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Sample records for polymerized thin films

  1. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles; Delnick, Frank M.

    1996-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  2. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  3. Preparation of polymeric diacetylene thin films for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, Donald O. (Inventor); Mcmanus, Samuel P. (Inventor); Paley, Mark S. (Inventor); Donovan, David N. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing polymeric diacetylene thin films having desirable nonlinear optical characteristics has been achieved by producing amorphous diacetylene polymeric films by simultaneous polymerization of diacetylene monomers in solution and deposition of polymerized diacetylenes on to the surface of a transparent substrate through which ultraviolet light has been transmitted. These amorphous polydiacetylene films produced by photo-deposition from solution possess very high optical quality and exhibit large third order nonlinear optical susceptibilities, such properties being suitable for nonlinear optical devices such as waveguides and integrated optics.

  4. Composite polymeric film and method for its use in installing a very-thin polymeric film in a device

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-04-26

    A composite polymeric film and a method for its use in forming and installing a very thin (< 10 ..mu..m) polymeric film are disclosed. The composite film consists of a thin film layer and a backing layer. The backing layer is soluble in a solvent in which the thin film layer is not soluble. In accordance with the method, the composite film is installed in a device in the same position in which it is sought to finally emplace the thin film. The backing layer is then selectiely dissolved in the solvent to leave the insoluble thin film layer as an unbacked film. The method permits a very thin film to e successfully installed in devices where the fragility of the film would preclude handling and installation by conventional methods.

  5. Composite polymeric film and method for its use in installing a very thin polymeric film in a device

    DOEpatents

    Duchane, David V.; Barthell, Barry L.

    1984-01-01

    A composite polymeric film and a method for its use in forming and installing a very thin (<10 .mu.m) polymeric film are disclosed. The composite film consists of a thin film layer and a backing layer. The backing layer is soluble in a solvent in which the thin film layer is not soluble. In accordance with the method, the composite film is installed in a device in the same position in which it is sought to finally emplace the thin film. The backing layer is then selectively dissolved in the solvent to leave the insoluble thin film layer as an unbacked film. The method permits a very thin film to be successfully installed in devices where the fragility of the film would preclude handling and installation by conventional methods.

  6. Waveguides in Thin Film Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakisov, Sergey; Abdeldayem, Hossin; Venkateswarlu, Putcha; Teague, Zedric

    1996-01-01

    Results on the fabrication of integrated optical components in polymeric materials using photo printing methods will be presented. Optical waveguides were fabricated by spin coating preoxidized silicon wafers with organic dye/polymer solution followed by soft baking. The waveguide modes were studied using prism coupling technique. Propagation losses were measured by collecting light scattered from the trace of a propagation mode by either scanning photodetector or CCD camera. We observed the formation of graded index waveguides in photosensitive polyimides after exposure of UV light from a mercury arc lamp. By using a theoretical model, an index profile was reconstructed which is in agreement with the profile reconstructed by the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin calculation technique using a modal spectrum of the waveguides. Proposed mechanism for the formation of the graded index includes photocrosslinking followed by UV curing accompanied with optical absorption increase. We also developed the prototype of a novel single-arm double-mode interferometric sensor based on our waveguides. It demonstrates high sensitivity to the chance of ambient temperature. The device can find possible applications in aeropropulsion control systems.

  7. Method of preparing water purification membranes. [polymerization of allyl amine as thin films in plasma discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Allyl amine and chemically related compounds are polymerized as thin films in the presence of a plasma discharge. The monomer compound can be polymerized by itself or in the presence of an additive gas to promote polymerization and act as a carrier. The polymerized films thus produced show outstanding advantages when used as reverse osmosis membranes.

  8. Molecularly Oriented Polymeric Thin Films for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fay, Catharine C.; Stoakley, Diane M.; St.Clair, Anne K.

    1997-01-01

    The increased commitment from NASA and private industry to the exploration of outer space and the use of orbital instrumentation to monitor the earth has focused attention on organic polymeric materials for a variety of applications in space. Some polymeric materials have exhibited short-term (3-5 yr) space environmental durability; however, future spacecraft are being designed with lifetimes projected to be 10-30 years. This gives rise to concern that material property change brought about during operation may result in unpredicted spacecraft performance. Because of their inherent toughness and flexibility, low density, thermal stability, radiation resistance and mechanical strength, aromatic polyimides have excellent potential use as advanced materials on large space structures. Also, there exists a need for high temperature (200-300 C) stable, flexible polymeric films that have high optical transparency in the 300-600nm range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Polymers suitable for these space applications were fabricated and characterized. Additionally, these polymers were molecularly oriented to further enhance their dimensional stability, stiffness, elongation and strength. Both unoriented and oriented polymeric thin films were also cryogenically treated to temperatures below -184 C to show their stability in cold environments and determine any changes in material properties.

  9. Electrical Breakdown of Plasma-Polymerized Styrene Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Akinori; Nagao, Masayuki; Sawa, Goro; Ieda, Masayuki

    1982-03-01

    The electrical breakdown of plasma-polymerized styrene thin film (PPS) was studied by taking advantage of self-healing. The electric strength FB was almost independent of temperature from -196 to 200°C, and strongly depended on the rate of voltage increase even at a slow rate of increase. The breakdown characteristics were influenced by the electrode metal and the ambient atmosphere, but not by X-ray irradiation or photoillumination. The experimental results are used to discuss the breakdown mechanism of PPS through existing breakdown theories. As a result, no single breakdown process was considered as a possible breakdown mechanism, and we thus obtained important conditions for presenting a new breakdown model; the breakdown of PPS will be determined by a thermal criterion, and it will be closely related to a temperature-independent injection process.

  10. Charge trapping in plasma-polymerized thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemberg-Sapieha, J. E.; Sapieha, S.; Wertheimer, M. R.; Yelon, A.

    1980-07-01

    The surface potential of freshly plasma-polymerized films of hexamethyldisiloxane was measured for film thicknesses ranging from about 0.1 to 1 micron. The films are found to be in an electret state under certain fabrication conditions. Experimental evidence is given which indicates that charge trapped during plasma polymerization is uniformly distributed across the sample thickness. It has been found that other electret properties such as the polarity of trapped charge, and the charge retention characteristics can also be controlled by an appropriate choice of polymerization conditions.

  11. Simulation of thin film membranes formed by interfacial polymerization.

    PubMed

    Oizerovich-Honig, Rachel; Raim, Vladimir; Srebnik, Simcha

    2010-01-01

    Interfacial polymerization is widely used today for the production of ultrathin films for encapsulation, chemical separations, and desalination. Polyamide films, in particular, are employed in manufacturing of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes. While these materials show excellent salt rejection, they have rather low water permeability, both properties that apparently stem from the rigid cross-linked structure. An increasing amount of experimental research on membranes of different chemistries and membrane characterization suggests the importance of other factors (such as unreacted functional groups and surface roughness) in determining membrane performance. We developed a molecular simulation model to qualitatively study the effects of various synthesis conditions on membrane performance, in terms of its estimated porosity and permeability. The model is of an interfacial aggregation process of two types of functional monomers. Film growth with time and structural characteristics of the final film are compared with predictions of existing theories and experimental observations.

  12. Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.

    1997-11-25

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte is described, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1}cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  13. Method of preparing thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Derzon, Dora K.; Arnold, Jr., Charles

    1997-01-01

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  14. An automated multidimensional thin film stretching device for the generation of anisotropic polymeric micro- and nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Randall A.; Meyer, Randall S.; Green, Jordan J.

    2015-01-01

    Anisotropic polymeric particles are of growing interest for biomaterials applications due to their unique properties. These include the ability for these particles to evade non-specific cellular uptake and to have enhanced targeted cellular uptake and interaction. One of the most widely used methods for generating anisotropic polymeric particles is the thin film stretching procedure. Despite its theoretical simplicity, this procedure, as it has been implemented to date, can be difficult due to the inconsistent nature of the manual operation of machinery used to stretch the film. We have constructed an automated thin film stretcher for control over biomaterials via thin film stretching in 1D and 2D and as a result, have enabled precise generation of anisotropic polymeric particles. We demonstrate that this device can be utilized to produce anisotropic biodegradable particles of different size, shape, and material consistency. Furthermore, we show that this machine has enabled the scaled up and rapid production of anisotropic polymeric particles, including polymeric microparticles that mimic the shape of red blood cells. Further application of this automated thin film stretching device could allow for significant impact to diverse biomaterial and biomedical applications such as biomimetic particles for immunoengineering and long-circulating particles for controlled release of drugs. PMID:25641799

  15. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  16. Microwave characterization of a novel, environmentally friendly, plasma polymerized organic thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L.; Jacob, M.

    Polymerized Linalyl Acetate (PLA) thin films were fabricated using RF plasma polymerization. The dielectric properties of the PLA thin films have been investigated using the split post dielectric resonance technique, which consists of a silver coated copper cavity and two precisely machined identical dielectric materials. The measurements have been carried out at resonance frequencies of 10 GHz and 20 GHz, with good agreement between results. The dielectric properties were also investigated at low frequencies using capacitive measurements of MIM structures. All methodologies place the dielectric constant of the PLA material at approximately 2.4, indicating the material is suitable for use in electronics as an insulating layer.

  17. Elastic Moduli of Polymeric Thin Films of Nanocomposites and Blends via Buckling on Elastomeric Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongyi; Marszalek-Kempke, Jolanta; Verma, Prateek; Karim, Alamgir

    2012-02-01

    Mechanical properties are important for the long term durability of polymeric thin films. Unfortunately, there are very few methods for mechanical characterization of sub-micron thin films with high accuracy and repeatability. The technique of Strain-Induced Elastic Buckling Instability for Mechanical Measurements (SIEBIMM) was employed to determine the elastic moduli of nanocomposite and blend films, which were calculated from the buckling patterns generated by applying compressive stresses. In this study, polylactic acid (PLA) / Cloisite 30B nanocomposite thin films and polycaprolactone (PCL) / PLA blend thin films were prepared via spin-coating and then transferred to crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible substrates. Results showed the strengthening effect of Cloisite 30B on PLA systems. The effect of nanoparticle concentrations and the influences of crystallinity and phase separation of blends will be presented.

  18. Amine Enrichment of Thin-Film Composite Membranes via Low Pressure Plasma Polymerization for Antimicrobial Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rackel; Dumée, Ludovic F; He, Li; She, Fenghua; Orbell, John D; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Duke, Mikel C

    2015-07-15

    Thin-film composite membranes, primarily based on poly(amide) (PA) semipermeable materials, are nowadays the dominant technology used in pressure driven water desalination systems. Despite offering superior water permeation and salt selectivity, their surface properties, such as their charge and roughness, cannot be extensively tuned due to the intrinsic fabrication process of the membranes by interfacial polymerization. The alteration of these properties would lead to a better control of the materials surface zeta potential, which is critical to finely tune selectivity and enhance the membrane materials stability when exposed to complex industrial waste streams. Low pressure plasma was employed to introduce amine functionalities onto the PA surface of commercially available thin-film composite (TFC) membranes. Morphological changes after plasma polymerization were analyzed by SEM and AFM, and average surface roughness decreased by 29%. Amine enrichment provided isoelectric point changes from pH 3.7 to 5.2 for 5 to 15 min of plasma polymerization time. Synchrotron FTIR mappings of the amine-modified surface indicated the addition of a discrete 60 nm film to the PA layer. Furthermore, metal affinity was confirmed by the enhanced binding of silver to the modified surface, supported by an increased antimicrobial functionality with demonstrable elimination of E. coli growth. Essential salt rejection was shown minimally compromised for faster polymerization processes. Plasma polymerization is therefore a viable route to producing functional amine enriched thin-film composite PA membrane surfaces. PMID:26083007

  19. Amine Enrichment of Thin-Film Composite Membranes via Low Pressure Plasma Polymerization for Antimicrobial Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Reis, Rackel; Dumée, Ludovic F; He, Li; She, Fenghua; Orbell, John D; Winther-Jensen, Bjorn; Duke, Mikel C

    2015-07-15

    Thin-film composite membranes, primarily based on poly(amide) (PA) semipermeable materials, are nowadays the dominant technology used in pressure driven water desalination systems. Despite offering superior water permeation and salt selectivity, their surface properties, such as their charge and roughness, cannot be extensively tuned due to the intrinsic fabrication process of the membranes by interfacial polymerization. The alteration of these properties would lead to a better control of the materials surface zeta potential, which is critical to finely tune selectivity and enhance the membrane materials stability when exposed to complex industrial waste streams. Low pressure plasma was employed to introduce amine functionalities onto the PA surface of commercially available thin-film composite (TFC) membranes. Morphological changes after plasma polymerization were analyzed by SEM and AFM, and average surface roughness decreased by 29%. Amine enrichment provided isoelectric point changes from pH 3.7 to 5.2 for 5 to 15 min of plasma polymerization time. Synchrotron FTIR mappings of the amine-modified surface indicated the addition of a discrete 60 nm film to the PA layer. Furthermore, metal affinity was confirmed by the enhanced binding of silver to the modified surface, supported by an increased antimicrobial functionality with demonstrable elimination of E. coli growth. Essential salt rejection was shown minimally compromised for faster polymerization processes. Plasma polymerization is therefore a viable route to producing functional amine enriched thin-film composite PA membrane surfaces.

  20. High Ordered Structure of Polyurea Thin Films Prepared by Vapor Deposition Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Taisuke; Suga, Takahiro; Kubono, Atushi

    Vapor deposition polymerization(VDP) have been utilized for producing polymeric thin films, such as polyimides, polyamides, and polyureas by co-evaporation of two types of bifunctional monomers onto the substrate surface. Through the use of poling treatment, polyureas acquire pyroelectric and piezoelectric activities comparable to those of PVDF. In this study, polyurea thin films were prepared by vapor deposition polymerization. The ordered structures and physical properties were investigated by means of infrared spectroscopy. The infrared spectra indicate that the dipoles of urea groups in the polymer were oriented normal to the surface of substrate. This results that strong interaction between the substrate interface and the urea groups results in the orientation of the urea dipoles during annealing. Moreover, the introduction of aliphatic moieties into the polymer main chain gives rise to easy thermal reorientation of the dipoles in comparison with aromatic moieties. In comparison with aromatic moieties which have rigid frame structure need poling treatment to dipoles reorientation.

  1. An investigation of plasma pretreatments and plasma polymerized thin films for titanium/polyimide adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difelice, Ronald Attilio

    Plasma pretreatments are environmentally benign and energy efficient processes for modifying the surface chemistry of materials. In an effort to improve the strength of the titanium alloy/FM-5 polyimide adhesive joint for aerospace applications, oxygen plasma pretreatments and novel thin plasma polymerized (PP) films were investigated as adhesion promoters. Plasma treatments were carried out using custom-built, low pressure, radio frequency, inductively coupled plasma reactors. Ti-6Al-4V coupons were plasma treated and used to prepare miniature single lap shear (SLS) joints. The effects of plasma pretreatments on surface chemistry were studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR), and contact angle measurements. Relationships between composition, mechanical properties, and adhesion of PP films on Ti-6Al-4V and silicon wafers were investigated. The nanomechanical properties (modulus, hardness and adhesion) were studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation and nanoscratch testing. A design of experiments (DOE) three factorial model was used to optimize the parameters for oxygen plasma treatments. Oxygen plasma pretreatments enhanced joint strength by cleaning the titanium surface and creating an extended oxide layer. Nanoindentation of oxygen plasma treated substrates showed no change in the surface mechanical properties due to the oxygen plasma treatment. This suggested that the improved SLS strength of the oxygen plasma pretreated substrates was due to the cleaning of the substrate and the removal of carbonaceous contaminants, rather than any changes in the morphology of the oxide layer. PP acetylene films were predominantly carbon, with oxygen as the other main constituent (incorporated mostly as C-O and C=O). For all SLS specimens tested, the adhesion between PP acetylene and FM-5 adhesive was adequate. However, the strength of SLS joints was limited by the

  2. Analysis of Crystallization on Polymeric Thin Films Deposited on Silicon Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Ethan

    2013-03-01

    Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) is a synthetic polymer containing carbon chains with hydroxide groups bonded to every other carbon. Poly (propylmethacrylisobutyl POSS co-methylmethacrylate) (POSS-MA) is a co-polymer that contains polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) cages co-polymerized to a poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) backbone. PVA is dissolved into water at various concentrations and coated onto a silica wafer using spin casting. Then, various concentrations of 30-40 wt% POSS-MA are dissolved in chloroform and deposited onto the same sample. After spin casting, these samples are analyzed using AFM and ellipsometry. Typical samples of POSS-MA and PVA/POSS-MA thin films exhibit varying rates of micro-phase separation in the form of dendritic structures. Once seperation is completed, the pixel areas of the dendrite structures are measured using IDL. These varying area determinations are normalized, and then fit to an Avrami plot by graphing ln(-ln(1-f)) vs. ln(time), where ``f'' is normalized area, and the time is the time after deposition. On the graphs, the slope is the dimensionality of the growth constant, and the y-intercept is the natural log of the rate constant (ln(k)). Samples also undergo ellipsometry to determine the thickness of the SiO2/PVA/POSS-MA thin films. Additional experiments include a process that etches away the PVA thin film layer in water, leaving the POSS-MA thin film layer on the surface of the water. The thin film is then lifted onto a TEM grid to be analyzed using TEM.

  3. Microwave synthesis of calcium bismuth niobate thin films obtained by the polymeric precursor method

    SciTech Connect

    Simoes, A.Z.; Ramirez, M.A. . E-mail: miganr@kenter.com; Ries, A.; Wang, F.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    2006-08-10

    The crystal structure, surface morphology and electrical properties of layered perovskite calcium bismuth niobate thin films (CaBi{sub 2}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 9}-CBN) deposited on platinum coated silicon substrates by the polymeric precursor method have been investigated. The films were crystallized in a domestic microwave and in a conventional furnace. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy analysis confirms that the crystallinity and morphology of the films are affected by the different annealing routes. Ferroelectric properties of the films were determined with remanent polarization P {sub r} and a drive voltage V {sub c} of 4.2 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and 1.7 V for the film annealed in the conventional furnace and 1.0 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and 4.0 V for the film annealed in microwave furnace, respectively. A slight decay after 10{sup 8} polarization cycles was observed for the films annealed in the microwave furnace indicating a reduction of the domain wall mobility after interaction of the microwave energy with the bottom electrode.

  4. Characterization of thin-film deposition in a pulsed acrylic acid polymerizing discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Voronin, Sergey A.; Bradley, James W.; Fotea, Catalin; Zelzer, Mischa; Alexander, Morgan R.

    2007-07-15

    In this study, thin-film deposition in a pulsed rf polymerizing discharge (13.56 MHz) struck in acrylic acid has been investigated by mass spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and quartz crystal microbalance techniques. The experiment was conducted at a fixed acrylic acid pressure of 1.3 Pa and 'on' pulse duration of 0.1 ms, whereas the 'off' time was varied between 0 and 20 ms. The rf input power in the 'on' time and gas flow rate were varied between 10 and 50 W and 1.5 and 4.8 sccm (sccm denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP), respectively. These changes of the discharge conditions resulted in large-scale progressive variations in film and gas-phase plasma composition. In particular, the -COOH functionality of the monomer was increasingly retained in the plasma-generated thin films as the duty cycle was lowered (i.e., with lowered time-averaged powers). The monomer retention reached its maximum value of 66% for 'off' times exceeding 5 ms, when the discharge was operating in the power-deficient regime. The results show that the film deposition rate is a strong function of the monomer flow rate, whereas -COOH retention is correlated to the amount of unfragmented monomer in the plasma, controlled by the applied power.

  5. Molecularly thin fluoro-polymeric nanolubricant films: tribology, rheology, morphology, and applications.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pil Seung; Jhon, Myung S; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2016-03-21

    Molecularly thin perfluoropolyether (PFPE) has been used extensively as a high-performance lubricant in various applications and, more importantly, on carbon overcoats to enhance the reliability and lubrication of micro-/nanoelectro-mechanical systems, where the tribological performance caused by its molecular architecture is a critical issue, as are its physical properties and rheological characteristics. This Highlight addresses recent trends in the development of fluoro-polymeric lubricant films with regard to their tribology, rheology, and physio-chemical properties as they relate to heat-assisted magnetic recording. Nanorheology has been employed to examine the dynamic response of nonfunctional and functional PFPEs, while the viscoelastic properties of nanoscale PFPE films and the relaxation processes as a function of molecular structure and end-group functionality were analyzed experimentally; furthermore, the characteristics of binary blends were reported.

  6. Molecularly thin fluoro-polymeric nanolubricant films: tribology, rheology, morphology, and applications.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pil Seung; Jhon, Myung S; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2016-03-21

    Molecularly thin perfluoropolyether (PFPE) has been used extensively as a high-performance lubricant in various applications and, more importantly, on carbon overcoats to enhance the reliability and lubrication of micro-/nanoelectro-mechanical systems, where the tribological performance caused by its molecular architecture is a critical issue, as are its physical properties and rheological characteristics. This Highlight addresses recent trends in the development of fluoro-polymeric lubricant films with regard to their tribology, rheology, and physio-chemical properties as they relate to heat-assisted magnetic recording. Nanorheology has been employed to examine the dynamic response of nonfunctional and functional PFPEs, while the viscoelastic properties of nanoscale PFPE films and the relaxation processes as a function of molecular structure and end-group functionality were analyzed experimentally; furthermore, the characteristics of binary blends were reported. PMID:26907953

  7. Combinatorial plasma polymerization approach to produce thin films for testing cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Antonini, V; Torrengo, S; Marocchi, L; Minati, L; Dalla Serra, M; Bao, G; Speranza, G

    2014-01-01

    Plasma enhanced physical vapor depositions are extensively used to fabricate substrates for cell culture applications. One peculiarity of the plasma processes is the possibility to deposit thin films with reproducible chemical and physical properties. In the present work, a combinatorial plasma polymerization process was used to deposit thin carbon based films to promote cell adhesion, in the interest of testing cell proliferation as a function of the substrate chemical properties. Peculiarity of the combinatorial approach is the possibility to produce in just one deposition experiment, a set of surfaces of varying chemical moieties by changing the precursor composition. A full characterization of the chemical, physical and thermodynamic properties was performed for each set of the synthesized surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to measure the concentration of carboxyl, hydroxyl and amine functional groups on the substrate surfaces. A perfect linear trend between polar groups' density and precursors' concentration was found. Further analyses reveled that also contact angles and the correspondent surface energies of all deposited thin films are linearly dependent on the precursor concentration. To test the influence of the surface composition on the cell adhesion and proliferation, two cancer cell lines were utilized. The cell viability was assessed after 24 h and 48 h of cell culture. Experiments show that we are able to control the cell adhesion and proliferation by properly changing the thin film deposition conditions i.e. the concentration and the kind of chemical moiety on the substrate surface. The results also highlight that physical and chemical factors of biomaterial surface, including surface hydrophobicity and free energy, chemical composition, and topography, can altered cell attachment.

  8. Micropatterned Surfaces for Atmospheric Water Condensation via Controlled Radical Polymerization and Thin Film Dewetting.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ian; Teo, Guo Hui; Neto, Chiara; Thickett, Stuart C

    2015-09-30

    Inspired by an example found in nature, the design of patterned surfaces with chemical and topographical contrast for the collection of water from the atmosphere has been of intense interest in recent years. Herein we report the synthesis of such materials via a combination of macromolecular design and polymer thin film dewetting to yield surfaces consisting of raised hydrophilic bumps on a hydrophobic background. RAFT polymerization was used to synthesize poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPMA) of targeted molecular weight and low dispersity; spin-coating of PHPMA onto polystyrene films produced stable polymer bilayers under appropriate conditions. Thermal annealing of these bilayers above the glass transition temperature of the PHPMA layer led to complete dewetting of the top layer and the formation of isolated PHPMA domains atop the PS film. Due to the vastly different rates of water nucleation on the two phases, preferential dropwise nucleation of water occurred on the PHPMA domains, as demonstrated by optical microscopy. The simplicity of the preparation method and ability to target polymers of specific molecular weight demonstrate the value of these materials with respect to large-scale water collection devices or other materials science applications where patterning is required.

  9. Polyurethane coating with thin polymer films produced by plasma polymerization of diglyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, M. A.; Ramos, A. S.; Manfredini, M. I.; Alves, H. A.; Y Honda, R.; Kostov, K. G.; Lucena, E. F.; Ramos, E. C. T.; Mota, R. P.; Algatti, M. A.; Kayama, M. E.

    2009-05-01

    Aqueous-based polyurethane dispersions have been widely utilized as lubricants in textile, shoes, automotive, biomaterial and many other industries because they are less aggressive to surrounding environment. In this work thin films with different thickness were deposited on biocompatible polyurethane by plasma polymerization process using diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (Diglyme) as monomer. Molecular structure of the films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The spectra exhibited absorption bands of O-H (3500-3200cm-1), C-H (3000-2900cm-1), C=O (1730-1650cm-1), C-O and C-O-C bonds at 1200-1600cm-1. The samples wettability was evaluated by measurements of contact angle using different liquids such as water, glycerol, poly-ethane and CMC. The polyurethane surface showed hydrophilic behavior after diglyme plasma-deposition with contact angle dropping from 85° to 22°. Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that diglyme films covered uniformly the polyurethane surfaces ensuring to it a biocompatible characteristic.

  10. Micropatterned Surfaces for Atmospheric Water Condensation via Controlled Radical Polymerization and Thin Film Dewetting.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ian; Teo, Guo Hui; Neto, Chiara; Thickett, Stuart C

    2015-09-30

    Inspired by an example found in nature, the design of patterned surfaces with chemical and topographical contrast for the collection of water from the atmosphere has been of intense interest in recent years. Herein we report the synthesis of such materials via a combination of macromolecular design and polymer thin film dewetting to yield surfaces consisting of raised hydrophilic bumps on a hydrophobic background. RAFT polymerization was used to synthesize poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate) (PHPMA) of targeted molecular weight and low dispersity; spin-coating of PHPMA onto polystyrene films produced stable polymer bilayers under appropriate conditions. Thermal annealing of these bilayers above the glass transition temperature of the PHPMA layer led to complete dewetting of the top layer and the formation of isolated PHPMA domains atop the PS film. Due to the vastly different rates of water nucleation on the two phases, preferential dropwise nucleation of water occurred on the PHPMA domains, as demonstrated by optical microscopy. The simplicity of the preparation method and ability to target polymers of specific molecular weight demonstrate the value of these materials with respect to large-scale water collection devices or other materials science applications where patterning is required. PMID:26372163

  11. CVD of polymeric thin films: applications in sensors, biotechnology, microelectronics/organic electronics, microfluidics, MEMS, composites and membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaydin-Ince, Gozde; Coclite, Anna Maria; Gleason, Karen K.

    2012-01-01

    Polymers with their tunable functionalities offer the ability to rationally design micro- and nano-engineered materials. Their synthesis as thin films have significant advantages due to the reduced amounts of materials used, faster processing times and the ability to modify the surface while preserving the structural properties of the bulk. Furthermore, their low cost, ease of fabrication and the ability to be easily integrated into processing lines, make them attractive alternatives to their inorganic thin film counterparts. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as a polymer thin-film deposition technique offers a versatile platform for fabrication of a wide range of polymer thin films preserving all the functionalities. Solventless, vapor-phase deposition enable the integration of polymer thin films or nanostructures into micro- and nanodevices for improved performance. In this review, CVD of functional polymer thin films and the polymerization mechanisms are introduced. The properties of the polymer thin films that determine their behavior are discussed and their technological advances and applications are reviewed.

  12. Mechanical behaviour of metallic thin films on polymeric substrates and the effect of ion beam assistance on crack propagation

    SciTech Connect

    George, M. , E-Mail: matthieu.george@bnfl.com; Coupeau, C.; Colin, J.; Grilhe, J.

    2005-01-10

    The mechanisms of crack propagation in metallic films on polymeric substrates have been studied through in situ atomic force microscopy observations of thin films under tensile stresses and finite element stress calculations. Two series of films - ones deposited with ion beam assistance, the others without - have been investigated. The observations and stress calculations show that ion beam assistance can change drastically the propagation of cracks in coated materials: by improving the adhesion film/substrate, it slows down the delamination process, but in the same time enhances the cracks growth in the thickness of the material.

  13. Deposition of acrylonitrile cluster ions on solid substrates: thin film formation by intracluster polymerization products.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Sato, Naoki

    2006-03-01

    Cluster anions of acrylonitrile (AN), known to give intracluster anionic polymerization products, were deposited on solid substrates. The obtained films were examined by using infrared absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography with the aid of quantum chemical calculations. The acquired spectroscopic data are similar to those of polyacrylonitrile (PAN), while the normal polymerization of AN or reactions related to PAN seemed not to occur noticeably. On the contrary, the product analysis shows that most of the constituent molecules of the films are formed via cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarbonitrile (CHTCN), a dominant product of the intracluster polymerization of AN, accompanied by fragmentation and dimerization. PMID:16509718

  14. Amperometric biosensor based on glucose dehydrogenase and plasma-polymerized thin films.

    PubMed

    Hiratsuka, Atsunori; Fujisawa, Kohta; Muguruma, Hitoshi

    2008-04-01

    A novel design is described for an amperometric biosensor based on NAD(P)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) combined with a plasma-polymerized thin film (PPF). The GDH is sandwiched between several nanometer thick acetonitrile PPFs on a sputtered gold electrode (PPF/GDH/PPF/Au). The lower PPF layer plays the role as an interface between enzyme and electrode because it is extremely thin, adheres well to the substrate (electrode), has a flat surface and a highly-crosslinked network structure, and is hydrophilic in nature. The upper PPF layer (overcoating) was directly deposited on immobilized GDH. The optimized amperometric biosensor characteristics covered 2.5-26 mM glucose concentration at +0.6 V of applied potential; the least-squares slope was 320 nA mM(-1) cm(-2) and the correlation coefficient was 0.990. Unlike conventional wet-chemical processes that are incompatible with mass production techniques, this dry-chemistry procedure has great potential for enabling high-throughput production of bioelectronic devices.

  15. Thin film rechargeable room temperature batteries using solid redox polymerization electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doeff, M.M.; Visco, S.J.; De Jonghe, L.C. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper discusses thin-film solid-state batteries consisting of lithium foils, amorphous PEO separators, and solid redox polymerization electrodes (SRPEs) that were assembled, discharged, and cycled at room temperature. No solvents were added to any of the components, nor were structural additives used. Performances were studied as a function of cathode thickness and composition of separator and SRPE. At 50 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, cells could be discharged to a depth of 0-.6 to 1.3 C/cm{sup 2} , at 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} to a depth of 0.5 C/cm{sup 2}, and at 200 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} depth of 0.25 C/cm{sup 2}. It was also possible to pulse batteries at higher current densities for short periods of time (ranging from 0.1 To 3 s) with instantaneous recovery of open-circuit potential after the performance occurred. Batteries may be designed to be paper or may consist of several cells stacked together to give a somewhat thicker device. Practical energy and power densities were calculated as a function of component dimensions (cathode and current collector thicknesses) for paper thin batteries consisting of lithium anodes, amorphous PEO separators, SRPEs, and metallized plastic current collectors. Power densities of 30 W/l (continuous discharge) and pulse 0.1 s power densities over 1000 W/l may be achieved for these ultrathin devices.

  16. Hydrophobic coating of solid materials by plasma-polymerized thin film using tetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozumi, K.; Kitamura, K.; Kitade, T.

    1980-01-01

    Glass slides were coated with plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene films of different thickness using the glow discharge technique in a tube-shaped chamber, and the plasma conditions, film growth rates, light permeability of the polymer films, and particle bond strength in the polymer films were studied. Ashed sections of mouse organs and ashed bacillus spores were also coated to give them hydrophobic treatment without damaging their shapes or appearance. The hydrophobic coating of the specimens was successful, and the fine ash patterns were strongly fixed onto the glass slides, making permanent preparations.

  17. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Thin Film Materials of Potential for Microgravity Processing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin; Witherow, William K.; Bank, Curtis; Shields, Angela; Hicks, Rosline; Ashley, Paul R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we will take a closer look at the state of the art of polydiacetylene, and metal-free phthalocyanine films, in view of the microgravity impact on their optical properties, their nonlinear optical properties and their potential advantages for integrated optics. These materials have many attractive features with regard to their use in integrated optical circuits and optical switching. Thin films of these materials processed in microgravity environment show enhanced optical quality and better molecular alignment than those processed in unit gravity. Our studies of these materials indicate that microgravity can play a major role in integrated optics technology. Polydiacetylene films are produced by UV irradiation of monomer solution through an optical window. This novel technique of forming polydiacetylene thin films has been modified for constructing sophisticated micro-structure integrated optical patterns using a pre-programmed UV-Laser beam. Wave guiding through these thin films by the prism coupler technique has been demonstrated. The third order nonlinear parameters of these films have been evaluated. Metal-free phthalocyanine films of good optical quality are processed in our laboratories by vapor deposition technique. Initial studies on these films indicate that they have excellent chemical, laser, and environmental stability. They have large nonlinear optical parameters and show intrinsic optical bistability. This bistability is essential for optical logic gates and optical switching applications. Waveguiding and device making investigations of these materials are underway.

  18. MAPLE-based method to obtain biodegradable hybrid polymeric thin films with embedded antitumoral agents.

    PubMed

    Dinca, Valentina; Florian, Paula E; Sima, Livia E; Rusen, Laurentiu; Constantinescu, Catalin; Evans, Robert W; Dinescu, Maria; Roseanu, Anca

    2014-02-01

    In this work, antitumor compounds, lactoferrin [recombinant iron-free (Apo-rLf)], cisplatin (Cis) or their combination were embedded within a biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer thin film, by a modified approach of a laser-based technique, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE). The structural and morphological properties of the deposited hybrid films were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The in vitro effect on the cells' morphology and proliferation of murine melanoma B16-F10 cells was investigated and correlated with the films' surface chemistry and topography. Biological assays revealed decreased viability and proliferation, lower adherence, and morphological modifications in the case of melanoma cells cultured on both Apo-rLf and Cis thin films. The antitumor effect was enhanced by deposition of Apo-rLf with Cis within the same film. The unique capability of the new approach, based on MAPLE, to embed antitumor active factors within a biodegradable matrix for obtaining novel biodegradable hybrid platform with increased antitumor efficiency has been demonstrated.

  19. Electrochemical properties of thin films of polythiophene polymerized on Basal plane platinum electrodes in nonaqueous media.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Herrera, Marco F; Feliu, Juan M

    2009-02-19

    In this paper the electrochemical properties of polythiophene thin films synthesized on single-crystal platinum electrodes are studied. It was found that the electrochemical properties, ion transport kinetics, and morphology of the polythiophene films depend on the surface orientation of the single-crystal platinum electrode used for their electropolymerization. Different oxidation levels, regarded as neutral, polaron, bipolaron, and metallic states, are usually found in conjugated heterocyclic polymers. However, the transitions between the different oxidation levels were never clearly observed in cyclic voltammetry. Instead the voltammograms usually show broad oxidation and reduction peaks with some shoulders. With the use of single-crystal platinum electrodes, it was found that polythiophene has a well-defined redox process at low potential, not observed before, possibly related to the conversion from the neutral state to polarons. On the other hand, two well-defined consecutive steps were found during the ion exchange reaction of thin films of polymer, both characterized by nucleation kinetics. This is the first report of two consecutive nucleation processes during the ion exchange process of a conducting polymer. The results presented here could further illuminate the mechanism in which the electron is transported in organic semiconductor materials. PMID:19199703

  20. Aging effects of plasma polymerized ethylenediamine (PPEDA) thin films on cell-adhesive implant coatings.

    PubMed

    Testrich, H; Rebl, H; Finke, B; Hempel, F; Nebe, B; Meichsner, J

    2013-10-01

    Thin plasma polymer films from ethylenediamine were deposited on planar substrates placed on the powered electrode of a low pressure capacitively coupled 13.56 MHz discharge. The chemical composition of the plasma polymer films was analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (FT-IRRAS) as well as by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) after derivatization of the primary amino groups. The PPEDA films undergo an alteration during the storage in ambient air, particularly, due to reactions with oxygen. The molecular changes in PPEDA films were studied over a long-time period of 360 days. Simultaneously, the adhesion of human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 (ATCC) was investigated on PPEDA coated corundum blasted titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), which is applied as implant material in orthopedic surgery. The cell adhesion was determined by flow cytometry and the cell shape was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Compared to uncoated reference samples a significantly enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation were measured for PPEDA coated samples, which have been maintained after long-time storage in ambient air and additional sterilization by γ-irradiation.

  1. Second-Harmonic Generation and Relaxation in Polyurea Thin Films Prepared by Vapor Deposition Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikita, Masayuki; Yamada, Sinichi; Mizutani, Teruyosi

    1993-06-01

    Aromatic polyurea thin (PU) films were fabricated by means of coevaporation of 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) and either 4,4'-diamino diphenyl methane (DDM) or 4,4'-diamino diphenyl ether (DDE). For the two PU films, second-harmonic generation (SHG) caused by corona poling and the subsequent isothermal decay were investigated. The second-order nonlinear coefficient d33 was estimated to be 5.3 and 6.3 pm/V for PU(DDM) and PU(DDE), respectively, and proved to exhibit almost no decay with time up to 2000 h. It was also found that annealing prior to the poling process caused no additional increase of SHG. This result was interpreted in terms of increase in the packing density of molecules, leading to suppression of the molecular orientation. PU films containing excess residual isocyanate groups showed a large SHG decay to about 60% of the initial value within 10 min. It was concluded that the residual isocyanate groups in as-deposited PU films greatly affects the behavior of SHG relaxation.

  2. Thin Film?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariper, İ. Afşin

    2014-09-01

    This study focuses on the critical surface tension of lead sulfite (PbSO3) crystalline thin film produced with chemical bath deposition on substrates (commercial glass).The PbSO3 thin films were deposited at room temperature at different deposition times. The structural properties of the films were defined and examined according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the XRD results such as dislocation density, average grain size, and no. of crystallites per unit area. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the film thickness and the surface properties. The critical surface tension of the PbSO3 thin films was measured with an optical tensiometer instrument and calculated using the Zisman method. The results indicated that the critical surface tension of films changed in accordance with the average grain size and film thickness. The film thickness increased with deposition time and was inversely correlated with surface tension. The average grain size increased according to deposition time and was inversely correlated with surface tension.

  3. Consequence of oxidant to monomer ratio on optical and structural properties of Polypyrrole thin film deposited by oxidation polymerization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatratkar, Aviraj A.; Yadav, Jyotiprakash B.; Kamat, Sandip V.; Patil, Vaishali S.; Mahadik, D. B.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Puri, Vijaya; Puri, R. K.

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports the effect of oxidant to monomer (O/M) ratio on optical and structural properties of Polypyrrole (PPy) thin film deposited by chemical oxidation polymerization technique. Noticeable changes have observed in the properties of PPy thin films with O/M ratio. Cauliflower structure have been observed in FE-SEM images, wherein grain size is observed to decrease with increase in O/M ratio. AFM results are in good agreement with FE-SEM results. From FTIR spectra it is found that, PPy is in highly oxidized form at low O/M ratio but oxidation decreased with increase in O/M ratio. Also C-C stretching vibrations of PPy ring is decreased whereas C=C stretching is increased with ratio. Absorption peak around 450 nm corresponds to π-π* transition and around 800 nm for polarons and bipolarons. The intensity of such peaks confirms the conductivity of PPy, which is observed maximum at low O/M ratio and found to decrease with increase in ratio. Optical band gap (BG) is found to increase from 2.07 eV to 2.11 eV with increase in the O/M ratio.

  4. Electrochromic thin films from a redox active diarylethene by electrochemical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Yun, Chijung; Seo, Seogjae; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2010-10-01

    A diarylethene substituted with 3,4-(propane-1,3-diyldioxy)thiophene (ProDOT) was synthesized to induce electrochemical deposition of diarylethenes. The ProDOT substituted diarylethene (BTFPP) showed reversible photochromism from colorless to purple upon exposure to a UV light and bleached to colorless by a visibly light. The oxidation potential of the new ProDOT substituted diarylethene was lower than that of the unsubstituted diarylethenes due to the electroactive ProDOT unit. Under an electrochemical condition, the solution of BTFPP gave soluble polymers but deposited insoluble film on a working electrode coated with a PEDOT layer. This result indicates that the PEDOT nano layer (68 nm thick) function as a seeding layer to induce polymerization and electrodeposition of BTFPP. Furthermore electro-copolymerization using a mixture of BTFPP and EDOT afforded electrodeposition of the copolymers on the PEDOT seeding layer. An electrochromic electrode was successfully fabricated by depositing the photochromic BTFPP on an ITO glass, which shows a reversible electrochromic change from violet to sky blue. PMID:21137810

  5. Electrochromic thin films from a redox active diarylethene by electrochemical polymerization.

    PubMed

    Yun, Chijung; Seo, Seogjae; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2010-10-01

    A diarylethene substituted with 3,4-(propane-1,3-diyldioxy)thiophene (ProDOT) was synthesized to induce electrochemical deposition of diarylethenes. The ProDOT substituted diarylethene (BTFPP) showed reversible photochromism from colorless to purple upon exposure to a UV light and bleached to colorless by a visibly light. The oxidation potential of the new ProDOT substituted diarylethene was lower than that of the unsubstituted diarylethenes due to the electroactive ProDOT unit. Under an electrochemical condition, the solution of BTFPP gave soluble polymers but deposited insoluble film on a working electrode coated with a PEDOT layer. This result indicates that the PEDOT nano layer (68 nm thick) function as a seeding layer to induce polymerization and electrodeposition of BTFPP. Furthermore electro-copolymerization using a mixture of BTFPP and EDOT afforded electrodeposition of the copolymers on the PEDOT seeding layer. An electrochromic electrode was successfully fabricated by depositing the photochromic BTFPP on an ITO glass, which shows a reversible electrochromic change from violet to sky blue.

  6. Photocurrents in thin polymeric films. Chromophore/quencher assemblies based on polypyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Downard, A.J.; Surridge, N.A.; Gould, S.; Meyer, T.J. ); Deronzier, A.; Moutet, J.C. )

    1990-08-23

    Thin films of polymers consisting of mixtures of poly(N,N-bis(3-pyrrol-1-ylpropyl)-4,4{prime}-bipyridinium) dication (poly-(pyr){sub 2}-PQ{sup 2+}) and poly(tris(4-(2-pyrrol-1-ylethyl)-4{prime}-methyl-2,2{prime}-bipyridine)ruthenium(II)) dication, poly-(pyr){sub 3}-(Ru){sup 2+} have been prepared by co-oxidative electropolymerization of the corresponding pyrrole-containing monomers. Significant photocurrents are observed when the films are photolyzed in the presence of the irreversible electron-transfer donor, triethanolamine (TEOA). The initial step in the photocurrent mechanism is static, oxidative quenching of the metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited states of the ruthenium complex by poly-(pyr){sub 2}-PQ{sup 2+}. This gives poly-(pyr){sub 2}-PQ{sup +} and poly-(pyr){sub 3}-(Ru){sup 3+}. The photoproduced {minus}(Ru){sup 3+} is subsequently reduced by TEOA. The photocurrent arises by electron transfer to the electrode at the inside via the poly-(pyr){sub 2}-PQ{sup 2+/+} couple. A kinetic model has been derived which explains variations in the photocurrent with light intensity and (TEOA).

  7. Effect of oxidizing atmosphere on the electrical properties of SrBi 4Ti 4O 15 thin films obtained by the polymeric precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, A. Z.; Ramírez, M. A.; Riccardi, C. S.; Longo, E.; Varela, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    Strontium bismuth titanate (SrBi 4Ti 4O 15) thin films were deposited on (111) Pt/Ti/SiO 2/Si substrates by spin coating from the polymeric precursor method. Annealing in static air and dynamic oxygen atmosphere was performed at 700 °C for 2 h. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and electric properties. The dielectric properties of SrBi 4Ti 4O 15 films were found to be remarkably sensitive to the annealing atmosphere. The C- V characteristics of the metal-ferroelectric metal structure showed a typical butterfly loop that confirms the ferroelectric properties of the film related to the domains switching. SrBi 4Ti 4O 15 thin films annealed in oxygen atmosphere showed lower ferroelectric behavior indicating a weak ferroelectricity along c-axis direction.

  8. Flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A self-metallized polymeric film has a polymeric film region and a metal surface disposed thereon. A layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto the self-metallized polymeric film's metal surface. Coupled to at least one of the metal surface and the layer of electrically-conductive metal is a device/system for measuring an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  9. Surface morphology, optical and electrochemical properties of undoped and Ni-doped CeO2 thin films prepared by polymeric precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosousi Sani, Zara; Esmaeli Ghodsi, Farhad; Mazloom, Jamal

    2016-04-01

    In this study, undoped and Ni-doped CeO2 thin films were deposited onto glass and ITO substrates by polymeric precursor (Pechini) method. Grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the ceria thin film has a cerianite structure with the average crystallite size of 14 nm while the doped samples are amorphous. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of predominant Ce4+ oxidation state of ceria and Ni2+ in the films. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that the surface texture is crack free and the CeO2 grains regularly distributed on the surface. Optical constant (refractive index and extinction coefficient) and thickness of films were calculated using pointwise unconstraint minimization approach. The optical transmittance increases and the absorption edge has a blue shift by Ni incorporation. The highest band gap value (i.e., 3.43 eV) was obtained for 2.5 mol.% Ni doping sample. The refractive index and extinction coefficient of ceria films were decreased by Ni doping. The evaluated thicknesses are in the range of 150-170 nm. The strength of interband transition was appraised as a function of nickel content by using dielectric function. Luminescent emission intensity of the ceria film was enhanced by Ni doping. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurement revealed that the total charge density and ion storage capacitance of ceria thin film were increased by Ni doping.

  10. Effect of Self-Assembled Monolayer Modification on Indium-Tin Oxide Surface for Surface-Initiated Vapor Deposition Polymerization of Carbazole Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuya Umemoto,; Seong-Ho Kim,; Rigoberto C. Advincula,; Kuniaki Tanaka,; Hiroaki Usui,

    2010-04-01

    With the aim of controlling the interface between an inorganic electrode and an organic layer, a surface-initiated vapor deposition polymerization method was employed to prepare carbazole polymer thin films that are chemically bound to an indium-tin oxide (ITO) surface. A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) that has an azo initiator as a terminal group was prepared on an ITO surface, on which carbazole acrylate monomers were evaporated under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The surface morphological characteristics of the films prepared with/without UV irradiation and with/without the SAM were compared. It was found that the UV irradiation leads to the polymerization of carbazole monomers irrespective of the type of substrate used. On the other hand, the surface morphological characteristics were largely dependent on the existence of the SAM. Uniform and smooth polymer thin films were obtained only when the monomers were evaporated on the SAM-modified surface under UV irradiation. A comparison of film growth characteristics on a UV-ozone-treated ITO surface suggested that the formation of uniform films was made possible not by the modification of surface energy but by the growth of the polymers chemically bound to the substrate surface.

  11. Surface nanostructuring of thin film composite membranes via grafting polymerization and incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isawi, Heba; El-Sayed, Magdi H.; Feng, Xianshe; Shawky, Hosam; Abdel Mottaleb, Mohamed S.

    2016-11-01

    A new approach for modification of polyamid thin film composite membrane PA(TFC) using synthesized ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was shown to enhance the membrane performances for reverse osmosis water desalination. First, active layer of synthesis PA(TFC) membrane was activated with an aqueous solution of free radical graft polymerization of hydrophilic methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer onto the surface of the PA(TFC) membrane resulting PMAA-g-PA(TFC). Second, the PA(TFC) membrane has been developed by incorporation of ZnO NPs into the MAA grafting solution resulting the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane. The surface properties of the synthesized nanoparticles and prepared membranes were investigated using the FTIR, XRD and SEM. Morphology studies demonstrated that ZnO NPs have been successfully incorporated into the active grafting layer over PA(TFC) composite membranes. The zinc leaching from the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was minimal, as shown by batch tests that indicated stabilization of the ZnO NPs on the membrane surfaces. Compared with the a pure PA(TFC) and PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membranes, the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) was more hydrophilic, with an improved water contact angle (∼50 ± 3°) over the PMAA-g-PA(TFC) (63 ± 2.5°). The ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane showed salt rejection of 97% (of the total groundwater salinity), 99% of dissolved bivalent ions (Ca2+, SO42-and Mg2+), and 98% of mono valent ions constituents (Cl- and Na+). In addition, antifouling performance of the membranes was determined using E. coli as a potential foulant. This demonstrates that the ZnO NPs modified PMAA-g-PA(TFC) membrane can significantly improve the membrane performances and was favorable to enhance the selectivity, permeability, water flux, mechanical properties and the bio-antifouling properties of the membranes for water desalination.

  12. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  13. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  14. Synthesis of a large-sized mesoporous phosphosilicate thin film through evaporation-induced polymeric micelle assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunqi; Bastakoti, Bishnu Prasad; Imura, Masataka; Suzuki, Norihiro; Jiang, Xiangfen; Ohki, Shinobu; Deguchi, Kenzo; Suzuki, Madoka; Arai, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    A triblock copolymer, poly(styrene-b-2-vinyl pyridine-b-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO) was used as a soft template to synthesize large-sized mesoporous phosphosilicate thin films. The kinetically frozen PS core stabilizes the micelles. The strong interaction of the inorganic precursors with the P2VP shell enables the fabrication of highly robust walls of phosphosilicate and the PEO helps orderly packing of the micelles during solvent evaporation. The molar ratio of phosphoric acid and tetraethyl orthosilicate is crucial to achieve the final mesostructure. The insertion of phosphorus species into the siloxane network is studied by (29) Si and (31) P MAS NMR spectra. The mesoporous phosphosilicate films exhibit steady cell adhesion properties and show great promise as excellent materials in bone-growth engineering applications.

  15. Enhanced mechanical properties of low-surface energy thin films by simultaneous plasma polymerization of fluorine and epoxy containing polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Mustafa; Uçar, Tuba

    2016-01-01

    Thin films of poly(2,2,3,4,4,4 hexafluorobutyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(HFBA-GMA) were deposited on different surfaces using an inductively coupled RF plasma reactor. Fluorinated polymer was used to impart hydrophobicity, whereas epoxy polymer was used for improved durability. The deposition at a low plasma power and temperature was suitable for the functionalization of fragile surfaces such as textile fabrics. The coated rough textile surfaces were found to be superhydrophobic with water contact angles greater than 150° due to the high retention of long fluorinated side chains. The hydrophobicity of the surfaces was observed to be stable after many exposures to ultrasonification tests, which is attributed to the mechanical durability of the films due to their epoxide functionality. FTIR and XPS analyses of the deposited films confirmed that the epoxide functionality of the polymers increased with increasing glycidyl methacrylate fraction in the reactor inlet. The modulus and hardness values of the films also increase with increasing epoxide functionality.

  16. Thin Film Transistor Gas Sensors Incorporating High-Mobility Diketopyrrolopyrole-Based Polymeric Semiconductor Doped with Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Kwang Hee; Cho, Jangwhan; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we fabricated a diketopyrrolopyrole-based donor-acceptor copolymer composite film. This is a high-mobility semiconductor component with a functionalized-graphene-oxide (GO) gas-adsorbing dopant, used as an active layer in gas-sensing organic-field-effect transistor (OFET) devices. The GO content of the composite film was carefully controlled so that the crystalline orientation of the semiconducting polymer could be conserved, without compromising its gas-adsorbing ability. The resulting optimized device exhibited high mobility (>1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and revealed sensitive response during programmed exposure to various polar organic molecules (i.e., ethanol, acetone, and acetonitrile). This can be attributed to the high mobility of polymeric semiconductors, and also to their high surface-to-volume ratio of GO. The operating mechanism of the gas sensing GO-OFET is fully discussed in conjunction with charge-carrier trap theory. It was found that each transistor parameter (e.g., mobility, threshold voltage), responds independently to each gas molecule, which enables high selectivity of GO-OFETs for various gases. Furthermore, we also demonstrated practical GO-OFET devices that operated at low voltage (<1.5 V), and which successfully responded to gas exposure.

  17. Thin Film Transistor Gas Sensors Incorporating High-Mobility Diketopyrrolopyrole-Based Polymeric Semiconductor Doped with Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Kwang Hee; Cho, Jangwhan; Kim, Yun-Hi; Chung, Dae Sung

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we fabricated a diketopyrrolopyrole-based donor-acceptor copolymer composite film. This is a high-mobility semiconductor component with a functionalized-graphene-oxide (GO) gas-adsorbing dopant, used as an active layer in gas-sensing organic-field-effect transistor (OFET) devices. The GO content of the composite film was carefully controlled so that the crystalline orientation of the semiconducting polymer could be conserved, without compromising its gas-adsorbing ability. The resulting optimized device exhibited high mobility (>1 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and revealed sensitive response during programmed exposure to various polar organic molecules (i.e., ethanol, acetone, and acetonitrile). This can be attributed to the high mobility of polymeric semiconductors, and also to their high surface-to-volume ratio of GO. The operating mechanism of the gas sensing GO-OFET is fully discussed in conjunction with charge-carrier trap theory. It was found that each transistor parameter (e.g., mobility, threshold voltage), responds independently to each gas molecule, which enables high selectivity of GO-OFETs for various gases. Furthermore, we also demonstrated practical GO-OFET devices that operated at low voltage (<1.5 V), and which successfully responded to gas exposure. PMID:26068504

  18. Atomic force microscopy of polymeric liquid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mate, C. Mathew; Lorenz, Max R.; Novotny, V. J.

    1989-06-01

    We demonstrate the use of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for studying perfluoropolyether polymer liquid films as thin as ˜20 Å. With the AFM we are able to measure three distinct properties of the liquid film: (1) its thickness when the thickness of liquid on the AFM tip is taken into account, (2) the meniscus force acting on the AFM tip as a function of depth into the liquid film, and (3) the topography of the liquid/air interface. All three of these measurements can be done with a very high lateral resolution, ˜1000 Å, demonstrating the unique capability of AFM for studying liquid films. With AFM we have observed several interesting properties of these polymeric liquid films. First films thinner than ˜300 Å are fairly uniformly distributed, while films thicker than ˜300 Å slowly dewet the surface. Second, by measuring the meniscus radius of liquid in a micron sized hole on the surface, we can determine the disjoining pressure in a thin liquid film.

  19. Buckling of polymerized monomolecular films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdieu, L.; Daillant, J.; Chatenay, D.; Braslau, A.; Colson, D.

    1994-03-01

    The buckling of a two-dimensional polymer network at the air-water interface has been evidenced by grazing incidence x-ray scattering. A comprehensive description of the inhomogeneous octadecyltrichlorosilane polymerized film was obtained by atomic force microscopy and x-ray scattering measurements. The buckling occurs with a characteristic wavelength ~=10 μm.

  20. Detailed investigation of optoelectronic and microstructural properties of plasma polymerized cyclohexane thin films: Dependence on the radiofrequency power

    SciTech Connect

    Manaa, C.; Bouaziz, L.; Lejeune, M.; Zellama, K. Benlahsen, M.; Kouki, F.; Mejatty, M.; Bouchriha, H.

    2015-06-07

    Optical properties of polymerized cyclohexane films deposited by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique at different radiofrequency powers onto glass and silicon substrates, are studied and correlated with the microstructure of the films, using a combination of atomic force microscopy, Raman and Fourier Transformer Infrared spectroscopy and optical measurements. The optical constants such as refractive index n, dielectric permittivity ε and extinction k and absorption α coefficients, are extracted from transmission and reflection spectra through the commercial software CODE. These constants lead, by using common theoretical models as Cauchy, Lorentz, Tauc and single effective oscillator, to the determination of the static refractive index n{sub s} and permittivity ε{sub s}, the plasma frequency ω{sub p}, the carrier density to effective mass ratio N/m{sub e}{sup *}, the optical conductivity σ{sub oc}, the optical band gap E{sub g} and the oscillation and dispersion energies E{sub 0} and E{sub d}, respectively. We find that n, ε{sub s}, ω{sub p}, N/m{sub e}{sup *}, E{sub d}, increase with radiofrequency power, while E{sub g} and E{sub 0} decrease in the same range of power. These results are well correlated with those obtained from atomic force microscopy, Raman and infrared measurements. They also indicate that the increase of the radiofrequency power promotes the fragmentation of the precursor and increases the carbon C-sp{sup 2} hybridization proportion, which results in an improvement of the optoelectronic properties of the films.

  1. Capillary wrinkling of thin bilayer polymeric sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jooyoung; Menon, Narayanan; Russell, Thomas

    We have investigated capillary force induced wrinkling on a floated polymeric bilayer thin sheet. The origin of the wrinkle pattern is compressional hoop stress caused by the capillary force of a water droplet placed on the floated polymeric thin sheet afore investigated. Herein, we study the effect of the differences of surface energy arising from the hydrophobicity of Polystyrene (PS Mw: 97 K, Contact Angle: 88 º) and the hydrophilicity of Poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA Mw: 99K, Contact Angle: 68 º) on two sides of a bilayer film. We measure the number and the length of the wrinkles by broadly varying the range of thicknesses of top (9 nm to 550 nm) and bottom layer (25 nm to 330 nm). At the same, there is only a small contrast in mechanical properties of the two layers (PS E = 3.4 GPa, and PMMA E = 3 GPa). The number of the wrinkles is not strongly affected by the composition (PS(Top)/PMMA(Bottom) or PMMA(Top)/PS(Bottom)) and the thickness of each and overall bilayer system. However, the length of the wrinkle is governed by the contact angle of the drop on the top layer of bilayer system. We also compare this to the wrinkle pattern obtained in monolayer systems over a wide range of thickness from PS and PMMA (7 nm to 1 μm). W.M. Keck Foundation.

  2. Thin film Z-scan measurements of the nonlinear response of novel conjugated silicon-ethynylene polymers and metal-containing complexes incorporated into polymeric matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, William E.; Klapshina, Larisa G.; Rubinov, Anatoly N.; Domrachev, George A.; Bushuk, Boris A.; Antipov, Oleg L.; Semenov, Vladimir V.; Kuzhelev, Alexander S.; Bushuk, Sergey B.; Kalvinkovskaya, Julia A.

    2000-11-01

    The third-order optical nonlinearities of new conjugated poly[(arylene)(ethynylene)silylene]s, and a variety of chromium, neodymium or cobalt complexes incorporated into polymeric matrices as thin sol-gel or polyacrylonitrile films have been determined by using a single beam Z-scan technique. The samples were pumped by a single ultrashort pulse of a mode-locked Nd-phosphate glass laser (wavelength 1054 nm) with a 5ps pulse duration (full width at half- maximum), the repetition rate of the Gaussian beam being low (0.3Hz) ro avoid thermal effects. The spot radius of the focused pulse was ca. 60micrometers , its beam waist being in the sample (intensity up to 4x1013 Wm-2). Calibration was done with chloroform and benzene, the value of N2 for the latter (2x10-12esu) being similar to that previously reported. A small-aperture Z-scan (S=0.03) was used to measure the magnitude and the sign of the nonlinear refractive index, n2. Very high nonlinear refractive indices were found for a film containing (a) a poly[(arylene)(ethynylene)silylene]s with pentacoordinated silicon (c 5 gl-1) in a sol-gel matrix (N2 = 6 x 10-13 cm2W-1), (b) a film containing a poly[(arylene)(ethynylene)silylene] with tetracoordinated silicon (c 0.5 gl-1) and a very small proportion of fullerene-C70 incorporated into an NH2-containing sol-gel matrix (n2 = 5x10-13 cm2W-1, and (c) a thin polyacrylonitrile film of polycyanoethylate bis-arenechromium(I) hydroxide (n2 = -5 x 10-12 cm(superscript 2W-1.

  3. Photocatalytic thin films coupled with polymeric microcapsules for the controlled-release of volatile agents upon solar activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. F.; Marques, J.; Coutinho, P. J. G.; Parpot, P.; Tavares, C. J.

    2013-06-01

    This work reportson the application of solar-activated photocatalytic thin films that allow the controlled-release of volatile agents (e.g., insecticides, repellents) from the interior of adsorbedpolymericmicrocapsules. In order to standardize the tests, a quantification of the inherent controlled-release of a particular volatile agent is determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy, so that an application can be offered to a wide range of supports from various industrial sectors, such as in textiles (clothing, curtains, mosquito nets). This technology takes advantage of the established photocatalytic property of titanium dioxide (TiO2) for the use as an active surface/site to promote the controlled-release of a specific vapor (volatile agentfrom within the aforementioned microcapsules.

  4. Preparation of nitrogen doped silicon oxides thin films by plasma polymerization of 3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane using atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2016-01-01

    Surface modification techniques have been applied in various applications including self-cleaning surface, antibacterial filter, and biomaterials. In this study we employed the atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) deposition, a dry process for surface modification, to deposit 3-aminopropyltriethoxylsilane (APTES) on stainless steel (SS) on the purposes of simultaneously incorporating SiOx and nitrogen containing functionalities for the modulation of biofunctionality. The APPJ deposition allowed to form a thin layer of APTES with linear growth rate by controlling the deposition time. In addition, the surface chemical and physical properties, such as surface chemical composition, wettability, film thickness, and interactions with mammalian cells were evaluated by using different analytical methods. The results showed that the surface wettability was improved significantly due to the APTES deposition along with the increase of the incorporated nitrogen content. Moreover, the viability of L-929 fibroblasts was clearly promoted on the APTES deposited SS, which is most probably due to the thicker deposited films and higher density of nitrogen-containing functional groups. The outcomes of this research showed great potential to apply on metallic substrates in real time for biomedical related applications.

  5. Raman spectroscopy measurements of the vibrational properties of uv-polymerized C60 thin film and C60 powder compressed in a diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Singh, D.; Sharma, S. C.

    2002-03-01

    We present results from a series of experiments designed to further study the effects of pressure on the vibrational properties of C60 compressed under high pressures (10 GPa) in a diamond anvil cell. The Raman scattering measurements were made by using a high resolution optical spectrometer that consists of a 1.25 m, f/11 monochromator, 2400 g/mm, ion-etched blazed holographic diffraction grating, 2048x512 pixel back illuminated liquid nitrogen cooled CCD camera, Super-Notch-Plus filter, argon-ion laser operating at 514.5 nm, and SpectraMax for Windows software. The Raman scattering measurements on C60 thin films show a large ( 10 cm-1) and characteristic red shift in the pentagonal pinch mode Ag(2) of pristine C60 upon irradiation by 21.2 eV photons. Upon heating this film under 10(-3) Torr vacuum at 413 and 473 K, the Raman spectra shift towards the pentagonal pinch mode of pristine C60. These results are in agreement with previously published data (1,2) and they show that the film is polymerized because of uv irradiation. We have also measured spectra for C60 powder compressed under high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. We present results for several frequencies of the Raman active modes of C60. 1. A. M. Rao et al, Science 259, 955 (1993); 2. S. C. Sharma et al, Mat. Res. Symp. Proc. 695, L3.10 (2002)

  6. Fluoride-selective optical sensor based on aluminum(III)-octaethylporphyrin in thin polymeric film: further characterization and practical application.

    PubMed

    Badr, Ibrahim H A; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2005-10-15

    More detailed analytical studies of a new fluoride-selective optical sensor based on the use of aluminum(III)-octaethylporphyrin and a lipophilic pH indicator (4',5'-dibromofluorescein octadecyl ester; ETH-7075) within a thin plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) film are reported. The sensor exhibits extraordinary optical selectivity for fluoride over a wide range of other anions, including anions with far more positive free energies of hydration (e.g., perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, etc.). UV-visible spectrophotometric studies of the sensing films indicate that fluoride interacts with the Al(III) center of the porphyrin structure, yielding both a change in the Soret band lambda(max) of the porphyrin and a change in the protonation state of the pH indicator within the film. The same change in spectral properties of the metalloporphyrin occurs in the absence of added pH indicator or with added tetraphenylborate derivative anionic sites, but optical responses to fluoride in these cases are shown to be irreversible. The presence of the pH indicator and the simultaneous fluoride/proton coextraction equilibrium chemistry is shown to greatly enhance the reversibility of fluoride binding to the Al(III) porphyrin. Optical response toward fluoride can be observed in the range of 0.1 microM-1.6 mM. Optical selectivity coefficients of <10(-6) for common anions (e.g., sulfate, chloride, nitrate, etc.) and <10(-4) for perchlorate and thiocyanate are obtained. Measurements of fluoride in drinking water via the new optical sensor are shown to correlate well with values obtained for the same samples using a classical LaF3-based fluoride ion-selective electrode method. PMID:16223262

  7. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  8. Plasma polymerized high energy density dielectric films for capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamagishi, F. G.

    1983-01-01

    High energy density polymeric dielectric films were prepared by plasma polymerization of a variety of gaseous monomers. This technique gives thin, reproducible, pinhole free, conformable, adherent, and insoluble coatings and overcomes the processing problems found in the preparation of thin films with bulk polymers. Thus, devices are prepared completely in a vacuum environment. The plasma polymerized films prepared all showed dielectric strengths of greater than 1000 kV/cm and in some cases values of greater than 4000 kV/cm were observed. The dielectric loss of all films was generally less than 1% at frequencies below 10 kHz, but this value increased at higher frequencies. All films were self healing. The dielectric strength was a function of the polymerization technique, whereas the dielectric constant varied with the structure of the starting material. Because of the thin films used (thickness in the submicron range) surface smoothness of the metal electrodes was found to be critical in obtaining high dielectric strengths. High dielectric strength graft copolymers were also prepared. Plasma polymerized ethane was found to be thermally stable up to 150 C in the presence of air and 250 C in the absence of air. No glass transitions were observed for this material.

  9. Carbon thin film thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Sparks, L. L.; Strobridge, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    The work concerning carbon thin film thermometry is reported. Optimum film deposition parameters were sought on an empirical basis for maximum stability of the films. One hundred films were fabricated for use at the Marshall Space Flight Center; 10 of these films were given a precise quasi-continuous calibration of temperature vs. resistance with 22 intervals between 5 and 80 K using primary platinum and germanium thermometers. Sensitivity curves were established and the remaining 90 films were given a three point calibration and fitted to the established sensitivity curves. Hydrogen gas-liquid discrimination set points are given for each film.

  10. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  11. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Poli, Andrea A.; Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  12. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  13. Biaxially oriented film on flexible polymeric substrate

    DOEpatents

    Finkikoglu, Alp T.; Matias, Vladimir

    2009-10-13

    A flexible polymer-based template having a biaxially oriented film grown on the surface of a polymeric substrate. The template having the biaxially oriented film can be used for further epitaxial growth of films of interest for applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and the like. Methods of forming such a flexible template and providing the polymeric substrate with a biaxially oriented film deposited thereon are also described.

  14. Highly selective optical fluoride ion sensor with submicromolar detection limit based on aluminum(III) octaethylporphyrin in thin polymeric film.

    PubMed

    Badr, Ibrahim H A; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2005-04-20

    A highly selective, sensitive, and reversible fluoride optical sensing film based on aluminum(III)octaethylporphyrin as a fluoride ionophore and a lipophilic pH indicator as the optical transducer is described. The fluoride optical sensing films exhibit a submicromolar detection limit and high discrimination for fluoride over several lipophilic anions such as nitrate, perchlorate, and thiocyanate. PMID:15826159

  15. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOEpatents

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  16. Thin-film coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    Thin, adherent, high density films are discussed with respect to their application in two plasma physics techniques (ion plating and sputtering). The operation of each technique is described as well as what surfaces can be coated, and what kind of materials can be applied. The effects of these films on the mechanical properties of solid surfaces are also discussed.

  17. Characterization of selected LDEF-exposed polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Philip R.; Slemp, Wayne S.; Gautreaux, Carol R.

    1992-01-01

    The characterization of selected experimental and commercially available thin polymeric films which received 10 months of exposure to the LEO environment on the Long Duration Exposure Facility is reported. The visual appearance of most specimens changed due to exposure. However, except for a silicon-containing copolymer film, chemical characterization including infrared, thermal, and X-ray photoelectron analyses showed that the molecular structure of the surviving material had not changed significantly in response to exposure. Surface texturing due to atomic oxygen erosion was documented using various microscopic analyses. The possibility of continued post-exposure degradation of some polymeric materials is proposed.

  18. Thin film photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K; Ullal, H S

    1989-05-01

    Thin films are considered a potentially attractive technological approach to making cost-effective electricity by photovoltaics. Over the last twenty years, many have been investigated and some (cadmium telluride, copper indium diselenide, amorphous silicon) have become leading candidates for future large-scale commercialization. This paper surveys the past development of these key thin films and gives their status and future prospects. In all cases, significant progress toward cost-effective PV electricity has been made. If this progress continues, it appears that thin film PV could provide electricity that is competitive for summer daytime peaking power requirements by the middle of the 1990s; and electricity in a range that is competitive with fossil fuel costs (i.e., 6 cents/kilowatt-hour) should be available from PV around the turn of the century. 22 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Thin film temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Thin film surface temperature sensors were developed. The sensors were made of platinum-platinum/10 percent rhodium thermocouples with associated thin film-to-lead wire connections and sputtered on aluminum oxide coated simulated turbine blades for testing. Tests included exposure to vibration, low velocity hydrocarbon hot gas flow to 1250 K, and furnace calibrations. Thermal electromotive force was typically two percent below standard type S thermocouples. Mean time to failure was 42 hours at a hot gas flow temperature of 1250 K and an average of 15 cycles to room temperature. Failures were mainly due to separation of the platinum thin film from the aluminum oxide surface. Several techniques to improve the adhesion of the platinum are discussed.

  20. Thin film composite actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Quanmin; Kim, Taesung; Zheng, Yun; Wuttig, Manfred R.

    1995-05-01

    The mechanical properties of Ni50Ti50 deposited on Si substrates were studied focussing on the interaction of the film and substrate. This interaction determines the transformation characteristics through interface accommodation and mechanical constraints exerted by the substrate stiffness. Substrate stiffness, controlled by the film/substrate thickness ratio, was found to have a substantial influence on the output energy of the film/substrate composite. A switch type composite based on this knowledge was fabricated and tested. The thermo-mechanical properties of Terfenol-D thin films deposited on Si substrates were studied by static and dynamic measurements of film/substrate composite cantilevers. The Curie transition, (Delta) E effect and mechanical damping of the film were measured simultaneously. The stress in the film was controlled by annealing below the recrystallization temperature and determined to vary from -500 MPa, compression, in as deposited films to +480 MPa, tension, in annealed films. The Curie temperature shifts from 80 degree(s)C to 140 degree(s)C as the tension increases while the structure of the film remains amorphous. The stress change induced by annealing also drastically effects the film's damping characteristics. The (Delta) E effect of the amorphous material, about 20%, was used to estimate the magnetostriction, (lambda) s approximately equals 4 (DOT) 10-3.

  1. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  2. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  3. Epitaxial thin films

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  4. Hydrophobicity enhancement of Al2O3 thin films deposited on polymeric substrates by atomic layer deposition with perfluoropropane plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Kamran; Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Chang Young; Doh, Yang Hoi; Jo, Jeongdai

    2014-06-01

    The optoelectronics devices such as organic light emitting diodes are greatly vulnerable to moisture, which reduces their functionality and life cycle. The Al2O3 thin films are mostly used as barrier coatings in such electronic devices to protect them from water vapors. The performance of the Al2O3 barrier films can be improved by enhancing their hydrophobicity. Greater the hydrophobicity of the barrier films, greater will be their protection against water vapors. This paper reports on the enhancement of hydrophobicity of Al2O3 thin films through perfluoropropane (C3F8) plasma treatment. Firstly, good quality Al2O3 films have been fabricated through atomic layer deposition (ALD) on polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates at different temperatures. The fabricated films are then plasma treated with C3F8 to enhance their hydrophobicity. Hydrophobic Al2O3 thin films have shown good morphological and optical properties. Low average arithmetic roughness (Ra) of 1.90 nm, 0.93 nm and 0.88 nm have been recorded for the C3F8 plasma treated films deposited at room temperature (RT), 50 °C and 150 °C, respectively. Optical transmittance of more than 90% has been achieved for the C3F8 plasma treated films grown at 50 °C and 150 °C. The contact angle has been increased from 48° ± 3 to 158° ± 3 for the films deposited at RT and increased from 41° ± 3 to 148° ± 3 for the films deposited at 150 °C.

  5. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, H.K.; Babcock, W.C.; Friensen, D.T.; Smith, K.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Wamser, C.C.

    1990-08-14

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclosed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers. 3 figs.

  6. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOEpatents

    Lonsdale, Harold K.; Babcock, Walter C.; Friensen, Dwayne T.; Smith, Kelly L.; Johnson, Bruce M.; Wamser, Carl C.

    1990-01-01

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclsoed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers.

  7. Thin films for material engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasa, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Thin films are defined as two-dimensional materials formed by condensing one by one atomic/molecular/ionic species of matter in contrast to bulk three-dimensional sintered ceramics. They are grown through atomic collisional chemical reaction on a substrate surface. Thin film growth processes are fascinating for developing innovative exotic materials. On the basis of my long research on sputtering deposition, this paper firstly describes the kinetic energy effect of sputtered adatoms on thin film growth and discusses on a possibility of room-temperature growth of cubic diamond crystallites and the perovskite thin films of binary compound PbTiO3. Secondly, high-performance sputtered ferroelectric thin films with extraordinary excellent crystallinity compatible with MBE deposited thin films are described in relation to a possible application for thin-film MEMS. Finally, the present thin-film technologies are discussed in terms of a future material science and engineering.

  8. Thin film solar cell workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Joe; Jeffrey, Frank

    1993-01-01

    A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and consumers.

  9. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  10. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  11. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2008-11-25

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  12. Selective inorganic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  13. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  14. [Spectral emissivity of thin films].

    PubMed

    Zhong, D

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, the contribution of multiple reflections in thin film to the spectral emissivity of thin films of low absorption is discussed. The expression of emissivity of thin films derived here is related to the thin film thickness d and the optical constants n(lambda) and k(lambda). It is shown that in the special case d-->infinity the emissivity of thin films is equivalent to that of the bulk material. Realistic numerical and more precise general numerical results for the dependence of the emissivity on d, n(lambda) and k(lambda) are given.

  15. Electrochemical Analysis of Conducting Polymer Thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Ritesh N.; Wang, Bin

    2010-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayers built via the layer-by-layer (LbL) method has been one of the most promising systems in the field of materials science. Layered structures can be constructed by the adsorption of various polyelectrolyte species onto the surface of a solid or liquid material by means of electrostatic interaction. The thickness of the adsorbed layers can be tuned precisely in the nanometer range. Stable, semiconducting thin films are interesting research subjects. We use a conducting polymer, poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV), in the preparation of a stable thin film via the LbL method. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have been used to characterize the ionic conductivity of the PPV multilayer films. The ionic conductivity of the films has been found to be dependent on the polymerization temperature. The film conductivity can be fitted to a modified Randle’s circuit. The circuit equivalent calculations are performed to provide the diffusion coefficient values. PMID:20480052

  16. Properties of micrometer-thick plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene films

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.A.; Buss, R.J.; Galuska, A. )

    1991-08-15

    Several physical properties of thin plasma-polymerized films have been measured using a new fiber-optic-based technique. Films of plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene (PPTFE) deposited on the end of an optical fiber form an optical cavity, the reflectivity of which is very sensitive to the film thickness. The fiber is used as an {ital in} {ital situ} monitor of the deposition rate in the plasma and, after removal from the plasma, the mechanical properties of the film can be measured. With this measurement technique the thermal expansion of the film normal to its surface as well as the swelling of the film when exposed to an array of organic solvents have been determined. A significantly smaller thermal-expansion coefficient and larger degree of swelling are observed relative to bulk PTFE. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that the fluorocarbon chains are highly branched and have a fluorine-to-carbon ratio of 1.45. These results suggest that the plasma-polymerized films are not crystalline and are heavily cross linked.

  17. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOEpatents

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  18. Chiral atomically thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm–1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  19. Chiral atomically thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  20. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rieke, P.R.; Graff, G.E.; Campbell, A.A.; Bunker, B.C.; Baskaran, S.; Song, L.; Tarasevich, B.J.; Fryxell, G.E.

    1995-09-01

    Biological mineral deposition for the formation of bone, mollusk shell and other hard tissues provides materials scientists with illustrative materials processing strategies. This presentation will review the key features of biomineralization and how these features can be of technical importance. We have adapted existing knowledge of biomineralization to develop a unique method of depositing inorganic thin films and coating. Our approach to thin film deposition is to modify substrate surfaces to imitate the proteins found in nature that are responsible for controlling mineral deposition. These biomimetic surfaces control the nucleation and growth of the mineral from a supersaturated aqueous solution. This has many processing advantages including simple processing equipment, environmentally benign reagents, uniform coating of highly complex shapes, and enhanced adherence of coating. Many different types of metal oxide, hydroxide, sulfide and phosphate materials with useful mechanical, optical, electronic and biomedical properties can be deposited.

  1. Advanced thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

  2. Thin film interconnect processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Farid

    Interconnects and associated photolithography and etching processes play a dominant role in the feature shrinkage of electronic devices. Most interconnects are fabricated by use of thin film processing techniques. Planarization of dielectrics and novel metal deposition methods are the focus of current investigations. Spin-on glass, polyimides, etch-back, bias-sputtered quartz, and plasma-enhanced conformal films are being used to obtain planarized dielectrics over which metal films can be reliably deposited. Recent trends have been towards chemical vapor depositions of metals and refractory metal silicides. Interconnects of the future will be used in conjunction with planarized dielectric layers. Reliability of devices will depend to a large extent on the quality of the interconnects.

  3. Thin film mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Ryan C.

    This doctoral thesis details the methods of determining mechanical properties of two classes of novel thin films suspended two-dimensional crystals and electron beam irradiated microfilms of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Thin films are used in a variety of surface coatings to alter the opto-electronic properties or increase the wear or corrosion resistance and are ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical system fabrication. One of the challenges in fabricating thin films is the introduction of strains which can arise due to application techniques, geometrical conformation, or other spurious conditions. Chapters 2-4 focus on two dimensional materials. This is the intrinsic limit of thin films-being constrained to one atomic or molecular unit of thickness. These materials have mechanical, electrical, and optical properties ideal for micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems with truly novel device functionality. As such, the breadth of applications that can benefit from a treatise on two dimensional film mechanics is reason enough for exploration. This study explores the anomylously high strength of two dimensional materials. Furthermore, this work also aims to bridge four main gaps in the understanding of material science: bridging the gap between ab initio calculations and finite element analysis, bridging the gap between ab initio calculations and experimental results, nanoscale to microscale, and microscale to mesoscale. A nonlinear elasticity model is used to determine the necessary elastic constants to define the strain-energy density function for finite strain. Then, ab initio calculations-density functional theory-is used to calculate the nonlinear elastic response. Chapter 2 focuses on validating this methodology with atomic force microscope nanoindentation on molybdenum disulfide. Chapter 3 explores the convergence criteria of three density functional theory solvers to further verify the numerical calculations. Chapter 4 then uses this model to investigate

  4. Synthesis, vapor growth, polymerization, and characterization of thin films of novel diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole. The use of computer modeling to predict chemical and optical properties of these diacetylenes and poly(diacetylenes)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, M. S.; Frazier, D. O.; Abeledeyem, H.; Mcmanus, S. P.; Zutaut, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    In the present work two diacetylene derivatives of pyrrole which are predicted by semiempirical AM1 calculations to have very different properties, are synthesized; the polymerizability of these diacetylenes in the solid state is determined, and the results are compared to the computer predictions. Diacetylene 1 is novel in that the monomer is a liquid at room temperature; this may allow for the possibility of polymerization in the liquid state as well as the solid state. Thin poly(diacetylene) films are obtained from compound 1 by growing films of the monomer using vapor deposition and polymerizing with UV light; these films are then characterized. Interestingly, while the poly(diacetylene) from 1 does not possess good nonlinear optical properties, the monomer exhibits very good third-order effects (phase conjugation) in solution. Dilute acetone solutions of the monomer 1 give intensity-dependent refractive indices on the order of 10 exp -6 esu; these are 10 exp 6 times better than for CS2.

  5. Polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic technology

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H.S.; Zweibel, K.; Mitchell, R.L.; Noufi, R.

    1991-03-01

    Low-cost, high-efficiency thin-film modules are an exciting photovoltaic technology option for generating cost-effective electricity in 1995 and beyond. In this paper we review the significant technical progress made in the following thin films: copper indium diselenide, cadmium telluride, and polycrystalline thin silicon films. Also, the recent US DOE/SERI initiative to commercialize these emerging technologies is discussed. 6 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Method for fabricating thin films of pyrolytic carbon

    DOEpatents

    Brassell, Gilbert W.; Lewis, Jr., John; Weber, Gary W.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for fabricating ultra-thin films of pyrolytic carbon. Pyrolytic carbon is vapor deposited onto a concave surface of a heated substrate to a total uniform thickness in the range of about 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer. The carbon film on the substrate is provided with a layer of adherent polymeric resin. The resulting composite film of pyrolytic carbon and polymeric resin is then easily separated from the substrate by shrinking the polymeric resin coating with thermally induced forces.

  7. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  8. Thin film magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, S.D. )

    1990-06-01

    New developments in thin-film magnetism are reviewed with an emphasis on the ultrathin regime. The scope includes relatively simple metallic systems in overlayer, sandwich, and superlattice configurations. Sample fabrication, characterization, and magnetic measurement techniques are outlined by highlighting some of the more modern experimental innovations. Current issues and advances that demonstrate the symbiotic relationship between experiment and theory are then examined, including the surface magnetic anisotropy, the two-dimensional critical behavior, the creation of metastable phases via epitaxy, and phenomena associated with coupled magnetic layers. The review ends with a brief account of the impact of the various contemporary developments on the applications area.

  9. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  10. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  11. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Hughes, Robert C.; Kepler, R. Glen; Kurtz, Steven R.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  12. Controlled release of ethylene via polymeric films for food packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisano, Roberto; Bazzano, Marco; Capozzi, Luigi Carlo; Ferri, Ada; Sangermano, Marco

    2015-12-01

    In modern fruit supply chain a common method to trigger ripening is to keep fruits inside special chambers and initiate the ripening process through administration of ethylene. Ethylene is usually administered through cylinders with inadequate control of its final concentration in the chamber. The aim of this study is the development of a new technology to accurately regulate ethylene concentration in the atmosphere where fruits are preserved: a polymeric film, containing an inclusion complex of α-cyclodextrin with ethylene, was developed. The complex was prepared by molecular encapsulation which allows the entrapment of ethylene into the cavity of α-cyclodextrin. After encapsulation, ethylene can be gradually released from the inclusion complex and its release rate can be regulated by temperature and humidity. The inclusion complex was dispersed into a thin polymeric film produced by UV-curing. This method was used because is solvent-free and involves low operating temperature; both conditions are necessary to prevent rapid release of ethylene from the film. The polymeric films were characterized with respect to thermal behaviour, crystalline structure and kinetics of ethylene release, showing that can effectively control the release of ethylene within confined volume.

  13. Thin film atomic hydrogen detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Thin film and bead thermistor atomic surface recombination hydrogen detectors were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Devices were constructed on a thin Mylar film substrate. Using suitable Wheatstone bridge techniques sensitivities of 80 microvolts/2x10 to the 13th power atoms/sec are attainable with response time constants on the order of 5 seconds.

  14. Thin films: Past, present, future

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

  15. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  16. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  17. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, Kannan M.

    1994-01-01

    A ferromagnetic .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4 .+-.0.05.

  18. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1994-12-20

    A ferromagnetic [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4[+-]0.05. 7 figures.

  19. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  20. Quartz crystal microbalance thin-film dissolution rate monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinsberg, William D.; Kanazawa, Kay K.

    1989-03-01

    We describe the details of construction and operation of an instrument useful for the characterization of dissolution kinetics of thin films. This device, based on a quartz crystal microbalance operating in contact with a liquid, avoids the limitations associated with the use of optical, electrical, and mechanical dissolution rate measurement techniques. The QCM rate monitor has general application to the measurement of the kinetics of dissolution of transparent and opaque thin films such as dielectrics, metals, and polymeric resists.

  1. Germanium Lift-Off Masks for Thin Metal Film Patterning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Ari

    2012-01-01

    A technique has been developed for patterning thin metallic films that are, in turn, used to fabricate microelectronics circuitry and thin-film sensors. The technique uses germanium thin films as lift-off masks. This requires development of a technique to strip or undercut the germanium chemically without affecting the deposited metal. Unlike in the case of conventional polymeric lift-off masks, the substrate can be exposed to very high temperatures during processing (sputter deposition). The reason why polymeric liftoff masks cannot be exposed to very high temperatures (greater than 100 C) is because (a) they can become cross linked, making lift-off very difficult if not impossible, and (b) they can outgas nitrogen and oxygen, which then can react with the metal being deposited. Consequently, this innovation is expected to find use in the fabrication of transition edge sensors and microwave kinetic inductance detectors, which use thin superconducting films deposited at high temperature as their sensing elements. Transition edge sensors, microwave kinetic inductance detectors, and their circuitry are comprised of superconducting thin films, for example Nb and TiN. Reactive ion etching can be used to pattern these films; however, reactive ion etching also damages the underlying substrate, which is unwanted in many instances. Polymeric lift-off techniques permit thin-film patterning without any substrate damage, but they are difficult to remove and the polymer can outgas during thin-film deposition. The outgassed material can then react with the film with the consequence of altered and non-reproducible materials properties, which, in turn, is deleterious for sensors and their circuitry. The purpose of this innovation was to fabricate a germanium lift-off mask to be used for patterning thin metal films.

  2. Plasma-polymerized thiophene films for enhanced rubber steel bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delattre, James L.; d'Agostino, Riccardo; Fracassi, Francesco

    2006-03-01

    Thin films of plasma-polymerized thiophene (PPTh) were deposited on cold-rolled steel substrates to improve adhesion to rubber compounds. PPTh films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and atomic force microscopy. The ratio of carbon-to-sulfur found in PPTh films is 4:1, suggesting the monomer structure is generally intact, which was supported by FT-IR absorptions characteristic of polymerized thiophene rings. However, some fragmentation did occur to give acetylenic and aliphatic groups. Steel-rubber adhesion measurements, performed in accordance with the ASTM 429-B peel test, strongly depended on cleaning and pretreatment methods as well as film thickness. Best results were obtained on polished steel samples that were cleaned with acid, pretreated with a hydrogen/argon plasma, then coated with 50 Å of PPTh film. These samples exhibited a peel force of 14.3 N/mm, which is comparable to that of polished brass control samples. Depth-profiling XPS analysis of the rubber-steel interface showed the existence of an iron sulfide layer which is likely responsible for the strong adhesion.

  3. Swelling of plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene films

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.A.; Buss, R.J.; Seager, C.H. )

    1991-11-25

    Swelling of micrometer thick-films of plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene has been measured for a range of solvents using an optical-interferometric technique. For low gas-phase concentrations of the solvent, the swelling is found to correlate with the ionization potential of the solvent. Photo-thermal deflection spectroscopy of the films shows optical absorption in the infrared, which changes with exposure to different solvents. Both of these results suggest weak electron transfer from the solvent to the polymer as the dominant interaction mechanism.

  4. The debittering of navel orange juice using polymeric films.

    PubMed

    Fayoux, Stéphane C; Hernandez, Ruben J; Holland, Robert V

    2007-05-01

    In order to better understand and optimize the sorption of limonin (the major navel orange juice bitter principle) by various plasticized polymeric films, a sorption and plasticizer migration study was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC). Low molecular weight (LMW) poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) plasticized with dioctyl adipate (DOA) gave the best results for both limonin sorption and low DOA migration. Thick films did not significantly sorb more limonin than thin films in the timeframe of our experiments, as the absorption involved rapid surface sorption followed by slow bulk diffusion. The debittering efficiency was a 1000-fold greater than that obtained with current polystyrene divinylbenzene resin beads, with potential for industrial scale debittering.

  5. Spontaneous Formation of an Ideal-Like Field-Effect Channel for Decay-Free Polymeric Thin-Film Transistors by Multiple-Scale Phase Separation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Horng-Long; Lin, Jr-Wei; Ruan, Jrjeng; Lin, Chia-Hsien; Wu, Fu-Chiao; Chou, Wei-Yang; Chen, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Chung-Kai; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate semiconducting polymer-based thin-film transistors (PTFTs) with fast switching performance and an uncommon nondecaying feature. These PTFTs based on widely studied poly(3-hexylthiophene) are developed by incorporating the insulating polymer into the active channel and subjecting the compound to specific, spontaneous multiple-scale phase separation (MSPS). An in-depth study is conducted on the interfacial and phase-separated microstructure of the semiconducting/insulating blending active layer and its effect on the electrical characteristics of PTFTs. The polyblends exhibit a confined crystallization behavior with continuously semiconducting crystalline domains between scattered insulator-rich domains. The insulator-rich domains can block leakage current and strengthen the gate control of the channel. A small amount of the insulating polymer penetrates the bottom of the active channel, resulting in effective interface modification. We show specific MSPS morphology of the present blending films to reduce charge trapping effects, enhance charge accumulation, and create a high-seed switching channel. The findings enable us to develop the required morphological conceptual model of the ideal-like field-effect-modulated polymer-based active channel. The polyblend-based PTFTs with MSPS morphology also have promising sensing functions. This study offers an effective approach for overcoming the major drawbacks (instability and poor switching) of PTFTs, thus allowing such transistors to have potential applications. PMID:26177076

  6. Ultra thin gage plastic film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, D. W., Jr.; Struble, A. D.

    1971-01-01

    Process utilizing specially modified conventional equipment, with changes in process temperature, pressure, and cooling requirements produces ultra thin 1.56 micron /0.0614 mil/ thick polyethylene film.

  7. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  8. Two-fluid measurements on thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mopsik, Frederick I.

    1992-05-01

    The two-fluid technique to measure the dielectric constant and thickness of a thin polymeric film is discussed. The advantages include the ability to make a non-contacting measurement both of the effective electrical thickness of the film as well as the dielectric constant. The requirements for an accurate measurement are examined and the error as a function of the cell spacing, sample thickness, and dielectric constant of the second fluid are evaluated. The specifications of both the cell and the second fluid are examined. For the cell, it must be stable to good accuracy with handling, settable to small gaps, and have a well-defined electrode area through the use of a guard ring with a narrow guard gap. A design of a holder that is suitable for films from 6 micrometers to 50 micrometers is illustrated.

  9. Polydiacetylene thin films for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, Mark S.

    1993-01-01

    One very promising class of organic compounds for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications are polydiacetylenes, which are novel in that they are highly conjugated polymers which can also be crystalline. Polydiacetylenes offer several advantages over other organic materials: because of their highly conjugated electronic structures, they are capable of possessing large optical nonlinearities with fast response times; because they are crystalline, they can be highly ordered, which is essential for optimizing their NLO properties; and, last, because they are polymeric, they can be formed as thin films, which are useful for device fabrication. We have actively been carrying out ground-based research on several compounds of interest.

  10. Thin film cell development workshop report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodyard, James R.

    1991-01-01

    The Thin Film Development Workshop provided an opportunity for those interested in space applications of thin film cells to debate several topics. The unique characteristics of thin film cells as well as a number of other issues were covered during the discussions. The potential of thin film cells, key research and development issues, manufacturing issues, radiation damage, substrates, and space qualification of thin film cells were discussed.

  11. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  12. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, David C.; Pattillo, Stevan G.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  13. Swelling and drug release from oral thin films (OTFs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrover, A.; Casadei, M. A.; Paolicelli, P.; Petralito, S.; Varani, G.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the characteristic time-scales for swelling and drug release from polymeric thin films for buccal delivery. In this work, novel OTFs were prepared combining Gellan gum, a natural polysaccharide well known in the pharmaceutical field, along with Glycerol, used as plasticizer. A new millifluidic flow-through device is adopted for in-vitro release tests.

  14. The Thin Oil Film Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James L.; Naughton, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    A thin film of oil on a surface responds primarily to the wall shear stress generated on that surface by a three-dimensional flow. The oil film is also subject to wall pressure gradients, surface tension effects and gravity. The partial differential equation governing the oil film flow is shown to be related to Burgers' equation. Analytical and numerical methods for solving the thin oil film equation are presented. A direct numerical solver is developed where the wall shear stress variation on the surface is known and which solves for the oil film thickness spatial and time variation on the surface. An inverse numerical solver is also developed where the oil film thickness spatial variation over the surface at two discrete times is known and which solves for the wall shear stress variation over the test surface. A One-Time-Level inverse solver is also demonstrated. The inverse numerical solver provides a mathematically rigorous basis for an improved form of a wall shear stress instrument suitable for application to complex three-dimensional flows. To demonstrate the complexity of flows for which these oil film methods are now suitable, extensive examination is accomplished for these analytical and numerical methods as applied to a thin oil film in the vicinity of a three-dimensional saddle of separation.

  15. Highly Mass-Sensitive Thin Film Plate Acoustic Resonators (FPAR)

    PubMed Central

    Arapan, Lilia; Alexieva, Gergana; Avramov, Ivan D.; Radeva, Ekaterina; Strashilov, Vesseline; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2011-01-01

    The mass sensitivity of thin aluminum nitride (AlN) film S0 Lamb wave resonators is theoretically and experimentally studied. Theoretical predictions based on modal and finite elements method analysis are experimentally verified. Here, two-port 888 MHz synchronous FPARs are micromachined and subsequently coated with hexamethyl-disiloxane(HMDSO)-plasma-polymerized thin films of various thicknesses. Systematic data on frequency shift and insertion loss versus film thickness are presented. FPARs demonstrate high mass-loading sensitivity as well as good tolerance towards the HMDSO viscous losses. Initial measurements in gas phase environment are further presented. PMID:22163994

  16. Highly mass-sensitive thin film plate acoustic resonators (FPAR).

    PubMed

    Arapan, Lilia; Alexieva, Gergana; Avramov, Ivan D; Radeva, Ekaterina; Strashilov, Vesseline; Katardjiev, Ilia; Yantchev, Ventsislav

    2011-01-01

    The mass sensitivity of thin aluminum nitride (AlN) film S0 Lamb wave resonators is theoretically and experimentally studied. Theoretical predictions based on modal and finite elements method analysis are experimentally verified. Here, two-port 888 MHz synchronous FPARs are micromachined and subsequently coated with hexamethyl-disiloxane(HMDSO)-plasma-polymerized thin films of various thicknesses. Systematic data on frequency shift and insertion loss versus film thickness are presented. FPARs demonstrate high mass-loading sensitivity as well as good tolerance towards the HMDSO viscous losses. Initial measurements in gas phase environment are further presented.

  17. Morphology of Microscopic Thin Rubber Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Briber, Robert; Wang, Howard

    2014-03-01

    Microscopic thin rubber films have been prepared using photolithographic methods. Thin films of low molecular weight polybutadiene have been spun cast on positive photoresists, and transferred to various substrates upon UV exposure for crosslinking and defining the lateral dimension. The morphological scaling of thin rubber films as a function of film dimension and temperature is discussed.

  18. Thin-film metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis.

  19. Thin-film forces in pseudoemulsion films

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. |

    1991-06-01

    Use of foam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has shown recent success in steam-flooding field applications. Foam can also provide an effective barrier against gas coning in thin oil zones. Both of these applications stem from the unique mobility-control properties a stable foam possesses when it exists in porous media. Unfortunately, oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important for EOR applications to understand how oil destroys foam. Studies all indicate that stabilization of the pseudoemulsion film is critical to maintain foam stability in the presence of oil. Hence, to aid in design of surfactant formulations for foam insensitivity to oil the authors pursue direct measurement of the thin-film or disjoining forces that stabilize pseudoemulsion films. Experimental procedures and preliminary results are described.

  20. Temperature dependent electrical properties of polyaniline film grown on paper through aniline vapor polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, K.; Bhowmik, K. L.; Bera, A.; Chattopadhyay, K. K.; Saha, B.

    2016-05-01

    Polyaniline thin film has been prepared on paper by aniline vapor deposition technique. Ferric chloride has been used as polymerizing agent in this approach. The prepared films were studied through electrical resistivity and optical properties measurements. The electrical resistivity of the polyaniline film shows significant temperature dependence. The resistance sharply falls with the increase in temperature. The optical absorbance measurements shows characteristics absorbance peak indicating the formation of conducting emeraldine salt form of polyaniline. The optical energy band gap of the film was calculated from the transmittance spectra. The optical energy band gap and electrical conductivity of the polyaniline film is well suited for their applications in electronic devices.

  1. Thin films under chemical stress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The goal of work on this project has been develop a set of experimental tools to allow investigators interested in transport, binding, and segregation phenomena in composite thin film structures to study these phenomena in situ. Work to-date has focuses on combining novel spatially-directed optical excitation phenomena, e.g. waveguide eigenmodes in thin dielectric slabs, surface plasmon excitations at metal-dielectric interfaces, with standard spectroscopies to understand dynamic processes in thin films and at interfaces. There have been two main scientific thrusts in the work and an additional technical project. In one thrust we have sought to develop experimental tools which will allow us to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin polymer films are placed under chemical stress. In principle this stress may occur because the film is being swelled by a penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). However all work to-date has focused on obtaining a clearer understanding penetrant transport phenomena. The other thrust has addressed the kinetics of adsorption of model n-alkanoic acids from organic solvents. Both of these thrusts are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers. In addition there has been a good deal of work to develop the local technical capability to fabricate grating couplers for optical waveguide excitation. This work, which is subsidiary to the main scientific goals of the project, has been successfully completed and will be detailed as well. 41 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  3. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2010-08-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  4. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOEpatents

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Dittmer, Janke J.; Huynh, Wendy U.; Milliron, Delia

    2014-06-17

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  5. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOEpatents

    Wenz, Robert P.; Weber, Michael F.; Arudi, Ravindra L.

    1992-02-04

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  6. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N.; McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Fehring, Jr., Edward J.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2000-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  7. Layer-by-Layer Assembly of a pH-Responsive and Electrochromic Thin Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Daniel J.; Pridgen, Eric M.; Hammond, Paula T.; Love, J. Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes an experiment on thin-film fabrication with layer-by-layer assembly that is appropriate for undergraduate laboratory courses. The purpose of this experiment is to teach students about self-assembly in the context of thin films and to expose students to the concepts of functional polymeric coatings. Students dip coat…

  8. Thin films and uses

    DOEpatents

    Baskaran, Suresh; Graff, Gordon L.; Song, Lin

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

  9. Hybrid thin-film amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, G.

    1977-01-01

    Miniature amplifier for bioelectronic instrumentation consumes only about 100 mW and has frequency response flat to within 0.5 dB from 0.14 to 450 Hz. Device consists of five thin film substrates, which contain eight operational amplifiers and seven field-effect transistor dice.

  10. Thin Film Solid Lubricant Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoy, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Tribological coatings for high temperature sliding applications are addressed. A sputter-deposited bilayer coating of gold and chromium is investigated as a potential solid lubricant for protection of alumina substrates during sliding at high temperature. Evaluation of the tribological properties of alumina pins sliding against thin sputtered gold films on alumina substrates is presented.

  11. Cost-efficient entrapment of β-glucosidase in nanoscale latex and silicone polymeric thin films for use as stable biocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Javed, Muhammad Rizwan; Buthe, Andreas; Rashid, Muhammad Hamid; Wang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    β-Glucosidase is an ubiquitous enzyme which has enormous biotechnological applications. Its deficiency in natural enzyme preparations is often overcome by exogenous supplementation, which further increases the enzyme utilization cost. Enzyme immobilization offers a potential solution through enzyme recycling and easy recovery. In the present work Aspergillus niger β-glucosidase is immobilized within nanoscale polymeric materials (polyurethane, latex and silicone), through entrapment, and subsequently coated onto a fibrous support. Highest apparent activity (90 U g(-1) polymer) was observed with latex, while highest entrapment efficiency (93%) was observed for the silicone matrix. Immobilization resulted in the thermo-stabilization of the β-glucosidase with an increase in optimum temperature and activation energy for cellobiose hydrolysis. Supplementation to cellulases also resulted in an increased cellulose hydrolysis, while retaining more than 70% functional stability. Hence, the current study describes novel preparations of immobilized β-glucosidase as highly stable and active catalysts for industrial food- and bio-processing applications.

  12. Selective inorganic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J.

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  13. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  14. Influence of surface cleaning on dewetting of thin polystyrene films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Buschbaum, P.

    2003-11-01

    Thin polystyrene (PS) films on top of silicon substrates are a frequently investigated model system in the framework of unstable films. However, with respect to stability the various experiments yielded contradictory results. Focussing on the influence of preparation conditions such as the surface cleaning solves these contradictions. By applying different surface cleans the PS film can be changed from a stable homogeneous one into a completely dewetted one. In addition to the type of clean applied, the time between cleaning the surface and spin-coating the polymeric layer on top turned out to be an important experimental parameter.

  15. Flexible thin film magnetoimpedance sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlyandskaya, G. V.; Fernández, E.; Svalov, A.; Burgoa Beitia, A.; García-Arribas, A.; Larrañaga, A.

    2016-10-01

    Magnetically soft thin film deposited onto polymer substrates is an attractive option for flexible electronics including magnetoimpedance (MI) applications. MI FeNi/Ti based thin film sensitive elements were designed and prepared using the sputtering technique by deposition onto rigid and flexible substrates at different deposition rates. Their structure, magnetic properties and MI were comparatively analyzed. The main structural features were sufficiently accurately reproduced in the case of deposition onto cyclo olefine polymer substrates compared to glass substrates for the same conditions. Although for the best condition (28 nm/min rate) of the deposition onto polymer a significant reduction of the MI field sensitivity was found satisfactory for sensor applications sensitivity: 45%/Oe was obtained for a frequency of 60 MHz.

  16. Thin film concentrator panel development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    The development and testing of a rigid panel concept that utilizes a thin film reflective surface for application to a low-cost point-focusing solar concentrator is discussed. It is shown that a thin film reflective surface is acceptable for use on solar concentrators, including 1500 F applications. Additionally, it is shown that a formed steel sheet substrate is a good choice for concentrator panels. The panel has good optical properties, acceptable forming tolerances, environmentally resistant substrate and stiffeners, and adaptability to low to mass production rates. Computer simulations of the concentrator optics were run using the selected reflector panel design. Experimentally determined values for reflector surface specularity and reflectivity along with dimensional data were used in the analysis. The simulations provided intercept factor and net energy into the aperture as a function of aperture size for different surface errors and pointing errors. Point source and Sun source optical tests were also performed.

  17. A high-sensitivity torsional pendulum for polymeric films and fibres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aghili-Kermani, H.; Obrien, T.; Armeniades, C. D.; Roberts, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    A free oscillation torsion pendulum is described, which has been designed to measure accurately the dynamic shear modulus and logarithmic decrement of polymeric thin films and fibers, at frequencies of 0.1 to 10 Hz and a temperature range of 4.2 to 450 K. The instrument can also provide in situ tensile deformations of up to 5%. The specimen geometry necessary to obtain reliable modulus measurements with thin films is discussed, and typical data are presented which exhibit hitherto unreported relaxation processes, discernible by this instrument.

  18. Optical and electrical characteristics of pyrite films prepared by a new spray method using PVDF as a polymeric binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javad Zanganeh, Mohammad; Ziarati, Mahmoud; Khandan, Nahid; Goudarzi, Ali Reza

    2015-06-01

    Pyrite thin films were deposited on glass substrates by a new and simple spray method using polyvinylidene fluoride as polymeric binder. Prepared pyrite films were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Hall auto-measuring instrument. Hall measurements showed p-type conduction of all the prepared thin films. The film prepared by using binder concentration of 2 wt.% showed the best results. Its band gap was estimated 1.55 eV. Also, electrical characteristics of the deposited film were obtained by I-V characteristic curve.

  19. Thin-Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy using a photovoltaic cell is called thermophotovoltaic energy conversion. One way to make this an efficient process is to have the thermal energy source be an efficient selective emitter of radiation. The emission must be near the band-gap energy of the photovoltaic cell. One possible method to achieve an efficient selective emitter is the use of a thin film of rare-earth oxides. The determination of the efficiency of such an emitter requires analysis of the spectral emittance of the thin film including scattering and reflectance at the vacuum-film and film-substrate interfaces. Emitter efficiencies (power emitted in emission band/total emitted power) in the range 0.35-0.7 are predicted. There is an optimum optical depth to obtain maximum efficiency. High emitter efficiencies are attained only for low (less than 0.05) substrate emittance values, both with and without scattering. The low substrate emittance required for high efficiency limits the choice of substrate materials to highly reflective metals or high-transmission materials such as sapphire.

  20. Structures and Elastic Moduli of Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongyi; Karim, Alamgir; University of Akron Team

    2014-03-01

    Polymeric thin films generally possess unique mechanical and thermal properties due to confinement. In this study we investigated structures and elastic moduli of polymer nanocomposite thin films, which can potentially find wide applications in diverse areas such as in coating, permeation and separation. Conventional thermoplastics (PS, PMMA) and biopolymers (PLA, PCL) were chosen as polymer matrices. Various types of nanoparticles were used including nanoclay, fullerene and functionalized inorganic particles. Samples were prepared by solvent-mixing followed by spin-coating or flow-coating. Film structures were characterized using X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Elastic moduli were measured by strain-induced elastic buckling instability for mechanical measurements (SIEBIMM), and a strengthening effect was found in certain systems due to strong interaction between polymers and nanoparticles. The effects of polymer structure, nanoparticle addition and film thickness on elastic modulus will be discussed and compared with bulk materials.

  1. Preparation of redox polymer cathodes for thin film rechargeable batteries

    DOEpatents

    Skotheim, Terje A.; Lee, Hung S.; Okamoto, Yoshiyuki

    1994-11-08

    The present invention relates to the manufacture of thin film solid state electrochemical devices using composite cathodes comprising a redox polymer capable of undergoing oxidation and reduction, a polymer solid electrolyte and conducting carbon. The polymeric cathode material is formed as a composite of radiation crosslinked polymer electrolytes and radiation crosslinked redox polymers based on polysiloxane backbones with attached organosulfur side groups capable of forming sulfur-sulfur bonds during electrochemical oxidation.

  2. Computational modeling of muscular thin films for cardiac repair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böl, Markus; Reese, Stefanie; Parker, Kevin Kit; Kuhl, Ellen

    2009-03-01

    Motivated by recent success in growing biohybrid material from engineered tissues on synthetic polymer films, we derive a computational simulation tool for muscular thin films in cardiac repair. In this model, the polydimethylsiloxane base layer is simulated in terms of microscopically motivated tetrahedral elements. Their behavior is characterized through a volumetric contribution and a chain contribution that explicitly accounts for the polymeric microstructure of networks of long chain molecules. Neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes cultured on these polymeric films are modeled with actively contracting truss elements located on top of the sheet. The force stretch response of these trusses is motivated by the cardiomyocyte force generated during active contraction as suggested by the filament sliding theory. In contrast to existing phenomenological models, all material parameters of this novel model have a clear biophyisical interpretation. The predictive features of the model will be demonstrated through the simulation of muscular thin films. First, the set of parameters will be fitted for one particular experiment documented in the literature. This parameter set is then used to validate the model for various different experiments. Last, we give an outlook of how the proposed simulation tool could be used to virtually predict the response of multi-layered muscular thin films. These three-dimensional constructs show a tremendous regenerative potential in repair of damaged cardiac tissue. The ability to understand, tune and optimize their structural response is thus of great interest in cardiovascular tissue engineering.

  3. Zinc oxide thin film acoustic sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Ali Jasim; Salih, Wafaa Mahdi; Hassan, Marwa Abdul Muhsien; Nusseif, Asmaa Deiaa; Kadhum, Haider Abdullah; Mansour, Hazim Louis

    2013-12-16

    This paper reports the implementation of (750 nm) thickness of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin film for the piezoelectric pressure sensors. The film was prepared and deposited employing the spray pyrolysis technique. XRD results show that the growth preferred orientation is the (002) plane. A polycrystalline thin film (close to mono crystallite like) was obtained. Depending on the Scanning Electron Microscopy photogram, the film homogeneity and thickness were shown. The resonance frequency measured (about 19 kHz) and the damping coefficient was calculated and its value was found to be about (2.5538), the thin film be haves as homogeneous for under and over damped. The thin film pressure sensing was approximately exponentially related with frequency, the thin film was observed to has a good response for mechanical stresses also it is a good material for the piezoelectric properties.

  4. Method of producing amorphous thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brusasco, Raymond M.

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: a. coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming parulate material possessing the capability of being sintered, and b. irridiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed.

  5. A Study on the Fabrication of Organic Thin Film Transistor Sensors using Gravure Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Won-Jin; Hong, Jae-Min; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Yu, Jae-Woong

    2011-12-01

    Conducting polymer TFT was fabricated with gravure printing technique using a vapor polymerization method. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with excellent film forming characteristics was used as a matrix polymer. After the printing of the oxidant dispersed PVA dissolved in DI water, the vapor polymerization of the pyrrole monomer formed a thin conducting polymer film. The conductivity of the film was dependent on the concentration of the oxidant and the polymerization time. In order to be used for TFT application, the conductivity had to be reduced by controlling the various conditions. The effect of exposure to humidity on TFT signal was studied.

  6. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    MSFC is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using electron cyclotron resonance chemical vapor deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film an stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  7. Analysis of Hard Thin Film Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dashen

    1998-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is interested in developing hard thin film coating for bearings. The wearing of the bearing is an important problem for space flight engine. Hard thin film coating can drastically improve the surface of the bearing and improve the wear-endurance of the bearing. However, many fundamental problems in surface physics, plasma deposition, etc, need further research. The approach is using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Chemical Vapor Deposition (ECRCVD) to deposit hard thin film on stainless steel bearing. The thin films in consideration include SiC, SiN and other materials. An ECRCVD deposition system is being assembled at MSFC.

  8. Magnetoelastic sensor for characterizing properties of thin-film/coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachas, Leonidas G. (Inventor); Barrett, Gary (Inventor); Grimes, Craig A. (Inventor); Kouzoudis, Dimitris (Inventor); Schmidt, Stefan (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An apparatus for determining elasticity characteristics of a thin-film layer. The apparatus comprises a sensor element having a base magnetostrictive element at least one surface of which is at least partially coated with the thin-film layer. The thin-film layer may be of a variety of materials (having a synthetic and/or bio-component) in a state or form capable of being deposited, manually or otherwise, on the base element surface, such as by way of eye-dropper, melting, dripping, brushing, sputtering, spraying, etching, evaporation, dip-coating, laminating, etc. Among suitable thin-film layers for the sensor element of the invention are fluent bio-substances, thin-film deposits used in manufacturing processes, polymeric coatings, paint, an adhesive, and so on. A receiver, preferably remotely located, is used to measure a plurality of values for magneto-elastic emission intensity of the sensor element in either characterization: (a) the measure of the plurality of values is used to identify a magneto-elastic resonant frequency value for the sensor element; and (b) the measure of the plurality of successive values is done at a preselected magneto-elastic frequency.

  9. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOEpatents

    Aykan, Kamran; Farrauto, Robert J.; Jefferson, Clinton F.; Lanam, Richard D.

    1983-11-22

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  10. Effects of Convection During the Photodeposition of Polydiacetylene Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Hung, R. J.; Paley, M. S.; Long, Y. T.

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we describe a preliminary investigation of buoyancy-driven heat transfer during the growth of thin films from solution following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. Irradiation of the growth cell occurs at various directions relative to gravitational acceleration. Through numerical computations, the steady-state flow and temperature profiles are simulated during the course of light exposure. Light-induced polymerization accompanies a heat transfer process through a fairly complicated recirculating flow pattern. A scaling analysis shows that buoyancy-driven velocities only reduce by a factor of 10 for gravity levels as low as 10(exp -2)g(sub 0). Paley et al. observe what appears to be gravitationally sensitive particle development and inclusion in thin films using a photodeposition process. From this study it is clear that production of homogeneous thin films would have to occur in the environment of a complicated flow pattern of recirculation with a nonuniform temperature distribution. Indeed, even when irradiation occurs from the top of the cell, the most stable stratified cell orientation, defects remain in our films due to the persistence of buoyancy-driven convection. To achieve homogeneity, minimal scattering centers, and possible molecular order, photodeposition of polymer films by UV light exposure must proceed in a reduced-convection environment. Fluid mechanics simulations are useful for establishing gravitational sensitivity to this recently discovered process (patent # 5,451,433) for preparing thin films having quite promising nonlinear optical characteristics.

  11. Effects of Convection during the Photodeposition of Polydiacetylene Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Hung, R. J.; Paley, M. S.; Long, Y. T.

    1997-01-01

    In this work, we describe a preliminary investigation of buoyancy-driven heat transfer during the growth of thin films from solution following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. Irradiation of the growth cell occurs at various directions relative to gravitational acceleration. Through numerical computations, the steady-state flow and temperature profiles are simulated during the course of light exposure. Light-induced polymerization accompanies a heat transfer process through a fairly complicated recirculating flow pattern. A scaling analysis shows that buoyancy-driven velocities only reduce by a factor of 10 for gravity levels as low as 10(exp -2) g(sub 0). Paley et al. observe what appears to be gravitationally sensitive particle development and inclusion in thin films using a photodeposition process. From this study, it is clear that production of homogeneous thin films would have to occur in the environment of a complicated flow pattern of recirculation with a nonuniform temperature distribution. Indeed, even when irradiation occurs from the top of the cell, the most stable stratified cell orientation, defects remain in our films due to the persistence of buoyancy-driven convection. To achieve homogeneity, minimal scattering centers, and possible molecular order, photodeposition of polymer films by UV light exposure must proceed in a reduced-convection environment. Fluid mechanics simulations are useful for establishing gravitational sensitivity to this recently discovered process (patent # 5,451,433) for preparing thin films having quite promising nonlinear optical characteristics.

  12. Evaluation of polymeric films for buccal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Skulason, S; Asgeirsdottir, M S; Magnusson, J P; Kristmundsdottir, T

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the bioadhesive polymers Carbopol 981 NF, Carbopol 1382 and sodium alginate as possible carriers for films for buccal drug delivery. Films were prepared by casting and solvent evaporation method, using propylene glycol as plasticizer and hydoxypropylmethyl cellulose to modify the properties of the films. The bioadhesive and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated with a TA-XT2i Texture Analyser. The alginate films exhibited greater bioadhesion and showed higher tensile strength and elasticity than the Carbopol films. There was a marked difference in the way the polymeric films hydrated in simulated saliva solution. Upon swelling the diameter of the alginate films did not increase but their thickness increases slightly, however the surface area of the Carbopol films increased significantly which points to them being unsuitable for drug delivery to the buccal mucosa. Excessive hydration of a polymeric film for buccal delivery could lead to decreasing adhesive strength and possibly loss of adhesion and hence shorter duration of retention. HPMC appeared to improve the properties of the films, affecting the bioadhesiveness and increasing tensile strength. For the alginate films an increase in HPMC leads to an increase in elasticity but for the Carbopol polymers this was not the case. The release profile of a model drug, sumatriptan succinate, showed that drug release was by diffusion rather than due to disintegration of the films. The results indicate that sodium alginate may be a suitable carrier for polymeric films for use in the buccal cavity. PMID:19348343

  13. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOEpatents

    Prelas, Mark A.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Tompson, Jr., Robert V.; Viswanath, Dabir; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-19

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  14. Thin films of mixed metal compounds

    DOEpatents

    Mickelsen, Reid A.; Chen, Wen S.

    1985-01-01

    A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

  15. Vacuum casting of thick polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Moacanin, J.

    1979-01-01

    Bubble formation and layering, which often plague vacuum-evaporated films, are prevented by properly regulating process parameters. Vacuum casting may be applicable to forming thick films of other polymer/solvent solutions.

  16. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  17. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  18. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K.; Wei, G.; Yu, P.C.

    1991-12-31

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  19. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. . Electro-Optics Technology Center); Wei, G. ); Yu, P.C. )

    1991-01-01

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors' institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  20. Magnetostrictive thin films for microwave spintronics

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, D. E.; Shelford, L. R.; Wadley, P.; Holý, V.; Wang, M.; Hindmarch, A. T.; van der Laan, G.; Campion, R. P.; Edmonds, K. W.; Cavill, S. A.; Rushforth, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Multiferroic composite materials, consisting of coupled ferromagnetic and piezoelectric phases, are of great importance in the drive towards creating faster, smaller and more energy efficient devices for information and communications technologies. Such devices require thin ferromagnetic films with large magnetostriction and narrow microwave resonance linewidths. Both properties are often degraded, compared to bulk materials, due to structural imperfections and interface effects in the thin films. We report the development of epitaxial thin films of Galfenol (Fe81Ga19) with magnetostriction as large as the best reported values for bulk material. This allows the magnetic anisotropy and microwave resonant frequency to be tuned by voltage-induced strain, with a larger magnetoelectric response and a narrower linewidth than any previously reported Galfenol thin films. The combination of these properties make epitaxial thin films excellent candidates for developing tunable devices for magnetic information storage, processing and microwave communications. PMID:23860685

  1. Magnetostrictive thin films for microwave spintronics.

    PubMed

    Parkes, D E; Shelford, L R; Wadley, P; Holý, V; Wang, M; Hindmarch, A T; van der Laan, G; Campion, R P; Edmonds, K W; Cavill, S A; Rushforth, A W

    2013-01-01

    Multiferroic composite materials, consisting of coupled ferromagnetic and piezoelectric phases, are of great importance in the drive towards creating faster, smaller and more energy efficient devices for information and communications technologies. Such devices require thin ferromagnetic films with large magnetostriction and narrow microwave resonance linewidths. Both properties are often degraded, compared to bulk materials, due to structural imperfections and interface effects in the thin films. We report the development of epitaxial thin films of Galfenol (Fe81Ga19) with magnetostriction as large as the best reported values for bulk material. This allows the magnetic anisotropy and microwave resonant frequency to be tuned by voltage-induced strain, with a larger magnetoelectric response and a narrower linewidth than any previously reported Galfenol thin films. The combination of these properties make epitaxial thin films excellent candidates for developing tunable devices for magnetic information storage, processing and microwave communications.

  2. Stable Freestanding Thin Films of Copolymer Melts Far from the Glass Transition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Thin polymer films have attracted attention because of both their broad range of applications and of the fundamental questions they raise regarding the dynamic response of confined polymers. These films are unstable if the temperature is above their glass transition temperature Tg. Here, we describe freestanding thin films of centimetric dimensions made of a comb copolymer melt far from its glass transition that are stable for more than a day. These long lifetimes allowed us to characterize the drainage dynamics and the thickness profile of the films. Stratified regions appear as the film drains. We have evidence that the stability, thinning dynamics, and thickness profile of the films result from structural forces in the melt. Understanding the key mechanisms behind our observations may lead to new developments in polymeric thin films, foams, and emulsions without the use of stabilizing agents. PMID:26527410

  3. Dewetting of thin liquid films near soft elastomeric layers.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satish; Matar, Omar K

    2004-05-15

    Thin liquid film instabilities driven by van der Waals forces and in the proximity of soft elastomeric layers are considered in this work through two model problems: (i) a liquid film resting on an elastomeric layer and (ii) a liquid film bounded from one side by a rigid substrate and from the other side by an elastomeric layer. The elastomeric layers are modeled as linear viscoelastic solids, van der Waals forces are assumed to act only in the liquid, and lubrication theory and linear stability analysis are applied. For a liquid film resting on an elastomeric layer, substrate deformability has a destabilizing effect, as evidenced by an increase in the maximum growth rate and range of unstable wavenumbers. The destabilization worsens for thicker solid layers and is due to a lowering of the effective liquid-air interfacial tension. For an elastomeric layer resting on a liquid film, layer deformability has a stabilizing effect for thin layers but a destabilizing effect for thicker layers, with the former due to an enhancement and the latter due to a reduction of the effective solid-air interfacial tension. The results presented here suggest the possibility of exploiting the dewetting of thin liquid films to create topographically patterned surfaces on soft polymeric solids.

  4. Dielectric relaxation in hard, plasma-polymerized C:H films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stundzia, V.; Biederman, H.; Slavínská, D.; Nedbal, J.; Hlídek, P.; Poskus, A.; Mackus, P. K.; Howson, R. P.

    2000-03-01

    The dielectric relaxation in hard, plasma-polymerized C:H films has been studied using the depolarization current method. These films were prepared by means of a dc unbalanced magnetron operated in a working gas mixture of Ar with n-hexane. The C:H films were sandwiched between two thin, aluminium-film electrodes. The measurements took place without breaking vacuum at temperatures ranging from 22 °C to 140 °C. The analysis of the respective depolarization currents was performed by means of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts depolarization function. Two dielectric relaxation processes were observed. The first is associated with high-dipole polar groups such as hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. The second relaxation process is observed only at the highest temperatures and cannot be explained in terms of permanent dipole reorientation. This finding shows that the C:H films are hard, highly crosslinked hydrocarbon plasma polymers.

  5. Thin film bioreactors in space.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, M; Scheld, H W

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers us an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one important variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would enable us to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  6. Thin film bioreactors in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Scheld, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    Studies from the Skylab, SL-3 and D-1 missions have demonstrated that biological organisms grown in microgravity have changes in basic cellular functions such as DNA, mRNA and protein synthesis, cytoskeleton synthesis, glucose utilization, and cellular differentiation. Since microgravity could affect prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers an opportunity to learn more about basic biological systems with one inmportant variable removed. The thin film bioreactor will facilitate the handling of fluids in microgravity, under constant temperature and will allow multiple samples of cells to be grown with variable conditions. Studies on cell cultures grown in microgravity would make it possible to identify and quantify changes in basic biological function in microgravity which are needed to develop new applications of orbital research and future biotechnology.

  7. BDS thin film damage competition

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  8. Wrinkle motifs in thin films

    PubMed Central

    Budrikis, Zoe; Sellerio, Alessandro L.; Bertalan, Zsolt; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    On length scales from nanometres to metres, partial adhesion of thin films with substrates generates a fascinating variety of patterns, such as ‘telephone cord’ buckles, wrinkles, and labyrinth domains. Although these patterns are part of everyday experience and are important in industry, they are not completely understood. Here, we report simulation studies of a previously-overlooked phenomenon in which pairs of wrinkles form avoiding pairs, focusing on the case of graphene over patterned substrates. By nucleating and growing wrinkles in a controlled way, we characterize how their morphology is determined by stress fields in the sheet and friction with the substrate. Our simulations uncover the generic behaviour of avoiding wrinkle pairs that should be valid at all scales. PMID:25758174

  9. Wrinkle motifs in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budrikis, Zoe; Sellerio, Alessandro L.; Bertalan, Zsolt; Zapperi, Stefano

    2015-03-01

    On length scales from nanometres to metres, partial adhesion of thin films with substrates generates a fascinating variety of patterns, such as `telephone cord' buckles, wrinkles, and labyrinth domains. Although these patterns are part of everyday experience and are important in industry, they are not completely understood. Here, we report simulation studies of a previously-overlooked phenomenon in which pairs of wrinkles form avoiding pairs, focusing on the case of graphene over patterned substrates. By nucleating and growing wrinkles in a controlled way, we characterize how their morphology is determined by stress fields in the sheet and friction with the substrate. Our simulations uncover the generic behaviour of avoiding wrinkle pairs that should be valid at all scales.

  10. Infrared radiation of thin plastic films.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, C. L.; Chan, C. K.; Cunnington, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    A combined analytical and experimental study is presented for infrared radiation characteristics of thin plastic films with and without a metal substrate. On the basis of the thin-film analysis, a simple analytical technique is developed for determining band-averaged optical constants of thin plastic films from spectral normal transmittance data for two different film thicknesses. Specifically, the band-averaged optical constants of polyethylene terephthalate and polyimide were obtained from transmittance measurements of films with thicknesses in the range of 0.25 to 3 mil. The spectral normal reflectance and total normal emittance of the film side of singly aluminized films are calculated by use of optical constants; the results compare favorably with measured values.

  11. AES analysis of barium fluoride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashin, G. N.; Makhnjuk, V. I.; Rumjantseva, S. M.; Shchekochihin, Ju. M.

    1993-06-01

    AES analysis of thin films of metal fluorides is a difficult problem due to charging and decomposition of such films under electron bombardment. We have developed a simple algorithm for a reliable quantitative AES analysis of metal fluoride thin films (BaF 2 in our work). The relative AES sensitivity factors for barium and fluorine were determined from BaF 2 single-crystal samples. We have investigated the dependence of composition and stability of barium fluoride films on the substrate temperature during film growth. We found that the instability of BaF 2 films grown on GaAs substrates at high temperatures (> 525°C) is due to a loss of fluorine. Our results show that, under the optimal electron exposure conditions, AES can be used for a quantitative analysis of metal fluoride thin films.

  12. Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film

    DOEpatents

    Lupica, S.B.

    1975-12-23

    An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent.

  13. Engineering the Crystalline Morphology of Polymer Thin Films via Physical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hyuncheol; Arnold, Craig; Priestley, Rodney

    Thin-film growth via physical vapor deposition (PVD) has been successfully exploited for the delicate control of film structure for molecular and atomic systems. The application of such a high-energetic process to polymeric film growth has been challenged by chemical degradation. However, recent development of Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE) technique opened up a way to deposit a variety of macromolecules in a PVD manner. Here, employing MAPLE technique to the growth of semicrystalline polymer thin films, we show the engineering of crystalline film morphology can be achieved via manipulation of substrate temperature. This is accomplished by exploiting temperature effect on crystallization kinetics of polymers. During the slow film growth crystallization can either be permitted or suppressed, and crystal thickness can be tuned via temperature modulation. In addition, we report that the crystallinity of polymer thin films may be significantly altered with deposition temperature in MAPLE processing. We expect that this ability to manipulate crystallization kinetics during polymeric film growth will open the possibility to engineer structure in thin film polymeric-based devices in ways that are difficult by other means.

  14. Thin film solar cell module

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, R.R.

    1987-01-20

    A thin film solar cell module is described comprising a first solar cell panel containing an array of solar cells consisting of a TFS semiconductor sandwiched between a transparent conductive zinc oxide layer and a transparent conductive layer selected from the group consisting of tin oxide, indium tin oxide, and zinc oxide deposited upon a transparent superstrate, and a second solar cell panel containing an array of solar cells consisting of a CIS semiconductor layer sandwiched between a zinc oxide semiconductor layer and a conductive metal layer deposited upon an insulating substrate. The zinc oxide semiconductor layer contains a first relatively thin layer of high resistivity zinc oxide adjacent the CIS semiconductor and a second relatively thick layer of low resistivity zinc oxide overlying the high resistivity zinc oxide layer. The transparent conductive zinc oxide layer of the first panel faces the low resistivity zinc oxide layer of the second panel, the first and second panels being positioned optically in series and separated by a transparent insulating layer.

  15. VUV thin films, chapter 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zukic, Muamer; Torr, Douglas G.

    1993-01-01

    The application of thin film technology to the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelength region from 120 nm to 230 nm has not been fully exploited in the past because of absorption effects which complicate the accurate determination of the optical functions of dielectric materials. The problem therefore reduces to that of determining the real and imaginary parts of a complex optical function, namely the frequency dependent refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. We discuss techniques for the inverse retrieval of n and k for dielectric materials at VUV wavelengths from measurements of their reflectance and transmittance. Suitable substrate and film materials are identified for application in the VUV. Such applications include coatings for the fabrication of narrow and broadband filters and beamsplitters. The availability of such devices open the VUV regime to high resolution photometry, interferometry and polarimetry both for space based and laboratory applications. This chapter deals with the optics of absorbing multilayers, the determination of the optical functions for several useful materials, and the design of VUV multilayer stacks as applied to the design of narrow and broadband reflection and transmission filters and beamsplitters. Experimental techniques are discussed briefly, and several examples of the optical functions derived for selected materials are presented.

  16. Micromotors using magnetostrictive thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claeyssen, Frank; Le Letty, Ronan; Barillot, Francois; Betz, Jochen; MacKay, Ken; Givord, Dominique; Bouchilloux, Philippe

    1998-07-01

    This study deals with a micromotor based on the use of magnetostrictive thin films. This motor belongs to the category of the Standing Wave Ultrasonic Motors. The active part of the motor is the rotor, which is a 100 micrometers thick ring vibrating in a flexural mode. Teeth (300 micrometers high) are placed on special positions of the rotor and produce an oblique motion which can induce the relative motion of any object in contact with them. The magnetic excitation field is radial and uses the transverse coupling of the 4 micrometers thick magnetostrictive film. The film, deposited by sputtering on the ring, consists of layers of different rare-earth/iron alloys and was developed during a European Brite-Euram project. The finite element technique was used in order to design a prototype of the motor and to optimize the active rotor and the energizer coil. The prototype we built delivered a speed of 30 turns per minute with a torque of 2 (mu) N.m (without prestress applied on the rotor). Our experimental results show that the performance of this motor could easily be increased by a factor of 5. The main advantage of this motor is the fact that it is remotely powered and controlled. The excitation coil, which provides both power and control, can be placed away from the active rotor. Moreover, the rotor is completely wireless and is not connected to its support or to any other part. It is interesting to note that it would not be possible to build this type of motor using piezoelectric technology. Medical applications of magnetostrictive micromotors could be found for internal microdistributors of medication (the coil staying outside the body). Other applications include remote control micropositioning, micropositioning of optical components, and for the actuation of systems such as valves, electrical switches, and relays.

  17. Channel cracks in atomic-layer and molecular-layer deposited multilayer thin film coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Rong; Dunn, Martin L.

    2014-06-21

    Metal oxide thin film coatings produced by atomic layer deposition have been shown to be an effective permeation barrier. The primary failure mode of such coatings under tensile loads is the propagation of channel cracks that penetrate vertically into the coating films. Recently, multi-layer structures that combine the metal oxide material with relatively soft polymeric layers produced by molecular layer deposition have been proposed to create composite thin films with desired properties, including potentially enhanced resistance to fracture. In this paper, we study the effects of layer geometry and material properties on the critical strain for channel crack propagation in the multi-layer composite films. Using finite element simulations and a thin-film fracture mechanics formalism, we show that if the fracture energy of the polymeric layer is lower than that of the metal oxide layer, the channel crack tends to penetrate through the entire composite film, and dividing the metal oxide and polymeric materials into thinner layers leads to a smaller critical strain. However, if the fracture energy of the polymeric material is high so that cracks only run through the metal oxide layers, more layers can result in a larger critical strain. For intermediate fracture energy of the polymer material, we developed a design map that identifies the optimal structure for given fracture energies and thicknesses of the metal oxide and polymeric layers. These results can facilitate the design of mechanically robust permeation barriers, an important component for the development of flexible electronics.

  18. Semipermeable thin-film membranes comprising siloxane, alkoxysilyl and aryloxysilyl oligomers and copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Babcock, W.C.; Friesen, D.T.

    1988-11-01

    Novel semipermeable membranes and thin film composite (TFC) gas separation membranes useful in the separation of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, lower hydrocarbons, and other gases are disclosed. The novel semipermeable membranes comprise the polycondensation reaction product of two complementary polyfunctional compounds, each having at least two functional groups that are mutually reactive in a condensation polymerization reaction, and at least one of which is selected from siloxanes, alkoxsilyls and aryloxysilyls. The TFC membrane comprises a microporous polymeric support, the surface of which has the novel semipermeable film formed thereon, preferably by interfacial polymerization.

  19. Semipermeable thin-film membranes comprising siloxane, alkoxysilyl and aryloxysilyl oligomers and copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Babcock, Walter C.; Friesen, Dwayne T.

    1988-01-01

    Novel semiperimeable membranes and thin film composite (TFC) gas separation membranes useful in the separation of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, water vapor, methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, lower hydrocarbons, and other gases are disclosed. The novel semipermeable membranes comprise the polycondensation reaction product of two complementary polyfunctional compounds, each having at least two functional groups that are mutually reactive in a condensation polymerization reaction, and at least one of which is selected from siloxanes, alkoxsilyls and aryloxysilyls. The TFC membrane comprises a microporous polymeric support, the surface of which has the novel semipermeable film formed thereon, preferably by interfacial polymerization.

  20. Poly-para-xylylene thin films: A study of the deposition chemistry, kinetics, film properties, and film stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, Jeffrey Bernard

    Poly-para-xylylene, or parylene, thin films are chemically vapor deposited (CVD), conformal, pin-hole free polymeric thin films. They have found many industrial uses since there invention in 1947 and continue to find new applications in micro-electronics, biotechnology, and micro-electro-mechanical systems. In this study the deposition chemistry, deposition kinetics, film properties, and film stability were investigated. A differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to analyze the vapor species present during the CVD process. The identity of dimer contamination and its impact on the CVD process and film properties was studied. The quantitative conversion of dimer to monomer was investigated and it was found that conversion begins at around 385°C and by 565°C 100% conversion is obtained. The kinetics of the CVD process was analyzed for a range of substrate temperatures and chamber pressures. A new kinetic model based on a two-step adsorption was developed and fit the kinetic data well. This model should be appropriate for use with all parylene family polymers. Many of the properties of the films deposited in this study were analyzed. This includes a detailed study of surface morphology using atomic force microscopy which shows the interface width increases as a power law of film thickness. Other properties analyzed were the thermal stability, electrical properties, index of refraction, birefringence, hardness, and elastic modulus. The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation of lambda ≥ 250 nm on the thermal stability, electrical, and optical properties of thin parylene films was studied. The thermal stability and electrical properties of UV treated films were seen to deteriorate as the radiation dose increased. The stability of parylene thin films receiving plasma etching was analyzed. The dielectric constant, dissipation factor, and leakage current of plasma etched thin parylene films were investigated and found to be stable for the range of

  1. Macro stress mapping on thin film buckling

    SciTech Connect

    Goudeau, P.; Villain, P.; Renault, P.-O.; Tamura, N.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.

    2002-11-06

    Thin films deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition techniques on substrates generally exhibit large residual stresses which may be responsible of thin film buckling in the case of compressive stresses. Since the 80's, a lot of theoretical work has been done to develop mechanical models but only a few experimental work has been done on this subject to support these theoretical approaches and nothing concerning local stress measurement mainly because of the small dimension of the buckling (few 10th mm). This paper deals with the application of micro beam X-ray diffraction available on synchrotron radiation sources for stress mapping analysis of gold thin film buckling.

  2. Structural characterization of thin film photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Subramania, G.; Biswas, R.; Constant, K.; Sigalas, M. M.; Ho, K. M.

    2001-06-15

    We quantitatively analyze the structure of thin film inverse-opal photonic crystals composed of ordered arrays of air pores in a background of titania. Ordering of the sphere template and introduction of the titania background were performed simultaneously in the thin film photonic crystals. Nondestructive optical measurements of backfilling with high refractive index liquids, angle-resolved reflectivity, and optical spectroscopy were combined with band-structure calculations. The analysis reveals a thin film photonic crystal structure with a very high filling fraction (92{endash}94%) of air and a substantial compression along the c axis ({similar_to}22{endash}25%).

  3. Surface roughness evolution of nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Turkin, A. A.; Pei, Y. T.; Shaha, K. P.; Chen, C. Q.; Vainshtein, D. I.; Hosson, J. Th. M. de

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of dynamic roughening and smoothening mechanisms of thin films grown with pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering is presented. The roughness evolution has been described by a linear stochastic equation, which contains the second- and fourth-order gradient terms. Dynamic smoothening of the growing interface is explained by ballistic effects resulting from impingements of ions to the growing thin film. These ballistic effects are sensitive to the flux and energy of impinging ions. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data, and it is concluded that the thin film roughness can be further controlled by adjusting waveform, frequency, and width of dc pulses.

  4. Preparation and atomic force microscopy of CTAB stabilized polythiophene nanoparticles thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graak, Pinki; Devi, Ranjna; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Sacheen

    2016-05-01

    Polythiophene nanoparticles were synthesized by iron catalyzed oxidative polymerization method. Polythiophene formation was detected by UV-Visible spectroscopy with λmax 375nm. Thin films of CTAB stabilized polythiophene nanoparticles was deposited on n-type silicon wafer by spin coating technique at 3000rpm in three cycles. Thickness of the thin films was computed as 300-350nm by ellipsometry. Atomic force micrscopyrevealws the particle size of polymeric nanoparticles in the range of 30nm to 100nm. Roughness of thinfilm was also analyzed from the atomic force microscopy data by Picoimage software. The observed RMS value lies in the range of 6 nm to 12 nm.

  5. Hydration of C{sub 3}S thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Rheinheimer, Vanessa; Casanova, Ignasi

    2012-04-15

    Thin films of C{sub 3}S of a few tens of nanometers were produced by electron beam evaporation. After verification that the chemical composition of the bulk material remained unchanged, the samples were hydrated with water vapor in a reaction chamber under saturated pressure and temperature conditions, and were kept isolated from atmospheric exposure throughout the whole duration of the experiment. Analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at different stages of hydration evidence a shift of the Si peaks to higher energies and a subsequent decrease of the Ca-Si binding energy distance, indicating silicate polymerization expected upon formation of C-S-H. The measured molar Ca/Si ratio evolves from that of a jennite-like material, of about 1.55, at the beginning of the experiment (attributed to pre-hydration of the thin films), to a tobermorite-like ratio of 0.85 after 3 h of hydration.

  6. Insect thin films as solar collectors.

    PubMed

    Heilman, B D; Miaoulis, L N

    1994-10-01

    A numerical method for simulation of microscale radiation effects in insect thin-film structures is described. Accounting for solar beam and diffuse radiation, the model calculates the reflectivity and emissivity of such structures. A case study examines microscale radiation effects in butterfuly wings, and results reveal a new function of these multilayer thin films: thermal regulation. For film thicknesses of the order of 0.10 µm, solar absorption levels vary by as much as 25% with small changes in film thickness; for certain existing structures, absorption levels reach 96%., This is attributed to the spectral distribution of the reflected radiation, which consists of a singular reflectance peak within the solar spectrum.

  7. Research on Advanced Thin Film Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Goldner, Ronald B.

    2003-11-24

    During the past 7 years, the Tufts group has been carrying out research on advanced thin film batteries composed of a thin film LiCo02 cathode (positive electrode), a thin film LiPON (lithium phosphorous oxynitride) solid electrolyte, and a thin film graphitic carbon anode (negative electrode), under grant DE FG02-95ER14578. Prior to 1997, the research had been using an rfsputter deposition process for LiCoOi and LiPON and an electron beam evaporation or a controlled anode arc evaporation method for depositing the carbon layer. The pre-1997 work led to the deposition of a single layer cell that was successfully cycled for more than 400 times [1,2] and the research also led to the deposition of a monolithic double-cell 7 volt battery that was cycled for more than 15 times [3]. Since 1997, the research has been concerned primarily with developing a research-worthy and, possibly, a production-worthy, thin film deposition process, termed IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition) for depositing each ofthe electrodes and the electrolyte of a completely inorganic solid thin film battery. The main focus has been on depositing three materials - graphitic carbon as the negative electrode (anode), lithium cobalt oxide (nominally LiCoCb) as the positive electrode (cathode), and lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) as the electrolyte. Since 1998, carbon, LiCoOa, and LiPON films have been deposited using the IBAD process with the following results.

  8. Long Duration Exposure Facility M0003-5 recent results on polymeric films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurley, Charles J.; Jones, Michele D.

    1992-01-01

    The M0003-5 polymeric film specimens orbited on the LDEF M0003 Space Environment Effects on Spacecraft Materials were a part of a Wright Laboratories Materials Directorate larger thermal control materials experiment. They were selected from new materials which emerged from development programs during the 1978-1982 time frame. Included were materials described in the technical literature which were being considered or had been applied to satellites. Materials that had been exposed on previous satellite materials experiments were also included to provide data correlation with earlier space flight experiments. The objective was to determine the effects of the LDEF environment on the physical and optical properties of polymeric thin film thermal control materials, the interaction of the LDEF environment with silvered spacecraft surfaces, and the performance of low outgassing adhesives. Sixteen combinations of various polymeric films, metallized and unmetallized, adhesively bonded and unbonded films were orbited on LDEF in the M0003-5 experiment. The films were exposed in two separate locations on the vehicle. One set was exposed on the direct leading edge of the satellite. The other set was exposed on the direct trailing edge of the vehicle. The purpose of the experiment was to understand the changes in the properties of materials before and after exposure to the space environment and to compare the changes with predictions based on laboratory experiments. The basic approach was to measure the optical and physical properties of materials before and after long-term exposure to a low earth orbital environment comprised of UV, VUV, electrons, protons, atomic oxygen, thermal cycling, vacuum, debris and micrometeoroids. Due to the unanticipated extended orbital flight of LDEF, the polymeric film materials were exposed for a full five years and ten months to the space environment.

  9. Ferromagnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelli, T. P. Passamani, E. C.; Larica, C.; Nascimento, V. P.; Takeuchi, A. Y.

    2015-05-28

    Magnetic properties of sputtered Gd thin films grown on Si (100) substrates kept at two different temperatures were investigated using X-ray diffraction, ac magnetic susceptibility, and dc magnetization measurements. The obtained Gd thin films have a mixture of hcp and fcc structures, but with their fractions depending on the substrate temperature T{sub S} and film thickness x. Gd fcc samples were obtained when T{sub S} = 763 K and x = 10 nm, while the hcp structure was stabilized for lower T{sub S} (300 K) and thicker film (20 nm). The fcc structure is formed on the Ta buffer layer, while the hcp phase grows on the fcc Gd layer as a consequence of the lattice relaxation process. Spin reorientation phenomenon, commonly found in bulk Gd species, was also observed in the hcp Gd thin film. This phenomenon is assumed to cause the magnetization anomalous increase observed below 50 K in stressed Gd films. Magnetic properties of fcc Gd thin films are: Curie temperature above 300 K, saturation magnetization value of about 175 emu/cm{sup 3}, and coercive field of about 100 Oe at 300 K; features that allow us to classify Gd thin films, with fcc structure, as a soft ferromagnetic material.

  10. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  11. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOEpatents

    Wolfe, C. Robert; Kozlowski, Mark R.; Campbell, John H.; Staggs, Michael; Rainer, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  12. Nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond thin films via block copolymer lithography.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.; Sumant, A. V.; Auciello, O.

    2010-07-01

    Nanopatterning of diamond surfaces is critical for the development of diamond-based microelectromechanical system/nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS), such as resonators or switches. Micro-/nanopatterning of diamond materials is typically done using photolithography or electron beam lithography combined with reactive ion etching (RIE). In this work, we demonstrate a simple process, block copolymer (BCP) lithography, for nanopatterning of ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films to produce nanostructures suitable for the fabrication of NEMS based on UNCD. In BCP lithography, nanoscale self-assembled polymeric domains serve as an etch mask for pattern transfer. The authors used thin films of a cylinder-forming organic-inorganic BCP, poly(styrene-block-ferrocenyldimethylsilane), PS-b-PFS, as an etch mask on the surface of UNCD films. Orientational control of the etch masking cylindrical PFS blocks is achieved by manipulating the polymer film thickness in concert with the annealing treatment. We have observed that the surface roughness of UNCD layers plays an important role in transferring the pattern. Oxygen RIE was used to etch the exposed areas of the UNCD film underneath the BCP. Arrays of both UNCD posts and wirelike structures have been created using the same starting polymeric materials as the etch mask.

  13. Thin films for geothermal sensing: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The report discusses progress in three components of the geothermal measurement problem: (1) developing appropriate chemically sensitive thin films; (2) discovering suitably rugged and effective encapsulation schemes; and (3) conducting high temperature, in-situ electrochemical measurements. (ACR)

  14. Thermally tunable ferroelectric thin film photonic crystals.

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, P. T.; Wessels, B. W.; Imre, A.; Ocola, L. E.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    Thermally tunable PhCs are fabricated from ferroelectric thin films. Photonic band structure and temperature dependent diffraction are calculated by FDTD. 50% intensity modulation is demonstrated experimentally. This device has potential in active ultra-compact optical circuits.

  15. Thin film production method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Loutfy, Raouf O.; Moravsky, Alexander P.; Hassen, Charles N.

    2010-08-10

    A method for forming a thin film material which comprises depositing solid particles from a flowing suspension or aerosol onto a filter and next adhering the solid particles to a second substrate using an adhesive.

  16. Optical and electrical characterization of plasma polymerized pyrrole films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D. Sakthi; Nakamura, Kenji; Nishiyama, Satoko; Ishii, Shigeru; Noguchi, Hiromichi; Kashiwagi, Kunihiro; Yoshida, Yasuhiko

    2003-03-01

    Plasma polymerization of pyrrole was carried out in the presence and absence of iodine, and the resulting films were characterized by optical and electrical means. Their infrared spectra were very similar to each other, suggesting that iodine was neither bonded in any manner to, nor strongly interacting with, the pyrrole polymer chains. Based on their infrared spectra, a chemical structure was proposed for the plasma-polymerized pyrrole (PPPy) film. An analysis of the electronic spectra gave band gap energies of 1.3 and 0.8 eV for the undoped and doped PPPy films, respectively. In line with this result, the current-voltage characteristics of the two types of polymer films revealed that the conductivity of the doped PPPy film was approximately two times greater than that of the undoped one. An investigation of the scanning electron micrographs led us to conclude that iodine had changed the surface morphology of the PPPy film, resulting in the small increase in conductivity. A detailed analysis of the conduction mechanism disclosed that the conduction mechanism in the undoped PPPy film is a Schottky-type mechanism.

  17. Microstructure Related Properties of Optical Thin Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, John James, Jr.

    Both the optical and physical properties of thin film optical interference coatings depend upon the microstructure of the deposited films. This microstructure is strongly columnar with voids between the columns. Computer simulations of the film growth process indicate that the two most important factors responsible for this columnar growth are a limited mobility of the condensing molecules and self-shadowing by molecules already deposited. During the vacuum deposition of thin films, the microstructure can be influenced by many parameters, such as substrate temperature and vacuum pressure. By controlling these parameters and introducing additional ones, thin film coatings can be improved. In this research, ultraviolet irradiation and ion bombardment were examined as additional parameters. Past studies have shown that post-deposition ultraviolet irradiation can be used to relieve stress and reduce absorption in the far ultraviolet of silicon dioxide films. Ion bombardment has been used to reduce stress, improve packing density, and increase resistance to moisture penetration. Three refractory oxide materials commonly used in thin film coatings were studied; they are silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide, and zirconium dioxide. Both single-layer films and narrowband filters made of these materials were examined. A 1000-watt mercury-xenon lamp was used to provide ultraviolet irradiation. An inverted magnetron ion source was used to produce argon and oxygen ions. Ultraviolet irradiation was found to reduce the absorption and slightly increase the index of refraction in zirconium oxide films. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that ultraviolet irradiation caused titanium oxide films to become more amorphous; their absorption in the ultraviolet was slightly reduced. No changes were noted in film durability. Ion bombardment enhanced the tetragonal (lll) peak of zirconium oxide but increased the absorption of both zirconium oxide and titanium oxide films. The titanium oxide

  18. Thin wetting film lensless imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allier, C. P.; Poher, V.; Coutard, J. G.; Hiernard, G.; Dinten, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Lensless imaging has recently attracted a lot of attention as a compact, easy-to-use method to image or detect biological objects like cells, but failed at detecting micron size objects like bacteria that often do not scatter enough light. In order to detect single bacterium, we have developed a method based on a thin wetting film that produces a micro-lens effect. Compared with previously reported results, a large improvement in signal to noise ratio is obtained due to the presence of a micro-lens on top of each bacterium. In these conditions, standard CMOS sensors are able to detect single bacterium, e.g. E.coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis, with a large signal to noise ratio. This paper presents our sensor optimization to enhance the SNR; improve the detection of sub-micron objects; and increase the imaging FOV, from 4.3 mm2 to 12 mm2 to 24 mm2, which allows the detection of bacteria contained in 0.5μl to 4μl to 10μl, respectively.

  19. Molecular reactions at the film surface in plasma polymerization. [Plasma Polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    During the plasma polymerization process, the surface of the depositing material is continuously bombarded by a multitude of plasma generated species: ions, photons, radicals and other neutral molecules. In understanding the chemistry of the plasma polymerization process it is desirable to know the way in which these species interact with the film during deposition. Any individual molecule/surface collision may result in growth of the film by an attachment reaction, or in ablation by chemical or physical removal of previously attached atoms. Reported here are results of experiments designed to probe the reaction of molecules undergoing single collisions with the surface of a plasma-polymerized film during the deposition process. The method employed was a molecular beam sampling of all the plasma species and deposition of polymer from the beam onto a substrate. Control of the charged particle fluxes to the surface was used to study the role of ion bombardment. A beam of a probe molecule, incident on the film surface throughout the deposition, was used to investigate the interaction of the probe molecule with the surface. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Flush Mounting Of Thin-Film Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Technique developed for mounting thin-film sensors flush with surfaces like aerodynamic surfaces of aircraft, which often have compound curvatures. Sensor mounted in recess by use of vacuum pad and materials selected for specific application. Technique involves use of materials tailored to thermal properties of substrate in which sensor mounted. Together with customized materials, enables flush mounting of thin-film sensors in most situations in which recesses for sensors provided. Useful in both aircraft and automotive industries.

  1. Thin-film microelectronic wearable body sensors.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    This review of various applications of well-established thin-film processing techniques to wearable body sensors gives examples of work done in the author's laboratory over many years. Sensors for the vital signs of body temperature, electrocardiogram, heart rate, breathing pattern and breathing rate are presented along with other applications. Thin-film based sensors have the advantage of small size, high surface area to mass ratio, flexibility, capability for batch production, and compatibility with other microelectronic technologies.

  2. Epitaxial thin film growth in outer space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, Alex; Chu, C. W.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for materials processing in space exploits the ultravacuum component of space for thin-film epitaxial growth. The unique LEO space environment is expected to yield 10-ftorr or better pressures, semiinfinite pumping speeds, and large ultravacuum volume (about 100 cu m) without walls. These space ultravacuum properties promise major improvement in the quality, unique nature, and throughput of epitaxially grown materials, including semiconductors, magnetic materials, and thin-film high-temperature superconductors.

  3. Thin-film reliability and engineering overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The reliability and engineering technology base required for thin film solar energy conversions modules is discussed. The emphasis is on the integration of amorphous silicon cells into power modules. The effort is being coordinated with SERI's thin film cell research activities as part of DOE's Amorphous Silicon Program. Program concentration is on temperature humidity reliability research, glass breaking strength research, point defect system analysis, hot spot heating assessment, and electrical measurements technology.

  4. Thin solid-lubricant films in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, E. W.

    Low-friction films of thickness as low as 1 micron, created through sputter-deposition of low shear strength materials, are required in spacecraft applications requiring low power dissipation, such as cryogenic devices, and low torque noise, such as precision-pointing mechanisms. Due to their thinness, these coatings can be applied to high precision-machined tribological components without compromising their functional accuracy. Attention is here given to the cases of thin solid films for ball bearings, gears, and journal bearings.

  5. Printable CIGS thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2013-03-01

    Among the various thin film solar cells in the market, CuInGaSe thin film solar cells have been considered as the most promising alternatives to crystalline silicon solar cells because of their high photo-electricity conversion efficiency, reliability, and stability. However, many fabrication methods of CIGS thin film are based on vacuum processes such as evaporation and sputtering techniques which are not cost efficient. This work develops a solution method using paste or ink liquid spin-coated on glass that would be competitive to conventional ways in terms of cost effective, non-vacuum needed, and quick processing. A mixture precursor was prepared by dissolving appropriate amounts of composition chemicals. After the mixture solution was cooled, a viscous paste was prepared and ready for spin-coating process. A slight bluish CIG thin film on substrate was then put in a tube furnace with evaporation of metal Se followed by depositing CdS layer and ZnO nanoparticle thin film coating to complete a solar cell fabrication. Structure, absorption spectrum, and photo-electricity conversion efficiency for the as-grown CIGS thin film solar cell are under study.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Antennas.

    PubMed

    Puchades, Ivan; Rossi, Jamie E; Cress, Cory D; Naglich, Eric; Landi, Brian J

    2016-08-17

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dipole antennas have been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. Antennas of varying lengths were fabricated using flexible bulk MWCNT sheet material and evaluated to confirm the validity of a full-wave antenna design equation. The ∼20× improvement in electrical conductivity provided by chemically doped SWCNT thin films over MWCNT sheets presents an opportunity for the fabrication of thin-film antennas, leading to potentially simplified system integration and optical transparency. The resonance characteristics of a fabricated chlorosulfonic acid-doped SWCNT thin-film antenna demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and indicate that when the sheet resistance of the thin film is >40 ohm/sq no power is absorbed by the antenna and that a sheet resistance of <10 ohm/sq is needed to achieve a 10 dB return loss in the unbalanced antenna. The dependence of the return loss performance on the SWCNT sheet resistance is consistent with unbalanced metal, metal oxide, and other CNT-based thin-film antennas, and it provides a framework for which other thin-film antennas can be designed. PMID:27454334

  7. Carbon Nanotube Thin-Film Antennas.

    PubMed

    Puchades, Ivan; Rossi, Jamie E; Cress, Cory D; Naglich, Eric; Landi, Brian J

    2016-08-17

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) and single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) dipole antennas have been successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. Antennas of varying lengths were fabricated using flexible bulk MWCNT sheet material and evaluated to confirm the validity of a full-wave antenna design equation. The ∼20× improvement in electrical conductivity provided by chemically doped SWCNT thin films over MWCNT sheets presents an opportunity for the fabrication of thin-film antennas, leading to potentially simplified system integration and optical transparency. The resonance characteristics of a fabricated chlorosulfonic acid-doped SWCNT thin-film antenna demonstrate the feasibility of the technology and indicate that when the sheet resistance of the thin film is >40 ohm/sq no power is absorbed by the antenna and that a sheet resistance of <10 ohm/sq is needed to achieve a 10 dB return loss in the unbalanced antenna. The dependence of the return loss performance on the SWCNT sheet resistance is consistent with unbalanced metal, metal oxide, and other CNT-based thin-film antennas, and it provides a framework for which other thin-film antennas can be designed.

  8. Printable CIGS thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xiaojuan

    2014-03-01

    Among the various thin film solar cells in the market, CuInGaSe thin film cells have been considered as the most promising alternatives to silicon solar cells because of their high photo-electricity efficiency, reliability, and stability. However, many fabrication of CIGS thin film are based on vacuum processes such as evaporation sputtering techniques which are not cost efficient. This work develops a method using paste or ink liquid spin-coated on glass that would be to conventional ways in terms of cost effective, non-vacuum needed, quick processing. A mixture precursor was prepared by dissolving appropriate amounts of chemicals. After the mixture solution was cooled, a viscous paste prepared and ready for spin-coating process. A slight bluish CIG thin film substrate was then put in a tube furnace with evaporation of metal Se by depositing CdS layer and ZnO nanoparticle thin film coating to a solar cell fabrication. Structure, absorption spectrum, and photo-conversion efficiency for the as-grown CIGS thin film solar cell under study.

  9. High performance thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane.

    PubMed

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Tiraferri, Alberto; Phillip, William A; Schiffman, Jessica D; Elimelech, Menachem

    2010-05-15

    Recent studies show that osmotically driven membrane processes may be a viable technology for desalination, water and wastewater treatment, and power generation. However, the absence of a membrane designed for such processes is a significant obstacle hindering further advancements of this technology. This work presents the development of a high performance thin-film composite membrane for forward osmosis applications. The membrane consists of a selective polyamide active layer formed by interfacial polymerization on top of a polysulfone support layer fabricated by phase separation onto a thin (40 mum) polyester nonwoven fabric. By careful selection of the polysulfone casting solution (i.e., polymer concentration and solvent composition) and tailoring the casting process, we produced a support layer with a mix of finger-like and sponge-like morphologies that give significantly enhanced membrane performance. The structure and performance of the new thin-film composite forward osmosis membrane are compared with those of commercial membranes. Using a 1.5 M NaCl draw solution and a pure water feed, the fabricated membranes produced water fluxes exceeding 18 L m(2-)h(-1), while consistently maintaining observed salt rejection greater than 97%. The high water flux of the fabricated thin-film composite forward osmosis membranes was directly related to the thickness, porosity, tortuosity, and pore structure of the polysulfone support layer. Furthermore, membrane performance did not degrade after prolonged exposure to an ammonium bicarbonate draw solution.

  10. Tribological Properties of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Polymerized Silica-like Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bing; Boerio, James

    2011-03-01

    Thin silica-like films were deposited on ferrotype plate and polycarbonate (PC) substrates with an atmospheric pressure plasma jet using hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as the precursor. It was found that the thickness and properties of the film were sensitive to the flow rate of the precursor, the deposition distance, and the radio frequency power Residual methyl groups were incorporated into the film when the distance between the nozzle of the plasma jet and the substrate was increased, or when the RF power used in deposition was decreased. This was confirmed by an increase in Si-CH3 peak intensity in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra of the films. The atomic compositions and chemical bonding of HMDSO-air plasma-polymerized Si Ox Cy were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Low precursor flow rates produced smoother, more continuous, and more uniform films than high precursor flow rates. Low precursor flow rates produced films with atomic composition of Si:O:C=1:2.37:0.2. The deposited films presented mainly inorganic characteristics without adding oxygen or argon gas to the ionization gas mixture, as is common in the literature. Scratch resistance of the films was measured using a scratch tester with a diamond indenter under progressive load. Post scratch image and surface morphology of the substrate and the film was obtained by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  11. Thin-Film Nanocapacitor and Its Characterization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, David N.; Pickering, Shawn L.; Jia, Dongdong

    2007-01-01

    An undergraduate thin-film nanotechnology laboratory was designed. Nanocapacitors were fabricated on silicon substrates by sputter deposition. A mask was designed to form the shape of the capacitor and its electrodes. Thin metal layers of Au with a 80 nm thickness were deposited and used as two infinitely large parallel plates for a capacitor.…

  12. Thin films, asphaltenes, and reservoir wettability

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminsky, R.; Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. |

    1993-04-01

    Reservoir wettability impacts the success of oil recovery by waterflooding and other methods. To understand wettability and its alteration, thin-film forces in solid-aqueous-oil systems must be elucidated. Upon rupture of thick aqueous films separating the oil and rock phases, asphaltene components in the crude oil adsorb irreversibly on the solid surface, changing it from water-wet to oil-wet. Conditions of wettability alteration can be found by performing adhesion tests, in which an oil droplet is brought into contact with a solid surface. Exceeding a critical capillary pressure destabilizes the film, causing spontaneous film rupture to a molecularly adsorbed layer and oil adhesion accompanied by pinning at the three-phase contact line. The authors conduct adhesion experiments similar to those of Buckley and Morrow and simultaneously examine the state of the underlying thin film using optical microscopy and microinterferometry. Aqueous thin films between an asphaltic Orcutt crude oil and glass surfaces are studied as a function of aqueous pH and salinity. For the first time, they prove experimentally that strongly water-wet to strongly oil-wet wettability alteration and contact-angle pinning occur when thick aqueous films thin to molecularly adsorbed films and when the oil phase contains asphaltene molecules.

  13. Bimodal swelling responses in microgel thin films.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Courtney D; Lyon, L Andrew

    2007-04-26

    A series of studies on microgel thin films is described, wherein quartz crystal microgravimetry (QCM), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been used to probe the properties of microstructured polymer thin films as a function of film architecture and solution pH. Thin films composed of pNIPAm-co-AAc microgels were constructed by using spin-coating layer-by-layer (scLbL) assembly with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) as a polycationic "glue". Our findings suggest that the interaction between the negatively charged microgels and the positively charged PAH has a significant impact on the pH responsivity of the film. These effects are observable in both the optical and mechanical behaviors of the films. The most significant changes in behavior are observed when the motional resistance of a quartz oscillator is monitored via QCM experiments. Slight changes to the film architecture and alternating the pH of the environment significantly changes the QCM and SPR responses, suggesting a pH-dependent swelling that is dependent on both particle swelling and polyelectrolyte de-complexation. Together, these studies allow for a deeper understanding of the morphological changes that take place in environmentally responsive microgel-based thin films. PMID:17407344

  14. Induced electronic anisotropy in bismuth thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Albert D.; Yao, Mengliang; Opeil, Cyril; Katmis, Ferhat; Moodera, Jagadeesh S.; Li, Mingda; Tang, Shuang; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.

    2014-08-11

    We use magneto-resistance measurements to investigate the effect of texturing in polycrystalline bismuth thin films. Electrical current in bismuth films with texturing such that all grains are oriented with the trigonal axis normal to the film plane is found to flow in an isotropic manner. By contrast, bismuth films with no texture such that not all grains have the same crystallographic orientation exhibit anisotropic current flow, giving rise to preferential current flow pathways in each grain depending on its orientation. Extraction of the mobility and the phase coherence length in both types of films indicates that carrier scattering is not responsible for the observed anisotropic conduction. Evidence from control experiments on antimony thin films suggests that the anisotropy is a result of bismuth's large electron effective mass anisotropy.

  15. Adhesion and friction of thin metal films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments were conducted in vacuum with thin films of titanium, chromium, iron, and platinum sputter deposited on quartz or mica substrates. A single crystal hemispherically tipped gold slider was used in contact with the films at loads of 1.0 to 30.0 and at a sliding velocity of 0.7 mm/min at 23 C. Test results indicate that the friction coefficient is dependent on the adhesion of two interfaces, that between the film and its substrate and the slider and the film. There exists a relationship between the percent d bond character of metals in bulk and in thin film form and the friction coefficient. Oxygen can increase adhesive bonding of a metal film (platinum) to a substrate.

  16. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-07-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology.

  17. Structurally-driven Enhancement of Thermoelectric Properties within Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) thin Films

    PubMed Central

    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis; Pavlopoulou, Eleni; Portale, Giuseppe; Kuropatwa, Bryan A.; Dilhaire, Stefan; Fleury, Guillaume; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Due to the rising need for clean energy, thermoelectricity has raised as a potential alternative to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. Specifically, thermoelectric devices based on polymers could offer an efficient path for near-room temperature energy harvesters. Thus, control over thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers is crucial and, herein, the structural, electrical and thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) thin films doped with p-toluenesulfonate (Tos) molecules were investigated with regards to thin film processing. PEDOT:Tos thin films were prepared by in-situ polymerization of (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) monomers in presence of iron(III) p-toluenesulfonate with different co-solvents in order to tune the film structure. While the Seebeck coefficient remained constant, a large improvement in the electrical conductivity was observed for thin films processed with high boiling point additives. The increase of electrical conductivity was found to be solely in-plane mobility-driven. Probing the thin film structure by Grazing Incidence Wide Angle X-ray Scattering has shown that this behavior is dictated by the structural properties of the PEDOT:Tos films; specifically by the thin film crystallinity combined to the preferential edge-on orientation of the PEDOT crystallites. Consequentially enhancement of the power factor from 25 to 78.5 μW/mK2 has been readily obtained for PEDOT:Tos thin films following this methodology. PMID:27470637

  18. Flexible Thin Metal Film Thermal Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomsen, Donald Laurence (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A flexible thin metal film thermal sensing system is provided. A thermally-conductive film made from a thermally-insulating material is doped with thermally-conductive material. At least one layer of electrically-conductive metal is deposited directly onto a surface of the thermally-conductive film. One or more devices are coupled to the layer(s) to measure an electrical characteristic associated therewith as an indication of temperature.

  19. Microcrystalline organic thin-film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Verreet, Bregt; Heremans, Paul; Stesmans, Andre; Rand, Barry P

    2013-10-11

    Microcrystalline organic films with tunable thickness are produced directly on an indium-tin-oxide substrate, by crystallizing a thin amorphous rubrene film followed by its use as a template for subsequent homoepitaxial growth. These films, with exciton diffusion lengths exceeding 200 nm, produce solar cells with increasing photocurrents at thicknesses up to 400 nm with a fill factor >65%, demonstrating significant potential for microcrystalline organic electronic devices. PMID:23939936

  20. Film-Stabilizing Attributes of Polymeric Core-Shell Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Jing; Yuan, Hao-Miao; Blencowe, Anton; Qiao, Greg G; Genzer, Jan; Spontak, Richard J

    2015-08-25

    Self-organization of nanoparticles into stable, molecularly thin films provides an insightful paradigm for manipulating the manner in which materials interact at nanoscale dimensions to generate unique material assemblies at macroscopic length scales. While prior studies in this vein have focused largely on examining the performance of inorganic or organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles (NPs), the present work examines the stabilizing attributes of fully organic core-shell microgel (CSMG) NPs composed of a cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (PEGDMA) core and a shell of densely grafted, but relatively short-chain, polystyrene (PS) arms. Although PS homopolymer thin films measuring from a few to many nanometers in thickness, depending on the molecular weight, typically dewet rapidly from silica supports at elevated temperatures, spin-coated CSMG NP films measuring as thin as 10 nm remain stable under identical conditions for at least 72 h. Through the use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to alter the surface of a flat silica-based support, we demonstrate that such stabilization is not attributable to hydrogen bonding between the acrylic core and silica. We also document that thin NP films consisting of three or less layers (10 nm) and deposited onto SAMs can be fully dissolved even after extensive thermal treatment, whereas slightly thicker films (40 nm) on Si wafer become only partially soluble during solvent rinsing with and without sonication. Taken together, these observations indicate that the present CSMG NP films are stabilized primarily by multidirectional penetration of relatively short, unentangled NP arms caused by NP layering, rather than by chain entanglement as in linear homopolymer thin films. This nanoscale "velcro"-like mechanism permits such NP films, unlike their homopolymer counterparts of comparable chain length and thickness, to remain intact as stable, free-floating sheets on water, and thus provides a viable alternative to

  1. Film-Stabilizing Attributes of Polymeric Core-Shell Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Jing; Yuan, Hao-Miao; Blencowe, Anton; Qiao, Greg G; Genzer, Jan; Spontak, Richard J

    2015-08-25

    Self-organization of nanoparticles into stable, molecularly thin films provides an insightful paradigm for manipulating the manner in which materials interact at nanoscale dimensions to generate unique material assemblies at macroscopic length scales. While prior studies in this vein have focused largely on examining the performance of inorganic or organic/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles (NPs), the present work examines the stabilizing attributes of fully organic core-shell microgel (CSMG) NPs composed of a cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (PEGDMA) core and a shell of densely grafted, but relatively short-chain, polystyrene (PS) arms. Although PS homopolymer thin films measuring from a few to many nanometers in thickness, depending on the molecular weight, typically dewet rapidly from silica supports at elevated temperatures, spin-coated CSMG NP films measuring as thin as 10 nm remain stable under identical conditions for at least 72 h. Through the use of self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to alter the surface of a flat silica-based support, we demonstrate that such stabilization is not attributable to hydrogen bonding between the acrylic core and silica. We also document that thin NP films consisting of three or less layers (10 nm) and deposited onto SAMs can be fully dissolved even after extensive thermal treatment, whereas slightly thicker films (40 nm) on Si wafer become only partially soluble during solvent rinsing with and without sonication. Taken together, these observations indicate that the present CSMG NP films are stabilized primarily by multidirectional penetration of relatively short, unentangled NP arms caused by NP layering, rather than by chain entanglement as in linear homopolymer thin films. This nanoscale "velcro"-like mechanism permits such NP films, unlike their homopolymer counterparts of comparable chain length and thickness, to remain intact as stable, free-floating sheets on water, and thus provides a viable alternative to

  2. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  3. Rupture Limit of Thin Moving Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrino, Juan C.; Joseph, Daniel D.; Kim, Hyungjun

    2010-11-01

    The rupture of a thin film in another fluid is studied including the effects of disjoining pressure. The study considers the linear stability of a moving viscous film in a motionless inviscid fluid and of a stagnant viscous film in a motionless viscous fluid. These are analyzed by means of the Navier--Stokes equations and the dissipation approximation based on potential flow. Results reveal that the dissipation method provides a good approximation for the case of a moving film, whereas its predictions are off the mark for the stagnant film case. The thickness of the gap at the trough of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves locates the formation of holes. The wavelength at final collapse is determined by the length of waves at the trough of the corrugated film. The disjoining pressure effects cause very fast break-up for very thin films. These effects influence the cutoff wavenumber. In the limit of small gaps on this corrugated film, the Reynolds and Weber numbers tend to zero with the gap size, the Ohnesorge number increases like the reciprocal of the square root and the Hamaker number like the reciprocal of the square of the gap. The motion of the film does not enter at the point of formation of holes. Moreover, for the most unstable wave, the ratio of the wavelength to film thickness is found to decrease with decreasing film thickness.

  4. Holographic analysis of thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norden, B. N.; Williams, J. R.

    1970-01-01

    Technique for monitoring deposition of films on surfaces, in place on a real-time basis, reads both the thickness and the uniformity of the deposited film. Holograms are produced from both reflected and transmitted light on one plate.

  5. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOEpatents

    Wilhelm, William G.

    1985-01-01

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  6. Thin Ice Films at Mineral Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yeşilbaş, Merve; Boily, Jean-François

    2016-07-21

    Ice films formed at mineral surfaces are of widespread occurrence in nature and are involved in numerous atmospheric and terrestrial processes. In this study, we studied thin ice films at surfaces of 19 synthetic and natural mineral samples of varied structure and composition. These thin films were formed by sublimation of thicker hexagonal ice overlayers mostly produced by freezing wet pastes of mineral particles at -10 and -50 °C. Vibration spectroscopy revealed that thin ice films contained smaller populations of strongly hydrogen-bonded water molecules than in hexagonal ice and liquid water. Thin ice films at the surfaces of the majority of minerals considered in this work [i.e., metal (oxy)(hydr)oxides, phyllosilicates, silicates, volcanic ash, Arizona Test Dust] produced intense O-H stretching bands at ∼3400 cm(-1), attenuated bands at ∼3200 cm(-1), and liquid-water-like bending band at ∼1640 cm(-1) irrespective of structure and composition. Illite, a nonexpandable phyllosilicate, is the only mineral that stabilized a form of ice that was strongly resilient to sublimation in temperatures as low as -50 °C. As mineral-bound thin ice films are the substrates upon which ice grows from water vapor or aqueous solutions, this study provides new constraints from which their natural occurrences can be understood. PMID:27377606

  7. Coalescence and percolation in thin metal films

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, X.; Duxbury, P.M.; Jeffers, G.; Dubson, M.A. Center for Fundamental Materials Research, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1116 )

    1991-12-15

    Metals thermally evaporated onto warm insulating substrates evolve to the thin-film state via the morphological sequence: compact islands, elongated islands, percolation, hole filling, and finally the thin-film state. The coverage at which the metal percolates ({ital p}{sub {ital c}}) is often considerably higher than that predicted by percolation models, such as inverse swiss cheese or lattice percolation. Using a simple continuum model, we show that high-{ital p}{sub {ital c}}'s arise naturally in thin films that exhibit a crossover from full coalescence of islands at early stages of growth to partial coalescence at later stages. In this interrupted-coalescence model, full coalescence of islands occurs up to a critical island radius {ital R}{sub {ital c}}, after which islands overlap, but do not fully coalesce. We present the morphology of films and the critical area coverages generated by this model.

  8. Magnetoelectric thin film composites with interdigital electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piorra, A.; Jahns, R.; Teliban, I.; Gugat, J. L.; Gerken, M.; Knöchel, R.; Quandt, E.

    2013-07-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) thin film composites on silicon cantilevers are fabricated using Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.45)O3 (PZT) films with interdigital transducer electrodes on the top side and FeCoSiB amorphous magnetostrictive thin films on the backside. These composites without any direct interface between the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive phase are superior to conventional plate capacitor-type thin film ME composites. A limit of detection of 2.6 pT/Hz1/2 at the mechanical resonance is determined which corresponds to an improvement of a factor of approximately 2.8 compared to the best plate type sensor using AlN as the piezoelectric phase and even a factor of approximately 4 for a PZT plate capacitor.

  9. Simulated Thin-Film Growth and Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Thin-films have become the cornerstone of the electronics, telecommunications, and broadband markets. A list of potential products includes: computer boards and chips, satellites, cell phones, fuel cells, superconductors, flat panel displays, optical waveguides, building and automotive windows, food and beverage plastic containers, metal foils, pipe plating, vision ware, manufacturing equipment and turbine engines. For all of these reasons a basic understanding of the physical processes involved in both growing and imaging thin-films can provide a wonderful research project for advanced undergraduate and first-year graduate students. After producing rudimentary two- and three-dimensional thin-film models incorporating ballsitic deposition and nearest neighbor Coulomb-type interactions, the QM tunneling equations are used to produce simulated scanning tunneling microscope (SSTM) images of the films. A discussion of computational platforms, languages, and software packages that may be used to accomplish similar results is also given.

  10. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  11. Method for making thin polypropylene film

    DOEpatents

    Behymer, R.D.; Scholten, J.A.

    1985-11-21

    An economical method is provided for making uniform thickness polypropylene film as thin as 100 Angstroms. A solution of polypropylene dissolved in xylene is formed by mixing granular polypropylene and xylene together in a flask at an elevated temperature. A substrate, such as a glass plate or microscope slide is immersed in the solution. When the glass plate is withdrawn from the solution at a uniform rate, a thin polypropylene film forms on a flat surface area of the glass plate as the result of xylene evaporation. The actual thickness of the polypropylene film is functional of the polypropylene in xylene solution concentration, and the particular withdrawal rate of the glass plate from the solution. After formation, the thin polypropylene film is floated from the glass plate onto the surface of water, from which it is picked up with a wire hoop.

  12. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey; Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran

    1999-01-01

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  13. Microscale damping using thin film active materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerrigan, Catherine A.; Ho, Ken K.; Mohanchandra, K. P.; Carman, Gregory P.

    2007-04-01

    This paper focuses on understanding and developing a new approach to dampen MEMS structures using both experiments and analytical techniques. Thin film Nitinol and thin film Terfenol-D are evaluated as a damping solution to the micro scale damping problem. Stress induced twin boundary motion in Nitinol is used to passively dampen potentially damaging vibrations. Magnetic domain wall motion is used to passively dampen vibration in Terfenol-D. The thin films of Nitinol, Nitinol/Silicon laminates and Nitinol/Terfenol-D/Nickel laminates have been produced using a sputter deposition process and damping properties have been evaluated. Dynamic testing shows substantial damping (tan δ) measurable in each case. Nitinol film samples were tested in the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to determine phase transformation temperatures. The twin boundary mechanism by which energy absorption occurs is present at all points below the Austenite start temperature (approximately 69°C in our film) and therefore allows damping at cold temperatures where traditional materials fail. Thin film in the NiTi/Si laminate was found to produce substantially higher damping (tan δ = 0.28) due to the change in loading condition. The NiTi/Si laminate sample was tested in bending allowing the twin boundaries to be reset by cyclic tensile and compressive loads. The thin film Terfenol-D in the Nitinol/Terfenol-D/Nickel laminate was shown to produce large damping (tan δ = 0.2). In addition to fabricating and testing, an analytical model of a heterogeneous layered thin film damping material was developed and compared to experimental work.

  14. MOF thin films: existing and future applications.

    PubMed

    Shekhah, O; Liu, J; Fischer, R A; Wöll, Ch

    2011-02-01

    The applications and potentials of thin film coatings of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) supported on various substrates are discussed in this critical review. Because the demand for fabricating such porous coatings is rather obvious, in the past years several synthesis schemes have been developed for the preparation of thin porous MOF films. Interestingly, although this is an emerging field seeing a rapid development a number of different applications on MOF films were either already demonstrated or have been proposed. This review focuses on the fabrication of continuous, thin porous films, either supported on solid substrates or as free-standing membranes. The availability of such two-dimensional types of porous coatings opened the door for a number of new perspectives for functionalizing surfaces. Also for the porous materials themselves, the availability of a solid support to which the MOF-films are rigidly (in a mechanical sense) anchored provides access to applications not available for the typical MOF powders with particle sizes of a few μm. We will also address some of the potential and applications of thin films in different fields like luminescence, QCM-based sensors, optoelectronics, gas separation and catalysis. A separate chapter has been devoted to the delamination of MOF thin films and discusses the potential to use them as free-standing membranes or as nano-containers. The review also demonstrates the possibility of using MOF thin films as model systems for detailed studies on MOF-related phenomena, e.g. adsorption and diffusion of small molecules into MOFs as well as the formation mechanism of MOFs (101 references).

  15. Method for providing mirror surfaces with protective strippable polymeric film

    DOEpatents

    Edwards, Charlene C.; Day, Jack R.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a method for forming a protective, strippable, elastomeric film on a highly reflective surface. The method is especially well suited for protecting diamond-machined metallic mirrors, which are susceptible not only to abrasion and mechanical damage but also to contamination and corrosion by various fluids. In a typical use of the invention, a diamond-machined copper mirror surface is coated uniformly with a solution comprising a completely polymerized and completely cured thermoplastic urethane elastomer dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. The applied coating is evaporated to dryness, forming a tough, adherent, impermeable, and transparent film which encapsulates dust and other particulates on the surface. The film may be left in place for many months. When desired, the film may be stripped intact, removing the entrapped particulates and leaving no residue on the mirror surface.

  16. Method for providing mirror surfaces with protective strippable polymeric film

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.C.; Day, J.R.

    1980-04-22

    This invention is a method for forming a protective, strippable, elastomeric film on a highly reflective surface. The method is especially well suited for protecting diamond-machined metallic mirrors, which are susceptible not only to abrasion and mechanical damage but also to contamination and corrosion by various fluids. In a typical use of the invention, a diamond-machined copper mirror surface is coated uniformly with a solution comprising a completely polymerized and completely cured thermoplastic urethane elastomer dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. The applied coating is evaporated to dryness, forming a tough, adherent, impermeable, and transparent film which encapsulates dust and other particulates on the surface. The film may be left in place for many months. When desired, the film may be stripped intact, removing the entrapped particulates and leaving no residue on the mirror surface.

  17. Method of forming graded polymeric coatings or films

    DOEpatents

    Liepins, Raimond

    1983-01-01

    Very smooth polymeric coatings or films graded in atomic number and density can readily be formed by first preparing the coating or film from the desired monomeric material and then contacting it with a fluid containing a metal or a mixture of metals for a time sufficient for such metal or metals to sorb and diffuse into the coating or film. Metal resinate solutions are particularly advantageous for this purpose. A metallic coating can in turn be produced on the metal-loaded film or coating by exposing it to a low pressure plasma of air, oxygen, or nitrous oxide. The process permits a metallic coating to be formed on a heat sensitive substrate without the use of elevated temperatures.

  18. Molecular layer-by-layer assembled thin-film composite membranes for water desalination.

    PubMed

    Gu, Joung-Eun; Lee, Seunghye; Stafford, Christopher M; Lee, Jong Suk; Choi, Wansuk; Kim, Bo-Young; Baek, Kyung-Youl; Chan, Edwin P; Chung, Jun Young; Bang, Joona; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2013-09-14

    Molecular layer-by-layer (mLbL) assembled thin-film composite membranes fabricated by alternating deposition of reactive monomers on porous supports exhibit both improved salt rejection and enhanced water flux compared to traditional reverse osmosis membranes prepared by interfacial polymerization. Additionally, the well-controlled structures achieved by mLbL deposition further lead to improved antifouling performance.

  19. Mesoscopically structured nanocrystalline metal oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrian; Drisko, Glenna L.; Grosso, David; Boissiere, Cédric; Sanchez, Clement

    2014-11-01

    This review describes the main successful strategies that are used to grow mesostructured nanocrystalline metal oxide and SiO2 films via deposition of sol-gel derived solutions. In addition to the typical physicochemical forces to be considered during crystallization, mesoporous thin films are also affected by the substrate-film relationship and the mesostructure. The substrate can influence the crystallization temperature and the obtained crystallographic orientation due to the interfacial energies and the lattice mismatch. The mesostructure can influence the crystallite orientation, and affects nucleation and growth behavior due to the wall thickness and pore curvature. Three main methods are presented and discussed: templated mesoporosity followed by thermally induced crystallization, mesostructuration of already crystallized metal oxide nanobuilding units and substrate-directed crystallization with an emphasis on very recent results concerning epitaxially grown piezoelectric structured α-quartz films via crystallization of amorphous structured SiO2 thin films.

  20. Dynamics of Polymer Thin Film Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besancon, Brian M.; Green, Peter F.; Soles, Christopher L.

    2006-03-01

    We examined the influence of film thickness and composition on the glass transition temperature (Tg) and mean square atomic displacements (MSD) of thin film mixtures of deuterated polystyrene (dPS) and tetramethyl bisphenol-A polycarbonate (TMPC) on Si/SiOx substrates using incoherent elastic neutron scattering (ICNS). The onset of dissipative motions, such as those associated with the glass transition and sub-Tg relaxations, are manifested as ``kinks'' in the curve of elastic intensity (or MSD) versus temperature. From the relevant kinks, the Tg was determined as a function of composition and of film thickness. The dependence of the Tg on film thickness exhibited qualitatively similar trends, at a given composition, as determined by the ICNS and ellipsometry measurements. However, with increasing PS content, the values of Tg measured by INS were consistently larger then those measured by ellipsometry. These results are examined in light of existing models on the thin film glass transition and component blend dynamics.

  1. AC impedance analysis of polypyrrole thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penner, Reginald M.; Martin, Charles R.

    1987-01-01

    The AC impedance spectra of thin polypyrrole films were obtained at open circuit potentials from -0.4 to 0.4 V vs SCE. Two limiting cases are discussed for which simplified equivalent circuits are applicable. At very positive potentials, the predominantly nonfaradaic AC impedance of polypyrrole is very similar to that observed previously for finite porous metallic films. Modeling of the data with the appropriate equivalent circuit permits effective pore diameter and pore number densities of the oxidized film to be estimated. At potentials from -0.4 to -0.3 V, the polypyrrole film is essentially nonelectronically conductive and diffusion of polymer oxidized sites with their associated counterions can be assumed to be linear from the film/substrate electrode interface. The equivalent circuit for the polypyrrole film at these potentials is that previously described for metal oxide, lithium intercalation thin films. Using this model, counterion diffusion coefficients are determined for both semi-infinite and finite diffusion domains. In addition, the limiting low frequency resistance and capacitance of the polypyrrole thin fims was determined and compared to that obtained previously for thicker films of the polymer. The origin of the observed potential dependence of these low frequency circuit components is discussed.

  2. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Mostako, A. T. T.; Khare, Alika; Rao, C. V. S.

    2011-01-15

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10{sup -5} Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness {approx}782 nm.

  3. Mirrorlike pulsed laser deposited tungsten thin film.

    PubMed

    Mostako, A T T; Rao, C V S; Khare, Alika

    2011-01-01

    Mirrorlike tungsten thin films on stainless steel substrate deposited via pulsed laser deposition technique in vacuum (10(-5) Torr) is reported, which may find direct application as first mirror in fusion devices. The crystal structure of tungsten film is analyzed using x-ray diffraction pattern, surface morphology of the tungsten films is studied with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The film composition is identified using energy dispersive x-ray. The specular and diffuse reflectivities with respect to stainless steel substrate of the tungsten films are recorded with FTIR spectra. The thickness and the optical quality of pulsed laser deposition deposited films are tested via interferometric technique. The reflectivity is approaching about that of the bulk for the tungsten film of thickness ∼782 nm. PMID:21280810

  4. Surface Engineering of Styrene/PEGylated-Fluoroalkyl Styrene Block Copolymer Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Martinelle, E.; Menghetti, S; Galli, G; Glisenti, A; Krishnan, S; Paik, M; Ober, C; Smilgies, D; Fischer, D

    2009-01-01

    A series of diblock copolymers prepared from styrenic monomers was synthesized using atom transfer radical polymerization. One block was derived from styrene, whereas the second block was prepared from a styrene modified with an amphiphilic PEGylated-fluoroalkyl side chain. The surface properties of the resulting polymer films were carefully characterized using dynamic contact angle, XPS, and NEXAFS measurements. The polymer morphology was investigated using atomic force microscope and GISAXS studies. The block copolymers possess surfaces dominated by the fluorinated unit in the dry state and a distinct phase separated microstructure in the thin film. The microstructure of these polymers is strongly influenced by the thin film structure in which it is investigated.

  5. Polymeric Films Loaded with Vitamin E and Aloe vera for Topical Application in the Treatment of Burn Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaki; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Colombo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Burns are serious traumas related to skin damage, causing extreme pain and possibly death. Natural drugs such as Aloe vera and vitamin E have been demonstrated to be beneficial in formulations for wound healing. The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate polymeric films containing Aloe vera and vitamin E to treat wounds caused by burns. Polymeric films containing different quantities of sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were characterized for their mechanical properties and drug release. The polymeric films, which were produced, were thin, flexible, resistant, and suitable for application on damaged skin, such as in burn wounds. Around 30% of vitamin E acetate was released from the polymeric films within 12 hours. The in vivo experiments with tape stripping indicated an effective accumulation in the stratum corneum when compared to a commercial cream containing the same quantity of vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E acetate was found in higher quantities in the deep layers of the stratum corneum when the film formulation was applied. The results obtained show that the bioadhesive films containing vitamin E acetate and Aloe vera could be an innovative therapeutic system for the treatment of burns. PMID:24524083

  6. Polymeric films loaded with vitamin E and aloe vera for topical application in the treatment of burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaki; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Burns are serious traumas related to skin damage, causing extreme pain and possibly death. Natural drugs such as Aloe vera and vitamin E have been demonstrated to be beneficial in formulations for wound healing. The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate polymeric films containing Aloe vera and vitamin E to treat wounds caused by burns. Polymeric films containing different quantities of sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were characterized for their mechanical properties and drug release. The polymeric films, which were produced, were thin, flexible, resistant, and suitable for application on damaged skin, such as in burn wounds. Around 30% of vitamin E acetate was released from the polymeric films within 12 hours. The in vivo experiments with tape stripping indicated an effective accumulation in the stratum corneum when compared to a commercial cream containing the same quantity of vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E acetate was found in higher quantities in the deep layers of the stratum corneum when the film formulation was applied. The results obtained show that the bioadhesive films containing vitamin E acetate and Aloe vera could be an innovative therapeutic system for the treatment of burns.

  7. Thin film dielectric composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Jia, Quanxi; Gibbons, Brady J.; Findikoglu, Alp T.; Park, Bae Ho

    2002-01-01

    A dielectric composite material comprising at least two crystal phases of different components with TiO.sub.2 as a first component and a material selected from the group consisting of Ba.sub.1-x Sr.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.3 to 0.7, Pb.sub.1-x Ca.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.4 to 0.7, Sr.sub.1-x Pb.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, Ba.sub.1-x Cd.sub.x TiO.sub.3 where x is from 0.02 to 0.1, BaTi.sub.1-x Zr.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.2 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Sn.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.15 to 0.3, BaTi.sub.1-x Hf.sub.x O.sub.3 where x is from 0.24 to 0.3, Pb.sub.1-1.3x La.sub.x TiO.sub.3+0.2x where x is from 0.23 to 0.3, (BaTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFeo.sub.0.5 Nb.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.75 to 0.9, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.- (PbCo.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.1 to 0.45, (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbMg.sub.0.5 W.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0.2 to 0.4, and (PbTiO.sub.3).sub.x (PbFe.sub.0.5 Ta.sub.0.5 O.sub.3).sub.1-x where x is from 0 to 0.2, as the second component is described. The dielectric composite material can be formed as a thin film upon suitable substrates.

  8. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M. ); Schultz, J.A. ); Schmidt, H.K. ); Chang, R.P.H. . Dept. of Materials Science)

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 [Angstrom]), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 [Angstrom] of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films.

  9. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-11-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 {Angstrom}), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 {Angstrom} of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films.

  10. Elastic Moduli of Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Thin Films via Buckling on Elastomeric Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hongyi; Karim, Alamgir; University of Akron Team

    2011-03-01

    Polymeric thin films find applications in diverse areas such as coatings, barriers and packaging. The dispersion of nanoparticles into the films was proven to be an effective method to generate tunable properties, particularly mechanical strength. However, there are very few methods for mechanical characterization of the composite thin films with high accuracy. In this study, nanometric polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol films with uniformly dispersed cobalt and Cloisite nanoparticles at varying concentrations were synthesized via flow-coating and then transferred to crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible substrates. The technique of Strain-Induced Elastic Buckling Instability for Mechanical Measurements (SIEBIMM) was employed to determine the elastic moduli of the films, which were calculated from the buckling patterns generated by applying compressive stresses. Results on moduli of films as a function of the concentrations of nanoparticles and the thicknesses of the composite films will be presented. *Corresponding author: alamgir@uakron.edu

  11. Thin film calorimetry of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan; Salamon, William

    2000-03-01

    Polystryene and polymethylmethacrylate films for thicknesses ranging from 50nm to 500nm using a direct calorimetric technique (Lai et al, App. Phys. Lett. 67, p9(1995)). Samples were deposited on Ni foils(2-2.5um) and placed in a high vacuum oven. Calibrated heat pulses were input to the polymer films by current pulses to the Ni substrate and temperature changes were determined from the change in Ni resistance. Pulses producing temperature jumps of 3-8K were used and signal averaging over pulses reduced noise levels enough to identify glass transitions down to 50nm. Molecular weight dependence of thick films Tg was used as a temperature calibration.

  12. LPG ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing properties of nanostructured polypyrrole thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagul, Sagar B.; Upadhye, Deepak S.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film was synthesized by easy and economic chemical oxidative polymerization technique on glass at room temperature. The prepared thin film of Polypyrrole was characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy and electrical study by I-V measurement system. The optical absorbance spectrum of Polypyrrole shows two fundamental peaks in region of 420 and 890 nm, which confirms the formation of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. The I-V graph of nanostructured Polypyrrole represents the Ohmic nature. Furthermore, the thin film of Polypyrrole was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents spherical nanostructured morphology of Polypyrrole on glass substrate. In order to investigate gas sensing properties, 100 ppm of LPG, Ammonia and Nitrogen Dioxide were injected in the gas chamber and magnitude of resistance has been recorded as a function of time in second. It was observed that nanostructured Polypyrrole thin film shows good sensing behavior at room temperature.

  13. Chitosan in nanostructured thin films.

    PubMed

    Pavinatto, Felippe J; Caseli, Luciano; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2010-08-01

    This review paper brings an overview of the use of chitosans in nanostructured films produced with the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) or the electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) techniques, with emphasis on their possible applications. From a survey in the literature one may identify three main types of study with chitosan in nanostructured films. First, the interaction between chitosans and phospholipid Langmuir monolayers has been investigated for probing the mechanisms of chitosan action in their biological applications, with the monolayers serving as cell membrane models. In the second type, chitosan serves as a matrix for immobilization of biomolecules in LB as well as in LbL films, for which chitosan is suitable to help preserve the bioactivity of such biomolecules for long periods of time even in dry, solid films. An important application of these chitosan-containing films is in sensing and biosensing. The third type of study involves exploiting the mechanical and biocompatibility properties of chitosan in producing films with enhanced properties, for example, for tissue engineering. It is emphasized that chitosans have been proven excellent building blocks to produce films with controlled molecular architecture, allowing for synergy between distinct materials. We also discuss the prospects of the field, following a critical review of the latest developments in nanostructured chitosan films. PMID:20590156

  14. Method for synthesizing thin film electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2007-03-13

    A method for making a thin-film electrode, either an anode or a cathode, by preparing a precursor solution using an alkoxide reactant, depositing multiple thin film layers with each layer approximately 500 1000 .ANG. in thickness, and heating the layers to above 600.degree. C. to achieve a material with electrochemical properties suitable for use in a thin film battery. The preparation of the anode precursor solution uses Sn(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.2 dissolved in a solvent in the presence of HO.sub.2CCH.sub.3 and the cathode precursor solution is formed by dissolving a mixture of (Li(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3)).sub.8 and Co(O.sub.2CCH.sub.3).H.sub.2O in at least one polar solvent.

  15. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Sigmon, Thomas W.; Aceves, Randy C.

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  16. Thin film ferroelectric electro-optic memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita (Inventor); Thakoor, Anilkumar P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An electrically programmable, optically readable data or memory cell is configured from a thin film of ferroelectric material, such as PZT, sandwiched between a transparent top electrode and a bottom electrode. The output photoresponse, which may be a photocurrent or photo-emf, is a function of the product of the remanent polarization from a previously applied polarization voltage and the incident light intensity. The cell is useful for analog and digital data storage as well as opto-electric computing. The optical read operation is non-destructive of the remanent polarization. The cell provides a method for computing the product of stored data and incident optical data by applying an electrical signal to store data by polarizing the thin film ferroelectric material, and then applying an intensity modulated optical signal incident onto the thin film material to generate a photoresponse therein related to the product of the electrical and optical signals.

  17. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.

    2011-06-01

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  18. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  19. Thin film silicon photovoltaic module performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Christina

    1987-06-01

    This report evaluates the performance through December, 1986 of 15 commercially-available thin film silicon-hydrogen alloy PV modules manufactured by ARCO Solar, Chronar, ECD/Sovonics, and Solarex. Advances in the technology are indicated by the performance improvements associated with each generation of thin film silicon-hydrogen alloy PV modules introduced to the commercial market. Mounted at a 30 degree tilt facing due south, all of the thin film PV modules under evaluation have experienced decreased efficiency and fill factor on initial sun exposure. Midday efficiency tends to be highest during the summer and lowest during the winter. The seasonal change in midday air mass from 1.0 during the summer to 1.4 during the winter is among the factors that counteract the temperature effects and cause lowered efficiency and fill factor values during the winter.

  20. Processing and structural properties of random oriented lead lanthanum zirconate titanate thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Araújo, E.B.; Nahime, B.O.; Melo, M.; Dinelli, F.; Tantussi, F.; Baschieri, P.; Fuso, F.; Allegrini, M.

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Pyrochlore phase crystallizes near the bottom film-electrode interface. • PLZT films show a non-uniform microstrain and crystallite size in depth profile. • Complex grainy structure leads to different elastic modulus at the nanoscale. - Abstract: Polycrystalline lead lanthanum zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films have been prepared by a polymeric chemical route to understand the mechanisms of phase transformations and map the microstructure and elastic properties at the nanoscale in these films. X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM) have been used as investigative tools. On one side, PLZT films with mixed-phase show that the pyrochlore phase crystallizes predominantly in the bottom film-electrode interface while a pure perovskite phase crystallizes in top film surface. On the contrary, pyrochlore-free PLZT films show a non-uniform microstrain and crystallite size along the film thickness with a heterogeneous complex grainy structure leading to different elastic properties at nanoscale.

  1. Thin film oxygen partial pressure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, J. J.; Harrison, J. W.; Honbarrier, H. L.; Yen, J.

    1972-01-01

    The development is described of a laboratory model oxygen partial pressure sensor using a sputtered zinc oxide thin film. The film is operated at about 400 C through the use of a miniature silicon bar. Because of the unique resistance versus temperature relation of the silicon bar, control of the operational temperature is achieved by controlling the resistance. A circuit for accomplishing this is described. The response of sputtered zinc oxide films of various thicknesses to oxygen, nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor caused a change in the film resistance. Over a large range, film conductance varied approximately as the square root of the oxygen partial pressure. The presence of water vapor in the gas stream caused a shift in the film conductance at a given oxygen partial pressure. A theoretical model is presented to explain the characteristic features of the zinc oxide response to oxygen.

  2. Emittance Theory for Thin Film Selective Emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Lowe, Roland A.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films of high temperature garnet materials such as yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) doped with rare earths are currently being investigated as selective emitters. This paper presents a radiative transfer analysis of the thin film emitter. From this analysis the emitter efficiency and power density are calculated. Results based on measured extinction coefficients for erbium-YAG and holmium-YAG are presented. These results indicated that emitter efficiencies of 50 percent and power densities of several watts/sq cm are attainable at moderate temperatures (less than 1750 K).

  3. Thin film photovoltaics -- Strategy of Eurec Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Bloss, W.H.

    1994-12-31

    European activities in the field of thin film photovoltaics are coordinated in a network by Eurec Agency (European Renewable Energy Centres Agency). Main emphasis lies in the development of an appropriate production technology of CIS and CdTe based photovoltaic modules in an industrial scale. These efforts are supported by a research program on relevant materials, structures and processes for thin film photovoltaics. Substantial progress has been achieved during the last years which opens new perspectives for future trends. Joint efforts in research and development based on CIS are coordinated by the network EUROCIS. A screening program on natural minerals with relevance to photovoltaic performance provides the basis for further strategic steps.

  4. Feasibility Study of Thin Film Thermocouple Piles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Historically, thermopile detectors, generators, and refrigerators based on bulk materials have been used to measure temperature, generate power for spacecraft, and cool sensors for scientific investigations. New potential uses of small, low-power, thin film thermopiles are in the area of microelectromechanical systems since power requirements decrease as electrical and mechanical machines shrink in size. In this research activity, thin film thermopile devices are fabricated utilizing radio frequency sputter coating and photoresist lift-off techniques. Electrical characterizations are performed on two designs in order to investigate the feasibility of generating small amounts of power, utilizing any available waste heat as the energy source.

  5. Micro-sensor thin-film anemometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheplak, Mark (Inventor); McGinley, Catherine B. (Inventor); Spina, Eric F. (Inventor); Stephens, Ralph M. (Inventor); Hopson, Jr., Purnell (Inventor); Cruz, Vincent B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A device for measuring turbulence in high-speed flows is provided which includes a micro-sensor thin-film probe. The probe is formed from a single crystal of aluminum oxide having a 14.degree. half-wedge shaped portion. The tip of the half-wedge is rounded and has a thin-film sensor attached along the stagnation line. The bottom surface of the half-wedge is tilted upward to relieve shock induced disturbances created by the curved tip of the half-wedge. The sensor is applied using a microphotolithography technique.

  6. Borocarbide thin films and tunneling measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Iavarone, M.; Andreone, A.; Cassinese, A.; Dicapual, R.; giannil, L.; Vagliol, R.; DeWilde, Y.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2000-06-15

    The results obtained by their group in thin film fabrication and STM tunneling on superconducting borocarbides YNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C have been be briefly reviewed. Results concerning the microwave surface impedance and the S/N planar junctions on LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C thin films have been also presented and analyzed. These new data unambiguously confirm the full BCS nature of the superconducting gap in borocarbides and the absence of significant pair-breaking effects in LuNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C.

  7. Perovskite thin films via atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Brandon R; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T O; McDowell, Jeffrey J; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-01-01

    A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm(-1) .

  8. Annealed CVD molybdenum thin film surface

    DOEpatents

    Carver, Gary E.; Seraphin, Bernhard O.

    1984-01-01

    Molybdenum thin films deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of Mo(CO).sub.6 attain, after anneal in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures greater than 700.degree. C., infrared reflectance values greater than reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum. Black molybdenum films deposited under oxidizing conditions and annealed, when covered with an anti-reflecting coating, approach the ideal solar collector characteristic of visible light absorber and infrared energy reflector.

  9. Superconducting thin films on potassium tantalate substrates

    DOEpatents

    Feenstra, Roeland; Boatner, Lynn A.

    1992-01-01

    A superconductive system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

  10. Stable freestanding thin films of pure water

    SciTech Connect

    Weon, B. M.; Je, J. H.; Hwu, Y.; Margaritondo, G.

    2008-03-10

    Obtaining water microstructures is very difficult because of low viscosity and high surface tension. We produced stable freestanding thin films of pure water by x-ray bombardment of small liquid volumes in capillary tubes. A detailed characterization with phase-contrast radiology demonstrated a lifetime beyond 1 h with no chemical stabilizer for micron-thickness films with half-millimeter-level diameter. This can be attributed to the interplay of two x-ray effects: water evaporation and surface charging.

  11. Dynamics of liquid films and thin jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, M.

    1979-01-01

    The theory of liquid films and thin jets as one- and two-dimensional continuums is examined. The equations of motion have led to solutions for the characteristic speeds of wave propagation for the parameters characterizing the shape. The formal analogy with a compressible fluid indicates the possibility of shock wave generation in films and jets and the formal analogy to the theory of threads and membranes leads to the discovery of some new dynamic effects. The theory is illustrated by examples.

  12. Polymerization of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde on Ordered (WO3)3 Films on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhenjun; Zhang, Zhenrong; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2011-05-19

    Polymerization of formaldehyde, H2CO, and acetaldehyde, CH3CHO, was studied under ultrahigh vacuum conditions on a model catalyst consisting of an ultra-thin WO3 film supported on Pt(111). The onset of polymerization is observed at very low temperatures of 70 and 80 K for H2CO and CH3CHO, respectively, as documented by the evolution of the IRAS spectra. The amount of polymer increases with increasing coverage and saturates at 5 and 8 monolayers (ML) for the H2CO and CH3CHO multilayer films that are thicker than 10 and 15 ML, respectively. Upon heating, the polymers decompose around 250 and 190 K for H2CO and CH3CHO, respectively, as evidenced mass spectrometrically by the desorption of their monomers and oligomers into the gas phase. The heats of H2CO and CH3CHO sublimation and polymerization determined based on our experiments are in good agreement with previously published values.

  13. Processing of thin SU-8 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Stephan; Blagoi, Gabriela; Lillemose, Michael; Haefliger, Daniel; Boisen, Anja

    2008-12-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the process optimization for SU-8 films with thicknesses <=5 µm. The influence of soft-bake conditions, exposure dose and post-exposure-bake parameters on residual film stress, structural stability and lithographic resolution was investigated. Conventionally, the SU-8 is soft-baked after spin coating to remove the solvent. After the exposure, a post-exposure bake at a high temperature TPEB >= 90 °C is required to cross-link the resist. However, for thin SU-8 films this often results in cracking or delamination due to residual film stress. The approach of the process optimization is to keep a considerable amount of the solvent in the SU-8 before exposure to facilitate photo-acid diffusion and to increase the mobility of the monomers. The experiments demonstrate that a replacement of the soft-bake by a short solvent evaporation time at ambient temperature allows cross-linking of the thin SU-8 films even at a low TPEB = 50 °C. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is used to confirm the increased cross-linking density. The low thermal stress due to the reduced TPEB and the improved structural stability result in crack-free structures and solve the issue of delamination. The knowledge of the influence of different processing parameters on the responses allows the design of optimized processes for thin SU-8 films depending on the specific application.

  14. Room temperature ammonia sensor based on copper nanoparticle intercalated polyaniline nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, U. V.; Ramgir, Niranjan S.; Karmakar, N.; Bhogale, A.; Debnath, A. K.; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.; Kothari, D. C.

    2015-06-01

    Thin films of copper nanoparticles intercalated-polyaniline nanocomposites (NC) have been deposited at room temperatures by in situ oxidative polymerization of aniline in the presence of different concentrations of Cu nanoparticles. The response characteristics of the NC thin films toward different gases namely NH3, CO, CO2, NO and CH4 were examined at room temperature. Both pure polyaniline (PANI) and NC films exhibited a selective response toward NH3. Incorporation of Cu nanoparticles resulted in an improvement of the sensors response and response kinetics. The response and the recovery times of composite film toward 50 ppm of NH3 were 7 and 160 s, respectively. Additionally, the NC sensor film could reversibly detect as low as 1 ppm of NH3 concentrations. The enhanced response of NC films toward NH3 is attributed to the deprotonation and reprotonation processes as also supported by Raman investigations.

  15. Study of iron mononitride thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tayal, Akhil Gupta, Mukul Phase, D. M. Reddy, V. R. Gupta, Ajay

    2014-04-24

    In this work we have studied the crystal structural and local ordering of iron and nitrogen in iron mononitride thin films prepared using dc magnetron sputtering at sputtering power of 100W and 500W. The films were sputtered using pure nitrogen to enhance the reactivity of nitrogen with iron. The x-ray diffraction (XRD), conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) and soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (SXAS) studies shows that the film crystallizes in ZnS-type crystal structure.

  16. Electrodeposited CuInSe{sub 2} thin film devices

    SciTech Connect

    Raffaelle, R.P.; Mantovani, J.G.; Friedfeld, R.B.; Bailey, S.G.; Hubbard, S.M.

    1997-12-31

    The authors have been investigating the electrochemical deposition of thin films and junctions based on copper indium diselenide (CIS). CIS is considered to be one of the best absorber materials for use in polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic solar cells. Electrodeposition is a simple and inexpensive method for producing thin-film CIS. The authors have produced both p and n type CIS thin films, as well as a CIS pn junction electrodeposited from a single aqueous solution. Optical bandgaps were determined for these thin films using transmission spectroscopy. Current versus voltage characteristics were measured for Schottky barriers on the individual films and for the pn junction.

  17. Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, Frances

    1998-10-03

    OAK B204 Growth Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Crystalline and Amorphous Thin Films. The work in the past 6 months has involved three areas of magnetic thin films: (1) amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys, (2) epitaxial Co-Pt and hTi-Pt alloy thin films, and (3) collaborative work on heat capacity measurements of magnetic thin films, including nanoparticles and CMR materials.

  18. Ternary compound thin film solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazmerski, L. L.

    1975-01-01

    A group of ternary compound semiconductor (I-III-VI2) thin films for future applications in photovoltaic devices is proposed. The consideration of these materials (CuInSe2, CuInTe2 and especially CuInS2) for long range device development is emphasized. Much of the activity to date has been concerned with the growth and properties of CuInX2 films. X-ray and electron diffraction analyses, Hall mobility and coefficient, resistivity and carrier concentration variations with substrate and film temperature as well as grain size data have been determined. Both p- and n-type films of CuInS2 and CuInSe2 have been produced. Single and double source deposition techniques have been utilized. Some data have been recorded for annealed films.

  19. Rim instability of bursting thin smectic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trittel, Torsten; John, Thomas; Tsuji, Kinko; Stannarius, Ralf

    2013-05-01

    The rupture of thin smectic bubbles is studied by means of high speed video imaging. Bubbles of centimeter diameter and film thicknesses in the nanometer range are pierced, and the instabilities of the moving rim around the opening hole are described. Scaling laws describe the relation between film thickness and features of the filamentation process of the rim. A flapping motion of the retracting smectic film is assumed as the origin of the observed filamentation instability. A comparison with similar phenomena in soap bubbles is made. The present experiments extend studies on soap films [H. Lhuissier and E. Villermaux, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 054501 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.054501] to much thinner, uniform films of thermotropic liquid crystals.

  20. Organic thin films based sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Soyoun; Ji, Taeksoo; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2006-03-01

    Organic semiconductors, such as pentacene, are particularly interesting because of its potential for various applications including thin film transistors (TFTs), electronic papers, radio frequency identification cards (RFIDs), and sensors. In this paper, we review recent progress in organic electronics with emphasis on their applications for sensing devices, and investigate the morphologies of pentacene films deposited on SiO II and Si surfaces at different substrate temperatures. Scanning electron microcopy (SEM) micrographs from a nominally 50nm-thick pentacene film on SiO II indicate that the grain sizes of pentacene film increase with an increase in substrate temperature. In addition, the grain size on clean silicon grown at a substrate temperature of 100 degrees C is markedly larger that on SiO II, ranging 10~20μm. Based on this morphological investigation on pentacene films, various types of organic sensors and devices with conjunction with interdigitated, gated and ungated structures are presented.

  1. Scanning capacitance microscopy for thin film measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. T.; Pelz, J. P.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2006-03-01

    We have used direct, low-frequency scanning capacitance microscopy measurements to characterize variations in thin, dielectric films with up to 1 nm thickness and ~200 nm lateral resolution. This technique may be used on metallic as well as semiconducting substrates because it does not rely upon d C/d V measurements. We also find that the sensitivity of capacitance to film thickness can be enhanced by an aqueous meniscus that typically forms between the atomic force microscope tip and the sample surface. Further, we quantified the nanometre-scale capacitance of the tip-meniscus-sample system that is sensitive to variations in film thickness by making simultaneous capacitance and cantilever deflection measurements. This capacitance is used along with an average film thickness to quantify variations in film thickness.

  2. Flexoelectricity in barium strontium titanate thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Seol Ryung; Huang, Wenbin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo; Jiang, Xiaoning; Shu, Longlong; Maria, Jon-Paul

    2014-10-06

    Flexoelectricity, the linear coupling between the strain gradient and the induced electric polarization, has been intensively studied as an alternative to piezoelectricity. Especially, it is of interest to develop flexoelectric devices on micro/nano scales due to the inherent scaling effect of flexoelectric effect. Ba{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}TiO{sub 3} thin film with a thickness of 130 nm was fabricated on a silicon wafer using a RF magnetron sputtering process. The flexoelectric coefficients of the prepared thin films were determined experimentally. It was revealed that the thin films possessed a transverse flexoelectric coefficient of 24.5 μC/m at Curie temperature (∼28 °C) and 17.44 μC/m at 41 °C. The measured flexoelectric coefficients are comparable to that of bulk BST ceramics, which are reported to be 10–100 μC/m. This result suggests that the flexoelectric thin film structures can be effectively used for micro/nano-sensing devices.

  3. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  4. Semiconductor cooling by thin-film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tick, P. A.; Vilcans, J.

    1970-01-01

    Thin-film, metal alloy thermocouple junctions do not rectify, change circuit impedance only slightly, and require very little increase in space. Although they are less efficient cooling devices than semiconductor junctions, they may be applied to assist conventional cooling techniques for electronic devices.

  5. Thin-Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Xin; Wu, Nai-Juan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The development of thin-film solid oxide fuel cells (TFSOFCs) and a method of fabricating them have progressed to the prototype stage. This can result in the reduction of mass, volume, and the cost of materials for a given power level.

  6. US polycrystalline thin film solar cells program

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H S; Zweibel, K; Mitchell, R L

    1989-11-01

    The Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cells Program, part of the United States National Photovoltaic Program, performs R D on copper indium diselenide and cadmium telluride thin films. The objective of the Program is to support research to develop cells and modules that meet the US Department of Energy's long-term goals by achieving high efficiencies (15%-20%), low-cost ($50/m{sup 2}), and long-time reliability (30 years). The importance of work in this area is due to the fact that the polycrystalline thin-film CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe solar cells and modules have made rapid advances. They have become the leading thin films for PV in terms of efficiency and stability. The US Department of Energy has increased its funding through an initiative through the Solar Energy Research Institute in CuInSe{sub 2} and CdTe with subcontracts to start in Spring 1990. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Rechargeable Thin-film Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, Xiaohua

    1993-08-01

    Rechargeable thin film batteries consisting of lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have recently been developed. The batteries, which are typically less than 6 {mu}m thick, can be fabricated to any specified size, large or small, onto a variety of substrates including ceramics, semiconductors, and plastics. The cells that have been investigated include Li TiS{sub 2}, Li V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Li Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5, 3.6, and 4.2, respectively. The development of these batteries would not have been possible without the discovery of a new thin film lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride, that is stable in contact with metallic lithium at these potentials. Deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2}, this material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25{degrees}C of 2 {mu}S/cm. The maximum practical current density obtained from the thin film cells is limited to about 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2} due to a low diffusivity of Li{sup +} ions in the cathodes. In this work, the authors present a short review of their work on rechargeable thin film lithium batteries.

  8. UV absorption control of thin film growth

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Hebner, Gregory A.; Killeen, Kevin P.; Zuhoski, Steven P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the rate of growth of thin films in an atmosphere of reactant gases measures the UV absorbance of the atmosphere and calculates the partial pressure of the gases. The flow of reactant gases is controlled in response to the partial pressure.

  9. Growth induced magnetic anisotropy in crystalline and amorphous thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, F.

    1998-07-20

    The work in the past 6 months has involved three areas of magnetic thin films: (1) amorphous rare earth-transition metal alloys, (2) epitaxial Co-Pt and Ni-Pt alloy thin films, and (3) collaborative work on heat capacity measurements of magnetic thin films, including nanoparticles and CMR materials. A brief summary of work done in each area is given.

  10. Thin film preparation of semiconducting iron pyrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smestad, Greg P.; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut; Kautek, Wolfgang

    1990-08-01

    Pyrite (Fe52) has been investigated as a promising new absorber material for thin film solar cell applications because of its high optical absorption coefficient of 1OL cm1, and its bandgap of 0.9 to 1.0 eV. Thin layers have been prepared by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, MOCVD, Chemical Spray Pyrolysis, CSP, Chemical Vapor Transport, CVT, and Sulfurization of Iron Oxide films, 510. It is postulated that for the material FeS2, if x is not zero, a high point defect concentration results from replacing 2 dipoles by single S atoms. This causes the observed photovoltages and solar conversion efficiencies to be lower than expected. Using the Fe-O-S ternary phase diagram and the related activity plots, a thermodynamic understanding is formulated for the resulting composition of each of these types of films. It is found that by operating in the oxide portion of the phase diagram, the resulting oxidation state favors pyrite formation over FeS. By proper orientation of the grains relative to the film surface, and by control of pinholes and stoichiometry, an efficient thin film photovolatic solar cell material could be achieved.

  11. Deuterium storage in nanocrystalline magnesium thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Checchetto, R.; Bazzanella, N.; Miotello, A.; Brusa, R. S.; Zecca, A.; Mengucci, A.

    2004-02-01

    Nanocrystalline magnesium deuteride thin films with the β-MgD2 structure were prepared by vacuum evaporation of hexagonal magnesium (h-Mg) samples and thermal annealing in 0.15 MPa D2 atmosphere at 373 K. Thermal desorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the rate-limiting step in the deuterium desorption was given by the thermal decomposition of the deuteride phase. The activation energy Δg of the β-MgD2→h-Mg+D2 reaction scaled from 1.13±0.03 eV in 650-nm-thick films to 1.01±0.02 eV in 75-nm-thick films most likely as consequence of different stress and defect level. Positron annihilation spectroscopy analysis of the thin-film samples submitted to deuterium absorption and desorption cycles reveal the presence of a high concentration of void-like defects in the h-Mg layers after the very first decomposition of the β-MgD2 phase, the presence of these open volume defects reduces the D2 absorption capacity of the h-Mg thin film.

  12. MISSE 5 Thin Films Space Exposure Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.; Jones, James L.

    2007-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is a set of space exposure experiments using the International Space Station (ISS) as the flight platform. MISSE 5 is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC, United Stated Naval Academy, Naval Center for Space Technology (NCST), NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, Boeing, AZ Technology, MURE, and Team Cooperative. The primary experiment is performance measurement and monitoring of high performance solar cells for U.S. Navy research and development. A secondary experiment is the telemetry of this data to ground stations. A third experiment is the measurement of low-Earth-orbit (LEO) low-Sun-exposure space effects on thin film materials. Thin films can provide extremely efficacious thermal control, designation, and propulsion functions in space to name a few applications. Solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen are major degradation mechanisms in LEO. This paper is an engineering report of the MISSE 5 thm films 13 months space exposure experiment.

  13. Shape controlled synthesis of CaMoO{sub 4} thin films and their photoluminescence property

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, Ana Paula de Azevedo Longo, Valeria M.; Melo, Dulce M.A. de; Pizani, Paulo S.; Leite, Edson R.; Varela, Jose Arana; Longo, Elson

    2008-05-15

    CaMoO{sub 4} (CMO) disordered and ordered thin films were prepared by the complex polymerization method (CPM). The films were annealed at different temperatures and time in a conventional resistive furnace (RF) and in a microwave (MW) oven. The microstructure and surface morphology of the structure were monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). Order and disorder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical reflectance. A strong photoluminescence (PL) emission was observed in the disordered thin films and was attributed to complex cluster vacancies. The experimental results were compared with density functional and Hartree-Fock calculations. - Graphical abstract: CaMoO{sub 4} thin films were prepared by the complex polymerization method (CPM). The films were annealed at different temperatures and time in a conventional resistive furnace and in a microwave oven. A strong photoluminescence emission was observed in the disordered thin films and was attributed to complex cluster vacancies. The experimental results were confirmed by high level first principle calculations.

  14. Polymer Thin Films and Surface Modification by Chemical Vapor Deposition: Recent Progress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Kim, Do Han; Kovacik, Peter; Sojoudi, Hossein; Wang, Minghui; Gleason, Karen K

    2016-06-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) polymerization uses vapor phase monomeric reactants to synthesize organic thin films directly on substrates. These thin films are desirable as conformal surface engineering materials and functional layers. The facile tunability of the films and their surface properties allow successful integration of CVD thin films into prototypes for applications in surface modification, device fabrication, and protective films. CVD polymers also bridge microfabrication technology with chemical and biological systems. Robust coatings can be achieved via CVD methods as antifouling, anti-icing, and antihydrate surfaces, as well as stimuli-responsive or biocompatible polymers and novel nanostructures. Use of low-energy input, modest vacuum, and room-temperature substrates renders CVD polymerization compatible with thermally sensitive substrates and devices. Compared with solution-based methods, CVD is particularly useful for insoluble materials, such as electrically conductive polymers and controllably crosslinked networks, and has the potential to reduce environmental, health, and safety impacts associated with solvents. This review discusses the relevant background and selected applications of recent advances by two methods that display and use the high retention of the organic functional groups from their respective monomers, initiated CVD (iCVD) and oxidative CVD (oCVD) polymerization. PMID:27276550

  15. Mechanically Resilient Polymeric Films Doped with a Lithium Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    This invention is a series of mechanically resilient polymeric films, comprising rod-coil block polyimide copolymers, which are doped with a lithium compound providing lithium ion conductivity, that are easy to fabricate into mechanically resilient films with acceptable ionic or protonic conductivity at a variety of temperatures. The copolymers consists of short-rigid polyimide rod segments alternating with polyether coil segments. The rods and coil segments can be linear, branched or mixtures of linear and branched segments. The highly incompatible rods and coil segments phase separate, providing nanoscale channels for ion conduction. The polyimide segments provide dimensional and mechanical stability and can be functionalized in a number of ways to provide specialized functions for a given application. These rod-coil black polyimide copolymers are particularly useful in the preparation of ion conductive membranes for use in the manufacture of fuel cells and lithium based polymer batteries.

  16. Electrolyte and Electrode Passivation for Thin Film Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W.; Whitacre, J.; Ratnakumar, B.; Brandon, E.; Blosiu, J.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Passivation films for thin film batteries have been prepared and the conductivity and voltage stability window have been measured. Thin films of Li2CO3 have a large voltage stability window of 4.8V, which facilitates the use of this film as a passivation at both the lithium anode-electrolyte interface at high cathodic potentials.

  17. Thin blend films of cellulose and polyacrylonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Mao, Yimin; Briber, Robert; Wang, Howard

    Cellulose is the most abundant renewable, biocompatible and biodegradable natural polymer. Cellulose exhibits excellent chemical and mechanical stability, which makes it useful for applications such as construction, filtration, bio-scaffolding and packaging. To further expand the potential applications of cellulose materials, their alloying with synthetic polymers has been investigated. In this study, thin films of cotton linter cellulose (CLC) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) blends with various compositions spanning the entire range from neat CLC to neat PAN were spun cast on silicon wafers from common solutions in dimethyl sulfoxide / ionic liquid mixtures. The morphologies of thin films were characterized using optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray reflectivity. Morphologies of as-cast films are highly sensitive to the film preparation conditions; they vary from featureless smooth films to self-organized ordered nano-patterns to hierarchical structures spanning over multiple length scales from nanometers to tens of microns. By selectively removing the PAN-rich phase, the structures of blend films were studied to gain insights in their very high stability in hot water, acid and salt solutions.

  18. Thickness dependence of structure and piezoelectric properties at nanoscale of polycrystalline lead zirconate titanate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, E. B.; Lima, E. C.; Bdikin, I. K.; Kholkin, A. L.

    2013-05-01

    Lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr0.50Ti0.50)O3 (PZT) thin films were deposited by a polymeric chemical method on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates to understand the mechanisms of phase transformations and the effect of film thickness on the structure, dielectric, and piezoelectric properties in these films. PZT films pyrolyzed at temperatures higher than 350 °C present a coexistence of pyrochlore and perovskite phases, while only perovskite phase grows in films pyrolyzed at temperatures lower than 300 °C. For pyrochlore-free PZT thin films, a small (100)-orientation tendency near the film-substrate interface was observed. Finally, we demonstrate the existence of a self-polarization effect in the studied PZT thin films. The increase of self-polarization with the film thickness increasing from 200 nm to 710 nm suggests that Schottky barriers and/or mechanical coupling near the film-substrate interface are not primarily responsible for the observed self-polarization effect in our films.

  19. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  20. Doping in zinc oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng

    Doping in zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films is discussed in this dissertation. The optimizations of undoped ZnO thin film growth using molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) are discussed. The effect of the oxygen ECR plasma power on the growth rate, structural, electrical, and optical properties of the ZnO thin films were studied. It was found that larger ECR power leads to higher growth rate, better crystallinity, lower electron carrier concentration, larger resistivity, and smaller density of non-radiative luminescence centers in the ZnO thin films. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried out in undoped and Ga-doped ZnO thin films grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. As the carrier concentration increases from 1.8 x 1018 to 1.8 x 1020 cm-3, the dominant PL line at 9 K changes from I1 (3.368--3.371 eV), to IDA (3.317--3.321 eV), and finally to I8 (3.359 eV). The dominance of I1, due to ionized-donor bound excitons, is unexpected in n-type samples, but is shown to be consistent with the temperature-dependent Hall fitting results. We also show that IDA has characteristics of a donor-acceptor-pair transition, and use a detailed, quantitative analysis to argue that it arises from GaZn donors paired with Zn-vacancy (VZn) acceptors. In this analysis, the GaZn0/+ energy is well-known from two-electron satellite transitions, and the VZn0/- energy is taken from a recent theoretical calculation. Typical behaviors of Sb-doped p-type ZnO are presented. The Sb doping mechanisms and preference in ZnO are discussed. Diluted magnetic semiconducting ZnO:Co thin films with above room-temperature TC were prepared. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies indicate the ZnO:Co thin films are free of secondary phases. The magnetization of the ZnO:Co thin films shows a free electron carrier concentration dependence, which increases dramatically when the free electron carrier concentration exceeds ˜1019 cm -3, indicating a carrier-mediated mechanism for

  1. Temperature dependence of gas sensing behaviour of TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Subodh Sharma, Preetam; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K.; Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Vinay; Rajura, Rajveer Singh

    2014-04-24

    In the present work we have reported the effect of temperature on the gas sensing properties of TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite thin film based chemiresistor type gas sensors for hydrogen gas sensing application. PANI and TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline at low temperature. The electrical properties of these composite thin films were characterized by I-V measurements as function of temperature. The I-V measurement revealed that conductivity of composite thin films increased as the temperature increased. The changes in resistance of the composite thin film sensor were utilized for detection of hydrogen gas. It was observed that at room temperature TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite sensor shows higher response value and showed unstable behavior as the temperature increased. The surface morphology of these composite thin films has also been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement.

  2. Numerical simulations of thin film thermal flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hung; Cale, Timothy S.

    1994-12-01

    The thin film thermal flow process in long trenches is analyzed using a simulator which solves the equations which govern viscous, incompressible fluid flow. The total thermal baking process is divided into small time steps. At each time step, we solve the governing equations using the penalty function formulation and the Galerkin finite element method to obtain local velocity vectors. The free surface of the flowing film is updated according to these local velocity vectors. As an example application, we simulate the flow of boron and phosphorus doped silicon dioxide glass films in 2 micrometer high by 2 micrometer wide, infinitely long trenches, for which two-dimensional profile evolution is appropriate. The simulated film profiles show that the local leveling rate of a film is a sensitive function of surface curvature. The simulation program predicts that lower viscosity and thicker films have superior planarization properties compared with higher viscosity and thinner films. These trends are in agreement with empirical observations and previous modeling and simulation work on glass film planarization processes.

  3. Thin film bismuth iron oxides useful for piezoelectric devices

    DOEpatents

    Zeches, Robert J.; Martin, Lane W.; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-31

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a thin film of BiFeO.sub.3 having a thickness ranging from 20 nm to 300 nm, a first electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film, and a second electrode in contact with the BiFeO.sub.3 thin film; wherein the first and second electrodes are in electrical communication. The composition is free or essentially free of lead (Pb). The BFO thin film is has the piezoelectric property of changing its volume and/or shape when an electric field is applied to the BFO thin film.

  4. Development and characterization of film forming polymeric solutions for skin drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zurdo Schroeder, Ines; Franke, Patrick; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Film forming polymeric solutions as a novel approach for skin drug delivery were developed and characterized concerning their mechanical properties and water vapor permeability. They were developed by varying type and content of the film forming polymer as well as nature and content of the plasticizer. The resulting formulations were evaluated according to five criteria: drying time, cosmetic attractiveness, outward stickiness, integrity on skin (after 18 h) and viscosity. Among the 14 tested polymers 10 film formers yielded formulations with a positive evaluation in all five test criteria. Selected formulations were then investigated for tensile strength and elongation at break in vitro and for water vapor permeability in vitro (WVP) and in vivo (TEWL). Their mechanical properties determined in vitro were found to be not predictive for the flexibility and abrasion resistance observed on living skin. Similar to this, the results derived from the WVP and the TEWL methods were not in accordance with each other. Obviously, the investigated in vitro methods do not characterize the properties of the thin films on living skin satisfactorily. Nevertheless, the identified film forming solutions are a promising approach and will provide the basis for the further development of this novel dosage form.

  5. Ferroelectric Thin Films for Electronic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, K. R.

    This study yokes together the feasibility of a family of PbO-based perovskite-structured ferroelectric thin films as functional elements in nonvolatile random access memories (NVRAMs), in high capacity dynamic RAMs, and in a new class of flexure wave piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotors. The dielectric and ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films were dependent on thickness; at saturation, the films were characterized by a relative permittivity of 1300, remanent polarization of 36 muC/cm^2 and breakdown strength of over 1 MV/cm. The temperature dependence of permittivity revealed an anomalous behavior with the film annealing temperature. Based on the ferroelectric properties in the bulk, thin films in the lead zirconate -lead zinc niobate (PZ-PZN) solid solution system at 8-12% PZN, examined as alternate compositions for ferroelectric memories, feature switched charges of 4-14 mu C/cm^2, with coercive and saturation voltages less than the semiconductor operating voltage of 5 V. Rapid thermally annealed lead magnesium niobate titanate films were privy to weak signal dielectric permittivity of 2900, remanent polarization of 11 muC/cm^2, and a storage density of 210 fC/mum^2 at 5 V; the films merit consideration for potential applications in ultra large scale integrated circuits as also ferroelectric nonvolatile RAMs. The high breakdown strength and relative permittivity of the PZT films entail maximum stored energy density 10^3 times larger than a silicon electrostatic motor. The longitudinal piezoelectric strain coefficient d_{33 } was measured to be 220 pC/N at a dc bias of 75 kV/cm. The transverse piezoelectric strain coefficient d_{31} bore a nonlinear relationship with the electric field; at 200 kV/cm, d _{31} was -88 pC/N. The development of the piezoelectric ultrasonic micromotors from the PZT thin films, and the architecture of the stator structures are described. Nonoptimized prototype micromotors show rotational velocities of 100

  6. Stability Enhancement of Polymeric Sensing Films Using Fillers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Brian; Shevade, Abhijit; Ryan, Margaret Amy; Kisor, Adam; Yen, Shiao-Pin; Manatt, Kenneth; Homer, Margie; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Experiments have shown the stability enhancement of polymeric sensing films on mixing the polymer with colloidal filler particles (submicron-sized) of carbon black, silver, titanium dioxide, and fumed silicon dioxide. The polymer films are candidates for potential use as sensing media in micro/nano chemical sensor devices. The need for stability enhancement of polymer sensing films arises because such films have been found to exhibit unpredictable changes in sensing activity over time, which could result in a possible failure of the sensor device. The changes in the physical properties of a polymer sensing film caused by the sorption of a target molecule can be measured by any of several established transduction techniques: electrochemical, optical, calorimetric, or piezoelectric, for example. The transduction technique used in the current polymer stability experiments is based on piezoelectric principles using a quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM). The surface of the QCM is coated with the polymer, and the mass uptake by the polymer film causes a change in the oscillating frequency of the quartz crystal. The polymer used for the current study is ethyl cellulose. The polymer/ polymer composite solutions were prepared in 1,3 dioxolane solvent. The filler concentration was fixed at 10 weight percent for the composites. The polymer or polymer composite solutions were cast on the quartz crystal having a fundamental frequency of about 6 MHz. The coated crystal was subjected to a multistage drying process to remove all measurable traces of the solvent. In each experiment, the frequency of oscillation was measured while the QCM was exposed to clean, dry, flowing air for about 30 minutes, then to air containing a known concentration of isopropanol for about 30 minutes, then again to clean dry air for about 30 minutes, and so forth. This cycle of measurements for varying isopropanol concentrations was repeated at intervals for several months. The figure depicts some of the

  7. Bendable, free-standing calcite thin films.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shiho; Naka, Kensuke

    2015-02-17

    Since the hardness and toughness of natural nacre are determined by hierarchical microstructures with organic matters, it is of great importance to control the microstructures of artificial free-standing CaCO3 thin films. However, the fabrication of such films has so far been quite limited, to the extent that their mechanical properties have not been reported. To address this, free-standing calcite thin films were prepared through repeated cycles of layer-by-layer deposition of vaterite precursor composite particles with organic polymers, followed by a phase transition to calcite. In this way, two distinct calcite thin film types were produced based on either 3.2 or 1.0 wt % organic material, with subsequent three-point bending tests revealing that both exhibit elastic bending prior to fracture. More importantly, by increasing the organic content from 1.0 to 3.2 wt %, the bending strength increased from 0.95 ± 0.26 MPa to 1.90 ± 0.21 MPa. PMID:25621634

  8. Microphase separation of block copolymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jilin; Yu, Xinhong; Yang, Ping; Peng, Juan; Luo, Chunxia; Huang, Weihuan; Han, Yanchun

    2010-04-01

    Today, high-ordered micro- and nano-patterned surfaces are widely used in many areas, such as in the preparation of super-thin dielectric films, photonic crystals, antireflective films, super-non-wetting surfaces, bio-compatible surfaces and microelectric devices. Considering the critical fabrication conditions and the irreducible high cost of the photolithography technique in patterning nano-scale structures (<100 nm), the development of other micro- and nano-patterning techniques that can be used to fabricate long-range ordered features - especially nanoscale arrays - is a promising subject in surface science. In contrast to the traditional photolithography patterning technique, block copolymers can spontaneously phase separate into arrays of periodic patterns with length-scales of 10-50 nm, which provides an efficient pathway to pattern nanoscale features. Today, preparing long-range ordered arrays by block copolymer microphase separation is one of the most promising techniques for the fabrication of nanoscale arrays, not only being a simple process but also having a lower cost than traditional methods. In this feature article, we first summarize the many techniques developed to induce ordering in the microphase separation of the block copolymer thin films. Then, evolution, order-order transitions and reversible switching microdomains are considered, since they are very important in the ordered engineering of microphase separation of the block copolymer thin films. Finally, the outlook of this research area will be given.

  9. Photoelectrochemical activity of titanium dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdinezhad Roshan, Aida

    Crystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films have been extensively investigated due to their various applications in a wide range of field such as photocatalysis, solar cells, gas sensors, self-cleaning windows, etc. The general objective of the present work can be categorized into two different parts. The first part of research is to acquire a fundamental understanding of thin film deposition and characterization of materials surfaces produced by Electrolytic Plasma Processing (EPP) and Magnetron Sputtering system. It has been tried to develop a crystalline layer of titanium dioxide thin film using these two techniques. Aluminum and titanium are the substrate materials. Also a part of study is to clean and roughen the substrate prior to the deposition to examine the effect of morphology. Aluminum was chosen as the substrate as well as titanium in order to enable us to get cheaper product. Second main portion of this work is to check the photoelectrochemical response of the deposited film and explore the effect of various parameters of coating process on this photoelectrochemical response.

  10. Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, B.N.; Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E. . Inst. of Energy Conversion)

    1992-10-01

    Results of Phase II of a research program on polycrystalline thin film heterojunction solar cells are presented. Relations between processing, materials properties and device performance were studied. The analysis of these solar cells explains how minority carrier recombination at the interface and at grain boundaries can be reduced by doping of windows and absorber layers, such as in high efficiency CdTe and CuInSe{sub 2} based solar cells. The additional geometric dimension introduced by the polycrystallinity must be taken into consideration. The solar cells are limited by the diode current, caused by recombination in the space charge region. J-V characteristics of CuInSe{sub 2}/(CdZn)S cells were analyzed. Current-voltage and spectral response measurements were also made on high efficiency CdTe/CdS thin film solar cells prepared by vacuum evaporation. Cu-In bilayers were reacted with Se and H{sub 2}Se gas to form CuInSe{sub 2} films; the reaction pathways and the precursor were studied. Several approaches to fabrication of these thin film solar cells in a superstrate configuration were explored. A self-consistent picture of the effects of processing on the evolution of CdTe cells was developed.

  11. When are thin films of metals metallic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, E. W.; Dowben, P. A.

    1993-04-01

    There is an increasing body of experimental information suggesting that very thin films of materials, normally considered to be metals, exhibit behavior characteristic of a nonmetal. In almost all cases, there is a nonmetal-to-metal transition as a function of film density or thickness, frequently accompanied by a structural transition. Amazingly, this behavior seems to occur for metal films on metal substrates, as well as for metals on semiconductors. The identification of this phenomena and the subsequent explanation has been slow in developing, due to the inability to directly measure the conductivity of a submonolayer film. This paper will discuss the evidence accumulated from variety of spectroscopic experimental techniques for three systems: a Mott-Hubbard transition, a Peierls-like distortion, and a Wilson transition.

  12. Exploiting Elasticity with Thin Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croll, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Soft matter is often dominated by long-ranging mechanical distortion and is thus intimately linked to elastic theory. The detailed understanding provided by theory has allowed remarkable technological achievements to be made with polymers and other soft systems. However, as technology pushes lengthscales downward many challenges have arisen and even basic problems such as measuring Young's modulus become difficult. To move forward, many polymer thin-film researchers have been attracted to the simple repetitive buckling pattern known as wrinkling because the instability provides a convenient tool to measure mechanical properties. As with all technology the wrinkle system does have physical limits on its applicability, several of which may not be obvious and may have implications for extreme measurement. Here we highlight some of our recent work examining the limits of this elastic pattern and the implications for thin polymer films. We first show how the morphology of ultra-thin wrinkled polystyrene and polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) films show signs of localization effects - a clear deviation from linear elasticity. We go on to show how roughness, in certain cases, can induce similar morphologies, even in the limits of vanishing applied stress. As random roughness influences a film's elastic behaviour it is natural to examine periodic roughness as means to control localization and create more complex morphologies. Colloidal polystyrene is an excellent test material as it can easily be assembled in highly ordered crystalline monolayers. Remarkably, this ``discrete'' polymer film shows the same wrinkled morphology as does a continuum film. We show how a completely different type of elasticity is necessary to explain the effect, that of a granular material. More disordered ``glassy'' colloidal monolayers provide a means to push our understanding of the granular elastic theory, and suggest an interesting, albeit highly speculative limit for extreme continuum

  13. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-12-09

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DCmore » field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.« less

  14. Thermal conductivities of thin, sputtered optical films

    SciTech Connect

    Henager, C.H. Jr.; Pawlewicz, W.T.

    1991-05-01

    The normal component of the thin film thermal conductivity has been measured for the first time for several advanced sputtered optical materials. Included are data for single layers of boron nitride (BN), aluminum nitride (AIN), silicon aluminum nitride (Si-Al-N), silicon aluminum oxynitride (Si-Al-O-N), silicon carbide (SiC), and for dielectric-enhanced metal reflectors of the form Al(SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}){sup n} and Al(Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/AIN){sup n}. Sputtered films of more conventional materials like SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ti, and Si have also been measured. The data show that thin film thermal conductivities are typically 10 to 100 times lower than conductivities for the same materials in bulk form. Structural disorder in the amorphous or very fine-grained films appears to account for most of the conductivity difference. Conclusive evidence for a film/substrate interface contribution is presented.

  15. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-12-09

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DC field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.

  16. A Multilayered Thin Film Insulator for Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Blaha, Charles A.; Busfield, A. Rachel; Thomas, Valarie D.

    2002-01-01

    The status of work to develop a reliable high temperature dielectric thin film for use with thin film sensors is presented. The use of thin films to electrically insulate thin film sensors on engine components minimizes the intrusiveness of the sensor and allows a more accurate measurement of the environment. A variety of insulating films were investigated for preventing electrical shorting caused by insulator failure between the sensor and the component. By alternating layers of sputtered high temperature ceramics, a sequence of insulating layers was devised that prevents pinholes from forming completely through the insulator and maintains high electrical resistivity at high temperatures. The major technical challenge remaining is to optimize the fabrication of the insulator with respect to composition to achieve a reliable high temperature insulating film. Data from the testing of various potentially insulating thin film systems is presented and their application to thin film sensors is also discussed.

  17. Reverse-osmosis membranes by plasma polymerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollahan, J. R.; Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Thin allyl amine polymer films were developed using plasma polymerization. Resulting dry composite membranes effectively reject sodium chloride during reverse osmosis. Films are 98% sodium chloride rejective, and 46% urea rejective.

  18. Multi-block copolymers in thin films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniadis, Panagiotis; Kober, Edward; Lookman, Turab

    2008-03-01

    We study the behavior of an ABn multi-block copolymer confined to a thin film, using self consistent field theory (SCFT) methods. Due to the breaking of symmetry in the direction of confinement, the propagators do not obey the usual diffusion equation. We derive the diffusion equation which correctly describes the confined polymer system and find that it differs from the original in an area which is approximately 3 times the Kuhn length of the polymer, close to the surface of the film. We use the modified diffusion equation to study the structure of the confined polymer.

  19. Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of thin polyethylene film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbeck, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    In order to understand the state of stress and strain in a typical balloon fabricated from thin polyethylene film, experiment data in the literature reviewed. It was determined that the film behaves as a nonlinear viscoelasticity material and should be characterized accordingly. A simple uniaxial, nonlinear viscoelastic model was developed for predicting stress given a certain strain history. The simple model showed good qualitative agreement with results of constant rate, uniaxial accurately predicting stresses for cyclic strain histories typical of balloon flights. A program was outlined which will result in the development of a more complex nonlinear viscoelastic model.

  20. Meniscus Instability in a Thin Elastic Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, Animangsu; Chaudhury, Manoj K.; Shenoy, Vijay; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2000-11-01

    A new kind of meniscus instability leading to the formation of stationary fingers with a well-defined spacing has been observed in experiments with elastomeric films confined between a plane rigid glass and a thin curved glass plate. The wavelength of the instability increases linearly with the thickness of the confined film, but it is remarkably insensitive to the compliance and the energetics of the system. However, lateral amplitude (length) of the fingers depends on the compliance of the system and on the radius of curvature of the glass plate. A simple linear stability analysis is used to explain the underlying physics and the key observed features of the instability.

  1. Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, T.J.; Slack, J.L.; Rubin, M.D.

    2000-08-15

    Transparent thin films of copper(I) oxide prepared on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by anodic oxidation of sputtered copper films or by direct electrodeposition of Cu2O transformed reversibly to opaque metallic copper films when reduced in alkaline electrolyte. In addition, the same Cu2O films transform reversibly to black copper(II) oxide when cycled at more anodic potentials. Copper oxide-to-copper switching covered a large dynamic range, from 85% and 10% photopic transmittance, with a coloration efficiency of about 32 cm2/C. Gradual deterioration of the switching range occurred over 20 to 100 cycles. This is tentatively ascribed to coarsening of the film and contact degradation caused by the 65% volume change on conversion of Cu to Cu2O. Switching between the two copper oxides (which have similar volumes) was more stable and more efficient (CE = 60 cm2/C), but covered a smaller transmittance range (60% to 44% T). Due to their large electrochemical storage capacity and tolerance for alkaline electrolytes, these cathodically coloring films may be useful as counter electrodes for anodically coloring electrode films such as nickel oxide or metal hydrides.

  2. Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sonny X.

    2003-12-15

    To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

  3. Conductive thin-film composite hydrogels: Trapping an anionic polyelectrolyte in a polyaziridine host matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Wexler, A.; Suen, C.; Hill, S.

    1995-08-01

    Acid-catalyzed polymerization of sufficiently concentrated aqueous solutions of a trifunctional aziridine monomer affords hydrogels. Dynamic mechanical analysis has been used to demonstrate that composite hydrogels, obtained when the polymerization is effected in the presence of poly(sodium styrenesulfonate), have a composition dependent modulus. A region rich in the polyelectrolyte has a modulus which exceeds that of the {open_quotes}host{close_quotes} homogeneous polyaziridine hydrogel. This is consistent with ionic bonds between protonated sites on the polyaziridine matrix and sulfonate groups on the included polyelectrolyte augmenting the structural stability of the hydrogel. Thin films were prepared from coatings of the incipient hydrogel solutions. When the coatings are dried to a water content of 20%, water-insoluble thin films are obtained provided a critical weight fraction of the monomer is exceeded. Conductive thin films can be obtained, provided a critical weight fraction of polyelectrolyte is exceeded. FTIR analysis of the coatings in the attenuated total reflectance mode shows that conductivity increases as tight ion pairing decreases between the polyelectrolyte and its counter ions in the matrix. The S-shaped dependence of the normalized conductivity on the composition of the thin films is independent of the state of hydration of the film. Effective medium percolation theory, (EMPT), generally fits the S-shaped compositional dependence of the conductivity but overestimates the rate of growth of the conductivity beyond the critical point. 20 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Tunable in-situ electro-polymerization of hydrogel films for microchip-based bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Nan; Ugaz, Victor M

    2016-05-01

    Electro-polymerization phenomena have been previously investigated at the macroscale in the context of producing polymeric coatings over extended surface areas. But electrical actuation also offers exquisite local control of the polymerized films' position, morphology, and thickness, suggesting compelling advantages in microfluidic-based analysis systems. Here, we introduce a microfabricated platform incorporating arrays of individually addressable on-chip electrodes capable of generating discretely positioned electro-polymerized hydrogel films inside microchannels in timescales of ∼5 min. Sequential actuation of specific electrode pairs initiates localized propagation of anchored polyacrylamide gel films and permits directed control of their size, shape, and growth rate. In addition to precise positioning of hydrogel films, obstacles, and barriers within microchannel networks, our approach makes it possible to encapsulate macromolecules within the films during polymerization, suggesting utility in a host of areas including separations, sample purification, and immunoassays. PMID:27279930

  5. 21 CFR 175.320 - Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... films. 175.320 Section 175.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... for polyolefin films. Resinous and polymeric coatings may be safely used as the food-contact surface... coating is applied as a continuous film over one or both sides of a base film produced from one or more...

  6. Forward osmosis with a novel thin-film inorganic membrane.

    PubMed

    You, Shijie; Tang, Chuyang; Yu, Chen; Wang, Xiuheng; Zhang, Jinna; Han, Jia; Gan, Yang; Ren, Nanqi

    2013-08-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) represents a new promising membrane technology for liquid separation driven by the osmotic pressure of aqueous solution. Organic polymeric FO membranes are subject to severe internal concentration polarization due to asymmetric membrane structure, and low stability due to inherent chemical composition. To address these limitations, this study focuses on the development of a new kind of thin-film inorganic (TFI) membrane made of microporous silica xerogels immobilized onto a stainless steel mesh (SSM) substrate. The FO performances of the TFI membrane were evaluated upon a lab-scale cell-type FO reactor using deionized water as feed solution and sodium chloride (NaCl) as draw solution. The results demonstrated that the TFI membrane could achieve transmembrane water flux of 60.3 L m(-2) h(-1) driven by 2.0 mol L(-1) NaCl draw solution at ambient temperature. Meanwhile, its specific solute flux, i.e. the solute flux normalized by the water flux (0.19 g L(-1)), was 58.7% lower than that obained for a commercial cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane (0.46 g L(-1)). The quasi-symmetry thin-film microporous structure of the silica membrane is responsible for low-level internal concentration polarization, and thus enhanced water flux during FO process. Moreover, the TFI membrne demonstrated a substantially improved stability in terms of mechanical strength, and resistance to thermal and chemical stimulation. This study not only provides a new method for fabricating quasi-symmetry thin-film inorganic silica membrane, but also suggests an effective strategy using this alternative membrane to achieve improved FO performances for scale-up applications. PMID:23829428

  7. Polycrystalline thin films FY 1992 project report

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Project during FY 1992. The purpose of the DOE/NREL PV (photovoltaic) Program is to facilitate the development of PV that can be used on a large enough scale to produce a significant amount of energy in the US and worldwide. The PV technologies under the Polycrystalline Thin Film project are among the most exciting ``next-generation`` options for achieving this goal. Over the last 15 years, cell-level progress has been steady, with laboratory cell efficiencies reaching levels of 15 to 16%. This progress, combined with potentially inexpensive manufacturing methods, has attracted significant commercial interest from US and international companies. The NREL/DOE program is designed to support the efforts of US companies through cost-shared subcontracts (called ``government/industry partnerships``) that we manage and fund and through collaborative technology development work among industry, universities, and our laboratory.

  8. Polycrystalline thin films FY 1992 project report

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K.

    1993-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and results of the Polycrystalline Thin Film Project during FY 1992. The purpose of the DOE/NREL PV (photovoltaic) Program is to facilitate the development of PV that can be used on a large enough scale to produce a significant amount of energy in the US and worldwide. The PV technologies under the Polycrystalline Thin Film project are among the most exciting next-generation'' options for achieving this goal. Over the last 15 years, cell-level progress has been steady, with laboratory cell efficiencies reaching levels of 15 to 16%. This progress, combined with potentially inexpensive manufacturing methods, has attracted significant commercial interest from US and international companies. The NREL/DOE program is designed to support the efforts of US companies through cost-shared subcontracts (called government/industry partnerships'') that we manage and fund and through collaborative technology development work among industry, universities, and our laboratory.

  9. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chengliang; Hu, Weijin; Tian, Yufeng; Wu, Tom

    2015-06-01

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  10. Thin film photovoltaic panel and method

    DOEpatents

    Ackerman, Bruce; Albright, Scot P.; Jordan, John F.

    1991-06-11

    A thin film photovoltaic panel includes a backcap for protecting the active components of the photovoltaic cells from adverse environmental elements. A spacing between the backcap and a top electrode layer is preferably filled with a desiccant to further reduce water vapor contamination of the environment surrounding the photovoltaic cells. The contamination of the spacing between the backcap and the cells may be further reduced by passing a selected gas through the spacing subsequent to sealing the backcap to the base of the photovoltaic panels, and once purged this spacing may be filled with an inert gas. The techniques of the present invention are preferably applied to thin film photovoltaic panels each formed from a plurality of photovoltaic cells arranged on a vitreous substrate. The stability of photovoltaic conversion efficiency remains relatively high during the life of the photovoltaic panel, and the cost of manufacturing highly efficient panels with such improved stability is significantly reduced.

  11. Generalized Ellipsometry on Ferromagnetic Sculptured Thin Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Daniel; Hofmann, Tino; Mok, Kah; Schmidt, Heidemarie; Skomski, Ralf; Schubert, Eva; Schubert, Mathias

    2011-03-01

    We present and discuss generalized ellipsometry and generalized vector-magneto-optic ellipsometry investigations on cobalt nanostructured thin films with slanted, highly-spatially coherent, columnar arrangement. The samples were prepared by glancing angle deposition. The thin films are highly transparent and reveal strong form-induced birefringence. We observe giant Kerr rotation in the visible spectral region, tunable by choice of the nanostructure geometry. Spatial magnetization orientation hysteresis and magnetization magnitude hysteresis properties are studied using a 3-dimensional Helmholtz coil arrangement allowing for arbitrary magnetic field direction at the sample position for field strengths up to 0.4 Tesla. Analysis of data obtained within this novel vector-magneto-optic setup reveals magnetization anisotropy of the Co slanted nanocolumns supported by mean-field theory modeling.

  12. Techniques for Connecting Superconducting Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mester, John; Gwo, Dz-Hung

    2006-01-01

    Several improved techniques for connecting superconducting thin films on substrates have been developed. The techniques afford some versatility for tailoring the electronic and mechanical characteristics of junctions between superconductors in experimental electronic devices. The techniques are particularly useful for making superconducting or alternatively normally conductive junctions (e.g., Josephson junctions) between patterned superconducting thin films in order to exploit electron quantum-tunneling effects. The techniques are applicable to both low-Tc and high-Tc superconductors (where Tc represents the superconducting- transition temperature of a given material), offering different advantages for each. Most low-Tc superconductors are metallic, and heretofore, connections among them have been made by spot welding. Most high-Tc superconductors are nonmetallic and cannot be spot welded. These techniques offer alternatives to spot welding of most low-Tc superconductors and additional solutions to problems of connecting most high-Tc superconductors.

  13. Thin film strain gage development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.; Anderson, W. L.; Claing, R. G.

    1983-01-01

    Sputtered thin-film dynamic strain gages of 2 millimeter (0.08 in) gage length and 10 micrometer (0.0004 in) thickness were fabricated on turbojet engine blades and tested in a simulated compressor environment. Four designs were developed, two for service to 600 K (600 F) and two for service to 900 K (1200 F). The program included a detailed study of guidelines for formulating strain-gage alloys to achieve superior dynamic and static gage performance. The tests included gage factor, fatigue, temperature cycling, spin to 100,000 G, and erosion. Since the installations are 30 times thinner than conventional wire strain gage installations, and any alteration of the aerodynamic, thermal, or structural performance of the blade is correspondingly reduced, dynamic strain measurement accuracy higher than that attained with conventional gages is expected. The low profile and good adherence of the thin film elements is expected to result in improved durability over conventional gage elements in engine tests.

  14. Domain switching of fatigued ferroelectric thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Tak Lim, Yun; Yeog Son, Jong E-mail: hoponpop@ulsan.ac.kr; Shin, Young-Han E-mail: hoponpop@ulsan.ac.kr

    2014-05-12

    We investigate the domain wall speed of a ferroelectric PbZr{sub 0.48}Ti{sub 0.52}O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film using an atomic force microscope incorporated with a mercury-probe system to control the degree of electrical fatigue. The depolarization field in the PZT thin film decreases with increasing the degree of electrical fatigue. We find that the wide-range activation field previously reported in ferroelectric domains result from the change of the depolarization field caused by the electrical fatigue. Domain wall speed exhibits universal behavior to the effective electric field (defined by an applied electric field minus the depolarization field), regardless of the degree of the electrical fatigue.

  15. Electrostatic Discharge Effects on Thin Film Resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.; Hull, Scott M.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, open circuit failures of individual elements in thin film resistor networks have been attributed to electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects. This paper will discuss the investigation that came to this conclusion and subsequent experimentation intended to characterize design factors that affect the sensitivity of resistor elements to ESD. The ESD testing was performed using the standard human body model simulation. Some of the design elements to be evaluated were: trace width, trace length (and thus width to length ratio), specific resistivity of the trace (ohms per square) and resistance value. However, once the experiments were in progress, it was realized that the ESD sensitivity of most of the complex patterns under evaluation was determined by other design and process factors such as trace shape and termination pad spacing. This paper includes pictorial examples of representative ESD failure sites, and provides some options for designing thin film resistors that are ESD resistant. The risks of ESD damage are assessed and handling precautions suggested.

  16. EBSD analysis of electroplated magnetite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koblischka-Veneva, A.; Koblischka, M. R.; Teng, C. L.; Ryan, M. P.; Hartmann, U.; Mücklich, F.

    2010-05-01

    By means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), we analyse the crystallographic orientation of electroplated magnetite thin films on Si/copper substrates. Varying the voltage during the electroplating procedure, the resulting surface properties are differing considerably. While a high voltage produces larger but individual grains on the surface, the surfaces become smoother on decreasing voltage. Good quality Kikuchi patterns could be obtained from all samples; even on individual grains, where the surface and the edges could be measured. The spatial resolution of the EBSD measurement could be increased to about 10 nm; thus enabling a detailed analysis of single magnetite grains. The thin film samples are polycrystalline and do not exhibit a preferred orientation. EBSD reveals that the grain size changes depending on the processing conditions, while the detected misorientation angles stay similar.

  17. Multiferroic oxide thin films and heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chengliang E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Hu, Weijin; Wu, Tom E-mail: Tao.Wu@kaust.edu.sa; Tian, Yufeng

    2015-06-15

    Multiferroic materials promise a tantalizing perspective of novel applications in next-generation electronic, memory, and energy harvesting technologies, and at the same time they also represent a grand scientific challenge on understanding complex solid state systems with strong correlations between multiple degrees of freedom. In this review, we highlight the opportunities and obstacles in growing multiferroic thin films with chemical and structural integrity and integrating them in functional devices. Besides the magnetoelectric effect, multiferroics exhibit excellent resistant switching and photovoltaic properties, and there are plenty opportunities for them to integrate with other ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. The challenges include, but not limited, defect-related leakage in thin films, weak magnetism, and poor control on interface coupling. Although our focuses are Bi-based perovskites and rare earth manganites, the insights are also applicable to other multiferroic materials. We will also review some examples of multiferroic applications in spintronics, memory, and photovoltaic devices.

  18. Substrate heater for thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Steve R.

    1996-01-01

    A substrate heater for thin film deposition of metallic oxides upon a target substrate configured as a disk including means for supporting in a predetermined location a target substrate configured as a disk, means for rotating the target substrate within the support means, means for heating the target substrate within the support means, the heating means about the support means and including a pair of heating elements with one heater element situated on each side of the predetermined location for the target substrate, with one heater element defining an opening through which desired coating material can enter for thin film deposition and with the heating means including an opening slot through which the target substrate can be entered into the support means, and, optionally a means for thermal shielding of the heating means from surrounding environment is disclosed.

  19. Multilevel organization in hybrid thin films for optoelectronic applications.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Varun; Bolognesi, Alberto; Calzaferri, Gion; Botta, Chiara

    2009-10-20

    In this work we report two simple approaches to prepare hybrid thin films displaying a high concentration of zeolite crystals that could be used as active layers in optoelectronic devices. In the first approach, in order to organize nanodimensional zeolite crystals of 40 nm diameter in an electroactive environment, we chemically modify their external surface and play on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic forces. We obtain inorganic nanocrystals that self-organize in honeycomb electroluminescent polymer structures obtained by breath figure formation. The different functionalizations of the zeolite surface result in different organizations inside the cavities of the polymeric structure. The second approach involving soft-litography techniques allows one to arrange single dye-loaded zeolite L crystals of 800 nm of length by mechanical loading into the nanocavities of a conjugated polymer. Both techniques result in the formation of thin hybrid films displaying three levels of organization: organization of the dye molecules inside the zeolite nanochannels, organization of the zeolite crystals inside the polymer cavities, and micro- or nanostructuration of the polymer.

  20. Silver nanowire composite thin films as transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se₂/ZnS thin film solar cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Yu; Liu, Ye-Xiang

    2014-05-20

    Solution processed silver nanowire indium-tin oxide nanoparticle (AgNW-ITONP) composite thin films were successfully applied as the transparent electrodes for Cu(In,Ga)Se₂ (CIGS) thin film solar cells with ZnS buffer layers. Properties of the AgNW-ITONP thin film and its effects on performance of CIGS/ZnS thin film solar cells were studied. Compared with the traditional sputtered ITO electrodes, the AgNW-ITONP thin films show comparable optical transmittance and electrical conductivity. Furthermore, the AgNW-ITONP thin film causes no physical damage to the adjacent surface layer and does not need high temperature annealing, which makes it very suitable to use as transparent conductive layers for heat or sputtering damage-sensitive optoelectronic devices. By using AgNW-ITONP electrodes, the required thickness of the ZnS buffer layers for CIGS thin film solar cells was greatly decreased. PMID:24922214

  1. Packaging material for thin film lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.; Dudney, Nancy J.; Weatherspoon, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A thin film battery including components which are capable of reacting upon exposure to air and water vapor incorporates a packaging system which provides a barrier against the penetration of air and water vapor. The packaging system includes a protective sheath overlying and coating the battery components and can be comprised of an overlayer including metal, ceramic, a ceramic-metal combination, a parylene-metal combination, a parylene-ceramic combination or a parylene-metal-ceramic combination.

  2. Thin-film optical shutter. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matlow, S.L.

    1981-02-01

    A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, has been chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the Thin Film Optical Shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is included. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a new quantum mechanical method was developed - Equilibrium Bond Length (EBL) Theory. Some results of EBL Theory are included.

  3. Large-area thin-film modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyan, Y. S.; Perez-Albuerne, E. A.

    1985-01-01

    The low cost potential of thin film solar cells can only be fully realized if large area modules can be made economically with good production yields. This paper deals with two of the critical challenges. A scheme is presented which allows the simple, economical realization of the long recognized, preferred module structure of monolithic integration. Another scheme reduces the impact of shorting defects and, as a result, increases the production yields. Analytical results demonstrating the utilization and advantages of such schemes are discussed.

  4. Structures for dense, crack free thin films

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2011-03-08

    The process described herein provides a simple and cost effective method for making crack free, high density thin ceramic film. The steps involve depositing a layer of a ceramic material on a porous or dense substrate. The deposited layer is compacted and then the resultant laminate is sintered to achieve a higher density than would have been possible without the pre-firing compaction step.

  5. Thin film dynamics of viscoelastic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebon, Luc; Limat, Laurent

    2012-11-01

    We present here viscoelastic fluids in thin film flows, such as liquid bells or liquid curtains. The viscoelastic property of the liquids exhibits specific dynamics in such flows. In the case of bells, the elastic strength tends to extend the bell size for example. In the case of curtain flows, original behaviour of holes are observed with specific growth mechanism for bubbles trapped in the flow.

  6. Laser annealing of thin organic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashkov, A. V.; Ivlev, G. D.; Filippov, V. V.; Kashko, I. A.; Shulitski, B. G.

    2010-09-01

    Microstructure of defects in organic solar cells containing PEDOT:PSS:Sorbitol layer has been studied and conditions for successful pulsed laser annealing of them have been determined. Investigation with oblique illumination showed that radial symmetry of fine structure is an intrinsic property of either separated discotic defects or block structure. Our study shows that pulsed laser annealing of organic thin films in inert atmosphere has promising future.

  7. Laser annealing of thin organic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agashkov, A. V.; Ivlev, G. D.; Filippov, V. V.; Kashko, I. A.; Shulitski, B. G.

    2011-02-01

    Microstructure of defects in organic solar cells containing PEDOT:PSS:Sorbitol layer has been studied and conditions for successful pulsed laser annealing of them have been determined. Investigation with oblique illumination showed that radial symmetry of fine structure is an intrinsic property of either separated discotic defects or block structure. Our study shows that pulsed laser annealing of organic thin films in inert atmosphere has promising future.

  8. Stable localized patterns in thin liquid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Oron, Alexander

    1991-01-01

    We study a 2-D nonlinear evolution equation which describes the 3-D spatiotemporal behavior of the air-liquid interface of a thin liquid film lying on the underside of a cooled horizontal plate. We show that the Marangoni effect can stabilize the destabilizing effect of gravity (the Rayleigh-Taylor instability) allowing for the existence of stable localized axisymmetric solutions for a wide range of parameter values. Various properties of these structures are discussed.

  9. Low temperature process for obtaining thin glass films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Reed, Scott T.

    1984-01-01

    A method for coating a substrate with a glass-like film comprises, applying to the substrate an aqueous alcoholic solution containing a polymeric network of partially hydrolyzed metal alkoxide into which network there is incorporated finely powdered glass, whereby there is achieved on the substrate a coherent and adherent initial film; and heating said film to a temperature sufficient to melt said powdered glass component, thereby converting said initial film to a final densified film.

  10. Low temperature process for obtaining thin glass films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C.J.; Reed, S.T.

    A method for coating a substrate with a glass-like film comprises, applying to the substrate an aqueous alcoholic solution containing a polymeric network of partially hydrolyzed metal alkoxide into which network there is incorporated finely powdered glass, whereby there is achieved on the substrate a coherent and adherent initial film; and heating said film to a temperature sufficient to melt said powdered glass component, thereby converting said initial film to a final densified film.

  11. Design and characterization of thin film microcoolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBounty, Chris; Shakouri, Ali; Bowers, John E.

    2001-04-01

    Thin film coolers can provide large cooling power densities compared to bulk thermoelectrics due to the close spacing of hot and cold junctions. Important parameters in the design of such coolers are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element simulator (ANSYS) is used to model self-consistently thermal and electrical properties of a complete device structure. The dominant three-dimensional thermal and electrical spreading resistances acquired from the 3D simulation are also used in a one-dimensional model (MATLAB) to obtain faster, less rigorous results. Heat conduction, Joule heating, thermoelectric and thermionic cooling are included in these models as well as nonideal effects such as contact resistance, finite thermal resistance of the substrate and the heat sink, and heat generation in the wire bonds. Simulations exhibit good agreement with experimental results from InGaAsP-based thin film thermionic emission coolers which have demonstrated maximum cooling of 1.15 °C at room temperature. With the nonideal effects minimized, simulations predict that single stage thin film coolers can provide up to 20-30 °C degrees centigrade cooling with cooling power densities of several 1000 W/cm2.

  12. Molecular theory of liquid crystal thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Shihong

    A molecular theory has been developed to describe the isotropic-nematic transitoon of model nematogens in bulk and in thin films. The surfaces of thin films can be hard surfaces or coated with surfactant monolayers. The theory only includes hard body interactions between all molecule species: solvent, nematogens and surfactants. We have studied the influence of the separation between confining walls, concentration of nematogens, as well as the surface anchoring and areal density of surfactant at the interface upon the phases of nematogens. We have explained the possible existence of planar degenerate phase through entropic pictures and have confirmed close to the bulk isotropic-nematic transition point, the order of the phases of nematogens from isotropic to nematic then back to isotropic when varying the areal density of surfactant monolayers at interfaces. From the results obtained, we believe that we have captured the main competing interactions between surfactants and nematogens and our molecular level theory is capable of describing these two interactions of different natures. Our results can provide a guideline for molecular design of biosensors. We have modeled the molecular systems with as much simplification as possible while retaining the main features. The thesis is arranged into introduction, results on bulk, thin films confined between hard walls and between surfactant monolayers.

  13. Hydrothermal epitaxy of perovskite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Allen T.

    1998-12-01

    This work details the discovery and study of a new process for the growth of epitaxial single crystal thin films which we call hydrothermal epitaxy. Hydrothermal epitaxy is a low temperature solution route for producing heteroepitaxial thin films through the use of solution chemistry and structurally similar substrates. The application of this synthesis route has led to the growth of a variety of epitaxial perovskite (BaTiOsb3, SrTiOsb3, and Pb(Zr,Ti)Osb3 (PZT)) thin films which provides a simple processing pathway for the formation of other materials of technological interest. BaTiOsb3 and PZT heteroepitaxial thin films and powders were produced by the hydrothermal method at 90-200sp°C using various alkali bases. XRD and TEM analysis shows that, in each case, the films and powders form epitaxially with a composition nearly identical to that of the starting precursors. Sequential growth experiments show that film formation initiates by the nucleation of submicron faceted islands at the step edges of the SrTiOsb3 substrates followed by coalescence after longer growth periods. A Ba-rich interfacial layer between the BaTiOsb3 islands and the SrTiOsb3 surface is seen by cross-section TEM during early growth periods. Electrophoretic and Basp{2+} adsorption data provide a chemical basis for the existence of the interfacial layer. Homoepitaxial growth of SrTiOsb3 on SrTiOsb3 also occurs by island growth, suggesting that the growth mode may be a consequence of the aqueous surface chemistry inherent in the process. Film formation is shown to be affected by any number of factors including type of base, pH, temperature, and substrate pretreatments. Different cation bases (Na-, K-, Rb-, Cs-, TMA-OH) demonstrated pronounced changes in powder and film morphology. For example, smaller cation bases (e.g., NaOH, KOH and RbOH) resulted the formation of 1.5 mum \\{100\\} faceted perovskite PbTiOsb3 blocks while larger cation bases (e.g., CsOH and TMA-OH) produced 500 nm sized

  14. Thin Dielectric Films Containing Tb{sup 3+} Ions For Application In Thin Film Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sendova-Vassileva, M.; Angelov, O.; Dimova-Malmovska, D.; Baumgartner, K.; Carius, R.; Hollaender, B.

    2010-01-21

    Thin transparent dielectric films containing Tb{sup 3+} are developed for application as spectral converters of the solar spectrum in thin film silicon solar cells. The results on the deposition and characterization of thin SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films containing Tb{sup 3+} ions are presented. The films are prepared by RF magnetron co-sputtering, a well established technique for large area coatings. Photoluminescence (PL) is measured at room temperature, using the 488 nm line of an Ar laser and a nitrogen-cooled CCD camera attached to a monochromator. The dependence of the PL intensity on the concentration of Tb in the film is studied. It is found that the intensity exhibits a maximum at about 1 at.%. Annealing studies are performed on SiO{sub 2}:Tb with two different methods to improve the PL intensity. In both regimes of annealing, the best results for thin SiO{sub 2}:Tb films are obtained in the temperature range of 650-700 deg. C. After treatment at this temperature the Tb PL increases 2.5-3 times.

  15. Active superconducting devices formed of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S.; Beyer, James B.; Nordman, James E.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1991-05-28

    Active superconducting devices are formed of thin films of superconductor which include a main conduction channel which has an active weak link region. The weak link region is composed of an array of links of thin film superconductor spaced from one another by voids and selected in size and thickness such that magnetic flux can propagate across the weak link region when it is superconducting. Magnetic flux applied to the weak link region will propagate across the array of links causing localized loss of superconductivity in the links and changing the effective resistance across the links. The magnetic flux can be applied from a control line formed of a superconducting film deposited coplanar with the main conduction channel and weak link region on a substrate. The devices can be formed of any type to superconductor but are particularly well suited to the high temperature superconductors since the devices can be entirely formed from coplanar films with no overlying regions. The devices can be utilized for a variety of electrical components, including switching circuits, amplifiers, oscillators and modulators, and are well suited to microwave frequency applications.

  16. Thin film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Compaan, A.; Bohn, R. )

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to develop to vacuum-based growth techniques for CdTe thin-film solar cells: (1) laser-driven physical vapor deposition (LDPVD) and (2) radio-frequency (rf) sputtering. The LDPVD process was successfully used to deposit thin films of CdS, CdTe, and CdCl{sub 2}, as well as related alloys and doped semiconductor materials. The laser-driven deposition process readily permits the use of several target materials in the same vacuum chamber and, thus, complete solar cell structures were fabricated on SnO{sub 2}-coated glass using LDPVD. The rf sputtering process for film growth became operational, and progress was made in implementing it. Time was also devoted to enhancing or implementing a variety of film characterization systems and device testing facilities. A new system for transient spectroscopy on the ablation plume provided important new information on the physical mechanisms of LDPVD. The measurements show that, e.g., Cd is predominantly in the neutral atomic state in the plume but with a fraction that is highly excited internally ({ge} 6 eV), and that the typical neutral Cd translational kinetic energies perpendicular to the target are 20 eV and greater. 19 refs.

  17. Semileaky thin-film optical isolator

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsch, S.T.; Biolsi, W.A.; Blank, S.L.; Tien, P.K.; Martin, R.J.; Bridenbaugh, P.M.; Grabbe, P.

    1981-05-01

    Two interesting effects have been experimentally demonstrated for the first time: (1) simultaneous reciprocal and nonreciprocal mode conversion to achieve an isolation effect and (2) magneto-optic switching between guided and radiation modes. These effects were observed in connection with the construction of a previously proposed thin-film optical isolator. The isolator consists of a piece of LiNbO/sub 3/ placed on top of a thin film of yttrium ion garnet (YIG) with a selenium layer to avoid optical contact problems. The isolator, which is 1 cm long, exhibited 10 dB of isolation at lambda = 1.15 ..mu..m. The observed isolation was better than theoretical predictions and a mysterious isolation direction dependence on mode order was observed. Although the device had 10 dB of insertion loss and required a magnetic field of 40 Oe, with a slight change in wavelength and film composition, it should be possible to reduce the insertion loss and field required to under 1 dB and 0.1 Oe, respectively. These characteristics combined with broad tolerances on film thickness and the length of the isolation region, broadband operation (from lambda = 1.1 to 4.5 ..mu..m), and easy construction and adjustment make the isolator very attractive for use in integrated optics.

  18. Dynamic Characterization of Thin Film Magnetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Wei

    A broadband dynamic method for characterizing thin film magnetic material is presented. The method is designed to extract the permeability and linewidth of thin magnetic films from measuring the reflection coefficient (S11) of a house-made and short-circuited strip line testing fixture with or without samples loaded. An adaptive de-embedding method is applied to remove the parasitic noise of the housing. The measurements were carried out with frequency up to 10GHz and biasing magnetic fields up to 600 Gauss. Particular measurement setup and 3-step experimental procedures are described in detail. The complex permeability of a 330nm thick continuous FeGaB, 435nm thick laminated FeGaB film and a 100nm thick NiFe film will be induced dynamically in frequency-biasing magnetic field spectra and compared with a theoretical model based on Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations and eddy current theories. The ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) phenomenon can be observed among these three magnetic materials investigated in this thesis.

  19. Thin Films Characterization by Ultra Trace Metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Danel, A.; Nolot, E.; Decorps, T.; Lardin, T.; Veillerot, M.; Lhostis, S.; Campidelli, Y.; Calvo-Munoz, M.-L.; Kohno, H.; Yamagami, M.

    2007-09-26

    Sensitive and accurate characterization of thin films used in nanoelectronics, thinner than a few nm, represents a challenge for many conventional methods, especially when considering in-line control. With capabilities in the E10 at/cm{sup 2} (<1/10 000 of a mono layer), methods usually dedicated to contamination analysis appear promising, especially TXRF thanks to its non invasive and ease of use aspects, and to its measurement speed and mapping capability. This study shows that the range of linear results from TXRF can be extended to thicknesses of a few nm when using an incident angle higher than the critical angle of the analyzed film. Thus, despite degraded performances in terms of low detection limit, TXRF can provide a direct and very sensitive reading of some critical deposition processes. A dynamic repeatability better than 1% (standard deviation) has been obtained for the control of a 0.6 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel oxide deposited on a magnetic stack. On the other hand, composition analysis by TXRF, and especially the detection of minor elements into thin films, requires the use of a specific incident angle to optimize sensitivity. Under the best conditions, determination of the composition of Co -based self aligned barriers (CoWP and CoWMoPB films with Co concentration >80%) is done with a precision of 6% on P, 8% on Mo and 13% on W (standard deviation)

  20. Thin film cadmium telluride photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compaan, A.; Bohn, R.

    1992-04-01

    This report describes research to develop vacuum-based growth techniques for CdTe thin-film solar cells: (1) laser-driven physical vapor deposition (LDPVD), and (2) radio-frequency (rf) sputtering. The LDPVD process was successfully used to deposit thin films of CdS, CdTe, and CdCl(sub 2), as well as related alloys and doped semiconductor materials. The laser-driven deposition process readily permits the use of several target materials in the same vacuum chamber and, thus, complete solar cell structures were fabricated on SnO2-coated glass using LDPVD. The rf sputtering process for film growth became operational, and progress was made in implementing it. Time was also devoted to enhancing or implementing a variety of film characterization systems and device testing facilities. A new system for transient spectroscopy on the ablation plume provided important new information on the physical mechanisms of LDPVD. The measurements show that, e.g., Cd is predominantly in the neutral atomic state in the plume but with a fraction that is highly excited internally (greater than or equal to 6 eV), and that the typical neutral Cd translational kinetic energies perpendicular to the target are 20 eV and greater.

  1. Thermal properties of methyltrimethoxysilane aerogel thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaroli, Leandro N.; Newby, Pascal; Santato, Clara; Peter, Yves-Alain

    2016-10-01

    Aerogels are light and porous solids whose properties, largely determined by their nanostructure, are useful in a wide range of applications, e.g., thermal insulation. In this work, as-deposited and thermally treated air-filled silica aerogel thin films synthesized using the sol-gel method were studied for their thermal properties using the 3-omega technique, at ambient conditions. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity were found to increase as the porosity of the aerogel decreased. Thermally treated films show a clear reduction in thermal conductivity compared with that of as-deposited films, likely due to an increase of porosity. The smallest thermal conductivity and diffusivity found for our aerogels were 0.019 W m-1 K-1 and 9.8 × 10-9 m2 s-1. A model was used to identify the components (solid, gaseous and radiative) of the total thermal conductivity of the aerogel.

  2. Negative differential conductivity in thin ferroelectric films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorny, Yury; Vorotilov, Konstantin; Sigov, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    A phenomenon of negative differential conductivity in ferroelectric thin films is discussed. We proposed that the reason is polarization recovery current arising at current-voltage I(V) measurements as a result of polarization relaxation after pre-polarization of ferroelectric film. Simulation of this current by Weibull distribution provides a good correlation with the experimental data. The obtained values of the recovered polarization Prec and the field strength Erec at which the recovery polarization current reaches maximum do not depend on the voltage sweep rate and are well correlated with the values of polarization relaxation Prel and coercive field strength Ec obtained from dielectric hysteresis loop. It is shown that the current density due to polarization recovery Jrec may exceed by about an order the ohmic current density JΩ in ferroelectric film at Ec.

  3. Supramolecular structure of electroactive polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. M.; Lachinov, A. N.; Karamov, D. D.; Nabiullin, I. R.; Kul'velis, Yu. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the supramolecular structure of polydiphenylenephthalide thin films that exhibit effects of resistive switching. The supramolecular structure of the polymer has been investigated using small-angle neutron scattering in conjunction with atomic force microscopy. It has been found that the internal structure of polymer films consists of structural elements in the form of spheroids. The sizes of the structural elements, which were obtained from the neutron scattering data and analysis of the atomic force microscopy images, correlate well with each other. A model of the formation of polymer layers has been proposed. The observed structural elements in polymer films are formed due to the association of macromolecules in the initial polymer solution.

  4. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin trilayer liquid films.

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-11-01

    When DC or AC electric fields are applied to a thin liquid film, the interface may become unstable and form a series of pillars. We examine how the presence of a second liquid interface influences pillar dynamics and morphologies. For perfect dielectric films, linear stability analysis of a lubrication-approximation-based model shows that the root mean square voltage governs the pillar behavior. For leaky dielectric films, Floquet theory is applied to carry out the linear stability analysis, and reveals that the accumulation of free charge at each interface depends on the conductivities in the adjoining phases and that high frequencies of the AC electric field may be used to control this accumulation at each interface independently. The results presented here may of interest for the controlled creation of surface topographical features in applications such as patterned coatings and microelectronics.

  5. Nanocrystalline silicon based thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Swati

    2012-06-01

    Amorphous silicon solar cells and panels on glass and flexible substrate are commercially available. Since last few years nanocrystalline silicon thin film has attracted remarkable attention due to its stability under light and ability to absorb longer wavelength portion of solar spectrum. For amorphous silicon/ nanocrystalline silicon double junction solar cell 14.7% efficiency has been achieved in small area and 13.5% for large area modules internationally. The device quality nanocrystalline silicon films have been fabricated by RF and VHF PECVD methods at IACS. Detailed characterizations of the materials have been done. Nanocrystalline films with low defect density and high stability have been developed and used as absorber layer of solar cells.

  6. Flexible polymeric ultrathin film for mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Pensabene, Virginia; Taccola, Silvia; Ricotti, Leonardo; Ciofani, Gianni; Menciassi, Arianna; Perut, Francesca; Salerno, Manuela; Dario, Paolo; Baldini, Nicola

    2011-07-01

    Ultrathin films (also called nanofilms) are two-dimensional (2-D) polymeric structures with potential application in biology, biotechnology, cosmetics and tissue engineering. Since they can be handled in liquid form with micropipettes or tweezers they have been proposed as flexible systems for cell adhesion and proliferation. In particular, with the aim of designing a novel patch for bone or tendon repair and healing, in this work the biocompatibility, adhesion and proliferation activity of Saos-2, MRC-5 and human and rat mesenchymal stem cells on poly(lactic acid) nanofilms were evaluated. The nanofilms did not impair the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Moreover, nanofilm adhesion to rabbit joints was evident under ex vivo conditions. PMID:21421086

  7. Anisotropic Lithium Ion Conductivity in Single-Ion Diblock Copolymer Electrolyte Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Aissou, Karim; Mumtaz, Muhammad; Usluer, Özlem; Pécastaings, Gilles; Portale, Giuseppe; Fleury, Guillaume; Cloutet, Eric; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-02-01

    Well-defined single-ion diblock copolymers consisting of a Li-ion conductive poly(styrenesulfonyllithium(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) (PSLiTFSI) block associated with a glassy polystyrene (PS) block have been synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 1000 has been achieved from PS-b-PSLiTFSI thin films by comparing Li-ion conductivities of out-of-plane (aligned) and in-plane (antialigned) cylinder morphologies at 40 °C. Blending of PS-b-PSLiTFSI thin films with poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer (hPEO) enables a substantial improvement of Li-ion transport within aligned cylindrical domains, since hPEO, preferentially located in PSLiTFSI domains, is an excellent lithium-solvating material. Results are also compared with unblended and blended PSLiTFSI homopolymer (hPSLiTFSI) homologues, which reveals that ionic conductivity is improved when thin films are nanostructured.

  8. Fabrication of Poly (methyl methacrylate) and Poly(vinyl alcohol) Thin Film Capacitors on Flexible Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, Bindu; Meenaa Pria KNJ, Jaisree; Alagappan, M.; Kandaswamy, A.

    2015-11-01

    Flexible electronics is becoming more popular with introduction of more and more organic conducting materials and processes for making thin films. The use of polymers as gate dielectric has over ruled the usage of conventional inorganic oxides in Organic Thin Film Transistors (OTFTs) on account of its solution process ability and ease of making highly insulating thin film. In this work Capacitance is fabricated with polymeric dielectrics namely poly (methyl methacrylate) - PMMA and poly (vinyl alcohol) - PVA. The electrodes used for these capacitors are Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) and Aluminium. Capacitance value of 9.5nF/cm2 and 33.12nF/cm2 is achieved for thickness of 510 nm of PMMA and 80 nm of PVA respectively. This study on capacitance can be used for assessing the suitability of these polymers as gate insulators in OTFTs.

  9. Preface: Thin films of molecular organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraxedas, J.

    2008-03-01

    This special issue is devoted to thin films of molecular organic materials and its aim is to assemble numerous different aspects of this topic in order to reach a wide scientific audience. Under the term 'thin films', structures with thicknesses spanning from one monolayer or less up to several micrometers are included. In order to narrow down this relaxed definition (how thin is thin?) I suggest joining the stream that makes a distinction according to the length scale involved, separating nanometer-thick films from micrometer-thick films. While the physical properties of micrometer-thick films tend to mimic those of bulk materials, in the low nanometer regime new structures (e.g., crystallographic and substrate-induced phases) and properties are found. However, one has to bear in mind that some properties of micrometer-thick films are really confined to the film/substrate interface (e.g. charge injection), and are thus of nanometer nature. Supported in this dimensionality framework, this issue covers the most ideal and model 0D case, a single molecule on a surface, through to the more application-oriented 3D case, placing special emphasis on the fascinating 2D domain that is monolayer assembly. Thus, many aspects will be reviewed, such as single molecules, self-organization, monolayer regime, chirality, growth, physical properties and applications. This issue has been intentionally restricted to small molecules, thus leaving out polymers and biomolecules, because for small molecules it is easier to establish structure--property relationships. Traditionally, the preparation of thin films of molecular organic materials has been considered as a secondary, lower-ranked part of the more general field of this class of materials. The coating of diverse surfaces such as silicon, inorganic and organic single crystals, chemically modified substrates, polymers, etc., with interesting molecules was driven by the potential applications of such molecular materials

  10. Optical, structural and electrochromic behavior studies on nanocomposite thin film of aniline, o-toluidine and WO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi-Ashtiani, Hamed; Bahari, Ali

    2016-08-01

    In the field of materials for electrochromic (EC) applications much attention was paid to the derivatives of aniline. We report on the optical, structural and electrochromic properties of electrochromic thin film based on composite of WO3 nanoparticles and copolymer of aniline and o-toluidine prepared by electrochemical polymerization method on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass. The thin film was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The morphology of prepared thin film was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) as well. The optical spectra of nanocomposite thin film were characterized in the 200-900 nm wavelength range and EC properties of nanocomposite thin film were studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The calculation of optical band gaps of thin film exhibited that the thin film has directly allowed transition with the values of 2.63 eV on first region and 3.80 eV on second region. Dispersion parameters were calculated based on the single oscillator model. Finally, important parameters such as dispersion energy, oscillator energy and lattice dielectric constant were determined and compared with the data from other researchers. The nonlinear optical properties such as nonlinear optical susceptibility, nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index were extracted. The obtained results of nanocomposite thin film can be useful for the optoelectronic applications.

  11. Preparation of thin polymer films for infrared reaction rate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, G. G.; Houston, D. W.

    1970-01-01

    Procedure for preparing thin films for infrared spectrophotometric analysis involves pressing of a neat mixture of reactants between nonreactive thin polymer films with noninterfering absorption bands. Pressing is done under a pressure that gives desirable thickness. Following this process, the film sandwich is cut to accommodate the laboratory instrument.

  12. Ultrahigh electrical conductivity in solution-sheared polymeric transparent films

    PubMed Central

    Worfolk, Brian J.; Andrews, Sean C.; Park, Steve; Reinspach, Julia; Liu, Nan; Toney, Michael F.; Mannsfeld, Stefan C. B.; Bao, Zhenan

    2015-01-01

    With consumer electronics transitioning toward flexible products, there is a growing need for high-performance, mechanically robust, and inexpensive transparent conductors (TCs) for optoelectronic device integration. Herein, we report the scalable fabrication of highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films via solution shearing. Specific control over deposition conditions allows for tunable phase separation and preferential PEDOT backbone alignment, resulting in record-high electrical conductivities of 4,600 ± 100 S/cm while maintaining high optical transparency. High-performance solution-sheared TC PEDOT:PSS films were used as patterned electrodes in capacitive touch sensors and organic photovoltaics to demonstrate practical viability in optoelectronic applications. PMID:26515096

  13. Memristive behaviour of spin coated titania thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarozaman, N. S.; Herman, S. H.; Mahmudin, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the memristive behaviour of spin coated titania thin films. The precursor molarity of titania thin film was varied from 0.05 to 0.4 M to study the effect of precursor molarity on the memristive behaviour of the thin films. From the observation, although the film thickness increased with the precursor molarity, the resistance ratios of the best switching loop for all samples showed no significant differences. However, it was found that the sample with less precursor molarity (device that having thinner film) required lesser time to produce the stable switching loop compared to the sample with higher precursor molarity (device that having thicker film).

  14. Processing of magnetostrictive thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, Michael Ray

    (Tb,Dy)Fesb2 intermetallic alloys exhibit very large magnetostrictive strains. Alloys with composition near Tbsb{0.3}Dysb{0.7}Fesb2, known as Terfenol-D, are of particular interest because this is the composition where room temperature anisotropy compensation occurs and the moment can be easily rotated. Terfenol-D has a cubic Laves phase structure and exhibits maximum magnetostrictive strain along $ directions at room temperature. Bulk Terfenol-D tends to grow as twinned dendritic sheets with $ orientation. Recently, there has been increased interest in Terfenol-D thin film devices. Crystallographic texture can change the magnetostrictive properties of thin films. It is the purpose of this research to study the effect of postdeposition annealing and magnetic annealing treatments on the microstructure of Terfenol-D thin films. It is predicted that textured films can be obtained by exploiting increased magnetocrystalline anisotropy at elevated temperatures. This would improve the low field magnetostrictive strains attainable for device applications. Also of recent interest is the fabrication of magnetostrictive composites. Increased toughness and durability are attainable at the cost of reduced magnetostrictive performance. Terfenol-D composites have been made with polymers. Composites with metals would be stronger and tougher but conventional high temperature processing routes cause unwanted reactions. Temperatures high enough to allow appreciable diffusion for sintering would also allow the metal binder phase to interdiffuse with Terfenol-D. This work also examines the feasibility of explosive compaction of Terfenol-D-metal composites. The short duration, on the order of microseconds, of the pressure and temperature pulse experienced by the powder leads to compaction at near room temperature. This is expected to prevent unwanted reactions between Terfenol-D and the metal binder.

  15. Thin Film Evolution Over a Thin Porous Layer: Modeling a Tear Film on a Contact Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Daniel; Nong, Kumnit

    2010-11-01

    We examine a mathematical model that describes the behavior of the pre-contact lens tear film of a human eye. Our work examines the effect of contact lens thickness and lens permeability and slip on the film dynamics. A mathematical model for the evolution of the tear film is derived using a lubrication approximation applied to the hydrodynamic equations of motion in the fluid film and the porous layer. The model is a nonlinear fourth order partial differential equation subject to boundary conditions and an initial condition for post-blink film evolution. We find that increasing the lens thickness, permeability and slip all contribute to an increase in the film thinning rate although for parameter values typical for contact lens wear these modifications are minor. The presence of the contact lens can, however, fundamentally change the nature of the rupture dynamics as the inclusion of the porous lens leads to rupture in finite time rather than infinite time.

  16. Molecular layer-by-layer assembled thin-film composite membranes for water desalination.

    PubMed

    Gu, Joung-Eun; Lee, Seunghye; Stafford, Christopher M; Lee, Jong Suk; Choi, Wansuk; Kim, Bo-Young; Baek, Kyung-Youl; Chan, Edwin P; Chung, Jun Young; Bang, Joona; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2013-09-14

    Molecular layer-by-layer (mLbL) assembled thin-film composite membranes fabricated by alternating deposition of reactive monomers on porous supports exhibit both improved salt rejection and enhanced water flux compared to traditional reverse osmosis membranes prepared by interfacial polymerization. Additionally, the well-controlled structures achieved by mLbL deposition further lead to improved antifouling performance. PMID:23847127

  17. Colloidal Particles in Thin Nematic Wetting Films.

    PubMed

    Jeridi, Haifa; Tasinkevych, Mykola; Othman, Tahar; Blanc, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    We experimentally and theoretically study the variety of elastic deformations that appear when colloidal inclusions are embedded in thin wetting films of a nematic liquid crystal with hybrid anchoring conditions. In the thickest films, the elastic dipoles formed by particles and their accompanying defects share features with the patterns commonly observed in liquid crystal cells. When the film gets thinner than the particles size, however, the capillary effects strongly modify the appearance of the elastic dipoles and the birefringence patterns. The influence of the film thickness and particles sizes on the patterns has been explored. The main experimental features and the transitions observed at large scale-with respect to the inclusions' size-are explained with a simple two-dimensional Ansatz, combining capillarity and nematic elasticity. In a second step, we discuss the origin of the variety of observed textures. Developing a three-dimensional Landau-de Gennes model at the scale of the particles, we show that the presence of free interfaces and the beads confinement yield metastable configurations that are quenched during the film spreading or the beads trapping at interfaces. PMID:27538098

  18. Metallic Thin-Film Bonding and Alloy Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, Jack Merrill (Inventor); Campbell, Geoff (Inventor); Peotter, Brian S. (Inventor); Droppers, Lloyd (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Diffusion bonding a stack of aluminum thin films is particularly challenging due to a stable aluminum oxide coating that rapidly forms on the aluminum thin films when they are exposed to atmosphere and the relatively low meting temperature of aluminum. By plating the individual aluminum thin films with a metal that does not rapidly form a stable oxide coating, the individual aluminum thin films may be readily diffusion bonded together using heat and pressure. The resulting diffusion bonded structure can be an alloy of choice through the use of a carefully selected base and plating metals. The aluminum thin films may also be etched with distinct patterns that form a microfluidic fluid flow path through the stack of aluminum thin films when diffusion bonded together.

  19. Low-Cost Detection of Thin Film Stress during Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a simple, cost-effective optical method for thin film stress measurements during growth and/or subsequent annealing processes. Stress arising in thin film fabrication presents production challenges for electronic devices, sensors, and optical coatings; it can lead to substrate distortion and deformation, impacting the performance of thin film products. NASA's technique measures in-situ stress using a simple, noncontact fiber optic probe in the thin film vacuum deposition chamber. This enables real-time monitoring of stress during the fabrication process and allows for efficient control of deposition process parameters. By modifying process parameters in real time during fabrication, thin film stress can be optimized or controlled, improving thin film product performance.

  20. Physical Properties of Thin Film Semiconducting Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouras, N.; Djebbouri, M.; Outemzabet, R.; Sali, S.; Zerrouki, H.; Zouaoui, A.; Kesri, N.

    2005-10-01

    The physics and chemistry of semiconducting materials is a continuous question of debate. We can find a large stock of well-known properties but at the same time, many things are not understood. In recent years, porous silicon (PS-Si), diselenide of copper and indium (CuInSe2 or CIS) and metal oxide semiconductors like tin oxide (SnO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) have been subjected to extensive studies because of the rising interest their potential applications in fields such as electronic components, solar panels, catalysis, gas sensors, in biocompatible materials, in Li-based batteries, in new generation of MOSFETS. Bulk structure and surface and interface properties play important roles in all of these applications. A deeper understanding of these fundamental properties would impact largely on technological application performances. In our laboratory, thin films of undoped and antimony-doped films of tin oxide have been deposited by chemical vapor deposition. Spray pyrolysis was used for ZnO. CIS was prepared by flash evaporation or close-space vapor transport. Some of the deposition parameters have been varied, such as substrate temperature, time of deposition (or anodization), and molar concentration of bath preparation. For some samples, thermal annealing was carried out under oxygen (or air), under nitrogen gas and under vacuum. Deposition and post-deposition parameters are known to strongly influence film structure and electrical resistivity. We investigated the influence of film thickness and thermal annealing on structural optical and electrical properties of the films. Examination of SnO2 by x-ray diffraction showed that the main films are polycrystalline with rutile structure. The x-ray spectra of ZnO indicated a hexagonal wurtzite structure. Characterizations of CIS films with compositional analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning microscopy, spectrophotometry, and photoluminescence were carried out.

  1. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H.; Suzuki, Y.; Sliz, R.; Fabritius, T.; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G. A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics.

  2. High- Tc thin-film magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Miklich, A.H.; Wellstood, F.C.; Kingston, J.J.; Clarke, J. ); Colclough, M.S. ); Cardona, A.H.; Bourne, L.C.; Olson, W.L.; Eddy, M.M. )

    1990-09-01

    We have constructed and tested high-{Tc} magnetometers by coupling a high-{Tc} thin-film Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) to two different high-{Tc} thin-film flux transformers. The SQUID was made from Tl{sub 2}CaBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 2}O{sub 8+y} films grown on MgO, with junctions consisting of native grain boundaries. The flux transformers were made from YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}, and each had 10-turn input coils and a single-turn pickup loop. The first transformer, which was patterned with a combination of shadow masks and photolithography, yielded a magnetic field gain of about {minus}7.5, functioned up to 79 K, and gave a magnetic field sensitivity B{sub N} (10 Hz) {approx} 3.1 pT Hz{sup {minus}1/2}at 38 K. The second transformer, which was patterned entirely by photolithography, yielded a gain of about {minus}8.7, functioned up to 25 K, and had a sensitivity B{sub N} (10 Hz) {approx} 3.5 pT Hz{sup {minus}1/2} at 4.2 K. In both cases, the limiting noise arose in the SQUID. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. PZT Thin Film Piezoelectric Traveling Wave Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Dexin; Zhang, Baoan; Yang, Genqing; Jiao, Jiwei; Lu, Jianguo; Wang, Weiyuan

    1995-01-01

    With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), its various applications are attracting more and more attention. Among MEMS, micro motors, electrostatic and electromagnetic, are the typical and important ones. As an alternative approach, the piezoelectric traveling wave micro motor, based on thin film material and integrated circuit technologies, circumvents many of the drawbacks of the above mentioned two types of motors and displays distinct advantages. In this paper we report on a lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) piezoelectric thin film traveling wave motor. The PZT film with a thickness of 150 micrometers and a diameter of 8 mm was first deposited onto a metal substrate as the stator material. Then, eight sections were patterned to form the stator electrodes. The rotor had an 8 kHz frequency power supply. The rotation speed of the motor is 100 rpm. The relationship of the friction between the stator and the rotor and the structure of the rotor on rotation were also studied.

  4. Stripe glasses in ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principi, Alessandro; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.

    2016-02-01

    Domain walls in magnetic multilayered systems can exhibit a very complex and fascinating behavior. For example, the magnetization of thin films of hard magnetic materials is in general perpendicular to the thin-film plane, thanks to the strong out-of-plane anisotropy, but its direction changes periodically, forming an alternating spin-up and spin-down stripe pattern. The latter is stabilized by the competition between the ferromagnetic coupling and dipole-dipole interactions, and disappears when a moderate in-plane magnetic field is applied. It has been suggested that such a behavior may be understood in terms of a self-induced stripe glassiness. In this paper we show that such a scenario is compatible with the experimental findings. The strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of the film is found to be beneficial for the formation of both stripe-ordered and glassy phases. At zero magnetic field the system can form a glass only in a narrow interval of fairly large temperatures. An in-plane magnetic field, however, shifts the glass transition towards lower temperatures, therefore enabling it at or below room temperature. In good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings, we show that a moderate in-plane magnetic field of the order of 50 mT can lead to the formation of defects in the stripe pattern, which sets the onset of the glass transition.

  5. Stripe glasses in ferromagnetic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Principi, Alessandro; Katsnelson, Mikhail

    Domain walls in magnetic multilayered systems can exhibit a very complex and fascinating behavior. The magnetization of thin films of hard magnetic materials is in general perpendicular to the thin-film plane, but its direction changes periodically, forming an alternating spin-up and spin-down stripe pattern. The latter is stabilized by the competition between the ferromagnetic coupling and dipole-dipole interactions, and disappears when a moderate in-plane magnetic field is applied. It has been suggested that such a behavior may be understood in terms of a self-induced stripe glassiness. In this paper we show that such a scenario is compatible with the experimental findings. The strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of the film is found to be beneficial for the formation of both the stripe-ordered and glassy phases. At zero magnetic field the system can form a glass only in a narrow interval of fairly large temperatures. An in-plane magnetic field, however, shifts the glass transition towards lower temperatures, therefore enabling it at or below room temperature. In good qualitative agreement with the experimental findings, we show that a moderate in-plane magnetic field of the order of 30 mT can lead to the formation of defects in the stripe pattern.

  6. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H; Suzuki, Y; Sliz, R; Fabritius, T; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G A J

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics. PMID:26676997

  7. Orthogonal Thin Film Photovoltaics on Vertical Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Ahnood, Arman; Zhou, H; Suzuki, Y; Sliz, R; Fabritius, T; Nathan, Arokia; Amaratunga, G A J

    2015-12-01

    Decoupling paths of carrier collection and illumination within photovoltaic devices is one promising approach for improving their efficiency by simultaneously increasing light absorption and carrier collection efficiency. Orthogonal photovoltaic devices are core-shell type structures consisting of thin film photovoltaic stack on vertical nanopillar scaffolds. These types of devices allow charge collection to take place in the radial direction, perpendicular to the path of light in the vertical direction. This approach addresses the inherently high recombination rate of disordered thin films, by allowing semiconductor films with minimal thicknesses to be used in photovoltaic devices, without performance degradation associated with incomplete light absorption. This work considers effects which influence the performance of orthogonal photovoltaic devices. Illumination non-uniformity as light travels across the depth of the pillars, electric field enhancement due to the nanoscale size and shape of the pillars, and series resistance due to the additional surface structure created through the use of pillars are considered. All of these effects influence the operation of orthogonal solar cells and should be considered in the design of vertically nanostructured orthogonal photovoltaics.

  8. Thin-film cadmium telluride solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, T. L.

    1986-08-01

    The major objective of this work was to demonstrate CdTe devices grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with a total area greater than 1 cm2 and photovoltic efficiencies of at least 13%. During the period covered, various processing steps were investigated for the preparation of thin-film CdTe heterojunction solar cells of the inverted configuration. Glass coated with fluorine-doped tin oxide was used as the substrate. Thin-film heterojunction solar cells were prepared by depositing p-CdTe films on substrates using CVD and close-spaced sublimation (CSS). Cells prepared from CSS CdTe usually have a higher conversion efficiency than those prepared from CVD CdTe, presumably due to the chemical interaction between CdS and CdTe at the interface during the CVD process. The best cell, about 1.2 sq cm in area, had an AM 1.5 (global) efficiency of 10.5%, and further improvements are expected by optimizing the process parameters.

  9. Thinning of drying latex films due to surfactant.

    PubMed

    Gundabala, Venkata R; Routh, Alexander F

    2006-11-01

    Lateral non-uniformities in surfactant distribution in drying latex films induce surface tension gradients at the film surface and lead to film thinning through surfactant spreading. Here we investigate the influence of the surfactant driven to the air-water interface, during the early stages of latex film drying, on the film thinning process which could possibly lead to film rupture. A film height evolution equation is coupled with conservation equations for particles and surfactant, within the lubrication approximation, and solved numerically, to obtain the film height, particle volume fraction, and surfactant concentration profiles. Parametric analysis identifies the effect of drying rate, dispersion viscosity and initial particle volume fraction on film thinning and reveals the conditions under which films could rupture. The results from surface profilometry conform qualitatively to the model predictions.

  10. Overview and Challenges of Thin Film Solar Electric Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the significant progress made worldwide by thin-film solar cells, namely, amorphous silicon (a-Si), cadmium telluride (CdTe), and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS). Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technology status is also discussed in detail. In addition, R&D and technology challenges in all three areas are elucidated. The worldwide estimated projection for thin-film PV technology production capacity announcements are estimated at more than 5000 MW by 2010.

  11. Influence of thermal diffusion and shear thinning during the leveling of nanoimprinted patterns in a polystyrene thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssèdre, Hubert; Landis, Stefan; Gilormini, Pierre; Régnier, Gilles

    2015-11-01

    When capillary forces prevail, the leveling of the free surface of a fluid film is a natural phenomenon that has already found applicative interest with brushmarks either for paint coatings or for rheology on polymeric thin films. Among many parameters, the material behavior influences notably this phenomenon and its characterization still arouses curiosity at the nanoscale. In this article, the nanoscale properties of a polystyrene film are derived from the leveling rate of nanoimprinted patterns and are compared to bulk values obtained with a parallel plate rheometer. In particular, the focus is made on the isothermal assumption during the process and the consequences of an anisothermal state on the material behavior. Both points are investigated by using numerical simulations based on the natural element method. First, we demonstrate experimentally that the leveling rate is influenced by the heat exchange at the air-polymer interface and that thermal diffusion should be taken into account within the film and its underlying substrate. Then, we numerically investigate the influence of thermal diffusion and shear thinning on the leveling rate. Finally, we show that the bulk properties can represent particularly closely the behavior of the polymer at the nanoscale if adequate thermal boundary conditions are used and if shear thinning is taken into account. This agreement postulates a decrease by 7 °C of the mean temperature of the polystyrene film coated on silicon when experiments are carried out on a hot plate at 100 °C in a clean-room environment.

  12. Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1996-02-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells convert thermal energy to electricity. Modularity, portability, silent operation, absence of moving parts, reduced air pollution, rapid start-up, high power densities, potentially high conversion efficiencies, choice of a wide range of heat sources employing fossil fuels, biomass, and even solar radiation are key advantages of TPV cells in comparison with fuel cells, thermionic and thermoelectric convertors, and heat engines. The potential applications of TPV systems include: remote electricity supplies, transportation, co-generation, electric-grid independent appliances, and space, aerospace, and military power applications. The range of bandgaps for achieving high conversion efficiencies using low temperature (1000-2000 K) black-body or selective radiators is in the 0.5-0.75 eV range. Present high efficiency convertors are based on single crystalline materials such as In1-xGaxAs, GaSb, and Ga1-xInxSb. Several polycrystalline thin films such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, and Pb1-xCdxTe, etc., have great potential for economic large-scale applications. A small fraction of the high concentration of charge carriers generated at high fluences effectively saturates the large density of defects in polycrystalline thin films. Photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of polycrystalline thin films and PV solar cells are comparable to single crystalline Si solar cells, e.g., 17.1% for CuIn1-xGaxSe2 and 15.8% for CdTe. The best recombination-state density Nt is in the range of 10-15-10-16 cm-3 acceptable for TPV applications. Higher efficiencies may be achieved because of the higher fluences, possibility of bandgap tailoring, and use of selective emitters such as rare earth oxides (erbia, holmia, yttria) and rare earth-yttrium aluminium garnets. As compared to higher bandgap semiconductors such as CdTe, it is easier to dope the lower bandgap semiconductors. TPV cell development can benefit from the more mature PV solar cell and opto

  13. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Raoul B.

    1988-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  14. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  15. Uncooled thin film pyroelectric IR detector with aerogel thermal isolation

    DOEpatents

    Ruffner, Judith A.; Bullington, Jeff A.; Clem, Paul G.; Warren, William L.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Tuttle, Bruce A.; Schwartz, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    A monolithic infrared detector structure which allows integration of pyroelectric thin films atop low thermal conductivity aerogel thin films. The structure comprises, from bottom to top, a substrate, an aerogel insulating layer, a lower electrode, a pyroelectric layer, and an upper electrode layer capped by a blacking layer. The aerogel can offer thermal conductivity less than that of air, while providing a much stronger monolithic alternative to cantilevered or suspended air-gap structures for pyroelectric thin film pixel arrays. Pb(Zr.sub.0.4 Ti.sub.0.6)O.sub.3 thin films deposited on these structures displayed viable pyroelectric properties, while processed at 550.degree. C.

  16. Thin-Film Photovoltaics: Status and Applications to Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    1991-01-01

    The potential applications of thin film polycrystalline and amorphous cells for space are discussed. There have been great advances in thin film solar cells for terrestrial applications; transfer of this technology to space applications could result in ultra low weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper iridium selenide and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon alloys. The possibility of thin film multi bandgap cascade solar cells is discussed.

  17. Applications of thin-film photovoltaics for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    1991-01-01

    The authors discuss the potential applications of thin-film polycrystalline and amorphous cells for space. There have been great advances in thin-film solar cells for terrestrial applications. Transfer of this technology to space applications could result in ultra low-weight solar arrays with potentially large gains in specific power. Recent advances in thin-film solar cells are reviewed, including polycrystalline copper indium selenide and related I-III-VI2 compounds, polycrystalline cadmium telluride and related II-VI compounds, and amorphous silicon arrays. The possibility of using thin-film multi-bandgap cascade solar cells is discussed.

  18. Dye-Sensitization Of Nanocrystalline ZnO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Ajimsha, R. S.; Tyagi, M.; Das, A. K.; Misra, P.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    Nannocrystalline and nanoporus thin films of ZnO were synthesized on glass substrates by using wet chemical drop casting method. X-ray diffraction measurements on these samples confirmed the formation of ZnO nanocrystallites in hexagonal wurtzite phase with mean size of {approx}20 nm. Photo sensitization of these nanostructured ZnO thin films was carried out using three types of dyes Rhodamine 6 G, Chlorophyll and cocktail of Rhodamine 6 G and Chlorophyll in 1:1 ratio. Dye sensitized ZnO thin films showed enhanced optical absorption in visible spectral region compared to the pristine ZnO thin films.

  19. Rechargeable thin film battery and method for making the same

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Liu, Te-Yang; Goldner, Mark A.; Gerouki, Alexandra; Haas, Terry E.

    2006-01-03

    A rechargeable, stackable, thin film, solid-state lithium electrochemical cell, thin film lithium battery and method for making the same is disclosed. The cell and battery provide for a variety configurations, voltage and current capacities. An innovative low temperature ion beam assisted deposition method for fabricating thin film, solid-state anodes, cathodes and electrolytes is disclosed wherein a source of energetic ions and evaporants combine to form thin film cell components having preferred crystallinity, structure and orientation. The disclosed batteries are particularly useful as power sources for portable electronic devices and electric vehicle applications where high energy density, high reversible charge capacity, high discharge current and long battery lifetimes are required.

  20. Piezoelectric thin films and their applications for electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Yukio

    2009-03-01

    ZnO and AlN piezoelectric thin films have been studied for applications in bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator. This article introduces methods of forming ZnO and AlN piezoelectric thin films by radio frequency sputtering and applications of BAW resonators considering the relationship between the crystallinity of piezoelectric thin films and the characteristics of the BAW resonators. Using ZnO thin films, BAW resonators were fabricated for a contour mode at 3.58 MHz and thickness modes from 200 MHz to 5 GHz. The ZnO thin films were combined with various materials, substrates, and thin films to minimize the temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF). The minimum TCF of BAW resonators was approximately 2 ppm/°C in the range -20 to 80 °C. The electromechanical coupling coefficient (k2) in a 1.9 GHz BAW resonator was 6.9%. Using AlN thin films, 5-20 GHz BAW resonators with an ultrathin membrane were realized. The membrane thickness of a 20 GHz BAW resonator was about 200 nm, k2 was 6.1%, and the quality factor (Q) was about 280. Q decreased with increasing resonant frequency. The value of k2 is almost the same for 5-20 GHz resonators. This result could be obtained by improving the thickness uniformity, by controlling internal stress of thin films, and by controlling the crystallinity of AlN piezoelectric thin film.

  1. Structural characterization of impurified zinc oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Trinca, L. M.; Galca, A. C. Stancu, V. Chirila, C. Pintilie, L.

    2014-11-05

    Europium doped zinc oxide (Eu:ZnO) thin films have been obtained by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). 002 textured thin films were achieved on glass and silicon substrates, while hetero-epilayers and homo-epilayers have been attained on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} and ZnO, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was employed to characterize the Eu:ZnO thin films. Extended XRD studies confirmed the different thin film structural properties as function of chosen substrates.

  2. Rechargeable thin-film electrochemical generator

    DOEpatents

    Rouillard, Roger; Domroese, Michael K.; Hoffman, Joseph A.; Lindeman, David D.; Noel, Joseph-Robert-Gaetan; Radewald, Vern E.; Ranger, Michel; Sudano, Anthony; Trice, Jennifer L.; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2000-09-15

    An improved electrochemical generator is disclosed. The electrochemical generator includes a thin-film electrochemical cell which is maintained in a state of compression through use of an internal or an external pressure apparatus. A thermal conductor, which is connected to at least one of the positive or negative contacts of the cell, conducts current into and out of the cell and also conducts thermal energy between the cell and thermally conductive, electrically resistive material disposed on a vessel wall adjacent the conductor. The thermally conductive, electrically resistive material may include an anodized coating or a thin sheet of a plastic, mineral-based material or conductive polymer material. The thermal conductor is fabricated to include a resilient portion which expands and contracts to maintain mechanical contact between the cell and the thermally conductive material in the presence of relative movement between the cell and the wall structure. The electrochemical generator may be disposed in a hermetically sealed housing.

  3. TiO{sub 2}/PANI And MWNT/PANI Composites Thin Films For Hydrogen Gas Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Subodh; Kumar, Sumit; Agrawal, Shweta; Saxena, Arpita; Choudhary, B. L.; Mathur, Shubhra; Singh, M.; Vijay, Y. K.

    2010-12-01

    The MWNT and TiO{sub 2} doped Polyaniline (PANI) composites were synthesized by In-situ chemical oxidative polymerization method at low temperature. The MWNT/PANI and TiO{sub 2}/PANI composite thin films were prepared using spin coating method onto finger type interdigited electrodes to develop the chemiresistor type gas sensor for hydrogen gas sensing application. It was observed that the MWNT and TiO{sub 2} doped PANI composite thin films show a higher response in comparision to neat PANI. The structural and morphological properties of these composite films were characterized by X-Ray differaction (XRD) pattern and sccaning electrone microscopy (SEM) respectively.

  4. Spray Layer-by-Layer Assembled Clay Composite Thin Films as Selective Layers in Reverse Osmosis Membranes.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Jason R; Liu, Chaoyang; Hammond, Paula T

    2015-06-24

    Spray layer-by-layer assembled thin films containing laponite (LAP) clay exhibit effective salt barrier and water permeability properties when applied as selective layers in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. Negatively charged LAP platelets were layered with poly(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDAC), poly(allylamine) (PAH), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) in bilayer and tetralayer film architectures to generate uniform films on the order of 100 nm thick that bridge a porous poly(ether sulfone) support to form novel RO membranes. Nanostructures were formed of clay layers intercalated in a polymeric matrix that introduced size-exclusion transport mechanisms into the selective layer. Thermal cross-linking of the polymeric matrix was used to increase the mechanical stability of the films and improve salt rejection by constraining swelling during operation. Maximum salt rejection of 89% was observed for the tetralayer film architecture, with an order of magnitude increase in water permeability compared to commercially available TFC-HR membranes. These clay composite thin films could serve as a high-flux alternative to current polymeric RO membranes for wastewater and brackish water treatment as well as potentially for forward osmosis applications. In general, we illustrate that by investigating the composite systems accessed using alternating layer-by-layer assembly in conjunction with complementary covalent cross-linking, it is possible to design thin film membranes with tunable transport properties for water purification applications.

  5. High Performance Airbrushed Organic Thin Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.; Richter, L; Dinardo, B; Jaye, C; Conrad, B; Ro, H; Germack, D; Fischer, D; DeLongchamp, D; Gunlach, D

    2010-01-01

    Spray-deposited poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) transistors were characterized using electrical and structural methods. Thin-film transistors with octyltrichlorosilane treated gate dielectrics and spray-deposited P3HT active layers exhibited a saturation regime mobility as high as 0.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, which is comparable to the best mobilities observed in high molecular mass P3HT transistors prepared using other methods. Optical and atomic force microscopy showed the presence of individual droplets with an average diameter of 20 {micro}m and appreciable large-scale film inhomogeneities. Despite these inhomogeneities, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of the device-relevant channel interface indicated excellent orientation of the P3HT.

  6. Photochemical Deposition of Patterned Gold Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaran, Abbu Udaiyar Senthil; Miyawaki, Tetsuya; Ichimura, Masaya

    2006-12-01

    We present a novel route for patterned gold thin-film deposition on glass substrates with the help of UV-light irradiation. Chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) is used as a source material and sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) acts as a reducing agent in an aqueous solution. Ethylene diamine (EDA) is added to increase the solution stability. The deposition solution is injected on the substrate. A patterned metal mask is placed 5 mm above the substrate, and the solution is illuminated for 15 min by an ultrahigh-pressure mercury arc lamp. A patterned Au film with a thickness of 0.1-0.2 μm is deposited.

  7. Process for making dense thin films

    DOEpatents

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2005-07-26

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive porous substrates and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical device substrates of novel composition and techniques for forming thin electrode/membrane/electrolyte coatings on the novel or more conventional substrates. In particular, in one embodiment the invention provides techniques for firing of device substrate to form densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick. In another embodiment, densified electrolyte/membrane films 5 to 20 microns thick may be formed on a pre-sintered substrate by a constrained sintering process. In some cases, the substrate may be a porous metal, alloy, or non-nickel cermet incorporating one or more of the transition metals Cr, Fe, Cu and Ag, or alloys thereof.

  8. Galvanostatic Ion Detrapping Rejuvenates Oxide Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Arvizu, Miguel A; Wen, Rui-Tao; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Klemberg-Sapieha, Jolanta E; Martinu, Ludvik; Niklasson, Gunnar A; Granqvist, Claes G

    2015-12-01

    Ion trapping under charge insertion-extraction is well-known to degrade the electrochemical performance of oxides. Galvanostatic treatment was recently shown capable to rejuvenate the oxide, but the detailed mechanism remained uncertain. Here we report on amorphous electrochromic (EC) WO3 thin films prepared by sputtering and electrochemically cycled in a lithium-containing electrolyte under conditions leading to severe loss of charge exchange capacity and optical modulation span. Time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF-ERDA) documented pronounced Li(+) trapping associated with the degradation of the EC properties and, importantly, that Li(+) detrapping, caused by a weak constant current drawn through the film for some time, could recover the original EC performance. Thus, ToF-ERDA provided direct and unambiguous evidence for Li(+) detrapping. PMID:26599729

  9. Thin film fabricated from solution-dispersible porous hyperbranched conjugated polymer nanoparticles without surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaofu; Li, Haibo; Xu, Yuxiang; Xu, Bowei; Tong, Hui; Wang, Lixiang

    2014-01-01

    Porous hyperbranched conjugated polymer nanoparticles with an average particle size of 20-60 nm and a specific surface area of 225 m2 g-1 have been prepared through Suzuki polymerization in a miniemulsion, which could be stably dispersed in common organic solvents after complete removal of surfactants. Furthermore, a simple spin-coating method for the preparation of homogeneous transparent thin films of the nanoparticle has been developed. Bright blue emission of the porous nanoparticle films could be reversibly quenched by nitroaromatics with enhanced sensitivity compared to dense films of the linear conjugated polymer analogue.Porous hyperbranched conjugated polymer nanoparticles with an average particle size of 20-60 nm and a specific surface area of 225 m2 g-1 have been prepared through Suzuki polymerization in a miniemulsion, which could be stably dispersed in common organic solvents after complete removal of surfactants. Furthermore, a simple spin-coating method for the preparation of homogeneous transparent thin films of the nanoparticle has been developed. Bright blue emission of the porous nanoparticle films could be reversibly quenched by nitroaromatics with enhanced sensitivity compared to dense films of the linear conjugated polymer analogue. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis, experimental details, structural characterization, morphological images, fluorescence response data etc. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05402k

  10. Effective dynamics for ferromagnetic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Cervera, Carlos J.; E, Weinan

    2001-07-01

    In a ferromagnetic material, the dynamics of the relaxation process are affected by the presence of a strong shape or material anisotropy. In this article, we systematically explore this fact to derive the effective dynamical equation for a soft ferromagnetic thin film. We show that, as a consequence of the interplay between shape anisotropy and damping, the gyromagnetic term is effectively also a damping term for the in-plane components of the magnetization distribution. We validate our result through numerical simulation of the original Landau{endash}Lifshitz equation and our effective equation. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Robust, Thin Optical Films for Extreme Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The environment of space presents scientists and engineers with the challenges of a harsh, unforgiving laboratory in which to conduct their scientific research. Solar astronomy and X-ray astronomy are two of the more challenging areas into which NASA scientists delve, as the optics for this high-tech work must be extremely sensitive and accurate, yet also be able to withstand the battering dished out by radiation, extreme temperature swings, and flying debris. Recent NASA work on this rugged equipment has led to the development of a strong, thin film for both space and laboratory use.

  12. Thin film photovoltaic device with multilayer substrate

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1984-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic device which utilizes at least one compound semiconductor layer chosen from Groups IIB and VA of the Periodic Table is formed on a multilayer substrate The substrate includes a lowermost support layer on which all of the other layers of the device are formed. Additionally, an uppermost carbide or silicon layer is adjacent to the semiconductor layer. Below the carbide or silicon layer is a metal layer of high conductivity and expansion coefficient equal to or slightly greater than that of the semiconductor layer.

  13. Thin film dielectric microstrip kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazin, Benjamin A.; Sank, Daniel; McHugh, Sean; Lucero, Erik A.; Merrill, Andrew; Gao, Jiansong; Pappas, David; Moore, David; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-03-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors, or MKIDs, are a type of low temperature detector that exhibit intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing at microwave frequencies. We present the first theory and measurements on a MKID based on a microstrip transmission line resonator. A complete characterization of the dielectric loss and noise properties of these resonators is performed, and agrees well with the derived theory. A competitive noise equivalent power of 5×10-17 W Hz-1/2 at 10 Hz has been demonstrated. The resonators exhibit the highest quality factors known in a microstrip resonator with a deposited thin film dielectric.

  14. Thin-Film Photovoltaic Device Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scofield, John H.

    2003-01-01

    This project will primarily involve the fabrication and characterization of thin films and devices for photovoltaic applications. The materials involved include Il-VI materials such as zinc oxide, cadmium sulfide, and doped analogs. The equipment ot be used will be sputtering and physical evaporations. The types of characterization includes electrical, XRD, SEM and CV and related measurements to establish the efficiency of the devices. The faculty fellow will be involved in a research team composed of NASA and University researchers as well as students and other junior researchers.

  15. Stable localized patterns in thin liquid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Oron, Alexander

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation is studied which describes the three-dimensional spatiotemporal behavior of the air-liquid interface of a thin liquid film lying on the underside of a cooled horizontal plate. It is shown that the equation has a Liapunov functional, and this fact is exploited to demonstrate that the Marangoni effect can stabilize the destabilizing effect of gravity (the Rayleigh-Taylor instability), allowing for the existence of stable localized axisymmetric solutions for a wide range of parameter values. Various properties of these structures are discussed.

  16. Probing the rheological properties of supported thin polystyrene films by investigating the growth dynamics of wetting ridges.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Biao; Tian, Houkuan; Liang, Yongfeng; Xu, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xinping

    2016-07-13

    Despite its importance in the processing of nanomaterials, the rheological behavior of thin polymer films is poorly understood, partly due to the inherent measurement challenges. Herein, we have developed a facile method for investigating the rheological behavior of supported thin polymeric films by monitoring the growth of the "wetting ridge"-a microscopic protrusion on the film surface due to the capillary forces exerted by a drop of ionic liquid placed on the film surface. It was found that the growth dynamics of the wetting ridge and the behavior of polystyrene rheology are directly linked. Important rheological properties, such as the flow temperature (Tf), viscosity (η), and terminal relaxation time (τ0) of thin polystyrene films, can be derived by studying the development of the height of the wetting ridge with time and the sample temperature. Rheological studies using the proposed approach for supported thin polystyrene (PS) films with thickness down to 20 nm demonstrate that the PS thin film exhibits facilitated flow, with reduced viscosity and lowered viscous temperature and a shortened rubbery plateau, when SiOx-Si was used as the substrate. However, sluggish flow was observed for the PS film supported by hydrogen-passivated silicon substrates (H-Si). The differences in enthalpic interactions between PS and the substrates are the reason for this divergence in the whole-chain mobility and flow ability of thin PS films deposited on SiOx-Si and H-Si surfaces. These results indicate that this approach could be a reliable rheological probe for supported thin polymeric films with different thicknesses and various substrates.

  17. Fullerenes as adhesive layers for mechanical peeling of metallic, molecular and polymer thin films.

    PubMed

    Wieland, Maria B; Slater, Anna G; Mangham, Barry; Champness, Neil R; Beton, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    We show that thin films of C60 with a thickness ranging from 10 to 100 nm can promote adhesion between a Au thin film deposited on mica and a solution-deposited layer of the elastomer polymethyldisolaxane (PDMS). This molecular adhesion facilitates the removal of the gold film from the mica support by peeling and provides a new approach to template stripping which avoids the use of conventional adhesive layers. The fullerene adhesion layers may also be used to remove organic monolayers and thin films as well as two-dimensional polymers which are pre-formed on the gold surface and have monolayer thickness. Following the removal from the mica support the monolayers may be isolated and transferred to a dielectric surface by etching of the gold thin film, mechanical transfer and removal of the fullerene layer by annealing/dissolution. The use of this molecular adhesive layer provides a new route to transfer polymeric films from metal substrates to other surfaces as we demonstrate for an assembly of covalently-coupled porphyrins.

  18. Directed Assembly of Nanofilled Polymer Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Alamgir

    Facile directed self-assembly (DSA) of multicomponent thin films is important for potential technological applications. This requires a fine control of a complex interplay of processing parameters that need to be properly optimized for different organized structures. This talk will discuss some of our recent success towards realizing tunable DSA of soft matter multicomponent systems involving a dispersion of polymer-grafted nanoparticles in block copolymer or homopolymer matrices. DSA methods for such multicomponent films will be discussed. These include the use of zone-annealing with soft-shear to create highly anisotropic nanoparticle arrays, while direct immersion annealing (DIA) has been used to order nanoparticle filled films by dipping the films into controlled solvent quality solvent mixtures. A recently observed phenomena of confinement driven entropic order and phase segregation of polymer grafted nanoparticles in similar and dissimilar polymer matrices in melt state will be discussed. A high density of nano particles of different types ranging from metallic to inorganic to organic were patterned almost exclusively into channels via topographical soft confinement using entropic forces. Enthalpic interactions between the nanoparticle grafted layer and the polymer matrix could be used as a further handle to tune the directed assembly of the nanoparticles. The phenomena will be discussed in terms of confinement parameters, partition coefficient, free energy gain and entropic versus enthalpic interactions.

  19. High Tc thin film and device development

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, K.; Burbank, M.B.; Cragg, A.; Fife, A.A.; Kubik, P.R.; Lee, S.; Chaklader, A.C.D.; Roemer, G.; Heinrich, B.; Chrzanowski, J.

    1989-03-01

    Thin films of the high Tc superconductor YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub y/ have been deposited on various substrates by diode and magnetron sputtering using bulk sintered targets. These films have been analyzed by a variety of methods - SEM, X-rays, Electron Beam Microprobe, Mass Spectrometry and Raman Spectroscopy. The stoichiometries of the films have been measured as a function of the radial position from the centre of the sputtered beam at a fixed target-substrate distance. Patterning of the films has been carried out to form planar structures such as strip lines, microbridges and RF SQUIDs. DC current-voltage characteristics of the microbridges were measured as a function of temperature. RF SQUID behaviour has been observed for single loop devices and their properties established at 4.2 K and higher temperatures. Flux locked noise spectra with a 1/f noise power response were recorded in the frequency range 0.01 to approx.100 Hz. RF SQUID signals have been observed for temperatures up to 55 K.

  20. Phase transitions in pure and dilute thin ferromagnetic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.

    1983-10-01

    The mean-field model of a thin ferromagnetic film where the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling in surface layers can be different from that inside the film is considered. The phase diagram, equations for the second-order phase-transition lines, and the spontaneous magnetization profiles near the phase transitions are given. It is shown that there is no extra-ordinary transition in a thin film. If the thickness of the film tends to infinity the well-known results for the mean-field model of a semi-infinite ferromagnet are obtained. The generalization for disordered dilute thin ferromagnetic films and semi-infinite ferromagnets is also given.

  1. Grafting titanium nitride surfaces with sodium styrene sulfonate thin films.

    PubMed

    Zorn, Gilad; Migonney, Véronique; Castner, David G

    2014-09-01

    The importance of titanium nitride lies in its high hardness and its remarkable resistance to wear and corrosion, which has led to its use as a coating for the heads of hip prostheses, dental implants and dental surgery tools. However, the usefulness of titanium nitride coatings for biomedical applications could be significantly enhanced by modifying their surface with a bioactive polymer film. The main focus of the present work was to graft a bioactive poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) (pNaSS) thin film from titanium nitride surfaces via a two-step procedure: first modifying the surface with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) and then grafting the pNaSS film from the MPS modified titanium through free radical polymerization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used after each step to characterize success and completeness of each reaction. The surface region of the titanium nitride prior to MPS functionalization and NaSS grafting contained a mixture of titanium nitride, oxy-nitride, oxide species as well as adventitious surface contaminants. After MPS functionalization, Si was detected by XPS, and characteristic MPS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. After NaSS grafting, Na and S were detected by XPS and characteristic NaSS fragments were detected by ToF-SIMS. The XPS determined thicknesses of the MPS and NaSS overlayers were ∼1.5 and ∼1.7 nm, respectively. The pNaSS film density was estimated by the toluidine blue colorimetric assay to be 260 ± 70 ng/cm(2).

  2. Electrical and optical characterization of metal oxide/metal/polymer multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryc, Irena

    1998-01-01

    A new procedure for depositing three-layer structures [doped metal oxide/metal/metal oxide (In2O3/Ag/TiO2)] on a glass substrate by applying different methods of film deposition was developed. To obtain the first film -- In2O3:Sn, the spray hydrolysis method was employed and for the second, a thin Ag film, the vacuum evaporation technique was used. The third film -- TiO2 was obtained by the organic oxide compound polymerization method. The electrical and optical properties of the films and the multilayer structure thus obtained were investigated. The studies showed that the three-layer structure could be used as a broad-band infrared filter.

  3. Preparation, characterization and electrochromic properties of composite thin films incorporation of polyaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farasat, Mahshid; Golzan, M. Maqsood; Farhadi, Khalil; Shojaei, S. H. Reza; Gheisvandi, Sorayya

    2016-05-01

    Two different electrochromic composite films consisting of aniline/sodium molybdate (S1) and aniline/ferric nitrate (S2) were obtained by electrochemical polymerization method on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates in oxalic acid (H2C2O4ṡ2H2O) aqueous solution. The electrochromic properties of the resulting thin films were investigated by spectroelectrochemical measurement and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Under a square electrical potential, they show capacitive current characteristic and represent electrochromic performance, with maximum optical attenuations (ΔT%) of 30.8% at 355nm and 28.3% at 400nm for aniline/ferric nitrate and aniline/sodium molybdate thin films, respectively. Optical behavior of thin films was examined by UV-Vis spectrophotometry technique. The doped films indicated multiple color changes (yellow; green; and bluish green). The spectra also showed that produced layers have high absorption of UV radiation with respect to pure polyaniline (PANI) films. The optical band gap energy of PANI film decreased by dopant injection. Due to their decent transparency and electrochromic behavior, they are promising materials for electrochromic devices.

  4. Stimuli-responsive weak polyelectrolyte multilayer films: A thin film platform for self triggered multi-drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Anandhakumar, S; Gokul, P; Raichur, A M

    2016-01-01

    Polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) thin film composed of weak polyelectrolytes was designed by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) for multi-drug delivery applications. Environmental stimuli such as pH and ionic strength showed significant influence in changing the film morphology from pore-free smooth structure to porous structure and favored triggered release of loaded molecules. The film was successfully loaded with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CH) by modulating the porous polymeric network of the film. Release studies showed that the amount of release could be easily controlled by changing the environmental conditions such as pH and ionic strength. Sustained release of loaded molecules was observed up to 8h. The fabricated films were found to be biocompatible with epithelial cells during in-vitro cell culture studies. PEM film reported here not only has the potential to be used as self-responding thin film platform for transdermal drug delivery, but also has the potential for further development in antimicrobial or anti-inflammatory coatings on implants and drug-releasing coatings for stents. PMID:26478353

  5. Gravitational Effects on the Morphology and Kinetics of Photodeposition of Polydiacetylene Thin Films From Monomer Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paley, Mark S.; Antar, Basil; Witherow, William K.; Frazier, Donald O.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of this proposed work is to study gravitational effects on the photodeposition of polydiacetylene thin films from monomer solutions onto transparent substrates. Polydiacetylenes have been an extensively studied class of organic polymers because they exhibit many unusual and interesting properties, including electrical conductivity and optical nonlinearity. Their long polymeric chains render polydiacetylenes readily conducive to thin film formation, which is necessary for many applications. These applications require thin polydiacetylene films possessing uniform thicknesses, high purity, minimal inhomogeneities and defects (such as scattering centers), etc. Also, understanding and controlling the microstructure and morphology of the films is important for optimizing their electronic and optical properties. The lack of techniques for processing polydiacetylenes into such films has been the primary limitation to their commercial use. We have recently discovered a novel method for the formation of polydiacetylene thin films using photo-deposition from monomer solutions onto transparent substrates with UV light. This technique is very simple to carry out, and can yield films with superior quality to those produced by conventional methods. Furthermore, these films exhibit good third-order properties and are capable of waveguiding. We have been actively studying the chemistry of diacetylene polymerization in solution and the photo-deposition of polydiacetylene thin films from solution. It is well-known that gravitational factors such as buoyancy-driven convection and sedimentation can affect chemical and mass transport processes in solution. One important aspect of polydiacetylene thin film photodeposition in solution, relevant to microgravity science, is that heat generated by absorption of UV radiation induces thermal density gradients that under the influence of gravity, can cause fluid flows (buoyancy-driven convection). Additionally, changes in the chemical

  6. Studies of Niobium Thin Film Produced by Energetic Vacuum Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Genfa Wu; Anne-Marie Valente; H. Phillips; Haipeng Wang; Andy Wu; T. J. Renk; P Provencio

    2004-05-01

    An energetic vacuum deposition system has been used to study deposition energy effects on the properties of niobium thin films on copper and sapphire substrates. The absence of working gas avoids the gaseous inclusions commonly seen with sputtering deposition. A biased substrate holder controls the deposition energy. Transition temperature and residual resistivity ratio of the niobium thin films at several deposition energies are obtained together with surface morphology and crystal orientation measurements by AFM inspection, XRD and TEM analysis. The results show that niobium thin films on sapphire substrate exhibit the best cryogenic properties at deposition energy around 123 eV. The TEM analysis revealed that epitaxial growth of film was evident when deposition energy reaches 163 eV for sapphire substrate. Similarly, niobium thin film on copper substrate shows that film grows more oriented with higher deposition energy and grain size reaches the scale of the film thickness at the deposition energy around 153 eV.

  7. Electrodeposited CulnSe2 Thin Film Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, R. P.; Mantovani, J. G.; Bailey, S. G.; Hepp, A. F.; Gordon, E. M.; Haraway, R.

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated thin films and junctions based on copper indium diselenide (CIS) which have been grown by electrochemical deposition. CIS is a leading candidate for use in polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic solar cells. Electrodeposition is a cost-effective method for producing thin-film CIS. We have produced both p and n type CIS thin films from the same aqueous solution by simply varying the deposition potential. A CIS pn junction was deposited using a step-function potential. Stoichiometry of the single layer films was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy. Carrier densities of these films increased with deviation from stoichiometry, as determined by the capacitance versus voltage dependence of Schottky contacts. Optical bandgaps for the single layer films as determined by transmission spectroscopy were also found to increase with deviation from stoichiometry. Rectifying current versus voltage characteristics were demonstrated for the Schottky barriers and for the pn junction.

  8. Electrodeposited CuInSe2 Thin Film Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, R. P.; Mantovani, J. G.; Bailey, S. G.; Hepp, A. F.; Gordon, E. M.; Haraway, R.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated thin films and junctions based on copper indium diselenide (CIS) which have been grown by electrochemical deposition. CIS is a leading candidate for use in polycrystalline thin film photovoltaic solar cells. Electrodeposition is a cost-effective method for producing thin-film CIS. We have produced both p and n type CIS thin films from the same aqueous solution by simply varying the deposition potential. A CIS pn junction was deposited using a step-function potential. Stoichiometry of the single layer films was determined by energy dispersive spectroscopy. Carrier densities of these films increased with deviation from stoichiometry, as determined by the capacitance versus voltage dependence of Schottky contacts. Optical bandgaps for the single layer films as determined by transmission spectroscopy were also found to increase with deviation from stoichiometry. Rectifying current versus voltage characteristics were demonstrated for the Schottky barriers and for the pn junction.

  9. Optical thin film metrology for optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrik, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The manufacturing of optoelectronic thin films is of key importance, because it underpins a significant number of industries. The aim of the European joint research project for optoelectronic thin film characterization (IND07) in the European Metrology Research Programme of EURAMET is to develop optical and X-ray metrologies for the assessment of quality as well as key parameters of relevant materials and layer systems. This work is intended to be a step towards the establishment of validated reference metrologies for the reliable characterization, and the development of calibrated reference samples with well-defined and controlled parameters. In a recent comprehensive study (including XPS, AES, GD-OES, GD-MS, SNMS, SIMS, Raman, SE, RBS, ERDA, GIXRD), Abou-Ras et al. (Microscopy and Microanalysis 17 [2011] 728) demonstrated that most characterization techniques have limitations and bottle-necks, and the agreement of the measurement results in terms of accurate, absolute values is not as perfect as one would expect. This paper focuses on optical characterization techniques, laying emphasis on hardware and model development, which determine the kind and number of parameters that can be measured, as well as their accuracy. Some examples will be discussed including optical techniques and materials for photovoltaics, biosensors and waveguides.

  10. Structuring of thin film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, Gabriele; Banse, Henrik; Wagner, Uwe; Peschel, Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Laser structuring of different types of thin film layers is a state of the art process in the photovoltaic industry. TCO layers and molybdenum are structured with e.g. 1064 nm lasers. Amorphous silicon, microcrystalline silicon or cadmium telluride are ablated with 515/532 nm lasers. Typical pulse durations of the lasers in use for these material ablation processes are in the nanosecond range. Up to now the common process for CIS/CIGS cells is needle structuring. Hard metal needles scribe lines with a width of 30 to 60 μm into the semiconductor material. A laser technology would have some advantages compared to mechanical scribing. The precision of the lines would be higher (no chipping effects), the laser has no wear out. The dead area (distance from P1 structuring line to P3 structuring line) can be significantly smaller with the laser technology. So we investigate the structuring of CIS/CIGS materials with ultra short pulse lasers of different wavelengths. The ablation rates and the structuring speeds versus the repetition rates have been established. For the different layer thicknesses and line widths we determined the necessary energy densities. After all tests we can calculate the possible reduction of the dead area on the thin film module. The new technology will result in an increase in the efficiency per module of up to 4 %.

  11. Antimony selenide thin-film solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Kai; Xue, Ding-Jiang; Tang, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Due to their promising applications in low-cost, flexible and high-efficiency photovoltaics, there has been a booming exploration of thin-film solar cells using new absorber materials such as Sb2Se3, SnS, FeS2, CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2. Among them, Sb2Se3-based solar cells are a viable prospect because of their suitable band gap, high absorption coefficient, excellent electronic properties, non-toxicity, low cost, earth-abundant constituents, and intrinsically benign grain boundaries, if suitably oriented. This review surveys the recent development of Sb2Se3-based solar cells with special emphasis on the material and optoelectronic properties of Sb2Se3, the solution-based and vacuum-based fabrication process and the recent progress of Sb2Se3-sensitized and Sb2Se3 thin-film solar cells. A brief overview further addresses some of the future challenges to achieve low-cost, environmentally-friendly and high-efficiency Sb2Se3 solar cells.

  12. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Warner, B.E.; McLean, W. II

    1996-02-13

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus. 9 figs.

  13. ``Verso'' laser cleaning of mechanically thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Alberto; Bloisi, Francesco; Vicari, Luciano

    2003-03-01

    In usual dry laser cleaning of opaque samples, short laser pulses are projected onto the sample surface to be cleaned. Energy transferred from light ejects extraneous particles away from the surface. Laser beam fluence is limited by the damage reached by high temperature that the sample surface can produce. We have experimentally shown that for thin samples, the thermo-elastic wave propagates within the whole sample thickness, thus also the rear surface, while temperature effects are limited to the front surface. Therefore, the proposed "verso" laser cleaning technique (the pulsed laser beam impinges on rear sample surface) can be applied to any opaque "mechanically thin" film and is useful for samples having delicate treatments on the surface to be cleaned (e.g. written paper, painted tiles, magnetic films). We have applied our technique to paper sheets showing that it is possible to efficiently clean the surface without damaging ink marks on it. Using a probe beam deflection (PBD) technique in both direct and reverse configuration we have shown that the "verso" cleaning effect is due to the higher penetration depth of the thermo-elastic wave with respect to the temperature profile propagation.

  14. Apparatus for laser assisted thin film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; McLean, II, William

    1996-01-01

    A pulsed laser deposition apparatus uses fiber optics to deliver visible output beams. One or more optical fibers are coupled to one or more laser sources, and delivers visible output beams to a single chamber, to multiple targets in the chamber or to multiple chambers. The laser can run uninterrupted if one of the deposition chambers ceases to operate because other chambers can continue their laser deposition processes. The laser source can be positioned at a remote location relative to the deposition chamber. The use of fiber optics permits multi-plexing. A pulsed visible laser beam is directed at a generally non-perpendicular angle upon the target in the chamber, generating a plume of ions and energetic neutral species. A portion of the plume is deposited on a substrate as a thin film. A pulsed visible output beam with a high pulse repetition frequency is used. The high pulse repetition frequency is greater than 500 Hz, and more preferably, greater than about 1000 Hz. Diamond-like-carbon (DLC) is one of the thin films produced using the apparatus.

  15. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bates, J. B.; Gruzalski, G. R.; Dudney, N. J.; Luck, C. F.; Yu, X.

    1993-11-01

    Rechargeable thin films batteries with lithium metal anodes, an amorphous inorganic electrolyte, and cathodes of lithium intercalation compounds have been fabricated and characterized. The cathodes include TiS{sub 2}, the {omega} phase of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and the cubic spinel Li{sub x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} with open circuit voltages at full charge of about 2.5 V, 3.7 V, and 4.2 V, respectively. The development of these robust cells, which can be cycled thousands of times, was possible because of the stability of the amorphous lithium electrolyte, lithium phosphorus oxynitride. This material has a typical composition of Li{sub 2.9}PO{sub 3.3}N{sub 0.46} and a conductivity at 25 C of 2 {mu}S/cm. Thin film cells have been cycled at 100% depth of discharge using current densities of 2 to 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}. The polarization resistance of the cells is due to the slow insertion rate of Li{sup +} ions into the cathode. Chemical diffusion coefficients for Li{sup +} ions in the three types of cathodes have been estimated from the analysis of ac impedance measurements.

  16. Bioglass thin films for biomimetic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbecaru, C.; Alexandru, H. V.; Ianculescu, Adelina; Popescu, A.; Socol, G.; Sima, F.; Mihailescu, Ion

    2009-03-01

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method was used to obtain bioglass (BG) thin film coatings on titanium substrates. An UV excimer laser KrF* ( λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns) was used for the multi-pulse irradiation of the BG targets with 57 or 61 wt.% SiO 2 content (and Na 2O-K 2O-CaO-MgO-P 2O 5 oxides). The depositions were performed in oxygen atmosphere at 13 Pa and for substrates temperature of 400 °C. The PLD films displayed typical BG of 2-5 μm particulates nucleated on the film surface or embedded in. The PLD films stoichiometry was found to be the same as the targets. XRD spectra have shown, the glass coatings obtained, had an amorphous structure. One set of samples, deposited in the same conditions, were dipped in simulated body fluids (SBFs) and subsequently extracted one by one after several time intervals 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. After washing in deionized water and drying, the surface morphology of the samples and theirs composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), IR spectroscopy (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). After 3-7 days the Si content substantially decreases in the coatings and PO 43- maxima start to increase in FTIR spectra. The XRD spectra also confirm this evolution. After 14-21 days the XRD peaks show a crystallized fraction of the carbonated hydroxyapatite (HAP). The SEM micrographs show also significant changes of the films surface morphology. The coalescence of the BG droplets can be seen. The dissolution and growth processes could be assigned to the ionic exchange between BG and SBFs.

  17. Structural and optical properties of Tin sulphide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Akkari, A.; Ben Nasr, T.; Kamoun, N.

    2007-09-19

    Tin sulphide SnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition technique (CBD). By investigating the influence of triethanolamine (TEA) concentration on the properties of deposited films, we obtained the optimum deposition parameter. These films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and spectrophotometric measurements. The obtained thin films exhibit the orthorhombic structure and the direct band gap energy is found to be about 1.65 eV, for films prepared at TEA concentration films equal to 13.5 M.

  18. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, Alan R.; Gruen, Dieter M.

    1999-01-01

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

  19. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1999-05-11

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

  20. Ti-Cr-Al-O Thin Film Resistors

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, A F; Hayes, J P

    2002-03-21

    Thin films of Ti-Cr-Al-O are produced for use as an electrical resistor material. The films are rf sputter deposited from ceramic targets using a reactive working gas mixture of Ar and O{sub 2}. Vertical resistivity values from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 10} Ohm-cm are measured for Ti-Cr-Al-O films. The film resistivity can be design selected through control of the target composition and the deposition parameters. The Ti-Cr-Al-O thin film resistor is found to be thermally stable unlike other metal-oxide films.

  1. The role of microstructural phenomena in magnetic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, D.E.; Lambeth, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    The subject is germane to magnetic recording media. Results during the first 2 years are presented under the following headings: atomic resolution TEM of CoNiCr films; CoNiCr and CoCrTa thin films; development of texture; and CoSm/Cr thin films. The HREM results showed that defects in Co-based films may be responsible for higher coercivity. Findings are presented on the effects of Cr interlayers on the microstructure of the second Co-based film in Co/Cr/Co/Cr multilayer films. Proposed research plans are outlined.

  2. The role of microstructural phenomena in magnetic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, D.E.; Lambeth, D.N.

    1992-12-31

    The subject is germane to magnetic recording media. Results during the first 2 years are presented under the following headings: atomic resolution TEM of CoNiCr films; CoNiCr and CoCrTa thin films; development of texture; and CoSm/Cr thin films. The HREM results showed that defects in Co-based films may be responsible for higher coercivity. Findings are presented on the effects of Cr interlayers on the microstructure of the second Co-based film in Co/Cr/Co/Cr multilayer films. Proposed research plans are outlined.

  3. Patterned Taping: A High-Efficiency Soft Lithographic Method for Universal Thin Film Patterning.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sangyoon; Park, Sang Kyu; Kim, Jin Hong; Cho, Illhun; Kim, Hyeong-Ju; Park, Soo Young

    2016-03-22

    As a universal lithographic technique for microscale/nanoscale film patterns, we develop a strategy for the use of soft lithographically patterned pressure-sensitive tape (patterned tape) as a pattern-transporting stamp material. Patterning was successfully implemented through the selective detachment and/or attachment of various thin films, including organic and metallic layers demanding no subsequent physical, thermal, or chemical treatment, as this incurs the risk of the deformation of the thin film and the deterioration of its functionalities. Its features of universal adhesion and flexibility enable pressure-sensitive tapes to form patterns on a variety of surfaces: organic, polymeric, and inorganic surfaces as well as flat, curved, uneven, and flexible substrates. Moreover, the proposed technique boasts the unique and distinct advantages of short operation time, supreme patterning yield, and multilayer stacking capability, which suggest considerable potential for their application to advanced optoelectronic device fabrication.

  4. Development of Layered Multiscale Porous Thin Films by Tuning Deposition Time and Molecular Weight of Polyelectrolytes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Sanyal, Oishi; Izbicki, Andrew P; Lee, Ilsoon

    2015-09-01

    This work focuses on the design of porous polymeric films with nano- and micro-sized pores existing in distinct zones. The porous thin films are fabricated by the post-treatment of layer-by-layer assembled poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)/poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) multilayers. In order to improve the processing efficiency, the deposition time is shortened to ≈ 10 s. It is found that fine porous structures can be created even by significantly reducing the processing time. The effect of using polyelectrolytes with widely different molecular weights is also studied. The pore size is increased by using high molecular weight PAH, while high molecular weight PAA minimizes the pore size to nanometer scale. Having gained a precise control over the pore size, layered multiscale porous thin films are further built up with either a microsized porous zone on top of a nanosized porous zone or vice versa.

  5. Patterned Taping: A High-Efficiency Soft Lithographic Method for Universal Thin Film Patterning.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sangyoon; Park, Sang Kyu; Kim, Jin Hong; Cho, Illhun; Kim, Hyeong-Ju; Park, Soo Young

    2016-03-22

    As a universal lithographic technique for microscale/nanoscale film patterns, we develop a strategy for the use of soft lithographically patterned pressure-sensitive tape (patterned tape) as a pattern-transporting stamp material. Patterning was successfully implemented through the selective detachment and/or attachment of various thin films, including organic and metallic layers demanding no subsequent physical, thermal, or chemical treatment, as this incurs the risk of the deformation of the thin film and the deterioration of its functionalities. Its features of universal adhesion and flexibility enable pressure-sensitive tapes to form patterns on a variety of surfaces: organic, polymeric, and inorganic surfaces as well as flat, curved, uneven, and flexible substrates. Moreover, the proposed technique boasts the unique and distinct advantages of short operation time, supreme patterning yield, and multilayer stacking capability, which suggest considerable potential for their application to advanced optoelectronic device fabrication. PMID:26863506

  6. Silicon and aluminum doping effects on the microstructure and properties of polymeric amorphous carbon films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang; Hao, Junying; Xie, Yuntao

    2016-08-01

    Polymeric amorphous carbon films were prepared by radio frequency (R.F. 13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering deposition. The microstructure evolution of the deposited polymeric films induced by silicon (Si) and aluminum(Al) doping were scrutinized through infrared spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The comparative results show that Si doping can enhance polymerization and Al doping results in an increase in the ordered carbon clusters. Si and Al co-doping into polymeric films leads to the formation of an unusual dual nanostructure consisting of cross-linked polymer-like hydrocarbon chains and fullerene-like carbon clusters. The super-high elasticity and super-low friction coefficients (<0.002) under a high vacuum were obtained through Si and Al co-doping into the films. Unconventionally, the co-doped polymeric films exhibited a superior wear resistance even though they were very soft. The relationship between the microstructure and properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films with different elements doping are also discussed in detail.

  7. Pressureless Bonding Using Sputtered Ag Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Chulmin; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2014-12-01

    To improve the performance and reliability of power electronic devices, particularly those built around next-generation wide-bandgap semiconductors such as SiC and GaN, the bonding method used for packaging must change from soldering to solderless technology. Because traditional solders are problematic in the harsh operating conditions expected for emerging high-temperature power devices, we propose a new bonding method in this paper, namely a pressureless, low-temperature bonding process in air, using abnormal grain growth on sputtered Ag thin films to realize extremely high temperature resistance. To investigate the mechanisms of this bonding process, we characterized the microstructural changes in the Ag films over various bonding temperatures and times. We measured the bonding properties of the specimens by a die-shear strength test, as well as by x-ray diffraction measurements of the residual stress in the Ag films to show how the microstructural developments were essential to the bonding technology. Sound bonds with high die strength can be achieved only with abnormal grain growth at optimum bonding temperature and time. Pressureless bonding allows for production of reliable high-temperature power devices for a wide variety of industrial, energy, and environmental applications.

  8. Oxynitride Thin Film Barriers for PV Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, S. H.; delCueto, J. A.; Terwilliger, K. M.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Pankow, J. W.; Keyes, B. M.; Gedvilas, L. M.; Pern, F. J.

    2005-11-01

    Dielectric thin-film barrier and adhesion-promoting layers consisting of silicon oxynitride materials (SiOxNy, with various stoichiometry) were investigated. For process development, films were applied to glass (TCO, conductive SnO2:F; or soda-lime), polymer (PET, polyethylene terephthalate), aluminized soda-lime glass, or PV cell (a-Si, CIGS) substrates. Design strategy employed de-minimus hazard criteria to facilitate industrial adoption and reduce implementation costs for PV manufacturers or suppliers. A restricted process window was explored using dilute compressed gases (3% silane, 14% nitrous oxide, 23% oxygen) in nitrogen (or former mixtures, and 11.45% oxygen mix in helium and/or 99.999% helium dilution) with a worst-case flammable and non-corrosive hazard classification. Method employed low radio frequency (RF) power, less than or equal to 3 milliwatts per cm2, and low substrate temperatures, less than or equal to 100 deg C, over deposition areas less than or equal to 1000 cm2. Select material properties for barrier film thickness (profilometer), composition (XPS/FTIR), optical (refractive index, %T and %R), mechanical peel strength and WVTR barrier performance are presented.

  9. Amorphous molybdenum silicon superconducting thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Bosworth, D. Sahonta, S.-L.; Barber, Z. H.; Hadfield, R. H.

    2015-08-15

    Amorphous superconductors have become attractive candidate materials for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors due to their ease of growth, homogeneity and competitive superconducting properties. To date the majority of devices have been fabricated using W{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}, though other amorphous superconductors such as molybdenum silicide (Mo{sub x}Si{sub 1−x}) offer increased transition temperature. This study focuses on the properties of MoSi thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. We examine how the composition and growth conditions affect film properties. For 100 nm film thickness, we report that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) reaches a maximum of 7.6 K at a composition of Mo{sub 83}Si{sub 17}. The transition temperature and amorphous character can be improved by cooling of the substrate during growth which inhibits formation of a crystalline phase. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the absence of long range order. We observe that for a range of 6 common substrates (silicon, thermally oxidized silicon, R- and C-plane sapphire, x-plane lithium niobate and quartz), there is no variation in superconducting transition temperature, making MoSi an excellent candidate material for SNSPDs.

  10. Phase Transitions in Thin Block Copolymer Films

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Edward J.

    2010-10-08

    David Turnbull's experiments and theoretical insights paved the way for much of our modern understanding of phase transitions in materials. In recognition of his contributions, this lecture will concentrate on phase transitions in a material system not considered by Turnbull, thin diblock copolymer films. Well-ordered block copolymer films are attracting increasing interest as we attempt to extend photolithography to smaller dimensions. In the case of diblock copolymer spheres, an ordered monolayer is hexagonal, but the ordered bulk is body-centered cubic (bcc). There is no hexagonal plane in the bcc structure, so a phase transition must occur as n, the number of layers of spheres in the film, increases. How this phase transition occurs with n and how it can be manipulated is the subject of the first part of my presentation. In the second part of the talk, I show that monolayers of diblock copolymer spheres and cylinders undergo order-to-disorder transitions that differ greatly from those of the bulk. These ordered 2D monolayers are susceptible to phonon-generated disorder as well as to thermal generation of defects, such as dislocations, which, while they are line defects in 3D, are point defects in 2D. The results are compared to the theories of melting of 2D crystals (spheres) and of 2D smectic liquid crystals (cylinders), a comparison that will allow us to understand most, but not all, of the features of these order-disorder transitions that occur as the temperature is increased.

  11. Amorphous molybdenum silicon superconducting thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, D.; Sahonta, S.-L.; Hadfield, R. H.; Barber, Z. H.

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous superconductors have become attractive candidate materials for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors due to their ease of growth, homogeneity and competitive superconducting properties. To date the majority of devices have been fabricated using WxSi1-x, though other amorphous superconductors such as molybdenum silicide (MoxSi1-x) offer increased transition temperature. This study focuses on the properties of MoSi thin films grown by magnetron sputtering. We examine how the composition and growth conditions affect film properties. For 100 nm film thickness, we report that the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) reaches a maximum of 7.6 K at a composition of Mo83Si17. The transition temperature and amorphous character can be improved by cooling of the substrate during growth which inhibits formation of a crystalline phase. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy studies confirm the absence of long range order. We observe that for a range of 6 common substrates (silicon, thermally oxidized silicon, R- and C-plane sapphire, x-plane lithium niobate and quartz), there is no variation in superconducting transition temperature, making MoSi an excellent candidate material for SNSPDs.

  12. Vertically aligned biaxially textured molybdenum thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Rahul; Riley, Michael; Lee, Sabrina; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2011-09-15

    Vertically aligned, biaxially textured molybdenum nanorods were deposited using dc magnetron sputtering with glancing flux incidence (alpha = 85 degrees with respect to the substrate normal) and a two-step substrate-rotation mode. These nanorods were identified with a body-centered cubic crystal structure. The formation of a vertically aligned biaxial texture with a [110] out-of-plane orientation was combined with a [-110] in-plane orientation. The kinetics of the growth process was found to be highly sensitive to an optimum rest time of 35 seconds for the two-step substrate rotation mode. At all other rest times, the nanorods possessed two separate biaxial textures each tilted toward one flux direction. While the in-plane texture for the vertical nanorods maintains maximum flux capture area, inclined Mo nanorods deposited at alpha = 85 degrees without substrate rotation display a [-1-1-4] in-plane texture that does not comply with the maximum flux capture area argument. Finally, an in situ capping film was deposited with normal flux incidence over the biaxially textured vertical nanorods resulting in a thin film over the porous nanorods. This capping film possessed the same biaxial texture as the nanorods and could serve as an effective substrate for the epitaxial growth of other functional materials.

  13. Controlled nanostructuration of polycrystalline tungsten thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Girault, B.; Eyidi, D.; Goudeau, P.; Guerin, P.; Bourhis, E. Le; Renault, P.-O.; Sauvage, T.

    2013-05-07

    Nanostructured tungsten thin films have been obtained by ion beam sputtering technique stopping periodically the growing. The total thickness was maintained constant while nanostructure control was obtained using different stopping periods in order to induce film stratification. The effect of tungsten sublayers' thicknesses on film composition, residual stresses, and crystalline texture evolution has been established. Our study reveals that tungsten crystallizes in both stable {alpha}- and metastable {beta}-phases and that volume proportions evolve with deposited sublayers' thicknesses. {alpha}-W phase shows original fiber texture development with two major preferential crystallographic orientations, namely, {alpha}-W<110> and unexpectedly {alpha}-W<111> texture components. The partial pressure of oxygen and presence of carbon have been identified as critical parameters for the growth of metastable {beta}-W phase. Moreover, the texture development of {alpha}-W phase with two texture components is shown to be the result of a competition between crystallographic planes energy minimization and crystallographic orientation channeling effect maximization. Controlled grain size can be achieved for the {alpha}-W phase structure over 3 nm stratification step. Below, the {beta}-W phase structure becomes predominant.

  14. Use of thin films in high-temperature superconducting bearings.

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J. R.; Cansiz, A.

    1999-09-30

    In a PM/HTS bearing, locating a thin-film HTS above a bulk HTS was expected to maintain the large levitation force provided by the bulk with a lower rotational drag provided by the very high current density of the film. For low drag to be achieved, the thin film must shield the bulk from inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Measurement of rotational drag of a PM/HTS bearing that used a combination of bulk and film HTS showed that the thin film is not effective in reducing the rotational drag. Subsequent experiments, in which an AC coil was placed above the thin-film HTS and the magnetic field on the other side of the film was measured, showed that the thin film provides good shielding when the coil axis is perpendicular to the film surface but poor shielding when the coil axis is parallel to the surface. This is consistent with the lack of reduction in rotational drag being due to a horizontal magnetic moment of the permanent magnet. The poor shielding with the coil axis parallel to the film surface is attributed to the aspect ratio of the film and the three-dimensional nature of the current flow in the film for this coil orientation.

  15. Microstructural and mechanical characteristics of Ni–Cr thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Petley, Vijay; Sathishkumar, S.; Thulasi Raman, K.H.; Rao, G.Mohan; Chandrasekhar, U.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Ni–Cr thin films of varied composition deposited by DC magnetron co-sputtering. • Thin film with Ni–Cr: 80–20 at% composition exhibits most distinct behavior. • The films were tensile tested and exhibited no cracking till the substrate yielding. - Abstract: Ni–Cr alloy thin films have been deposited using magnetron co-sputtering technique at room temperature. Crystal structure was evaluated using GIXRD. Ni–Cr solid solution upto 40 at% of Cr exhibited fcc solid solution of Cr in Ni and beyond that it exhibited bcc solid solution of Ni in Cr. X-ray diffraction analysis shows formation of (1 1 1) fiber texture in fcc and (2 2 0) fiber texture in bcc Ni–Cr thin films. Electron microscopy in both in-plane and transverse direction of the film surface revealed the presence of columnar microstructure for films having Cr upto 40 at%. Mechanical properties of the films are evaluated using nanoindentation. The modulus values increased with increase of Cr at% till the film is fcc. With further increase in Cr at% the modulus values decreased. Ni–Cr film with 20 at% Ni exhibits reduction in modulus and is correlated to the poor crystallization of the film as reflected in XRD analysis. The Ni–Cr thin film with 80 at% Ni and 20 at% Cr exhibited the most distinct columnar structure with highest electrical resistivity, indentation hardness and elastic modulus.

  16. Eutectic bonds on wafer scale by thin film multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Carsten; Bouwstra, Siebe

    1996-09-01

    The use of gold based thin film multilayer systems for forming eutectic bonds on wafer scale is investigated and preliminary results will be presented. On polished 4 inch wafers different multilayer systems are developed using thin film techniques and bonded afterwards under reactive atmospheres and different bonding temperatures and forces. Pull tests are performed to extract the bonding strengths.

  17. Progress in polycrystalline thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zweibel, K; Hermann, A; Mitchell, R

    1983-07-01

    Photovoltaic devices based on several polycrystalline thin-film materials have reached near and above 10% sunlight-to-electricity conversion efficiencies. This paper examines the various polycrystalline thin-film PV materials including CuInSe/sub 2/ and CdTe in terms of their material properties, fabrication techniques, problems, and potentials.

  18. Tools to Synthesize the Learning of Thin Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Roberto; Fuster, Gonzalo; Slusarenko, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    After a review of textbooks written for undergraduate courses in physics, we have found that discussions on thin films are mostly incomplete. They consider the reflected and not the transmitted light for two instead of the four types of thin films. In this work, we complement the discussion in elementary textbooks, by analysing the phase…

  19. Applications of Thin Film Thermocouples for Surface Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Holanda, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Thin film thermocouples provide a minimally intrusive means of measuring surface temperature in hostile, high temperature environments. Unlike wire thermocouples, thin films do not necessitate any machining of the surface, therefore leaving intact its structural integrity. Thin films are many orders of magnitude thinner than wire, resulting in less disruption to the gas flow and thermal patterns that exist in the operating environment. Thin film thermocouples have been developed for surface temperature measurement on a variety of engine materials. The sensors are fabricated in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Thin Film Sensor Lab, which is a class 1000 clean room. The thermocouples are platinum-13 percent rhodium versus platinum and are fabricated by the sputtering process. Thin film-to-leadwire connections are made using the parallel-gap welding process. Thermocouples have been developed for use on superalloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and intermetallics. Some applications of thin film thermocouples are: temperature measurement of space shuttle main engine turbine blade materials, temperature measurement in gas turbine engine testing of advanced materials, and temperature and heat flux measurements in a diesel engine. Fabrication of thin film thermocouples is described. Sensor durability, drift rate, and maximum temperature capabilities are addressed.

  20. Effect of HCl doping on optoelectrical and LPG sensing properties of nanostructured polyaniline thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhye, Deepak S.; Huse, Nanasaheb P.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructure Polyaniline thin films doped with 0.5 M, 0.7 M, and 1 M of HCL were synthesized by simple and inexpensive chemical oxidative polymerization technique at room temperature. All prepared thin films of Polyaniline were characterized by optical absorbance study by UV-visible spectroscopy. The absorbance spectrum of Polyaniline shows three fundamental peaks at 356, 419 and 820 nm with increase in absorption intensity. The electrical study shows magnitude of resistance of HCL doped Polyaniline is dependent on doping level. Furthermore, the thin film of Polyaniline was investigated by Scanning electron microscopy for surface morphology study. The SEM micrograph represents irregular granular morphology. In order to investigate LPG sensing properties, I-V characteristics of the Polyaniline films doped with 0.5 M, 0.7 M, and 1 M of HCL were recorded at room temperature in presence of air and 100 ppm of LPG. The observed values of sensitivity found to be 7.21%, 9.85% and 17.46 % for 0.5 M, 0.75 M, and 1.0 M of HCL doped Polyaniline thin films respectively

  1. Fracture of nanoporous organosilicate thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, David Maxwell

    Nanoporous organosilicate thin films are attractive candidates for a number of emerging technologies, ranging from biotechnology to optics and microelectronics. However, integration of these materials is challenged by their fragile nature and susceptibility to mechanical failure. Debonding and cohesive cracking of the organosilicate film are principal concerns that threaten the reliability and yield of device structures. Despite the intense interest in these materials, there is currently a need for greater understanding of the relationship between glass structure and thermomechanical integrity. The objective of this research was to investigate strategies for improving mechanical performance through variations in film chemistry, process conditions, and pore morphology. Several approaches to effecting improvements in elastic and fracture properties were examined in depth, including post-deposition curing, molecular reinforcement using hydrocarbon network groups, and manipulation of pore size and architecture. Detailed structural characterization was employed along with quantitative fracture mechanics based testing methods. It was shown that ultra-violet irradiation and electron bombardment post-deposition treatments can significantly impact glass structure in ways that cannot be achieved through thermal activation alone. Both techniques demonstrated high porogen removal efficiency and enhanced the glass matrix through increased network connectivity and local bond rearrangements. The increases in network connectivity were achieved predominantly through the replacement of terminal groups, particularly methyl and silanol groups, with Si-O network bonds. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was shown to be a powerful and quantitative method for gaining new insight into the underlying cure reactions and mechanisms. It was demonstrated that curing leads to significant progressive enhancement of elastic modulus and adhesive fracture energies due to increased network bond

  2. Frictional Response of Molecularly Thin Liquid Polymer Films Subject to Constant Shear Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tschirhart, Charles; Troian, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Measurements of the frictional response of nanoscale viscous films are typically obtained using the surface force apparatus in which a fluid layer is confined between smooth solid substrates approaching at constant speed or force. The squeezing pressure causes lateral flow from which the shear viscosity can be deduced. Under these conditions however, molecularly thin films tend to solidify wholly or partially and estimates of the shear viscosity can exceed those in macroscale films by many orders of magnitude. This problem can be avoided altogether by examining the response of an initially flat, supported, free surface film subject to comparable values of surface shear stress by application of an external inert gas stream. This method was first conceived by Derjaguin in 1944; more recent studies by Mate et al. at IBM Almaden on complex polymeric systems have uncovered fluid layering and other interesting behaviors. The only drawback is that this alternative technique requires an accurate model for interface distortion. We report on ellipsometric measurements of ultrathin polymeric films in efforts to determine whether the usual interface equations for free surface films based purely on continuum models can be properly extended to nanoscale films. Supported by a Fred and Jean Felberg Fellowship and G. W. Housner Student Discovery Fund.

  3. Development of a thin film solid state gaseous HCl sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The selection of materials to develop a thin film HCl sensor is discussed. Data were primarily concerned with chemical and physical properties of the film and with electrical properties which exhibit and enhance electrical response when HCl is absorbed on the film surface. Techniques investigated for enhancing electrical response include changing conditions for growing films, adding impurities to the film, changing ambient light intensity, and altering the ambient temperature of the sensing element.

  4. Room temperature ferroelectricity in continuous croconic acid thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Zhang, Xiaozhe; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Le; Ahmadi, Zahra; Costa, Paulo S.; DiChiara, Anthony D.; Cheng, Xuemei; Gruverman, Alexei; Enders, Axel; Xu, Xiaoshan

    2016-09-01

    Ferroelectricity at room temperature has been demonstrated in nanometer-thin quasi 2D croconic acid thin films, by the polarization hysteresis loop measurements in macroscopic capacitor geometry, along with observation and manipulation of the nanoscale domain structure by piezoresponse force microscopy. The fabrication of continuous thin films of the hydrogen-bonded croconic acid was achieved by the suppression of the thermal decomposition using low evaporation temperatures in high vacuum, combined with growth conditions far from thermal equilibrium. For nominal coverages ≥20 nm, quasi 2D and polycrystalline films, with an average grain size of 50-100 nm and 3.5 nm roughness, can be obtained. Spontaneous ferroelectric domain structures of the thin films have been observed and appear to correlate with the grain patterns. The application of this solvent-free growth protocol may be a key to the development of flexible organic ferroelectric thin films for electronic applications.

  5. Development of Thin-Film Battery Powered Transdermal Medical Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.B.; Sein, T.

    1999-07-06

    Research carried out at ORNL has led to the development of solid state thin-film rechargeable lithium and lithium-ion batteries. These unique devices can be fabricated in a variety of shapes and to any required size, large or small, on virtually any type of substrate. Because they have high energies per unit of volume and mass and because they are rechargeable, thin-film lithium batteries have potentially many applications as small power supplies in consumer and special electronic products. Initially, the objective of this project was to develop thin-film battery powered products. Initially, the objective of this project was to develop thin-film battery powered transdermal electrodes for recording electrocardiograms and electroencephalograms. These ''active'' electrode would eliminate the effect of interference and improve the reliability in diagnosing heart or brain malfunctions. Work in the second phase of this project was directed at the development of thin-film battery powered implantable defibrillators.

  6. Microstructural evolution during stress relaxation of gold thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syarbaini, Luthfia Amra

    Microstructure evolution in metal thin films for use in microelectronic devices was studied due to the formation of defects such as whiskers and hillocks that may cause problems in electrical circuits. Thin film stress relaxation can occur through a variety of processes. Understanding such mechanisms and the conditions under which certain mechanism dominate can potentially lead to the improved control of thin film stability. Studies of the 3D microstructural changes in Au thin films on silicon and other substrates with different thermal expansion coefficients aid us in understanding thin film relaxation phenomena such as hillock/whisker formation. Techniques such as in-situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) heating and cooling experiments, electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), focus ion beam (FIB) cross sections and atomic force microscopy (AFM) enabled us to quantify the kinetic relationships between relaxation mechanisms and local morphological changes.

  7. Tailoring Thin Film-Lacquer Coatings for Space Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Wanda C.; Harris, George; Miller, Grace; Petro, John

    1998-01-01

    Thin film coatings have the capability of obtaining a wide range of thermal radiative properties, but the development of thin film coatings can sometimes be difficult and costly when trying to achieve highly specular surfaces. Given any space mission's thermal control requirements, there is often a need for a variation of solar absorptance (Alpha(s)), emittance (epsilon) and/or highly specular surfaces. The utilization of thin film coatings is one process of choice for meeting challenging thermal control requirements because of its ability to provide a wide variety of Alpha(s)/epsilon ratios. Thin film coatings' radiative properties can be tailored to meet specific thermal control requirements through the use of different metals and the variation of dielectric layer thickness. Surface coatings can be spectrally selective to enhance radiative coupling and decoupling. The application of lacquer to a surface can also provide suitable specularity for thin film application without the cost and difficulty associated with polishing.

  8. Thin Films of Quasicrystals: Optical, Electronic, and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symko, Orest G.

    1998-03-01

    In order to extend some of the unusual properties of quasicrystals toward practical applications and to study fundamental aspects of these properties, we have developed a technology for the deposition of high quality thin films of quasicrystals on a variety of substrates. Mechanical support for the thin films is provided by the substrate as bulk quasicrystals are brittle. We have applied the thin films to studies of their optical, electrical, and mechanical properties as well as to coatings of biomedical devices. An important characteristic of a quasicrystal is its pseudogap in the electronic density of states; it is determined directly from optical transmission measurements. Optical and mechanical characteristics of the thin films provide strong support for the cluster nature of quasicrystals and emphasize their importance for coatings. When used in biomedical devices, thin film quasicrystalline coatings show remarkable strength, low friction, and non-stick behavior. This work was in collaboration with W. Park, E. Abdel-Rahman, and T. Klein.

  9. Nonlinear optical microscopy for imaging thin films and surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Smilowitz, L.B.; McBranch, D.W.; Robinson, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    We have used the inherent surface sensitivity of second harmonic generation to develop an instrument for nonlinear optical microscopy of surfaces and interfaces. We have demonstrated the use of several nonlinear optical responses for imaging thin films. The second harmonic response of a thin film of C{sub 60} has been used to image patterned films. Two photon absorption light induced fluorescence has been used to image patterned thin films of Rhodamine 6G. Applications of nonlinear optical microscopy include the imaging of charge injection and photoinduced charge transfer between layers in semiconductor heterojunction devices as well as across membranes in biological systems.

  10. Peculiarities of spin reorientation in a thin YIG film.

    SciTech Connect

    Bazaliy, Ya. B.; Tsymbal, L. T.; Linnik, A. I.; Dan'shin, N. K.; Izotov, A. I.; Wigen, P. E.

    2002-06-28

    The issue of magnetic orientation transitions in thin films combines interesting physics and importance for applications. We study the magnetic transition and phase diagram of a 0.1{micro}m thick (YLaGd){sub 3}(FeGa){sub 5}O{sub 12} films grown on GGG substrate by liquid phase epitaxy. Observed transitions are compared with those in BiGa:TmIG thin films, studied in previous work by one of the authors. A general picture of orientation transitions in thin films of substituted YIG is discussed.

  11. Acoustoelectric currents in manganite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyakonov, K.; Goltsev, A.; Kulakova, L.; Yakhkind, E.; Popov, V.; Abal'oshev, A. V.; Dyakonov, V. P.; Gierłowski, P.; Klimov, A.; Lewandowski, S. J.; Szymczak, H.

    2003-05-01

    Recently an anomalous acoustoelectrical (AE) effect produced by surface acoustic waves (SAW) in thin La 0.67Ca 0.33MnO 3 films deposited on a piezoelectric LiNbO 3 substrate was discovered [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 146602]. The SAW, launched along the distinct crystallographic axis (+ z) of the structure, induces a dc current IAE in the film, which in the ordinary AE effect would be odd with respect to the SAW wave vector q. However, in the investigated case IAE contains, along with the ordinary odd component, an anomalous one, which is even in q. The anomalous effect dominates near the metal-insulator transition, while the ordinary effect prevails at high and low temperatures. The anomalous effect appears to depend on strong modulation of the film conductivity resulting from the elastic deformations carried by the SAW. We have investigated the influence of an in-plane magnetic field H on the magnitude of IAE, and found an increase of about 50% when H was parallel to q. The increase was limited to the anomalous component of IAE. We speculate that this may be caused by magnetic field induced changes in the conductivity dependence on pressure. The ordinary AE current was left essentially unchanged. Apparently the boost given to this component by the increase of conductivity in a magnetic field is compensated by the corresponding SAW attenuation decrease. We have also conducted IAE measurements with the SAW split into two components of equal amplitude, propagating in the film in opposite directions. As a result, we have obtained cancellation of the ordinary IAE component and augmentation of the anomalous one, i.e. we have confirmed our understanding of the AE effects.

  12. A versatile platform for magnetostriction measurements in thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernpeintner, M.; Holländer, R. B.; Seitner, M. J.; Weig, E. M.; Gross, R.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.; Huebl, H.

    2016-03-01

    We present a versatile nanomechanical sensing platform for the investigation of magnetostriction in thin films. It is based on a doubly clamped silicon nitride nanobeam resonator covered with a thin magnetostrictive film. Changing the magnetization direction within the film plane by an applied magnetic field generates a magnetoelastic stress and thus changes the resonance frequency of the nanobeam. A measurement of the resulting resonance frequency shift, e.g., by optical interferometry, allows to quantitatively determine the magnetostriction constants of the thin film. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we determine the magnetostriction constants of a 10 nm thick polycrystalline cobalt film, showing very good agreement with literature values. The presented technique aims, in particular, for the precise measurement of magnetostriction in a variety of (conducting and insulating) thin films, which can be deposited by, e.g., electron beam deposition, thermal evaporation, or sputtering.

  13. Porous thin films of functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Johannes; Bein, Thomas

    2008-11-25

    The synthesis of extremely small mesoporous silica nanoparticles via a specific co-condensation process with phenyl groups is demonstrated. The suspensions are ideally suited for the production of nanoscale thin films by spin-coating. Thanks to the small particle size and the resulting low surface roughness, the films show excellent optical qualities and exhibit good diffusion properties and a highly accessible pore system. The availability of such homogeneous porous thin films made it possible to use ellipsometric porosimetry (EP) as a convenient method to determine the effective porosity of the films on their original support without destroying it. It was possible to record sorption isotherms of the thin films with ellipsometry and to correlate the data with nitrogen sorption data of dried powders of the same material. The thin films showed very low refractive indices of around 1.2. PMID:19206399

  14. Organic and organic-inorganic hybrid polymer thin films deposited by PECVD using TEOS and cyclohexene for ULSI interlayer-dielectric application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyeon Jin; Nam, Sang-Hun; Kim, Sungsoo; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2015-11-01

    Organic and organic-inorganic hybrid polymer thin films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates at various ratios of TEOS (tetraethoxysilane) to cyclohexene by the plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The as-grown polymerized thin films were first analyzed by FT-IR and XPS. The results of FT-IR showed that the hybrid polymer thin films were polymerized with each fragmented precursor. The XPS results showed the chemical species and binding energies of each species. The Si 2p core-level spectra from the hybrid polymer thin film showed the status of the Si oxidation number. Impedance analysis was utilized for the measurement of the capacitance values and I-V curves, and an ultra low-k value and leakage current density of 1.75 and 10-9 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm were obtained, respectively.

  15. Characterization of reliability of printed indium tin oxide thin films.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Jei; Kim, Jong-Woong; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2013-11-01

    Recently, decreasing the amount of indium (In) element in the indium tin oxide (ITO) used for transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin film has become necessary for cost reduction. One possible approach to this problem is using printed ITO thin film instead of sputtered. Previous studies showed potential for printed ITO thin films as the TCO layer. However, nothing has been reported on the reliability of printed ITO thin films. Therefore, in this study, the reliability of printed ITO thin films was characterized. ITO nanoparticle ink was fabricated and printed onto a glass substrate followed by heating at 400 degrees C. After measurement of the initial values of sheet resistance and optical transmittance of the printed ITO thin films, their reliabilities were characterized with an isothermal-isohumidity test for 500 hours at 85 degrees C and 85% RH, a thermal shock test for 1,000 cycles between 125 degrees C and -40 degrees C, and a high temperature storage test for 500 hours at 125 degrees C. The same properties were investigated after the tests. Printed ITO thin films showed stable properties despite extremely thermal and humid conditions. Sheet resistances of the printed ITO thin films changed slightly from 435 omega/square to 735 omega/square 507 omega/square and 442 omega/square after the tests, respectively. Optical transmittances of the printed ITO thin films were slightly changed from 84.74% to 81.86%, 88.03% and 88.26% after the tests, respectively. These test results suggest the stability of printed ITO thin film despite extreme environments. PMID:24245331

  16. An overview of thin film nitinol endovascular devices.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Mahdis; Chun, Youngjae

    2015-07-01

    Thin film nitinol has unique mechanical properties (e.g., superelasticity), excellent biocompatibility, and ultra-smooth surface, as well as shape memory behavior. All these features along with its low-profile physical dimension (i.e., a few micrometers thick) make this material an ideal candidate in developing low-profile medical devices (e.g., endovascular devices). Thin film nitinol-based devices can be collapsed and inserted in remarkably smaller diameter catheters for a wide range of catheter-based procedures; therefore, it can be easily delivered through highly tortuous or narrow vascular system. A high-quality thin film nitinol can be fabricated by vacuum sputter deposition technique. Micromachining techniques were used to create micro patterns on the thin film nitinol to provide fenestrations for nutrition and oxygen transport and to increase the device's flexibility for the devices used as thin film nitinol covered stent. In addition, a new surface treatment method has been developed for improving the hemocompatibility of thin film nitinol when it is used as a graft material in endovascular devices. Both in vitro and in vivo test data demonstrated a superior hemocompatibility of the thin film nitinol when compared with commercially available endovascular graft materials such as ePTFE or Dacron polyester. Promising features like these have motivated the development of thin film nitinol as a novel biomaterial for creating endovascular devices such as stent grafts, neurovascular flow diverters, and heart valves. This review focuses on thin film nitinol fabrication processes, mechanical and biological properties of the material, as well as current and potential thin film nitinol medical applications.

  17. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    SciTech Connect

    Ševčíková, Klára; Nehasil, Václav; Vorokhta, Mykhailo; Haviar, Stanislav; Matolín, Vladimír; and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh{sup 3+} and Rh{sup n+}. We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties.

  18. Characterization of Thin Films and Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, Donald R.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2010-01-01

    Just as the numbers and types of thin films have grown dramatically, the needs and approaches for their characterization have also expanded significantly. Adequate characterization of a film or coating depends on the process to create the coating as well as the planned or potential application(s) and expected lifetime. Characterization of a coating or film necessarily requires application of methods that determine properties of the coating and not primarily the substrate. This places some focus on methods that determine properties of layers and not "bulk" material. However, the increasing importance of micro- and nano-structures in coatings and films places an increased importance in methods with high spatial resolution. The growing use of organic films and coatings and the importance of molecular functionalization of inorganic surfaces increase the importance for different types of molecular characterization tools. In most circumstances appropriate characterization requires use of a combination of tools. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to the basic methods and overview applications for some of the most important tools for characterization of films, coatings and surfaces. The chapter will be organized in six sections: • Technique Overview – This section provides a high level summary of the types of information that can be obtained by different methods and includes information about their sensitivity and resolution. • Incident Photon Methods – Techniques involving incident photons are described and some brief examples of application are shown. Methods included are: x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray reflectivity (XRR), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), laser Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. • Incident Ion Methods - Methods initiated by ion irradiation are summarized including: Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), nuclear reaction

  19. Micelle Formation of Diblock Copolymers in Thin Film Homopolymers and Homopolymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chelsea; Green, Peter

    2010-03-01

    A-b-B diblock copolymers, at very small concentrations, form micelles in a melt of homopolymer chains of type A or B. In the bulk, the critical micelle concentration, φcmc, is a function of the symmetry of the copolymer chain and exhibits a strong dependence on χN, where χ is the interaction parameter and N is the degree of polymerization of the copolymer. We examined micelle formation in thin film mixtures of: (1) polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-PVP)/polystyrene (PS); (2) PS-b-PVP/ blend of PS and tetramethyl bisphenol-A polycarbonate (TMPC); and (3) polystyrene-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA)/PS. The critical micelle concentration is found to be orders of magnitude larger than the bulk; it is a strong function of film thickness, the substrate/chain segment interactions and the interactions between the different polymeric segments in the system.

  20. Thin film coatings for space electrical power system applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, Daniel A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper examines some of the ways in which thin film coatings can play a role in aerospace applications. Space systems discussed include photovoltaic and solar dynamic electric power generation systems, including applications in environmental protection, thermal energy storage, and radiator emittance enhancement. Potential applications of diamondlike films to both atmospheric and space based systems are examined. Also, potential uses of thin films of the recently discovered high-temperature superconductive materials are discussed.