from Stxbp5 KO mice had defects in platelet secretion and activation; thus, STXBP5 inhibits endothelial exocytosis but promotes platelet secretion. Our study reveals a vascular function for STXBP5, validates the functional relevance of a candidate gene identified by GWAS, and suggests that variation within STXBP5 is a genetic risk for venous thromboembolic disease. PMID:25244095

  3. Retinoblastoma protein promotes oxidative phosphorylation through upregulation of glycolytic genes in oncogene-induced senescent cells.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Shin-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakatsu, Yuko; Igata, Tomoka; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Narita, Masashi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Metabolism is closely linked with cellular state and biological processes, but the mechanisms controlling metabolic properties in different contexts remain unclear. Cellular senescence is an irreversible growth arrest induced by various stresses, which exhibits active secretory and metabolic phenotypes. Here, we show that retinoblastoma protein (RB) plays a critical role in promoting the metabolic flow by activating both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in cells that have undergone oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). A combination of real-time metabolic monitoring, and metabolome and gene expression analyses showed that OIS-induced fibroblasts developed an accelerated metabolic flow. The loss of RB downregulated a series of glycolytic genes and simultaneously reduced metabolites produced from the glycolytic pathway, indicating that RB upregulates glycolytic genes in OIS cells. Importantly, both mitochondrial OXPHOS and glycolytic activities were abolished in RB-depleted or downstream glycolytic enzyme-depleted OIS cells, suggesting that RB-mediated glycolytic activation induces a metabolic flux into the OXPHOS pathway. Collectively, our findings reveal that RB essentially functions in metabolic remodeling and the maintenance of the active energy production in OIS cells.

  4. Retinoblastoma protein promotes oxidative phosphorylation through upregulation of glycolytic genes in oncogene-induced senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakatsu, Yuko; Igata, Tomoka; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Narita, Masashi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism is closely linked with cellular state and biological processes, but the mechanisms controlling metabolic properties in different contexts remain unclear. Cellular senescence is an irreversible growth arrest induced by various stresses, which exhibits active secretory and metabolic phenotypes. Here, we show that retinoblastoma protein (RB) plays a critical role in promoting the metabolic flow by activating both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in cells that have undergone oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). A combination of real-time metabolic monitoring, and metabolome and gene expression analyses showed that OIS-induced fibroblasts developed an accelerated metabolic flow. The loss of RB downregulated a series of glycolytic genes and simultaneously reduced metabolites produced from the glycolytic pathway, indicating that RB upregulates glycolytic genes in OIS cells. Importantly, both mitochondrial OXPHOS and glycolytic activities were abolished in RB-depleted or downstream glycolytic enzyme-depleted OIS cells, suggesting that RB-mediated glycolytic activation induces a metabolic flux into the OXPHOS pathway. Collectively, our findings reveal that RB essentially functions in metabolic remodeling and the maintenance of the active energy production in OIS cells. PMID:26009982

  5. SQUAMOSA promoter-binding protein-like transcription factors: star players for plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zenglin; Liu, Danmei; Zhang, Kai; Li, Aili; Mao, Long

    2010-11-01

    SQUAMOSA Promoter-Binding Protein-Like (SPL) genes encode plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in plant phase transition, flower and fruit development, plant architecture, gibberellins signaling, sporogenesis, and response to copper and fungal toxins. In Arabidopsis, many SPL genes are post-transcriptionally regulated by the microRNA (miRNA) miR156, among which AtSPL9 in turn positively regulates the expression of the second miRNA miR172. This miR156-AtSPL9-miR172 regulatory pathway plays critical roles during juvenile to adult leaf development and the miR156-SPLs feedback interaction persists all through the plant development, which may be conserved in other plants. In the present paper, we provide a concise review on the most recent progress in the regulatory mechanisms associated with plant SPL transcription factors, especially in relation to miRNAs. The potential application of these discoveries in agriculture is briefly discussed.

  6. Protein arginine methyltransferase 7 promotes breast cancer cell invasion through the induction of MMP9 expression.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R Mitchell; Haghandish, Nasim; Daneshmand, Manijeh; Amin, Shahrier; Paris, Geneviève; Falls, Theresa J; Bell, John C; Islam, Shahidul; Côté, Jocelyn

    2015-02-20

    Recent evidence points to the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) family of enzymes playing critical roles in cancer. PRMT7 has been identified in several gene expression studies to be associated with increased metastasis and decreased survival in breast cancer patients. However, this has not been extensively studied. Here we report that PRMT7 expression is significantly upregulated in both primary breast tumour tissues and in breast cancer lymph node metastases. We have demonstrated that reducing PRMT7 levels in invasive breast cancer cells using RNA interference significantly decreased cell invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo. Conversely, overexpression of PRMT7 in non-aggressive MCF7 cells enhanced their invasiveness. Furthermore, we show that PRMT7 induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), a well-known mediator of breast cancer metastasis. Importantly, we significantly rescued invasion of aggressive breast cancer cells depleted of PRMT7 by the exogenous expression of MMP9. Our results demonstrate that upregulation of PRMT7 in breast cancer may have a significant role in promoting cell invasion through the regulation of MMP9. This identifies PRMT7 as a novel and potentially significant biomarker and therapeutic target for breast cancer.

  7. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 promotes platelet activation and thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiwen; Zhang, Jian; Yan, Rong; Tian, Jingluan; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Mengxing; Cui, Qingya; Zhao, Lili; Hu, Renping; Jiang, Miao; Li, Zhenyu; Ruan, Changgeng; He, Sudan; Dai, Kesheng

    2017-03-14

    Previous studies have shown that receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3) is involved in many important biological processes, including necroptosis, apoptosis, and inflammation. Here we show that RIP3 plays a critical role in regulating platelet functions and in vivo thrombosis and hemostasis. Tail bleeding times were significantly longer in RIP3-knockout (RIP3(-/-)) mice compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates. In an in vivo model of arteriole thrombosis, mice lacking RIP3 exhibited prolonged occlusion times. WT mice repopulated with RIP3(-/-) bone marrow-derived cells had longer occlusion times than RIP3(-/-) mice repopulated with WT bone marrow-derived cells, suggesting a role for RIP3-deficient platelets in arterial thrombosis. Consistent with these findings, we observed that RIP3 was expressed in both human and mice platelets. Deletion of RIP3 in mouse platelets caused a marked defect in aggregation and attenuated dense granule secretion in response to low doses of thrombin or a thromboxane A2 analog, U46619. Phosphorylation of Akt induced by U46619 or thrombin was diminished in RIP3(-/-) platelets. Moreover, RIP3 interacted with Gα13 Platelet spreading on fibrinogen and clot retraction were impaired in the absence of RIP3. RIP3 inhibitor dose-dependently inhibited platelet aggregation in vitro and prevented arterial thrombus formation in vivo. These data demonstrate a role for RIP3 in promoting in vivo thrombosis and hemostasis by amplifying platelet activation. RIP3 may represent a novel promising therapeutic target for thrombotic diseases.

  8. The folate-coupled enzyme MTHFD2 is a nuclear protein and promotes cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson Sheppard, Nina; Jarl, Lisa; Mahadessian, Diana; Strittmatter, Laura; Schmidt, Angelika; Madhusudan, Nikhil; Tegnér, Jesper; Lundberg, Emma K.; Asplund, Anna; Jain, Mohit; Nilsson, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Folate metabolism is central to cell proliferation and a target of commonly used cancer chemotherapeutics. In particular, the mitochondrial folate-coupled metabolism is thought to be important for proliferating cancer cells. The enzyme MTHFD2 in this pathway is highly expressed in human tumors and broadly required for survival of cancer cells. Although the enzymatic activity of the MTHFD2 protein is well understood, little is known about its larger role in cancer cell biology. We here report that MTHFD2 is co-expressed with two distinct gene sets, representing amino acid metabolism and cell proliferation, respectively. Consistent with a role for MTHFD2 in cell proliferation, MTHFD2 expression was repressed in cells rendered quiescent by deprivation of growth signals (serum) and rapidly re-induced by serum stimulation. Overexpression of MTHFD2 alone was sufficient to promote cell proliferation independent of its dehydrogenase activity, even during growth restriction. In addition to its known mitochondrial localization, we found MTHFD2 to have a nuclear localization and co-localize with DNA replication sites. These findings suggest a previously unknown role for MTHFD2 in cancer cell proliferation, adding to its known function in mitochondrial folate metabolism. PMID:26461067

  9. RNA-binding protein PSPC1 promotes the differentiation-dependent nuclear export of adipocyte RNAs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiexin; Rajbhandari, Prashant; Damianov, Andrey; Han, Areum; Sallam, Tamer; Waki, Hironori; Villanueva, Claudio J; Lee, Stephen D; Nielsen, Ronni; Mandrup, Susanne; Reue, Karen; Young, Stephen G; Whitelegge, Julian; Saez, Enrique; Black, Douglas L; Tontonoz, Peter

    2017-03-01

    A highly orchestrated gene expression program establishes the properties that define mature adipocytes, but the contribution of posttranscriptional factors to the adipocyte phenotype is poorly understood. Here we have shown that the RNA-binding protein PSPC1, a component of the paraspeckle complex, promotes adipogenesis in vitro and is important for mature adipocyte function in vivo. Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation followed by RNA sequencing revealed that PSPC1 binds to intronic and 3'-untranslated regions of a number of adipocyte RNAs, including the RNA encoding the transcriptional regulator EBF1. Purification of the paraspeckle complex from adipocytes further showed that PSPC1 associates with the RNA export factor DDX3X in a differentiation-dependent manner. Remarkably, PSPC1 relocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during differentiation, coinciding with enhanced export of adipogenic RNAs. Mice lacking PSPC1 in fat displayed reduced lipid storage and adipose tissue mass and were resistant to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance due to a compensatory increase in energy expenditure. These findings highlight a role for PSPC1-dependent RNA maturation in the posttranscriptional control of adipose development and function.

  10. Autophagy-Related Proteins Target Ubiquitin-Free Mycobacterial Compartment to Promote Killing in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bah, Aïcha; Lacarrière, Camille; Vergne, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradative process that plays essential functions in innate immunity, particularly, in the clearance of intracellular bacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy activation and targeting of mycobacteria, in innate immune responses of macrophages, are only partially characterized. Autophagy targets pathogenic M. tuberculosis via a cytosolic DNA recognition- and an ubiquitin-dependent pathway. In this report, we show that non-pathogenic M. smegmatis induces a robust autophagic response in THP-1 macrophages with an up regulation of several autophagy-related genes. Autophagy activation relies in part on recognition of mycobacteria by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Notably, LC3 targeting of M. smegmatis does not rely on membrane damage, ubiquitination, or autophagy receptor recruitment. Lastly, M. smegmatis promotes recruitment of several autophagy proteins, which are required for mycobacterial killing. In conclusion, our study uncovered an alternative autophagic pathway triggered by mycobacteria which involves cell surface recognition but not bacterial ubiquitination. PMID:27242971

  11. The Protein Elicitor PevD1 Enhances Resistance to Pathogens and Promotes Growth in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mengjie; Khan, Najeeb Ullah; Wang, Ningbo; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    The protein elicitor PevD1, isolated from Verticillium dahlia, could enhance resistance to TMV in tobacco and Verticillium wilt in cotton. Here, the pevd1 gene was over-expressed in wild type (WT) Arabidopsis, and its biological functions were investigated. Our results showed that the transgenic lines were more resistant to Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 than the WT line was. In transgenic plants, both the germination time and bolting time required were significantly shorter and fresh weights and plant heights were significantly higher than those in the WT line. A transcriptomics study using digital gene expression profiling (DGE) was performed in transgenic and WT Arabidopsis. One hundred and thirty-six differentially expressed genes were identified. In transgenic Arabidopsis, three critical regulators of JA biosynthesis were up-regulated and JA levels were slightly increased. Three important repressors of the ABA-responsive pathway were up-regulated, indicating that ABA signal transduction may be suppressed. One CML and two WRKY TFs involved in Ca2+-responsive pathways were up-regulated, indicating that this pathway may have been triggered. In conclusion, we show that PevD1 is involved in regulating several plant endogenous signal transduction pathways and regulatory networks to enhance resistance and promote growth and development in Arabidopsis. PMID:27489497

  12. Med19 promotes bone metastasis and invasiveness of bladder urothelial carcinoma via bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hui; Feng, Chen-chen; Ding, Guan-xiong; Meng, Dong-liang; Ding, Qiang; Fang, Zu-jun; Xia, Guo-wei; Xu, Gang; Jiang, Hao-wen

    2013-06-01

    Bladder cancer (BCa) remained a major health problem. Med19 was related to tumor growth of BCa. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) were reported to be critical in bone metastasis of cancer. We therefore investigated the relations between Med19 and BMPs in BCa and their effect on bone metastasis of BCa. Bladder cancer cell lines were cultured and interfered with Med19 shRNA and control. Expressions of BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, BMP-9, and BMP-15 were studied between 2 groups. Fifty-two BCa samples were included for immunohistochemical staining of Med19 and BMP-2. Expressions were scored and studied statistically. Invasiveness was studied with Transwell assay. Silencing or Med19 in BCa cells induced altered expressions of BMPs. Increased expressions of BMP-1, BMP-4, BMP-6, BMP-7, and BMP-15 and decreased expressions of BMP-2, BMP-5, and BMP-9 were noticed, but only BMP-2 reached statistical significance. Expressions of Med19 and BMP-2 were significantly higher in cases with bone metastasis and were positively correlated in cases with bone metastasis and muscle invasion. Med19 is a critical factor involved in the invasiveness and promotion of bone metastasis of BCa, possibly via BMP-2.

  13. Cysteine oxidation within N-terminal mutant huntingtin promotes oligomerization and delays clearance of soluble protein.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jonathan H; Connor, Teal; Stiles, Megan; Kama, Jibrin; Lu, Zhen; Dorsey, Kathryn; Lieberman, Gregory; Liebermann, Gregory; Sapp, Ellen; Cherny, Robert A; Banks, Mary; Volitakis, Irene; DiFiglia, Marian; Berezovska, Oksana; Bush, Ashley I; Hersch, Steven M

    2011-05-20

    Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by expression of polyglutamine-expanded mutant huntingtin protein (mhtt). Most evidence indicates that soluble mhtt species, rather than insoluble aggregates, are the important mediators of HD pathogenesis. However, the differential roles of soluble monomeric and oligomeric mhtt species in HD and the mechanisms of oligomer formation are not yet understood. We have shown previously that copper interacts with and oxidizes the polyglutamine-containing N171 fragment of huntingtin. In this study we report that oxidation-dependent oligomers of huntingtin form spontaneously in cell and mouse HD models. Levels of these species are modulated by copper, hydrogen peroxide, and glutathione. Mutagenesis of all cysteine residues within N171 blocks the formation of these oligomers. In cells, levels of oligomerization-blocked mutant N171 were decreased compared with native N171. We further show that a subset of the oligomerization-blocked form of glutamine-expanded N171 huntingtin is rapidly depleted from the soluble pool compared with "native " mutant N171. Taken together, our data indicate that huntingtin is subject to specific oxidations that are involved in the formation of stable oligomers and that also delay removal from the soluble pool. These findings show that inhibiting formation of oxidation-dependent huntingtin oligomers, or promoting their dissolution, may have protective effects in HD by decreasing the burden of soluble mutant huntingtin.

  14. The SET domain protein, Set3p, promotes the reliable execution of cytokinesis in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Rentas, Stefan; Saberianfar, Reza; Grewal, Charnpal; Kanippayoor, Rachelle; Mishra, Mithilesh; McCollum, Dannel; Karagiannis, Jim

    2012-01-01

    In response to perturbation of the cell division machinery fission yeast cells activate regulatory networks that ensure the faithful completion of cytokinesis. For instance, when cells are treated with drugs that impede constriction of the actomyosin ring (low doses of Latrunculin A, for example) these networks ensure that cytokinesis is complete before progression into the subsequent mitosis. Here, we identify three previously uncharacterized genes, hif2, set3, and snt1, whose deletion results in hyper-sensitivity to LatA treatment and in increased rates of cytokinesis failure. Interestingly, these genes are orthologous to TBL1X, MLL5, and NCOR2, human genes that encode components of a histone deacetylase complex with a known role in cytokinesis. Through co-immunoprecipitation experiments, localization studies, and phenotypic analysis of gene deletion mutants, we provide evidence for an orthologous complex in fission yeast. Furthermore, in light of the putative role of the complex in chromatin modification, together with our results demonstrating an increase in Set3p levels upon Latrunculin A treatment, global gene expression profiles were generated. While this analysis demonstrated that the expression of cytokinesis genes was not significantly affected in set3Δ backgrounds, it did reveal defects in the ability of the mutant to regulate genes with roles in the cellular response to stress. Taken together, these findings support the existence of a conserved, multi-protein complex with a role in promoting the successful completion of cytokinesis.

  15. Extracellular matrix protein Reelin promotes myeloma progression by facilitating tumor cell proliferation and glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xiaodan; Lin, Liang; Cao, Li; Zhang, Xinwei; Song, Xiao; Hao, Jie; Zhang, Yan; Wei, Risheng; Huang, Xiaojun; Lu, Jin; Ge, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein that is crucial for neuron migration, adhesion, and positioning. We examined the expression of Reelin in a large cohort of multiple myeloma patients recorded in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and used over-expression and siRNA knockdown of Reelin to investigate the role of Reelin in myeloma cell growth. We find that Reelin expression is negatively associated with myeloma prognosis. Reelin promotes myeloma cell proliferation in vitro as well as in vivo. The Warburg effect, evidenced by increased glucose uptake and lactate production, is also enhanced in Reelin-expressing cells. The activation of FAK/Syk/Akt/mTOR and STAT3 pathways contributes to Reelin-induced cancer cell growth and metabolic reprogramming. Our findings further reveal that activated Akt and STAT3 pathways induce the upregulation of HIF1α and its downstream targets (LDHA and PDK1), leading to increased glycolysis in myeloma cells. Together, our results demonstrate the critical contributions of Reelin to myeloma growth and metabolism. It presents an opportunity for myeloma therapeutic intervention by inhibiting Reelin and its signaling pathways. PMID:28345605

  16. Promoter analysis reveals globally differential regulation of human long non-coding RNA and protein-coding genes

    DOE PAGES

    Alam, Tanvir; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; Jia, Hui; ...

    2014-10-02

    Transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes is increasingly well-understood on a global scale, yet no comparable information exists for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes, which were recently recognized to be as numerous as protein-coding genes in mammalian genomes. We performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of the promoters of human lncRNA and protein-coding genes, finding global differences in specific genetic and epigenetic features relevant to transcriptional regulation. These two groups of genes are hence subject to separate transcriptional regulatory programs, including distinct transcription factor (TF) proteins that significantly favor lncRNA, rather than coding-gene, promoters. We report a specific signature of promoter-proximal transcriptionalmore » regulation of lncRNA genes, including several distinct transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Experimental DNase I hypersensitive site profiles are consistent with active configurations of these lncRNA TFBS sets in diverse human cell types. TFBS ChIP-seq datasets confirm the binding events that we predicted using computational approaches for a subset of factors. For several TFs known to be directly regulated by lncRNAs, we find that their putative TFBSs are enriched at lncRNA promoters, suggesting that the TFs and the lncRNAs may participate in a bidirectional feedback loop regulatory network. Accordingly, cells may be able to modulate lncRNA expression levels independently of mRNA levels via distinct regulatory pathways. Our results also raise the possibility that, given the historical reliance on protein-coding gene catalogs to define the chromatin states of active promoters, a revision of these chromatin signature profiles to incorporate expressed lncRNA genes is warranted in the future.« less

  17. Promoter analysis reveals globally differential regulation of human long non-coding RNA and protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Alam, Tanvir; Medvedeva, Yulia A; Jia, Hui; Brown, James B; Lipovich, Leonard; Bajic, Vladimir B

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes is increasingly well-understood on a global scale, yet no comparable information exists for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes, which were recently recognized to be as numerous as protein-coding genes in mammalian genomes. We performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of the promoters of human lncRNA and protein-coding genes, finding global differences in specific genetic and epigenetic features relevant to transcriptional regulation. These two groups of genes are hence subject to separate transcriptional regulatory programs, including distinct transcription factor (TF) proteins that significantly favor lncRNA, rather than coding-gene, promoters. We report a specific signature of promoter-proximal transcriptional regulation of lncRNA genes, including several distinct transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Experimental DNase I hypersensitive site profiles are consistent with active configurations of these lncRNA TFBS sets in diverse human cell types. TFBS ChIP-seq datasets confirm the binding events that we predicted using computational approaches for a subset of factors. For several TFs known to be directly regulated by lncRNAs, we find that their putative TFBSs are enriched at lncRNA promoters, suggesting that the TFs and the lncRNAs may participate in a bidirectional feedback loop regulatory network. Accordingly, cells may be able to modulate lncRNA expression levels independently of mRNA levels via distinct regulatory pathways. Our results also raise the possibility that, given the historical reliance on protein-coding gene catalogs to define the chromatin states of active promoters, a revision of these chromatin signature profiles to incorporate expressed lncRNA genes is warranted in the future.

  18. Promoter analysis reveals globally differential regulation of human long non-coding RNA and protein-coding genes

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, Tanvir; Medvedeva, Yulia A.; Jia, Hui; Brown, James B.; Lipovich, Leonard; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Mantovani, Roberto

    2014-10-02

    Transcriptional regulation of protein-coding genes is increasingly well-understood on a global scale, yet no comparable information exists for long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) genes, which were recently recognized to be as numerous as protein-coding genes in mammalian genomes. We performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of the promoters of human lncRNA and protein-coding genes, finding global differences in specific genetic and epigenetic features relevant to transcriptional regulation. These two groups of genes are hence subject to separate transcriptional regulatory programs, including distinct transcription factor (TF) proteins that significantly favor lncRNA, rather than coding-gene, promoters. We report a specific signature of promoter-proximal transcriptional regulation of lncRNA genes, including several distinct transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Experimental DNase I hypersensitive site profiles are consistent with active configurations of these lncRNA TFBS sets in diverse human cell types. TFBS ChIP-seq datasets confirm the binding events that we predicted using computational approaches for a subset of factors. For several TFs known to be directly regulated by lncRNAs, we find that their putative TFBSs are enriched at lncRNA promoters, suggesting that the TFs and the lncRNAs may participate in a bidirectional feedback loop regulatory network. Accordingly, cells may be able to modulate lncRNA expression levels independently of mRNA levels via distinct regulatory pathways. Our results also raise the possibility that, given the historical reliance on protein-coding gene catalogs to define the chromatin states of active promoters, a revision of these chromatin signature profiles to incorporate expressed lncRNA genes is warranted in the future.

  19. Transcriptional regulation of the MHC class I HLA-A11 promoter by the zinc finger protein ZFX.

    PubMed Central

    L'Haridon, M; Paul, P; Xerri, J G; Dastot, H; Dolliger, C; Schmid, M; de Angelis, N; Grollet, L; Sigaux, F; Degos, L; Gazin, C

    1996-01-01

    Regulation of the human MHC class I HLA-A11 promoter is governed by a complex array of regulatory elements. One of these elements, shown here to be critical for the transcriptional activity of the promoter, was used to screen a lambda gt11 library and allowed the identification of a cDNA which coded for the zinc finger protein ZFX. ZFX was shown to bind the sequences AGGGCCCCA and AGGCCCCGA, located respectively at positions -271 to -263 and -242 to -234 of the HLA-A11 promoter, with similar affinities through its three C-terminal zinc fingers. ZFX575, a short isoform of ZFX, activates transcription from the HLA-All promoter in a Leydig cell line. PMID:8657576

  20. Differential regulation of the parathyroid hormone-related protein gene P1 and P3 promoters by cAMP.

    PubMed

    Chilco, P J; Leopold, V; Zajac, J D

    1998-03-16

    The role of calcitonin, and other agonists which activate the cAMP pathway, in regulating transcription of the human parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) gene was investigated in a human lung cancer cell line (BEN). Both calcitonin and forskolin caused a 5-6-fold increase in transcription initiated from both the P1 and P3 promoters, but with no observed effect on the P2 promoter. Maximal 6-fold activation of the P1 promoter occurred at 16 h post-stimulation and effects of calcitonin were observed within the pM range. The PKC agonist, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate diester (PMA), did not modulate transcription initiated from the P1 promoter. The ionophore ionomycin had a small effect on transcription of the P1 promoter, and transcriptional control may involve an interaction between the cAMP and intracellular calcium second messenger pathways. Deletion mapping studies indicated that increases in transcription of the human PTHrP gene is being mediated via a CRE element situated at -3313 to -3306 upstream of the P1 promoter. Mutational analysis of this CRE element confirmed a role for this sequence in mediating the increase in transcription effected by cAMP. Consistent with these transfection studies, RT-PCR of PTHrP mRNA also indicated a significant increase in transcripts generated from the P1 promoter. Gel retardation assays utilising a fragment of the P1 promoter region, encompassing the putative CRE, determined that nuclear proteins were binding to this region. Competition binding studies with labelled probe and cold competitors determined that the binding was specific for this sequence. A wild-type CRE consensus oligonucleotide also competed for binding with this sequence.

  1. Engineering zinc finger protein transcription factors to downregulate the epithelial glycoprotein-2 promoter as a novel anti-cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Gommans, Willemijn M; McLaughlin, Pamela M J; Lindhout, Beatrice I; Segal, David J; Wiegman, D J; Haisma, Hidde J; van der Zaal, Bert J; Rots, Marianne G

    2007-05-01

    Zinc finger protein transcription factors (ZFP-TFs) are emerging as powerful novel tools for the treatment of many different diseases. ZFPs are DNA-binding motifs and consist of modular zinc finger domains. Each domain can be engineered to recognize a specific DNA triplet, and stitching six domains together results in the recognition of a gene-specific sequence. Inhibition of gene expression can be achieved by fusing a repressor domain to these DNA-binding motifs. In this study, we engineered ZFP-TFs to downregulate the activity of the epithelial glycoprotein-2 (EGP-2) promoter. The protein EGP-2 is overexpressed in a wide variety of cancer types and EGP-2 downregulation has been shown to result in a decreased oncogenic potential of tumor cells. Therefore, downregulation of EGP-2 expression by ZFP-TFs provides a novel anti-cancer therapeutic. Using a straightforward strategy, we engineered a 3-ZFP that could bind a 9 bp sequence within the EGP-2 promoter. After the addition of a repressor domain, this 3-ZFP-TF could efficiently downregulate EGP-2 promoter activity by 60%. To demonstrate the flexibility of this technology, we coupled an activation domain to the engineered ZFP, resulting in a nearly 200% increase in EGP-2 promoter activity. To inhibit the endogenous EGP-2 promoter, we engineered 6-ZFP-TFs. Although none of the constructed ZFP-TFs could convincingly modulate the endogenous promoter, efficient and specific inhibition of the exogenous promoter was observed. Overall, ZFP-TFs are versatile bi-directional modulators of gene expression and downregulation of EGP-2 promoter activity using ZFP-TFs can ultimately result in a novel anti-cancer treatment.

  2. GPER Promoter Methylation Controls GPER Expression in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Weissenborn, Christine; Ignatov, Tanja; Nass, Norbert; Kalinski, Thomas; Dan Costa, Serban; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Ignatov, Atanas

    2017-02-07

    Recently, we found that G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) protein expression decreased during breast carcinogenesis, and that GPER promoter is methylated. Here we analyzed GPER promoter methylation in 260 primary breast cancer specimens by methylation-specific polymerized chain reaction. The results demonstrated that GPER protein down-regulation significantly correlated with GPER promoter hypermethylation (p < .001). Comparison of 108 tumors and matched normal breast tissues indicated a significant GPER down-regulation in cancer tissues correlating with GPER promoter hypermethylation (p < .001). The latter was an unfavorable factor for overall survival of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (p = .025). Thus GPER promoter hypermethylation might be used as a prognostic factor.

  3. Differential effects of Sp cellular transcription factors on viral promoter activation by varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IE62 protein.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Mohamed I; Ruyechan, William T; Hay, John; Arvin, Ann

    2015-11-01

    The immediate early (IE) 62 protein is the major varicella-zoster virus (VZV) regulatory factor. Analysis of the VZV genome revealed 40 predicted GC-rich boxes within 36 promoters. We examined effects of ectopic expression of Sp1-Sp4 on IE62- mediated transactivation of three viral promoters. Ectopic expression of Sp3 and Sp4 enhanced IE62 activation of ORF3 and gI promoters while Sp3 reduced IE62 activation of ORF28/29 promoter and VZV DNA replication. Sp2 reduced IE62 transactivation of gI while Sp1 had no significant influence on IE62 activation with any of these viral promoters. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) confirmed binding of Sp1 and Sp3 but not Sp2 and Sp4 to the gI promoter. Sp1-4 bound to IE62 and amino acids 238-258 of IE62 were important for the interaction with Sp3 and Sp4 as well as Sp1. This work shows that Sp family members have differential effects on IE62-mediated transactivation in a promoter-dependent manner.

  4. Nipah Virus C Protein Recruits Tsg101 to Promote the Efficient Release of Virus in an ESCRT-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Park, Arnold; Yun, Tatyana; Vigant, Frederic; Pernet, Olivier; Won, Sohui T; Dawes, Brian E; Bartkowski, Wojciech; Freiberg, Alexander N; Lee, Benhur

    2016-05-01

    The budding of Nipah virus, a deadly member of the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae, has been thought to be independent of the host ESCRT pathway, which is critical for the budding of many enveloped viruses. This conclusion was based on the budding properties of the virus matrix protein in the absence of other virus components. Here, we find that the virus C protein, which was previously investigated for its role in antagonism of innate immunity, recruits the ESCRT pathway to promote efficient virus release. Inhibition of ESCRT or depletion of the ESCRT factor Tsg101 abrogates the C enhancement of matrix budding and impairs live Nipah virus release. Further, despite the low sequence homology of the C proteins of known henipaviruses, they all enhance the budding of their cognate matrix proteins, suggesting a conserved and previously unknown function for the henipavirus C proteins.

  5. Nipah Virus C Protein Recruits Tsg101 to Promote the Efficient Release of Virus in an ESCRT-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Tatyana; Vigant, Frederic; Pernet, Olivier; Won, Sohui T.; Dawes, Brian E.; Bartkowski, Wojciech; Freiberg, Alexander N.; Lee, Benhur

    2016-01-01

    The budding of Nipah virus, a deadly member of the Henipavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae, has been thought to be independent of the host ESCRT pathway, which is critical for the budding of many enveloped viruses. This conclusion was based on the budding properties of the virus matrix protein in the absence of other virus components. Here, we find that the virus C protein, which was previously investigated for its role in antagonism of innate immunity, recruits the ESCRT pathway to promote efficient virus release. Inhibition of ESCRT or depletion of the ESCRT factor Tsg101 abrogates the C enhancement of matrix budding and impairs live Nipah virus release. Further, despite the low sequence homology of the C proteins of known henipaviruses, they all enhance the budding of their cognate matrix proteins, suggesting a conserved and previously unknown function for the henipavirus C proteins. PMID:27203423

  6. Novel nuclear matrix protein HET binds to and influences activity of the HSP27 promoter in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Oesterreich, S; Lee, A V; Sullivan, T M; Samuel, S K; Davie, J R; Fuqua, S A

    1997-11-01

    Since the small heat shock protein hsp27 enhances both growth and drug resistance in breast cancer cells, and is a bad prognostic factor in certain subsets of breast cancer patients, we have characterized the transcriptional regulation of hsp27, with the long-term goal of targeting its expression clinically. The majority of the promoter activity resides in the most proximal 200 bp. This region contains an imperfect estrogen response element (ERE) that is separated by a 13-bp spacer that contains a TATA box. Gel-shift analysis revealed the binding of a protein (termed HET for Hsp27-ERE-TATA-binding protein) to this region that was neither the estrogen receptor nor TATA-binding protein. We cloned a complete cDNA (2.9 kb) for HET from an MCF-7 cDNA library. To confirm the identity of the HET clone, we expressed a partial HET clone as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein, and showed binding to the hsp27 promoter fragment in gel-retardation assays. The HET clone is almost identical to a recently published scaffold attachment factor (SAF-B) cloned from a HeLa cell cDNA library. Scaffold attachment factors are a subset of nuclear matrix proteins (NMP) that interact with matrix attachment regions. Analyzing how HET could act as a regulator of hsp27 transcription and as a SAF/NMP, we studied its subnuclear localization and its effect on hsp27 transcription in human breast cancer cells. We were able to show that HET is localized in the nuclear matrix in various breast cancer cell lines. Furthermore, in transient transfection assays using hsp27 promoter-luciferase reporter constructs, HET overexpression resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of hsp27 promoter activity in several cell lines.

  7. Silencing speckle-type POZ protein by promoter hypermethylation decreases cell apoptosis through upregulating Hedgehog signaling pathway in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Xiaofei; Tao, Jinqiu; Zhang, Lei; Tao, Ran; Ma, Lilin; Qin, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressors contributes to the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). We recently found that speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) was significantly downregulated and the inactivation of SPOP promoted metastasis in CRC. This study aimed to clarify its epigenetic alteration, molecular mechanisms and clinical significance in CRC. Our results revealed that the core region of SPOP promoter was hypermethylated in CRC tissues and its methylation was correlated with poor survival. Transcription factor RXRA had a vital role in the regulation of SPOP gene. The data indicated that DNA methylation at −167 bp of the SPOP gene altered the binding affinity between transcription factor RXRA and SPOP promoter. Moreover, SPOP was found to associate with Gli2 and promoted its ubiquitination and degradation in CRC. Consequently, the expression level of Hh/Gli2 pathway-related apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was decreased and the function of resisting cell death was inhibited in CRC. It suggests that methylation status of SPOP promoter can be used as a novel epigenetic biomarker and a therapeutic target in CRC. PMID:28032859

  8. Protein-Binding Function of RNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Promotes Proliferation through TRAF2/RIP1/NF-κB/c-Myc Pathway in Pancreatic β cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, LiLi; Tang, Wei; Ding, ZhengZheng; Wang, DingYu; Qi, XiaoQiang; Wu, HuiWen; Guo, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), an intracellular pathogen recognition receptor, is involved both in insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and in downregulation of pancreatic β-cell function in a kinase-dependent manner, indicating PKR as a core component in the progression of type 2 diabetes. PKR also acts as an adaptor protein via its protein-binding domain. Here, the PKR protein-binding function promoted β-cell proliferation without its kinase activity, which is associated with enhanced physical interaction with tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) and TRAF6. In addition, the transcription of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cell (NF-κB)-dependent survival gene c-Myc was upregulated significantly and is necessary for proliferation. Upregulation of the PKR protein-binding function induced the NF-κB pathway, as observed by dose-dependent degradation of IκBα, induced nuclear translocation of p65 and elevated NF-κB-dependent reporter gene expression. NF-κB-dependent reporter activity and β-cell proliferation both were suppressed by TRAF2-siRNA, but not by TRAF6-siRNA. TRAF2-siRNA blocked the ubiquitination of receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIP1) induced by PKR protein binding. Furthermore, RIP1-siRNA inhibited β-cell proliferation. Proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα) and glucolipitoxicity also promoted the physical interaction of PKR with TRAF2. Collectively, these data indicate a pivotal role for PKR’s protein-binding function on the proliferation of pancreatic β cells through TRAF2/RIP1/NF-κB/c-Myc pathways. Therapeutic opportunities for type 2 diabetes may arise when its kinase catalytic function, but not its protein-binding function, is downregulated. PMID:25715336

  9. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine promotes glioma invasion and delays tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Chad; Lemke, Nancy; Ge, Shugang; Golembieski, William A; Rempel, Sandra A

    2002-11-01

    Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is highly expressed in human astrocytomas, grades II-IV. We demonstrated previously that SPARC promotes invasion in vitro using the U87MG-derived clone U87T2 and U87T2-derived SPARC-transfected clones, A2b2, A2bi, and C2a4, in the spheroid confrontation assay. Additional in vitro studies demonstrated that SPARC delays growth, increases attachment, and modulates migration of tumor cells in extracellular matrix-specific and concentration-dependent manners. Therefore, we propose that SPARC functionally contributes to brain tumor invasion and delays tumor growth in vivo, and that the effects of SPARC are related to the level of SPARC secreted into the extracellular matrix. To test these hypotheses, we stereotactically injected these clones into nude rat brains (six animals were injected per clone). Animals were sacrificed on day 7 to assess growth and invasion for all clones at the same time in tumor development. To determine whether SPARC delayed but did not inhibit growth, rats were injected with U87T2 or clone A2b2, and the animals were sacrificed on days 9 (U87T2) and 20 (A2b2), when the animals demonstrated neurological deficit. Brains were removed, fixed, photographed, paraffin embedded, and sectioned. Sections were then serially stained with H&E for morphological assessment of invasion and to measure tumor volume, immunohistochemically stained to visualize SPARC, subjected to in situ hybridization with the human AluII DNA-binding probe to identify human cells, and immunohistochemically stained with MIB-1 to measure proliferation index. The results demonstrate that SPARC promotes invasion in vivo at day 7. Both the low (A2bi) and the high (A2b2) SPARC-secreting clones produced invasive tumors, invading with fingerlike projections and satellite masses into adjacent brain, as well as along the corpus collosum. The intermediate SPARC secreting clone (C2a4) primarily migrated as a bulk tumor along the corpus

  10. Protein tyrosine kinase 6 promotes ERBB2-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Peng, M; Ball-Kell, S M; Tyner, A L

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase 6 (PTK6) expression, activation, and amplification of the PTK6 gene have been reported in ERBB2/HER2-positive mammary gland cancers. To explore contributions of PTK6 to mammary gland tumorigenesis promoted by activated ERBB2, we crossed Ptk6−/− mice with the mouse mammary tumor virus-ERBB2 transgenic mouse line expressing activated ERBB2 and characterized tumor development and progression. ERBB2-induced tumorigenesis was significantly delayed and diminished in mice lacking PTK6. PTK6 expression was induced in the mammary glands of ERBB2 transgenic mice before tumor development and correlated with activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and increased proliferation. Disruption of PTK6 impaired STAT3 activation and proliferation. Phosphorylation of the PTK6 substrates focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and breast cancer anti-estrogen resistance 1 (BCAR1; p130CAS) was decreased in Ptk6−/− mammary gland tumors. Reduced numbers of metastases were detected in the lungs of Ptk6−/− mice expressing activated ERBB2, compared with wild-type ERBB2 transgenic mice. PTK6 activation was detected at the edges of ERBB2-positive tumors. These data support roles for PTK6 in both ERBB2-induced mammary gland tumor initiation and metastasis, and identify STAT3, FAK, and BCAR1 as physiologically relevant PTK6 substrates in breast cancer. Including PTK6 inhibitors as part of a treatment regimen could have distinct benefits in ERBB2/HER2-positive breast cancers. PMID:26247733

  11. Activation of Protein Kinase A in Mature Osteoblasts Promotes a Major Bone Anabolic Response.

    PubMed

    Tascau, Liana; Gardner, Thomas; Anan, Hussein; Yongpravat, Charlie; Cardozo, Christopher P; Bauman, William A; Lee, Francis Y; Oh, Daniel S; Tawfeek, Hesham A

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) regulates osteoblast cell function in vitro and is activated by important bone mass modulating agents. We determined whether PKA activation in osteoblasts is sufficient to mediate a bone anabolic response. Thus, a mouse model conditionally expressing a constitutively active PKA (CA-PKA) in osteoblasts (CA-PKA-OB mouse) was developed by crossing a 2.3-kb α1 (I)-collagen promoter-Cre mouse with a floxed-CA-PKA mouse. Primary osteoblasts from the CA-PKA-OB mice exhibited higher basal PKA activity than those from control mice. Microcomputed tomographic analysis revealed that CA-PKA-OB female mice had an 8.6-fold increase in femoral but only 1.16-fold increase in lumbar 5 vertebral bone volume/total volume. Femur cortical thickness and volume were also higher in the CA-PKA-OB mice. In contrast, alterations in many femoral microcomputed tomographic parameters in male CA-PKA-OB mice were modest. Interestingly, the 3-dimensional structure model index was substantially lower both in femur and lumbar 5 of male and female CA-PKA-OB mice, reflecting an increase in the plate to rod-like structure ratio. In agreement, femurs from female CA-PKA-OB mice had greater load to failure and were stiffer compared with those of control mice. Furthermore, the CA-PKA-OB mice had higher levels of serum bone turnover markers and increased osteoblast and osteoclast numbers per total tissue area compared with control animals. In summary, constitutive activation of PKA in osteoblasts is sufficient to increase bone mass and favorably modify bone architecture and improve mechanical properties. PKA activation in mature osteoblasts is, therefore, an important target for designing anabolic drugs for treating diseases with bone loss.

  12. The protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-2 interacts with the magnesium transporter CNNM3 to promote oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hardy, S; Uetani, N; Wong, N; Kostantin, E; Labbé, D P; Bégin, L R; Mes-Masson, A; Miranda-Saavedra, D; Tremblay, M L

    2015-02-19

    The three PRL (phosphatases of regenerating liver) protein tyrosine phosphatases (PRL-1, -2 and -3) have been identified as key contributors to metastasis in several human cancers, yet the molecular basis of their pro-oncogenic property is unclear. Among the subfamily of PRL phosphatases, overexpression of PRL-2 in breast cancer cells has been shown to promote tumor growth by a mechanism that remains to be uncovered. Here we show that PRL-2 regulates intracellular magnesium levels by forming a functional heterodimer with the magnesium transporter CNNM3. We further reveal that CNNM3 is not a phosphorylated substrate of PRL-2, and that the interaction occurs through a loop unique to the CBS pair domains of CNNM3 that exists only in organisms having PRL orthologs. Supporting the role of PRL-2 in cellular magnesium transport is the observation that PRL-2 knockdown results in a substantial decrease of cellular magnesium influx. Furthermore, in PRL-2 knockout mice, serum magnesium levels were significantly elevated as compared with control animals, indicating a pivotal role for PRL-2 in regulating cellular magnesium homeostasis. Although the expression levels of CNNM3 remained unchanged after magnesium depletion of various cancer cell lines, the interaction between endogenous PRL-2 and CNNM3 was markedly increased. Importantly, xenograft tumor assays with CNNM3 and a mutant form that does not associate with PRL-2 confirm that CNNM3 is itself pro-oncogenic, and that the PRL-2/CNNM3 association is important for conferring transforming activities. This finding is further confirmed from data in human breast cancer tissues showing that CNNM3 levels correlate positively with both PRL-2 expression and the tumor proliferative index. In summary, we demonstrate that oncogenic PRL-2 controls tumor growth by modulating intracellular magnesium levels through binding with the CNNM3 magnesium transporter.

  13. Endothelial cells microparticle-associated protein disulfide isomerase promotes platelet activation in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi-hui; Song, Dai-jun; Chen, Tong-shuai; Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Yun; Xing, Yan-qiu; Wang, Zhi-hao

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common challenge in the world, and the platelet activation is enhanced in MetS patients. However, the fundamental mechanism that underlies platelet activation in MetS remains incompletely understood. Endothelial cells are damaged seriously in MetS patients, then they release more endothelial microparticles (EMPs). After all, whether the EMPs participate in platelet activation is still obscure. If they were, how did they work? Results We demonstrated that the levels of EMPs, PMPs (platelet derived microparticles) and microparticle-carried-PDI activity increased in MetS patients. IR endothelial cells released more EMPs, the EMP-PDI was more activated. EMPs can enhance the activation of CD62P, GPIIb/IIIa and platelet aggregation and this process can be partly inhibited by PDI inhibitor such as RL90 and rutin. Activated platelets stimulated by EMPs expressed more PDI on cytoplasm and released more PMPs. Materials and Methods We obtained plasma from 23 MetS patients and 8 normal healthy controls. First we built insulin resistance (IR) model of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and then we separated EMPs from HUVECs culture medium and used these EMPs to stimulate platelets. Levels of microparticles, P-selectin(CD62P), Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa) were detected by flow cytometry and levels of EMPs were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) activity was detected by insulin transhydrogenase assay. Platelet aggregation was assessed by turbidimetry. Conclusion EMPs can promote the activation of GPIIb/IIIa in platelets and platelet aggregation by the PDI which is carried on the surface of EMPs. PMID:27825126

  14. Polarized Exocytosis Induces Compensatory Endocytosis by Sec4p-Regulated Cortical Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Jesper; Alfaro, Gabriel; Beh, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized growth is maintained by both polarized exocytosis, which transports membrane components to specific locations on the cell cortex, and endocytosis, which retrieves these components before they can diffuse away. Despite functional links between these two transport pathways, they are generally considered to be separate events. Using live cell imaging, in vivo and in vitro protein binding assays, and in vitro pyrene-actin polymerization assays, we show that the yeast Rab GTPase Sec4p couples polarized exocytosis with cortical actin polymerization, which induces endocytosis. After polarized exocytosis to the plasma membrane, Sec4p binds Las17/Bee1p (yeast Wiskott—Aldrich Syndrome protein [WASp]) in a complex with Sla1p and Sla2p during actin patch assembly. Mutations that inactivate Sec4p, or its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Sec2p, inhibit actin patch formation, whereas the activating sec4-Q79L mutation accelerates patch assembly. In vitro assays of Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization established that GTPγS-Sec4p overrides Sla1p inhibition of Las17p-dependent actin nucleation. These results support a model in which Sec4p relocates along the plasma membrane from polarized sites of exocytic vesicle fusion to nascent sites of endocytosis. Activated Sec4p then promotes actin polymerization and triggers compensatory endocytosis, which controls surface expansion and kinetically refines cell polarization. PMID:27526190

  15. Krüppel-Like Factor 12 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Growth through Early Growth Response Protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Park, Yun-Yong; Cho, Sung-Nam; Margalit, Ofer; Wang, Dingzhi; DuBois, Raymond N.

    2016-01-01

    Krüppel-like factor 12 (KLF12) is a transcription factor that plays a role in normal kidney development and repression of decidualization. KLF12 is frequently elevated in esophageal adenocarcinoma and has been reported to promote gastric cancer progression. Here, we examined the role of KLF12 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Indeed, KLF12 promotes tumor growth by directly activating early growth response protein 1 (EGR1). The levels of KLF12 and EGR1 correlate synergistically with a poor prognosis. These results indicate that KLF12 likely plays an important role in CRC and could serve as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:27442508

  16. The LIM domain protein nTRIP6 recruits the mediator complex to AP-1-regulated promoters.

    PubMed

    Diefenbacher, Markus E; Reich, Daniela; Dahley, Oliver; Kemler, Denise; Litfin, Margarethe; Herrlich, Peter; Kassel, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Several LIM domain proteins regulate transcription. They are thought to act through their LIM protein-protein interaction domains as adaptors for the recruitment of transcriptional co-regulators. An intriguing example is nTRIP6, the nuclear isoform of the focal adhesion protein TRIP6. nTRIP6 interacts with AP-1 and enhances its transcriptional activity. nTRIP6 is also essential for the transrepression of AP-1 by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), by mediating GR tethering to promoter-bound AP-1. Here we report on the molecular mechanism by which nTRIP6 exerts these effects. Both the LIM domains and the pre-LIM region of nTRIP6 are necessary for its co-activator function for AP-1. Discrete domains within the pre-LIM region mediate the dimerization of nTRIP6 at the promoter, which enables the recruitment of the Mediator complex subunits THRAP3 and Med1. This recruitment is blocked by GR, through a competition between GR and THRAP3 for the interaction with the LIM domains of nTRIP6. Thus, nTRIP6 both positively and negatively regulates transcription by orchestrating the recruitment of the Mediator complex to AP-1-regulated promoters.

  17. An oleosin-fusion protein driven by the CaMV35S promoter is accumulated in Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae) seeds and correctly targeted to oil bodies.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Li, L G; Sun, X F; Tang, K X

    2012-08-13

    Oleosin-fusion technology is used to express desired proteins. It was developed based on the properties of oleosin; the heterologous protein gene is fused to the oleosin gene and the fusion gene is driven by a seed-specific promoter. We replaced the seed specific promoter with the CaMV35S promoter to dive a gfp-oleosin fusion gene in transformed Arabidopsis. The heterologous oleosin-fusion protein was mainly accumulated in the transgenic Arabidopsis seeds and correctly targeted to oil bodies. This provides an alternate choice of promoter in oleosin-fusion technology.

  18. The dual role of DksA protein in the regulation of Escherichia coli pArgX promoter

    PubMed Central

    Łyżeń, Robert; Maitra, Amarnath; Milewska, Klaudia; Kochanowska-Łyżeń, Maja; Hernandez, V. James; Szalewska-Pałasz, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression regulation by the stringent response effector, ppGpp, is facilitated by DksA protein; however DksA and ppGpp can play independent roles in transcription. In Escherichia coli, the pArgX promoter which initiates the transcription of four tRNA genes was shown to be inhibited by ppGpp. Our studies on the role of DksA in pArgX regulation revealed that it can stimulate transcription by increasing the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter and the productive transcription complex formation. However, when DksA is present together with ppGpp a severe down-regulation of promoter activity is observed. Our results indicate that DksA facilitates the effects of ppGpp to drive formation of inactive dead-end complexes formed by RNA polymerase at the ArgX promoter. In vivo, ppGpp-mediated regulation of pArgX transcription is dependent on DksA activity. The potential mechanisms of opposing pArgX regulation by ppGpp and DksA are discussed. pArgX is the first reported example of the promoter stimulated by DksA and inhibited by ppGpp in vitro when an overall inhibition occurs in the presence of both regulators. A dual role is thus proposed for DksA in the regulation of the pArgX promoter activity. PMID:27915292

  19. Metal containing polymeric functional microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Rembaum, Alan (Inventor); Molday, Robert S. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Polymeric functional microspheres containing metal or metal compounds are formed by addition polymerization of a covalently bondable olefinic monomer such as hydroxyethylmethacrylate in the presence of finely divided metal or metal oxide particles, such as iron, gold, platinum or magnetite, which are embedded in the resulting microspheres. The microspheres can be covalently bonded to chemotherapeutic agents, antibodies, or other proteins providing a means for labeling or separating labeled cells. Labeled cells or microspheres can be concentrated at a specific body location such as in the vicinity of a malignant tumor by applying a magnetic field to the location and then introducing the magnetically attractable microspheres or cells into the circulatory system of the subject. Labeled cells can be separated from a cell mixture by applying a predetermined magnetic field to a tube in which the mixture is flowing. After collection of the labeled cells, the magnetic field is discontinued and the labeled sub-cell population recovered.

  20. Autophagy-linked FYVE protein (Alfy) promotes autophagic removal of misfolded proteins involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    PubMed

    Han, Huihui; Wei, Wanyi; Duan, Weisong; Guo, Yansu; Li, Yi; Wang, Jie; Bi, Yue; Li, Chunyan

    2015-03-01

    Autophagy-linked FYVE (Alfy) is a protein implicated in the selective degradation of aggregated proteins. In our present study, we found that Alfy was recruited into the aggregated G93A-SOD1 in transgenic mice with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We demonstrated that Alfy overexpression could decrease the expression of mutant proteins via the autophagosome-lysosome pathway, and thereby, the toxicity of mutant proteins was reduced. The clearance of the mutant proteins in NSC34 cells was significantly inhibited in an Alfy knockdown cellular model. We therefore deduced that Alfy translocalization likely is involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. Alfy may be developed into a useful target for ALS therapy.

  1. In vitro oxidation of fibrinogen promotes functional alterations and formation of advanced oxidation protein products, an inflammation mediator.

    PubMed

    Torbitz, Vanessa Dorneles; Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; de Carvalho, José Antônio Mainardi; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; da Silva, José Edson Paz; Moresco, Rafael Noal

    2015-01-01

    Fibrinogen (FB) is a soluble blood plasma protein and is a key molecule involved in coagulation. Oxidative modification of proteins, such as the formation of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), a heterogeneous family of protein compounds structurally modified and derived from oxidative stress, may be associated with the pathophysiology of a number of chronic inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the formation of this mediator of inflammation occurs from FB and whether its generation is associated with structural changes. Results of the present study suggest that the oxidation of FB may provoke the formation of AOPP, which in turn, may promote functional alterations in FB, thus causing changes in its structural domains and increasing its procoagulant activity.

  2. Interplay between TAp73 Protein and Selected Activator Protein-1 (AP-1) Family Members Promotes AP-1 Target Gene Activation and Cellular Growth.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Deepa; Bunjobpol, Wilawan; Sabapathy, Kanaga

    2015-07-24

    Unlike p53, which is mutated at a high rate in human cancers, its homologue p73 is not mutated but is often overexpressed, suggesting a possible context-dependent role in growth promotion. Previously, we have shown that co-expression of TAp73 with the proto-oncogene c-Jun can augment cellular growth and potentiate transactivation of activator protein (AP)-1 target genes such as cyclin D1. Here, we provide further mechanistic insights into the cooperative activity between these two transcription factors. Our data show that TAp73-mediated AP-1 target gene transactivation relies on c-Jun dimerization and requires the canonical AP-1 sites on target gene promoters. Interestingly, only selected members of the Fos family of proteins such as c-Fos and Fra1 were found to cooperate with TAp73 in a c-Jun-dependent manner to transactivate AP-1 target promoters. Inducible expression of TAp73 led to the recruitment of these Fos family members to the AP-1 target promoters on which TAp73 was found to be bound near the AP-1 site. Consistent with the binding of TAp73 and AP-1 members on the target promoters in a c-Jun-dependent manner, TAp73 was observed to physically interact with c-Jun specifically at the chromatin via its carboxyl-terminal region. Furthermore, co-expression of c-Fos or Fra1 was able to cooperate with TAp73 in potentiating cellular growth, similarly to c-Jun. These data together suggest that TAp73 plays a vital role in activation of AP-1 target genes via direct binding to c-Jun at the target promoters, leading to enhanced loading of other AP-1 family members, thereby leading to cellular growth.

  3. The mouse proline-rich protein MP6 promoter binds isoprenaline-inducible parotid nuclear proteins via a highly conserved NFkB/rel-like site.

    PubMed

    Roberts, S G; Layfield, R; McDonald, C J

    1991-10-11

    Proline-rich protein (PRP) gene MP6 was isolated from a mouse BALB/c genomic DNA library in lambda EMBL3, characterised by hybridisation and restriction mapping and the promoter region, from -162 to +72 around the PRP consensus cap-site, was sequenced. In gel shift assays this region formed complexes C1 and C2 with parotid nuclear proteins which were induced by the beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline. DNA competition studies and direct binding assays of promoter subfragments showed that it was the sequence from -157 to -91 that was forming the isoprenaline-dependent complexes. All PRP genes conserve a 23bp. sequence, termed PRP Box1, with ets and NFkB/rel binding site-like elements, upstream of their promoters. In the MP6 promoter, PRP Box1 was within the region forming the complexes. Further gel shift assays using PRP Box1 oligonucleotides as competitors and targets indicated that the NFkB/rel binding site-like element was important in formation of the isoprenaline-inducible complexes. HeLa nuclear extracts also formed complexes with PRP Box1 similar to C1 and C2 but nuclear extracts from spleen, submandibular gland and liver did not. These complexes are thus candidate regulators for the isoprenaline-dependent and tissue-specific transcription of PRP genes.

  4. Protein related to DAN and cerberus (PRDC) inhibits osteoblastic differentiation and its suppression promotes osteogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ideno, Hisashi; Takanabe, Rieko; Shimada, Akemi; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Araki, Ryoko; Abe, Masumi; Nifuji, Akira

    2009-02-01

    Protein related to DAN and cerberus (PRDC) is a secreted protein characterized by a cysteine knot structure, which binds bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and thereby inhibits their binding to BMP receptors. As an extracellular BMP antagonist, PRDC may play critical roles in osteogenesis; however, its expression and function in osteoblastic differentiation have not been determined. Here, we investigated whether PRDC is expressed in osteoblasts and whether it regulates osteogenesis in vitro. PRDC mRNA was found to be expressed in the pre-osteoblasts of embryonic day 18.5 (E18.5) mouse calvariae. PRDC mRNA expression was elevated by treatment with BMP-2 in osteoblastic cells isolated from E18.5 calvariae (pOB cells). Forced expression of PRDC using adenovirus did not affect cell numbers, whereas it suppressed exogenous BMP activity and endogenous levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 protein. Furthermore, PRDC inhibited the expression of bone marker genes and bone-like mineralized matrix deposition in pOB cells. In contrast, the reduction of PRDC expression by siRNA elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, increased endogenous levels of phosphorylated Smad1/5/8 protein, and promoted bone-like mineralized matrix deposition in pOB cells. These results suggest that PRDC expression in osteoblasts suppresses differentiation and that reduction of PRDC expression promotes osteogenesis in vitro. PRDC is accordingly identified as a potential novel therapeutic target for the regulation of bone formation.

  5. Functional identification of the promoter for the gene encoding the alpha subunit of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, N J; Massé, T; Suzuki, T; Chen, J; Alam, D; Kelly, P T

    1995-01-01

    To examine the expression of the alpha subunit of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, various 5' flanking genomic sequences were inserted into a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter plasmid and CAT enzyme activities were analyzed in transfected NB2a neuroblastoma cells and mRNA transcription was analyzed by nuclease protection assays. A core promoter was identified which contained an essential TATA element located 162 nt 5' to the transcription start site. Sequences 3' to the transcription start site, as well as 5' to the TATA element, increased levels of CAT activity in transfected cells. The alpha-subunit gene promoter displayed higher CAT activities, relative to a simian virus 40 promoter, in transfected neuronal cell lines than in nonneuronal cell lines. Results also suggested that sequence surrounding the natural alpha-gene transcription initiation site may be important for targeting transcription initiation 162 nt downstream of its TATA element. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:7878035

  6. The Arabidopsis cysteine-rich protein GASA4 promotes GA responses and exhibits redox activity in bacteria and in planta.

    PubMed

    Rubinovich, Lior; Weiss, David

    2010-12-01

    Although the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway has been elucidated, very little is known about the steps linking first transcriptional activation to physiological responses. Among the few identified GA-induced genes are the plant-specific GAST1-like genes, which encode small proteins with a conserved cysteine-rich domain. The role of these proteins in plant development and GA responses is not yet clear. The Arabidopsis GAST1-like gene family consists of 14 members, GASA1-14. Here we show that over-expression of the GA-induced GASA4 gene in Arabidopsis promoted GA responses such as flowering and seed germination. Suppression of several GASA genes using synthetic microRNA (miR(GASA) ) also promoted seed germination. This was probably caused by suppression of GASA5, which acts as a repressor of GA responses. Previously, we proposed that GAST1-like proteins are involved in redox reactions via their cysteine-rich domain. The results of this study support this hypothesis, as over-expression of GASA4 suppressed ROS accumulation and the transgenic seeds were partially resistant to the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Moreover, Escherichia coli expressing intact GASA4 or a truncated version containing only the cysteine-rich domain were resistant to SNP. Mutated GASA4, in which conserved cysteines were replaced by alanines, lost its redox activity and the ability to promote GA responses, suggesting that the two functions are linked. We propose that GA induces some GAST1-like genes and suppresses others to regulate its own responses. We also suggest that the encoded proteins regulate the redox status of specific components to promote or suppress these responses.

  7. Cloning and characterization of the major promoter of the human protein kinase C beta gene. Regulation by phorbol esters.

    PubMed

    Obeid, L M; Blobe, G C; Karolak, L A; Hannun, Y A

    1992-10-15

    The expression of the beta isoenzyme for protein kinase C is regulated developmentally and in response to inducers of cell differentiation (such as phorbol esters and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3). The 5' segment of the gene for protein kinase C beta was cloned from a human leukocyte genomic library in EMBL3 bacteriophage. This segment of the gene (greater than 54 kilobases in length) encompassed the coding sequence for the amino-terminal regulatory domain of the enzyme, the 5'-untranslated region, and the 5'-flanking region. Initiation of transcription was identified by S1 nuclease analysis and confirmed by RNase protection analysis at 197 base pairs 5' of the initiator ATG. Sequence analysis of the 5'-flanking region revealed it to be extremely G+C-rich (> 80%) with many features of a CpG island. Comparison of sequence with known cis-regulatory motifs disclosed a number of potential regulatory elements including an octamer binding motif at -76, Sp1-binding sites at -94 and -63, E boxes at -110, -26, and +18, an AP-1 site at -442, and an AP-2 site at -330. To demonstrate promoter activity, a 630-base pair fragment extending from -587 to +43 was subcloned in front of a promoterless luciferase gene. This fragment was able to drive the expression of luciferase in transient transfections of human hematopoietic cells. Deletion analysis demonstrated that a fragment -111 to +43 was necessary and sufficient for promoter activity; this fragment did not contain TATA or CAAT motifs. The promoter was stimulated 8-20-fold by phorbol esters accounting for the previously observed transcriptional activation of protein kinase C beta. This phorbol ester responsiveness was conferred by the basal promoter (-111 to +43) and was independent of the AP-1 site. These results define a novel mechanism of protein kinase C autoregulation at a transcriptional level.

  8. An Aphid Effector Targets Trafficking Protein VPS52 in a Host-Specific Manner to Promote Virulence1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Plant- and animal-feeding insects secrete saliva inside their hosts, containing effectors, which may promote nutrient release and suppress immunity. Although for plant pathogenic microbes it is well established that effectors target host proteins to modulate host cell processes and promote disease, the host cell targets of herbivorous insects remain elusive. Here, we show that the existing plant pathogenic microbe effector paradigm can be extended to herbivorous insects in that effector-target interactions inside host cells modify critical host processes to promote plant susceptibility. We showed that the effector Mp1 from Myzus persicae associates with the host Vacuolar Protein Sorting Associated Protein52 (VPS52). Using natural variants, we provide a strong link between effector virulence activity and association with VPS52, and show that the association is highly specific to M. persicae-host interactions. Also, coexpression of Mp1, but not Mp1-like variants, specifically with host VPS52s resulted in effector relocalization to vesicle-like structures that associate with prevacuolar compartments. We show that high VPS52 levels negatively impact virulence, and that aphids are able to reduce VPS52 levels during infestation, indicating that VPS52 is an important virulence target. Our work is an important step forward in understanding, at the molecular level, how a major agricultural pest promotes susceptibility during infestation of crop plants. We give evidence that an herbivorous insect employs effectors that interact with host proteins as part of an effective virulence strategy, and that these effectors likely function in a species-specific manner. PMID:28100451

  9. Using an FPLC to Promote Active Learning of the Principles of Protein Structure and Purification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Rebekah L.; Neely, Amy E.; Mojadedi, Wais; Threatt, Katie N.; Davis, Nicole Y.; Weiland, Mitch H.

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of protein purification are often taught in undergraduate biology and biochemistry lectures and reinforced during laboratory exercises; however, very few reported activities allow students to directly gain experience using modern protein purification instruments, such as Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC). This laboratory…

  10. Meis1 promotes poly (rC)-binding protein 2 expression and inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunjiao; Si, Yi; Ma, Nan

    2016-01-01

    The poly(rC)-binding protein 2 (PCBP2) is currently reported to inhibit cardiac hypertrophy. However, how PCBP2 is regulated at transcriptional level remains unknown. Here, we show that Meis1, a PBX1-related homeobox gene, binds to PCBP2 promoter and promotes its transcription. In human failing heart tissues and murine hypertrophic heart tissues, the mRNA and protein levels of Meis1 are markedly downregulated, and the level of Meis1 significantly correlates with levels of Nppa, Myh7, and PCBP2. In neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, angiotensin II (Ang II) treatment induces hypertrophic growth of the cells (increase in cell size, enhanced protein synthesis, and hyperexpression of hypertrophic fetal genes), which are significantly inhibited by Meis1 overexpression or promoted by Meis1 knockdown. Meis1 also reduces Ang II-induced activation of Akt-mTOR pathway. Finally, we show that PCBP2 overexpression rescues the Meis1 effects of Akt-mTOR pathway and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):13-22, 2016.

  11. Step-Growth Polymerization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stille, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    Following a comparison of chain-growth and step-growth polymerization, focuses on the latter process by describing requirements for high molecular weight, step-growth polymerization kinetics, synthesis and molecular weight distribution of some linear step-growth polymers, and three-dimensional network step-growth polymers. (JN)

  12. Making Polymeric Microspheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Hyson, Michael T.; Chung, Sang-Kun; Colvin, Michael S.; Chang, Manchium

    1989-01-01

    Combination of advanced techniques yields uniform particles for biomedical applications. Process combines ink-jet and irradiation/freeze-polymerization techniques to make polymeric microspheres of uniform size in diameters from 100 to 400 micrometer. Microspheres used in chromatography, cell sorting, cell labeling, and manufacture of pharmaceutical materials.

  13. Two Subclasses of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Cycle Promoters Distinguished by Open Reading Frame 50 Mutant Proteins That Are Deficient in Binding to DNA

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pey-Jium; Shedd, Duane; Miller, George

    2005-01-01

    A transcriptional activator encoded in open reading frame 50 (ORF50) of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genome initiates the viral lytic cycle. Here we classify four lytic cycle genes on the basis of several characteristics of the ORF50 response elements (ORF50 REs) in their promoters: nucleotide sequence homology, the capacity to bind ORF50 protein in vitro, the ability to bind the cellular protein RBP-Jκ in vitro, and the capacity to confer activation by DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein. ORF50 expressed in human cells binds the promoters of PAN and K12 but does not bind ORF57 or vMIP-1 promoters. Conversely, the RBP-Jκ protein binds ORF57 and vMIP-1 but not PAN or K12 promoters. DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein differentiate these two subclasses of promoters in reporter assays; the PAN and K12 promoters cannot be activated, while the ORF57 and vMIP-1 promoters are responsive. Although DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein are defective in activating direct targets, they are nonetheless capable of activating the lytic cascade of KSHV. Significantly, DNA binding-deficient ORF50 mutants are competent to autostimulate expression of endogenous ORF50 and to autoactivate ORF50 promoter reporters. The experiments show that ORF50 protein activates downstream targets by at least two distinct mechanisms: one involves direct binding of ORF50 REs in promoter DNA; the other mechanism employs interactions with the RBP-Jκ cellular protein bound to promoter DNA in the region of the ORF50 RE. The DNA binding-deficient mutants allow classification of ORF50-responsive genes and will facilitate study of the several distinct mechanisms of activation of KSHV lytic cycle genes that are under the control of ORF50 protein. PMID:15994769

  14. Two subclasses of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic cycle promoters distinguished by open reading frame 50 mutant proteins that are deficient in binding to DNA.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pey-Jium; Shedd, Duane; Miller, George

    2005-07-01

    A transcriptional activator encoded in open reading frame 50 (ORF50) of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) genome initiates the viral lytic cycle. Here we classify four lytic cycle genes on the basis of several characteristics of the ORF50 response elements (ORF50 REs) in their promoters: nucleotide sequence homology, the capacity to bind ORF50 protein in vitro, the ability to bind the cellular protein RBP-Jkappa in vitro, and the capacity to confer activation by DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein. ORF50 expressed in human cells binds the promoters of PAN and K12 but does not bind ORF57 or vMIP-1 promoters. Conversely, the RBP-Jkappa protein binds ORF57 and vMIP-1 but not PAN or K12 promoters. DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein differentiate these two subclasses of promoters in reporter assays; the PAN and K12 promoters cannot be activated, while the ORF57 and vMIP-1 promoters are responsive. Although DNA binding-deficient mutants of ORF50 protein are defective in activating direct targets, they are nonetheless capable of activating the lytic cascade of KSHV. Significantly, DNA binding-deficient ORF50 mutants are competent to autostimulate expression of endogenous ORF50 and to autoactivate ORF50 promoter reporters. The experiments show that ORF50 protein activates downstream targets by at least two distinct mechanisms: one involves direct binding of ORF50 REs in promoter DNA; the other mechanism employs interactions with the RBP-Jkappa cellular protein bound to promoter DNA in the region of the ORF50 RE. The DNA binding-deficient mutants allow classification of ORF50-responsive genes and will facilitate study of the several distinct mechanisms of activation of KSHV lytic cycle genes that are under the control of ORF50 protein.

  15. Identification of a Taraxacum brevicorniculatum rubber elongation factor protein that is localized on rubber particles and promotes rubber biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Laibach, Natalie; Hillebrand, Andrea; Twyman, Richard M; Prüfer, Dirk; Schulze Gronover, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Two protein families required for rubber biosynthesis in Taraxacum brevicorniculatum have recently been characterized, namely the cis-prenyltransferases (TbCPTs) and the small rubber particle proteins (TbSRPPs). The latter were shown to be the most abundant proteins on rubber particles, where rubber biosynthesis takes place. Here we identified a protein designated T. brevicorniculatum rubber elongation factor (TbREF) by using mass spectrometry to analyze rubber particle proteins. TbREF is homologous to the TbSRPPs but has a molecular mass that is atypical for the family. The promoter was shown to be active in laticifers, and the protein itself was localized on the rubber particle surface. In TbREF-silenced plants generated by RNA interference, the rubber content was significantly reduced, correlating with lower TbCPT protein levels and less TbCPT activity in the latex. However, the molecular mass of the rubber was not affected by TbREF silencing. The colloidal stability of rubber particles isolated from TbREF-silenced plants was also unchanged. This was not surprising because TbREF depletion did not affect the abundance of TbSRPPs, which are required for rubber particle stability. Our findings suggest that TbREF is an important component of the rubber biosynthesis machinery in T. brevicorniculatum, and may play a role in rubber particle biogenesis and influence rubber production.

  16. Alpha-ketoglutarate promotes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and protein synthesis through Akt/mTOR signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xingcai; Zhu, Canjun; Xu, Yaqiong; Jing, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Yexian; Wang, Lina; Wang, Songbo; Zhu, Xiaotong; Gao, Ping; Zhang, Yongliang; Jiang, Qingyan; Shu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle weight loss is accompanied by small fiber size and low protein content. Alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) participates in protein and nitrogen metabolism. The effect of AKG on skeletal muscle hypertrophy has not yet been tested, and its underlying mechanism is yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrated that AKG (2%) increased the gastrocnemius muscle weight and fiber diameter in mice. Our in vitro study also confirmed that AKG dose increased protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes, which could be effectively blocked by the antagonists of Akt and mTOR. The effects of AKG on skeletal muscle protein synthesis were independent of glutamate, its metabolite. We tested the expression of GPR91 and GPR99. The result demonstrated that C2C12 cells expressed GPR91, which could be upregulated by AKG. GPR91 knockdown abolished the effect of AKG on protein synthesis but failed to inhibit protein degradation. These findings demonstrated that AKG promoted skeletal muscle hypertrophy via Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. In addition, GPR91 might be partially attributed to AKG-induced skeletal muscle protein synthesis. PMID:27225984

  17. Polymeric Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, C-S.

    1999-11-02

    Synthesis of polymeric carbon dioxide has long been of interest to many chemists and materials scientists. Very recently we discovered the polymeric phase of carbon dioxide (called CO{sub 2}-V) at high pressures and temperatures. Our optical and x-ray results indicate that CO{sub 2}-V is optically non-linear, generating the second harmonic of Nd: YLF laser at 527 nm and is also likely superhard similar to cubic-boron nitride or diamond. CO{sub 2}-V is made of CO{sub 4} tetrahedra, analogous to SiO{sub 2} polymorphs, and is quenchable at ambient temperature at pressures above 1 GPa. In this paper, we describe the pressure-induced polymerization of carbon dioxide together with the stability, structure, and mechanical and optical properties of polymeric CO{sub 2}-V. We also present some implications of polymeric CO{sub 2} for high-pressure chemistry and new materials synthesis.

  18. Expression of factor H binding protein of meningococcus responds to oxygen limitation through a dedicated FNR-regulated promoter.

    PubMed

    Oriente, Francesca; Scarlato, Vincenzo; Delany, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    Factor H binding protein (fHBP) is a surface-exposed lipoprotein in Neisseria meningitidis, which is a component of several investigational vaccines against serogroup B meningococcus (MenB) currently in development. fHBP enables the bacterium to evade complement-mediated killing by binding factor H, a key downregulator of the complement alternative pathway, and, in addition, fHBP is important for meningococcal survival in the presence of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in transcription and regulation of the fHBP-encoding gene, fhbp. We show that the fHBP protein is expressed from two independent transcripts: one bicistronic transcript that includes the upstream gene and a second shorter monocistronic transcript from its own dedicated promoter, P(fhbp). Transcription from the promoter P(fhbp) responds to oxygen limitation in an FNR-dependent manner, and, accordingly, the FNR protein binds to a P(fhbp) probe in vitro. Furthermore, expression in meningococci of a constitutively active FNR mutant results in the overexpression of the fHBP protein. Finally, the analysis of fHBP regulation was extended to a panel of strains expressing different fHBP allelic variants at different levels, and we demonstrate that FNR is involved in the regulation of this antigen in all but one of the strains tested. Our data suggest that oxygen limitation may play an important role in inducing the expression of fHBP from a dedicated FNR-regulated promoter. This implies a role for this protein in microenvironments lacking oxygen, for instance in the submucosa or intracellularly, in addition to its demonstrated role in serum resistance in the blood.

  19. Construction of non-invasively constitutive expression vectors using a metagenome-derived promoter for soluble expression of proteins.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Dea-Eun; Choi, Jong Hyun; Song, Jae Jun; Kim, Geun-Joong

    2013-06-01

    Expression of soluble and functional proteins has been one of the critical challenges to many aspects of synthetic biology, metabolic and protein engineering. Among the current methods for expression of target proteins, constitutive expression systems offer several advantages over inducible systems, which require a chemical or physical inducer. In a previous study, a G196 DNA fragment containing constitutive promoters was mined from the soil metagenome and evaluated for the expression of target proteins in the functional and soluble state. In this study, we further improved this system by constructing a series of constitutive expression vectors, pCEM (using the CEM promoter trimmed from G196), pCEMT (incorporating rrnB T1 and T2 terminator into the downstream region of MCS in pCEM) and pRCEMT (grafting the cis-acting region of pCEMT into a low-copy-number plasmid). Subsequently, genes encoding GFPuv, esterase 1767 and β-glucosidase were subcloned into the resulting vectors, and their expression level and solubility were compared with those of IPTG-inducible vector systems pQE30 and pTrc99A. The extent of homogeneity and the ratio of the soluble fraction in the pRCEMT vector were relatively higher, without any delay of growth rate, than that of the pQE30 or pTrc99A. These results indicate that new expression vectors with moderate constitutive function could more easily lead to a homogenous population of cells expressing target proteins than those with conventionally inducible promoters.

  20. Human chorionic gonadotropin promotes expression of protein absorption factors in the intestine of goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Hao, G; Zhong, H; Wu, Q; Lu, S Q; Zhao, Q; Liu, Z

    2015-07-27

    Protein use is crucial for the ovulation and spawning of fish. Currently, limited information is available regarding the expression of protein absorption factors during the breeding seasons of teleosts and thus how various proteins involved in this process is not well-understood. The expression of CDX2, CREB, gluatamate dehydrogenase, LAT2, aminopeptidase N, PepT1, and SP1 were significantly elevated from the non-breeding season to the breeding season in female goldfish, and all proteins except PepT1 and SP1 were elevated in male goldfish. Injection of human chorionic gonadotropin upregulated the expression of all proteins except for aminopeptidase N in female goldfish and SP1 in male goldfish, suggesting a luteinizing hormone-inductive effect on protein absorption factors. Protein use in the intestine is increased during the breeding seasons as a result of increased luteinizing hormone.

  1. Visualization of actin polymerization in invasive structures of macrophages and carcinoma cells using photoconvertible β-actin-Dendra2 fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Dovas, Athanassios; Gligorijevic, Bojana; Chen, Xiaoming; Entenberg, David; Condeelis, John; Cox, Dianne

    2011-02-14

    Actin polymerization controls a range of cellular processes, from intracellular trafficking to cell motility and invasion. Generation and elongation of free barbed ends defines the regions of actively polymerizing actin in cells and, consequently, is of importance in the understanding of the mechanisms through which actin dynamics are regulated. Herein we present a method that does not involve cell permeabilization and provides direct visualization of growing barbed ends using photoswitchable β-actin-Dendra2 constructs expressed in murine macrophage and rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell lines. The method exploits the ability of photoconverted (red) G-actin species to become incorporated into pre-existing (green) actin filaments, visualized in two distinct wavelengths using TIRF microscopy. In growing actin filaments, photoconverted (red) monomers are added to the barbed end while only green monomers are recycled from the pointed end. We demonstrate that incorporation of actin into intact podosomes of macrophages occurs constitutively and is amenable to inhibition by cytochalasin D indicating barbed end incorporation. Additionally, actin polymerization does not occur in quiescent invadopodial precursors of carcinoma cells suggesting that the filaments are capped and following epidermal growth factor stimulation actin incorporation occurs in a single but extended peak. Finally, we show that Dendra2 fused to either the N- or the C-terminus of β-actin profoundly affects its localization and incorporation in distinct F-actin structures in carcinoma cells, thus influencing the ability of monomers to be photoconverted. These data support the use of photoswitchable actin-Dendra2 constructs as powerful tools in the visualization of free barbed ends in living cells.

  2. The F-box protein FBXO25 promotes the proteasome-dependent degradation of ELK-1 protein.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Felipe R; Manfiolli, Adriana O; Soares, Cláudia S; Baqui, Munira M A; Koide, Tie; Gomes, Marcelo D

    2013-09-27

    FBXO25 is one of the 69 known human F-box proteins that serve as specificity factors for a family of ubiquitin ligases composed of SKP1, Rbx1, Cullin1, and F-box protein (SCF1) that are involved in targeting proteins for degradation across the ubiquitin proteasome system. However, the substrates of most SCF E3 ligases remain unknown. Here, we applied an in chip ubiquitination screen using a human protein microarray to uncover putative substrates for the FBXO25 protein. Among several novel putative targets identified, the c-fos protooncogene regulator ELK-1 was characterized as the first endogenous substrate for SCF1(FBXO25) E3 ligase. FBXO25 interacted with and mediated the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of ELK-1 in HEK293T cells. In addition, FBXO25 overexpression suppressed induction of two ELK-1 target genes, c-fos and egr-1, in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Together, our findings show that FBXO25 mediates ELK-1 degradation through the ubiquitin proteasome system and thereby plays a role in regulating the activation of ELK-1 pathway in response to mitogens.

  3. The microtubule plus-end tracking protein ARMADILLO-REPEAT KINESIN1 promotes microtubule catastrophe in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Eng, Ryan Christopher; Wasteneys, Geoffrey O

    2014-08-01

    Microtubule dynamics are critically important for plant cell development. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana ARMADILLO-REPEAT KINESIN1 (ARK1) plays a key role in root hair tip growth by promoting microtubule catastrophe events. This destabilizing activity appears to maintain adequate free tubulin concentrations in order to permit rapid microtubule growth, which in turn is correlated with uniform tip growth. Microtubules in ark1-1 root hairs exhibited reduced catastrophe frequency and slower growth velocities, both of which were restored by low concentrations of the microtubule-destabilizing drug oryzalin. An ARK1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) fusion protein expressed under its endogenous promoter localized to growing microtubule plus ends and rescued the ark1-1 root hair phenotype. Transient overexpression of ARK1-RFP (red fluorescent protein) increased microtubule catastrophe frequency. ARK1-fusion protein constructs lacking the N-terminal motor domain still labeled microtubules, suggesting the existence of a second microtubule binding domain at the C terminus of ARK1. ARK1-GFP was broadly expressed in seedlings, but mutant phenotypes were restricted to root hairs, indicating that ARK1's function is redundant in cells other than those forming root hairs.

  4. HDGF-related protein-2 (HRP-2) acts as an oncogene to promote cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kun; Xu, Chen; Jin, Xiaofeng; Wumaier, Reziya; Ma, Jian; Peng, Jingtao; Wang, Yuqi; Tang, Yan; Yu, Long; Zhang, Pingzhao

    2015-03-20

    HDGFRP2 (HRP-2) belongs to the Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF)-related proteins (HRPs) family, which are characterized by a conserved HATH/PWWP domain at a well-conserved region of the N-terminus. However, the cellular function of HRP-2 remains unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that HRP-2 is frequently overexpressed in human HCC tissues at mRNA and protein levels. We further showed that HRP-2 can promote HCC cells growth in vitro and xenograft tumors in vivo. Using protein affinity purification methods, we searched for functional partners of HRP-2, and found that HRP-2 interacts with various proteins known to be involved in transcription elongation and processing. Furthermore, we demonstrate HRP-2 interacts and co-localizes with RNA processing regulator IWS1, and positively regulated the mRNA level of Cyclin D1. Together, our study suggests HRP-2 may act as an mRNA processing co-factor to promote cells growth by regulating the mRNA of key oncogenes, which can be explored further for cancer treatment.

  5. A tumor suppressor C53 protein antagonizes checkpoint kinases to promote cyclin-dependent kinase 1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hai; Wu, Jianchun; He, Chen; Yang, Wending; Li, Honglin

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1)/cyclin B1 complex is the driving force for mitotic entry, and its activation is tightly regulated by the G2/M checkpoint. We originally reported that a novel protein C53 (also known as Cdk5rap3 and LZAP) potentiates DNA damage-induced cell death by modulating the G2/M checkpoint (1). More recently, Wang et al (2007) found that C53/LZAP may function as a tumor suppressor via inhibiting NF-κB signaling (2). We report here identification of C53 protein as a novel regulator of Cdk1 activation. We found that knockdown of C53 protein causes delayed Cdk1 activation and mitotic entry. During DNA damage response, activation of checkpoint kinase 1 and 2 (Chk1 and Chk2) is partially inhibited by C53 overexrepsssion. Intriguingly, we found that C53 interacts with checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) and antagonizes its function. Moreover, a portion of C53