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Sample records for polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes

  1. Granulocytic Spongiotic Papulovesiculosis (Neutrophilic Spongiosis): A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Mendiratta, Vibhu; Sanke, Sarita; Ramchander; Nangia, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophilic spongiosis also known as granulocytic spongiotic papulovesiculosis (GSPV) is an uncommon disorder of uncertain classification. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman suffering from recurrent episodes of itchy, grouped papulovesicles over her body, histologically showing granulocytic spongiosis. The eruptions showed complete response to dapsone. PMID:28216731

  2. Type I Interferon Transcriptional Signature in Neutrophils and Low-Density Granulocytes Are Associated with Tissue Damage in Malaria.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bruno Coelho; Marques, Pedro Elias; Leoratti, Fabiana Maria de Souza; Junqueira, Caroline; Pereira, Dhelio Batista; Antonelli, Lis Ribeiro do Valle; Menezes, Gustavo Batista; Golenbock, Douglas Taylor; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes

    2015-12-29

    Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte population in the bloodstream, the primary compartment of Plasmodium sp. infection. However, the role of these polymorphonuclear cells in mediating either the resistance or the pathogenesis of malaria is poorly understood. We report that circulating neutrophils from malaria patients are highly activated, as indicated by a strong type I interferon transcriptional signature, increased expression of surface activation markers, enhanced release of reactive oxygen species and myeloperoxidase, and a high frequency of low-density granulocytes. The activation of neutrophils was associated with increased levels of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, indicating liver damage. In a rodent malaria model, we observed intense recruitment of neutrophils to liver sinusoids. Neutrophil migration and IL-1β and chemokine expression as well as liver damage were all dependent on type I interferon signaling. The data suggest that type I interferon signaling has a central role in neutrophil activation and malaria pathogenesis.

  3. MicroRNA-941 Expression in Polymorphonuclear Granulocytes Is Not Related to Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Jesper Brink; Baslund, Bo; Cramer, Elisabeth Præstekjær; Rapin, Nicolas; Borregaard, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Jumonji Domain-Containing Protein 3 (JMJD3)/lysine demethylase 6B (KDM6B) is an epigenetic modulator that removes repressive histone marks on genes. Expression of KDM6B mRNA is elevated in leukocytes from patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and has been suggested to be the reason for higher proteinase 3 (PR3) mRNA expression in these cells due to derepression of PRTN3 gene transcription. MicroRNA-941 (miR-941) has been shown to target KDM6B mRNA and inhibit JMJD3 production. We therefore investigated whether polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) from patients suffering from granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) have lower expression of miR-941 than healthy control donors as a biological cause for higher JMJD3 levels. We found no significant difference in the degree of maturation of PMNs from GPA patients (n = 8) and healthy controls (n = 11) as determined from cell surface expression of the neutrophil maturation marker CD16 and gene expression profile of FCGR3B. The expression of PRTN3 and KDM6B mRNAs and miR-941 was not significantly different in GPA patients and healthy controls. Transfection of pre-miR-941 into the neutrophil promyelocyte cell line PLB-985 cells did not result in reduction of the KDM6B mRNA level as shown previously in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. The amount of PR3 in PMNs from GPA patients and healthy controls was comparable. In conclusion, we found that PRTN3 mRNA, KDM6B mRNA, and miR-941 expression levels in PMNs do not differ between GPA patients and healthy controls, and that miR-941 does not uniformly regulate KDM6B mRNA levels by inducing degradation of the transcript. Thus, decreased miR-941 expression in PMNs cannot be part of the pathogenesis of GPA. PMID:27755585

  4. Lipoproteins of Treponema denticola: their effect on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Sela, M N; Bolotin, A; Naor, R; Weinberg, A; Rosen, G

    1997-07-01

    The presence of lipoproteins and lipooligosaccharides in Treponema denticola, an oral spirochaete associated with periodontal diseases, was investigated. T. denticola ATCC 35404 and the clinical isolate GM-1 were metabolically labeled with [3H]-cis-9-octadecenoic acid and extracted with the non-ionic detergent Triton X-114. The extract was phase separated, precipitated with acetone and delipidated to remove non-covalently bound lipid (dLPP). In T. denticola ATCC 35404, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide electrophoretic separation followed by autoradiography showed [3H]-cis-9-octadecenoic acid incorporation in bands with apparent molecular masses of 14, 20, 26, 31, 38, 72 and 85 kDa and a broad band running from 113 kDa to the top of the gel. This last band resolved into a 53 kDa [3H]-cis-9-octadecenoic acid band upon heating for 10 min, at 100 degrees C. The structural relationship of the outer sheath major oligomeric polypeptide of strain ATCC 35404 and the 53 kDa protein was demonstrated immunologically. Antibodies against the 113 kDa component of the oligomer cross-reacted with the 53 kDa protein. Proteinase K degraded the [3H]-cis-9-octadecenoic acid bands with the exception of the 14 kDa. The 14 kDa was also the major [3H]-fatty acid labeled compound found in the water phase following phenol-water extraction of whole T. denticola ATCC 35404 cells. This compound was purified from the water phase by gel filtration followed by hydrophobic chromatography. Chemical analysis showed that hexadecanoic acid was the predominant fatty acid bound to T. denticola lipoproteins. In the GM-1 strain [3H]-cis-9-octadecenoic acid incorporation was observed in the 116 kDa and 14 kDa bands. dLPP from strain ATCC 35404 caused an enhanced (0.8-8 micrograms/ml) luminol dependent chemiluminiscence (LDCL) effect in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) which could be related to protein concentration. The addition of dLPP to PMN together with FMLP at submaximal concentration (1

  5. Type I interferon transcriptional signature in neutrophils and high frequency of low-density granulocytes are associated with tissue damage in malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Bruno Coelho; Marques, Pedro Elias; Leoratti, Fabiana Maria de Souza; Junqueira, Caroline; Pereira, Dhelio Batista; Antonelli, Lis Ribeiro do Valle; Menezes, Gustavo Batista

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocyte population in the bloodstream, the primary compartment of Plasmodium sp. infection. Yet, the role of these polymorphonuclear cells in mediating either resistance or pathogenesis of malaria is poorly understood. We report that circulating neutrophils from malaria patients are highly activated, as indicated by a strong type I interferon transcriptional signature, increased expression of surface activation markers, the enhanced release of reactive oxygen species and myeloperoxidase, as well as the high frequency of low-density granulocytes. The activation of neutrophils was associated with increased levels of serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, indicating liver damage. In a rodent malaria model, we observed an intense recruitment of neutrophils to liver sinusoids. Neutrophil migration, IL-1β and chemokine expression as well as liver damage were all dependent on type I interferon signaling. The data suggests that type I interferon signaling have a central role in neutrophil activation and malaria pathogenesis. PMID:26711347

  6. The beetroot component betanin modulates ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Kostrzewa, Artur; Łuczak, Michał; Jagodziński, Paweł P; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of betanin, one of the beetroot major components, on ROS production, DNA damage and apoptosis in human resting and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate13-acetate polymorphonuclear neutrophils, one of the key elements of the inflammatory response. Incubation of neutrophils with betanin in the concentration range 2-500 µM resulted in significant inhibition of ROS production (by 15-46%, depending on the ROS detection assay). The antioxidant capacity of betanin was most prominently expressed in the chemiluminescence measurements. This compound decreased also the percentage of DNA in comet tails in stimulated neutrophils, but only at the 24 h time point. In resting neutrophils an increased level of DNA in comet tails was observed. Betanin did not affect the activity of caspase-3, in resting neutrophils, but significantly enhanced the enzyme activity in stimulated neutrophils. The western blot analysis showed, however, an increased level of caspase-3 cleavage products as a result of betanin treatment both in resting and stimulated neutrophils. The results indicate that betanin may be responsible for the effect of beetroot products on neutrophil oxidative metabolism and its consequences, DNA damage and apoptosis. The dose and time dependent effects on these processes require further studies.

  7. Influence of hormone supplementation therapy on the incidence of denture stomatitis and on chemiluminescent activity of polymorphonuclear granulocytes in blood of menopausal-aged women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Menopause is a health and social problem that affects a large number of women. Inadequate quantity of steroid hormones also impacts quality of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. During menopausal age, many women wear removable prosthetic restorations in order to replace missing teeth. Such restorations may facilitate the development of inflammations in the surface of the oral cavity, referred to as denture stomatitis. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of hormone supplementation therapy on the incidence of Candida-associated denture stomatitis and on the metabolic activity of polymorphonuclear granulocytes in peripheral blood of female patients. Materials and methods The study was conducted on a group of women in menopausal age, users of hormone replacement therapy and of removable prosthetic restorations. Female patients were subjected to a clinical study that included interviews and physical examinations. Laboratory microbiological examinations were completed on the basis of direct swabs collected from the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and from the surface of dentures. Metabolic activity of polymorphonuclear granulocytes in peripheral blood of female patients was evaluated by means of a chemiluminescence test. Results Candida-associated denture stomatitis observed was characterized by a strong growth of fungi and a lower chemiluminescent activity of neutrophils in blood of female patients undergoing hormone supplementation therapy. Conclusions Patients using hormone supplementation therapy and removable prosthetic restorations constitute a high-risk group for Candida infections and inflammations of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity; thus they should remain under constant dental control. PMID:21147619

  8. Effect of thrombopoietin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Schattner, M; Pozner, R G; Gorostizaga, A B; Lazzari, M A

    2000-07-15

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may be administered together in aplastic patients. We evaluated the effect of both cytokines alone or combined on platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) functional responses. TPO, G-CSF, or the combination of both cytokines, induced neither platelet nor PMN activation. TPO but not G-CSF synergized with threshold ADP concentrations to induce maximal aggregation and ATP release. The synergistic effect of TPO with ADP was not modified by the presence of G-CSF. Flow cytometry studies have shown that thrombin-induced loss of GPIb from platelet surface was significantly increased by pretreatment of platelets with TPO, G-CSF, or both cytokines. P-selectin expression induced by thrombin was augmented by TPO, but not by G-CSF. Coincubation of the cells with TPO and G-CSF did not modify the values obtained with TPO alone. Expression of CD11b on PMN surface was augmented by G-CSF or fMLP. G-CSF-treated PMN increased the effect of fMLP on CD11b expression. TPO did not modify either basal levels of CD11b or the increased expression induced by G-CSF or fMLP. Incubation of PMN with both cytokines showed no differences compared to G-CSF alone. Platelet-PMN aggregates induced by thrombin in whole blood were augmented by TPO. G-CSF alone neither synergized with thrombin nor changed the results observed with TPO. These data show that in vitro functional responses of platelets, or PMN induced by TPO or G-CSF alone, were neither further increased nor inhibited by treatment of the cells with both cytokines.

  9. Interaction of intact porcine spermatozoa with epithelial cells and neutrophilic granulocytes during uterine passage.

    PubMed

    Taylor, U; Rath, D; Zerbe, H; Schuberth, H J

    2008-04-01

    New insemination techniques allow a tremendous sperm reduction for successful artificial insemination (AI) if highly diluted semen is deposited in the tip of the uterine horn and close to the utero-tubal junction. High sperm losses are known to occur during uterine passage and it was the general question whether specific binding mechanisms are involved. Upon arrival in the uterus, spermatozoa are confronted with mainly two different cell types: uterine epithelial cells (UEC) and neutrophilic granulocytes (polymorphonuclear neutrophil, PMN). As cell-sperm interactions can hardly be observed in vivo, an ex vivo system was established to study the interaction between spermatozoa and the UEC. Uterine segments (10 cm) from freshly slaughtered synchronized juvenile gilts were inseminated for 60 min at 38 degrees C. Thereafter spermatozoa were recovered, counted flow cytometrically and examined for changes in viability and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Significantly less spermatozoa with a functioning MMP and intact plasma membranes could be retrieved (55 +/- 7%), while the number of damaged spermatozoa hardly changed (93 +/- 12%), indicating retention of viable sperm cells in the uterine lumen. The interactions between porcine PMN and spermatozoa (motile, immotile, membrane-damaged) were studied in coincubation assays in vitro. The binding of membrane-damaged sperm cells to PMN was virtually non-existent (3 +/- 2%). Viable and motile spermatozoa attached to PMN without being phagocytosed within 60 min (45 +/- 3%), whereas binding to sodium fluoride (NaF)-immobilized spermatozoa was reduced to 20 +/- 2%. The binding of viable sperm to PMN is most likely not lectin-dependent; although both viable cell types were shown to express a broad range of different lectin-binding sugar residues, none of the lectins tested was able to selectively block PMN-sperm binding significantly. The results of the study suggest that viable spermatozoa are already subject to selective

  10. Enhanced survival of Leishmania major in neutrophil granulocytes in the presence of apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Hellberg, Lars; Köhl, Jörg; Laskay, Tamás

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil granulocytes are the first leukocytes that encounter and phagocytose Leishmania major (L. major) parasites in the infected skin. The parasites can nonetheless survive within neutrophils. However, the mechanisms enabling the survival of Leishmania within neutrophils are still elusive. Previous findings indicated that human neutrophils can engulf apoptotic cells. Since apoptotic neutrophils are abundant in infected tissues, we hypothesized that the uptake of apoptotic cells results in diminished anti-leishmanial activity and, consequently, contributes to enhanced survival of the parasites at the site of infection. In the present study, we demonstrated that L. major-infected primary human neutrophils acquire enhanced capacity to engulf apoptotic cells. This was associated with increased expression of the complement receptors 1 and 3 involved in phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. Next, we showed that ingestion of apoptotic cells affects neutrophil antimicrobial functions. We observed that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by neutrophils downregulates the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and PKCδ, the kinases involved in activation of NADPH oxidase and hence reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In line, uptake of apoptotic cells inhibits TNF- and L. major-induced ROS production by neutrophils. Importantly, we found that the survival of Leishmania in neutrophils is strongly enhanced in neutrophils exposed to apoptotic cells. Together, our findings reveal that apoptotic cells promote L. major survival within neutrophils by downregulating critical antimicrobial functions. This suggests that the induction of enhanced uptake of apoptotic cells represents a novel evasion mechanism of the parasites that facilitates their survival in neutrophil granulocytes. PMID:28187163

  11. Stress-induced adaptation of neutrophilic granulocyte activity in K and R3 carp lines.

    PubMed

    Pijanowski, L; Verburg-van Kemenade, B M L; Irnazarow, I; Chadzinska, M

    2015-12-01

    Both in mammals and fish, stress induces remarkable changes in the immune response. We focused on stress-induced changes in the activity of neutrophilic granulocytes in the R3 and K lines of common carp, which showed differential stress responses. Our study clearly demonstrates that a prolonged restraint stress differentially affects the activity of K and R3 carp neutrophils. In the K line, stress decreased the respiratory burst, while in the R3 line it reduced the release of extracellular DNA. Surprisingly, the stress-induced changes in ROS production and NET formation did not correlate with changes in gene expression of the inflammatory mediators and GR receptors. In neutrophilic granulocytes from K carp, gene expression of the stress-sensitive cortisol GR1 receptor was significantly higher than in neutrophils from R3 fish, which will make these cells more sensitive to high levels of cortisol. Moreover, upon stress, neutrophilic granulocytes of K carp up-regulated gene expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 while this was not observed in neutrophilic granulocytes of R3 carp. Therefore, we can hypothesize that, in contrast to R3 neutrophils, the more cortisol sensitive neutrophils from K carp respond to stress with up-regulation of IL-10 and consequently reduction of ROS production. Most probably the ROS-independent NET formation in K carp is not regulated by this anti-inflammatory cytokine. These data may indicate a predominantly ROS-independent formation of NETs by carp neutrophilic granulocytes. Moreover, they underline the important role of IL-10 in stress-induced immunoregulation.

  12. Immunological Activation of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils for Fungal Killing: Studies with Murine Cells and Blastomyces dermatitidis In Vitro,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The interaction of elicited murine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and the thermally dimorphic fungal pathogen Blastomyces dermatitidis in vitro...albicans compared to normal PMN. Fungicidal activity was abrogated in the presence of catalase , implicating hydrogen peroxide generation as the killing mechanism in the activated cells.

  13. Anaerobiosis increases resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to O2-independent antimicrobial proteins from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Casey, S G; Shafer, W M; Spitznagel, J K

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the in vitro resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae FA19 to the O2-independent antimicrobial systems of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Acid extracts of polymorphonuclear leukocyte granules (crude granule extracts) and a purified granule protein (57 kilodaltons) were, at low concentrations, bactericidal for gonococci under aerobic conditions that permitted growth. However, they were less effective under anaerobic conditions that imposed bacteriostasis. We found that adding sodium nitrite to reduced growth media permitted the growth of strain FA19 in an anaerobic environment. Under these conditions with nitrite, anaerobic cultures of strain FA19 were no more resistant to the crude granule extract and the 57-kilodalton protein than aerobic cultures. In contrast, Salmonella typhimurium SL-1004, a facultative anaerobe, was readily killed by both the crude granule extract and the 57-kilodalton antimicrobial protein regardless of the presence or absence of free molecular oxygen. This is the first demonstration that an isolated antimicrobial protein from polymorphonuclear leukocyte granules is active against bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Our results also indicated that the efficacy of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte O2-independent killing of N. gonorrhoeae may, in part, be inhibited by bacteriostatic conditions imposed by hypoxia. Images PMID:3917976

  14. Effect of donkey seminal plasma on sperm movement and sperm-polymorphonuclear neutrophils attachment in vitro.

    PubMed

    Miró, Jordi; Vilés, Karina; García, Wilber; Jordana, Jordi; Yeste, Marc

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of seminal plasma in endometrial inflammation in donkeys, samples from fresh pure, fresh diluted and frozen-thawed semen of three different jackasses were co-incubated in water bath at 37°C with uterine Jennie's secretions collected 6h after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed donkey semen. Individual sperm movement parameters using the computerised sperm analysis system (CASA) and sperm-polymorphonuclear neutrophils (sperm-PMN) attachment observed in Diff-Quick stained smears were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4h of co-incubation. Controls consisted of incubating diluted or frozen-thawed sperm in the absence of uterine secretions. For data analyses, a repeated measures ANOVA was performed with incubation time as intra-subject factor and with treatment and donkey as inter-subject factor, followed by a post-hoc Bonferroni's test. Greater values (P<0.05) of sperm-PMN percentages and a loss of progressive motility were observed in frozen-thawed semen compared with pure and diluted fresh semen samples throughout the incubation time. In addition, the presence of seminal plasma in fresh and diluted semen samples reduced the inflammatory response of polymorphonuclear neutrophils produced after insemination by suppressing the sperm-PMN attachment in vitro. Motility sperm parameters analysed by CASA were also less affected than those in frozen-thawed semen samples. In conclusion, seminal plasma in jennies appears to have a modulation on the endometrial response after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed donkey semen. As a result, spermatozoa with the greater motility characteristics are selected.

  15. Mechanism of arachidonic acid liberation in platelet-activating factor-stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, S.; Suganuma, A.; Sato, M.; Tohmatsu, T.; Nozawa, Y. )

    1989-08-15

    Upon stimulation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with platelet-activating factor (PAF), arachidonic acid (AA) is released from membrane phospholipids. The mechanism for AA liberation, a key step in the synthesis of biologically active eicosanoids, was investigated. PAF was found to elicit an increase in the cytoplasmic level of free Ca2+ as monitored by fluorescent indicator fura 2. When (3H) AA-labeled neutrophils were exposed to PAF, the enhanced release of AA was observed with a concomitant decrease of radioactivity in phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine fractions. The inhibitors of phospholipase A2, mepacrine and 2-(p-amylcinnamoyl)-amino-4-chlorobenzoic acid, effectively suppressed the liberation of (3H)AA from phospholipids, indicating that liberation of AA is mainly catalyzed by the action of phospholipase A2. The extracellular Ca2+ is not required for AA release. However, intracellular Ca2+ antagonists, TMB-8 and high dose of quin 2/AM drastically reduced the liberation of AA induced by PAF, indicating that Ca2+ is an essential factor for phospholipase A2 activation. PAF raised the fluorescence of fura 2 at concentrations as low as 8 pM which reached a maximal level about 8 nM, whereas more than nM order concentrations of PAF was required for the detectable release of (3H)AA. Pretreatment of neutrophils with pertussis toxin resulted in complete abolition of AA liberation in response to PAF. However, the fura 2 response to PAF was not effectively inhibited by toxin treatment. In human neutrophil homogenate and membrane preparations, guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) stimulated AA release and potentiated the action of PAF. Guanosine 5'-O-(thiodiphosphate) inhibited the effects of guanosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate).

  16. Impaired bactericidal but not fungicidal activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Georgiadou, Sarah P; Wierda, William G; Wright, Susan; Albert, Nathaniel D; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael; Lewis, Russell E

    2013-08-01

    We examined the qualitative polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-associated immune impairment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) by characterizing phagocytic killing of key non-opsonized bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus) pathogens. Neutrophils were collected from 47 non-neutropenic patients with CLL (PMN count > 1000/mm(3)) and age-matched and young healthy controls (five each). A subset of patients (13%) had prior or subsequent infections. We found that the patients with CLL had diminished PMN microbicidal response against bacteria but not against fungi compared with the controls. Compared to patients with effective PMN responses, we did not identify differences of basal PMN pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor gene expression, soluble pathogen-associated molecular pattern gene expression or inflammatory cytokine signatures in patients with impaired PMN responses when PMNs were analyzed in multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. However, differences in PMN microbicidal response against A. fumigatus in patients with CLL were associated with the degree of hypogammaglobulinemia.

  17. Impaired bactericidal but not fungicidal activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Georgiadou, Sarah P.; Wierda, William G.; Wright, Susan; Albert, Nathaniel D.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael; Lewis, Russell E.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the qualitative polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-associated immune impairment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) by characterizing phagocytic killing of key nonopsonized bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus) pathogens. Neutrophils were collected from 47 nonneutropenic CLL patients (PMN count > 1000/mm3), and age-matched and young healthy controls (five each). A subset of patients (13%) had prior or subsequent infections. We found that the CLL patients had diminished PMN microbicidal response against bacteria but not against fungi than did the controls. Compared to patients with effective PMN responses, we did not identify differences of basal PMN pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor gene expression, soluble pathogen-associated molecular pattern gene expression, or inflammatory cytokine signatures in patients with impaired PMN responses when PMNs were analyzed in multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. However, differences in PMN microbicidal response against A. fumigatus in CLL patients were associated with the degree of hypogammaglobulinemia. PMID:23163595

  18. Bryostatins trigger human polymorphonuclear neutrophil and monocyte oxidative metabolism: association with in vitro antineoplastic activity.

    PubMed

    Esa, A H; Warren, J T; Hess, A D; May, W S

    1995-01-01

    Bryostatin-1-but not bryostatin-13-a macrocyclic lactone isolated from the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina, triggered human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and monocyte release of reactive oxygen radicals, as measured by the generation of lucigenin chemiluminescence and by the ferricytochrome c reduction assay. The release of oxygen radicals by bryostatins was sensitive to inhibitors of protein kinases, but resistant to the inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity and arachidonic acid metabolism (prior treatment with mepacrine or indomethacin). Comparison of the effect of protein kinase (PK) inhibitors H-8, H-7 and staurosporine on bryostatin-1-induced neutrophil oxygen radical release further suggested a requirement for activation of phospholipid-dependent PKC, but not for cGMP- or cAMP-dependent PK. In cytostatic assays, PMNs treated with bryostatin-1 inhibited the growth of the erythroleukaemic cell line K562 in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the reported antineoplastic effect of bryostatins may result at least in part from activation of PMNs and monocytes.

  19. Temporal adaptation of neutrophil oxidative responsiveness to n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Acceleration by granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    English, D; Broxmeyer, H E; Gabig, T G; Akard, L P; Williams, D E; Hoffman, R

    1988-10-01

    This investigation was undertaken to clarify the mechanism by which purified recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) potentiates neutrophil oxidative responses triggered by the chemotactic peptide, FMLP. Previous studies have shown that GM-CSF priming of neutrophil responses to FMLP is induced relatively slowly, requiring 90 to 120 min of incubation in vitro, is not associated with increased levels of cytoplasmic free Ca2+, but is associated with up-regulation of cell-surface FMLP receptors. We have confirmed these findings and further characterized the process of GM-CSF priming. We found that the effect of GM-CSF on neutrophil oxidative responsiveness was induced in a temperature-dependent manner and was not reversed when the cells were washed extensively to remove the growth factor before stimulation with FMLP. Extracellular Ca2+ was not required for functional enhancement by GM-CSF and GM-CSF alone effected no detectable alteration in the 32P-labeled phospholipid content of neutrophils during incubation in vitro. Our data indicate that GM-CSF exerts its influence on neutrophils by accelerating a process that occurs spontaneously and results in up-regulation of both cell-surface FMLP receptors and oxidative responsiveness to FMLP. Thus, the results demonstrate that, with respect to oxidative activation, circulating endstage polymorphonuclear leukocytes are nonresponsive or hyporesponsive to FMLP; functional responsiveness increases dramatically as surface FMLP receptors are gradually deployed after the cells leave the circulation. Thus, as neutrophils mature, their responsiveness to FMLP changes in a manner which may be crucial for efficient host defense. At 37 degrees C, this process is markedly potentiated by GM-CSF. We conclude that endogenous GM-CSF, released systemically or at sites of infection and inflammation, potentially plays an important role in host defense by accelerating functional maturation of responding

  20. Both IL-1β and TNF-α Regulate NGAL Expression in Polymorphonuclear Granulocytes of Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Adriana; Stassi, Giovanna; Iannello, Daniela; Gazzara, Domenica; Calapai, Maria; Bisignano, Carlo; Bolignano, Davide; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Buemi, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Background. NGAL is involved in modulation of the inflammatory response and is found in the sera of uremic patients. We investigated whether hemodiafiltration (HDF) could influence the ability of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMGs) to release NGAL. The involvement of interleukin- (IL-)1β and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-)α on NGAL release was evaluated. Methods. We studied end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients at the start of dialysis (Pre-HDF) and at the end of treatment (Post-HDF) and 18 healthy subjects (HSs). Peripheral venous blood was taken from HDF patients at the start of dialysis and at the end of treatment. Results. PMGs obtained from ESRD patients were hyporesponsive to LPS treatment, with respect to PMG from HS. IL-1β and TNF-α produced by PMG from post-HDF patients were higher than those obtained by PMG from pre-HDF. Neutralization of IL-1β, but not of TNF-α, determined a clear-cut production of NGAL in PMG from healthy donors. On the contrary, specific induction of NGAL in PMG from uremic patients was dependent on the presence in supernatants of IL-1β and TNF-α. Conclusion. Our data demonstrate that in PMG from healthy subjects, NGAL production was supported solely by IL-1β, whereas in PMG from HDF patients, NGAL production was supported by IL-1β, TNF-α. PMID:21403867

  1. Increased CD64 expression on polymorphonuclear neutrophils indicates infectious complications following solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Grey, Daniel; Sack, Ulrich; Scholz, Markus; Knaack, Heike; Fricke, Stephan; Oppel, Christoph; Luderer, Daniel; Fangmann, Josef; Emmrich, Frank; Kamprad, Manja

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of monitoring CD64 antigen upregulation on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) for the identification of infectious complications in the postoperative course of solid organ transplanted patients. Twenty-five kidney, 13 liver, and four pancreas-kidney transplanted patients were included. Beginning with preoperative values up to postoperative values after 3 months for each patient, the PMN CD64 Index, HLA-DR on monocytes, NKp44+ NK and NK/T cells, CXCR3+ NK cells, CXCR3+ T helper cells, CXCR3+ NK/T cells, and CD4/CD8 ratio were measured by flow cytometry. Subsequently they were correlated with confirmed postoperative complications. Measuring the PMN CD64 Index reached a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 65% in the detection of infectious complications. Concerning this matter, it was a significantly better marker than all other included parameters except CXCR3+ NK/T cells. In contrast, according to our results the PMN CD64 Index has no diagnostic relevance in detection of rejections. The combination of included parameters showed no improved diagnostic value. Due to its high sensitivity and specificity for infectious complications CD64 on PMN could be proven a very good indicator in evaluating suspected infectious complications in the postoperative course of transplanted patients.

  2. [Role of polymorphonuclear neutrophil in exogenous hydrogen sulfide attenuating endotoxin-induced acute lung injury].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin-Li; Zhou, Xiao-Hong; Zhou, Jun-Lin; Ding, Chun-Hua; Xian, Xiao-Hui

    2009-08-25

    The animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) caused by intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and cultured human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) were used to study the effects of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) donor, on LPS-induced PMN accumulation, microvascular permeability and PMN apoptosis. Control group, NaHS group, LPS group and LPS + NaHS group were established both in in vivo and in vitro studies. Microvascular permeability, PMN accumulation in lung and apoptosis of PMN were detected. The results showed that: (1) In in vivo study, PMN accumulation in lung, the protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the Evans blue dye in lung tissue of LPS group were markedly higher than those of both sham operation group and LPS + NaHS group (P<0.05, P<0.01); (2) In in vitro study, the apoptotic rates of PMN in LPS group and NaHS group were significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01), while compared with LPS group, LPS + NaHS group showed significantly higher apoptotic rate (P<0.01). These results suggest that NaHS attenuates LPS-induced microvascular permeability and alleviates ALI. PMN apoptosis induced by NaHS is possibly one of the potential mechanisms underlying the decrease of PMN accumulation in lung tissue.

  3. Transcriptomic Analysis Comparing Tumor-Associated Neutrophils with Granulocytic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells and Normal Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Fridlender, Zvi G.; Sun, Jing; Mishalian, Inbal; Singhal, Sunil; Cheng, Guanjun; Kapoor, Veena; Horng, Wenhwai; Fridlender, Gil; Bayuh, Rachel; Worthen, G. Scott; Albelda, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    The role of myeloid cells in supporting cancer growth is well established. Most work has focused on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) that accumulate in tumor-bearing animals, but tumor-associated neutrophils (TAN) are also known to be capable of augmenting tumor growth. However, little is known about their evolution, phenotype, and relationship to naïve neutrophils (NN) and to the granulocytic fraction of MDSC (G-MDSC). In the current study, a transcriptomics approach was used in mice to compare these cell types. Our data show that the three populations of neutrophils are significantly different in their mRNA profiles with NN and G-MDSC being more closely related to each other than to TAN. Structural genes and genes related to cell-cytotoxicity (i.e. respiratory burst) were significantly down-regulated in TAN. In contrast, many immune-related genes and pathways, including genes related to the antigen presenting complex (e.g. all six MHC-II complex genes), and cytokines (e.g. TNF-α, IL-1-α/β), were up-regulated in G-MDSC, and further up-regulated in TAN. Thirteen of the 25 chemokines tested were markedly up-regulated in TAN compared to NN, including striking up-regulation of chemoattractants for T/B-cells, neutrophils and macrophages. This study characterizes different populations of neutrophils related to cancer, pointing out the major differences between TAN and the other neutrophil populations. PMID:22348096

  4. Neutrophils and Granulocytic MDSC: The Janus God of Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zilio, Serena; Serafini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating blood cell type in humans, and are the first white blood cells recruited at the inflammation site where they orchestrate the initial immune response. Although their presence at the tumor site was recognized in the 1970s, until recently these cells have been neglected and considered to play just a neutral role in tumor progression. Indeed, in recent years neutrophils have been recognized to play a dual role in tumor development by either assisting the growth, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis or by exerting tumoricidal action directly via the secretion of antitumoral compounds, or indirectly via the orchestration of antitumor immunity. Understanding the biology of these cells and influencing their polarization in the tumor micro- and macro-environment may be the key for the development of new therapeutic strategies, which may finally hold the promise of an effective immunotherapy for cancer. PMID:27618112

  5. Catchup: a mouse model for imaging-based tracking and modulation of neutrophil granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Hasenberg, Anja; Hasenberg, Mike; Männ, Linda; Neumann, Franziska; Borkenstein, Lars; Stecher, Manuel; Kraus, Andreas; Engel, Daniel R; Klingberg, Anika; Seddigh, Pegah; Abdullah, Zeinab; Klebow, Sabrina; Engelmann, Swen; Reinhold, Annegret; Brandau, Sven; Seeling, Michaela; Waisman, Ari; Schraven, Burkhart; Göthert, Joachim R; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Gunzer, Matthias

    2015-05-01

    Neutrophil granulocyte biology is a central issue of immunological research, but the lack of animal models that allow for neutrophil-selective genetic manipulation has delayed progress. By modulating the neutrophil-specific locus Ly6G with a knock-in allele expressing Cre recombinase and the fluorescent protein tdTomato, we generated a mouse model termed Catchup that exhibits strong neutrophil specificity. Transgene activity was found only in very few eosinophils and basophils and was undetectable in bone marrow precursors, including granulomonocytic progenitors (GMPs). Cre-mediated reporter-gene activation allowed for intravital two-photon microscopy of neutrophils without adoptive transfer. Homozygous animals were Ly6G deficient but showed normal leukocyte cellularity in all measured organs. Ly6G-deficient neutrophils were functionally normal in vitro and in multiple models of sterile or infectious inflammation in vivo. However, Cre-mediated deletion of FcγRIV in neutrophils reduced the cells' recruitment to immune-complex-mediated peritonitis, suggesting a cell-intrinsic role for activating Fc receptors in neutrophil trafficking.

  6. Resonance Raman microspectroscopy of myeloperoxidase and cytochrome b558 in human neutrophilic granulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sijtsema, N M; Otto, C; Segers-Nolten, G M; Verhoeven, A J; Greve, J

    1998-01-01

    With (resonance) Raman microscospectroscopy, it is possible to investigate the chemical constitution of a very small volume (0.5 fl) in a living cell. We have measured resonance Raman spectra in the cytoplasm of living normal, myeloperoxidase (MPO)-deficient, and cytochrome b558-deficient neutrophils and in isolated specific and azurophilic granule fractions, using an excitation wavelength of 413.1 nm. Similar experiments were performed after reduction of the redox centers by the addition of sodium dithionite. The specific and azurophilic granules in both redox states appeared to have clearly distinguishable Raman spectra when exciting at a wavelength of 413.1 nm. The azurophilic granules and the cytochrome b558-deficient neutrophils showed Raman spectra similar to that of the isolated MPO. The spectra of the specific granules and the MPO-deficient neutrophils corresponded very well to published cytochrome b558 spectra. The resonance Raman spectrum of the cytoplasmic region of normal neutrophilic granulocytes could be fitted with a combination of the spectra of the specific and azurophilic granules, which shows that the Raman signal of neutrophilic granulocytes mainly originates from MPO and cytochrome b558, at an excitation wavelength of 413.1 nm. PMID:9635778

  7. Neutrophil alkaline phosphatase score in chronic granulocytic leukaemia: effects of splenectomy and antileukaemic drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Spiers, A S; Liew, A; Baikie, A G

    1975-01-01

    Staining with naphthol AS phosphate and Fast Blue BB salt has been used for the estimation of neutrophil alkaline phosphatase (NAP) scores in patients with chronic granulocytic leukaemia (CGL). The very low scores found at diagnosis rise when the disease is treated, and there is some inverse correlation between the NAP score and the absolute neutrophil count. Patients treated intensively developed high NAP scores. Elective splenectomy performed during the chronic phase of CGL is followed by a pronounced but transient neutrophilia and a concurrent striking rise in the NAP score. Similar changes were observed in patients without CGL who underwent splenectomy. These observations can be explained by assuming that newly formed neutrophils in CGL have a normal content of NAP but are rapidly sequestered in non-circulating extramedullary pools, whereas the circulating neutrophil with a typically low NAP content is a relatively aged cell which has lost enzyme activity. In subjects with or without CGL, removal of the spleen, a major site of such pooling, temporarily permits the circulation of newly formed neutrophils but eventually other organs assume the sequestering functions of the spleen. Thus the aberrations of NAP score seen in CGL might be attributable not to an intrinsic cellular defect but to an exaggeration of the granulocyte storage phenomena which also occur in subjects without CGL. PMID:1056940

  8. Granulocyte transfusions for treating infections in people with neutropenia or neutrophil dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Estcourt, Lise J; Stanworth, Simon J; Hopewell, Sally; Doree, Carolyn; Trivella, Marialena; Massey, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite modern antimicrobials and supportive therapy bacterial and fungal infections are still major complications in people with prolonged disease-related or treatment-related neutropenia. Transfusions of granulocytes have a long history of usage in clinical practice to support and treat severe infection in high-risk groups of patients with neutropenia or neutrophil dysfunction. However, there is considerable current variability in therapeutic granulocyte transfusion practice, and uncertainty about the beneficial effect of transfusions given as an adjunct to antibiotics on mortality. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. Objectives To determine the effectiveness and safety of granulocyte transfusions compared to no granulocyte transfusions as adjuncts to antimicrobials for treating infections in people with neutropenia or disorders of neutrophil function aimed at reducing mortality and other adverse outcomes related to infection. Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 2). MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1937), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980) and ongoing trial databases to 11 February 2016. Selection criteria RCTs comparing people with neutropenia or disorders of neutrophil dysfunction receiving granulocyte transfusions to treat infection with a control group receiving no granulocyte transfusions. Neonates are the subject of another Cochrane review and were excluded from this review. There was no restriction by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures expected by the Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We identified 10 trials that met the inclusion criteria with a total of 587 participants. We also identified another ongoing trial. These trials were conducted between 1975 and 2015. None of

  9. Phagocytic mechanism of live neutrophilic granulocyte with green fluorescent protein gene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shaoqun; Chen, Weiguo; Zhou, Wei; Luo, Qingming; Zhang, Zhi

    1999-09-01

    The whole process of neutrophilic granulocyte phagocytosis of E.Coli BL21-expressed green fluorescent protein gene was recorded with CCD coupled fluorescence microscopy in a real-time. This process contains of three stages: adhesion, ingestion, and exocytosis. The properties of each stages of phagocytosis were analyzed. The method opened new perspective in continuously observing the specific and non-specific immunity mechanism on alive cell.

  10. Blood Level of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Leukocytes and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) have an important defensive role against various microorganisms and other agents, but by liberating various substances, first of all the superoxide anion (O 2¯), they can damage the bronchial mucosa and influence the development of bronchial inflammation which is the fundamental of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). Objective: to show the role of the PMNL for development and level of BHR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material and methods: We observed 160 patients with COPD treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Sarajevo during three years :from 2012 to 2014. They were divided into groups and subgroups according to the first registration of BHR in the course of illness and to the number of exacerbations of the disease in one year. The number of blood PMNL was measured in a stable state of disease at the begging and at the end of investigation. Results: The number of blood PMNL was significantly greater in patients with 3 or more exacerbations per one year (p <0.01). Patients with BHR had significantly greater number blood PMNL than patients without BHR (p< 0.05). Patients with 3 exacerbations per year had a statistically significant increase of number of PMNL between first and last examination (p<0.01). Conclusion: There is statistically significant correlation between the number of blood PMNL and the level of BHR in COPD, but future examination need to be done to determine real role and mode of action of PMNL for these processes. PMID:26543311

  11. Effect of monodesethyl amodiaquine on human polymorphonuclear neutrophil functions in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Labro, M T; el Benna, J

    1991-01-01

    We have previously observed that the antimalarial drug amodiaquine impairs the human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) oxidative burst in vitro. However, the drug acted at a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml, far higher than that which is achievable therapeutically. Since amodiaquine is extensively metabolized into monodesethyl amodiaquine, we investigated whether the metabolite modified PMN functions at lower concentrations than amodiaquine does. Monodesethyl amodiaquine strongly depressed PMN chemotaxis and phagocytosis at concentrations as low as 10 micrograms/ml. This inhibition was reversed by washing out the drug. The PMN oxidative burst was markedly depressed by monodesethyl amodiaquine, whatever the assay technique (luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, myeloperoxidase activity) or stimulus used (opsonized zymosan, phorbol myristate acetate, formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine). There were extreme interindividual variations in sensitivity to the depressive effect of monodesethyl amodiaquine when the PMN oxidative burst was assayed in terms of luminol-amplified chemiluminescence or lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence. PMN samples were divided into two groups on the basis of the MIC of the drug: 60% of the samples were "highly sensitive," being strongly inhibited at concentrations as low as 0.1 micrograms/ml (obtained during therapy), whereas the "moderately sensitive" samples were inhibited at concentrations of 10 micrograms/ml and above. The difference between the two groups was highly significant. This PMN sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of the drug was not related to intrinsic oxidative metabolism. Our data indicate that monodesethyl amodiaquine, the main metabolite of amodiaquine, has a far stronger inhibitory effect on various PMN functions in vitro than the parent drug, warranting relevant in vivo studies. PMID:1649569

  12. Cerebral endothelial expression of Robo1 affects brain infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils during mouse stroke recovery.

    PubMed

    Gangaraju, Sandhya; Sultan, Khadeejah; Whitehead, Shawn N; Nilchi, Ladan; Slinn, Jacqueline; Li, Xuesheng; Hou, Sheng T

    2013-06-01

    Increased brain infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) occurs early after stroke and is important in eliciting brain inflammatory response during stroke recovery. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of PMN entry, we investigated the expression and requirement for Slit1, a chemorepulsive guidance cue, and its cognate receptor, Robo1, in a long-term recovery mouse model of cerebral ischemia. The expression levels of Robo1 were significantly decreased bilaterally at 24h following reperfusion. Robo1 expression levels remained suppressed in the ipsilateral cortex until 28d post MCAO-reperfusion, while the levels of Robo1 in the contralateral cortex recovered to the level of sham-operated mouse by 7d reperfusion. Circulating PMNs express high levels of Slit1, but not Robo1. Influx of PMNs into the ischemic core area occurred early (24h) after cerebral ischemia, when endothelial Robo1 expression was significantly reduced in the ischemic brain, indicating that Robo1 may form a repulsive barrier to PMN entry into the brain parenchyma. Indeed, blocking Slit1 on PMNs in a transwell migration assay in combination with an antibody blocking of Robo1 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) significantly increased PMN transmigration during oxygen glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of ischemia. Collectively, in the normal brain, the presence of Slit1 on PMNs, and Robo1 on cerebral endothelial cells, generated a repulsive force to prevent the infiltration of PMNs into the brain. During stroke recovery, a transient reduction in Robo1 expression on the cerebral endothelial cells allowed the uncontrolled infiltration of Slit1-expressing PMNs into the brain causing inflammatory reactions.

  13. Cellular Uptake of Two Fluoroketolides, HMR 3562 and HMR 3787, by Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Abdelghaffar, H.; Vazifeh, D.; Labro, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the cellular accumulation of two new fluoroketolides, HMR 3562 and HMR 3787, by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in vitro. Both compounds were rapidly taken up by PMN, with a cellular-to-extracellular concentration ratio (C/E) of about 141 (HMR 3562) and 117 (HMR 3787) at 5 min, and this was followed by a plateau at 60 to 180 min, with a C/E of >300 at 180 min. Both ketolides were mainly located in PMN granules (about 75%) and egressed slowly from loaded cells (about 40% at 60 min), owing to avid reuptake. Uptake was moderately sensitive to external pH, and activation energy was also moderate (about 70 kJ/mol). As with other macrolides and ketolides, the existence of an active transport system was suggested by (i) the strong interindividual variability in uptake kinetics, suggesting variability in the number or activity of a transport protein; (ii) the saturation kinetics characteristic of a carrier-mediated transport system (Vmax, about 2,300 ng/2.5 × 106 PMN/5 min; Km, about 50 μg/ml); (iii) the inhibitory effects of Ni2+ (a blocker of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger), phorbol myristate acetate (a protein kinase C activator), and H89 (a protein kinase A inhibitor). Although these two ketolides are more related to HMR 3647 (telithromycin), it is interesting that the presence of a fluoride gave these molecules a cellular pharmacokinetics more like those of HMR 3004 than those of HMR 3647. The macrolide transport system has not been yet elucidated, but our data confirm that, despite variations in chemical structure, all erythromycin A derivatives share a transmembrane transport system. PMID:11557472

  14. Role of platelet-activating factor in polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment in reperfused ischemic rabbit heart.

    PubMed Central

    Montrucchio, G.; Alloatti, G.; Mariano, F.; Comino, A.; Cacace, G.; Polloni, R.; De Filippi, P. G.; Emanuelli, G.; Camussi, G.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the role of platelet-activating factor in the recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in a rabbit model of cardiac ischemia and reperfusion. The accumulation of PMN was evaluated 2 and 24 hours after removal of 40 minutes of coronary occlusion by morphometric analysis and 111In-labeled PMN infiltration. The administration of two structurally unrelated platelet-activating factor-receptor antagonists (SDZ 63-675, 5 mg/kg body weight, and WEB 2170, 5 mg/kg body weight) before reperfusion significantly reduced the accumulation of PMN, as well as the hemodynamic alterations and the size of necrotic area. Two hours after reperfusion, the percentage of increase of 111In-labeled PMN in transmural central ischemic zone was significantly reduced in rabbits pretreated with SDZ 63-675 (51.4 +/- 7.9) or WEB 2170 (32.4 +/- 8.8) with respect to untreated rabbits (107.6 +/- 13.5). The morphometric analysis of myocardial sections confirmed the reduction of PMN infiltration at 2 hours and demonstrated that at 24 hours the phenomenon was even more significant. In addition, SDZ 63-675 and WEB 2170 prevented early transient bradycardia and hypotension and reduced the infarct size, judged by staining with tetrazolium at 2 and 24 hours after reperfusion, and by histological examination at 24 hours. These results suggest that platelet-activating factor is involved in the accumulation of PMN in the reperfused ischemic myocardium and contributes to the evolution of myocardial injury. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8434642

  15. Morphology and staining behavior of neutrophilic and eosinophilic granulocytes of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Bleyer, Martina; Curths, Christoph; Dahlmann, Franziska; Wichmann, Judy; Bauer, Natali; Moritz, Andreas; Braun, Armin; Knauf, Sascha; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Gruber-Dujardin, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) are frequently used as translational animal models for human diseases. However, a comparative study of cytological and histochemical detection methods as well as morphometric and ultrastructural characterization of neutrophils and eosinophils in this species is lacking. Blood samples of house dust mite sensitized and allergen challenged as well as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenged marmosets were analyzed with different cytological and histological staining methods. Furthermore, cell size and number of nuclear segments were compared between neutrophils and eosinophils. Electron microscopy was performed to characterize the ultrastructure of granulocytes. Of all applied cytological stains, three allowed differentiation of eosinophils and neutrophils and, thus, reliable quantification in blood smears: May-Grünwald-Giemsa stain, Congo Red and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate-Esterase. For histology, Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) could not demonstrate clear differences, whereas Sirius Red, Congo Red, and Naphthol AS-D Chloroacetate Esterase showed capable results for identification of eosinophils or neutrophils in lung tissue. Morphometry revealed that marmoset neutrophils have more nuclear segments and are slightly larger than eosinophils. Ultrastructurally, eosinophils presented with large homogeneous electron-dense granules without crystalloid cores, while neutrophils were characterized by heterogeneous granules of different size and density. Additionally, sombrero-like vesicles were detected in tissue eosinophils of atopic marmosets, indicative for hypersensitivity-related piecemeal degranulation. In conclusion, we provide a detailed overview of marmoset eosinophils and neutrophils, important for phenotypic characterization of marmoset models for human airway diseases.

  16. Neutrophil function is preserved in a pooled granulocyte component prepared from whole blood donations.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Saber; Stanworth, Simon; Massey, Edwin; Goddard, Fred; Cardigan, Rebecca

    2008-03-01

    Whole blood-derived granulocytes (buffy coats) are issued as an alternative to apheresis donations, but are heavily contaminated with red cells and platelets and there is minimal in vitro data describing their functionality. We developed a purer pooled granulocyte component (PGC) from whole blood donations by pooling 10 ABO-matched buffy coats with 400 ml of platelet additive solution (SSP+) and re-centrifuging. The PGC was irradiated (25-50 Gy) and neutrophil viability, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity were determined by flow cytometry. Results from 13 PGC at 16-20 h following donation were compared with those obtained from 20 standard individual buffy coats and with fresh whole blood. The PGC contained similar numbers of neutrophils (approximately 0.9 x 10(10)) with a reduced volume and haemoglobin content when compared with 10 individual buffy coats. Neutrophils in the PGC maintained >90% viability, oxidative burst and phagocytic activity and their ability to migrate towards a chemoattractant 16-20 h following donation, which is similar to results obtained with either fresh whole blood or standard buffy coats. Therefore, neutrophil function in the PGC was preserved 16-20 h following donation, but this product had significantly lower red cell contamination compared with 10 buffy coats, which are currently transfused.

  17. Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections.

  18. In vitro evaluation of the behaviour of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils in direct contact with chitosan-based membranes.

    PubMed

    Santos, T C; Marques, A P; Silva, S S; Oliveira, J M; Mano, J F; Castro, A G; Reis, R L

    2007-10-31

    Several novel biodegradable materials have been proposed for wound healing applications in the past few years. Taking into consideration the biocompatibility of chitosan-based biomaterials, and that they promote adequate cell adhesion, this work aims at investigating the effect of chitosan-based membranes, over the activation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). The recruitment and activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) reflects a primary reaction to foreign bodies. Activation of neutrophils results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as O(2)(-) and HO(-) and the release of hydrolytic enzymes which are determinant factors in the inflammatory process, playing an essential role in the healing mechanisms. PMNs isolated from human peripheral blood of healthy volunteers were cultured in the presence of chitosan or chitosan/soy newly developed membranes. The effect of the biomaterials on the activation of PMNs was assessed by the quantification of lysozyme and ROS. The results showed that PMNs, in the presence of the chitosan-based membranes secrete similar lysozyme amounts, as compared to controls (PMNs without materials) and also showed that the materials do not stimulate the production of either O(2)(-) or HO(-). Moreover, PMNs incubated with the biomaterials when stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) showed a chemiluminescence profile with a slightly lower intensity, to that observed for positive controls (cells without materials and stimulated with PMA), which reflects the maintenance of their stimulation capacity. Our data suggests that the new biomaterials studied herein do not elicit activation of PMNs, as assessed by the low lysozyme activity and by the minor detection of ROS by chemiluminescence. These findings reinforce previous statements supporting the suitability of chitosan-based materials for wound healing applications.

  19. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY antibodies promote bacterial opsonization and augment the phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Kim; Christophersen, Lars; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Moser, Claus; Høiby, Niels

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Moderation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) as part of a critical defense against invading pathogens may offer a promising therapeutic approach to supplement the antibiotic eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in non-chronically infected cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We have observed that egg yolk antibodies (IgY) harvested from White leghorn chickens that target P. aeruginosa opsonize the pathogen and enhance the PMN-mediated respiratory burst and subsequent bacterial killing in vitro. The effects on PMN phagocytic activity were observed in different Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, including clinical isolates from non-chronically infected CF patients. Thus, oral prophylaxis with anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY may boost the innate immunity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the CF setting by facilitating a rapid and prompt bacterial clearance by PMNs. PMID:26901841

  20. Neutrophil Granulocytes in Ovarian Cancer - Induction of Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal-Transition and Tumor Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Christine; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Meyer, Anne-Sophie; Hübner, Katrin; Rom, Joachim; Sohn, Christof; Braicu, Ioana; Sehouli, Jalid; Hänsch, G. Maria; Gaida, Matthias M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is a highly aggressive malignoma with a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is frequently seen, raising the question of their impact on tumor development. In that context, effects of PMN on human ovarian cancer cells were assessed. Methods: Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells were incubated with human PMN, lysate of PMN, or neutrophil elastase. Morphological alterations were observed by time-lapse video-microscopy, and the underlying molecular mechanism was analyzed by flow cytometry and Western blotting. Functional alternations were assessed by an in vitro wound healing assay. In parallel, a large cohort of n=334 primary OvCa tissue samples of various histological subtypes was histologically evaluated. Results: Co-cultivation of cancer cells with either PMN or PMN lysate causes a change of the polygonal epithelial phenotype of the cells towards a spindle shaped morphology, causing a cribriform cell growth. The PMN-induced alteration could be attributed to elastase, a major protease of PMN. Elastase-induced shape change was most likely due to the degradation of membranous E-cadherin, which results in loss of cell contacts and polarity. Moreover, in response to elastase, epithelial cytokeratins were downmodulated, in parallel with a nuclear translocation of β-catenin. These PMN-elastase induced alterations of cells are compatible with an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of the cancer cells. Following EMT, the cells displayed a more migratory phenotype. In human biopsies, neutrophil infiltration was seen in 72% of the cases. PMN infiltrates were detected preferentially in areas with low E-cadherin expression. Conclusion: PMN in the microenvironment of OvCa can alter tumor cells towards a mesenchymal and migratory phenotype. PMID:27053953

  1. Cationic antimicrobial proteins isolated from human neutrophil granulocytes in the presence of diisopropyl fluorophosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, W M; Martin, L E; Spitznagel, J K

    1984-01-01

    Acid (0.2 M sodium acetate, pH 4.0) extracts of granules recovered from disrupted human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium. To minimize proteolytic destruction or modification of antimicrobial proteins derived from these granules, we pretreated the PMNs with the serine protease inhibitor diisopropyl fluorophosphate. Fractionation of such extracts by carboxymethyl Sephadex and Sephadex G-75 chromatography resulted in the recovery of at least two antimicrobial, cationic proteins. These proteins differed substantially in antimicrobial activity, amino acid composition, and molecular weight (Mr, 37,000 and 57,000). As we have shown before (Shafer et al., Infect. Immun. 43:834-858), with unfractionated proteins, these two proteins exhibited diminished activity against a polymyxin B-resistant (PBr) mutant of S. typhimurium compared with their activity against the isogenic parental polymyxin B-sensitive (PBs) strain. Expression of the relevant mutation (prmA) in the PBr mutant decreases the electronegativity of lipid A, owing to increased 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinosylation at the 4' phosphate residue (Vaara et al., FEBS Lett. 129:145-149). The data suggest that at least two different cationic proteins account for the antimicrobial capacity of extracts from human PMN granules. Moreover, the availability of anionic charges in the outer membrane of S. typhimurium due to free lipid A phosphates apparently dictates phenotypic levels of resistance to both of the cationic proteins extracted from human PMN granules. Images PMID:6376359

  2. Chelation of Free Zn²⁺ Impairs Chemotaxis, Phagocytosis, Oxidative Burst, Degranulation, and Cytokine Production by Neutrophil Granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Rafah; Rink, Lothar; Haase, Hajo

    2016-05-01

    Neutrophil granulocytes are the largest leukocyte population in the blood and major players in the innate immune response. Impaired neutrophil function has been reported in in vivo studies with zinc-deficient human subjects and experimental animals. Moreover, in vitro formation of neutrophil extracellular traps has been shown to depend on free intracellular Zn(2+). This study investigates the requirement of Zn(2+) for several other essential neutrophil functions, such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytokine production, and degranulation. To exclude artifacts resulting from indirect effects of zinc deprivation, such as impaired hematopoietic development and influences of other immune cells, direct effects of zinc deprivation were tested in vitro using cells isolated from healthy human donors. Chelation of Zn(2+) by the membrane permeable chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylenediamine (TPEN) reduced granulocyte migration toward N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLF) and IL-8, indicating a role of free intracellular Zn(2+) in chemotaxis. However, a direct action of Zn(2+) as a chemoattractant, as previously reported by others, was not observed. Similar to chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and granule release were also impaired in TPEN-treated granulocytes. Moreover, Zn(2+) contributes to the regulatory role of neutrophil granulocytes in the inflammatory response by affecting the cytokine production by these cells. TPEN inhibited the lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of chemotactic IL-8 and also anti-inflammatory IL-1ra. In conclusion, free intracellular Zn(2+) plays essential roles in multiple neutrophil functions, affecting extravasation to the site of the infection, uptake and killing of microorganisms, and inflammation.

  3. Immunophenotypic and ultrastructural study in peripheral blood neutrophil granulocytes following bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Masat, T; Feliu, E; Villamor, N; Castellsagué, J; Ordi, J; Fabregues, M; Rozman, C

    1997-08-01

    Neutrophil studies after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) describe chemotactic and phagocytotic alterations and dyshaemopoiesis. Neutrophil granulocytes (NG) in peripheral blood after BMT were analysed in 28 patients. 14 patients (six receiving GM-CSF) underwent autologous BMT and 14 underwent allogeneic BMT. Immunophenotypic and electron microscopic studies were performed during post-BMT granulopoietic regeneration. Results were compared with NG from 15 healthy bone marrow donors (control group A) and from six patients receiving intensive chemotherapy before autologous BMT (control group B). A significant increase in CD15 and a decrease in 8C7 antigen expression was observed in peripheral blood NG from BMT patients compared with controls A. MPO-7 in NG after BMT did not differ from control group A. Autologous BMT patients showed a lower percentage of NG expressing 13F6, 31D8 and CD16 (Leu 11a) than allogeneic BMT patients, and a significant decrease in 8C7 antigen expression compared with patients receiving intensive chemotherapy. Ultrastructurally, a marked decrease of azurophilic granules was observed in NG from BMT patients compared with control groups A and B. These data indicate that repopulation after BMT was made by phenotypically less mature NG with dysgranulopoietic features. Differences between autologous and allogeneic BMT patients may be partly related to GM-CSF usage. In conclusion, NG present immunophenotypic and ultrastructural changes after BMT which may be involved in abnormal NG response against bacterial infections, although further investigation is needed.

  4. Endotoxin down-modulates granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (CD114) on human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hollenstein, U; Homoncik, M; Stohlawetz, P J; Marsik, C; Sieder, A; Eichler, H G; Jilma, B

    2000-07-01

    During infection, the development of nonresponsiveness to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) may be influenced by the down-modulation of G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) by cytokines. This down-modulation was studied during experimental human endotoxemia. Healthy volunteers received either 2 ng/kg endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS], n=20) or placebo (n=10) in a randomized, controlled trial. Endotoxin infusion increased the mean fluorescence intensity of the neutrophil activation marker CD11b >300% after 1 h (P<.001 vs. placebo). LPS infusion down-modulated G-CSFR expression in as early as 60 min (-17%; P=.001 vs. placebo). Down-modulation was almost maximal at 90 min and persisted for 6 h (-50% from baseline; P<.0001 vs. placebo). Plasma levels of G-CSF started to increase only after G-CSFR down-modulation had occurred and peaked 37-fold above baseline at 4 h (P<.0001 vs. placebo). In conclusion, LPS down-modulates G-CSFR expression in humans, which may render neutrophils less responsive to the effects of G-CSF and, thereby, compromise host defense mechanisms.

  5. The Modulation of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Function by Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 - Expressing Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    urinary tract infection and a rat model of acute prostatitis and that a striking feature of the histopathology of the mouse bladders...Suppl 1A: 5S-13S. Foxman, B., L. Zhang, et al. (1995). "Bacterial virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli isolates from first-time urinary tract infection ." J... urinary tract infection ." Infect Immun 69(5): 2838-46. Haraoka, M., L. Hang, et al. (1999). "Neutrophil recruitment and resistance to urinary tract

  6. Myocellular enzyme leakage, polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Croisier, J L; Camus, G; Deby-Dupont, G; Bertrand, F; Lhermerout, C; Crielaard, J M; Juchmès-Ferir, A; Deby, C; Albert, A; Lamy, M

    1996-01-01

    To address the question of whether delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of the arachidonic acid derived product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 10 healthy male subjects were submitted to eccentric and concentric isokinetic exercises on a Kin Trex device at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. Exercise consisted of 8 stages of 5 maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases. There was an interval of at least 30 days between eccentric and concentric testing, and the order of the two exercise sessions was randomly assigned. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS was evaluated using a visual analogue scale, immediately, following 24 h and 48 h after each test. Five blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein: at rest before exercise, immediately after, after 30 min recovery, 24 h and 48 h after the tests. The magnitude of the acute inflammatory response to exercise was assessed by measuring plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase ([EL]), myeloperoxidase ([MPO]) and PGE2 ([PGE2]). Using two way analysis of variance, it appeared that only eccentric exercise significantly increased [EL] and DOMS, especially of the hamstring muscles. Furthermore, a significant decrease in eccentric peak torque of this muscle group only was observed on day 2 after eccentric work (- 21%; P < 0.002). Serum activity of creatine kinase and serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly 24 and 48 h after both exercise tests. However, these variables reached significantly higher values following eccentric contractions 48 h after exercise. Mean [PGE2] in the two exercise modes remained unchanged over time and were practically equal at each time point. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the magnitude of polymorphonuclear (PMN) activation, muscle damage, and DOMS are greater after eccentric than after concentric muscle

  7. Unconventional apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN): staurosporine delays exposure of phosphatidylserine and prevents phagocytosis by MΦ-2 macrophages of PMN

    PubMed Central

    Franz, S; Muñoz, L E; Heyder, P; Herrmann, M; Schiller, M

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and subsequent ‘silent’ removal represents an important check-point for the resolution of inflammation. Failure in PMN clearance resulting in secondary necrosis-driven tissue damage has been implicated in conditions of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Apoptotic PMN undergo profound biophysical changes that warrant their efficient recognition and uptake by phagocytes before fading to secondary necrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that staurosporine (STS), a non-selective but potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase and protein kinase C, exerts a drastic impact on PMN apoptosis. PMN treated with STS underwent an unconventional form of cell death characterized by a delayed exposure of aminophospholipids, including phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine and an increased exposure of neo-glycans. STS caused an impaired cellular fragmentation and accelerated DNA fragmentation. Phagocytosis of STS-treated PMN lacking PS on their surfaces was decreased significantly, which highlights the importance of PS for the clearance of apoptotic PMN. Specific opsonization with immune complexes completely restored phagocytosis of STS-treated PMN, demonstrating the efficiency of back-up clearance pathways in the absence of PS exposure. PMID:24995908

  8. Effects of leptin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha on degranulation and superoxide production of polymorphonuclear neutrophils from Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Soliman, Mohamed; Yamaji, Daisuke; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Makondo, Kennedy; Inanami, Osamu; Saito, Masayuki

    2007-02-01

    Leptin, a pleiotropic hormone regulating food intake and energy expenditure, has been shown to directly modulate human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions or indirectly through the action of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Bovine PMN have considerable different characteristics from human PMN. For example, it does not respond to N-formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-phenylalanine, a well known human PMN activator. In the present study, we tested the effects of leptin and TNF-alpha on superoxide production and degranulation of bovine peripheral PMN, in which both long isoform of leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) and TNF receptor 1 were expressed. Human leptin, human TNF-alpha, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized zymosan particles (OZP) did not stimulate degranulation responses, while zymosan-activated serum (ZAS) did. Neither leptin nor TNF-alpha enhanced the ZAS-induced degranulation responses. TNF-alpha, PMA, OZP and ZAS increased superoxide production in different magnitudes, whereas leptin did not. TNF-alpha, but not leptin, enhanced OZP- and ZAS-induced superoxide production, possibly, in part due to facilitating translocation of p47(phox), a component of NADPH oxidase. These results indicate that, unlike in human PMN, leptin does not have any direct effect on degranulation and superoxide production in bovine PMN, although TNF-alpha influences superoxide production.

  9. Aspirin Triggered-Lipoxin A4 Reduces the Adhesion of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils to Endothelial Cells Initiated by Preeclamptic Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Villa, AM; Norling, LV; Serhan, CN; Cordero, D; Rojas, M; Cadavid, A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Preeclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy, characterized by hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation. Here, we evaluated the role of aspirin triggered-lipoxin A4 (ATL, 15-epi-LXA4) on the modulation of the adhesion of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to endothelial cells initiated by preeclamptic plasma. Materials and methods Plasma from preeclamptic, normotensive pregnant, and non-pregnant women were analysed for factors involved in regulating angiogenesis, inflammation and lipid peroxidation. Plasma from preeclamptic women was added to human umbilical vein endothelial cells, and the adhesion of PMN (incubated with or without ATL) to cells was evaluated. Results Preeclampsia was associated with some augmented anti-angiogenic, oxidative and pro-inflammatory markers, as well as increasing human PMN-endothelial cell adhesion. This cell adhesion was reduced when human PMN were incubated with ATL prior to addition to endothelial monolayers. Discussions and Conclusions Our results are the starting point for further research on the efficacy and rational use of aspirin in preeclampsia. PMID:22974760

  10. Anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa IgY Antibodies Induce Specific Bacterial Aggregation and Internalization in Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, K.; Christophersen, L.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Jensen, P. Ø.; Moser, C.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are essential cellular constituents in the innate host response, and their recruitment to the lungs and subsequent ubiquitous phagocytosis controls primary respiratory infection. Cystic fibrosis pulmonary disease is characterized by progressive pulmonary decline governed by a persistent, exaggerated inflammatory response dominated by PMNs. The principal contributor is chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection, which attracts and activates PMNs and thereby is responsible for the continuing inflammation. Strategies to prevent initial airway colonization with P. aeruginosa by augmenting the phagocytic competence of PMNs may postpone the deteriorating chronic biofilm infection. Anti-P. aeruginosa IgY antibodies significantly increase the PMN-mediated respiratory burst and subsequent bacterial killing of P. aeruginosa in vitro. The mode of action is attributed to IgY-facilitated formation of immobilized bacteria in aggregates, as visualized by fluorescence microscopy and the induction of increased bacterial hydrophobicity. Thus, the present study demonstrates that avian egg yolk immunoglobulins (IgY) targeting P. aeruginosa modify bacterial fitness, which enhances bacterial killing by PMN-mediated phagocytosis and thereby may facilitate a rapid bacterial clearance in airways of people with cystic fibrosis. PMID:25895968

  11. MASP-1 Induces a Unique Cytokine Pattern in Endothelial Cells: A Novel Link between Complement System and Neutrophil Granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Péter K.; Kajdácsi, Erika; Megyeri, Márton; Dobó, József; Doleschall, Zoltán; Futosi, Krisztina; Tímár, Csaba I.; Mócsai, Attila; Makó, Veronika; Gál, Péter; Cervenak, László

    2014-01-01

    Microbial infection urges prompt intervention by the immune system. The complement cascade and neutrophil granulocytes are the predominant contributors to this immediate anti-microbial action. We have previously shown that mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1), the most abundant enzyme of the complement lectin pathway, can induce p38-MAPK activation, NFkappaB signaling, and Ca2+-mobilization in endothelial cells. Since neutrophil chemotaxis and transmigration depends on endothelial cell activation, we aimed to explore whether recombinant MASP-1 (rMASP-1) is able to induce cytokine production and subsequent neutrophil chemotaxis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We found that HUVECs activated by rMASP-1 secreted IL-6 and IL-8, but not IL-1alpha, IL-1ra, TNFalpha and MCP-1. rMASP-1 induced dose-dependent IL-6 and IL-8 production with different kinetics. rMASP-1 triggered IL-6 and IL-8 production was regulated predominantly by the p38-MAPK pathway. Moreover, the supernatant of rMASP-1-stimulated HUVECs activated the chemotaxis of neutrophil granulocytes as an integrated effect of cytokine production. Our results implicate that besides initializing the complement lectin pathway, MASP-1 may activate neutrophils indirectly, via the endothelial cells, which link these effective antimicrobial host defense mechanisms. PMID:24489848

  12. Propofol Treatment Inhibits Constitutive Apoptosis in Human Primary Neutrophils and Granulocyte-Differentiated Human HL60 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Lin, Wei-Chieh; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis regulation is essential for neutrophil homeostasis. We previously demonstrated that a process involving glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β determines neutrophil apoptosis. As for this apoptotic process, an overdose of propofol (2,6-Diisopropylphenol; 25 μg/ml or 140 μM) also causes GSK-3β-mediated macrophage apoptosis; however, the early deactivation of GSK-3β with low-dose propofol has been shown. Therefore, we hypothesize that low-dose propofol may induce neutrophil survival via GSK-3β inactivation. Following in vitro culture, the therapeutic concentration of propofol (10 μg/ml or 56 μM) treatment decreased constitutive apoptosis in isolated human primary neutrophils and in granulocyte-differentiated HL60 cells after all-trans retinoic acid (1 μM) treatment. The inactivation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase)/AKT and the activation of GSK-3β results in myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) down-regulation, the loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and caspase-3 activation in these cells, which is accompanied by apoptosis. Notably, propofol treatment attenuates these effects in a PI3-kinase-regulated manner. We found that propofol initiates PI3-kinase/AKT-mediated GSK-3β inactivation and Mcl-1 stabilization, rescuing the constitutive apoptosis in primary neutrophils and granulocyte-differentiated acute promyelocytic leukemia HL60 cells.

  13. Arginine-specific mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity on the surface of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, L E; Rendell, N B; Murray, S; Allport, J R; Lo, G; Kefalas, P; Taylor, G W; MacDermot, J

    1996-01-01

    An Arg-specific mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity on the surface of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leucocytes (PMNs) was confirmed by the use of diethylamino-(benzylidineamino)guanidine (DEA-BAG) as an ADP-ribose acceptor. Two separate HPLC systems were used to separate ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG from reaction mixtures, and its presence was confirmed by electrospray mass spectrometry. ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG was produced in the presence of PMNs, but not in their absence. Incubation of DEA-BAG with ADP-ribose (0.1-10 mM) did not yield ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG, which indicates that ADP-ribosyl-DEA-BAG formed in the presence of PMNs was not simply a product of a reaction between DEA-BAG and free ADP-ribose, due possibly to the hydrolysis of NAD+ by an NAD+ glycohydrolase. The assay of mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase with agmatine as a substrate was modified for intact PMNs, and the activity was found to be approx. 50-fold lower than that in rabbit cardiac membranes. The Km of the enzyme for NAD+ was 100.1 30.4 microM and the Vmax 1.4 0.2 pmol of ADP-ribosylagmatine/h per 10(6) cells. The enzyme is likely to be linked to the cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, since incubation of intact PMNs with phosphoinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) led to a 98% decrease in mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferase activity in the cells. Cell surface proteins were labelled after exposure of intact PMNs to [32P]NAD+. Their molecular masses were 79, 67, 46, 36 and 26 kDa. The time course for labelling was non-linear under these conditions over a period of 4 h. The labelled products were identified as mono(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteins by hydrolysis with snake venom phosphodiesterase to yield 5'-AMP. PMID:8615841

  14. [The importance of studying the acid phosphatase of the blood serum and bone marrow lymphoblasts and polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the prognosis of the course of acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Vaiuta, N P; Khaĭfets, L M; Mendeleev, I M

    1988-01-01

    The activity of serum acid phosphatase (AP), bone marrow lymphoblasts and polymorphonuclear neutrophils was studied in 45 ALL patients. Cytochemical coefficients (CCC) and the percentage of positively reacting bone marrow cells were determined. All the patients received programmed polychemotherapy. They were investigated before the start of therapy, during recurrence and at different time of remission (from 1 to 60 mos) during each reinduction cycle. At the climax of ALL the activity of serum AP was increased 2.8-fold, a CCC value for lymphoblastic AP--10-fold, for polymorphonuclear neutrophils--3-fold as compared with normal values. A tendency toward the reduction of indices was noted at different time of remission, the approximation to normal values was noted on the 40th-46th months of remission only. In recurrence development the level of the serum and cellular enzyme as well as the percentage of positively reacting cells significantly exceeded normal values and were close to indices at the climax of disease. The above tendency permitted the use of these tests to evaluate the completeness of remission and to predict recurrences during a follow-up of ALL patients.

  15. Lipid A and resistance of Salmonella typhimurium to antimicrobial granule proteins of human neutrophil granulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, W M; Casey, S G; Spitznagel, J K

    1984-01-01

    Granule extracts from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were prepared and fractionated by chromatography on Sephadex G75-SF. One fraction exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against an Rd1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutant of Salmonella typhimurium. Susceptibility of the mutant to antimicrobial activity appeared to be due to binding of granule proteins to lipid A because isolated native LPS succeeded in blocking the antimicrobial activity of granule extracts whereas base-hydrolyzed LPS failed to do so. Centrifugation of control and base-hydrolyzed LPS-protein mixtures in cesium chloride gradients suggested that only control LPS formed complexes with antimicrobial proteins. Further evidence that bactericidal proteins from polymorphonuclear leukocyte granules interact with lipid A was that sublethal concentrations of polymyxin B (an antibiotic known to bind to lipid A) rendered target bacteria phenotypically resistant to granule proteins. Moreover, a mutant of S. typhimurium which synthesized a lipid A with decreased electronegativity due to increased 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinosylation at the 4'-phosphate exhibited increased resistance to both polymyxin B and granule proteins. These results suggest that polymyxin B and antimicrobial proteins derived from polymorphonuclear leukocyte granules interact with lipid A in an analogous manner. PMID:6199303

  16. High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Farowski, Fedja; Cornely, Oliver A; Hartmann, Pia

    2016-06-01

    Posaconazole is a commonly used antifungal for the prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal infections. We previously demonstrated that the intracellular concentration of posaconazole in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was greatly increased compared to the plasma concentration. As these professional phagocytes are crucial to combat fungal infections, we set out to investigate if and how, beneficial or deleterious, this high loading of intracellular posaconazole impacts the functional capacities of these cells. Here, we show that high intracellular concentrations of posaconazole do not significantly impact PMN and monocyte-derived macrophage function in vitro In particular, killing capacity and cytoskeletal features of PMN, such as migration, are not affected, indicating that these cells serve as vehicles for posaconazole to the site of infection. Moreover, since posaconazole as such slowed the germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, infected neutrophils released less reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on these findings, we propose that the delivery of posaconazole by neutrophils to the site of Aspergillus species infection warrants control of the pathogen and preservation of tissue integrity at the same time.

  17. High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Cornely, Oliver A.; Hartmann, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Posaconazole is a commonly used antifungal for the prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal infections. We previously demonstrated that the intracellular concentration of posaconazole in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was greatly increased compared to the plasma concentration. As these professional phagocytes are crucial to combat fungal infections, we set out to investigate if and how, beneficial or deleterious, this high loading of intracellular posaconazole impacts the functional capacities of these cells. Here, we show that high intracellular concentrations of posaconazole do not significantly impact PMN and monocyte-derived macrophage function in vitro. In particular, killing capacity and cytoskeletal features of PMN, such as migration, are not affected, indicating that these cells serve as vehicles for posaconazole to the site of infection. Moreover, since posaconazole as such slowed the germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, infected neutrophils released less reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on these findings, we propose that the delivery of posaconazole by neutrophils to the site of Aspergillus species infection warrants control of the pathogen and preservation of tissue integrity at the same time. PMID:27021317

  18. TRPC1 regulates fMLP-stimulated migration and chemotaxis of neutrophil granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, O; Strodthoff, C; Horstmann, M; Nielsen, N; Jung, F; Schimmelpfennig, S; Heitzmann, M; Schwab, A

    2015-09-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of defense of the innate immune system and are rapidly recruited by chemotactic signals to sites of inflammation. Understanding the mechanisms of neutrophil chemotaxis is therefore of great interest for the potential development of new immunoregulatory therapies. It has been shown that members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of cation channels are involved in both cell migration and chemotaxis. In this study, we demonstrate that TRPC1 channels play an important role in fMLP mediated chemotaxis and migration of murine neutrophils. The knock-out of TRPC1 channels leads to an impaired migration, transmigration and chemotaxis of the neutrophils. In contrast, Ca²⁺ influx but not store release after activation of the TRPC1(-/-) neutrophils with fMLP is strongly enhanced. We show that the enhanced Ca²⁺ influx in the TRPC1(-/-) neutrophils is associated with a steepened front to rear gradient of the intracellular Ca²⁺ concentration with higher levels at the cell rear. Taken together, this paper highlights a distinct role of TRPC1 in neutrophil migration and chemotaxis. We propose that TRPC1 controls the activity of further Ca²⁺ influx channels and thus regulates the maintenance of intracellular Ca²⁺ gradients which are critical for cell migration. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 13th European Symposium on Calcium.

  19. Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Are Necessary for the Recruitment of CD8+ T Cells in the Liver in a Pregnant Mouse Model of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci Serotype 1) Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Oca, Roberto Montes; Buendía, Antonio J.; Del Río, Laura; Sánchez, Joaquín; Salinas, Jesús; Navarro, Jose A.

    2000-01-01

    The role of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the development of the specific immune response against Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection was studied in a pregnant mouse model involving treatment with RB6-8C5 monoclonal antibody. PMN depletion significantly affected the immune response in the liver, in which the T-lymphocyte and F4/80+ cell populations decreased, particularly the CD8+ T-cell population. A Th1-like response, characterized by high levels of gamma interferon without detectable levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4) in serum, was observed in both depleted and nondepleted mice, although an increased production of IL-10 was detected in the depleted group. Our results suggest that PMNs play a very important role in the recruitment of other leukocyte populations to the inflammatory foci but have little influence in the polarization of the immune specific response toward a Th1-like response. PMID:10679002

  20. Expression profile of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family in neutrophil granulocytes: evidence for currents through long TRP channel 2 induced by ADP-ribose and NAD.

    PubMed Central

    Heiner, Inka; Eisfeld, Jörg; Halaszovich, Christian R; Wehage, Edith; Jüngling, Eberhard; Zitt, Christof; Lückhoff, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    An early key event in the activation of neutrophil granulocytes is Ca(2+) influx. Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel family may be held responsible for this. The aim of the present study is to analyse the expression pattern of TRP mRNA and identify characteristic currents unambiguously attributable to particular TRP channels. mRNA was extracted from human neutrophils, isolated by gradient centrifugation and also by magnetically labelled CD15 antibodies. The presence of mRNA was demonstrated using reverse transcriptase-PCR in neutrophils (controlled to be CD5-negative) as well as in human leukaemic cell line 60 (HL-60) cells, for the following TRP species: the long TRPC2 (LTRPC2), the vanilloid receptor 1, the vanilloid receptor-like protein 1 and epithelial Ca(2+) channels 1 and 2. TRPC6 was specific for neutrophils, whereas only in HL-60 cells were TRPC1, TRPC2, TRPC3, melastatin 1 and melastatin-related 1 found. Patch-clamp measurements in neutrophils revealed non-selective cation currents evoked by intracellular ADP-ribose and by NAD(+). Both these modes of activation have been found to be characteristic of LTRPC2. Furthermore, single-channel activity was resolved in neutrophils and it was indistinguishable from that in LTRPC2-transfected HEK-293 cells. The results provide evidence that LTRPC2 in neutrophil granulocytes forms an entry pathway for Na(+) and Ca(2+), which is regulated by ADP-ribose and the redox state. PMID:12564954

  1. Dysfunction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in uremia.

    PubMed

    Haag-Weber, M; Hörl, W H

    1996-05-01

    There is increased incidence of infectious complications in uremic patients, indicating impairment of cellular host defense in these patients. Several reports confirm metabolic and functional abnormalities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) including altered adherence to endothelial cells, altered generation of reactive oxygen species, altered release of microbial enzymes, impaired chemotaxis, phagocytosis, intracellular killing of bacteria, altered carbohydrate metabolism, and/or impaired ATP formation. Several studies report on correlations between PMNL dysfunction, especially phagocytosis and oxidative burst, and ferritin content. Deferoxamine therapy improved PMNL function. Chronic renal failure is a state of increased cytosolic calcium. Increased cytosolic calcium is associated with several alterations of PMNL function and metabolism, which improve by normalization of cytosolic calcium either by calcium channel blockers or by lowering of elevated parathyroid hormone. Each hemodialysis session using bioincompatible membranes triggers neutrophil activation, evidenced by overexpression of adhesion molecules, elevation of cytosolic calcium, release of PMNL granular enzymes, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Several studies claim that this results in chronic downregulation of phagocyte function. Several granulocyte inhibitory compounds have been isolated and characterized from uremic serum. The uremic retention product p-cresol depresses respiratory burst activity. The following granulocyte inhibitory peptides could be isolated from dialysis patients: granulocyte inhibitory protein I and II with homology to light chain proteins and beta 2-microglobulin, degranulation inhibitory protein I and II being identical to angiogenin and complement factor D, and immunoglobulin light chains. These proteins inhibit PMNL function in nanomolar concentrations.

  2. Incipient UV-Induced Structural Changes in Neutrophil Granulocytes: Morphometric and Texture Analysis of Two-Dimensional Digital Images.

    PubMed

    Grbatinić, Ivan; Milošević, Nebojša T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the ability and consequent significance of fractal and lacunarity analysis together with computational morphometric and gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) analysis in detecting subtle initial UVB-induced chromatin and cytosolic changes in neutrophil granulocytes. In addition, the direction and potential significance of the observed changes is speculated. Feulgen-stained neutrophils are pictured and their digitalized images are analyzed in specialized software for digital image processing and ImageJ analysis. Significant statistical difference is observed (p0.05). For other parameters there was mostly high statistical significance (p>0.05). Significant unmatched correlations were found as sensitive markers of early morphological changes in cells exposed to UV light. In addition, the correlation between nuclear area and entropy was determined and was highly significant (p<0.001). UVB light, due to its high absorbance by DNA molecules, leads to double behavior of the cells. On one hand, cells start to rearrange but on the other UV light starts very early to immediately damage the cell. All these processes are very subtle in their intensity and GLCM analysis and computational imaging methods based on fractal geometry, i.e. fractal and morphometric analysis, in particular their combination, are very sensitive for detecting and describing these early chromatin changes.

  3. A novel class of autoantigens of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis: the lysosomal membrane glycoprotein h-lamp-2 in neutrophil granulocytes and a related membrane protein in glomerular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis (NCGN) is frequently associated with circulating antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA). It is established that ANCA are specific for soluble enzymes of granules of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN), such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) or protease 3 (PR3). The purpose of this study was to identify membrane proteins of PMNs, and/or glomerular cells, as additional autoantigenic ANCA targets. When membrane protein fractions were prepared from PMNs and isolated human glomeruli, and immunoblotted with ANCA sera of NCGN patients, two bands with apparent molecular masses of 170 and 80-110 kD (gp170/80-110) were labeled in PMNs, and a 130-kD glycoprotein (gp130) in glomeruli. Gp130 was purified, and monoclonal and rabbit antibodies (Abs) were produced which showed the same double specificity as the patient's ANCA. Using these probes, evidence was provided that gp170/80-110 is identical with human lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (h-lamp-2), because both proteins were immunologically cross-reactive and screening of a cDNA expression library from human promyelocytic leukemia cells with anti- gp130 Ab yielded a clone derived from h-lamp-2. Gp170/80-110 was localized primarily in granule membranes of resting PMNs, and was translocated to the cell surfaces by activation with FMLP. By contrast, gp130 was localized in the surface membranes of endothelial cells of human glomerular and renal interstitial capillaries, rather than in lysosomes, as found for h-lamp-2. Potential clinical relevance of autoantibodies to gp170/80-110 and gp130 was assessed in a preliminary trial, in which ANCA sera of patients (n = 16) with NCGN were probed with purified or recombinant antigens. Specific reactivity was detected in approximately 90% of cases with active phases of NCGN, and frequently also in combination with autoantibodies specific for PR3 or MPO. Collectively, these data provide evidence that h-lamp-2 in PMNs and a

  4. Effects of gadolinium oxide nanoparticles on the oxidative burst from human neutrophil granulocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrikossova, Natalia; Skoglund, Caroline; Ahrén, Maria; Bengtsson, Torbjörn; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2012-07-01

    We have previously shown that gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticles are promising candidates to be used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging applications. In this study, these nanoparticles were investigated in a cellular system, as possible probes for visualization and targeting intended for bioimaging applications. We evaluated the impact of the presence of Gd2O3 nanoparticles on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from human neutrophils, by means of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Three sets of Gd2O3 nanoparticles were studied, i.e. as synthesized, dialyzed and both PEG-functionalized and dialyzed Gd2O3 nanoparticles. In addition, neutrophil morphology was evaluated by fluorescent staining of the actin cytoskeleton and fluorescence microscopy. We show that surface modification of these nanoparticles with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is essential in order to increase their biocompatibility. We observed that the as synthesized nanoparticles markedly decreased the ROS production from neutrophils challenged with prey (opsonized yeast particles) compared to controls without nanoparticles. After functionalization and dialysis, more moderate inhibitory effects were observed at a corresponding concentration of gadolinium. At lower gadolinium concentration the response was similar to that of the control cells. We suggest that the diethylene glycol (DEG) present in the as synthesized nanoparticle preparation is responsible for the inhibitory effects on the neutrophil oxidative burst. Indeed, in the present study we also show that even a low concentration of DEG, 0.3%, severely inhibits neutrophil function. In summary, the low cellular response upon PEG-functionalized Gd2O3 nanoparticle exposure indicates that these nanoparticles are promising candidates for MR-imaging purposes.

  5. [Ultrastructural changes of neutrophilic granulocytes in dilated cardiomyopathy and their dynamics after blood irradiation with Helium-Neon laser in vitro].

    PubMed

    Khomeriki, S G; Morozov, I A

    1998-01-01

    Venous blood from 10 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy was irradiated with a laser in vitro. The control group consisted of 20 healthy donors. The neutrophil granulocytes were separated at gradient centrifugation. Alterations of neutrophils manifested with an increase of specific cytoplasmic granules number, thickening of submembrane actin, cell configuration changes with a relative increase of their surface. Laser irradiation of the blood resulted in destruction of the altered (less resistant) cells while morphometric parameters of the remaining cells approaches those of donor cells. Thus, low-intensity laser irradiation results in the renewal of the neutrophil population in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and normalization of structural-functional changes in the circulating neutrophil population.

  6. [Lymphocyte transformation test following stimulation with a protein factor from neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNL) in psoriasis patients].

    PubMed

    Ruszczak, Z; Ciborska, L; Kaszuba, A

    1988-12-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was given to 20 healthy subjects and 43 patients with generalized psoriasis vulgaris: it was given right after stimulation with PHA (spontaneous) and after stimulation with allogenic and autogenic protein factor (NPF). NPF was isolated from secondary lysosome granules of peripheral blood neutrophils. The results were analyzed using computer statistic tests. No distinct differences were noticed between the spontaneous transformation test in psoriatic patients compared to the controls. After stimulation with PHA, the percentage of blast cells was significantly lower in patients with psoriasis. When allogenic and autogenic NPF was used for stimulation, the LTT values were significantly higher in the psoriasis group than in the control subjects. This fact points out the increase in sensitivity of lymphocytes to NPF in active psoriasis and the possibility of abnormal neutrophil-lymphocyte interactions in vivo. This phenomenon may be intensified when under the influence of bacterial or viral agents, or medicaments; the degranulation of secondary lysosome granules of neutrophils occurs, causing the release of NPF. These investigations support our opinion that psoriasis is a systemic disease and that NPF plays a considerable role in the psoriatic reaction.

  7. Granulocytes in Ocular HSV-1 Infection: Opposing Roles of Mast Cells and Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Derek J.; Zheng, Min; Conrady, Christopher D.; Carr, Daniel J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The contributions of mast cells (MCs) to immunologic defense against pathogens in the eye are unknown. We have characterized pericorneal MCs as tissue-resident innate sentinels and determined their impact on the immune response to herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), a common ocular pathogen. Methods. The impact of mast cells on the immune response to HSV-1 infection was investigated using MC-deficient KitW-sh mice. Virus titers, inflammatory cytokine production, eicosanoid profiles, cellular immune responses, and ocular pathology were evaluated and compared with C57BL/6J mice during an acute corneal HSV-1 infection. Results. Corneas of KitW-sh mice have higher viral titers, increased edema, and greater leukocyte infiltration following HSV-1 infection. Following infection, cytokine profiles were slightly elevated overall in KitW-sh mice. Eicosanoid profiles were remarkably different only when comparing uninfected corneas from both groups. Neutrophils within infected corneas expressed HSV-1 antigen, lytic genes, and served as a disease-causing vector when adoptively transferred into immunocompromised animals. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells did not infiltrate into the cornea or suppress the expansion, recruitment, or cytokine production by CD8+ T cells following acute HSV-1 infection. Conclusions. Collectively, these findings provide new insight into host defense in the cornea and the pathogenesis of HSV-1 infection by identifying previously unacknowledged MCs as protective innate sentinels for infection of the ocular surface and reinforcing that neutrophils are detrimental to corneal infection. PMID:26066745

  8. Baicalin promotes the bacteriostatic activity of lysozyme on S. aureus in mammary glands and neutrophilic granulocytes in mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xuejiao; Guo, Mengyao; Zhang, Zecai; Shen, Peng; Yang, Zhengtao; Zhang, Naisheng

    2017-02-08

    Staphylococcus aureus causes mastitis as a result of community-acquired or nosocomial infections. Lysozyme (LYSO) is an enzyme that is upregulated in many organisms during the innate immune response against infection by bacterial pathogens. Baicalin is a bioactive flavonoid that can bind to enzymes, often to potentiate their effect. Here we tested the effects of baicalin on the activity of LYSO using the S. aureus mastitis mouse model and neutrophilic granulocyte model of S. aureus infection. In our experiments, S. aureus counts decreased with increasing baicalin concentration. Furthermore, qPCR and western blot analyses showed that LYSO expression was unaffected by baicalin, while fluorescence quenching and UV fluorescence spectral analyses showed that baicalin binds to LYSO. To test whether this binding increased LYSO activity, we assessed LYSO-induced bacteriostasis in the presence of baicalin. Our results showed that LYSO-induced S. aureus bacteriostasis increased with increasing concentrations of baicalin, and that baicalin binding to LYSO synergistically increased the antibacterial activity of LYSO. These results demonstrate that baicalin enhances LYSO-induced bacteriostasis during the innate immune response to S. aureus. They suggest baicalin is a potentially useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of bacterial infections.

  9. Chromatin-remodeling factor SMARCD2 regulates transcriptional networks controlling differentiation of neutrophil granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Maximilian; Petersheim, Daniel; Fan, Yanxin; Bahrami, Ehsan; Racek, Tomas; Rohlfs, Meino; Puchałka, Jacek; Mertes, Christian; Gagneur, Julien; Ziegenhain, Christoph; Enard, Wolfgang; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Arkwright, Peter D; Abboud, Miguel R; Pazhakh, Vahid; Lieschke, Graham J; Krawitz, Peter M; Dahlhoff, Maik; Schneider, Marlon R; Wolf, Eckhard; Horny, Hans-Peter; Schmidt, Heinrich; Schäffer, Alejandro A; Klein, Christoph

    2017-04-03

    We identify SMARCD2 (SWI/SNF-related, matrix-associated, actin-dependent regulator of chromatin, subfamily D, member 2), also known as BAF60b (BRG1/Brahma-associated factor 60b), as a critical regulator of myeloid differentiation in humans, mice, and zebrafish. Studying patients from three unrelated pedigrees characterized by neutropenia, specific granule deficiency, myelodysplasia with excess of blast cells, and various developmental aberrations, we identified three homozygous loss-of-function mutations in SMARCD2. Using mice and zebrafish as model systems, we showed that SMARCD2 controls early steps in the differentiation of myeloid-erythroid progenitor cells. In vitro, SMARCD2 interacts with the transcription factor CEBPɛ and controls expression of neutrophil proteins stored in specific granules. Defective expression of SMARCD2 leads to transcriptional and chromatin changes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) human promyelocytic cells. In summary, SMARCD2 is a key factor controlling myelopoiesis and is a potential tumor suppressor in leukemia.

  10. Spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II heterodimer induces migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the uterine cavity of the sow.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Saravia, F; Wallgren, M; Martinez, E A; Sanz, L; Roca, J; Vazquez, J M; Calvete, J J

    2010-01-01

    Seminal plasma (SP) is a complex fluid which exerts biological actions in the female reproductive tract. In pigs, SP elicits endometrial inflammation and consequent immune changes after mating. This study tested whether heparin-binding spermadhesins (HBPs) and the heterodimer of porcine sperm adhesions I and II (PSP-I/PSP-II) in SP recruit different lymphocyte subsets (CD2(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells) or polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the superficial endometrium or luminal epithelium and lumen, respectively, of oestrous sows. In Experiment 1, endometrial biopsies were taken between 2 and 120 min after infusion of uterine horns with HBPs, PSP-I/PSP-II or saline and evaluated by immunohistochemistry or histology. In Experiment 2, the uterus of oestrous sows was infused with PSP-I/PSP-II or saline to assess PMN numbers in the uterine lumen 3h later. PSP-I/PSP-II elicited CD2+ T cell recruitment from 10 min, and CD8(+) T cells from 60 min after infusion, while HBPs increased CD4(+) T cell recruitment by 120 min. PSP-I/PSP-II but not HBPs induced PMN migration to the surface epithelium by 10 min. PMN numbers were elevated 5-fold by 30 min and 7-fold from 60 min, with PMNs detectable in the lumen from 30 min after infusion. Six-fold more PMNs were collected from the uterine lumen of PSP-I/PSP-II-infused sows compared to controls at 3h after infusion. These data show that PSP-I/PSP-II heterodimer in seminal plasma has a predominant role in triggering the recruitment of uterine PMNs and T cells after mating, initiating a cascade of transient and long-lasting immunological events.

  11. Female-Specific Downregulation of Tissue Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Drives Impaired Regulatory T Cell and Amplified Effector T Cell Responses in Autoimmune Dry Eye Disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Min, Kyungji; Zhang, Yibing; Su, John; Greenwood, Matthew; Gronert, Karsten

    2015-10-01

    Immune-driven dry eye disease primarily affects women; the cause for this sex-specific prevalence is unknown. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) have distinct phenotypes that drive inflammation but also regulate lymphocytes and are the rate-limiting cell for generating anti-inflammatory lipoxin A4 (LXA4). Estrogen regulates the LXA4 circuit to induce delayed female-specific wound healing in the cornea. However, the role of PMNs in dry eye disease remains unexplored. We discovered an LXA4-producing tissue PMN population in the corneal limbus, lacrimal glands, and cervical lymph nodes of healthy male and female mice. These tissue PMNs, unlike inflammatory PMNs, expressed a highly amplified LXA4 circuit and were sex-specifically regulated during immune-driven dry eye disease. Desiccating stress in females, unlike in males, triggered a remarkable decrease in lymph node PMN and LXA4 formation that remained depressed during dry eye disease. Depressed lymph node PMN and LXA4 in females correlated with an increase in effector T cells (Th1 and Th17), a decrease in regulatory T cells (Treg), and increased dry eye pathogenesis. Ab depletion of tissue PMN abrogated LXA4 formation in lymph nodes, as well as caused a marked increase in Th1 and Th17 cells and a decrease in Tregs. To establish an immune-regulatory role for PMN-derived LXA4 in dry eye, females were treated with LXA4. LXA4 treatment markedly inhibited Th1 and Th17 and amplified Treg in draining lymph nodes, while reducing dry eye pathogenesis. These results identify female-specific regulation of LXA4-producing tissue PMN as a potential key factor in aberrant effector T cell activation and initiation of immune-driven dry eye disease.

  12. Transcriptional response of the bovine endometrium and embryo to endometrial polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration as an indicator of subclinical inflammation of the uterine environment.

    PubMed

    Hoelker, Michael; Salilew-Wondim, Dessie; Drillich, Marc; Christine, Grosse-Brinkhaus; Ghanem, Nasser; Goetze, Leopold; Tesfaye, Dawit; Schellander, Karl; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of subclinical endometritis on endometrial and embryonic gene expression. A total of 49 cows at either Day 0 or Day 7 of the oestrous cycle (62-83 days post partum) following superovulation were classified as having subclinical endometritis (SE-0, SE-7) or a healthy endometrium (HE-0, HE-7) on the basis of endometrial cytological evaluation. Endometrial samples and associated embryos were subjected to global transcriptome analysis using the Bovine GeneChip (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA) and aberrant transcript profiles were observed in SE-0 and SE-7 cows. At Day 0, 10 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed in endometrial samples. Specifically, the PDZK1, PXDN, DDHD2, GPLD1 and SULT1B1 genes were downregulated, whereas the PKIB, LOC534256, BT29392, LYZ and S100A14 genes were upregulated in SE-0 cows. Similarly, 11 transcripts were found to be differentially regulated on Day 7. Of these, GNPTG, BOLA-DQA5, CHD2, LOC541226, VCAM1 and ARHGEF2 were found to be downregulated, whereas PSTPIP2, BT236441 and MGC166084 were upregulated in SE-7 cows. Accordingly, endometrial health status affected the number of flushed, transferable embryos. In all, 20 genes were differentially regulated in blastocysts derived from HE-7 and SE-7 cows. Of these, GZMK, TCEAL4, MYL7, ADD3 and THEM50B were upregulated, whereas NUDCD2, MYO1E, BZW1, EHD4 and GZMB were downregulated. In conclusion, endometrial polymorphonuclear neutrophil infiltration as an indicator of subclinical endometritis is associated with changes in endometrial gene expression patterns, including genes involved in cell adhesion and immune modulation. Consequently, subclinical endometritis affects gene expression in embryos, including the expression of genes related to membrane stability, the cell cycle and apoptosis.

  13. Effects of mucoid and non-mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients on inflammatory mediator release from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes and rat mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Friedl, P; König, B; König, W

    1992-01-01

    Mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing chronic bronchopulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients may interfere with host defence mechanisms. We investigated 13 P. aeruginosa strains isolated from sputa of CF patients with regard to the induction or modulation of inflammatory mediator release from human neutrophils (PMN) and rat mast cells. The effects of mucoid as compared to non-mucoid bacteria were studied using a mucoid strain and its non-mucoid revertant. The release of leukotrienes (LT) and histamine in response to the majority of the CF strains was insignificant. However, preincubation of PMN with P. aeruginosa caused a dose-dependent decrease (50-95%) of LTB4 and LTC4 generation and LTB4 metabolism induced by the Ca(2+)-ionophore A23187 or opsonized zymosan (ZX) (P less than 0.001). The mucoid strains caused a three- to 10-fold higher impairment of LTB4 release (P less than 0.05) and a concomitant down-regulation of LTB4 receptors on neutrophils. Inhibitory effects were also obtained for mucoid and non-mucoid bacteria when the phorbol-ester or the Ca(2+)-ionophore induced luminol enhanced chemiluminescence response (P less than 0.001) or the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (P less than 0.01) was studied. The bacteria-cell contact with non-mucoid strains was associated with an increased Ca2+ influx into PMN, whereas mucoid bacteria had no effect. In addition, a protein kinase C-dependent decrease of the C3bi receptor was suppressed by the mucoid--and less effectively--by the non-mucoid strain. The results suggest that the impairment of the phagocytic and inflammatory system may contribute to the pathogenesis and persistence of mucoid P. aeruginosa infection in CF. PMID:1321094

  14. Neutrophil extracellular traps in dermatology: Caught in the NET.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Jochen H O; Enk, Alexander H

    2016-10-01

    Neutrophil, or polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) constitute the most abundant type of leucocytes in peripheral human blood. One of the major advances in the last decade was the discovery of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation: a process by which neutrophils externalize web-like chromatin strands decorated with antimicrobial peptides. These structures were soon implicated in immune defense and auto-immunity alike and now link neutrophils to the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases of dermatological relevance. Currently, NET formation is mainly subdivided into suicidal and vital NETosis. Controversy exists regarding the capacity of NETs to kill pathogens, and little is known about the way NETs are formed in vivo. Here, we discuss the current terminology, methods for NET quantification, pathways leading to NET formation, and the role of NETs in systemic and cutaneous immune defense and auto-immunity, with a focus on psoriasis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

  15. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François

    2013-07-15

    Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent K{sub M} 1.1 vs. 6.3 μM, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ≥ 2.5 μM, ≥ 2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake V{sub max}. PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). - Highlights: • Quinacrine is concentrated in acidic organelles via V-ATPase-mediated ion

  16. Type 1 Diabetes Prone NOD Mice Have Diminished Cxcr1 mRNA Expression in Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and CD4+ T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Haurogné, Karine; Pavlovic, Marija; Rogniaux, Hélène; Bach, Jean-Marie; Lieubeau, Blandine

    2015-01-01

    In humans, CXCR1 and CXCR2 are two homologous proteins that bind ELR+ chemokines. Both receptors play fundamental roles in neutrophil functions such as migration and reactive oxygen species production. Mouse Cxcr1 and Cxcr2 genes are located in an insulin-dependent diabetes genetic susceptibility locus. The non obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a spontaneous well-described animal model for insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes. In this disease, insulin deficiency results from the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells by autoreactive T lymphocytes. This slow-progressing disease is dependent on both environmental and genetic factors. Here, we report descriptive data about the Cxcr1 gene in NOD mice. We demonstrate decreased expression of mRNA for Cxcr1 in neutrophils and CD4+ lymphocytes isolated from NOD mice compared to other strains, related to reduced NOD Cxcr1 gene promoter activity. Looking for Cxcr1 protein, we next analyze the membrane proteome of murine neutrophils by mass spectrometry. Although Cxcr2 protein is clearly found in murine neutrophils, we did not find evidence of Cxcr1 peptides using this method. Nevertheless, in view of recently-published experimental data obtained in NOD mice, we argue for possible Cxcr1 involvement in type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. PMID:26230114

  17. Specificity of indium-111 granulocyte scanning and fecal excretion measurement in inflammatory bowel disease--an autoradiographic study

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Price, Y.E.; Peters, A.M.; Lavender, J.P.; Wright, N.A.; Hodgson, H.J.

    1985-12-01

    The validity of /sup 111/In granulocyte scanning and fecal excretion measurement, as a reflection of loss of cells into the gastrointestinal tract, was studied using an autoradiographic technique in 11 patients in whom /sup 111/In granulocyte scan and colonoscopy were carried out simultaneously. /sup 111/In granulocytes were injected 1.5-4 hr prior to colonoscopy, and intraluminal fluid, mucosal brushings, and colonic biopsies were collected during the colonoscopy. In two patients with no histological evidence of inflammatory bowel disease, and four patients with clinically and histologically inactive inflammatory bowel disease, no /sup 111/Indium was detected in fluid, brushing, or biopsies. In five patients with active disease, 85% of the /sup 111/In activity in colonic fluid was precipitated by low-speed centrifugation. Autoradiography confirmed that the label remained attached to whole granulocytes in colonic fluid and mucosal brushings. Studies on biopsies, at intervals up to 4 1/2 hr following labeled granulocyte injection, demonstrated labeled polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) on the inflamed epithelial surface, with occasional cells in crypt abscesses by 110 min. We conclude that the techniques of /sup 111/In granulocyte scanning and fecal counting in patients with IBD are specifically measuring cell loss; labeled PMNs are capable of migrating through the gastrointestinal mucosa, in active disease, within 2 hr of administration.

  18. The Small Breathing Amplitude at the Upper Lobes Favors the Attraction of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lesions and Helps to Understand the Evolution toward Active Disease in An Individual-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Pere-Joan; Prats, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can induce two kinds of lesions, namely proliferative and exudative. The former are based on the presence of macrophages with controlled induction of intragranulomatous necrosis, and are even able to stop its physical progression, thus avoiding the induction of active tuberculosis (TB). In contrast, the most significant characteristic of exudative lesions is their massive infiltration with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), which favor enlargement of the lesions and extracellular growth of the bacilli. We have built an individual-based model (IBM) (known as “TBPATCH”) using the NetLogo interface to better understand the progression from Mtb infection to TB. We have tested four main factors previously identified as being able to favor the infiltration of Mtb-infected lesions with PMNs, namely the tolerability of infected macrophages to the bacillary load; the capacity to modulate the Th17 response; the breathing amplitude (BAM) (large or small in the lower and upper lobes respectively), which influences bacillary drainage at the alveoli; and the encapsulation of Mtb-infected lesions by the interlobular septae that structure the pulmonary parenchyma into secondary lobes. Overall, although all the factors analyzed play some role, the small BAM is the major factor determining whether Mtb-infected lesions become exudative, and thus induce TB, thereby helping to understand why this usually takes place in the upper lobes. This information will be very useful for the design of future prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against TB. PMID:27065951

  19. Isolation and Functional Analysis of Human Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Douglas B; Long Priel, Debra A; Chu, Jessica; Zarember, Kol A

    2015-11-02

    This unit describes the isolation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from blood using dextran sedimentation and Percoll or Ficoll-Paque density gradients. Assays of neutrophil functions including respiratory burst activation, phagocytosis, and microbial killing are also described.

  20. Isolation and Functional Analysis of Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Kuhns, Douglas B.; Long Priel, Debra A.; Chu, Jessica; Zarember, Kol A.

    2015-01-01

    This unit describes the isolation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from blood using dextran sedimentation and Percoll or Ficoll-Paque density gradients. Assays of neutrophil functions including respiratory burst activation, phagocytosis, and microbial killing are also described. PMID:26528633

  1. On the maturation rate of the neutrophil.

    PubMed

    Zajicek, G; Shohat, M; Polliack, A

    1984-05-01

    Fifty-three maturing bone marrow cells of the granulocyte cell series stained with Giemsa stain and magnified 1,000 times were scanned by a "computerized microscope" consisting of a LSI-11/23 microprocessor and a black-and-white video camera attached to a "frame grabber ." Each sampled cell was digitized into 70 X 70 pixels, each pixel representing 0.04 micron of the real image. The pixel gray values ranged between 0 and 255. Zero stood for white, 255 represented black, while the numbers in between stood for the various shades of gray. The cells represented six different stages of granulocytic maturation: myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte , band form, and polymorphonuclear granulocyte. A discriminant analysis program selected 19 features best distinguishing between the six different cell types and computed five canonical discriminant functions defining a Space in which maturation was studied. In the Space, distance between two cells serves as a measure of similarity. The closer two cells are, the more similar they are and vice versa. This measure was applied here to express the degree of similarity between the neutrophil maturation classes, and since they represent states in the neutrophil life history, it is applicable also as a yardstick for the quantitation of differentiation. In the Space, the life history of a cell is represented by a trajectory originating in the myeloblast and terminating in the granulocyte state. Displacement along the trajectory represents cell maturation that is expressed relatively to the least differentiated state of the myeloblast. The further a cell from this state the more mature it is. The same yardstick also serves for differentiation rate estimates represented in the Space by displacement velocities that are derived from the known "transit times" of a cell in each state. The methodology is also applied for cell production estimates. Unlike other "computerized microscopes" serving for cell classification, the

  2. Low-Chlorinated Non-Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Present in Blood and Breast Milk Induce Higher Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species in Neutrophil Granulocytes than High-Chlorinated Congeners.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Fonnum, Frode; Walaas, Sven Ivar; Bogen, Inger Lise

    2016-12-01

    Despite their ban several decades ago, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still pose a health threat to human beings due to their persistent and accumulative nature and continued presence in the environment. Non-dioxin-like (NDL)-PCBs have earlier been found to have effects on the immune system, including human neutrophil granulocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between ortho-chlorinated NDL-PCBs with a low or high degree of chlorination in their capability to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human neutrophil granulocytes in vitro. We used some of the congeners occurring at the highest levels in blood, breast milk and food: PCB 52 representing the low-chlorinated congeners and PCB 180 the high-chlorinated congeners. In addition, the extensively studied PCB 153 was included as a reference compound. ROS production was assessed with the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence and DCF fluorescence assays. The involvement of intracellular signalling mechanisms was investigated using different pharmacological substances. At high concentrations (10-20 μM), PCB 52 induced more ROS than PCB 153 and PCB 180. The role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and/or ERK 5 signalling in PCB-induced ROS production was implicated through the reduction in ROS in the presence of the specific inhibitor U0126, whereas reduced ROS production after the use of SB203580 and SP600125 indicated the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, respectively. In addition, the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506, the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM and the antioxidant vitamin E reduced the levels of ROS. The intracellular signalling mechanisms involved in ROS production in human neutrophil granulocytes appeared to be similar for PCB 52, PCB 153 and PCB 180. Based on the results from the present and previous studies, we conclude that for abundant ortho-chlorinated PCBs

  3. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) induced by donor-derived anti-HLA antibodies in aplastic anemia: possible priming effect of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on the recipient neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Hishizawa, Masakatsu; Mitsuhashi, Ryuichi; Ohno, Tatsuharu

    2009-01-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is currently the leading cause of transfusion-related death. A 67-year-old man with severe aplastic anemia developed TRALI, consisting of acute respiratory insufficiency with severe hypoxia and diffuse pulmonary infiltration 2 hours after the transfusion of platelet concentrates. Although he required intensive respiratory support, he promptly recovered within 4 days. The presence of anti-HLA antibody (anti-HLA B52) in the donated blood product was demonstrated, and a lymphocytotoxicity test disclosed antibody-mediated cytotoxicity against the patient's cells. Furthermore, administration of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor was suggested to predispose the patient to TRALI by priming the neutrophils.

  4. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs.

    PubMed

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J G; Marceau, François

    2013-07-15

    Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent KM 1.1 vs. 6.3 μM, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ≥2.5 μM, ≥2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake Vmax. PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes).

  5. Highly metastatic 13762NF rat mammary adenocarcinoma cell clones stimulate bone marrow by secretion of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin-3 activity.

    PubMed

    McGary, C T; Miele, M E; Welch, D R

    1995-12-01

    Circulating neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte levels rise 50-fold in 13762NF tumor-bearing rats in proportion to the tumor's metastatic potential. Purified tumor-elicited neutrophils enhance metastasis of syngeneic tumor cells when co-injected intravenously; however, circulating and phorbol ester-activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils do not. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the source of tumor-elicited neutrophils in metastatic tumor-bearing rats. We examined the bone marrow in rats bearing tumors of poorly, moderately, and highly metastatic cell clones. Marrow from rats with highly metastatic tumors had increased cellularity (100%), myeloid to erythroid ratio (10:1), and megakaryocytes compared with control rats (cellularity, approximately 80%; myeloid to erythroid ratio, 5:1), with marrows from rats with moderately metastatic tumors having intermediate values. This suggested production of a colony-stimulating factor by the metastatic cells. To confirm this, bone marrow colony formation from control and tumor-bearing rats was compared. Colony number increased in proportion to the metastatic potential of the tumor. Conditioned medium from metastatic cells supported growth of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor/interleukin-3-dependent 32Dcl3 cell line, but media from nonmetastatic or moderately metastatic cells did not. Antibodies to murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor neutralized 32Dcl3 growth in tumor cell conditioned medium. These results suggest production of a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor or interleukin-3-like activity by highly metastatic 13762NF clones and implicate a possible role for colony-stimulating factors in regulating the metastatic potential of mammary adenocarcinoma cell clones.

  6. Porcine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) delivered via replication-defective adenovirus induces a sustained increase in circulating peripheral blood neutrophils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of immunomodulators is a promising area for biotherapeutic, prophylactic, and metaphylactic use to prevent and combat infectious disease, particularly during periods of peak disease incidence. Cytokines, including granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), are one class of compounds that...

  7. Neutrophil in Viral Infections, Friend or Foe?

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Brandon; Bai, Fengwei

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils are the first immune cells to the site of injury and microbial infection. Neutrophils are crucial players in controlling bacterial and fungal infections, and in particular secondary infections, by phagocytosis, degranulation and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). While neutrophils have been shown to play important roles in viral pathogenesis, there is a lack of detailed investigation. In this article, we will review recent progresses toward understanding the role of neutrophils in viral pathogenesis. PMID:23178588

  8. Interactions between Neutrophils and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rada, Balázs

    2017-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects 70,000 patients worldwide. Morbidity and mortality in CF is largely caused by lung complications due to the triad of impaired mucociliary clearance, microbial infections and chronic inflammation. Cystic fibrosis airway inflammation is mediated by robust infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs, neutrophils). Neutrophils are not capable of clearing lung infections and contribute to tissue damage by releasing their dangerous cargo. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen causing infections in immunocompromised individuals. P. aeruginosa is a main respiratory pathogen in CF infecting most patients. Although PMNs are key to attack and clear P. aeruginosa in immunocompetent individuals, PMNs fail to do so in CF. Understanding why neutrophils cannot clear P. aeruginosa in CF is essential to design novel therapies. This review provides an overview of the antimicrobial mechanisms by which PMNs attack and eliminate P. aeruginosa. It also summarizes current advances in our understanding of why PMNs are incapable of clearing P. aeruginosa and how this bacterium adapts to and resists PMN-mediated killing in the airways of CF patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. PMID:28282951

  9. Neonatal NET-inhibitory factor and related peptides inhibit neutrophil extracellular trap formation

    PubMed Central

    Yost, Christian C.; Schwertz, Hansjörg; Cody, Mark J.; Wallace, Jared A.; Campbell, Robert A.; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Araujo, Claudia V.; Schubert, Sebastian; Harris, Estelle S.; Rowley, Jesse W.; Rondina, Matthew T.; Koening, Curry L.; Weyrich, Andrew S.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil granulocytes, also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), extrude molecular lattices of decondensed chromatin studded with histones, granule enzymes, and antimicrobial peptides that are referred to as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs capture and contain bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. Nevertheless, experimental evidence indicates that NETs also cause inflammatory vascular and tissue damage, suggesting that identifying pathways that inhibit NET formation may have therapeutic implications. Here, we determined that neonatal NET-inhibitory factor (nNIF) is an inhibitor of NET formation in umbilical cord blood. In human neonatal and adult neutrophils, nNIF inhibits key terminal events in NET formation, including peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) activity, neutrophil nuclear histone citrullination, and nuclear decondensation. We also identified additional nNIF-related peptides (NRPs) that inhibit NET formation. nNIFs and NRPs blocked NET formation induced by pathogens, microbial toxins, and pharmacologic agonists in vitro and in mouse models of infection and systemic inflammation, and they improved mortality in murine models of systemic inflammation, which are associated with NET-induced collateral tissue injury. The identification of NRPs as neutrophil modulators that selectively interrupt NET generation at critical steps suggests their potential as therapeutic agents. Furthermore, our results indicate that nNIF may be an important regulator of NET formation in fetal and neonatal inflammation. PMID:27599294

  10. Neonatal NET-inhibitory factor and related peptides inhibit neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

    PubMed

    Yost, Christian C; Schwertz, Hansjörg; Cody, Mark J; Wallace, Jared A; Campbell, Robert A; Vieira-de-Abreu, Adriana; Araujo, Claudia V; Schubert, Sebastian; Harris, Estelle S; Rowley, Jesse W; Rondina, Matthew T; Fulcher, James M; Koening, Curry L; Weyrich, Andrew S; Zimmerman, Guy A

    2016-10-03

    Neutrophil granulocytes, also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), extrude molecular lattices of decondensed chromatin studded with histones, granule enzymes, and antimicrobial peptides that are referred to as neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs capture and contain bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens. Nevertheless, experimental evidence indicates that NETs also cause inflammatory vascular and tissue damage, suggesting that identifying pathways that inhibit NET formation may have therapeutic implications. Here, we determined that neonatal NET-inhibitory factor (nNIF) is an inhibitor of NET formation in umbilical cord blood. In human neonatal and adult neutrophils, nNIF inhibits key terminal events in NET formation, including peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) activity, neutrophil nuclear histone citrullination, and nuclear decondensation. We also identified additional nNIF-related peptides (NRPs) that inhibit NET formation. nNIFs and NRPs blocked NET formation induced by pathogens, microbial toxins, and pharmacologic agonists in vitro and in mouse models of infection and systemic inflammation, and they improved mortality in murine models of systemic inflammation, which are associated with NET-induced collateral tissue injury. The identification of NRPs as neutrophil modulators that selectively interrupt NET generation at critical steps suggests their potential as therapeutic agents. Furthermore, our results indicate that nNIF may be an important regulator of NET formation in fetal and neonatal inflammation.

  11. Effect of single oral dose of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin on polymorphonuclear leukocyte function assessed ex vivo by flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Wenisch, C; Parschalk, B; Zedtwitz-Liebenstein, K; Weihs, A; el Menyawi, I; Graninger, W

    1996-01-01

    Azithromycin was given as a single oral dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) to 12 volunteers in a crossover study with roxithromycin (8 to 12 mg/kg) and clarithromycin (8 to 12 mg/kg). Flow cytometry was used to study the phagocytic functions and the release of reactive oxygen products following phagocytosis by neutrophil granulocytes prior to administration of the three drugs, 16 h after azithromycin administration, and 3 h after clarithromycin and roxithromycin administration. Phagocytic capacity was assessed by measuring the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bacteria. Reactive oxygen generation after phagocytosis of unlabeled bacteria was estimated by the amount of dihydrorhodamine 123 converted to rhodamine 123 intracellularly. Azithromycin resulted in decreased capacities of the cells to phagocytize Escherichia coli (median [range], 62% [27 to 91%] of the control values; P < 0.01) and generate reactive oxygen products (75% [34 to 26%] of the control values; P < 0.01). Clarithromycin resulted in reduced phagocytosis (82% [75 to 98%] of control values; P < 0.01) but did not alter reactive oxygen production (84% [63 to 113%] of the control values; P > 0.05). Roxithromycin treatment did not affect granulocyte phagocytosis (92% [62 to 118%] of the control values; P > 0.05) or reactive oxygen production (94% [66 to 128%] of the control value; P > 0.05). No relation between intra- and/or extracellular concentrations of azithromycin and/or roxithromycin and the polymorphonuclear phagocyte function and/or reactive oxygen production existed (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). These results demonstrate that the accumulation of macrolides in neutrophils can suppress the response of phagocytic cells to bacterial pathogens after a therapeutic dose. PMID:8878577

  12. Equine granulocytic anaplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Dzięgiel, Beata; Adaszek, Łukasz; Kalinowski, Marcin; Winiarczyk, Stanisław

    2013-10-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of horses that is transmitted by Ixodid ticks. Recent studies suggest that multiple strains of A. phagocytophilum may be circulating in wild and domestic animal populations, and these strains may have differential host tropisms and pathogenicity. The organism infects and survives within neutrophils. Co-infections with other tick-borne pathogens may occur, especially Borrelia burgdorferi. A. phagocytophilum causes an acute febrile illness in horses with lethargy, inappetence, lameness and hemorrhages. Diagnosis is based on finding morulae within granulocytes in the peripheral blood, and detection of the DNA of A. phagocytophilum using specific polymerase chain reaction assays. Most reports suggesting that anaplasmosis is a self-limiting disease that responds well to a tetracycline therapy.

  13. Chorioretinitis with a combined defect in T and B lymphocytes and granulocytes. A new syndrome successfully treated with dialyzable leukocyte extracts (transfer factor).

    PubMed

    Kyong, C U; Wilson, G B; Fudenberg, H H; Goust, J M; Richardson, P; Echerd, J

    1980-06-01

    A patient with immune deficiency, recurrent pyogenic infections and active chorioretinitis is described; in addition to agammaglobulinemia, both quantitative and qualitative T-cell deficiencies were documented. Furthermore, the patient's granulocytes (polymorphonuclear leukocytes), although normal in their bactericidal capacity for Staphylococcus, responded poorly to both leukocyte migration inhibition factor and neutrophil immobilizing factor obtained from normal cells. The immunologic features of this patient appear to comprise a new syndrome. Remarkable diminution of the ocular lesions and increased visual acuity occurred within two months after the initiation of therapy with dialyzable leukocyte extracts (transfer factor). Concurrent testing of the patient's cell-mediated immunity showed increased numbers of circulating T lymphocytes and improved T-cell function following dialyzable leukocyte extract [DLE] therapy. The dramatic clinical results indicate that similar therapy may prove to be beneficial in other patients with chorioretinitis and T-cell deficiency.

  14. Identification and characterization of CKLiK, a novel granulocyte Ca(++)/calmodulin-dependent kinase.

    PubMed

    Verploegen, S; Lammers, J W; Koenderman, L; Coffer, P J

    2000-11-01

    Human granulocytes are characterized by a variety of specific effector functions involved in host defense. Several widely expressed protein kinases have been implicated in the regulation of these effector functions. A polymerase chain reaction-based strategy was used to identify novel granulocyte-specific kinases. A novel protein kinase complementary DNA with an open reading frame of 357 amino acids was identified with homology to calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase I (CaMKI). This has been termed CaMKI-like kinase (CKLiK). Analysis of CKLiK messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in hematopoietic cells demonstrated an almost exclusive expression in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Up-regulation of CKLiK mRNA occurs during neutrophilic differentiation of CD34(+) stem cells. CKLiK kinase activity was dependent on Ca(++) and calmodulin as analyzed by in vitro phosphorylation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate responsive element modulator (CREM). Furthermore, CKLiK- transfected cells treated with ionomycin demonstrated an induction of CRE- binding protein (CREB) transcriptional activity compared to control cells. Additionally, CaMK-kinasealpha enhanced CKLiK activity. In vivo activation of CKLiK was shown by addition of interleukin (IL)-8 to a myeloid cell line stably expressing CKLiK. Furthermore inducible activation of CKLiK was sufficient to induce extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity. These data identify a novel Ca(++)/calmodulin-dependent PMN- specific kinase that may play a role in Ca(++)-mediated regulation of human granulocyte functions.

  15. Antibiotic proteins of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gabay, J E; Scott, R W; Campanelli, D; Griffith, J; Wilde, C; Marra, M N; Seeger, M; Nathan, C F

    1989-01-01

    Nine polypeptide peaks with antibiotic activity were resolved from human polymorphonuclear leukocyte azurophil granule membranes. All but 1 of the 12 constituent polypeptides were identified by N-terminal sequence analysis. Near quantitative recovery of protein and activity permitted an assessment of the contribution of each species to the overall respiratory-burst-independent antimicrobial capacity of the cell. Three uncharacterized polypeptides were discovered, including two broad-spectrum antibiotics. One of these, a defensin that we have designated human neutrophil antimicrobial peptide 4, was more potent than previously described defensins but represented less than 1% of the total protein. The other, named azurocidin, was abundant and comparable to bactericidal permeability-increasing factor in its contribution to the killing of Escherichia coli. Images PMID:2501794

  16. APPLICATION OF PROTEOMICS TO NEUTROPHIL BIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Luerman, Gregory C.; Uriarte, Silvia M.; Rane, Madhavi J.; McLeish, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils are a primary effector cell of the innate immune system and contribute to the development of adaptive immunity. Neutrophils participate in both the initiation and resolution of inflammatory responses through a series of highly coordinated molecular and phenotypic changes. To accomplish these changes, neutrophils express numerous receptors and use multiple overlapping and redundant signal transduction pathways. Dysregulation of the activation or resolution pathways plays a role in a number of human diseases. A comprehensive understanding of the regulation of neutrophil responses can be provided by high throughput proteomic technologies and sophisticated computational analysis. The first steps in the application of proteomics to understanding neutrophil biology have been taken. Here we review the application of expression, structural, and functional proteomic studies to neutrophils. Although defining the complex molecular events associated with neutrophil activation is in the early stages, the data generated to date suggest that proteomic technologies will dramatically enhance our understanding of neutrophil biology. PMID:19580889

  17. Giardia duodenalis infection reduces granulocyte infiltration in an in vivo model of bacterial toxin-induced colitis and attenuates inflammation in human intestinal tissue.

    PubMed

    Cotton, James A; Motta, Jean-Paul; Schenck, L Patrick; Hirota, Simon A; Beck, Paul L; Buret, Andre G

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis (syn. G. intestinalis, G. lamblia) is a predominant cause of waterborne diarrheal disease that may lead to post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although Giardia-infected individuals could carry as much as 106 trophozoites per centimetre of gut, their intestinal mucosa is devoid of overt signs of inflammation. Recent studies have shown that in endemic countries where bacterial infectious diseases are common, Giardia infections can protect against the development of diarrheal disease and fever. Conversely, separate observations have indicated Giardia infections may enhance the severity of diarrheal disease from a co-infecting pathogen. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes or neutrophils (PMNs) are granulocytic, innate immune cells characteristic of acute intestinal inflammatory responses against bacterial pathogens that contribute to the development of diarrheal disease following recruitment into intestinal tissues. Giardia cathepsin B cysteine proteases have been shown to attenuate PMN chemotaxis towards IL-8/CXCL8, suggesting Giardia targets PMN accumulation. However, the ability of Giardia infections to attenuate PMN accumulation in vivo and how in turn this effect may alter the host inflammatory response in the intestine has yet to be demonstrated. Herein, we report that Giardia infection attenuates granulocyte tissue infiltration induced by intra-rectal instillation of Clostridium difficile toxin A and B in an isolate-dependent manner. This attenuation of granulocyte infiltration into colonic tissues paralled decreased expression of several cytokines associated with the recruitment of PMNs. Giardia trophozoite isolates that attenuated granulocyte infiltration in vivo also decreased protein expression of cytokines released from inflamed mucosal biopsy tissues collected from patients with active Crohn's disease, including several cytokines associated with PMN recruitment. These results demonstrate for the first time that certain

  18. [Ultrastructure of granulocytes of bony fishes (orders Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, Perciformes)].

    PubMed

    Flerova, E A; Balabanova, L V

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of data on utrastructure of granulocytes of freshwater and marine bony fish of orders Salmoniformes, Cypriniformes, and Perciformes showed that in all studied species there were revealed two types of granulocytes - neutrophils and eosinophils. The exception was the bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix L. whose pronephros hemopoietic tissue was found to contain one type of the granulocytic line - neutrophils. The identification parameters of granular leukocytes are specific granules filling the cytoplasm. The main form of specific granules in neutrophils of bony fish of various phylogenetic groups is an elongated granule with different distribution of fibrils or a granule that has crystalloid formed from fibrils. The main form of eosinophil granules - large, electron-dense, homogenous.

  19. Increased FasL expression correlates with apoptotic changes in granulocytes cultured with oxidized clozapine

    SciTech Connect

    Husain, Zaheed; Almeciga, Ingrid; Delgado, Julio C.; Clavijo, Olga P.; Castro, Januario E.; Belalcazar, Viviana; Pinto, Clara; Zuniga, Joaquin; Romero, Viviana; Yunis, Edmond J. . E-mail: edmond_yunis@dfci.harvard.edu

    2006-08-01

    Clozapine has been associated with a 1% incidence of agranulocytosis. The formation of an oxidized intermediate clozapine metabolite has been implicated in direct polymorphonuclear (PMN) toxicity. We utilized two separate systems to analyze the role of oxidized clozapine in inducing apoptosis in treated cells. Human PMN cells incubated with clozapine (0-10 {mu}M) in the presence of 0.1 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} demonstrated a progressive decrease of surface CD16 expression along with increased apoptosis. RT-PCR analysis showed decreased CD16 but increased FasL gene expression in clozapine-treated PMN cells. No change in constitutive Fas expression was observed in treated cells. In HL-60 cells induced to differentiate with retinoic acid (RA), a similar increase in FasL expression, but no associated changes in CD16 gene expression, was observed following clozapine treatments. Our results demonstrate increased FasL gene expression in oxidized clozapine-induced apoptotic neutrophils suggesting that apoptosis in granulocytes treated with clozapine involves Fas/FasL interaction that initiates a cascade of events leading to clozapine-induced agranulocytosis.

  20. Adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to endothelium enhances the efficiency of detoxification of oxygen-free radicals.

    PubMed Central

    Hoover, R. L.; Robinson, J. M.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1987-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes can produce active oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and superoxide under various conditions. Because these substances can be toxic to cells, it is possible that the interaction between the circulating leukocytes and the blood vessel wall, either in normal circulation or during the acute inflammatory response, could damage the endothelial lining. Using an in vitro system of cultured endothelial cells and isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes, we have measured the levels of detectable superoxide when neutrophils are attached to either endothelial monolayers or to plastic. Our results show that the levels of superoxide, on a per-cell basis, are lower when the neutrophils are attached to endothelium than when attached to plastic, even if the neutrophils are stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. This is also reflected in data showing that no injury occurs to the endothelial cells, as measured by 51Cr release, under these same conditions. When endothelial cells are pretreated with an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase, diethyldithiocarbamate, the levels of superoxide detected are the same for neutrophils stimulated on plastic and those on the endothelial monolayer, suggesting that endothelial superoxide dismutase may remove a portion of the neutrophil-generated superoxide from the detection system. Further evidence for the role of endothelium in destroying superoxide is suggested by results that show that the level of detectable superoxide released from neutrophils attached to formalin-fixed endothelial monolayers is the same as that for neutrophils attached to plastic. It is important to note that with the inhibitor of superoxide dismutase present, the endothelial monolayers do not display enhanced 51Cr release under the conditions employed. When both endothelial catalase and glutathione reductase are inhibited, we detect increased 51Cr release from endothelial cells in response to stimulated neutrophils. Our results show that

  1. Impaired accumulation of granulocytes in the lung during ozone adaptation.

    PubMed

    Fiévez, L; Kirschvink, N; Dogné, S; Jaspar, F; Merville, M P; Bours, V; Lekeux, P; Bureau, F

    2001-09-01

    Respiratory alterations induced by an acute exposure to ozone (O(3)) paradoxically resolve during multiday exposure. This adaptation is characteristically accompanied by a gradual attenuation of lung neutrophilia. As maintenance of neutrophilia at the site of inflammation is due to cytokine-mediated delayed neutrophil apoptosis, which is associated with reduced levels of Bax, a proapoptotic protein, we sought to determine whether defects in these mechanisms could account for O(3) adaptation. Lung granulocytes obtained at different time points from calves exposed to 0.75 ppm O(3) for 12 h/d for 7 consecutive days neither showed enhancement of survival nor Bax deficiency, when compared to blood granulocytes. To further investigate the effects of an exogenous oxidative stress on neutrophil survival, human granulocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide alone, or in combination with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, an antiapoptotic cytokine. Both treatments led to rapid apoptosis associated with downregulation of Bcl-x(L) and Bcl-2, two antiapoptotic proteins. This study shows that O(3) adaptation is associated with a failure in the mechanisms leading to accumulation of neutrophils at the site of inflammation, and suggests that this defect is due to direct proapoptotic effects of exogenous oxidative stress on granulocytes.

  2. Does tuftsin alter phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.R.; DeChatelet, L.R.; Shirley, P.S.; Cooper, M.R.

    1982-03-01

    The physiological significance of the putative phagocytosis-promoting peptide, tuftsin, was investigated by measurement of chemiluminescence generated during phagocytosis and by assay of the uptake of radiolabeled bacteria. Researchers found no differences in either assay when reasearchers compared serum from splenectomized patients (which purportedly lacks tuftsin) with normal serum. Further, there was no difference when serum from splenectomized patients was employed in the presence of absence of exogenous tuftsin. Similar results were obtained under a variety of conditions, utilizing three different challenge particles with varying particle-cell ratios and serum from 20 different splenectomized patients. These results do not agree with the hypothesis that tuftsin plays a major role in promoting phagocytosis.

  3. In vitro interaction between spiramycin and polymorphonuclear neutrophils oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Moutard, I; Gressier, B; Brunet, C; Dine, T; Luyckx, M; Templier, F; Cazin, M; Cazin, J C

    1998-03-01

    PMNs are a major component of body defense against microbial invasion, involving reactive oxygen species in great quantity, which could benefit from antibiotic therapy. Recently, possible antibiotic effects on phagocyte functions (impairment or stimulation of reactive oxygen species production) were studied. In our study, an in vitro evaluation was made on macrolide activity on phagocyte respiratory burst functions, using assay of superoxide anion (O2.-) in response to four stimuli systems: N-formyl Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP), an analogue of bacterial chemotactic factors; 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a direct activator of protein kinase C (PKC); calcium ionophore (A23187), which acts directly on calcium influx; and a bacterial strain, Staphylococcus aureus. We have shown that spiramycin, at therapeutic plasma concentrations, increased O2.- generation by bacteria and fMLP-stimulated PMNs, with rate of 26% for 1 microgram ml-1 and 34% for 5 micrograms ml-1, respectively. This pro-oxidant effect, however, weaker, was observed when PMNs were stimulated by PMA. A weak anti-oxidant effect was observed with A23187. For higher concentrations, spiramycin decreased strongly O2.- production, with IC50 values of 74 micrograms ml-1, 154 micrograms ml-1, 296 micrograms ml-1 and 400 micrograms ml-1 when PMNs were stimulated with bacteria, A23187, fMLP and PMA, respectively. The effect of spiramycin seemed to result from an intracellular mechanism by intervention of PMN oxidative metabolism (NADPH-oxidase activation), rather than a simple chemical interaction, because no effect has been observed in acellular models. For higher spiramycin concentrations, the decrease of O2.- production observed could not be taken into consideration because this concentration was not used in therapy. The enhanced of O2.- production observed could be used in therapy, so as to increase PMNs bactericidal activity.

  4. Monocytic Differentiation Inhibits Infection and Granulocytic Differentiation Potentiates Infection by the Agent of Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marina B.; Hayes, Stanley F.; Goodman, Jesse L.

    1998-01-01

    Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) is an emerging tick-borne infection with a specific tropism for granulocytes. We previously isolated and cultivated the HGE agent in the promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 and have also demonstrated the susceptibility of both granulocytic and monocytic human marrow progenitors. Circulating monocytes have not been observed to be infected, suggesting that cell susceptibility may be differentiation specific. To evaluate this hypothesis, HL-60 cells were differentiated towards granulocytes (with dimethyl sulfoxide or all-trans retinoic acid) or toward monocytes-macrophages (with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate [TPA], gamma interferon, or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) and then challenged with HGE. HGE binding, internalization, and proliferation were compared in differentiated and untreated control HL-60 cells by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy, and Giemsa staining. Granulocytic differentiation resulted in a doubling of HGE binding and enhanced infection consistent with the agent’s clinical tropism for neutrophils. Granulocytic cells were unable to kill internalized ehrlichiae even after activation induced by N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe alone or together with tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, monocyte-macrophage differentiation with TPA resulted in complete resistance to infection through at least two distinct mechanisms: (i) reduction in binding and uptake and (ii) killing of any internalized organisms. Diminished binding in TPA-treated cells correlated with their reduced expression of sialyl Lewis x (CD15s), a putative cellular receptor component for HGE. The degree of monocytic differentiation and activation induced (i.e., TPA > gamma interferon > vitamin D3) correlated with resistance to HGE. Thus, HL-60 cells exhibit a striking differentiation-specific susceptibility to HGE. Differentiation-induced changes in bacterial adhesion and killing capacity underlie the tropism of HGE for granulocytic HL-60 cells and

  5. The chemotactic properties of porcine seminal components toward neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, K J; Troedsson, M H; Rocha, G R; Crabo, B G

    2001-04-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the mechanisms of postbreeding inflammation in swine by examining the chemotactic properties of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMN) and of various populations of spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Epididymal spermatozoa from two boars obtained under sterile conditions, washed ejaculated spermatozoa from two boars, and pooled seminal plasma from eight boars of known fertility were examined for chemotaxis to PMN. The chemotaxis of blood-derived PMN in response to sperm and seminal plasma was evaluated and expressed as a percentage of a positive control (lipopolysaccharide-activated blood plasma). The mean chemotactic effect of washed sperm alone (4.4+/-0.04) and of epididymal sperm alone (3.4+/-0.06) was not different from that of the negative controls (3.1+/-0.05) of McCoy's medium with 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum. A marked chemotactic effect was detected when washed ejaculated and epididymal sperm were incubated with blood plasma, compared with blood plasma without spermatozoa (P < 0.001). Washed sperm in blood plasma (86.2+/-5.6) and epididymal sperm in blood plasma (83.9+/-7.7) were different from blood plasma alone (11.2+/-1.5), but no differences were detected between the two populations of sperm. This effect, however, was not completely inhibited by heat inactivation of the blood plasma. The chemotactic response of washed ejaculated and epididymal spermatozoa incubated in lipopolysaccharide-treated, heat-inactivated blood plasma were greater than that of the negative control (P < 0.05). Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocyte migration toward seminal plasma was similar to the negative control (4.0+/-0.04 vs 3.1+/-0.05). It seems that porcine epididymal sperm and ejaculated sperm activate chemotactic components in porcine blood plasma and heat-inactivated blood plasma, suggesting that, at least partially, a heat-stable (noncomplement) blood plasma component may be involved in sperm-induced PMN

  6. Evasion of Neutrophil Killing by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    McGuinness, Will A.; Kobayashi, Scott D.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus causes many types of infections, ranging from self-resolving skin infections to severe or fatal pneumonia. Human innate immune cells, called polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs or neutrophils), are essential for defense against S. aureus infections. Neutrophils are the most prominent cell type of the innate immune system and are capable of producing non-specific antimicrobial molecules that are effective at eliminating bacteria. Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, our knowledge of S. aureus-host innate immune system interactions is incomplete. Most notably, S. aureus has the capacity to produce numerous molecules that are directed to protect the bacterium from neutrophils. Here we review in brief the role played by neutrophils in defense against S. aureus infection, and correspondingly, highlight selected S. aureus molecules that target key neutrophil functions. PMID:26999220

  7. Colocalization of elastase and myeloperoxidase in human blood and bone marrow neutrophils using a monoclonal antibody and immunogold.

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, E. M.; Beesley, J. E.; Pulford, K. A.; Breton-Gorius, J.; Mason, D. Y.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have localized elastase in human blood and bone marrow neutrophils by immunoelectron microscopy using a monoclonal anti-human elastase antibody (NP 57) and compared its distribution with myeloperoxidase (MPO) and lactoferrin (LF), which mark primary and secondary neutrophil granule, respectively. Human bone marrow and blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), either unstimulated or after phagocytosis of latex microbeads, were fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Ultrathin frozen sections were immunolabeled with NP 57, followed by an immunogold probe. In bone marrow granulocyte precursors elastase appeared simultaneously in the immature first granules of myeloblasts with MPO. As these granules became denser with maturation, labeling for both enzymes became weaker and sometimes negative (possibly due to masking of immunoreactivity). The ellipsoidal primary granules were strongly labeled by NP57. LF positive granules appeared later, at the myelocyte stage, and contained neither MPO nor elastase. In mature neutrophils, immunolabeling for elastase was found together with MPO in the large electron-dense primary granules and in a different granule population from the LF-positive secondary granules. Double labeling with two different-sized gold particles was used to compare the kinetics of degranulation of secondary and primary granules. The observation and the analysis of single phagosome content was made possible by this new technique. In conclusion, immunoelectron microscopy was used to show elastase in the primary granules of neutrophils, where it appears simultaneously with MPO. This technique has also allowed comparison of the kinetics of degranulation of both types of granules, and could be applied to different experimental and pathologic conditions. Images Figure 2 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2547320

  8. Orbital granulocytic sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stockl, F.; Dolmetsch, A.; Saornil, M; Font, R.; Burnier, M.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a localised tumour composed of cells of myeloid origin. Histological diagnosis can be difficult in patients with poorly differentiated orbital tumours and no evidence of systemic leukaemia. The naphthol AS-D chloracetate esterase (Leder stain) and immunohistochemical stains for lysozyme and MAC387 were used to determine the staining characteristics of these tumours. A case series of seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma is presented.
METHODS—Seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma were studied. Haematoxylin and eosin, Leder, and lysozyme stained sections were available in seven cases. Unstained formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections of seven cases were available for immunohistochemical evaluation using the avidin-biotin-complex technique for MAC387.
RESULTS—The mean age of presentation of the orbital tumour was 8.8 years. Four patients presented with an orbital tumour before any systemic manifestations of leukaemia. In two cases the diagnosis of the orbital tumour and systemic leukaemia was made simultaneously. There was one case of established systemic myeloid leukaemia in remission with the subsequent development of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. Six of seven cases (86%) were positive for the Leder stain. Five of seven cases (71%) showed positive immunoreactivity with lysozyme. The immunohistochemical stain for MAC387 was positive in all seven cases (100%) including one case that was negative for both lysozyme and Leder stains.
CONCLUSIONS—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a tumour that affects children and can present with rapidly progressive proptosis. This tumour may develop before, during, or after the occurrence of systemic leukaemia. The combination of Leder and lysozyme stains is useful in the diagnosis of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. MAC387 may be a more reliable marker for orbital granulocytic sarcoma.

 PMID:9497470

  9. Platelets enhance neutrophil transendothelial migration via P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Platelets are increasingly recognized as important for inflammation in addition to thrombosis. Platelets promote the adhesion of neutrophils [polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs)] to the endothelium; P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand (PSGL)-1 have been suggested to participate in these i...

  10. Nucleosomes and neutrophil activation in sickle cell disease painful crisis.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Marein; Nur, Erfan; Biemond, Bart J; van Mierlo, Gerard J; Solati, Shabnam; Brandjes, Dees P; Otten, Hans-Martin; Schnog, John-John; Zeerleder, Sacha

    2013-11-01

    Activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of vaso-occlusive painful sickle cell crisis. Upon activation, polymorphonuclear neutrophils can form neutrophil extracellular traps. Neutrophil extracellular traps consist of a meshwork of extracellular DNA, nucleosomes, histones and neutrophil proteases. Neutrophil extracellular traps have been demonstrated to be toxic to endothelial and parenchymal cells. This prospective cohort study was conducted to determine neutrophil extracellular trap formation in sickle cell patients during steady state and painful crisis. As a measure of neutrophil extracellular traps, plasma nucleosomes levels were determined and polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation was assessed measuring plasma levels of elastase-α1-antitrypsin complexes in 74 patients in steady state, 70 patients during painful crisis, and 24 race-matched controls using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Nucleosome levels in steady state sickle cell patients were significantly higher than levels in controls. During painful crisis levels of both nucleosomes and elastase-α1-antitrypsin complexes increased significantly. Levels of nucleosomes correlated significantly to elastase-α1-antitrypsin complex levels during painful crisis, (Sr = 0.654, P<0.001). This was seen in both HbSS/HbSβ(0)-thalassemia (Sr=0.55, P<0.001) and HbSC/HbSβ(+-)thalassemia patients (Sr=0.90, P<0.001) during painful crisis. Levels of nucleosomes showed a correlation with length of hospital stay and were highest in patients with acute chest syndrome. These data support the concept that neutrophil extracellular trap formation and neutrophil activation may play a role in the pathogenesis of painful sickle cell crisis and acute chest syndrome.

  11. Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L. , Decatur, GA )

    1990-06-01

    Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes.

  12. Hypertonic saline up-regulates A3 adenosine receptors expression of activated neutrophils and increases acute lung injury after sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yoshiaki; Chen, Yu; Pauzenberger, Reinhard; Mark, Hirsh I.; Junger, Wolfgang G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Hypertonic saline resuscitation reduces tissue damage by inhibiting polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Hypertonic saline triggers polymorphonuclear neutrophils to release adenosine triphosphate that is converted to adenosine, inhibiting polymorphonuclear neutrophils through A2a adenosine receptors. polymorphonuclear neutrophils also express A3 adenosine receptors that enhance polymorphonuclear neutrophils functions. Here we investigated whether A3 receptors may diminish the efficacy of hypertonic saline in a mouse model of acute lung injury. Design Randomized animal study and laboratory investigation. Setting University research laboratory. Interventions The effect of A3 receptors on the efficacy of hypertonic saline resuscitation was assessed in A3 receptor knockout and wild-type mice. Animals were treated with hypertonic saline (7.5% NaCl, 4 mL/kg) before or after cecal ligation and puncture, and acute lung injury and mortality were determined. The effect of timing of hypertonic saline exposure on A3 receptor expression and degranulation was studied in vitro with isolated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Measurements and main results Treatment of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with hypertonic saline before stimulation with formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine inhibited A3 receptor expression and degranulation, whereas hypertonic saline-treatment after formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulation augmented A3 receptor expression and degranulation. Acute lung injury in wild-type mice treated with hypertonic saline after cecal ligation and puncture was significantly greater than in wild-type mice pretreated with hypertonic saline. This aggravating effect of delayed hypertonic saline-treatment was absent in A3 receptor knockout mice. Similarly, mortality in wild-type mice with delayed hypertonic saline-treatment was significantly higher (88%) than in animals treated with hypertonic saline before cecal ligation and puncture (50%). Mortality in A3

  13. Physiology of Continuous Bone Marrow Culture Derived Permanent Granulocyte-Macrophage Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    capable of differentiating to mature neutrophillic granulocytes and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells . Several T- cell lines including K45, JURKAT...CEM, K230 have been screened for produc- tion of Interleukin-3 by assay of supernatant from cell lines for proliferation of mouse IL-3 dependent...hematopoietic progeni- tor cell lines Lines 45 and 230 produce low levels of activity. "In contrast, IL-2 (T- cell growth factor) dependent human T- cell

  14. Extracellular release of antimicrobial defensins by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ganz, T

    1987-01-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) contain three antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides which belong to a family of mammalian granulocyte peptides named defensins. To determine their potential availability for extracellular microbicidal or cytotoxic events, we quantified the extracellular release of defensins after stimulation of human PMN with phorbol myristate acetate and opsonized zymosan. As determined by enzyme immunoassay and confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and densitometry, 10(6) human PMN contained 4 to 5 micrograms of defensins. After stimulation with a high concentration of phorbol myristate acetate (1 microgram/ml), about 8% of PMN defensins were found in the media. Release of defensins correlated best with the release of azurophil granule marker beta-glucuronidase or elastase and poorly with the release of either the specific granule marker lactoferrin or cytoplasmic lactate dehydrogenase. Phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan resulted in the extracellular release of less than 3% of PMN defensins. The factors responsible for less release of defensins into media relative to the release of other azurophil granule proteins may include heterogeneity of azurophil granules and the affinity of defensins for cellular surfaces and opsonized particles. In vivo, defensins are most likely to reach effective microbicidal or cytotoxic concentrations in PMN-rich exudates (pus), in confined environments of the phagolysosomes, or in intercellular clefts between PMN and their targets. PMID:3643886

  15. Granulocyte-associated IgG in neutropenic disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Cines, D.B.; Passero, F.; Guerry, D.; Bina, M.; Dusak, B.; Schreiber, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    We applied a radiolabeled antiglobulin test to a study of patients with a variety of neutropenic disorders. After defining the nature of the interaction of radiolabeled anti-IgG with the neutrophil, we studied 16 patients with neutropenia of uncertain etiology and adequate bone marrow granulocyte precursors. Twelve of these 16 patients had increased neutrophil-associated IgG (PMN-IgG). Patients with the highest levels of PMN-IgG had the lowest neutrophil counts. The majority of patients with neutropenia and increased PMN-IgG had an underlying immunologic disorder that included immune thrombocytopenic purpura in 5 patients and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in 1 patient. In some patients, elevated PMN-IgG preceded other evidence for immunologic disease. The direct antiglobulin test helped to distinguish neutropenic patients with increased PMN-IgG both from patients with neutropenia due to a known nonimmune disorder and from nonneutropenic patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosis. Each of four patients with increased neutrophil-associated IgG treated with systemic corticosteroids responded clinically with an associated fall in neutrophil IgG and a rise in the circulating neutrophil count. The radiolabeled antiglobulin test appears useful in defining a subpopulation of patients with neutropenia due to an underlying immunologic disorder.

  16. Granulocyte-associated IgG in neutropenic disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Cines, D.B.; Passero, F.; Guerry, D. IV; Bina, M.; Dusak, B.; Schreiber, A.D

    1982-01-01

    We applied a radiolabeled antiglobulin test to a study of patients with a variety of neutropenic disorders. After defining the nature of the interaction of radiolabeled anti-IgG with the neutrophil, we studied 16 patients with neutropenia of uncertain etiology and adequate bone marrow granulocyte precursors. Twelve of these 16 patients had increased neutrophil-associated IgG (PMN-IgG). Patients with the highest levels of PMN-IgG had the lowest neutrophil counts. The majority of patients with neutropenia and increased PMN-IgG had an underlying immunologic disorder that included immune thrombocytopenic purpura in 5 patients and autoimmune hemolytic anemia in 1 patient. In some patients, elevated PMN-IgG preceded other evidence for immunologic disease. The direct antiglobulin test helped to distinguish neutropenic patients with increased PMN-IgG both from patients with neutropenia due to a known nonimmune disorder and from noneutropenic patients with rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosis. Each of four patients with increased neutrophil-associated IgG treated with systemic corticosteroids responded clinically with an associated fall in neutrophil IgG and a rise in the circulating neutrophil count. The radiolabeled antiglobulin test appears useful in defining a subpopulation of patients with neutropenia due to an underlying immunologic disorder.

  17. Impaired killing of Candida albicans by granulocytes mobilized for transfusion purposes: a role for granule components

    PubMed Central

    Gazendam, Roel P.; van de Geer, Annemarie; van Hamme, John L.; Tool, Anton T.J.; van Rees, Dieke J.; Aarts, Cathelijn E.M.; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; van Alphen, Floris; Verkuijlen, Paul; Meijer, Alexander B.; Janssen, Hans; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte transfusions are used to treat neutropenic patients with life-threatening bacterial or fungal infections that do not respond to anti-microbial drugs. Donor neutrophils that have been mobilized with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone are functional in terms of antibacterial activity, but less is known about their fungal killing capacity. We investigated the neutrophil-mediated cytotoxic response against C. albicans and A. fumigatus in detail. Whereas G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils appeared less mature as compared to neutrophils from untreated controls, these cells exhibited normal ROS production by the NADPH oxidase system and an unaltered granule mobilization capacity upon stimulation. G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils efficiently inhibited A. fumigatus germination and killed Aspergillus and Candida hyphae, but the killing of C. albicans yeasts was distinctly impaired. Following normal Candida phagocytosis, analysis by mass spectrometry of purified phagosomes after fusion with granules demonstrated that major constituents of the antimicrobial granule components, including major basic protein (MBP), were reduced. Purified MBP showed candidacidal activity, and neutrophil-like Crisp-Cas9 NB4-KO-MBP differentiated into phagocytes were impaired in Candida killing. Together, these findings indicate that G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils for transfusion purposes have a selectively impaired capacity to kill Candida yeasts, as a consequence of an altered neutrophil granular content. PMID:26802050

  18. Impaired killing of Candida albicans by granulocytes mobilized for transfusion purposes: a role for granule components.

    PubMed

    Gazendam, Roel P; van de Geer, Annemarie; van Hamme, John L; Tool, Anton T J; van Rees, Dieke J; Aarts, Cathelijn E M; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; van Alphen, Floris; Verkuijlen, Paul; Meijer, Alexander B; Janssen, Hans; Roos, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K; Kuijpers, Taco W

    2016-05-01

    Granulocyte transfusions are used to treat neutropenic patients with life-threatening bacterial or fungal infections that do not respond to anti-microbial drugs. Donor neutrophils that have been mobilized with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and dexamethasone are functional in terms of antibacterial activity, but less is known about their fungal killing capacity. We investigated the neutrophil-mediated cytotoxic response against C. albicans and A. fumigatus in detail. Whereas G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils appeared less mature as compared to neutrophils from untreated controls, these cells exhibited normal ROS production by the NADPH oxidase system and an unaltered granule mobilization capacity upon stimulation. G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils efficiently inhibited A. fumigatus germination and killed Aspergillus and Candida hyphae, but the killing of C. albicans yeasts was distinctly impaired. Following normal Candida phagocytosis, analysis by mass spectrometry of purified phagosomes after fusion with granules demonstrated that major constituents of the antimicrobial granule components, including major basic protein (MBP), were reduced. Purified MBP showed candidacidal activity, and neutrophil-like Crisp-Cas9 NB4-KO-MBP differentiated into phagocytes were impaired in Candida killing. Together, these findings indicate that G-CSF/dexamethasone-mobilized neutrophils for transfusion purposes have a selectively impaired capacity to kill Candida yeasts, as a consequence of an altered neutrophil granular content.

  19. Prevention of vascular inflammation by nanoparticle targeting of adherent neutrophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenjia; Li, Jing; Cho, Jaehyung; Malik, Asrar B.

    2014-03-01

    Inflammatory diseases such as acute lung injury and ischaemic tissue injury are caused by the adhesion of a type of white blood cell--polymorphonuclear neutrophils--to the lining of the circulatory system or vascular endothelium and unchecked neutrophil transmigration. Nanoparticle-mediated targeting of activated neutrophils on vascular endothelial cells at the site of injury may be a useful means of directly inactivating neutrophil transmigration and hence mitigating vascular inflammation. Here, we report a method employing drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles, which efficiently deliver drugs into neutrophils adherent to the surface of the inflamed endothelium. Using intravital microscopy of tumour necrosis factor-α-challenged mouse cremaster post-capillary venules, we demonstrate that fluorescently tagged albumin nanoparticles are largely internalized by neutrophils adherent to the activated endothelium via cell surface Fcɣ receptors. Administration of albumin nanoparticles loaded with the spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor, piceatannol, which blocks `outside-in' β2 integrin signalling in leukocytes, detached the adherent neutrophils and elicited their release into the circulation. Thus, internalization of drug-loaded albumin nanoparticles into neutrophils inactivates the pro-inflammatory function of activated neutrophils, thereby offering a promising approach for treating inflammatory diseases resulting from inappropriate neutrophil sequestration and activation.

  20. [Granulocyte alkaline phosphatase--a biomarker of chronic benzene exposure].

    PubMed

    Khristeva, V; Meshkov, T

    1994-01-01

    In tracing the cellular population status in the peripheral blood of workers, exposed to benzene, was included and cytochemical determination of the alkaline phosphatase activity in leucocytes. This enzyme is accepted as marker of the neutrophilic granulocytes, as maturation of the cells and their antibacterial activity are parallel to the cytochemical activity of the enzyme. 78 workers from the coke-chemical production from state firm "Kremikovtsi" and 41 workers from the production "Benzene" and "Isopropylbenzene"--Oil Chemical Plant, Burgas are included. The benzene concentrations in the air of the working places in all productions are in the range of 5 to 50 mg/m3. For cytochemical determination of the alkaline phosphatase activity is used the method of L. Kaplow and phosphatase index was calculated. It was established that in 98.4% of all examined the alkaline phosphatase activity is inhibited to different rate, as from 46.5% [61 workers] it is zero. In considerably lower percentage of workers were established and other deviations: leucocytosis or leucopenia, neutropenia, increased percent of band neutrophils and toxic granules. The results of the investigation of the granulocyte population show that from all indices, the activity of granulocyte alkaline phosphatase demonstrates most convincing the early myelotoxic effect of benzene.

  1. Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Bakken, Johan S.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), a deer tick transmitted rickettsial infection caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is a common cause of undifferentiated fever in the Northeast and Upper Midwest U.S. Patients are often initially diagnosed with a mild viral infection, and illness readily resolves in most cases. However, as many as 3% may develop life threatening complications and nearly 1% die from the infection. A history of tick bite and a high degree of clinical suspicion thus warrant consideration for doxycycline treatment in both adults and children, even in the absence of known tick bite, a negative blood film examination, or pending results of specific A. phagocytophilum diagnostic tests such as paired serology or PCR on acute phase blood. Antibody tests and titers should not be used to monitor active infection as detectable antibodies can remain present for years. Moreover, persistent infection has never been reported. While co-infections with Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti occur, there is little evidence to suggest synergism of disease or a role for A. phagocytophilum in chronic illness. Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, use of tick repellents, and careful searches of skin to remove attached ticks; no vaccine is available. PMID:25999228

  2. Pathologic interaction between megakaryocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, A; Jouault, H; Guichard, J; Wendling, F; Drouin, A; Cramer, E M

    2000-08-15

    Idiopathic myelofibrosis (MF) is a myeloproliferative syndrome characterized by an increase in bone marrow collagen. Megakaryocytes (Mks), which store growth factors in their alpha granules, are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of MF. Previously, mice given bone marrow grafts infected with a retrovirus carrying murine thrombopoietin (TPO) complementary DNA developed a disease resembling human idiopathic MF. In this study, we used this murine model (TPO mice) to determine whether release of alpha granules is responsible for fibroblast activation and development of fibrosis. The intracellular trafficking of several alpha-granule proteins (von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), which are stored in the granule matrix; and alpha(IIb)beta(3) integrin and P-selectin (CD62p), which are located in the alpha-granule membrane) was studied with immune electron microscopy in bone marrow Mks from TPO mice. P-selectin immunolabeling increased consistently and was occasionally found lining the demarcation membrane system. Evidence of extensive emperipolesis was also found in TPO mouse Mks, involving almost exclusively neutrophil and eosinophil polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells with altered morphologic features. In parallel, the host Mks had myeloperoxidase-positive granules scattered in their cytoplasm, associated with marked ultrastructural cytoplasmic alterations and ruptured alpha-granule membranes. Similar observations were made in bone marrow biopsy specimens from 12 patients with idiopathic MF; indeed, there was an increased rate of emperipolesis involving mostly PMN cells, abnormal P-selectin expression, and mutual subcellular PMN and Mk alterations. This study indicates that in idiopathic MF, abnormal P-selectin distribution in Mks induces selective sequestration of PMN cells. This results in a release of alpha-granular proteins and growth factors, which in turn induces fibroblast activation and fibrosis deposition. (Blood

  3. Sexy again: the renaissance of neutrophils in psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Schön, Michael P; Broekaert, Sigrid M C; Erpenbeck, Luise

    2017-04-01

    Notwithstanding their prominent presence in psoriatic skin, the functional role of neutrophilic granulocytes still remains somewhat enigmatic. Sparked by exciting scientific discoveries regarding neutrophil functions within the last years, the interest in these short-lived cells of the innate immune system has been boosted recently. While it had been known for some time that neutrophils produce and respond to a number of inflammatory mediators, recent research has linked neutrophils with the pathogenic functions of IL-17, possibly in conjunction with the formation of NETs (neutrophil extracellular traps). Antipsoriatic therapies exert their effects, at least in part, through interference with neutrophils. Neutrophils also appear to connect psoriasis with comorbid diseases. However, directly tampering with neutrophil functions is not trivial as evinced by the failure of therapeutic approaches targeting redundantly regulated cellular communication networks. It has also become apparent that neutrophils link important pathogenic functions of the innate and the adaptive immune system and that they are intricately involved in regulatory networks underlying the pathophysiology of psoriasis. In order to advocate intensified research into the role of this interesting cell population, we here highlight some features of neutrophils and put them into perspective with our current view of the pathophysiology of psoriasis.

  4. The Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor has a dual role in neuronal and vascular plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Stephanie; Peters, Sebastian; Pitzer, Claudia; Resch, Herbert; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Schneider, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a growth factor that has originally been identified several decades ago as a hematopoietic factor required mainly for the generation of neutrophilic granulocytes, and is in clinical use for that. More recently, it has been discovered that G-CSF also plays a role in the brain as a growth factor for neurons and neural stem cells, and as a factor involved in the plasticity of the vasculature. We review and discuss these dual properties in view of the neuroregenerative potential of this growth factor. PMID:26301221

  5. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, Michael D.; Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  6. Analysis of cell locomotion. Contact guidance of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Matthes, T; Gruler, H

    1988-01-01

    The methods of statistical physics have been applied to the analysis of cell movement. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were exposed to different surfaces possessing parallel oriented physical structures (scratched glass surface, machine drilled aluminum surface, optical grid and stretched polyethylene foil) and cell migration was observed using time-lapse photography. We demonstrate that in cell migration along physical structures, referred to as contact guidance, two subgroups can be distinguished: 1) The nematic type where the cell size is large in relation to the grid distance of the undulate surface. 2) The smectic type where the cell size is small in relation to the grid distance of the substrate. Nematic contact guidance is characterized by an anisotropic random walk. In all substrates investigated the diffusion process parallel to the lines was faster than the diffusion process perpendicular to them. The angular dependent diffusion coefficient was described by an ellipse. Deviation from a circle defined an apolar order parameter, whose value was about 0.3. The amount of information which the cells collected from, the undulate surface was very low, between 0.1 and 0.2 bits. We demonstrate that cells do not recognize all the details of their surroundings and that their migration can be compared to the "groping around" of a short sighted man. The blurred environment can be described by a mean field whose strength is proportional to the apolar order parameter. It is argued that the anisotropic surface tension is the basic source for nematic contact guidance. Smectic contact guidance is characterized by an anisotropic random walk and is quantified by a density order parameter which is 0.28 in the case of the scratched glass surface of a Neubauer counting chamber. The information which the cells collect from their environment is very low (0.03 bits). The lines seen by the cell can be described by a mean field whose strength is proportional to the density oder

  7. Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor Producing Anaplastic Carcinoma of the Pancreas: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Vinzens, Sarah; Zindel, Joel; Zweifel, Martin; Rau, Tilman; Gloor, Beat; Wochner, Annette

    2017-01-01

    We report on the case of a 67-year-old man with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) producing anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas. Preoperative routine tests revealed an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count of 25.2 G/l, consisting almost exclusively of neutrophilic granulocytes (23.31 G/l) with a predominance of segmented neutrophils (78% of all neutrophilic granulocytes), and elevated levels of C-reactive protein at 87 mg/l. Upon surgery, local tumour infiltration was more extensive than expected from preoperative imaging. However, no peritoneal dissemination was found and curative resection was attempted. Only seven days after the operation, signs of relapse were seen upon computed tomograpy. Histology revealed an undifferentiated anaplastic carcinoma, on the basis of a poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated G-CSF and G-CSF-Receptor expression in some CD68-positive syncytial macrophages. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in serum was elevated at 5.6 pg/ml, which further raised to 43 pg/ml one week after FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy (oxaliplatin, irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil), while WBC decreased from 103.3 G/l to 59.3 G/l. Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in serum was normal (<0.5 pg/ml). The patient died on postoperative day 34.

  8. Strenuous physical exercise inhibits granulocyte activation induced by high altitude.

    PubMed

    Choukèr, Alexander; Demetz, Florian; Martignoni, André; Smith, Leslie; Setzer, Florian; Bauer, Andreas; Hölzl, Joseph; Peter, Klaus; Christ, Frank; Thiel, Manfred

    2005-02-01

    To test the hypothesis of whether strenuous physical exercise inhibits neutrophils that can get activated by hypobaric hypoxia, we analyzed the effects of both high altitude and strenuous exercise alone and in combination on potentially cytotoxic functions of granulocytes in healthy volunteers (n = 12 men; average age 27.6 yr; range 24-38 yr). To this end, a field study was prospectively performed with an open-labeled within-subject design comprising three protocols. Protocol I (high altitude) involved a helicopter ascent, overnight stay at 3,196 m, and descent on the following day. Protocol II (physical exercise) involved hiking below an altitude of 2,100 m with repetitive ascents amounting to a total ascent to that of protocol III. Protocol III (combination of physical exercise and high altitude) involved climbing from 1,416 to 3,196 m, stay overnight, and descent on the following day. In protocol I, number of granulocytes did not change, but potentially cytotoxic functions of cells (CD18 expression and superoxide production) were early and significantly upregulated. In protocol II, subjects developed granulocytosis, but functions of cells were inhibited. In protocol III, granulocytosis occurred at higher values than those observed under protocol II. Potentially cytotoxic functions of cells, however, were strongly inhibited again. In conclusion, high altitude alone, even moderate in extent, can activate potentially cytotoxic functions of circulating granulocytes. Strenuous physical exercise strongly inhibits this activation, which may give protection from an otherwise inflammatory injury.

  9. [Congenital neutrophil defects and periodontal diseases].

    PubMed

    Del Fabbro, M; Francetti, L; Pizzoni, L; Weinstein, R L

    2000-06-01

    An alteration of the immune system function is one of the main factors involved in the development of periodontal disease. Polymorpho-nuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) play a crucial role in the cell-mediated immune response against bacterial challenge. The mechanism of neutralization of pathogen microorganisms by PMNs involves many different steps: adhesion to capillary endothelium in the inflamed region, trans-endothelial migration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and, ultimately, bacterial killing by oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. A defect in one of these steps leads to altered neutrophil function and, consequently, to a higher host susceptibility to periodontal tissue infection. The main intrinsic neutrophil diseases such as neutropenia, leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD-1), Chediak-Higashi syndrome, Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), are often related to severe and early-onset forms of periodontitis, as described by many evidences in the literature. Therefore PMN dysfunctions, both intrinsic and extrinsic, represent an important risk factor for periodontal disease. Studies on the basic molecular mechanisms of such dysfunctions, also in terms of genetic polymorphisms, recently allowed to identify some specific markers related to a higher susceptibility to the development of disease. Many researches have yet to be performed aiming to gain insight on the dynamics of PMN activation and interaction with other cells, in order to improve and modulate neutrophil function and to develop specific approaches for care and prevention of periodontal diseases.

  10. Leukotriene B4 binding to human neutrophils

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, A.H.; Ruppel, P.L.; Gorman, R.R.

    1984-12-01

    (/sup 3/H) Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) binds concentration dependently to intact human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's). The binding is saturable, reaches equilibrium in 10 min at 4 degrees C, and is readily reversible. Mathematical modeling analysis reveals biphasic binding of (/sup 3/H) LTB4 indicating two discrete populations of binding sites. The high affinity binding sites have a dissociation constant of 0.46 X 10(-9)M and Bmax of 1.96 X 10(4) sites per neutrophil; the low affinity binding sites have a dissociation constant of 541 X 10(-9)M and a Bmax of 45.16 X 10(4) sites per neutrophil. Competitive binding experiments with structural analogues of LTB4 demonstrate that the interaction between LTB4 and the binding site is stereospecific, and correlates with the relative biological activity of the analogs. At 25 degrees C (/sup 3/H) LTB4 is rapidly dissociated from the binding site and metabolized to 20-OH and 20-COOH-LTB4. Purification of neutrophils in the presence of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors significantly increases specific (/sup 3/H) LTB4 binding, suggesting that LTB4 is biosynthesized during the purification procedure. These data suggest that stereospecific binding and metabolism of LTB4 in neutrophils are tightly coupled processes.

  11. [Missing granulocytic infiltrate in pityriasis versicolor--indication of specific anti-inflammatory activity of the pathogen?].

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, N; Bär, Silja; Mayser, P

    2005-01-01

    The yeast Malassezia furfur is a part of the resident flora of human skin. It causes various diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, which hardly shows signs of inflammation despite marked clinical symptoms (e.g. hypopigmentation). The pathophysiology related morphological picture might give a clue to this phenomenon. As a part of the literature data are controversial, the present study compared the inflammatory infiltrate of pityriasis versicolor with that of tinea corporis in 40 human skin preparations each from diagnostic specimens. All preparations were stained with HE and PAS. Neutrophilic granulocytes were counted in the HE stain, and hyphae and spores in the PAS stain. The number of counted cells was related to the size of the respective area and the values were compared between pityriasis and tinea corporis. Significantly, more neutrophilic granulocytes were found with tinea corporis (P > 0.01), while they were virtually not demonstrable with pityriasis versicolor. It is surprising that fungal load in the stratum corneum is significantly higher with pityriasis versicolor (P > 0.01). Obviously the immune response involving neutrophilic granulocytes does not occur despite high bacterial load. This might be explained by reduced immunogenicity because of high content of lipids in the cell membrane. Furthermore, pityriarubins that are produced during tryptophan metabolism might be involved, which, in a stimulus-dependent manner, can suppress the ROS production of neutrophilic granulocytes in vivo.

  12. Inhibition of peripheral blood neutrophil oxidative burst in periodontitis patients with a homeopathic medication Traumeel S

    PubMed Central

    žilinskas, Juozas; žekonis, Jonas; žekonis, Gediminas; Šadzevičienė, Renata; Sapragonienė, Marija; Navickaitė, Justina; Barzdžiukaitė, Ingrida

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The anti-inflammatory effects of a homeopathic remedy, Traumeel S, have been observed in experimental and clinical studies; however, its antioxidant properties have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with periodontitis. Material/Methods The study was performed using venous blood of 22 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 21 healthy subjects. The antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on the production of reactive oxygen species by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli neutrophils were investigated using luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Results Polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients produced higher levels (p<0.01) of light output of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence and significantly reduced (p<0.01) light output of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence than analogous cells of healthy subjects. Highly diluted (10−4 of the stem solution) Traumeel S significantly (by approximately 50%) reduced superoxide-induced oxidation of lucigenin by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients and had a tendency to intensify luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Preincubation of the unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of healthy subjects with Traumeel S exerts no inhibitory action on the luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of the above-mentioned cells. Conclusions This study indicates that Traumeel S may significantly reduce production of superoxide anion by unstimulated and stimulated peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils of periodontitis patients. PMID:21525811

  13. Flow cytometry evidence of human granulocytes interaction with polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes: effect of nanoparticle charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renò, Filippo; Carniato, Fabio; Rizzi, Manuela; Olivero, Francesco; Pittarella, Pamela; Marchese, Leonardo

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) entering the human body are immediately confronted with the innate part of human immune system. In particular, monocyte and neutrophil granulocytes readily clear particles by phagocytosis, even if in the case of NPs the uptake mechanism may be classified as macropinocytosis. Among engineered nanoparticles, in the last years, siliceous materials have emerged as promising materials for several applications ranging from catalysis to biomedical. The polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) are nanodimensional, easily synthesizable molecular compounds and POSS-based systems are promising carriers for biological molecules. In this work, the ability of human granulocytes to uptake positively and negatively charged POSS was measured using a simple flow cytometry analysis based on cell size modifications. The data obtained showed that after a 30 min exposure only positive NPs were uptaken by human granulocyte using both macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated mechanisms as demonstrated by uptake inhibition mediated by amiloride and chlorpromazine.

  14. Effect of laser irradiation on neutrophils metabolism in stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Gregory E.; Grigoriev, Sergei N.; Romanova, Tatyana P.; Petrisheva, Svetlana G.

    1994-02-01

    In experiments on male mice of CBA line the alteration of neutrophils cytochemical profile in peripheral blood He-Ne laser irradiation in vitro (4 mW/cm2, 15 min) and modification of metabolic disturbances in polymorphonuclear leucocytes in stress by laser radiation were studied. It was found that direct laser irradiation of blood results in the decrease of glycogen and lipids content, the increase of ATP-ase, succinate dehydrogenase and myeloperoxidase activity, rise of lysosomal cationic proteins level, and membrane oxidase systems of neutrophils stimulation. In short-term immobilization stress conditions transcutaneous laser irradiation in vivo (19 mW/cm2, 15 min) prevents the development of stress induced changes of metabolism and function of neutrophils.

  15. Leukocyte CD11a expression and granulocyte activation during experimental myocardial ischemia and long lasting reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Lantos, János; Grama, László; Orosz, Tamás; Temes, Gyula; Rőth, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion are accompanied by leukocyte activation and expression of surface adhesion molecules, which induce pathological interactions between endothelial cells and circulating neutrophils, leading to tissue damage. While the dynamics of these processes have been well defined during acute reperfusion, there is very little information regarding long lasting reperfusion. OBJECTIVES: To investigate neutrophil granulocyte (PMN) activation and the CD11a expression of leukocytes during myocardial ischemia and reperfusion for four weeks. ANIMALS AND METHODS: The left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded for 1 h in six dogs, followed by reperfusion for four weeks. Peripheral blood samples were collected before the operation, at the end of ischemia, at 5 and 60 min of reperfusion, and on postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Sham operation on four dogs served as control. Leukocyte expression of CD11a was measured by flow cytometry. Superoxide radical production of isolated PMNs was determined spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Granulocyte CD11a expression increased while the superoxide radical-producing capacity decreased significantly by the third postoperative day. Sham operation produced similar alterations in these parameters during the first postoperative week. From the second postoperative week, however, granulocyte radical production and adhesion molecule expression were higher in the ischemic animals. CONCLUSIONS: The exhaustion of PMN radical production and maximal CD11a expression during the first postoperative week are probably due to the surgical trauma caused by thoracotomy, but increased granulocyte function during later reperfusion indicates prolonged healing of injured myocardium. PMID:20428266

  16. Use of rapid cytochemical staining to characterize fish blood granulocytes in species of special concern and determine potential for function testing.

    PubMed

    Palić, Dušan; Beck, Linda S; Palić, Jelena; Andreasen, Claire B

    2011-02-01

    Studies of innate immunity in fish species of special concern are essential for better understanding of their health status during hatchery rearing conditions. The cytochemical and morphological characterizations of blood granulocytes have been used to provide information about phylogenetic differences and determine the potential use of neutrophil function assays. Rapid, simple, cytochemical staining kits used routinely for staining mammalian granulocytes have been used to characterize granulocytes from blood of four fish species: Arctic grayling, cutthroat trout, June sucker, and shovelnose sturgeon. Blood smears were stained with Peroxidase 391 (myeloperoxidase, MPO), alkaline phosphatase (AP), Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Diff-quick stain; examined using bright field and differential interference contrast microscopy. Granulocytes on blood smears were evaluated based on the cell morphology, and presence or absence of the specific chromogen. Presence of lymphocytes, monocytes, platelets/thrombocytes and granulocytes was determined in all fish species. Arctic grayling, June sucker, and cutthroat trout had MPO positive granulocytes, while shovelnose sturgeon heterophils had positive reaction for leukocyte AP, but not MPO. Presence of MPO indicated potential to measure oxidative burst and degranulation of neutrophil primary granules in Arctic grayling, cutthroat trout and June sucker. Absence of MPO in shovelnose sturgeon suggested use of different enzyme marker (AP) in degranulation assay for this species. Standardization of cytochemical techniques allowed for rapid screening of leukocyte types, reducing the number of fish, time and effort to select adequate neutrophil function assays to be used in studies of health status in species of special concern.

  17. Hypothyroidism modifies lipid composition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Coria, Mariela J; Carmona Viglianco, Yamila V; Marra, Carlos A; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Ramirez, Dario C; Anzulovich, Ana C; Gimenez, Maria S

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of lipid metabolism. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential components of innate immune response. Our goal was to determine whether hypothyroidism affects lipid metabolism in PMN cells. Wistar rats were made hypothyroid by administrating 0.1 g/L 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water during 30 days. Triacylglycerides (TG), cholesterol and phospholipids were determined in PMN and serum by conventional methods. The mRNA expression of LDL receptor (LDL-R), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoAR), sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT-2) were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Cellular neutral lipids were identified by Nile red staining. We found hypothyroidism decreases serum TG whereas it increases them in PMN. This result agrees with those observed in Nile red preparations, however DAGT-2 expression was not modified. Cholesterol synthesizing enzyme HMGCoAR mRNA and protein was reduced in PMN of hypothyroid rats. As expected, cholesterol content decreased in the cells although it increased in serum. Hypothyroidism also reduced relative contents of palmitic, stearic, and arachidonic acids, whereas increased the myristic, linoleic acids, and the unsaturation index in PMN. Thus, hypothyroidism modifies PMN lipid composition. These findings would emphasize the importance of new research to elucidate lipid-induced alterations in specific function(s) of PMN.

  18. Regulation of polymorphonuclear cell activation by thrombopoietin.

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, M F; Battaglia, E; Rosso, A; Strippoli, P; Montrucchio, G; Camussi, G; Pegoraro, L

    1997-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) regulates early and late stages of platelet formation as well as platelet activation. TPO exerts its effects by binding to the receptor, encoded by the protooncogene c-mpl, that is expressed in a large number of cells of hematopoietic origin. In this study, we evaluated the expression of c-Mpl and the effects of TPO on human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). We demonstrate that PMN express the TPO receptor c-Mpl and that TPO induces STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation and the formation of a serum inducible element complex containing STAT1. The analysis of biological effects of TPO on PMN demonstrated that TPO, at concentrations of 1-10 ng/ml, primes the response of PMN to n-formyl-met-leu-phe (FMLP) by inducing an early oxidative burst. TPO-induced priming on FMLP-stimulated PMN was also detected on the tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 28 kD. Moreover, we demonstrated that TPO by itself was able to stimulate, at doses ranging from 0.05 to 10 ng/ml, early release and delayed synthesis of interleukin 8 (IL-8). Thus, our data indicate that, in addition to sustaining megakaryocytopoiesis, TPO may have an important role in regulating PMN activation. PMID:9120001

  19. Chemotactic peptide receptor modulation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    The binding of the chemotactic peptide N- formylnorleucylleucylphenylalanine (FNLLP) to its receptor on rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) modulates the number of available peptide receptors. Incubation with FNLLP decreases subsequent binding capacity, a phenomenon that has been termed receptor down regulation. Down regulation of the chemotactic peptide receptor is concentration dependent in both the rate and extent of receptor loss. The dose response parallels that of FNLLP binding to the recptor. The time- course is rapid; even at concentrations of FNLLP as low as 3 x 10(-9) M, the new equilibrium concentration of receptors is reached within 15 min. Down regulation is temperature dependent, but does occur even at 4 degrees C. Concomitant with down regulation, some of the peptide becomes irreversibly cell associated. At 4 degrees C, there is a small accumulation of nondissociable peptide that rapidly reaches a plateau. At higher temperatures, accumulation of nondissociable peptide continues after the rceptor number has reached equilibrium, and the amount accumulated can exceed the initial number of receptors by as much as 300%. The dose response of peptide uptake at 37 degrees C reflects that of binding, suggesting that it is receptor mediated. This uptake may occur via a pinocytosis mechanism. Although PMNs have not been considered to be pinocytic, the addition of FNLLP causes a fourfold stimulation of the rate of pinocytosis as measured by the uptake of [3H]sucrose. PMID:7391138

  20. Ultrastructural localization of cytochrome b in the membranes of resting and phagocytosing human granulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Jesaitis, A J; Buescher, E S; Harrison, D; Quinn, M T; Parkos, C A; Livesey, S; Linner, J

    1990-01-01

    Affinity-purified rabbit anti-neutrophil cytochrome b light or heavy chain antibodies were used to immunocytochemically and biochemically localize cytochrome b in neutrophils and eosinophils. The antibodies were monospecific, recognizing polypeptides of 91 and 22 kD, respectively, on Western blots of whole neutrophil extracts. The antibodies were used in Western blot analysis of subcellular fractions of purified neutrophils to confirm that the distribution of cytochrome b spectral absorbance matched that of the two subunits. Thin sections of cryofixed, molecular distillation-dried granulocytes were labeled with the anti-cytochrome b antibodies, followed by incubation with biotin-conjugated secondary antibody, and final labeling with streptavidin-conjugated colloidal gold. Electron microscopy revealed that the cytochrome b light and heavy chains were localized primarily (80%) to 0.1-0.2-micron round or elliptical granule-like structures in neutrophils and 0.4-0.5-micron granules in eosinophils. Approximately 20% of the cytochrome b was localized to the surface, confirming the subcellular fractionation studies. Double staining experiments on the neutrophils, using polyclonal rabbit anti-lactoferrin antibody, indicated that the cytochrome-bearing structures also contained lactoferrin and thus were specific granules. When the analysis was performed on neutrophils that had phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus, cytochrome b was found in the phagosomal membrane adjoining the bacterial cell wall. Images PMID:2312727

  1. The transcriptional activation program of human neutrophils in skin lesions supports their important role in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Theilgaard-Mönch, Kim; Knudsen, Steen; Follin, Per; Borregaard, Niels

    2004-06-15

    To investigate the cellular fate and function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) attracted to skin wounds, we used a human skin-wounding model and microarray technology to define differentially expressed genes in PMNs from peripheral blood, and PMNs that had transmigrated to skin lesions. After migration to skin lesions, PMNs demonstrated a significant transcriptional response including genes from several different functional categories. The up-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes concomitant with the down-regulation of proapoptotic genes suggested a transient anti-apoptotic priming of PMNs. Among the up-regulated genes were cytokines and chemokines critical for chemotaxis of macrophages, T cells, and PMNs, and for the modulation of their inflammatory responses. PMNs in skin lesions down-regulated receptors mediating chemotaxis and anti-microbial activity, but up-regulated other receptors involved in inflammatory responses. These findings indicate a change of responsiveness to chemotactic and immunoregulatory mediators once PMNs have migrated to skin lesions and have been activated. Other effects of the up-regulated cytokines/chemokines/enzymes were critical for wound healing. These included the breakdown of fibrin clots and degradation of extracellular matrix, the promotion of angiogenesis, the migration and proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, the adhesion of keratinocytes to the dermal layer, and finally, the induction of anti-microbial gene expression in keratinocytes. Notably, the up-regulation of genes, which activate lysosomal proteases, indicate a priming of skin lesion-PMNs for degradation of phagocytosed material. These findings demonstrate that migration of PMNs to skin lesions induces a transcriptional activation program, which regulates cellular fate and function, and promotes wound healing.

  2. Heme oxygenase-1 attenuates acute pulmonary inflammation by decreasing the release of segmented neutrophils from the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Franziska M; Braun, Stefan; Ngamsri, Kristian-Christos; Vollmer, Irene; Reutershan, Jörg

    2014-11-01

    Recruiting polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs) from circulation and bone marrow to the site of inflammation is one of the pivotal mechanisms of the innate immune system. During inflammation, the enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) has been shown to reduce PMN migration. Although these effects have been described in various models, underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Recent studies revealed an influence of HO-1 on different cells of the bone marrow. We investigated the particular role of the bone marrow in terms of HO-1-dependent pulmonary inflammation. In a murine model of LPS inhalation, stimulation of HO-1 by cobalt (III) protoporphyrin-IX-chloride (CoPP) resulted in reduced segmented PMN migration into the alveolar space. In the CoPP group, segmented PMNs were also decreased intravascularly, and concordantly, mature and immature PMN populations were higher in the bone marrow. Inhibition of the enzyme by tin protoporphyrin-IX increased segmented and banded PMN migration into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid with enhanced PMN release from the bone marrow and aggravated parameters of tissue inflammation. Oxidative burst activity was significantly higher in immature compared with mature PMNs. The chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), which mediates homing of leukocytes into the bone marrow and is decreased in inflammation, was increased by CoPP. When SDF-1 was blocked by the specific antagonist AMD3100, HO-1 activation was no longer effective in curbing PMN trafficking to the inflamed lungs. In conclusion, we show evidence that the anti-inflammatory effects of HO-1 are largely mediated by inhibiting the release of segmented PMNs from the bone marrow rather than direct effects within the lung.

  3. Dysregulation of granulocyte, erythrocyte, and NK cell lineages in Fli-1 gene-targeted mice.

    PubMed

    Masuya, Masahiro; Moussa, Omar; Abe, Takanori; Deguchi, Takao; Higuchi, Tsukasa; Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Spyropoulos, Demetri D; Watson, Dennis K; Ogawa, Makio

    2005-01-01

    Targeted disruption of the Friend leukemia integration 1 (Fli-1) proto-oncogene results in severe dysmegakaryopoiesis and embryonic lethality. We used morula-stage aggregation as a strategy to further clarify the hematopoietic defects of the Fli-1 gene-targeted mice. Analyses of lineage expression of Fli-1(+/-) and Fli-1(-/-) cells in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of chimeric mice consistently demonstrated reduced numbers of neutrophilic granulocytes and monocytes and increased numbers of natural killer (NK) cells. Transplantation studies using sorted Fli-1 mutant cells produced similar findings. Clonal culture studies of bone marrow cells revealed increased numbers of granulocytic and early erythroid progenitors in the Fli-1(+/-) cells. The sorted Fli-1(-/-) bone marrow cells revealed specific down-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and C/EBPepsilon, and the receptors for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM-CSF), consistent with their critical roles in granulopoiesis. Collectively, these observations suggest previously unknown physiologic roles for Fli-1 in granulocytic, erythroid, and NK cell proliferation and differentiation. Production of chimeras by morula-stage embryo aggregation is an effective way to unravel cell-autonomous hematopoietic defects in gene-targeted mice.

  4. In vivo stimulation of granulopoiesis by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.M.; Zsebo, K.M.; Inoue, H.; Hines, D.; Boone, T.C.; Chazin, V.R.; Tsai, L.; Ritch, T.; Souza, L.M.

    1987-04-01

    Osmotic pumps containing Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) were attached to indwelling jugular vein catheters and implanted subcutaneously into Golden Syrian hamsters. Within 3 days, peripheral granulocyte counts had increased > 10-fold with a concomitant 4-fold increase in total leukocytes. Microscopic examination of Wright-Giemsa-stained blood smears from rhG-CSF hamsters showed that only the neutrophil subpopulation of granulocytes had increased. After subcutaneous injection at /sup 35/S-labeled rhG-CSF doses of up to 10 ..mu..g x kg/sup -1/ x day/sup -1/ only granulocyte counts were affected. However, at higher dose levels, a transient thrombocytopenia was noted. Erythrocyte and lymphocyte/monocyte counts remained unaffected by rhG-CSF over the entire dose range studied. Total leukocyte counts increased 3-fold within 12 hr after a single s.c. injection of rhG-CSF. This early effect was associated with an increase in the total number of colony-forming cells and the percent of active cycling cells in the marrow. A sustained elevation of peripheral leukocyte and marrow progenitor counts was observed following seven daily s.c. injections of rhG-CSF. The ability of rhG-CSF to increase the production and release of granulocytes from the marrow may underlie the beneficial effect it produced on the restoration of peripheral leukocyte counts in hamsters made leukopenic by treatment with 5-fluorouracil.

  5. Neutrophil-related factors as biomarkers in EAE and MS

    PubMed Central

    Rumble, Julie M.; Huber, Amanda K.; Krishnamoorthy, Gurumoorthy; Srinivasan, Ashok; Giles, David A.; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Lu

    2015-01-01

    A major function of T helper (Th) 17 cells is to induce the production of factors that activate and mobilize neutrophils. Although Th17 cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), little attention has been focused on the role of granulocytes in those disorders. We show that neutrophils, as well as monocytes, expand in the bone marrow and accumulate in the circulation before the clinical onset of EAE, in response to systemic up-regulation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and the ELR+ CXC chemokine CXCL1. Neutrophils comprised a relatively high percentage of leukocytes infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS) early in disease development. G-CSF receptor deficiency and CXCL1 blockade suppressed myeloid cell accumulation in the blood and ameliorated the clinical course of mice that were injected with myelin-reactive Th17 cells. In relapsing MS patients, plasma levels of CXCL5, another ELR+ CXC chemokine, were elevated during acute lesion formation. Systemic expression of CXCL1, CXCL5, and neutrophil elastase correlated with measures of MS lesion burden and clinical disability. Based on these results, we advocate that neutrophil-related molecules be further investigated as novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets in MS. PMID:25559893

  6. Neutrophil biology and the next generation of myeloid growth factors.

    PubMed

    Dale, David C

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils are the body's critical phagocytic cells for defense against bacterial and fungal infections; bone marrow must produce approximately 10 x 10(9) neutrophils/kg/d to maintain normal blood neutrophil counts. Production of neutrophils depends on myeloid growth factors, particularly granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). After the original phase of development, researchers modified these growth factors to increase their size and delay renal clearance, increase their biologic potency, and create unique molecules for business purposes. Pegylated G-CSF is a successful product of these efforts. Researchers have also tried to identify small molecules to serve as oral agents that mimic the parent molecules, but these programs have been less successful. In 2006, the European Medicines Agency established guidelines for the introduction of new biologic medicinal products claimed to be similar to reference products that had previously been granted marketing authorization in the European community, called bio-similars. Globally, new and copied versions of G-CSF and other myeloid growth factors are now appearing. Some properties of the myeloid growth factors are similar to other agents, offering opportunities for the development of alternative drugs and treatments. For example, recent research shows that hematopoietic progenitor cells can be mobilized with a chemokine receptor antagonist, chemotherapy, G-CSF, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Advances in neutrophil biology coupled with better understanding and development of myeloid growth factors offer great promise for improving the care of patients with cancer and many other disorders.

  7. Human neutrophil peptide-1 decreases during ageing in selected Mexican population.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Santiago, Bruno; Castañeda-Delgado, Julio E; de Haro-Acosta, Jeny; Torres-Juarez, Flor; Frausto-Lujan, Isabel; Marin-Luevano, Paulina; González-Amaro, Roberto; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial peptide innate immunity plays a central role in the susceptibility to infectious diseases, as has been described extensively in different settings. However, the role that these molecules play in the immunity mediated by polymorphonuclear phagocytes as part of the innate immunity of ageing individuals has not been described. In the present study, we addressed the question whether antimicrobial activity in polymorphonuclear cells from elderly individuals was altered in comparison with young adults. We compared phagocytosis index, bacterial killing efficiency, myeloperoxidase activity and cathelicidin expression. Results showed that there were no statistical differences among groups. However, human neutrophil peptide-1 (HNP-1) was decreased in the elderly individuals group. Results suggest that the decreased HNP-1 production in the polymorphonuclear phagocytes form elderly individuals might have an important participation in the increased susceptibility to infectious diseases.

  8. Galectin-1 promotes human neutrophil migration.

    PubMed

    Auvynet, Constance; Moreno, Samadhi; Melchy, Erika; Coronado-Martínez, Iris; Montiel, Jose Luis; Aguilar-Delfin, Irma; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    An important step of innate immune response is the recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to injured tissues through chemotactic molecules. Galectins, a family of endogenous lectins, participate in numerous functions such as lymphoid cell migration, homing, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Particularly, galectin-3 (Gal-3) and -9 have been implicated in the modulation of acute and chronic inflammation by inducing the directional migration of monocytes/macrophages and eosinophils, whereas Gal-1 is considered to function as an anti-inflammatory molecule, capable of inhibiting the influx of PMN to the site of injury. In this study, we assessed the effect of Gal-1 on neutrophil recruitment, in the absence of additional inflammatory insults. Contrasting with its capacity to inhibit cell trafficking and modulate the release of mediators described in models of acute inflammation and autoimmunity, we evidenced that Gal-1 has the capacity to induce neutrophil migration both in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not mediated through a G-protein-coupled receptor but potentially through the sialoglycoprotein CD43, via carbohydrate binding and through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. These results suggest a novel biological function for CD43 on neutrophils and highlight that depending on the environment, Gal-1 can act either as chemoattractant or, as a molecule that negatively regulates migration under acute inflammatory conditions, underscoring the potential of Gal-1 as a target for innovative drug development.

  9. Characterization of the role of CaMKI-like kinase (CKLiK) in human granulocyte function.

    PubMed

    Verploegen, Sandra; Ulfman, Laurien; van Deutekom, Hanneke W M; van Aalst, Corneli; Honing, Henk; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Koenderman, Leo; Coffer, Paul J

    2005-08-01

    Activation of granulocyte effector functions, such as induction of the respiratory burst and migration, are regulated by a variety of relatively ill-defined signaling pathways. Recently, we identified a novel Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase I-like kinase, CKLiK, which exhibits restricted mRNA expression to human granulocytes. Using a novel antibody generated against the C-terminus of CKLiK, CKLiK was detected in CD34+-derived neutrophils and eosinophils, as well as in mature peripheral blood granulocytes. Activation of human granulocytes by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and platelet-activating factor (PAF), but not the phorbol ester PMA (phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate), resulted in induction of CKLiK activity, in parallel with a rise of intracellular Ca2+ [Ca2+]i. To study the functionality of CKLiK in human granulocytes, a cell-permeable CKLiK peptide inhibitor (CKLiK297-321) was generated which was able to inhibit kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of this peptide was studied on specific granulocyte effector functions such as phagocytosis, respiratory burst, migration, and adhesion. Phagocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus particles was reduced in the presence of CKLiK297-321 and fMLP-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was potently inhibited by CKLiK297-321 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, fMLP-induced neutrophil migration on albumin-coated surfaces was perturbed, as well as beta2-integrin-mediated adhesion. These findings suggest a critical role for CKLiK in modulating chemoattractant-induced functional responses in human granulocytes.

  10. Chromatin structure in granulocytes. A link between tight compaction and accumulation of a heterochromatin-associated protein (MENT).

    PubMed

    Grigoryev, S A; Woodcock, C L

    1998-01-30

    To study the mechanism of heterochromatin formation in vertebrate cells, we isolated nuclei from chicken polymorphonuclear granulocytes and examined the chromatin organization. We found granulocyte chromatin to remain insoluble after nuclease digestion and to be resistant to swelling in low salt/high pH media. Both insolubility and resistance to swelling were lost after washing with 0.3 M NaCl, a procedure that released two abundant tissue-specific proteins from granulocyte nuclei. One of them (42 kDa) is identified as MENT, a protein previously shown to be associated with repressed chromatin from mature chicken erythrocytes. We show that MENT is immunolocalized in granulocyte heterochromatin, where it is one of the most abundant chromatin proteins ( approximately 2 molecules/200 base pairs of DNA). MENT is the first nuclear protein structurally related to the serine protease inhibitor family. The other abundant protein is similar to or identical with mim-1, a myeloid-specific protein that is known to be stored in cell granules and to associate with isolated nuclei. MENT (but not mim-1) binds chromatin and free DNA, and, at its physiological protein/DNA ratio, enhances compaction and the reversible Mg2+-dependent self-association of nucleosome arrays. MENT appears to promote the formation of heterochromatin by acting as a "glue" within and between chains of nucleosomes.

  11. The cytokineplast: purified, stable, and functional motile machinery from human blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Malawista, SE; De Boisfleury Chevance, A

    1982-01-01

    We examined the formation of motile, chemotactically active, anucleate fragments from human blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN, granulocytes), induced by the brief application of heat. These granule-poor fragments are former protopods (leading fronts, lamellipodia) that become uncoupled from the main body of the cell and leave it, at first with a connecting filament that breaks and seals itself. The usual random orientation of such filaments can be controlled by preorientation of cells in a gradient of the chemotactic peptide, N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (F-Met-Leu-Phe) (2x10(-9) M- 1x10(-8)). Cytochalsin B, 2.5-5 μg/ml, prevents fragment formation; colchicine, 10(-5) M, does not. In scanning electron micrographs, fragments are ruffled and the cell body rounded up and rather smooth. In transmission electron micrographs, fragments contain microfilaments but lack centrioles and microtubules. Like intact cells, both bound and free fragments can respond chemotactically to an erythrocyte destroyed by laser microirradiation (necrotaxis); the free, anucleate fragments may do so repeatedly, even after having been held overnight at ambient temperatures. We propse the name cytokineplast for the result of this self-purification of motile apparatus. The exodus of the motile machinery from the granulocyte requires anchoring of the bulk of the cell to glass and uncoupling, which may involve heat-induced dysfunction of the centrosome. In ultrastructural studies of the centrosomal region after heat, centriolar structure remains intact, but pericentriolar osmiophilic material appears condensed, and microtubules are sparse. These changes are found in all three blood cell types examined: PMN, eosinophil, and monocyte. Of these, the first two make fragments under our conditions; the more sluggish monocyte does not. Uncoupling is further linked to centrosomal dysfunction by the observation that colchicines-treated granulocytes (10(-5)M, to destroy the centrosome

  12. Intraluminal crawling versus interstitial neutrophil migration during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pick, Robert; Brechtefeld, Doris; Walzog, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    Site-directed trafficking of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to their target regions within the tissue is an important prerequisite for efficient host defense during the acute inflammatory response. This process requires intraluminal crawling of PMN on the activated endothelial cells to their extravasation sites. Upon transendothelial diapedesis, PMN migrate in the interstitial tissue to sites of inflammation. These crucial steps within the recruitment cascade are defined as intraluminal crawling and interstitial migration. In this review, we will focus on the molecular mechanisms that control and fine-tune these migratory processes and discuss the role of adhesion molecules of the β2 integrin (CD11/CD18) family for these cellular functions.

  13. Chemotactic properties and absence of the formyl peptide receptor in ferret (Mustela putorius furo) neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Makoto; Otsubo, Kouji; Kikuchi, Tomoko; Itou, Takuya; Sakai, Takeo

    2010-02-01

    This study describes a chemotaxis assay of ferret polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). The optimal conditions for this chemotaxis assay were investigated for three chemoattractants: zymosan activated serum (ZAS), recombinant human interleukin-8 (rhIL-8) and N-formyl-Met-Leu- Phe (fMLF). In this study, ferret polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) reacted to ZAS and rhIL-8, but not fMLF. The optimal concentration of ZAS and rhIL-8 were 5% and 100 ng/ml, respectively. The optimal incubation time of each reagent was 60 min. Due to the lack of response shown from fMLF, the existence of formyl peptide receptors (FPR) on ferret PMNs was investigated by evaluating FPR binding using flow cytometry. The receptor was not detected, implying that ferret neutrophils may lack FPR. This study confirms the fundamental experimental conditions for ferret PMNs chemotaxis and elucidates new findings concerning FPR in ferret neutrophils.

  14. Granulocytes in Helminth Infection - Who is Calling the Shots?

    PubMed Central

    Makepeace, BL; Martin, C; Turner, JD; Specht, S

    2012-01-01

    Helminths are parasitic organisms that can be broadly described as “worms” due to their elongated body plan, but which otherwise differ in shape, development, migratory routes and the predilection site of the adults and larvae. They are divided into three major groups: trematodes (flukes), which are leaf-shaped, hermaphroditic (except for blood flukes) flatworms with oral and ventral suckers; cestodes (tapeworms), which are segmented, hermaphroditic flatworms that inhabit the intestinal lumen; and nematodes (roundworms), which are dioecious, cylindrical parasites that inhabit intestinal and peripheral tissue sites. Helminths exhibit a sublime co-evolution with the host´s immune system that has enabled them to successfully colonize almost all multicellular species present in every geographical environment, including over two billion humans. In the face of this challenge, the host immune system has evolved to strike a delicate balance between attempts to neutralize the infectious assault versus limitation of damage to host tissues. Among the most important cell types during helminthic invasion are granulocytes: eosinophils, neutrophils and basophils. Depending on the specific context, these leukocytes may have pivotal roles in host protection, immunopathology, or facilitation of helminth establishment. This review provides an overview of the function of granulocytes in helminthic infections. PMID:22360486

  15. Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma): CT manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Pomeranz, S.J.; Hawkins, H.H.; Towbin, R.; Lisberg, W.N.; Clark, R.A.

    1985-04-01

    Nests of granulocytic tumor cells in patients who have myelogeneous leukemia are termed chloromas. Eight cases of chloroma seen on CT were reviewed. Lymph nodes, subcutaneous tissues, peritoneum, pleural space, pelvis, and portal hepatis were involved. The extracranial appearance of chloroma on CT is that of small, nonenhancing, nodular densities that resemble lymphoma. Cranial involvement is characteristically in the orbit. The central nervous system appearance is variable, however, and high attenuation masses may occur that mimic lymphoma, hematoma, and metastatic neuroblastoma. The recognition of these lesions is important, since radiation, not chemotherapy, is often the preferred treatment for localized chloroma.

  16. Extracellular superoxide dismutase is present in secretory vesicles of human neutrophils and released upon stimulation.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marie B; Gottfredsen, Randi H; Larsen, Ulrike G; Enghild, Jan J; Praetorius, Jeppe; Borregaard, Niels; Petersen, Steen V

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme present in the extracellular matrix (ECM), where it provides protection against oxidative degradation of matrix constituents including type I collagen and hyaluronan. The enzyme is known to associate with macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (neutrophils) and increasing evidence supports a role for EC-SOD in the development of an inflammatory response. Here we show that human EC-SOD is present at the cell surface of isolated neutrophils as well as stored within secretory vesicles. Interestingly, we find that EC-SOD mRNA is absent throughout neutrophil maturation indicating that the protein is synthesized by other cells and subsequently endocytosed by the neutrophil. When secretory vesicles were mobilized by neutrophil stimulation using formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), the protein was released into the extracellular space and found to associate with DNA released from stimulated cells. The functional consequences were evaluated by the use of neutrophils isolated from wild-type and EC-SOD KO mice, and showed that EC-SOD release significantly reduce the level of superoxide in the extracellular space, but does not affect the capacity to generate neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Consequently, our data signifies that EC-SOD released from activated neutrophils affects the redox conditions of the extracellular space and may offer protection against highly reactive oxygen species such as hydroxyl radicals otherwise generated as a result of respiratory burst activity of activated neutrophils.

  17. G-CSF maintains controlled neutrophil mobilization during acute inflammation by negatively regulating CXCR2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Bajrami, Besnik; Zhu, Haiyan; Kwak, Hyun-Jeong; Mondal, Subhanjan; Hou, Qingming; Geng, Guangfeng; Karatepe, Kutay; Zhang, Yu C; Nombela-Arrieta, César; Park, Shin-Young; Loison, Fabien; Sakai, Jiro; Xu, Yuanfu; Silberstein, Leslie E; Luo, Hongbo R

    2016-09-19

    Cytokine-induced neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow to circulation is a critical event in acute inflammation, but how it is accurately controlled remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that CXCR2 ligands are responsible for rapid neutrophil mobilization during early-stage acute inflammation. Nevertheless, although serum CXCR2 ligand concentrations increased during inflammation, neutrophil mobilization slowed after an initial acute fast phase, suggesting a suppression of neutrophil response to CXCR2 ligands after the acute phase. We demonstrate that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), usually considered a prototypical neutrophil-mobilizing cytokine, was expressed later in the acute inflammatory response and unexpectedly impeded CXCR2-induced neutrophil mobilization by negatively regulating CXCR2-mediated intracellular signaling. Blocking G-CSF in vivo paradoxically elevated peripheral blood neutrophil counts in mice injected intraperitoneally with Escherichia coli and sequestered large numbers of neutrophils in the lungs, leading to sterile pulmonary inflammation. In a lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury model, the homeostatic imbalance caused by G-CSF blockade enhanced neutrophil accumulation, edema, and inflammation in the lungs and ultimately led to significant lung damage. Thus, physiologically produced G-CSF not only acts as a neutrophil mobilizer at the relatively late stage of acute inflammation, but also prevents exaggerated neutrophil mobilization and the associated inflammation-induced tissue damage during early-phase infection and inflammation.

  18. G-CSF maintains controlled neutrophil mobilization during acute inflammation by negatively regulating CXCR2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bajrami, Besnik; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yu C.

    2016-01-01

    Cytokine-induced neutrophil mobilization from the bone marrow to circulation is a critical event in acute inflammation, but how it is accurately controlled remains poorly understood. In this study, we report that CXCR2 ligands are responsible for rapid neutrophil mobilization during early-stage acute inflammation. Nevertheless, although serum CXCR2 ligand concentrations increased during inflammation, neutrophil mobilization slowed after an initial acute fast phase, suggesting a suppression of neutrophil response to CXCR2 ligands after the acute phase. We demonstrate that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), usually considered a prototypical neutrophil-mobilizing cytokine, was expressed later in the acute inflammatory response and unexpectedly impeded CXCR2-induced neutrophil mobilization by negatively regulating CXCR2-mediated intracellular signaling. Blocking G-CSF in vivo paradoxically elevated peripheral blood neutrophil counts in mice injected intraperitoneally with Escherichia coli and sequestered large numbers of neutrophils in the lungs, leading to sterile pulmonary inflammation. In a lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury model, the homeostatic imbalance caused by G-CSF blockade enhanced neutrophil accumulation, edema, and inflammation in the lungs and ultimately led to significant lung damage. Thus, physiologically produced G-CSF not only acts as a neutrophil mobilizer at the relatively late stage of acute inflammation, but also prevents exaggerated neutrophil mobilization and the associated inflammation-induced tissue damage during early-phase infection and inflammation. PMID:27551153

  19. Modulation of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Response to N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-10

    thank Richard Brandenburg for procurement of samples of peripheral blood from dogs and for his infectious cheerfulness; to Gloria Contraras for...deactivation of PMN migration to serum factors was noted. Ward and Baker (70) found that preincubation of rabbit peritoneal exudate cells with activated rabbit...factor. These investigators found pretreatment of PMNs from rabbit peritoneal exudates with N-formyl-1-norleucyl-1-leucyl-1-phenylaJanine (FNLLP

  20. The Modulation of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Function by Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type-1 Uropathogenic Escherichia coli

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-19

    specific residue deamidated in Cdc42 and Rac1 were found to be Gln61, an amino acid that is functionally equivalent to Gln63 in RhoA. 21...fatty acid tail, an event that allows the GTPase to insert into cell membranes. The conformational changes induced in the GTPase through the binding...nucleotide disassociation inhibitors (GDI) that block the fatty acid tail on the Rho protein. Cell stimulation releases the Rho GTPase from the GDI and

  1. Moraxella catarrhalis induces CEACAM3-Syk-CARD9-dependent activation of human granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, A; Heyl, K A; Klaile, E; Müller, M M; Klassert, T E; Wiessner, A; Fischer, K; Schumann, R R; Seifert, U; Riesbeck, K; Moter, A; Singer, B B; Bachmann, S; Slevogt, H

    2016-11-01

    The human restricted pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis is an important causal agent for exacerbations in chronic obstructive lung disease in adults. In such patients, increased numbers of granulocytes are present in the airways, which correlate with bacteria-induced exacerbations and severity of the disease. Our study investigated whether the interaction of M. catarrhalis with the human granulocyte-specific carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)-3 is linked to NF-κB activation, resulting in chemokine production. Granulocytes from healthy donors and NB4 cells were infected with M. catarrhalis in the presence of different inhibitors, blocking antibodies and siRNA. The supernatants were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chemokines. NF-κB activation was determined using a luciferase reporter gene assay and chromatin-immunoprecipitation. We found evidence that the specific engagement of CEACAM3 by M. catarrhalis ubiquitous surface protein A1 (UspA1) results in the activation of pro-inflammatory events, such as degranulation of neutrophils, ROS production and chemokine secretion. The interaction of UspA1 with CEACAM3 induced the activation of the NF-κB pathway via Syk and the CARD9 pathway and was dependent on the phosphorylation of the CEACAM3 ITAM-like motif. These findings suggest that the CEACAM3 signalling in neutrophils is able to specifically modulate airway inflammation caused by infection with M. catarrhalis.

  2. RNA INTERFERENCE AGAINST CFTR AFFECTS HL60-DERIVED NEUTROPHIL MICROBICIDAL FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Bonvillain, Ryan W.; Painter, Richard G.; Adams, Daniel E.; Viswanathan, Anand; Lanson, Nicholas A.; Wang, Guoshun

    2010-01-01

    Biosynthesis of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a potent anti-microbial oxidant, in phagosomes is one of the chief mechanisms employed by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) to combat infections. This reaction, catalyzed by myeloperoxidase, requires chloride anion (Cl−) as a substrate. Thus, Cl− availability is a rate-limiting factor that affects neutrophil microbicidal function. Our previous research demonstrated that defective CFTR, a cAMP-activated chloride channel, present in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients leads to deficient chloride transport to neutrophil phagosomes and impaired bacterial killing (Painter et al., 2008 & 2010). To confirm this finding, here we used RNA interference against this chloride channel to abate CFTR expression in the neutrophil-like cells derived from HL60 cells, a promyelocytic leukemia cell line, with DMSO. The resultant CFTR deficiency in the phagocytes compromised their bactericidal capability, thereby recapitulating the phenotype seen in CF patient cells. The results provide further evidence suggesting that CFTR plays an important role in phagocytic host defense. PMID:20870018

  3. Clozapine promotes the proliferation of granulocyte progenitors in the bone marrow leading to increased granulopoiesis and neutrophilia in rats.

    PubMed

    Lobach, Alexandra R; Uetrecht, Jack

    2014-07-21

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is limited in its use due to the risk of idiosyncratic agranulocytosis. The bone marrow is suspected to be the site of the reaction, and indirect measurements in patients suggest that neutrophil production and maturation are altered in the marrow by clozapine. Specifically, the majority of patients have elevated neutrophil counts at the start of treatment, often paired with increased serum granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Employing a rat model of clozapine treatment, we set out to determine if the neutrophilia observed at the start of treatment is characteristic of G-CSF-associated bone marrow stimulation. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 30 mg/kg/day of clozapine for 10 days, and sustained neutrophilia was evident after 1 week of treatment paired with spikes in G-CSF. Within the bone marrow, clozapine was found to induce proliferation of the granulocyte progenitor colonies as measured by a methylcellulose assay. This led to elevated granulopoiesis observed by H&E and myeloperoxidase staining of bone marrow slices. Increased release of neutrophils from the marrow to the circulation was measured through 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling in vivo, and these neutrophils appeared to be less mature based on (a) a decrease in the nuclear lobe count and (b) increased expression of surface CD62L. Furthermore, faster transit of the neutrophils through the marrow was suggested by a shift toward elevated numbers of neutrophils in the bone marrow maturation pool and increased CD11b and CD18 staining on the less mature neutrophils residing in the marrow. Taken together, these data indicate that clozapine stimulates the bone marrow to produce more neutrophils in a manner that is characteristic of endogenous G-CSF stimulation, and it is consistent with the inflammatory response observed in patients treated with clozapine.

  4. CD97 antibody depletes granulocytes in mice under conditions of acute inflammation via a Fc receptor-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Veninga, Henrike; de Groot, Dorien M; McCloskey, Natalie; Owens, Bronwyn M; Dessing, Mark C; Verbeek, J Sjef; Nourshargh, Sussan; van Eenennaam, Hans; Boots, Annemieke M; Hamann, Jörg

    2011-03-01

    Antibodies to the pan-leukocyte adhesion-GPCR CD97 efficiently block neutrophil recruitment in mice, thereby reducing antibacterial host defense, inflammatory disease, and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization. Here, we investigated the working mechanism of the CD97 antibody 1B2. Applying sterile models of inflammation, intravital microscopy, and mice deficient for the CD97L CD55, the complement component C3, or the FcR common γ-chain, we show that 1B2 acts in vivo independent of ligand-binding interference by depleting PMN granulocytes in bone marrow and blood. Granulocyte depletion with 1B2 involved FcR but not complement activation and was associated with increased serum levels of TNF and other proinflammatory cytokines. Notably, depletion of granulocytes by CD97 antibody required acute inflammation, suggesting a mechanism of conditional, antibody-mediated granulocytopenia.

  5. Management of neutrophilic dermatoses.

    PubMed

    Schadt, Courtney R; Callen, Jeffrey P

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophilic dermatoses, including Sweet's syndrome, pyoderma gangrenosum, and rheumatoid neutrophilic dermatitis, are inflammatory conditions of the skin often associated with underlying systemic disease. These are characterized by the accumulation of neutrophils in the skin. The associated conditions, potential for systemic neutrophilic infiltration, and therapeutic management of these disorders can be similar. Sweet's syndrome can often be effectively treated with a brief course of systemic corticosteroids. Pyoderma gangrenosum, however, can be recurrent, and early initiation of a steroid-sparing agent is prudent. Second-line treatment for both of these conditions includes medications affecting neutrophil function, in addition to immunosuppressant medications.

  6. Neutrophil Dysfunction in Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang; Liu, An-Lei; Gao, Shuang; Ma, Shui; Guo, Shu-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. In this article, we reviewed the correlation between neutrophil dysfunction and sepsis. Data Sources: Articles published up to May 31, 2016, were selected from the PubMed databases, with the keywords of “neutrophil function”, “neutrophil dysfunction”, and “sepsis”. Study Selection: Articles were obtained and reviewed to analyze the neutrophil function in infection and neutrophil dysfunction in sepsis. Results: We emphasized the diagnosis of sepsis and its limitations. Pathophysiological mechanisms involve a generalized circulatory, immune, coagulopathic, and/or neuroendocrine response to infection. Many studies focused on neutrophil burst or cytokines. Complement activation, impairment of neutrophil migration, and endothelial lesions are involved in this progress. Alterations of cytokines, chemokines, and other mediators contribute to neutrophil dysfunction in sepsis. Conclusions: Sepsis represents a severe derangement of the immune response to infection, resulting in neutrophil dysfunction. Neutrophil dysfunction promotes sepsis and even leads to organ failure. Mechanism studies, clinical practice, and strategies to interrupt dysregulated neutrophil function in sepsis are desperately needed. PMID:27824008

  7. Tumor-Associated Macrophages and Neutrophils in Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaehong; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2016-01-01

    Distinct tumor microenvironment forms in each progression step of cancer and has diverse capacities to induce both adverse and beneficial consequences for tumorigenesis. It is now known that immune cells can be activated to favor tumor growth and progression, most probably influenced by the tumor microenvironment. Tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils can exert protumoral functions, enhancing tumor cell invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix remodeling, while inhibiting the antitumoral immune surveillance. Considering that neutrophils in inflammatory environments recruit macrophages and that recruited macrophages affect neutrophil functions, there may be various degrees of interaction between tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. Platelets also play an important role in the recruitment and regulation of monocytic and granulocytic cells in the tumor tissues, suggesting that platelet function may be essential for generation of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils. In this review, we will explore the biology of tumor-associated macrophages and tumor-associated neutrophils and their possible interactions in the tumor microenvironment. Special attention will be given to the recruitment and activation of these tumor-associated cells and to the roles they play in maintenance of the tumor microenvironment and progression of tumors. PMID:26966341

  8. Granule Protein Processing and Regulated Secretion in Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Sheshachalam, Avinash; Srivastava, Nutan; Mitchell, Troy; Lacy, Paige; Eitzen, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils are part of a family of granulocytes that, together with eosinophils and basophils, play an essential role in innate immunity. Neutrophils are the most abundant circulating leukocytes and are vital for rapid immune responses, being recruited to sites of injury or infection within minutes, where they can act as specialized phagocytic cells. However, another prominent function of neutrophils is the release of pro-inflammatory compounds, including cytokines, chemokines, and digestive enzymes, which are stored in intracellular compartments and released through regulated exocytosis. Hence, an important feature that contributes to rapid immune responses is capacity of neutrophils to synthesize and store pre-formed pro-inflammatory mediators in specialized intracellular vesicles and thus no new synthesis is required. This review will focus on advancement in three topics relevant to neutrophil secretion. First, we will examine what is known about basal level pro-inflammatory mediator synthesis, trafficking, and storage in secretory compartments. Second, we will review recent advancements in the mechanisms that control vesicle mobilization and the release of pre-formed mediators. Third, we will examine the upregulation and de novo synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators by neutrophils engaged at sites of infection. PMID:25285096

  9. Roles of lung epithelium in neutrophil recruitment during pneumococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kazuko; Ahyi, Ayele-Nati N; Pepper-Cunningham, Zachary A; Ferrari, Joseph D; Wilson, Andrew A; Jones, Matthew R; Quinton, Lee J; Mizgerd, Joseph P

    2014-02-01

    Epithelial cells line the respiratory tract and interface with the external world. Epithelial cells contribute to pulmonary inflammation, but specific epithelial roles have proven difficult to define. To discover unique epithelial activities that influence immunity during infection, we generated mice with nuclear factor-κB RelA mutated throughout all epithelial cells of the lung and coupled this approach with epithelial cell isolation from infected and uninfected lungs for cell-specific analyses of gene induction. The RelA mutant mice appeared normal basally, but in response to pneumococcus in the lungs they were unable to rapidly recruit neutrophils to the air spaces. Epithelial cells expressed multiple neutrophil-stimulating cytokines during pneumonia, all of which depended on RelA. Cytokine expression by nonepithelial cells was unaltered by the epithelial mutation of RelA. Epithelial cells were the predominant sources of CXCL5 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), whereas nonepithelial cells were major sources for other neutrophil-activating cytokines. Epithelial RelA mutation decreased whole lung levels of CXCL5 and GM-CSF during pneumococcal pneumonia, whereas lung levels of other neutrophil-recruiting factors were unaffected. Defective neutrophil recruitment in epithelial mutant mice could be rescued by administration of CXCL5 or GM-CSF. These results reveal a specialized immune function for the pulmonary epithelium, the induction of CXCL5 and GM-CSF, to accelerate neutrophil recruitment in the infected lung.

  10. Neutrophil surface presentation of the anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-antigen proteinase 3 depends on N-terminal processing

    PubMed Central

    von Vietinghoff, S; Eulenberg, C; Wellner, M; Luft, F C; Kettritz, R

    2008-01-01

    The neutrophil serine protease proteinase 3 (PR3) is a main autoantigen in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. PR3 surface presentation on neutrophilic granulocytes, the main effector cells, is pathogenically important. PR3 is presented by the NB1 (CD177) glycoprotein, but how the presentation develops during neutrophil differentiation is not known. An N-terminally unprocessed PR3 (proPR3) is produced early during neutrophil development and promotes myeloid cell differentiation. We therefore investigated if PR3 presentation depended on NB1 during neutrophil differentiation and if PR3 and proPR3 could both be presented by NB1. In contrast to mature neutrophils, differentiating neutrophils showed an early NB1-independent PR3 surface display that was recognized by only two of four monoclonal anti-PR3 antibodies and occurred in parallel with proPR3, but not PR3 secretion, suggesting that the NB1-independent surface PR3 was proPR3. PR3 gene expression preceeded NB1. When the NB1 receptor was detected on the surface, a mode of PR3 surface display similar to mature neutrophils developed together with the degranulation system. Ectopic expression studies showed that NB1 was a sufficient receptor for PR3 but not proPR3. ProPR3 display on the plasma membrane may influence the bone marrow microenvironment. NB1-mediated PR3 presentation depended on PR3 N-terminal processing implicating the PR3–N-terminus as NB1-binding site. PMID:18462208

  11. Technical Advance: Autofluorescence-based sorting: rapid and nonperturbing isolation of ultrapure neutrophils to determine cytokine production

    PubMed Central

    Dorward, David A.; Lucas, Christopher D.; Alessandri, Ana L.; Marwick, John A.; Rossi, Fiona; Dransfield, Ian; Haslett, Christopher; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Rossi, Adriano G.

    2013-01-01

    The technical limitations of isolating neutrophils without contaminating leukocytes, while concurrently minimizing neutrophil activation, is a barrier to determining specific neutrophil functions. We aimed to assess the use of FACS for generating highly pure quiescent neutrophil populations in an antibody-free environment. Peripheral blood human granulocytes and murine bone marrow-derived neutrophils were isolated by discontinuous Percoll gradient and flow-sorted using FSC/SSC profiles and differences in autofluorescence. Postsort purity was assessed by morphological analysis and flow cytometry. Neutrophil activation was measured in unstimulated-unsorted and sorted cells and in response to fMLF, LTB4, and PAF by measuring shape change, CD62L, and CD11b expression; intracellular calcium flux; and chemotaxis. Cytokine production by human neutrophils was also determined. Postsort human neutrophil purity was 99.95% (sem=0.03; n=11; morphological analysis), and 99.68% were CD16+ve (sem=0.06; n=11), with similar results achieved for murine neutrophils. Flow sorting did not alter neutrophil activation or chemotaxis, relative to presorted cells, and no differences in response to agonists were observed. Stimulated neutrophils produced IL-1β, although to a lesser degree than CXCL8/IL-8. The exploitation of the difference in autofluorescence between neutrophils and eosinophils by FACS is a quick and effective method for generating highly purified populations for subsequent in vitro study. PMID:23667167

  12. Staphylococcal enterotoxin A regulates bone marrow granulocyte trafficking during pulmonary inflammatory disease in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Takeshita, W.M.; Gushiken, V.O.; Ferreira-Duarte, A.P.; Pinheiro-Torres, A.S.; Roncalho-Buck, I.A.; Squebola-Cola, D.M.; Mello, G.C.; Anhê, G.F.; Antunes, E.; DeSouza, I.A.

    2015-09-15

    Pulmonary neutrophil infiltration produced by Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) airway exposure is accompanied by marked granulocyte accumulation in bone marrow (BM). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of BM cell accumulation, and trafficking to circulating blood and lung tissue after SEA airway exposure. Male BALB/C mice were intranasally exposed to SEA (1 μg), and at 4, 12 and 24 h thereafter, BM, circulating blood, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue were collected. Adhesion of BM granulocytes and flow cytometry for MAC-1, LFA1-α and VLA-4 and cytokine and/or chemokine levels were assayed after SEA-airway exposure. Prior exposure to SEA promoted a marked PMN influx to BAL and lung tissue, which was accompanied by increased counts of immature and/or mature neutrophils and eosinophils in BM, along with blood neutrophilia. Airway exposure to SEA enhanced BM neutrophil MAC-1 expression, and adhesion to VCAM-1 and/or ICAM-1-coated plates. Elevated levels of GM-CSF, G-CSF, INF-γ, TNF-α, KC/CXCL-1 and SDF-1α were detected in BM after SEA exposure. SEA exposure increased production of eosinopoietic cytokines (eotaxin and IL-5) and BM eosinophil VLA-4 expression, but it failed to affect eosinophil adhesion to VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. In conclusion, BM neutrophil accumulation after SEA exposure takes place by integrated action of cytokines and/or chemokines, enhancing the adhesive responses of BM neutrophils and its trafficking to lung tissues, leading to acute lung injury. BM eosinophil accumulation in SEA-induced acute lung injury may occur via increased eosinopoietic cytokines and VLA-4 expression. - Highlights: • Airway exposure to SEA causes acute lung inflammation. • SEA induces accumulation of bone marrow (BM) in immature and mature neutrophils. • SEA increases BM granulocyte or BM PMN adhesion to ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and MAC-1 expression. • SEA induces BM elevations of CXCL-1, INF-γ, TNF-α, GM-CSF, G-CSF and

  13. Simultaneous flow cytometric evaluation of phagocytosis and oxidative burst in human polymorphonuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Horvathova, M; Wsolova, L; Jahnova, E

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytosis and oxidative burst (OXIBURST) activity of human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) has been simultaneously measured directly in whole blood samples. The ingestion of yeast was assessed by the phagocytosis activity (FA) and phagocytosis index (FI), and the respiratory burst of PMNs was determined as dihydroethidine (DHE) oxidation. We received comparable results in the ingestion of yeast cells by PMNs using either light microscopy (77.31+/-7.56) or flow cytometry detection method (78.26+/-5.14). The significant differences (p<0.05) in FI and OXIBURST activity were find in the patients (2.29+/-0.29 and 14.67+/-3.99, respectively) when compared to healthy donors (1.64+/-0.21 and 32.38+/-14.94, respectively). The two-color flow cytometric procedure permits measurement of two different functions of neutrophils in one step. This flow cytometric procedure is simple, rapid and has the potential to be an alternative assay to test leukocyte function. (Fig. 3, Ref: 30.)

  14. Autoantibodies against neutrophils and monocytes: tool for diagnosis and marker of disease activity in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, F J; Rasmussen, N; Lobatto, S; Wiik, A; Permin, H; van Es, L A; van der Giessen, M; van der Hem, G K; The, T H

    1985-02-23

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies against extranuclear components of polymorphonuclear granulocytes were detected in 25 of 27 serum samples from patients with active Wegener's granulomatosis and in only 4 of 32 samples from patients without signs of disease activity. In a prospective study of 19 patients these antibodies proved to be better markers of disease activity than several other laboratory measurements used previously. The autoantibodies were disease specific and the titres were related to the results of an in-vitro granulocyte phagocytosis test, in which 7S IgG antibodies were internalised after specific binding to the cell, resulting in gradual formation of ring-like cytoplasmic structures. This autoantibody may have a pathogenetic role in Wegener's granulomatosis. The detection of this antibody is valuable for diagnosis and estimation of disease activity.

  15. Neutrophilic dermatoses in children.

    PubMed

    Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J

    2008-01-01

    The neutrophilic dermatoses are rare disorders, especially in children, and are characterized by neutrophilic infiltrates in the skin and less commonly in extracutaneous tissue. The neutrophilic dermatoses share similar clinical appearances and associated conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, malignancies, and medications. Overlap forms of disease demonstrating features of multiple neutrophilic dermatoses may be seen. The manuscript attempts to provide an up-to-date review of (i) classical neutrophilic dermatoses, focusing on distinctive features in children and (ii) neutrophilic dermatoses which may largely be pediatric or genodermatosis-associated (Majeed, SAPHO [synovitis, severe acne, sterile palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis] syndrome, PAPA (pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne), PFAPA (periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenopathy), and other periodic fever syndromes, and congenital erosive and vesicular dermatosis healing with reticulated supple scarring).

  16. Primary granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, G; Gangadharan, V P; Elizabath, K A; Preetha, S; Chithrathara, K

    2000-06-01

    Granulocytic sarcomas are rare extramedullary tumors of malignant myeloid precursor cells. Exceedingly rare in childhood, it commonly involves skin, lymph nodes, bone, and the spine. Ovarian involvement is rare. It can arise de novo, precede the development of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, or be the sole manifestation of relapse. We describe a 26-year-old woman with granulocytic sarcoma of the ovary without any hematologic disorder.

  17. Clinical relevance of polymorphonuclear (PMN-) elastase determination in semen and serum during infertility investigation.

    PubMed

    Eggert-Kruse, W; Zimmermann, K; Geissler, W; Ehrmann, A; Boit, R; Strowitzki, T

    2009-08-01

    The polymorphonuclear (PMN) elastase is secreted by activated granulocytes and is widely used as a marker of male accessory gland infection. However, the clinical value of routine determination of seminal plasma (SP) PMN elastase in asymptomatic patients during infertility investigation has not clearly been established and not much is known about the significance of PMN-elastase levels in serum as a potential biochemical determinant associated with infection/inflammation of the male genital tract. This prospective study included a total of 221 asymptomatic males from unselected subfertile couples, to evaluate the relationship of (i) serum and (ii) same-day SP PMN elastase concentrations with established semen quality parameters, including sperm functional capacity, local antisperm antibodies (ASA), seminal leucocytes, and the outcome of semen cultures including typical sexually transmitted disease pathogens, and a potential association with patients' medical history and results of clinical andrological examination. Furthermore, couples were followed up for subsequent fertility (controlled for female infertility factors). The concentrations of PMN elastase in serum and in SP were not significantly related to semen quality [with regard to microscopic (e.g. count, motility, morphology) as well as biochemical parameters, and also to local ASA of the IgG- or IgA-class]. There was no strong relationship with sperm functional capacity. No significant relationship with the outcome of the microbial screening was found. PMN-elastase levels in serum and SP were not significantly correlated and there was no association with subsequent fertility. Therefore, the value of routine determination of PMN elastase in semen and/or serum samples, particularly when used as a single parameter to screen for subclinical infection/inflammation in males under infertility investigation is limited.

  18. Leucine Rich α-2 Glycoprotein: A Novel Neutrophil Granule Protein and Modulator of Myelopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Druhan, Lawrence J.; Lance, Amanda; Li, Shimena; Price, Andrea E.; Emerson, Jacob T.; Baxter, Sarah A.; Gerber, Jonathan M.; Avalos, Belinda R.

    2017-01-01

    Leucine-rich α2 glycoprotein (LRG1), a serum protein produced by hepatocytes, has been implicated in angiogenesis and tumor promotion. Our laboratory previously reported the expression of LRG1 in murine myeloid cell lines undergoing neutrophilic granulocyte differentiation. However, the presence of LRG1 in primary human neutrophils and a role for LRG1 in regulation of hematopoiesis have not been previously described. Here we show that LRG1 is packaged into the granule compartment of human neutrophils and secreted upon neutrophil activation to modulate the microenvironment. Using immunofluorescence microscopy and direct biochemical measurements, we demonstrate that LRG1 is present in the peroxidase-negative granules of human neutrophils. Exocytosis assays indicate that LRG1 is differentially glycosylated in neutrophils, and co-released with the secondary granule protein lactoferrin. Like LRG1 purified from human serum, LRG1 secreted from activated neutrophils also binds cytochrome c. We also show that LRG1 antagonizes the inhibitory effects of TGFβ1 on colony growth of human CD34+ cells and myeloid progenitors. Collectively, these data invoke an additional role for neutrophils in innate immunity that has not previously been reported, and suggest a novel mechanism whereby neutrophils may modulate the microenvironment via extracellular release of LRG1. PMID:28081565

  19. High Throughput Measurement of Extracellular DNA Release and Quantitative NET Formation in Human Neutrophils In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Sil, Payel; Yoo, Dae-Goon; Floyd, Madison; Gingerich, Aaron; Rada, Balazs

    2016-06-18

    Neutrophil granulocytes are the most abundant leukocytes in the human blood. Neutrophils are the first to arrive at the site of infection. Neutrophils developed several antimicrobial mechanisms including phagocytosis, degranulation and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs consist of a DNA scaffold decorated with histones and several granule markers including myeloperoxidase (MPO) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE). NET release is an active process involving characteristic morphological changes of neutrophils leading to expulsion of their DNA into the extracellular space. NETs are essential to fight microbes, but uncontrolled release of NETs has been associated with several disorders. To learn more about the clinical relevance and the mechanism of NET formation, there is a need to have reliable tools capable of NET quantitation. Here three methods are presented that can assess NET release from human neutrophils in vitro. The first one is a high throughput assay to measure extracellular DNA release from human neutrophils using a membrane impermeable DNA-binding dye. In addition, two other methods are described capable of quantitating NET formation by measuring levels of NET-specific MPO-DNA and HNE-DNA complexes. These microplate-based methods in combination provide great tools to efficiently study the mechanism and regulation of NET formation of human neutrophils.

  20. Sexual dimorphism in the effect of sound stress on neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adrienne S; Levine, Jon D; Green, Paul G

    2008-12-15

    It has been hypothesized that stress contributes to the severity of inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are incompletely understood. In this study we investigated the effects of sound stress on function of the polymorphonuclear neutrophil-immune cells that play key roles in both the acute and chronic inflammatory response. Specifically, we examined the effect of stress on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phagocytosis by rat neutrophils, and the role of sympathoadrenal stress axis in these effects. Since many inflammatory diseases exhibit sexual dimorphism, we also investigated the contribution of sex and gonadal hormones to the effects of stress on neutrophil function. Peripheral blood neutrophils were harvested from male and female rats exposed to intermittent sound stress (over 4 days). Stress suppressed ROS production in males (but not females) an effect that was eliminated in adrenal medullectomized males. Stress also suppressed neutrophil phagocytosis in males and females. Again, this effect was absent following adrenal medullectomy. To investigate the role of sex hormones in these sexual dimorphic responses to stress, rats were gonadectomized prepubertally and exposed to stress as adults. In gonadectomized males, stress produced an even larger decrease in ROS production, but had no effect on the stress-induced inhibition of phagocytosis. Gonadectomy prevented the stress-induced inhibition of neutrophil phagocytosis in females. These data indicate that the adrenal medulla, perhaps via release of epinephrine, suppresses neutrophil ROS production in males and phagocytosis in males and females.

  1. G-CSF Analogue Treatment Increases Peripheral Neutrophil Numbers in Pigs - a Potential Alternative for In-Feed Antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunomodulators is a promising area for therapeutic, prophylactic, and metaphylactic use to prevent and combat infectious disease during periods of peak disease incidence. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhances neutrophil production and release from the bone marrow and is already li...

  2. Neutrophils in cancer.

    PubMed

    Treffers, Louise W; Hiemstra, Ida H; Kuijpers, Taco W; van den Berg, Timo K; Matlung, Hanke L

    2016-09-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in cancer. This does not only relate to the well-established prognostic value of the presence of neutrophils, either in the blood or in tumor tissue, in the context of cancer progression or for the monitoring of therapy, but also to their active role in the progression of cancer. In the current review, we describe what is known in general about the role of neutrophils in cancer. What is emerging is a complex, rather heterogeneous picture with both pro- and anti-tumorigenic roles, which apparently differs with cancer type and disease stage. Furthermore, we will discuss the well-known role of neutrophils as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and also on the role of neutrophils as important effector cells during antibody therapy in cancer. It is clear that neutrophils contribute substantially to cancer progression in multiple ways, and this includes both direct effects on the cancer cells and indirect effect on the tumor microenvironment. While in many cases neutrophils have been shown to promote tumor progression, for instance by acting as MDSC, there are also protective effects, particularly when antibody immunotherapy is performed. A better understanding of the role of neutrophils is likely to provide opportunities for immunomodulation and for improving the treatment of cancer patients.

  3. Granulocyte antigen systems and antibodies and their clinical significance

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, J.

    1983-03-01

    Granulocyte alloantibodies and autoantibodies have a key role in the pathophysiology of several clinical problems. These include febrile transfusion reactions, severe pulmonary reactions to transfusion, isoimmune neonatal neutropenia, failure of effective granulocyte transfusion, autoimmune neutropenia, drug-induced neutropenia, and neutropenias secondary to many other diseases. Although many techniques are available for detecting granulocyte antibodies, the optimal in-vitro tests for predicting the antibodies' clinical effects are not established. Use of indium-111-labeled granulocytes may provide valuable information regarding the in-vivo effects of different granulocyte antibodies. Granulocyte transfusions continue to be used for a limited number of severely infected neutropenic patients who do not respond to antibiotic therapy.

  4. Effects of pyocyanine, a phenazine dye from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, on oxidative burst and bacterial killing in human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, P K; Krohn, K; Mühlradt, P F

    1989-01-01

    The effects of pyocyanine (phenazinium, 1-hydroxy-5-methyl-hydroxide, inner salt) on oxidative burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were studied by several different approaches. In a cell- and enzyme-free system, pyocyanine oxidized NADPH. The reduced pyocyanine could be measured by its reaction with ferricytochrome c. It was shown by this assay that resting as well as phorbol myristate acetate- or zymosan-stimulated granulocytes reduced pyocyanine. The effect was independent of mitochondria, as cytoplasts were similarly active. Measurement of the hexose monophosphate shunt in intact granulocytes in the presence of pyocyanine indicated a concentration-dependent activation of the shunt without the generation of O2-, suggesting that pyocyanine oxidizes NADPH to NADP+ when it enters granulocytes. Intracellular NADPH in granulocytes was indeed lowered by almost 40% after incubation with pyocyanine. It is by this shuttling of reduction equivalents, leading to the partial depletion of NADPH, that pyocyanine affects the observed concentration-dependent partial inhibition of the phorbol myristate acetate- and zymosan-stimulated generation of O2-. A further consequence was that the intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus was also partially suppressed, particularly at higher loads of granulocytes with bacteria. Phagocytosis was not inhibited by pyocyanine concentrations as high as 500 microM. Pyocyanine did not affect the intracellular killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The possible relevance of these findings to the course of mixed hospital infections in immunocompromised patients is discussed. PMID:2547716

  5. Invasive amoebiasis is associated with the development of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Pudifin, D J; Duursma, J; Gathiram, V; Jackson, T F

    1994-01-01

    Features of tissue damage in invasive amoebiasis, in particular polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) degranulation and vasculitis, bear resemblance to that seen in Wegener's granulomatosis, the latter being associated with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). We therefore tested sera from patients with confirmed amoebic liver abscess (ALA) for the presence of ANCA by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody test using pure neutrophils as substrate. ANCA was detected in 97.4% of amoebic sera; the pattern of staining was cytoplasmic, homogeneous, without central accentuation (C-ANCA). A proteinase 3 (PR3) ELISA demonstrated PR3 specificity in 75% of C-ANCA-positive ALA sera. Possible explanations are (i) a cross-reacting antibody to a component of Entamoeba histolytica, or (ii) an antibody to PMN components released, and possibly modified, by the action of E. histolytica on PMN. It is possible that this antibody contributes to the pathogenesis of invasive amoebiasis. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8033420

  6. Invasive amoebiasis is associated with the development of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody.

    PubMed

    Pudifin, D J; Duursma, J; Gathiram, V; Jackson, T F

    1994-07-01

    Features of tissue damage in invasive amoebiasis, in particular polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) degranulation and vasculitis, bear resemblance to that seen in Wegener's granulomatosis, the latter being associated with the presence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA). We therefore tested sera from patients with confirmed amoebic liver abscess (ALA) for the presence of ANCA by means of an indirect fluorescent antibody test using pure neutrophils as substrate. ANCA was detected in 97.4% of amoebic sera; the pattern of staining was cytoplasmic, homogeneous, without central accentuation (C-ANCA). A proteinase 3 (PR3) ELISA demonstrated PR3 specificity in 75% of C-ANCA-positive ALA sera. Possible explanations are (i) a cross-reacting antibody to a component of Entamoeba histolytica, or (ii) an antibody to PMN components released, and possibly modified, by the action of E. histolytica on PMN. It is possible that this antibody contributes to the pathogenesis of invasive amoebiasis.

  7. Improved viability and activity of neutrophils differentiated from HL-60 cells by co-culture with adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yoon Shin; Lim, Goh-Woon; Cho, Kyung-Ah; Woo, So-Youn; Shin, Meeyoung; Yoo, Eun-Sun; Chan Ra, Jeong; Ryu, Kyung-Ha

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-culture of neutrophils with AD-MSC retained cell survival and proliferation and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum starved conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD-MSC increased functions of neutrophil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD-MSC promoted the viability of neutrophils by enhancing respiratory burst through the expression of IFN-{alpha}, G-CSF, and TGF-{beta}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AD-MSC can be used to improve immunity for neutropenia treatment. -- Abstract: Neutropenia is a principal complication of cancer treatment. We investigated the supportive effect of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AD-MSCs) on the viability and function of neutrophils. Neutrophils were derived from HL-60 cells by dimethylformamide stimulation and cultured with or without AD-MSCs under serum-starved conditions to evaluate neutrophil survival, proliferation, and function. Serum starvation resulted in the apoptosis of neutrophils and decreased cell survival. The co-culture of neutrophils and AD-MSCs resulted in cell survival and inhibited neutrophil apoptosis under serum-starved conditions. The survival rate of neutrophils was prolonged up to 72 h, and the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-{alpha}, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta} in AD-MSCs were increased after co-culture with neutrophils. AD-MSCs promoted the viability of neutrophils by inhibiting apoptosis as well as enhancing respiratory burst, which could potentially be mediated by the increased expression of IFN-{alpha}, G-CSF, and TGF-{beta}. Thus, we conclude that the use of AD-MSCs may be a promising cell-based therapy for increasing immunity by accelerating neutrophil function.

  8. Hemopathologic consequences of protracted gamma irradiation: alterations in granulocyte reserves and granulocyte mobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.; Cullen, S.M.; Kaspar, L.V.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.

    1980-07-01

    Aplastic anemia and myelogenous leukemia are prominent pathologic effects in beagles exposed to continuous, daily, low-dose gamma irradiation. In the present work, granulocyte reserves and related mobilization functions have been sequentially assessed by the endotoxin stress assay during the preclinical and clinical phases of these hemopoietic disorders. Characteristic patterns of granulocyte reserve mobilization are described that reflect given stages of pathologic progression. For radiation-induced leukemia, a five-stage pattern has been proposed. In contrast, a simple pattern of progressive, time-dependent contraction of granulocyte reserves and mobilization capacity was noted in the development of terminal aplastic anemia. Early preclinical phases of radiation-induced leukemia appear to involve an extensive depletion of the granulocyte reserves (phase I) during the first approx. 200 days of exposure followed by a partial renewal of the reserves and associated mobilization functions between approx. 200 and 400 days (phase II). Sustained, subnormal granulocyte mobilizations (phase III) following endotoxin stress typify the responses of dogs during the intermediate phase, whereas late preclinical, preleukemic stages (phase IV) are characterized by a further expansion of the reserves and in the mobilization capacities, particularly of the less mature granulocytes. Such late alterations in the pattern of granulocyte mobilization, together with other noted cellular aberrancies in the peripheral blood and marrow, appear to indicate leukemia (phase V) onset.

  9. Recovery of neutrophil apoptosis by ectoine: a new strategy against lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sydlik, Ulrich; Peuschel, Henrike; Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Keymel, Stefanie; Krämer, Ursula; Weissenberg, Alexander; Kroker, Matthias; Seghrouchni, Samira; Heiss, Christian; Windolf, Joachim; Bilstein, Andreas; Kelm, Malte; Krutmann, Jean; Unfried, Klaus

    2013-02-01

    The life span of neutrophilic granulocytes has a determining impact on the intensity and duration of neutrophil driven lung inflammation. Based on the compatible solute ectoine, we aimed to prevent anti-apoptotic reactions in neutrophils triggered by the inflammatory microenvironment in the lung. Neutrophils from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients and control individuals were exposed to inflammatory mediators and xenobiotics in the presence or absence of ectoine. The in vivo relevance of this approach was tested in xenobiotic-induced lung inflammation in rats. The reduction of apoptosis rates of ex vivo-exposed neutrophils from all study groups was significantly restored in the presence of ectoine. However, natural apoptosis rates not altered by inflammatory stimuli were not changed by ectoine. Mechanistic analyses demonstrated the preventive effect of ectoine on the induction of anti-apoptotic signalling. Neutrophilic lung inflammation induced by single or multiple expositions of animals to environmental particles was reduced after the therapeutic intervention with ectoine. Analyses of neutrophils from bronchoalveolar lavage indicate that the in vivo effect is due to the restoration of neutrophil apoptosis. Ectoine, a compound of the highly compliant group of compatible solutes, demonstrates a reproducible and robust effect on the resolution of lung inflammation.

  10. Neutrophil paralysis in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Alves-Filho, José C; Spiller, Fernando; Cunha, Fernando Q

    2010-09-01

    Sepsis develops when the initial host response is unable to contain the primary infection, resulting in widespread inflammation and multiple organ dysfunction. The impairment of neutrophil migration into the infection site, also termed neutrophil paralysis, is a critical hallmark of sepsis, which is directly related to the severity of the disease. Although the precise mechanism of this phenomenon is not fully understood, there has been much advancement in the understanding of this field. In this review, we highlight the recent insights into the molecular mechanisms of neutrophil paralysis during sepsis.

  11. Long Term Cryopreservation of Dog Granulocytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-21

    using DINGO , HES and autologous plasma as the cryoprotectant. Our laboratory, employing CCE of whole blood and buffy coats, has also reported...cryopreservation of dog (1), baboon (3) and guinea pig granulocytes (4) using 5% DMSO, 6% HES, and 4% bovine serum albumin (BSA) formulated in Normosol-R pH 7.4...Hunt, S.M., Sehepis, R., Roy, A.J., Liss, R., Valeri, C.R.: In vitro distribution of cryopreserved guinea pig granulocytes. Cryobiology 1980; 17:1-11. S

  12. Metabolic regulation of neutrophil spreading, membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) formation and intracellular pH upon adhesion to fibronectin.

    PubMed

    Galkina, Svetlana I; Sud'ina, Galina F; Klein, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Circulating leukocytes have a round cell shape and roll along vessel walls. However, metabolic disorders can lead them to adhere to the endothelium and spread (flatten). We studied the metabolic regulation of adhesion, spreading and intracellular pH (pHi) of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) upon adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrata. Resting neutrophils adhered and spread on fibronectin. An increase in pHi accompanied neutrophil spreading. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation or inhibition of P- and F-type ATPases affected neither neutrophil spreading nor pHi. Inhibition of glucose metabolism or V-ATPase impaired neutrophil spreading, blocked the increase in the pHi and induced extrusion of membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes), anchoring cells to substrata. Omission of extracellular Na(+) and inhibition of chloride channels caused a similar effect. We propose that these tubulovesicular extensions represent protrusions of exocytotic trafficking, supplying the plasma membrane of neutrophils with ion exchange mechanisms and additional membrane for spreading. Glucose metabolism and V-type ATPase could affect fusion of exocytotic trafficking with the plasma membrane, thus controlling neutrophil adhesive state and pHi. Cl(-) efflux through chloride channels and Na(+) influx seem to be involved in the regulation of the V-ATPase by carrying out charge compensation for the proton-pumping activity and through V-ATPase in regulation of neutrophil spreading and pHi.

  13. Metabolic regulation of neutrophil spreading, membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes) formation and intracellular pH upon adhesion to fibronectin

    SciTech Connect

    Galkina, Svetlana I. . E-mail: galkina@genebee.msu.su; Sud'ina, Galina F.; Klein, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Circulating leukocytes have a round cell shape and roll along vessel walls. However, metabolic disorders can lead them to adhere to the endothelium and spread (flatten). We studied the metabolic regulation of adhesion, spreading and intracellular pH (pHi) of neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) upon adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrata. Resting neutrophils adhered and spread on fibronectin. An increase in pHi accompanied neutrophil spreading. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation or inhibition of P- and F-type ATPases affected neither neutrophil spreading nor pHi. Inhibition of glucose metabolism or V-ATPase impaired neutrophil spreading, blocked the increase in the pHi and induced extrusion of membrane tubulovesicular extensions (cytonemes), anchoring cells to substrata. Omission of extracellular Na{sup +} and inhibition of chloride channels caused a similar effect. We propose that these tubulovesicular extensions represent protrusions of exocytotic trafficking, supplying the plasma membrane of neutrophils with ion exchange mechanisms and additional membrane for spreading. Glucose metabolism and V-type ATPase could affect fusion of exocytotic trafficking with the plasma membrane, thus controlling neutrophil adhesive state and pHi. Cl{sup -} efflux through chloride channels and Na{sup +} influx seem to be involved in the regulation of the V-ATPase by carrying out charge compensation for the proton-pumping activity and through V-ATPase in regulation of neutrophil spreading and pHi.

  14. Propensity of crocin to offset Vipera russelli venom induced oxidative stress mediated neutrophil apoptosis: a biochemical insight.

    PubMed

    Santhosh, M Sebastin; Sundaram, M Shanmuga; Sunitha, K; Jnaneshwari, S; Devaraja, S; Kemparaju, K; Girish, K S

    2016-01-01

    Viper envenomation results in inflammation at the bitten site as well as target organs. Neutrophils and other polymorphonuclear leukocytes execute inflammation resolving mechanism and will undergo apoptosis after completing the task. However, the target specific toxins induce neutrophil apoptosis at the bitten site and in circulation prior to their function, thus reducing their number. Circulating activated neutrophils are major source of inflammatory cytokines and leakage of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/other toxic intermediates resulting in aggravation of inflammatory response at the bitten/target site. Therefore, neutralization of venom induced neutrophil apoptosis reduces inflammation besides increasing the functional neutrophil population. Therefore, the present study investigates the venom induced perturbances in isolated human neutrophils and its neutralization by crocin (Crocus sativus) a potent antioxidant carotenoid. Human neutrophils on treatment with venom resulted in altered ROS generation, intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cyt-c translocation, caspase activation, phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA damage. On the other hand significant protection against oxidative stress and apoptosis were evidenced in crocin pre-treated groups. In conclusion the viper venom induces neutrophil apoptosis and results in aggravation of inflammation and tissue damage. The present study demands the necessity of an auxiliary therapy in addition to antivenin therapy to treat secondary/overlooked complications of envenomation.

  15. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte motility in men with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed Central

    Pease, C T; Fennell, M; Brewerton, D A

    1989-01-01

    The polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) response to a chemotactic or chemokinetic stimulus is enhanced in men with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This effect does not parallel the severity of disease activity or the size of the acute phase response, and it is independent of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment. Polymorph function is normal in HLA-B27 positive brothers of probands with AS and in other HLA-B27 positive individuals in the absence of disease. Polymorph motility is also normal in patients with psoriasis vulgaris or Crohn's disease, indicating that enhanced PMN motility is not a non-specific consequence of all inflammatory disorders. PMID:2784306

  16. Cytotoxic immigration of granulocytes into megakaryocytes as a late consequence of irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, W.; Alabi, R.; Nothdurft, W.; Fliedner, T.M.

    1994-05-01

    The immigration of neutrophilic granulocytes into megakaryocyte was studied in the bone marrow of normal and X-irradiated beagle under various exposure conditions. Two groups of dogs received homogeneous total-body irradiation. One group received a dose of 1.6 Gy and the other received a dose of 2.4 Gy (midline tissue). A third group was irradiated from the left side of the body only. This exposure resulted in an inhomogeneous total-body irradiation (entrance dose 3.8 Gy, exit dose 0.9 Gy). A fourth group of animals received partial-body irradiation with a dose of 11.7 Gy delivered to the anterior two-thirds of the body, thereby subjecting about 70% of the hemopoietic marrow to irradiation. Dogs of a fifth group remained unexposed to irradiation and served as controls. The marrow was analyzed in sections of the ribs approximately 1 year after irradiation. The total number of megakaryocytes in one section was evaluated. The number of megakaryocytes showing granulocytes in their cytoplasm was determined and expressed as a percentage. This phenomenon can be explained as cytotoxic immigration of granulocytes into megakaryocytes. It was observed in approximately 1-2 of the megakaryocytes in the marrow of normal dogs. One year after irradiation the value increased of normal dogs. One year after irradiation the value increased to 10-26%. It was observed that neutrophilic granuloytes penetrated only into the large mature megakaryocytes in which the nuclei were most pyknotic. This phenomenon may be considered as a late effect of irradiation. 15 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Neutrophil Elastase, Proteinase 3, and Cathepsin G as Therapeutic Targets in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Marshall S.; Jenne, Dieter E.; Gauthier, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are the first cells recruited to inflammatory sites and form the earliest line of defense against invading microorganisms. Neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are three hematopoietic serine proteases stored in large quantities in neutrophil cytoplasmic azurophilic granules. They act in combination with reactive oxygen species to help degrade engulfed microorganisms inside phagolysosomes. These proteases are also externalized in an active form during neutrophil activation at inflammatory sites, thus contributing to the regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. As multifunctional proteases, they also play a regulatory role in noninfectious inflammatory diseases. Mutations in the ELA2/ELANE gene, encoding neutrophil elastase, are the cause of human congenital neutropenia. Neutrophil membrane-bound proteinase 3 serves as an autoantigen in Wegener granulomatosis, a systemic autoimmune vasculitis. All three proteases are affected by mutations of the gene (CTSC) encoding dipeptidyl peptidase I, a protease required for activation of their proform before storage in cytoplasmic granules. Mutations of CTSC cause Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. Because of their roles in host defense and disease, elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G are of interest as potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we describe the physicochemical functions of these proteases, toward a goal of better delineating their role in human diseases and identifying new therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of their bioavailability and activity. We also describe how nonhuman primate experimental models could assist with testing the efficacy of proposed therapeutic strategies. PMID:21079042

  18. Interaction of Bovine Peripheral Blood Polymorphonuclear Cells and Leptospira Species; Innate Responses in the Natural Bovine Reservoir Host

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Welder, Jennifer H.; Frank, Ami T.; Hornsby, Richard L.; Olsen, Steven C.; Alt, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Cattle are the reservoir hosts of Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo, and can also be reservoir hosts of other Leptospira species such as L. kirschneri, and Leptospira interrogans. As a reservoir host, cattle shed Leptospira, infecting other animals, including humans. Previous studies with human and murine neutrophils have shown activation of neutrophil extracellular trap or NET formation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators by neutrophils in the presence of Leptospira. Humans, companion animals and most widely studied models of Leptospirosis are of acute infection, hallmarked by systemic inflammatory response, neutrophilia, and septicemia. In contrast, cattle exhibit chronic infection with few outward clinical signs aside from reproductive failure. Taking into consideration that there is host species variation in innate immunity, especially in pathogen recognition and response, the interaction of bovine peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and several Leptospira strains was evaluated. Studies including bovine-adapted strains, human pathogen strains, a saprophyte and inactivated organisms. Incubation of PMNs with Leptospira did induce slight activation of neutrophil NETs, greater than unstimulated cells but less than the quantity from E. coli P4 stimulated PMNs. Very low but significant from non-stimulated, levels of reactive oxygen peroxides were produced in the presence of all Leptospira strains and E. coli P4. Similarly, significant levels of reactive nitrogen intermediaries (NO2) was produced from PMNs when incubated with the Leptospira strains and greater quantities in the presence of E. coli P4. PMNs incubated with Leptospira induced RNA transcripts of IL-1β, MIP-1α, and TNF-α, with greater amounts induced by live organisms when compared to heat-inactivated leptospires. Transcript for inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was also induced, at similar levels regardless of Leptospira strain or viability. However, incubation of Leptospira strains

  19. Cellular Pharmacokinetics of the Novel Biaryloxazolidinone Radezolid in Phagocytic Cells: Studies with Macrophages and Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils▿

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Sandrine; Tulkens, Paul M.; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    Radezolid (RX-1741) is the first biaryloxazolidinone in clinical development. It shows improved activity, including against linezolid-resistant strains. Radezolid differs from linezolid by the presence of a biaryl spacer and of a heteroaryl side chain, which increases the ionization and hydrophilicity of the molecule at physiological pH and confers to it a dibasic character. The aim of this study was to determine the accumulation and subcellular distribution of radezolid in phagocytic cells and to decipher the underlying mechanisms. In THP-1 human macrophages, J774 mouse macrophages, and human polymorphonuclear neutrophils, radezolid accumulated rapidly and reversibly (half-lives of approximately 6 min and 9 min for uptake and efflux, respectively) to reach, at equilibrium, a cellular concentration 11-fold higher than the extracellular one. This process was concentration and energy independent but pH dependent (accumulation was reduced to 20 to 30% of control values for cells in medium at a pH of <6 or in the presence of monensin, which collapses pH gradients between the extracellular and intracellular compartments). The accumulation at equilibrium was not affected by efflux pump inhibitors (verapamil and gemfibrozil) and was markedly reduced at 4°C but was further increased in medium with low serum content. Subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated a dual subcellular distribution for radezolid, with ∼60% of the drug colocalizing to the cytosol and ∼40% to the lysosomes, with no specific association with mitochondria. These observations are compatible with a mechanism of transmembrane diffusion of the free fraction and partial segregation of radezolid in lysosomes by proton trapping, as previously described for macrolides. PMID:20385873

  20. The effect of an NADH oxidase inhibitor (hydrocortisone) on polymorphonuclear leukocyte bactericidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Gerald L.; Rubin, Walter; Hook, Edward W.

    1970-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) from patients with chronic granulomatous disease of childhood have impaired bactericidal activity and are deficient in diphosphopyridine nucleotide, reduced form of, (NADH) oxidase. Since hydrocortisone had been shown to inhibit NADH oxidation, experiments were undertaken to determine the effect of hydrocortisone on several parameters of human PMN function. The phagocytic and bactericidal capacity of PMN with or without hydrocortisone (2.1 mM) was determined by quantitation of cell-free, cell-associated, and total bacteria. Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus and several gram-negative rods was unimpaired by the presence of hydrocortisone in the media. In contrast, killing of bacteria was markedly impaired by hydrocortisone. After 30 min of incubation, there were 20-400 times as many bacteria surviving in hydrocortisone-treated PMN as in simultaneously run controls without hydrocortisone. The defect of intracellular killing noted in the presence of hydrocortisone was not related to impaired degranulation. Quantitative kinetic studies of degranulation revealed no difference in the release of granule associated acid phosphatase in hydrocortisone-treated and control PMN after phagocytosis. Electron microscopy of PMN also indicated that the presence of hydrocortisone had no effect on the extent of degranulation after phagocytosis. These observations were confirmed by studies using histochemical techniques to detect lysosomal enzymes. After phagocytosis, hydrocortisone-treated PMN demonstrated less NADH oxidase activity, oxygen consumption, and hydrogen peroxide production than postphagocytic control PMN. In addition, Nitro blue tetrazolium dye reduction was diminished in hydrocortisone-treated PMN. Thus, impairment of NADH oxidase activity in normal human PMN by hydrocortisone results in reduced intracellular killing of bacteria, diminished postphagocytic oxygen consumption, decreased ability to reduce Nitro blue tetrazolium, and

  1. Role of Neutrophil Leukocytes in Cutaneous Infection Caused by Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Mölne, Lena; Verdrengh, Margareta; Tarkowski, Andrzej

    2000-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of cutaneous infections, little is known about the role of host immune responsiveness during Staphylococcus aureus dermatitis. We have recently described a murine model of infectious dermatitis induced by superantigen-producing S. aureus. To assess the role of neutrophils in staphylococcal dermatitis, mice were given granulocyte-depleting monoclonal antibody prior to and on several occasions following intracutaneous inoculation with staphylococci. The granulocyte-depleted mice that had been intradermally inoculated with S. aureus developed crusted ulcerations which tended not to heal, whereas animals injected with control monoclonal antibody displayed only minor and transient skin lesions. The finding of severe ulcerations in neutropenic mice correlated with a significantly higher burden of bacteria in the blood and skin during the early phase of the infection. Importantly, while mice with an intact granulocyte population showed only limited skin infection, bacteremia occurred in the great majority of the neutrophil-depleted animals. As a consequence, the latter individuals exhibited significantly increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 and specific antibodies to staphylococcal cell wall components and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 in the serum. Our data point to a crucial protective role of granulocytes in S. aureus dermatitis. PMID:11035720

  2. Neutrophil chemotaxis by Propionibacterium acnes lipase and its inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, W L; Shalita, A R; Suntharalingam, K; Fikrig, S M

    1982-01-01

    The chemoattraction of Propionibacterium acnes lipase for neutrophils and the effect of lipase inhibitor and two antibiotic agents on the chemotaxis were evaluated. Of the various fractions tested, partially purified lipase (fraction 2c) was the most active cytotaxin produced by P. acnes. Serum mediators were not required for the generation of chemotaxis by lipase in vitro. Diisopropyl phosphofluoridate at low concentration (10(-4) mM) completely inhibited lipase activity as well as polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis generated by lipase. Tetracycline hydrochloride and erythromycin base at concentrations of 10(-1) mM and 1 mM, respectively, caused 100% inhibition of PMN migration toward lipase or zymosan-activated serum. The inhibiting activity of the antibiotics was directed against cells independently of any effect on lipase. Chemotaxis by P. acnes lipase suggests a wider role for this enzyme in the inflammatory process and the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Images PMID:7054130

  3. Blood and inflammatory cells of the lungfish Lepidosiren paradoxa.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Maria Lucia da S; DaMatta, Renato A; Diniz, José A P; de Souza, Wanderley; do Nascimento, Jose Luiz M; de Carvalho, Tecia Maria U

    2007-07-01

    A special interest exists concerning lungfish because they may possess characteristics of the common ancestor of land vertebrates. However, little is known about their blood and inflammatory cells; thus the fine structure, cytochemistry and differential cell counts of coelomic exudate and blood leucocytes were studied in Lepidosiren paradoxa. Blood smear analyses revealed erythrocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, polymorphonuclear agranulocytes, thrombocytes and three different granulocytes. Blood monocytes and lymphocytes had typical vertebrate morphology. Thrombocytes had large vacuoles filled with a myelin rich structure. The polymorphonuclear agranulocyte had a nucleus morphologically similar to the human neutrophil with no apparent granules. Types I and II granulocytes had eosinophilic granules. Type I granulocytes had round or elongated granules heterogeneous in size, while type II had granules with an electron dense core. Type III granulocyte had many basophilic granules. The order of frequency was: type I granulocyte, followed by lymphocyte, type II granulocyte, monocyte, polymorphonuclear agranulocyte and type III granulocyte. Peroxidase localized mainly at the periphery of the granules from type II granulocytes, while no peroxidase expression was detected in type I granulocytes. Alkaline phosphatase was localized in the granules of type II granulocyte and acid phosphatase cytochemistry also labelled a few vacuoles of polymorphonuclear agranulocyte. About 85% of the coelomic inflammatory exudate cell population was type II granulocyte, 10% polymorphonuclear agranulocyte and 5% macrophages as judged by the nucleus and granule morphology. These results indicate that this lungfish utilises type II granulocytes as its main inflammatory granulocytes and that the polymorphonuclear agranulocyte may also be involved in the inflammatory response. The other two granulocytes appear similar to the mammalian eosinophil and basophil. In summary, this lungfish appears to

  4. Role of neutrophils in experimental septicemia and septic arthritis induced by Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed Central

    Verdrengh, M; Tarkowski, A

    1997-01-01

    We have previously described a murine model of hematogenously induced Staphylococcus aureus sepsis and arthritis. In this model, large numbers of granulocytes can be observed both in the circulation and locally in the inflamed synovium within 24 h after bacterial inoculation. To assess the role of neutrophils in this severe infection, mice were given granulocyte-depleting monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5 before being inoculated with S. aureus. All the control mice survived their intravenous injection with 3 x 10(7) CFU of S. aureus, whereas all the mice given RB6-8C5 antibody died of sepsis within 2 to 3 days. Even when the inoculum size was reduced sixfold (i.e., 6 x 10(6) CFU/mouse), 50% of the RB6-8C5-treated animals died within 6 days. The RB6-8C5-treated mice had a significantly higher burden of bacteria in their blood and kidneys 24 and 48 h after bacterial inoculation. In addition, when a suboptimal dose of bacteria was administered, the neutrophil-depleted animals displayed a higher frequency of arthritis than did the controls. The granulocyte-depleted animals exhibited increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and gamma interferon, reflecting the severity of their disease. This is the first direct demonstration of neutrophils playing a crucial protective role in the early phase of S. aureus infection. PMID:9199413

  5. The role of chloride anion and CFTR in killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by normal and CF neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Painter, Richard G; Bonvillain, Ryan W; Valentine, Vincent G; Lombard, Gisele A; LaPlace, Stephanie G; Nauseef, William M; Wang, Guoshun

    2008-06-01

    Chloride anion is essential for myeloperoxidase (MPO) to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). To define whether chloride availability to PMNs affects their HOCl production and microbicidal capacity, we examined how extracellular chloride concentration affects killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA) by normal neutrophils. PMN-mediated bacterial killing was strongly dependent on extracellular chloride concentration. Neutrophils in a chloride-deficient medium killed PsA poorly. However, as the chloride level was raised, the killing efficiency increased in a dose-dependent manner. By using specific inhibitors to selectively block NADPH oxidase, MPO, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) functions, neutrophil-mediated killing of PsA could be attributed to three distinct mechanisms: CFTR-dependent and oxidant-dependent; chloride-dependent but not CFTR- and oxidant-dependent; and independent of any of the tested factors. Therefore, chloride anion is involved in oxidant- and nonoxidant-mediated bacterial killing. We previously reported that neutrophils from CF patients are defective in chlorination of ingested bacteria, suggesting that the chloride channel defect might impair the MPO-hydrogen peroxide-chloride microbicidal function. Here, we compared the competence of killing PsA by neutrophils from normal donors and CF patients. The data demonstrate that the killing rate by CF neutrophils was significantly lower than that by normal neutrophils. CF neutrophils in a chloride-deficient environment had only one-third of the bactericidal capacity of normal neutrophils in a physiological chloride environment. These results suggest that CFTR-dependent chloride anion transport contributes significantly to killing PsA by normal neutrophils and when defective as in CF, may compromise the ability to clear PsA.

  6. NET formation induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis isolates measured as release of myeloperoxidase-DNA and neutrophil elastase-DNA complexes.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae-goon; Floyd, Madison; Winn, Matthew; Moskowitz, Samuel M; Rada, Balázs

    2014-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease is characterized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection and recruitment of neutrophil granulocytes. Neutrophil granule components (myeloperoxidase (MPO), human neutrophil elastase (HNE)), extracellular DNA and P. aeruginosa can all be found in the CF respiratory tract and have all been associated with worsening CF lung function. Pseudomonas-induced formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) offers a likely mechanism for release of MPO, HNE and DNA from neutrophils. NETs are composed of a DNA backbone decorated with granule proteins like MPO and HNE. Here we sought to examine whether CF clinical isolates of Pseudomonas are capable of inducing NET release from human neutrophil granulocytes. We used two methods to quantify NETs. We modified a previously employed ELISA that detects MPO-DNA complexes and established a new HNE-DNA ELISA. We show that these methods reliably quantify MPO-DNA and HNE-DNA complexes, measures of NET formation. We have found that CF isolates of P. aeruginosa stimulate robust respiratory burst and NET release in human neutrophils. By comparing paired "early" and "late" bacterial isolates obtained from the same CF patient we have found that early isolates induced significantly more NET release than late isolates. Our data support that Pseudomonas-induced NET release represents an important mechanism for release of neutrophil-derived CF inflammatory mediators, and confirm that decreased induction of NET formation is required for long-term adaptation of P. aeruginosa to CF airways.

  7. Visualizing the neutrophil response to sterile tissue injury in mouse dermis reveals a three-phase cascade of events.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lai Guan; Qin, Jim S; Roediger, Ben; Wang, Yilin; Jain, Rohit; Cavanagh, Lois L; Smith, Adrian L; Jones, Cheryl A; de Veer, Michael; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Meeusen, Els N; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2011-10-01

    Neutrophil granulocytes traffic into sites of organ injury in which they may not only participate in tissue repair and pathogen clearance but may also contribute to collateral cell damage through the release of noxious mediators. The dynamics and mechanisms of neutrophil migration in the extravascular space toward loci of tissue damage are not well understood. Here, we have used intravital multi-photon microscopy to dissect the behavior of neutrophils in response to tissue injury in the dermis of mice. We found that, following confined physical injury, initially rare scouting neutrophils migrated in a directional manner toward the damage focus. This was followed by the attraction of waves of additional neutrophils, and finally stabilization of the neutrophil cluster around the injury. Although neutrophil migration in the steady state and during the scouting phase depended on pertussis toxin-sensitive signals, the amplification phase was sensitive to interference with the cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose pathway. We finally demonstrated that neutrophil scouts also transit through the non-inflamed dermis, suggesting immunosurveillance function by these cells. Together, our data unravel a three-step cascade of events that mediates the specific accumulation of neutrophils at sites of sterile tissue injury in the interstitial space.

  8. Inhibition of neutrophil priming and tyrosyl phosphorylation by cepharanthine, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug.

    PubMed

    Kobuchi, H; Li, M J; Matsuno, T; Yasuda, T; Utsumi, K

    1992-12-01

    Receptor-mediated superoxide (O2.-)-generation and tyrosyl phosphorylation of neutrophil proteins, such as 58, 65, 84, 108 and 115 kDa, were enhanced by priming cells with granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) [Akimura, K. et al. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 298: 703-709, 1992]. To elucidate the possible involvement of tyrosyl phosphorylation of neutrophil proteins in the enhancing mechanism of O2.- generation, the effect of cepharanthine, a biscoclaurine alkaloid that inhibits phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- and receptor-mediated O2.- generation, on the priming of human peripheral neutrophils (HPPMN) was studied. Both enhancement of formyl-methionyl-leucyl- phenylalanine (FMLP)-mediated O2.- generation and tyrosyl phosphorylation of some neutrophil proteins, i.e., 115, 108 and 84 kDa proteins, by HHPMN after treatment with G-CSF were strongly inhibited by cepharanthine in a concentration- and treatment-time-dependent manner. In contrast, inhibition of PMA-mediated O2.- generation by cepharanthine was weak and independent of treatment time. These results suggest that cepharanthine might inhibit the priming step of neutrophil activation concomitantly with its inhibition of the tyrosyl phosphorylation of some neutrophil proteins that might underlie the mechanism for priming of neutrophils with G-CSF.

  9. Clostridium perfringens α-Toxin Impairs Innate Immunity via Inhibition of Neutrophil Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Takehara, Masaya; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Seike, Soshi; Ohtani, Kaori; Kobayashi, Keiko; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Shimizu, Tohru; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Although granulopoiesis is accelerated to suppress bacteria during infection, some bacteria can still cause life-threatening infections, but the mechanism behind this remains unclear. In this study, we found that mature neutrophils in bone marrow cells (BMCs) were decreased in C. perfringens-infected mice and also after injection of virulence factor α-toxin. C. perfringens infection interfered with the replenishment of mature neutrophils in the peripheral circulation and the accumulation of neutrophils at C. perfringens-infected sites in an α-toxin-dependent manner. Measurements of bacterial colony-forming units in C. perfringens-infected muscle revealed that α-toxin inhibited a reduction in the load of C. perfringens. In vitro treatment of isolated BMCs with α-toxin (phospholipase C) revealed that α-toxin directly decreased mature neutrophils. α-Toxin did not influence the viability of isolated mature neutrophils, while simultaneous treatment of BMCs with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor attenuated the reduction of mature neutrophils by α-toxin. Together, our results illustrate that impairment of the innate immune system by the inhibition of neutrophil differentiation is crucial for the pathogenesis of C. perfringens to promote disease to a life-threatening infection, which provides new insight to understand how pathogenic bacteria evade the host immune system. PMID:27306065

  10. Dipeptidyl peptidase I activates neutrophil-derived serine proteases and regulates the development of acute experimental arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Adkison, April M.; Raptis, Sofia Z.; Kelley, Diane G.; Pham, Christine T.N.

    2002-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment in inflammation is critical for host defense, but excessive accumulation of inflammatory cells can lead to tissue damage. Neutrophil-derived serine proteases (cathepsin G [CG], neutrophil elastase [NE], and proteinase 3 [PR3]) are expressed specifically in mature neutrophils and are thought to play an important role in inflammation. To investigate the role of these proteases in inflammation, we generated a mouse deficient in dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) and established that DPPI is required for the full activation of CG, NE, and PR3. Although DPPI–/– mice have normal in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis and in vivo neutrophil accumulation during sterile peritonitis, they are protected against acute arthritis induced by passive transfer of monoclonal antibodies against type II collagen. Specifically, there is no accumulation of neutrophils in the joints of DPPI–/– mice. This protective effect correlates with the inactivation of neutrophil-derived serine proteases, since NE–/– × CG–/– mice are equally resistant to arthritis induction by anti-collagen antibodies. In addition, protease-deficient mice have decreased response to zymosan- and immune complex–mediated inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch. This defect is accompanied by a decrease in local production of TNF-α and IL-1β. These results implicate DPPI and polymorphonuclear neutrophil–derived serine proteases in the regulation of cytokine production at sites of inflammation. PMID:11827996

  11. Hematologic improvement in dogs with parvovirus infection treated with recombinant canine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Duffy, A; Dow, S; Ogilvie, G; Rao, S; Hackett, T

    2010-08-01

    Previously, dogs with canine parvovirus-induced neutropenia have not responded to treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF). However, recombinant canine G-CSF (rcG-CSF) has not been previously evaluated for treatment of parvovirus-induced neutropenia in dogs. We assessed the effectiveness of rcG-CSF in dogs with parvovirus-induced neutropenia with a prospective, open-label, nonrandomized clinical trial. Endpoints of our study were time to recovery of WBC and neutrophil counts, and duration of hospitalization. 28 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia were treated with rcG-CSF and outcomes were compared to those of 34 dogs with parvovirus and neutropenia not treated with rcG-CSF. We found that mean WBC and neutrophil counts were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the 28 dogs treated with rcG-CSF compared to disease-matched dogs not treated with rcG-CSF. In addition, the mean duration of hospitalization was reduced (P = 0.01) in rcG-CSF treated dogs compared to untreated dogs. However, survival times were decreased in dogs treated with rcG-CSF compared to untreated dogs. These results suggest that treatment with rcG-CSF was effective in stimulating neutrophil recovery and shortening the duration of hospitalization in dogs with parvovirus infection, but indicate the need for additional studies to evaluate overall safety of the treatment.

  12. Acetylation impacts Fli-1-driven regulation of granulocyte colony stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Lennard Richard, Mara L; Brandon, Danielle; Lou, Ning; Sato, Shuzo; Caldwell, Tomika; Nowling, Tamara K; Gilkeson, Gary; Zhang, Xian K

    2016-10-01

    Fli-1 has emerged as a critical regulator of inflammatory mediators, including MCP-1, CCL5, and IL-6. The cytokine, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) regulates neutrophil precursor maturation and survival, and activates mature neutrophils. Previously, a significant decrease in neutrophil infiltration into the kidneys of Fli-1(+/-) lupus-prone mice was observed. In this study, a significant decrease in G-CSF protein expression was detected in stimulated murine and human endothelial cells when expression of Fli-1 was inhibited. The murine G-CSF promoter contains numerous putative Fli-1 binding sites and several regions within the proximal promoter are significantly enriched for Fli-1 binding. Transient transfection assays indicate that Fli-1 drives transcription from the G-CSF promoter and mutation of the Fli-1 DNA binding domain resulted in a 94% loss of transcriptional activation. Mutation of a known acetylation site, led to a significant increase in G-CSF promoter activation. The histone acetyltransferases p300/CBP and p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF) significantly decrease Fli-1 specific activation of the G-CSF promoter. Thus, acetylation appears to be an important mechanism behind Fli-1 driven activation of the G-CSF promoter. These results further support the theory that Fli-1 plays a major role in the regulation of several inflammatory mediators, ultimately affecting inflammatory disease pathogenesis.

  13. P2Y6 Receptor Antagonist MRS2578 Inhibits Neutrophil Activation and Aggregated Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation Induced by Gout-Associated Monosodium Urate Crystals.

    PubMed

    Sil, Payel; Hayes, Craig P; Reaves, Barbara J; Breen, Patrick; Quinn, Shannon; Sokolove, Jeremy; Rada, Balázs

    2017-01-01

    Human neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) generate inflammatory responses within the joints of gout patients upon encountering monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are found abundantly in the synovial fluid of gout patients. The detailed mechanism of MSU crystal-induced NET formation remains unknown. Our goal was to shed light on possible roles of purinergic signaling and neutrophil migration in mediating NET formation induced by MSU crystals. Interaction of human neutrophils with MSU crystals was evaluated by high-throughput live imaging using confocal microscopy. We quantitated NET levels in gout synovial fluid supernatants and detected enzymatically active neutrophil primary granule enzymes, myeloperoxidase, and human neutrophil elastase. Suramin and PPADS, general P2Y receptor blockers, and MRS2578, an inhibitor of the purinergic P2Y6 receptor, blocked NET formation triggered by MSU crystals. AR-C25118925XX (P2Y2 antagonist) did not inhibit MSU crystal-stimulated NET release. Live imaging of PMNs showed that MRS2578 represses neutrophil migration and blocked characteristic formation of MSU crystal-NET aggregates called aggregated NETs. Interestingly, the store-operated calcium entry channel inhibitor (SK&F96365) also reduced MSU crystal-induced NET release. Our results indicate that the P2Y6/store-operated calcium entry/IL-8 axis is involved in MSU crystal-induced aggregated NET formation, but MRS2578 could have additional effects affecting PMN migration. The work presented in the present study could lead to a better understanding of gouty joint inflammation and help improve the treatment and care of gout patients.

  14. Differences in leukocyte differentiation molecule abundances on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) neutrophils identified by flow cytometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abundance was assessed by utilizing a panel of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) tested in this study. Characterization of multichannel autofluorescence of eosinophils permitted cell-type specific gating of granulocytes for quantification of LDMs on neutrophils and eosinophils by indirect,...

  15. Nerve growth factor: stimulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Gee, A P; Boyle, M D; Munger, K L; Lawman, M J; Young, M

    1983-01-01

    Topical application of mouse nerve growth factor (NGF) to superficial skin wounds of mice has previously been shown to accelerate the rate of wound contraction. Results of the present study reveal that NGF in the presence of plasma is also chemotactic for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro, and the concentration of NGF required for this effect is similar to that which stimulates ganglionic neurite outgrowth. This property does not arise from liberation of the C5a fragment of complement, nor does it require the known enzymic activity of NGF. (NGF inactivated with diisopropyl fluorophosphate is equally active.) We conclude that NGF can display biological effects on cells of nonneural origin and function, and this feature might play a role in the early inflammatory response to injury. PMID:6580641

  16. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by oxygenated sterol compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.I.; Bass, J.; Yachnin, S.

    1980-07-01

    When preincubated with certain oxygenated sterol compounds in lipoprotein-depleted serum (20% (vol/vol)), human polymorphonuclear leukocytes show inhibition of chemotaxis toward the synthetic dipeptide N-formylmethionylphenylalinine without alteration of random movement or loss of cell viability. These effects can occur at sterol concentrations as low as 6.25 ..mu..M and after as little as 5 min of preincubation, but they are increased at higher concentrations and longer preincubation times. The inhibition can be almost completely reversed by preincubation in lipoprotein-replete serum (human AB serum, 20% (vol/vol)) and may be partially corrected by addition of free cholesterol (0.125 mM) to the medium. These effects are unlikely to be due to inhibition of cellular sterol synthesis, competition for chemotaxin membrane binding sites, or deactivation of the leukocytes but they may be a consequence of insertion of the sterol molecule into the leukocyte plasma membranes.

  17. Platelets enhance neutrophil transendothelial migration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Platelets are increasingly recognized as important mediators of inflammation in addition to thrombosis. While platelets have been shown to promote neutrophil (PMN) adhesion to endothelium in various inflammatory models, it is unclear whether platelets enhance neutrophil transmigration across inflame...

  18. The Multifaceted Functions of Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Mayadas, Tanya N.; Cullere, Xavier; Lowell, Clifford A.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils and neutrophil-like cells are the major pathogen-fighting immune cells in organisms ranging from slime molds to mammals. Central to their function is their ability to be recruited to sites of infection, to recognize and phagocytose microbes, and then to kill pathogens through a combination of cytotoxic mechanisms. These include the production of reactive oxygen species, the release of antimicrobial peptides, and the recently discovered expulsion of their nuclear contents to form neutrophil extracellular traps. Here we discuss these primordial neutrophil functions, which also play key roles in tissue injury, by providing details of neutrophil cytotoxic functions and congenital disorders of neutrophils. In addition, we present more recent evidence that interactions between neutrophils and adaptive immune cells establish a feed-forward mechanism that amplifies pathologic inflammation. These newly appreciated contributions of neutrophils are described in the setting of several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24050624

  19. Cryogenic Preservation of Granulocytes and Monocytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-25

    plateletpheresis bags and preserved with the granulocyte protocol. All cells were recovered after 3 months storage in liquid nitrogen with 94...phagocytic index. Technical Reports. Cryogenic preservation of monocytes from human blood and plateletpheresis cellular residues. December 20, 1980. Long...and Callalan, A.B. : Cryogenic preservation of monocytes from human blood and plateletpheresis cellular residues. Blood 57:592-598, 1981. Arnaout, A.A

  20. Granulocyte Oxidative Activity after Thermal Injury,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    supplementation. Burn wound excision was begun on postburn days 3 to 5 and continued as donor sites were available for wound hypertonic (2X) HBSS was added...sis during this study period. Patients treated with lym- water for 20 seconds after which 4 ml 2X hypertonic phokines or corticosteroids were excluded...from this HBSS was added to restore isotonicity . The cells were study. Granulocytes from one of 10 healthy laboratory washed and resuspended at a

  1. Solar ultraviolet irradiation induces decorin degradation in human skin likely via neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Xia, Wei; Liu, Ying; Remmer, Henriette A; Voorhees, John; Fisher, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity, which degrades type I collagen fibrils. Type I collagen is the most abundant protein in skin and constitutes the majority of skin connective tissue (dermis). Degradation of collagen fibrils impairs the structure and function of skin that characterize skin aging. Decorin is the predominant proteoglycan in human dermis. In model systems, decorin binds to and protects type I collagen fibrils from proteolytic degradation by enzymes such as MMP-1. Little is known regarding alterations of decorin in response to UV irradiation. We found that solar-simulated UV irradiation of human skin in vivo stimulated substantial decorin degradation, with kinetics similar to infiltration of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. Proteases that were released from isolated PMN cells degraded decorin in vitro. A highly selective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase blocked decorin breakdown by proteases released from PMN cells. Furthermore, purified neutrophil elastase cleaved decorin in vitro and generated fragments with similar molecular weights as those resulting from protease activity released from PMN cells, and as observed in UV-irradiated human skin. Cleavage of decorin by neutrophil elastase significantly augmented fragmentation of type I collagen fibrils by MMP-1. Taken together, these data indicate that PMN cell proteases, especially neutrophil elastase, degrade decorin, and this degradation renders collagen fibrils more susceptible to MMP-1 cleavage. These data identify decorin degradation and neutrophil elastase as potential therapeutic targets for mitigating sun exposure-induced collagen fibril degradation in human skin.

  2. Neutrophil disorders and their management

    PubMed Central

    Lakshman, R; Finn, A

    2001-01-01

    Neutrophil disorders are an uncommon yet important cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and children. This article is an overview of these conditions, with emphasis on clinical recognition, rational investigation, and treatment. A comprehensive list of references is provided for further reading. Key Words: neutrophil disorders • chronic granulomatous disease • neutrophil chemotaxis • phagocytosis PMID:11271792

  3. Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells promote angiogenesis in the context of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Binsfeld, Marilène; Muller, Joséphine; Lamour, Virginie; De Veirman, Kim; De Raeve, Hendrik; Bellahcène, Akeila; Van Valckenborgh, Els; Baron, Frédéric; Beguin, Yves; Caers, Jo; Heusschen, Roy

    2016-06-21

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by the accumulation of tumor cells in the bone marrow (BM) and is associated with immunosuppression, angiogenesis and osteolysis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent a heterogeneous population of immature, immunosuppressive myeloid cells that promote tumor progression through different mechanisms.In this work, we studied the contribution of MDSC subsets to different disease-promoting aspects in MM. We observed an expansion of polymorphonuclear/granulocytic (PMN-)MDSCs in two immunocompetent murine MM models, while this was not observed for monocytic (MO-)MDSCs. Both MDSC subpopulations from MM-bearing mice were immunosuppressive, but PMN-MDSCs displayed a higher suppressive potential. Soluble factors secreted by MM cells increased the viability of MDSCs, whereas the presence of MDSCs did not affect the proliferation of MM cells in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, we observed a pro-angiogenic effect of PMN-MDSCs in the context of MM using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Consistently, MM-derived PMN-MDSCs showed an up-regulation of angiogenesis-related factors and reduced PMN-MDSC levels were associated with less angiogenesis in vivo. Finally, we identified MO-MDSCs as osteoclast precursors.These results suggest that MDSC subpopulations play diverging roles in MM. We show for the first time that PMN-MDSCs exert a pro-angiogenic role in MM.

  4. ACTH- and Cortisol-Associated Neutrophil Modulation in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undergoing Stent Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Keresztes, Margit; Horváth, Tamás; Ocsovszki, Imre; Földesi, Imre; Serfőző, Gyöngyi; Boda, Krisztina; Ungi, Imre

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychosocial stress and activation of neutrophil granulocytes are increasingly recognized as major risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD), but the possible relationship of these two factors in CAD patients is largely unexplored. Activation of neutrophils was reported to be associated with stenting; however, the issue of neutrophil state in connection with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is incompletely understood from the aspect of stress and its hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) background. Thus, we aimed to study cortisol- and ACTH-associated changes in granulocyte activation in patients undergoing PCI. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples of 21 stable angina pectoris (SAP) and 20 acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients were collected directly before (pre-PCI), after (post-PCI) and on the following day of PCI (1d-PCI). Granulocyte surface L-selectin, CD15 and (neutrophil-specific) lactoferrin were analysed by flow cytometry. Plasma cortisol, ACTH, and lactoferrin, IL-6 were also assayed. In both groups, pre- and post-PCI ratios of lactoferrin-bearing neutrophils were relatively high, these percentages decreased substantially next day; similarly, 1d-PCI plasma lactoferrin was about half of the post-PCI value (all p≤0.0001). Post-PCI ACTH was reduced markedly next day, especially in ACS group (SAP: p<0.01, ACS: p≤0.0001). In ACS, elevated pre-PCI cortisol decreased considerably a day after stenting (p<0.01); in pre-PCI samples, cortisol correlated with plasma lactoferrin (r∼0.5, p<0.05). In 1d-PCI samples of both groups, ACTH showed negative associations with the ratio of lactoferrin-bearing neutrophils (SAP: r = −0.601, p<0.005; ACS: r = −0.541, p<0.05) and with plasma lactoferrin (SAP: r = −0.435, p<0.05; ACS: r = −0.609, p<0.005). Conclusions/Significance Pre- and post-PCI states were associated with increased percentage of activated/degranulated neutrophils indicated by elevated lactoferrin

  5. The Neutrophil Nucleus and Its Role in Neutrophilic Function.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Leonardo Olivieri; Aquino, Elaine Nascimento; Neves, Anne Caroline Dias; Fontes, Wagner

    2015-09-01

    The cell nucleus plays a key role in differentiation processes in eukaryotic cells. It is not the nucleus in particular, but the organization of the genes and their remodeling that provides the data for the adjustments to be made according to the medium. The neutrophil nucleus has a different morphology. It is a multi-lobed nucleus where some researchers argue no longer function. However, studies indicate that it is very probable the occurrence of chromatin remodeling during activation steps. It may be that the human neutrophil nucleus also contributes to the mobility of neutrophils through thin tissue spaces. Questions like these will be discussed in this small review. The topics include morphology of human neutrophil nucleus, maturation process and modifications of the neutrophil nucleus, neutrophil activation and chromatin modifications, causes and consequences of multi-lobulated segmented morphology, and importance of the nucleus in the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).

  6. Effects of intranasal TNFα on granulocyte recruitment and activity in healthy subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Widegren, Henrik; Erjefält, Jonas; Korsgren, Magnus; Andersson, Morgan; Greiff, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Background TNFα may contribute to the pathophysiology of airway inflammation. For example, we have recently shown that nasal administration of TNFα produces late phase co-appearance of granulocyte and plasma exudation markers on the mucosal surface. The objective of the present study was to examine indices of granulocyte presence and activity in response to intranasal TNFα challenge. Methods Healthy subjects and patients with allergic rhinitis (examined out of season) were subjected to nasal challenge with TNFα (10 μg) in a sham-controlled and crossover design. Nasal lavages were carried out prior to and 24 hours post challenge. Nasal biopsies were obtained post challenge. Nasal lavage fluid levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) were analyzed as indices of neutrophil and eosinophil activity. Moreover, IL-8 and α2-macroglobulin were analyzed as markers of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and plasma exudation. Nasal biopsy numbers of neutrophils and eosinophils were monitored. Results Nasal lavage fluid levels of MPO recorded 24 hours post TNFα challenge were increased in healthy subjects (p = 0.0081) and in patients with allergic rhinitis (p = 0.0081) (c.f. sham challenge). Similarly, α2-macroglobulin was increased in healthy subjects (p = 0.014) and in patients with allergic rhinitis (p = 0.0034). Lavage fluid levels of ECP and IL-8 were not affected by TNFα challenge. TNFα increased the numbers of subepithelial neutrophils (p = 0.0021), but not the numbers of eosinophils. Conclusion TNFα produces a nasal inflammatory response in humans that is characterised by late phase (i.e., 24 hours post challenge) neutrophil activity and plasma exudation. PMID:18234086

  7. A GCSFR/CSF3R zebrafish mutant models the persistent basal neutrophil deficiency of severe congenital neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Pazhakh, Vahid; Clark, Sharon; Keightley, M. Cristina; Lieschke, Graham J.

    2017-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) and its receptor (GCSFR), also known as CSF3 and CSF3R, are required to maintain normal neutrophil numbers during basal and emergency granulopoiesis in humans, mice and zebrafish. Previous studies identified two zebrafish CSF3 ligands and a single CSF3 receptor. Transient antisense morpholino oligonucleotide knockdown of both these ligands and receptor reduces neutrophil numbers in zebrafish embryos, a technique widely used to evaluate neutrophil contributions to models of infection, inflammation and regeneration. We created an allelic series of zebrafish csf3r mutants by CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis targeting csf3r exon 2. Biallelic csf3r mutant embryos are viable and have normal early survival, despite a substantial reduction of their neutrophil population size, and normal macrophage abundance. Heterozygotes have a haploinsufficiency phenotype with an intermediate reduction in neutrophil numbers. csf3r mutants are viable as adults, with a 50% reduction in tissue neutrophil density and a substantial reduction in the number of myeloid cells in the kidney marrow. These csf3r mutants are a new animal model of human CSF3R-dependent congenital neutropenia. Furthermore, they will be valuable for studying the impact of neutrophil loss in the context of other zebrafish disease models by providing a genetically stable, persistent, reproducible neutrophil deficiency state throughout life. PMID:28281657

  8. The relationship between periodontal status and peripheral levels of neutrophils in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia: case reports.

    PubMed

    Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Berker, Ezel; Ersoy, Fügen; Tezcan, Iihan; Sanal, Ozden

    2003-03-01

    Congenital neutropenia is characterized by a severe reduction in absolute neutrophil counts, resulting in an almost total absence of neutrophils. It is well known that severe neutropenia affects periodontal status. Oral manifestations include ulcerations, gingival desquamation, gingival inflammation, attachment loss, and alveolar bone loss which may result in tooth loss. Treatment with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may improve this periodontal condition. This article reports the relationship between periodontal disease status and peripheral neutrophil levels in two consanguineous siblings with severe congenital neutropenia who did not receive routine G-CSF for 2 years prior to examination. Both siblings were given scaling, root planing, and periodontal prophylaxis in regular follow-up visits. This report demonstrates that periodontal therapy supported by adequate oral hygiene may result in restoration of neutrophil counts in siblings with congenital neutropenia.

  9. Inhibition of damage-regulated autophagy modulator-1 (DRAM-1) impairs neutrophil differentiation of NB4 APL cells.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Magali; Mueller, Chantal; Fey, Martin F; Tschan, Mario P

    2012-12-01

    The damage-regulator autophagy modulator 1 (DRAM-1) is a lysosomal protein that positively regulates autophagy in a p53-dependent manner. We aimed at analyzing the role of DRAM-1 in granulocytic differentiation of APL cells. We observed a significant increase of DRAM-1 expression during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced neutrophil differentiation of NB4 APL cells but not in ATRA-resistant NB4-R2 cells. Next, knocking down DRAM-1 in NB4 APL cells was sufficient to impair neutrophil differentiation. Given that DRAM-1 is a transcriptional target of p53, we tested if DRAM-1 is regulated by the p53 relative p73. Indeed, inhibiting p73 prevented neutrophil differentiation and DRAM-1 induction of NB4 cells. In conclusion, we show for the first time that p73-regulated DRAM-1 is functionally involved in neutrophil differentiation of APL cells.

  10. Role of Granulocyte Transfusions in Invasive Fusariosis: Systematic Review and Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kadri, Sameer S.; Remy, Kenneth E.; Strich, Jeffrey R.; Gea-Banacloche, Juan; Leitman, Susan F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Invasive Fusarium infection is relatively refractory to available antifungal agents (AFAs). Invasive fusariosis (IF) occurs almost exclusively in the setting of profound neutropenia and/or systemic corticosteroid use. Treatment guidelines for IF are not well established, including the role of granulocyte transfusions (GTs) to counter neutropenia. Study Design and Methods We conducted a systematic review, identifying IF cases where GTs were used as adjunctive therapy to AFAs and also report a single-center case-series detailing our experience (1996-2012) of all IF cases treated with AFAs and GTs. In the systematic review cases, GTs were predominantly collected from non-stimulated donors, whereas, in the case-series, they were universally derived from dexamethasone/G-CSF-stimulated donors. Results Twenty-three patients met inclusion criteria for the systematic review and 11 for the case-series. Response rates post-GTs were 30% and 91% in the review and case-series, respectively. Survival to hospital discharge remained low at 30% and 45%, respectively. Ten patients in the systematic review and 3 in the case-series failed to achieve hematopoietic recovery and none of these survived. In the case-series, donor-stimulated GTs generated mean ‘same-day’ neutrophil increments of 3.35 ±1.24 ×109/L and mean overall posttransfusion neutrophil increments of 2.46 ± 0.85 ×109/L. Progressive decrements in neutrophil response to GTs in 2 cases were attributed to GT-related HLA alloimmunization. Conclusion In patients with IF, donor-stimulated GTs may contribute to high response rates by effectively bridging periods of neutropenia/marrow suppression. However, their utility in the absence of neutrophil recovery remains questionable. PMID:25857209

  11. Recent advances in understanding neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Deniset, Justin F.; Kubes, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils have long been regarded as key effectors of the innate immune response during acute inflammation. Recent evidence has revealed a greater functional diversity for these cells than previously appreciated, expanding roles for neutrophils in adaptive immunity and chronic pathologies. In this review, we summarize some of the evolving paradigms in the neutrophil field and highlight key advances that have contributed to our understanding of neutrophil behavior and function in vivo. We examine the concept of neutrophil subsets and polarization, we discuss novel immunomodulatory roles for neutrophils in shaping the immune response, and, finally, we identify technical advances that will further enhance our ability to track the function and fate of neutrophils. PMID:28105328

  12. Granulocyte migration in uncomplicated intestinal anastomosis in man

    SciTech Connect

    Keshavarzian, A.; Gibson, R.; Guest, J.; Spencer, J.; Lavender, J.P.; Hodgson, H.J.

    1986-03-01

    We have investigated the presence, duration, and clinical significance of granulocyte accumulation, using indium-111 granulocyte scanning, in patients following uncomplicated intestinal anastomosis. Eight patients underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis (right hemicolectomy, 5; sigmoid colectomy, 2; ileal resection, 1) for carcinoma, angiodysplasia, or perforation. All patients had an uneventful postoperative course, with no evidence of any leakage or infection. Indium-111 granulocyte scan and abdominal ultrasound were performed 7-20 days (12 +/- 4.7 means +/- SD) following surgery. Indium-111 granulocyte scan showed the presence of labeled granulocytes at the site of anastomosis in all patients. In three of eight, cells subsequently passed into the lumen of the bowel. In contrast, granulocytes were not visualized along the abdominal incision. Thus, in contrast to skin wounds, granulocytes continue migrating into the intestinal wall in areas of anastomosis for at least up to 20 days following surgical trauma. They may play a significant role both in healing the anastomosis and in preventing systemic bacterial infection. Moreover, indium-111 granulocyte scans following intestinal surgery should be interpreted with care, and the presence of labeled granulocytes around anastomoses does not necessarily indicate abscess formation.

  13. Expression and purification of canine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (cG-CSF).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akira; Iwata, Akira; Saito, Toshiki; Watanabe, Fumiko; Ueda, Susumu

    2009-08-15

    Canine granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (cG-CSF) with modification of cysteine at position 17 to serine was expressed in Brevibacillus choshinensis HPD31. cG-CSF secreted into the culture medium was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and consecutive column chromatography, using butyl sepharose and DEAE sepharose. Biological activity of the recombinant cG-CSF was 8.0 x 10(6) U/mg protein, as determined by its stimulatory effect on NFS-60 cell proliferation. Purified cG-CSF was subcutaneously administered once a day for two successive days to dogs (1, 5, 25, or 125 microg). Neutrophil count increased the following day in all dogs except those administered the lowest dose (1 microg). No severe side effects were observed in dogs after administration of cG-CSF.

  14. Granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis as an effective treatment for Reiter disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshifuku, A; Oyama, K; Ibusuki, A; Kawasaki, M; Sakanoue, M; Matsushita, S; Kawai, K; Kawahara, K; Maruyama, I; Kanekura, T

    2012-04-01

    Reiter disease (RD) is characterized by a triad of sterile arthritis, urethritis and conjunctivitis. The conditions occur concomitantly or sequentially, and are associated with mucocutaneous features such as circinate balanitis and stomatitis. Arthritis usually occurs in attacks followed by recovery, but it sometimes progresses to permanent damage of the affected joints. Because the symptoms of this disorder are attributable to activated neutrophils, we assessed the efficacy of granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis (GCAP) in a 73-year-old man with RD who had skin rashes on his penis, scrotum and right hand, with severe arthralgia. The patient's skin rash and joint pain responded dramatically to five sessions of GCAP delivered at intervals of 5 days. We present a detailed description of the patient and discuss the mechanisms of GCAP, and suggest that GCAP may be useful for treating RD.

  15. IL-17-producing γδ T cells and neutrophils conspire to promote breast cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Seth B; Kersten, Kelly; Doornebal, Chris W; Weiden, Jorieke; Vrijland, Kim; Hau, Cheei-Sing; Verstegen, Niels J M; Ciampricotti, Metamia; Hawinkels, Lukas J A C; Jonkers, Jos; de Visser, Karin E

    2015-06-18

    Metastatic disease remains the primary cause of death for patients with breast cancer. The different steps of the metastatic cascade rely on reciprocal interactions between cancer cells and their microenvironment. Within this local microenvironment and in distant organs, immune cells and their mediators are known to facilitate metastasis formation. However, the precise contribution of tumour-induced systemic inflammation to metastasis and the mechanisms regulating systemic inflammation are poorly understood. Here we show that tumours maximize their chance of metastasizing by evoking a systemic inflammatory cascade in mouse models of spontaneous breast cancer metastasis. We mechanistically demonstrate that interleukin (IL)-1β elicits IL-17 expression from gamma delta (γδ) T cells, resulting in systemic, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-dependent expansion and polarization of neutrophils in mice bearing mammary tumours. Tumour-induced neutrophils acquire the ability to suppress cytotoxic T lymphocytes carrying the CD8 antigen, which limit the establishment of metastases. Neutralization of IL-17 or G-CSF and absence of γδ T cells prevents neutrophil accumulation and downregulates the T-cell-suppressive phenotype of neutrophils. Moreover, the absence of γδ T cells or neutrophils profoundly reduces pulmonary and lymph node metastases without influencing primary tumour progression. Our data indicate that targeting this novel cancer-cell-initiated domino effect within the immune system--the γδ T cell/IL-17/neutrophil axis--represents a new strategy to inhibit metastatic disease.

  16. Low expression of CXCR1/2 on neutrophils predicts poor survival in patients with hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ruonan; Bao, Chunmei; Huang, Huihuang; Lin, Fang; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Siyu; Jin, Lei; Yang, Tao; Shi, Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and proinflammatory cytokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). But the utility of CXC chemokine receptor expression on PMNs as a biomarker for prediction of disease severity is still uncertain. In this study, we investigated the dynamic expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 on neutrophils, and found that patients with hepatitis B virus-related ACLF displayed low expression of CXCR1 and CXCR2 on peripheral neutrophils compared with healthy subjects and patients with chronic hepatitis B. This expression pattern was correlated with disease severity. Additionally, increased production of IL-8 in peripheral blood was significantly associated with reduced CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression, as shown by the decreased CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression on neutrophils after treating neutrophils with plasma from ACLF patients. This effect could be overcomed through IL-8 blockage with an anti-IL-8 antibody. We also found that IL-8 production and neutrophil infiltration were coordinately increased in the liver tissue of HBV-ACLF patients, and this increase was associated with liver inflammation. Overall, increased production of IL-8 associated with neutrophils infiltration into the liver and decreased CXCR1/2 expression on peripheral neutrophils. CXCR1 and CXCR2 expression levels could be served as early markers to predict the severity of ACLF. PMID:27974825

  17. Bacillus anthracis Edema Toxin Impairs Neutrophil Actin-Based Motility▿

    PubMed Central

    Szarowicz, Sarah E.; During, Russell L.; Li, Wei; Quinn, Conrad P.; Tang, Wei-Jen; Southwick, Frederick S.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation anthrax results in high-grade bacteremia and is accompanied by a delay in the rise of the peripheral polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) count and a paucity of PMNs in the infected pleural fluid and mediastinum. Edema toxin (ET) is one of the major Bacillus anthracis virulence factors and consists of the adenylate cyclase edema factor (EF) and protective antigen (PA). Relatively low concentrations of ET (100 to 500 ng/ml of PA and EF) significantly impair human PMN chemokinesis, chemotaxis, and ability to polarize. These changes are accompanied by a reduction in chemoattractant-stimulated PMN actin assembly. ET also causes a significant decrease in Listeria monocytogenes intracellular actin-based motility within HeLa cells. These defects in actin assembly are accompanied by a >50-fold increase in intracellular cyclic AMP and a >4-fold increase in the phosphorylation of protein kinase A. We have previously shown that anthrax lethal toxin (LT) also impairs neutrophil actin-based motility (R. L. During, W. Li, B. Hao, J. M. Koenig, D. S. Stephens, C. P. Quinn, and F. S. Southwick, J. Infect. Dis. 192:837-845, 2005), and we now find that LT combined with ET causes an additive inhibition of PMN chemokinesis, polarization, chemotaxis, and FMLP (N-formyl-met-leu-phe)-induced actin assembly. We conclude that ET alone or combined with LT impairs PMN actin assembly, resulting in paralysis of PMN chemotaxis. PMID:19349425

  18. Regulators and Effectors of Arf GTPases in Neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Gamara, Jouda; Chouinard, François; Davis, Lynn; Aoudjit, Fawzi; Bourgoin, Sylvain G

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are key innate immune cells that represent the first line of defence against infection. They are the first leukocytes to migrate from the blood to injured or infected sites. This process involves molecular mechanisms that coordinate cell polarization, delivery of receptors, and activation of integrins at the leading edge of migrating PMNs. These phagocytes actively engulf microorganisms or form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to trap and kill pathogens with bactericidal compounds. Association of the NADPH oxidase complex at the phagosomal membrane for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and delivery of proteolytic enzymes into the phagosome initiate pathogen killing and removal. G protein-dependent signalling pathways tightly control PMN functions. In this review, we will focus on the small monomeric GTPases of the Arf family and their guanine exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) as components of signalling cascades regulating PMN responses. GEFs and GAPs are multidomain proteins that control cellular events in time and space through interaction with other proteins and lipids inside the cells. The number of Arf GAPs identified in PMNs is expanding, and dissecting their functions will provide important insights into the role of these proteins in PMN physiology.

  19. Regulators and Effectors of Arf GTPases in Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Gamara, Jouda; Chouinard, François; Davis, Lynn; Aoudjit, Fawzi; Bourgoin, Sylvain G.

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are key innate immune cells that represent the first line of defence against infection. They are the first leukocytes to migrate from the blood to injured or infected sites. This process involves molecular mechanisms that coordinate cell polarization, delivery of receptors, and activation of integrins at the leading edge of migrating PMNs. These phagocytes actively engulf microorganisms or form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) to trap and kill pathogens with bactericidal compounds. Association of the NADPH oxidase complex at the phagosomal membrane for production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and delivery of proteolytic enzymes into the phagosome initiate pathogen killing and removal. G protein-dependent signalling pathways tightly control PMN functions. In this review, we will focus on the small monomeric GTPases of the Arf family and their guanine exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) as components of signalling cascades regulating PMN responses. GEFs and GAPs are multidomain proteins that control cellular events in time and space through interaction with other proteins and lipids inside the cells. The number of Arf GAPs identified in PMNs is expanding, and dissecting their functions will provide important insights into the role of these proteins in PMN physiology. PMID:26609537

  20. The effect of inhibition of leukotriene synthesis on the activity of interleukin-8 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    PubMed Central

    Pizzey, A. R.; Linch, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    The cytokines interleukin-8 (IL-8) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) enhanced the extracellular release of arachidonate metabolites from ionophore-stimulated neutrophils by 145 ± 10% (mean ± S.E.M., n = 13) and 182 ± 11% (n = 16), respectively. To determine whether enhanced leukotriene production mediates the effects of these cytokines on neutrophil activity, two different specific arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitors, piriprost and MK-886, were used to inhibit leukotriene synthesis. Neither inhibitor affected the upregulation of CD11b β2-integrin expression or priming of superoxide generation stimulated by IL-8 and GM-CSF. It is concluded that leukotrienes do not mediate either the direct or priming effects of these cytokines and that these classes of anti-inflammatory drugs are therefore unlikely to inhibit the effects of IL-8 and GM-CSF on neutrophil activation. PMID:18475524

  1. Increased Levels of Circulating and Tumor-Infiltrating Granulocytic Myeloid Cells in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Toor, Salman M.; Syed Khaja, Azharuddin Sajid; El Salhat, Haytham; Bekdache, Omar; Kanbar, Jihad; Jaloudi, Mohammed; Elkord, Eyad

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of myeloid cells, especially myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), have been reported to correlate with bad prognosis and reduced survival in cancer patients. However, limited data are available on their conclusive phenotypes and their correlation with clinical settings. The aim of this study was to investigate levels and phenotype of myeloid cells in peripheral blood and tumor microenvironment (TME) of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, compared to blood from healthy donors (HDs) and paired, adjacent non-tumor colon tissue. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to examine the expression of different myeloid markers in fresh peripheral blood samples from CRC patients and HDs, and tissue-infiltrating immune cells from CRC patients. We found significantly higher levels of cells expressing myeloid markers and lacking the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecule HLA-DR in blood and tumor of CRC patients. Further analysis revealed that these cells were granulocytic and expressed Arginase 1 indicative of their suppressive phenotype. These expanded cells could be neutrophils or granulocytic MDSCs, and we refer to them as granulocytic myeloid cells (GMCs) due to the phenotypical and functional overlap between these cell subsets. Interestingly, the expansion of peripheral GMCs correlated with higher stage and histological grade of cancer, thereby suggesting their role in cancer progression. Furthermore, an increase in CD33+CD11b+HLA-DR−CD14−CD15− immature myeloid cells was also observed in CRC tumor tissue. Our work shows that GMCs are expanded in circulation and TME of CRC patients, which provides further insights for developing immunotherapeutic approaches targeting these cell subsets to enhance antitumor immune and clinical responses. PMID:28008330

  2. Influence of histamine of precursors of granulocytic leukocytes in murine bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Nakaya, N.; Tasaka, K.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of histamine on granulocytic progenitor cells in murine bone marrow was studied in vitro. When bone marrow cells were cultured for three days with the drug, 10/sup -8/ M to 10/sup -5/ M of histamine stimulated differentiation and proliferation of myeloid precursor cells. Subsequently, the number of descendant cells, such as metamyelocytes and neutrophils, increased dose-dependently. Co-existence of equimolar H/sub 2/ blockers such as cimetidine and ranitidine completely suppressed this effect of histamine, though this was not the case with an H/sub 1/ blocker/histamine combination. Significant increase in /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation was observed almost exclusively in myeloblasts, promyelocytes and myelocytes after exposure to histamine at concentrations higher than 10/sup -8/ M. Also, selective incorporation of /sup 3/H-histamine into bone marrow cells was observed in myeloblasts and promyelocytes, but histamine incorporation was not influenced by the presence of either of histamine agonists of antagonists. While histamine, via H/sub 2/ receptors, selectively increased the number of granulocytic colony forming units in culture (CFU-C), it had no such effect on macrophage colonies. 22 references, 5 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Dendritic Cells Take up and Present Antigens from Viable and Apoptotic Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, Carlos; Suarez, Natalia; Oñate, Carmen; Perez-Gracia, Jose L.; Martinez-Forero, Ivan; Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra; Rodriguez, Inmaculada; Perez, Guiomar; Bolaños, Elixabet; Palazon, Asis; de Sanmamed, Miguel Fernandez; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Melero, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are endowed with the ability to cross-present antigens from other cell types to cognate T cells. DC are poised to meet polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as a result of being co-attracted by interleukin-8 (IL-8), for instance as produced by tumor cells or infected tissue. Human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow-derived DC can readily internalize viable or UV-irradiated PMNs. Such internalization was abrogated at 4°C and partly inhibited by anti-CD18 mAb. In mice, DC which had internalized PMNs containing electroporated ovalbumin (OVA) protein, were able to cross-present the antigen to CD8 (OT-1) and CD4 (OT-2) TCR-transgenic T cells. Moreover, in humans, tumor cell debris is internalized by PMNs and the tumor-cell material can be subsequently taken up from the immunomagnetically re-isolated PMNs by DC. Importantly, if human neutrophils had endocytosed bacteria, they were able to trigger the maturation program of the DC. Moreover, when mouse PMNs with E. coli in their interior are co-injected in the foot pad with DC, many DC loaded with fluorescent material from the PMNs reach draining lymph nodes. Using CT26 (H-2d) mouse tumor cells, it was observed that if tumor cells are intracellularly loaded with OVA protein and UV-irradiated, they become phagocytic prey of H-2d PMNs. If such PMNs, that cannot present antigens to OT-1 T cells, are immunomagnetically re-isolated and phagocytosed by H-2b DC, such DC productively cross-present OVA antigen determinants to OT-1 T cells. Cross-presentation to adoptively transferred OT-1 lymphocytes at draining lymph nodes also take place when OVA-loaded PMNs (H-2d) are coinjected in the footpad of mice with autologous DC (H-2b). In summary, our results indicate that antigens phagocytosed by short-lived PMNs can be in turn internalized and productively cross-presented by DC. PMID:22206007

  4. Granulocytic sarcoma: a rare cause of sciatica

    PubMed Central

    Glover, Thomas Edward

    2017-01-01

    We describe a case report of a man aged 56 years with a 4-month history of right-sided sciatica-type pain with subclinical disc prolapse evident on MRI. Worsening pain together with the appearance of a tender mass in his right buttock prompted further imaging, which demonstrated an infiltrative mass engulfing the lumbosacral plexus. This was later shown to be a granulocytic sarcoma on biopsy. Intervertebral disc herniation can be an incidental finding and is not always the cause of sciatica. PMID:28202486

  5. Endogenous Morphine Levels Are Increased in Sepsis: A Partial Implication of Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Lavaux, Thomas; Muller, Arnaud H.; Laux, Alexis; Zhang, Dan; Schmidt, Alexander R.; Delalande, François; Laventie, Benoît-Joseph; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Colin, Didier A.; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Aunis, Dominique; Metz-Boutigue, Marie-Hélène; Schneider, Francis; Goumon, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    Background Mammalian cells synthesize morphine and the respective biosynthetic pathway has been elucidated. Human neutrophils release this alkaloid into the media after exposure to morphine precursors. However, the exact role of endogenous morphine in inflammatory processes remains unclear. We postulate that morphine is released during infection and can be determined in the serum of patients with severe infection such as sepsis. Methodology The presence and subcellular immunolocalization of endogenous morphine was investigated by ELISA, mass spectrometry analysis and laser confocal microscopy. Neutrophils were activated with Interleukin-8 (IL-8) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Morphine secretion was determined by a morphine-specific ELISA. μ opioid receptor expression was assessed with flow cytometry. Serum morphine concentrations of septic patients were determined with a morphine-specific ELISA and morphine identity was confirmed in human neutrophils and serum of septic patients by mass spectrometry analysis. The effects of the concentration of morphine found in serum of septic patients on LPS-induced release of IL-8 by human neutrophils were tested. Principal Findings We confirmed the presence of morphine in human neutrophil extracts and showed its colocalisation with lactoferrin within the secondary granules of neutrophils. Morphine secretion was quantified in the supernatant of activated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the presence and absence of Ca2+. LPS and IL-8 were able to induce a significant release of morphine only in presence of Ca2+. LPS treatment increased μ opioid receptor expression on neutrophils. Low concentration of morphine (8 nM) significantly inhibited the release of IL-8 from neutrophils when coincubated with LPS. This effect was reversed by naloxone. Patients with sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock had significant higher circulating morphine levels compared to patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and healthy

  6. EDU pretreatment decreases polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration into rat lung airways.

    PubMed

    Bassett, D J; Elbon, C L; Ishii, Y; Yang, H; Otterbein, L; Boswell, G A; Kerr, J S

    1994-07-01

    Pretreatment with the heterocyclic compound EDU (N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolindinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea) has previously been shown to reduce polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration into the airways of ozone-exposed rats. The present study further examined the effects of 1 and 2 days EDU pretreatment on rat lung inflammatory responses by determining PMN infiltration in response to intratracheal instillation with the chemoattractant formyl-norleucine-leucine-phenylalanine (fNLP). Maximal recovery of PMNs by bronchoalveolar lavage was observed 4 hr after fNLP instillation with no alteration in the numbers of recoverable macrophages and lymphocytes. Although 1-day pretreatment with EDU did not affect PMN recovery from fNLP-instilled rat lungs, 2 days of EDU pretreatment prevented PMN infiltration as indicated by PMN recoveries that were similar to those obtained from saline-instilled lungs. Measurements of lung-marginated and interstitial pools of inflammatory cells using collagenase tissue digestion demonstrated no effect of 2 days EDU pretreatment. Although 2 days EDU pretreatment alone did not alter blood PMN content, lung permeability, and the lavage recoveries of inflammatory cells, blood PMN responses to chemotactic stimuli in vitro were impaired. In addition, EDU was shown to directly inhibit PMN chemotaxis and superoxide anion generation in vitro. These data demonstrated that EDU acts by interfering with PMN activation and migration rather than by decreasing PMN availability. EDU, by modulating the inflammatory response, represents a useful compound for preventing PMN-associated amplification of acute lung injuries.

  7. Uptake and intracellular activity of fluconazole in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Pascual, A; García, I; Conejo, C; Perea, E J

    1993-01-01

    The penetration of fluconazole into human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and tissue culture epithelial cells (McCoy) was evaluated. At different extracellular concentrations (0.5 to 10 mg/liter), fluconazole reached cell-associated concentrations greater than the extracellular ones in either human PMNs (intracellular concentration to extracellular concentration ratio, > or = 2.2) or McCoy cells (intracellular concentration to extracellular concentration ratio, > or = 1.3). The uptake of fluconazole by PMNs was rapid and reversible but was not energy dependent. The intracellular penetration of fluconazole was not affected by environmental pH or temperature. Ingestion of opsonized zymosan and opsonized Candida albicans did not significantly increase the amount of PMN-associated fluconazole. At therapeutic extracellular concentrations, the intracellular activity of fluconazole against C. albicans in PMNs was significantly lower than that of amphotericin B. It was concluded that fluconazole reaches high intracellular concentrations within PMNs but shows moderate activity against intracellular C. albicans in vitro. PMID:8452347

  8. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 ..mu..g/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function.

  9. Ethylene formation by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Role of myeloperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Ethylene formation from the thioethers, beta-methylthiopropionaldehyde (methional) and 2-keto-4-thiomethylbutyric acid by phagocytosing polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was found to be largely dependent on myeloperoxidase (MPO). Conversion was less than 10% of normal when MPO-deficient PMNs were employed; formation by normal PMNs was inhibited by the peroxidase inhibitors, azide, and cyanide, and a model system consisting of MPO, H2O2, chloride (or bromide) and EDTA was found which shared many of the properties of the predominant PMN system. MPO-independent mechanisms of ethylene formation were also identified. Ethylene formation from methional by phagocytosing eosinophils and by H2O2 in the presence or absence of catalase was stimulated by azide. The presence of MPO-independent, azide-stimulable systems in the PMN preparations was suggested by the azide stimulation of ethylene formation from methional when MPO-deficient leukocytes were employed. Ethylene formation by dye-sensitized photooxidation was also demonstrated and evidence obtained for the involvement of singlet oxygen (1O2). These findings are discussed in relation to the participation of H2O2, hydroxyl radicals, the superoxide anion and 1O2 in the formation of ethylene by PMNs and by the MPO model system. PMID:212502

  10. Flavones induce neutrophil apoptosis by down-regulation of Mcl-1 via a proteasomal-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Christopher D; Allen, Keith C; Dorward, David A; Hoodless, Laura J; Melrose, Lauren A; Marwick, John A; Tucker, Carl S; Haslett, Christopher; Duffin, Rodger; Rossi, Adriano G

    2013-03-01

    Neutrophil apoptosis and subsequent nonphlogistic clearance by surrounding phagocytes are key to the successful resolution of neutrophilic inflammation, with dysregulated apoptosis reported in multiple human inflammatory diseases. Enhancing neutrophil apoptosis has proresolution and anti-inflammatory effects in preclinical models of inflammation. Here we investigate the ability of the flavones apigenin, luteolin, and wogonin to induce neutrophil apoptosis in vitro and resolve neutrophilic inflammation in vivo. Human neutrophil apoptosis was assessed morphologically and by flow cytometry following incubation with apigenin, luteolin, and wogonin. All three flavones induced time- and concentration-dependent neutrophil apoptosis (apigenin, EC=12.2 μM; luteolin, EC=14.6 μM; and wogonin, EC=28.9 μM). Induction of apoptosis was caspase dependent, as it was blocked by the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh and was associated with both caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation. Flavone-induced apoptosis was preceded by down-regulation of the prosurvival protein Mcl-1, with proteasomal inhibition preventing flavone-induced Mcl-1 down-regulation and apoptosis. The flavones abrogated the survival effects of mediators that prolong neutrophil life span, including lipoteichoic acid, peptidoglycan, dexamethasone, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, by driving apoptosis. Furthermore, wogonin enhanced resolution of established neutrophilic inflammation in a zebrafish model of sterile tissue injury. Wogonin-induced resolution was dependent on apoptosis in vivo as it was blocked by caspase inhibition. Our data show that the flavones induce neutrophil apoptosis and have potential as neutrophil apoptosis-inducing anti-inflammatory, proresolution agents.

  11. Gene frequencies of human neutrophil antigens in the Tunisian blood donors and Berbers.

    PubMed

    Abid, S; Zili, M; Bouzid, L; Kibech, R; Foudhaili, N; Joudi, K; Ren Regaya, Z; Abdennaji, B; Mrad, R; Boukef, K

    2001-08-01

    Human neutrophil antigens play an important role in provoking immune neutropenia and transfusion-reactions. The aim of this study was to determine granulocyte-specific antigens on the neutrophil Fc gamma receptor IIIb (Fc gamma RIIIb, CD16b), namely, the HNA-1a(NA1) and HNA-1b(NA2) antigens and their gene frequencies in Tunisian blood donors and Berbers. One hundred and ninety-nine unrelated healthy Tunisian blood donors and Berbers were typed for HNA-1a and HNA-1b(NA1 and NA2), using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). In 24 granulocyte samples, the HNA-1a and HNA-1b phenotypes was additionally determined by the granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT) and correlated with the genotyping results. A subsequent analysis of the genotyping study showed that, the HNA-1a and HNA-1b gene frequencies observed, were 0.342 and 0.658 for Berbers, and 0.311 and 0.668 for blood donors, respectively. In the genotyping study conducted, it was determined that the HNA-1a and HNA-1b gene frequencies observed in Tunisian blood donors and Berbers are similar to those previously reported in other white populations.

  12. Moraxella catarrhalis induces CEACAM3‐Syk‐CARD9‐dependent activation of human granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, A.; Heyl, K.A.; Klaile, E.; Müller, M.M.; Klassert, T.E.; Wiessner, A.; Fischer, K.; Schumann, R.R.; Seifert, U.; Riesbeck, K.; Moter, A.; Singer, B.B.; Bachmann, S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The human restricted pathogen Moraxella catarrhalis is an important causal agent for exacerbations in chronic obstructive lung disease in adults. In such patients, increased numbers of granulocytes are present in the airways, which correlate with bacteria‐induced exacerbations and severity of the disease. Our study investigated whether the interaction of M. catarrhalis with the human granulocyte‐specific carcinoembryonic antigen‐related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)‐3 is linked to NF‐κB activation, resulting in chemokine production. Granulocytes from healthy donors and NB4 cells were infected with M. catarrhalis in the presence of different inhibitors, blocking antibodies and siRNA. The supernatants were analysed by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay for chemokines. NF‐κB activation was determined using a luciferase reporter gene assay and chromatin‐immunoprecipitation. We found evidence that the specific engagement of CEACAM3 by M. catarrhalis ubiquitous surface protein A1 (UspA1) results in the activation of pro‐inflammatory events, such as degranulation of neutrophils, ROS production and chemokine secretion. The interaction of UspA1 with CEACAM3 induced the activation of the NF‐κB pathway via Syk and the CARD9 pathway and was dependent on the phosphorylation of the CEACAM3 ITAM‐like motif. These findings suggest that the CEACAM3 signalling in neutrophils is able to specifically modulate airway inflammation caused by infection with M. catarrhalis. PMID:27038042

  13. Automated segmentation and tracking of non-rigid objects in time-lapse microscopy videos of polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Brandes, Susanne; Mokhtari, Zeinab; Essig, Fabian; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2015-02-01

    Time-lapse microscopy is an important technique to study the dynamics of various biological processes. The labor-intensive manual analysis of microscopy videos is increasingly replaced by automated segmentation and tracking methods. These methods are often limited to certain cell morphologies and/or cell stainings. In this paper, we present an automated segmentation and tracking framework that does not have these restrictions. In particular, our framework handles highly variable cell shapes and does not rely on any cell stainings. Our segmentation approach is based on a combination of spatial and temporal image variations to detect moving cells in microscopy videos. This method yields a sensitivity of 99% and a precision of 95% in object detection. The tracking of cells consists of different steps, starting from single-cell tracking based on a nearest-neighbor-approach, detection of cell-cell interactions and splitting of cell clusters, and finally combining tracklets using methods from graph theory. The segmentation and tracking framework was applied to synthetic as well as experimental datasets with varying cell densities implying different numbers of cell-cell interactions. We established a validation framework to measure the performance of our tracking technique. The cell tracking accuracy was found to be >99% for all datasets indicating a high accuracy for connecting the detected cells between different time points.

  14. Accumulation of indium-111-labeled granulocytes in malignant tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, K.G.; Rasmussen, J.W.; Wedebye, I.M.; Frederiksen, P.B.; Pedersen, N.T.

    1988-04-01

    In a retrospective study of 220 (/sup 111/In)granulocyte scintigrams from 208 patients, 25 patients had malignant neoplasms. Among these, tumor uptake of /sup 111/In activity was observed in ten patients (intense activity in two patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and colonic carcinoma, respectively; moderate uptake in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and in a patient with an ovarian carcinoma; weak activity in three patients with cerebral neoplasms; and activity within otherwise cold metastatic lesions of the liver in three patients). Microscopic investigation following specific granulocyte staining revealed the greatest extent of granulocyte infiltration in the tumors which took up /sup 111/In activity, emphasizing the importance of tumor granulocyte infiltration as the single most important factor underlying tumor accumulation of /sup 111/In activity during (/sup 111/In)granulocyte scintigraphy.

  15. Neutrophil secretion products regulate anti-bacterial activity in monocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Soehnlein, O; Kenne, E; Rotzius, P; Eriksson, E E; Lindbom, L

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages represent a multi-functional cell type in innate immunity that contributes to bacterial clearance by recognition, phagocytosis and killing. In acute inflammation, infiltrating neutrophils release a wide array of preformed granule proteins which interfere functionally with their environment. Here, we present a novel role for neutrophil-derived granule proteins in the anti-microbial activity of macrophages. Neutrophil secretion obtained by antibody cross-linking of the integrin subunit CD18 (X-link secretion) or by treatment with N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP secretion) induced a several-fold increase in bacterial phagocytosis by monocytes and macrophages. This response was associated with a rapid activation of the monocytes and macrophages as depicted by an increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+). Interestingly, fMLP secretion had a more pronounced effect on monocytes than the X-link secretion, while the opposite was observed for macrophages. In addition, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) secretion caused a strong enhancement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation compared to incubation with bacteria. Thus, secretion of neutrophil granule proteins activates macrophages to increase the phagocytosis of bacteria and to enhance intracellular ROS formation, indicating pronounced intracellular bacterial killing. Both mechanisms attribute novel microbicidal properties to PMN granule proteins, suggesting their potential use in anti-microbial therapy.

  16. c-ANCA-induced neutrophil-mediated lung injury: a model of acute Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Hattar, K; Oppermann, S; Ankele, C; Weissmann, N; Schermuly, R T; Bohle, R M; Moritz, R; Krögel, B; Seeger, W; Grimminger, F; Sibelius, U; Grandel, U

    2010-07-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (c-ANCA) targeting proteinase 3 (PR3) are implicated in the pathogenesis of Wegener's granulomatosis (WG). Fulminant disease can present as acute lung injury (ALI). In this study, a model of ALI in WG was developed using isolated rat lungs. Isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were primed with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) to induce surface expression of PR3. Co-perfusion of TNF-primed neutrophils and monoclonal anti-PR3 antibodies induced a massive weight gain in isolated lungs. This effect was not observed when control immunoglobulin G was co-perfused with TNF-primed PMNs. The c-ANCA-induced oedema formation was paralleled by an increase in the capillary filtration coefficient as a marker of increased pulmonary endothelial permeability. In contrast, pulmonary artery pressure was not affected. In the presence of the oxygen radical scavenger superoxide dismutase and a NADPH oxidase inhibitor, c-ANCA-induced lung oedema could be prevented. Inhibition of neutrophil elastase was equally effective in preventing c-ANCA-induced lung injury. In conclusion, anti-PR3 antibodies induced neutrophil mediated, elastase- and oxygen radical-dependent ALI in the isolated lung. This experimental model supports the hypothesis of a pathogenic role for c-ANCA in WG and offers the possibility of the development of therapeutic strategies for the treatment of lung injury in fulminant WG.

  17. Neutrophils extracellular traps damage Naegleria fowleri trophozoites opsonized with human IgG.

    PubMed

    Contis-Montes de Oca, A; Carrasco-Yépez, M; Campos-Rodríguez, R; Pacheco-Yépez, J; Bonilla-Lemus, P; Pérez-López, J; Rojas-Hernández, S

    2016-08-01

    Naegleria fowleri infects humans through the nasal mucosa causing a disease in the central nervous system known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) play a critical role in the early phase of N. fowleri infection. Recently, a new biological defence mechanism called neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) has been attracting attention. NETs are composed of nuclear DNA combined with histones and antibacterial proteins, and these structures are released from the cell to direct its antimicrobial attack. In this work, we evaluate the capacity of N. fowleri to induce the liberation of NETs by human PMN cells. Neutrophils were cocultured with unopsonized or IgG-opsonized N. fowleri trophozoites. DNA, histone, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and neutrophil elastase (NE) were stained, and the formation of NETs was evaluated by confocal microscopy and by quantifying the levels of extracellular DNA. Our results showed N. fowleri induce the liberation of NETs including release of MPO and NE by human PMN cells as exposure interaction time is increased, but N. fowleri trophozoites evaded killing. However, when trophozoites were opsonized, they were susceptible to the neutrophils activity. Therefore, our study suggests that antibody-mediated PMNs activation through NET formation may be crucial for antimicrobial responses against N. fowleri.

  18. Annexin A1 and the Resolution of Inflammation: Modulation of Neutrophil Recruitment, Apoptosis, and Clearance.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Michelle Amantéa; Vago, Juliana Priscila; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils (also named polymorphonuclear leukocytes or PMN) are essential components of the immune system, rapidly recruited to sites of inflammation, providing the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Since neutrophils can also cause tissue damage, their fine-tuned regulation at the inflammatory site is required for proper resolution of inflammation. Annexin A1 (AnxA1), also known as lipocortin-1, is an endogenous glucocorticoid-regulated protein, which is able to counterregulate the inflammatory events restoring homeostasis. AnxA1 and its mimetic peptides inhibit neutrophil tissue accumulation by reducing leukocyte infiltration and activating neutrophil apoptosis. AnxA1 also promotes monocyte recruitment and clearance of apoptotic leukocytes by macrophages. More recently, some evidence has suggested the ability of AnxA1 to induce macrophage reprogramming toward a resolving phenotype, resulting in reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines and increased release of immunosuppressive and proresolving molecules. The combination of these mechanisms results in an effective resolution of inflammation, pointing to AnxA1 as a promising tool for the development of new therapeutic strategies to treat inflammatory diseases.

  19. Annexin A1 and the Resolution of Inflammation: Modulation of Neutrophil Recruitment, Apoptosis, and Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Michelle Amantéa; Vago, Juliana Priscila; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils (also named polymorphonuclear leukocytes or PMN) are essential components of the immune system, rapidly recruited to sites of inflammation, providing the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Since neutrophils can also cause tissue damage, their fine-tuned regulation at the inflammatory site is required for proper resolution of inflammation. Annexin A1 (AnxA1), also known as lipocortin-1, is an endogenous glucocorticoid-regulated protein, which is able to counterregulate the inflammatory events restoring homeostasis. AnxA1 and its mimetic peptides inhibit neutrophil tissue accumulation by reducing leukocyte infiltration and activating neutrophil apoptosis. AnxA1 also promotes monocyte recruitment and clearance of apoptotic leukocytes by macrophages. More recently, some evidence has suggested the ability of AnxA1 to induce macrophage reprogramming toward a resolving phenotype, resulting in reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines and increased release of immunosuppressive and proresolving molecules. The combination of these mechanisms results in an effective resolution of inflammation, pointing to AnxA1 as a promising tool for the development of new therapeutic strategies to treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:26885535

  20. Role of neutrophils in innate immunity: a systems biology-level approach.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Scott D; DeLeo, Frank R

    2009-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of host defense against invading microorganisms. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs or neutrophils) are the most abundant leukocyte in humans and essential to the innate immune response against invading pathogens. Compared with the acquired immune response, which requires time to develop and is dependent on previous interaction with specific microbes, the ability of neutrophils to kill microorganisms is immediate, non-specific, and not dependent on previous exposure to microorganisms. Historically, studies on PMN-pathogen interaction focused on the events leading to killing of microorganisms, such as recruitment/chemotaxis, transmigration, phagocytosis, and activation, whereas post-phagocytosis sequelae were infrequently considered. In addition, it was widely accepted that human neutrophils possessed limited capacity for new gene transcription and thus, relatively little biosynthetic capacity. This notion has changed dramatically within the past decade. Further, there is now more effort directed to understand the events occurring in PMNs after killing of microbes. Herein we review the systems biology-level approaches that have been used to gain an enhanced view of the role of neutrophils during host-pathogen interaction. We anticipate that these and future systems-level studies will ultimately provide information critical to our understanding, treatment, and control of diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms.

  1. Factor H and factor H-related protein 1 bind to human neutrophils via complement receptor 3, mediate attachment to Candida albicans, and enhance neutrophil antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Losse, Josephine; Zipfel, Peter F; Józsi, Mihály

    2010-01-15

    The host complement system plays an important role in protection against infections. Several human-pathogenic microbes were shown to acquire host complement regulators, such as factor H (CFH), that downregulate complement activation at the microbial surface and protect the pathogens from the opsonic and lytic effects of complement. Because CFH can also bind to host cells, we addressed the role of CFH and CFH-related proteins as adhesion ligands in host-pathogen interactions. We show that the CFH family proteins CFH, CFH-like protein 1 (CFHL1), CFH-related protein (CFHR) 1, and CFHR4 long isoform bind to human neutrophil granulocytes and to the opportunistic human-pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Two major binding sites, one within the N-terminus and one in the C-terminus of CFH, were found to mediate binding to neutrophils. Complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18; alpha(M)beta2 integrin) was identified as the major cellular receptor on neutrophils for CFH, CFHL1, and CFHR1, but not for CFHR4 long isoform. CFH and CFHR1 supported cell migration. Furthermore, CFH, CFHL1, and CFHR1 increased attachment of neutrophils to C. albicans. Adhesion of neutrophils to plasma-opsonized yeasts was reduced when CFH binding was inhibited by specific Abs or when using CFH-depleted plasma. Yeast-bound CFH and CFHR1 enhanced the generation of reactive oxygen species and the release of the antimicrobial protein lactoferrin by human neutrophils, and resulted in a more efficient killing of the pathogen. Thus, CFH and CFHR1, when bound on the surface of C. albicans, enhance antimicrobial activity of human neutrophils.

  2. Glycogen storage disease type Ib neutrophils exhibit impaired cell adhesion and migration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Goo-Young; Lee, Young Mok; Kwon, Joon Hyun; Jun, Hyun Sik; Chou, Janice

    2017-01-22

    Glycogen storage disease type Ib (GSD-Ib), characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis, neutropenia, and neutrophil dysfunction, is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (G6PT). Neutrophils play an essential role in the defense against invading pathogens. The recruitment of neutrophils towards the inflammation sites in response to inflammatory stimuli is a tightly regulated process involving rolling, adhesion, and transmigration. In this study, we investigated the role of G6PT in neutrophil adhesion and migration using in vivo and in vitro models. We showed that the GSD-Ib (G6pt(-/-)) mice manifested severe neutropenia in both blood and bone marrow, and treating G6pt(-/-) mice with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) corrected neutropenia. However, upon thioglycolate challenge, neutrophils from both untreated and G-CSF-treated G6pt(-/-)mice exhibited decreased ability to migrate to the peritoneal cavity. In vitro migration and cell adhesion of G6PT-deficient neutrophils were also significantly impaired. Defects in cell migration were not due to enhanced apoptosis or altered fMLP receptor expression. Remarkably, the expression of the β2 integrins CD11a and CD11b, which are critical for cell adhesion, was greatly decreased in G6PT-deficient neutrophils. This study suggests that deficiencies in G6PT cause impairment in neutrophil adhesion and migration via aberrant expression of β2 integrins, and our finding should facilitate the development of novel therapies for GSD-Ib.

  3. Alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein is contained in bovine neutrophil granules and released after activation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mizanur M D; Miranda-Ribera, Alba; Lecchi, Cristina; Bronzo, Valerio; Sartorelli, Paola; Franciosi, Federica; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2008-09-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the capability of bovine neutrophil granulocytes to produce the minor acute phase protein alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP, Orososmucoid). Bovine neutrophils contain a high MW (50-60kDa) AGP isoform (PMN-AGP), as determined by Western blotting and confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. The presence of AGP in bovine neutrophils has been confirmed by fluorescence immunocytometry. In addition, bovine neutrophils contain also a 42-45kDa isoform, which has the same MW as plasma-, liver-delivered, AGP. cDNA sequence of plasma- and PMN-AGP revealed that (i) the two proteins are products of the same gene; (ii) the differences in molecular weight are due do different post-translational modifications. This result was confirmed by deglycosylation of the two glycoforms. Exocytosis studies showed that isolated neutrophils exposed to several challengers, including Zymosan activated serum (ZAS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which mimic the inflammatory activation, released PMN-AGP as early as 15min. AGP's mRNA is physiologically expressed by mature resting neutrophils. Real-time PCR on LPS, ZAS and PMA challenged cells revealed that the level of expression apparently does not increase after inflammatory activation. Collectively, the findings reported in this paper proved that PMN-AGP: (i) is a hyperglycosylated glycoform of plasma AGP, (ii) is stored in granules, and (iii) is released by neutrophils in response to activation. Due to its anti-inflammatory activity, PMN-AGP may work as a fine tuning of the neutrophils functions in the inflammatory focus, i.e. it can reduce the damages caused by an excess of inflammatory response.

  4. The impact of cationic solid lipid nanoparticles on human neutrophil activation and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Hung, Chi-Feng; Chen, Chun-Han; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-06-25

    Cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLNs) are extensively employed as the nanocarriers for drug/gene targeting to tumors and the brain. Investigation into the possible immune response of cSLNs is still lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cSLNs upon the activation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells (PMNs). The cytotoxicity, pro-inflammatory mediators, Ca(2+) mobilization, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) as the indicators of PMN stimulation were examined in this work. The cSLNs presented a diameter of 195 nm with a zeta potential of 44 mV. The cSLNs could interact with the cell membrane to produce a direct membrane lysis and the subsequent cytotoxicity according to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) elevation. The interaction of cSLNs with the membrane also triggered a Ca(2+) influx, followed by the induction of oxidative stress and degranulation. The cationic nanoparticles elevated the levels of superoxide anion and elastase by 24- and 9-fold, respectively. The PMN activation by cSLNs promoted the phosphorylation of p38 and Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The imaging of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunofluorescence demonstrated the production of NETs by cSLNs. This phenomenon was not significant for the neutral SLNs (nSLNs), although histones in NETs also increased after treatment of nSLNs. Our results suggest an important role of cSLNs in governing the activation of human neutrophils.

  5. A subpopulation analysis of f-MLP stimulated granulocytes migrating in filters.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, P R; Bazargani, F; Afzal, F; Högfors, C; Braide, M

    1996-01-01

    Leukocyte migration in vitro has been studied extensively during many years without providing satisfactory theoretical models for the different migratory behaviors (chemotaxis and chemokinesis) of leukocyte populations. The present study utilized the fluid gradient chamber, which is a new method to study leukocyte migration in filters. Human neutrophils were applied between two stacked filters and migrated in all directions under the influence of constant concentrations or chemotactic gradients of f-MLP, maintained in fluid phase density gradients. The distributions of the granulocytes over filter depth were fitted to theoretical functions composed by 1-3 Gaussian distributions, representing subpopulations. The results showed that the neutrophils migrated as two discrete subpopulations during chemokinetic stimulation (a constant concentration of f-MLP). One of the subpopulations showed less active and passive (slow sedimentation under the influence of gravity) translocation. The most mobile subpopulation was divided into two new subpopulations when exposed to chemotactic stimulation (concentration gradient of f-MLP), one of which responded chemotactically and one of which migrated in random directions. The properties of the different subpopulations where characterized in terms of diffusion coefficient (random migration), convection velocity (chemotactic migration) and sedimentation coefficient (passive translocation).

  6. Influence of Age, Past Smoking, and Disease Severity on TLR2, Neutrophilic Inflammation, and MMP-9 Levels in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jodie L.; McDonald, Vanessa M.; Baines, Katherine J.; Oreo, Kevin M.; Wang, Fang; Hansbro, Philip M.; Gibson, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and serious respiratory disease, particularly in older individuals, characterised by fixed airway obstruction and persistent airway neutrophilia. The mechanisms that lead to these features are not well established. We investigated the contribution of age, prior smoking, and fixed airflow obstruction on sputum neutrophils, TLR2 expression, and markers of neutrophilic inflammation. Induced sputum from adults with COPD (n = 69) and healthy controls (n = 51) was examined. A sputum portion was dispersed, total, differential cell count and viability recorded, and supernatant assayed for CXCL8, matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 9, neutrophil elastase, and soluble TLR2. Peripheral blood cells (n = 7) were stimulated and TLR2 activation examined. TLR2 levels were increased with ageing, while sputum neutrophils and total sputum MMP-9 levels increased with age, previous smoking, and COPD. In multivariate regression, TLR2 gene expression and MMP-9 levels were significant independent contributors to the proportion of sputum neutrophils after adjustment for age, prior smoking, and the presence of airflow obstruction. TLR2 stimulation led to enhanced release of MMP-9 from peripheral blood granulocytes. TLR2 stimulation activates neutrophils for MMP-9 release. Efforts to understand the mechanisms of TLR2 signalling and subsequent MMP-9 production in COPD may assist in understanding neutrophilic inflammation in COPD. PMID:23606791

  7. Influence of light sources on the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Beard, Richard B.; Dai, Xiaoyan

    1995-05-01

    In the process of inflammation, leukocytes must travel from the intraluminal space of the capillary to the interstitial space in order to reach the site of the inflammation. The two major populations of mature human leukocytes based on the morphology are the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and mononuclear leukocytes (MNL). Previous research on PMNs and MNLs at the Biomedical Engineering and Science Institute of Drexel University have shown that their migration can be markedly enhanced by excitation with electric and magnetic fields. This presentation demonstrates that the migration of PMNs under excitation of photons is enhanced in the red light region of (lambda) equals 660 nm and inhibited in the green light region of (lambda) equals 565 nm. There is an intensity threshold at which red light enhances migration and an intensity threshold at which green light inhibits migration. In these experiments the Boyden technique was used with the distance of the cell migration through a cellulose filter measured in terms of the leading edge. The comparison of the relative value of the distance to cell migration under a light to cell migration without a light stimulus was recorded as a cytokinetic index, K.I.. K.I. is a measure of the cytokinesis which is the progress of the cell movement in which the migration is enhanced by substances in the cell environment irrespective of a concentration gradient. The cytotactic index is a measure of cytotaxis which is the directional movement along a chemical gradient formed by a chemotactic factor. A Russian pulsed commercial laser biostimulator in the near infrared wavelength above an intensity threshold enhances PMN migration. Intermittent green and red stimulators below the intensity threshold markedly influence the cytokinetic index of PMNs while above the intensity threshold, this influence is deminished.

  8. Isolation of healthy individuals' and rheumatoid arthritis patients' peripheral blood neutrophils by the gelatin and Ficoll-Hypaque methods: comparative efficiency and impact on the neutrophil oxidative metabolism and Fcγ receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Paoliello-Paschoalato, A B; Azzolini, A E C S; Cruz, M F C; Marchi, L F; Kabeya, L M; Donadi, E A; Lucisano-Valim, Y M

    2014-10-01

    In vitro assessment of the functional responses of leukocytes sometimes requires their isolation from blood, joint and tissues. In this study, we compared the efficiency of two procedures - the gelatin method and Ficoll-Hypaque density centrifugation gradient - to isolate peripheral blood neutrophils of healthy individuals and patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We also assessed whether these procedures affect the neutrophil activation status. Both purification procedures were concluded in 90min, and yielded cell populations with similar degrees of purity (80-90%), number of neutrophils (1-2×10(6) cells per mL of blood), and viability (97-100%). In vitro neutrophil priming with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) significantly increased the reactive oxygen species producing ability of the cells stimulated with n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (n-fMLP), soluble immune complexes (s-ICs), and insoluble immune complexes (i-ICs). Isolated neutrophils not treated with GM-CSF responded to n-fMLP and i-IC, but not to s-IC. Almost all of the neutrophils (98-100%) purified by both methods expressed FcγRII/CD32 and FcγRIII/CD16, but they did not express significant levels of FcγRI/CD64. Similar results were obtained for healthy individuals' and RA patients' neutrophils. In summary, the gelatin method was comparable to Ficoll-Hypaque gradient in terms of purity, yield, and viability of the neutrophil preparations. Both methods neither primed or activated the neutrophils, nor affected their functional responsiveness. Therefore, both methods are suitable to isolate peripheral blood neutrophils of healthy individuals and RA patients.

  9. Rat granulocyte colony-forming unit (CFU-G) assay for the assessment of drug-induced hematotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Matsumura-Takeda, K; Kotosai, K; Ozaki, A; Hara, H; Yamashita, S

    2002-06-01

    To assess the drug-induced hematotoxicity to granulocyte progenitors, we established a modified colony-forming assay using rat bone marrow cells (BMCs). In the presence of various colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), rat BMCs were disseminated on methylcellulose at a concentration of 1.3 x 10(4) cells/cm(2) (5 x 10(4) cells/0.5 ml/well in a 12-well plate). Mouse granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) stimulated the formation of almost all macrophage colonies. Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) alone or in combination with mouse interleukin-3 (mIL-3) did not significantly effect on the number of rat colony-forming units in culture (CFU-C). When BMCs were seeded at 5.2 x 10(4) cells/cm(2) (5 x 10(5) cells/1 ml/dish in a 35-mm dish), hG-CSF increased the number of the colonies in a dose-dependent manner, and resulted in about 50 colonies at 50 ng/ml. The constituent cells of the colonies were identified as neutrophils. Under these conditions, the effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on granulocyte colony-forming units (CFU-G) were examined in rats and mice. The inhibitory effect of 5-FU on rat CFU-G was similar to the effect on mouse CFU-G. These results indicate that the rat CFU-G induced by hG-CSF is capable of being used for the evaluation of drug-induced hematotoxicity.

  10. Analysis of electrophysiological properties and responses of neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Deri; DeCoursey, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The past decade has seen increasing use of the patch clamp technique on neutrophils and eosinophils. The main goal of these electrophysiological studies has been to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the phagocyte respiratory burst. NADPH oxidase activity, which defines the respiratory burst in granulocytes, is electrogenic because electrons from NADPH are transported across the cell membrane, where they reduce oxygen to form superoxide anion (O2−). This passage of electrons comprises an electrical current that would rapidly depolarize the membrane if the charge movement were not balanced by proton efflux. The patch clamp technique enables simultaneous recording of NADPH oxidase-generated electron current and H+ flux through the closely related H+ channel. Increasing evidence suggests that other ion channels may play crucial roles in degranulation, phagocytosis, and chemotaxis, highlighting the importance of electrophysiological studies to advance knowledge of granulocyte function. Several configurations of the patch clamp technique exist. Each has advantages and limitations that are discussed here. Meaningful measurements of ion channels cannot be achieved without an understanding of their fundamental properties. We describe the types of measurements that are necessary to characterize a particular ion channel. PMID:24504950

  11. Myeloid Engraftment in Humanized Mice: Impact of Granulocyte-Colony Stimulating Factor Treatment and Transgenic Mouse Strain.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Alice M; Harmon, Cathal; Whelan, Sarah; O'Brien, Eóin C; O'Reilly, Vincent P; Crotty, Paul; Kelly, Pamela; Ryan, Michelle; Hickey, Fionnuala B; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Little, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Poor myeloid engraftment remains a barrier to experimental use of humanized mice. Focusing primarily on peripheral blood cells, we compared the engraftment profile of NOD-scid-IL2Rγc(-/-) (NSG) mice with that of NSG mice transgenic for human membrane stem cell factor (hu-mSCF mice), NSG mice transgenic for human interleukin (IL)-3, granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and stem cell factor (SGM3 mice). hu-mSCF and SGM3 mice showed enhanced engraftment of human leukocytes compared to NSG mice, and this was reflected in the number of human neutrophils and monocytes present in these strains. Importantly, discrete classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocyte populations were identifiable in the blood of NSG and hu-mSCF mice, while the nonclassical population was absent in the blood of SGM3 mice. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (GCSF) treatment increased the number of blood monocytes in NSG and hu-mSCF mice, and neutrophils in NSG and SGM3 mice; however, this effect appeared to be at least partially dependent on the stem cell donor used to engraft the mice. Furthermore, GCSF treatment resulted in a preferential expansion of nonclassical monocytes in both NSG and hu-mSCF mice. Human tubulointerstitial CD11c(+) cells were present in the kidneys of hu-mSCF mice, while monocytes and neutrophils were identified in the liver of all strains. Bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared from NSG mice were most effective at phagocytosing polystyrene beads. In conclusion, hu-mSCF mice provide the best environment for the generation of human myeloid cells, with GCSF treatment further enhancing peripheral blood human monocyte cell numbers in this strain.

  12. Jagunal homolog 1 is a critical regulator of neutrophil function in fungal host defense.

    PubMed

    Wirnsberger, Gerald; Zwolanek, Florian; Stadlmann, Johannes; Tortola, Luigi; Liu, Shang Wan; Perlot, Thomas; Järvinen, Päivi; Dürnberger, Gerhard; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Sarao, Renu; De Martino, Alba; Boztug, Kaan; Mechtler, Karl; Kuchler, Karl; Klein, Christoph; Elling, Ulrich; Penninger, Josef M

    2014-09-01

    Neutrophils are key innate immune effector cells that are essential to fighting bacterial and fungal pathogens. Here we report that mice carrying a hematopoietic lineage-specific deletion of Jagn1 (encoding Jagunal homolog 1) cannot mount an efficient neutrophil-dependent immune response to the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Global glycobiome analysis identified marked alterations in the glycosylation of proteins involved in cell adhesion and cytotoxicity in Jagn1-deficient neutrophils. Functional analysis confirmed marked defects in neutrophil migration in response to Candida albicans infection and impaired formation of cytotoxic granules, as well as defective myeloperoxidase release and killing of Candida albicans. Treatment with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) protected mutant mice from increased weight loss and accelerated mortality after Candida albicans challenge. Notably, GM-CSF also restored the defective fungicidal activity of bone marrow cells from humans with JAGN1 mutations. These data directly identify Jagn1 (JAGN1 in humans) as a new regulator of neutrophil function in microbial pathogenesis and uncover a potential treatment option for humans.

  13. [Effect of opioid peptides on oxygen-dependent microbicidity of peripheral blood neutrophils].

    PubMed

    Geĭn, S V; Gorshkova, K G

    2012-01-01

    Investigation ofopioid peptide effect on the production of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils in non-fractionated leukocyte suspension and in purified fraction of peripheral blood neutrophils is disclosed in this work. It was determined that selective delta- and micro-agonists of peptide origin stimulated the spontaneous and suppressed 15 mkg/ml zymosan-induced LDCL (luminol-dependent chemiluminescence) reaction of neutrophils in leukocyte suspension. beta-endorphin was found to render less marked suppressive action on 15 mkg/ml zymosan-induced LDCL, and delta2-agonist deltorphin 2 promoted 15 mkg/ml zymosan-induced LDCL only toward the 25 minutes of the experiment. beta-endorphin and selective d- and m- agonists did not affect the spontaneous and suppressed 15 mkg/ml and 150 mkg/ml zymosan-induced neutrophil LDCL. Therefore, opioid peptides play essential role in the process of direct and indirect regulation of oxygen-dependent system of neutrophil granulocyte bactericidal activity.

  14. IL-17-mediated antifungal defense in the oral mucosa is independent of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Trautwein-Weidner, K; Gladiator, A; Nur, S; Diethelm, P; LeibundGut-Landmann, S

    2015-03-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17)-mediated immunity has emerged as a crucial host defense mechanism against Candida albicans infections in mucosal tissues and the skin. The precise mechanism by which the IL-17 pathway prevents fungal outgrowth has not been clarified. Neutrophils are critical for limiting fungal dissemination and IL-17 is generally thought to act by regulating neutrophil mobilization and trafficking to the site of infection. Using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we found that strikingly the IL-17 pathway is not required for the neutrophil response to C. albicans. Mice deficient for the IL-17 receptor subunits IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) or IL-17RC or mice depleted of IL-17A and IL-17F exhibited a normal granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and CXC-chemokine response and displayed no defect in neutrophil recruitment or function. Instead, the inability of these mice to clear the fungus was associated with a selective defect in the induction of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the epithelium that resulted in persistent fungal colonization. Importantly, this antifungal mechanism of IL-17A and IL-17F did not extend to the closely related family member IL-17C. Together, these data uncouple IL-17-dependent effector mechanisms from the neutrophil response and reveal a compartmentalization of the antifungal defense in the oral mucosa providing a new understanding of IL-17-mediated mucosal immunity against C. albicans.

  15. Characterization of synthetic human granulocyte chemotactic protein 2: usage of chemokine receptors CXCR1 and CXCR2 and in vivo inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Wuyts, A; Van Osselaer, N; Haelens, A; Samson, I; Herdewijn, P; Ben-Baruch, A; Oppenheim, J J; Proost, P; Van Damme, J

    1997-03-04

    Human granulocyte chemotactic protein 2 (GCP-2) has originally been isolated from cytokine-stimulated osteosarcoma cells as a chemokine coproduced in minute amounts together with interleukin 8. Human GCP-2 (75 residues) was synthesized on a 0.25-mmol scale using Fmoc chemistry. After disulfide bridge formation and purification, monomeric GCP-2 was recovered as a 6-kDa protein; the pure synthetic protein showed a molecular mass of 8076 Da as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The exact amino acid sequence of synthetic GCP-2 was confirmed by Edman degradation. Synthetic GCP-2 was an equally active (minimal effective concentration of 1-3 nM) chemoattractant for neutrophilic granulocytes as was natural 75-residue GCP-2. At concentrations up to 30 nM, synthetic GCP-2 did not stimulate eosinophil, monocyte, or lymphocyte chemotaxis. GCP-2 induced a dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i in neutrophils, 1 nM being the minimal effective concentration. The GCP-2-induced [Ca2+]i increase was completely prevented by pertussis toxin. Prestimulation of neutrophils with equimolar concentrations of purified natural IL-8, GROalpha, GROgamma and ENA-78 abolished the [Ca2+]i increase in response to 1 nM GCP-2. Alternatively, the [Ca2+]i rise induced by these CXC chemokines was inhibited by pretreatment of neutrophils with GCP-2. GCP-2 stimulated [Ca2+]i increases in CXCR1- and CXCR2-transfected cells, demonstrating that GCP-2 binds to both IL-8 receptors. Intradermal injection of synthetic GCP-2 resulted in a dose-dependent neutrophil accumulation and plasma extravasation in rabbit skin. To provoke this skin reaction, GCP-2 (10 pmol/site) was nearly as effective as IL-8, indicating that it is an important complementary mediator of the inflammatory response.

  16. Effect of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA) on the phagocytic and respiratory burst activity of human neutrophils and monocytes.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Jennie; Dahlgren, Ulf I

    2008-08-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages (MØ), found in oral mucosa and gingival sulcus, phagocytose and kill bacteria using products produced during a respiratory burst. 2-Hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA) is a major component released from resin glass ionomer and dental adhesives. Hence, in pulp and gingiva, phagocytes can come into contact with unpolymerized HEMA monomers. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to HEMA on neutrophil and monocyte bactericidal function. Blood collected from five female volunteers was exposed in vitro to HEMA for 2 h and then phagocytosis, respiratory burst, and cellular integrity were measured using flow cytometry. Respiratory burst was quantified by measuring fluorescent rhodamine 123 generated via oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123. Cellular membrane integrity was evaluated by staining with propidium iodide. The respiratory burst activity of the neutrophils was significantly decreased by exposure to 7.5 and 15 mM HEMA. No significant effect of HEMA was seen on the number of granulocytes or monocytes capable of performing respiratory burst. Furthermore, there was no significant effect of HEMA on the phagocytic activity of the monocytes or the granulocytes. In conclusion, HEMA did not affect the phagocytosis activity of neutrophils; however, the ability of the cells to kill internalized prey was significantly reduced.

  17. Intravital Förster resonance energy transfer imaging reveals osteopontin-mediated polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation by tumor cell emboli.

    PubMed

    Kamioka, Yuji; Takakura, Kanako; Sumiyama, Kenta; Matsuda, Michiyuki

    2017-02-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) cause paraneoplastic leukemoid reactions and facilitate tumor cell metastasis. However, the interaction of MDSCs with tumor cells in live tissue has not been adequately visualized. To accomplish this task, we developed an intravital imaging protocol to observe metastasized tumor cells in mouse lungs. For visualization of the activation of MDSCs, bone marrow cells derived from transgenic mice expressing a Förster resonance energy transfer biosensor for ERK were implanted into host mice. Under a two-photon excitation microscope, numerous polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) were found to infiltrate the lungs of tumor-bearing mice in which 4T1 mammary tumor cells were implanted into the footpads. By Förster resonance energy transfer imaging, we found ERK activation in PMNs around the 4T1 tumor emboli in the lungs. Because antibody array analysis implied the involvement of osteopontin (OPN) in the metastasis of 4T1 cells, we further analyzed the effect of OPN knockdown. The OPN knockdown in 4T1 cells did not affect the cell growth, but markedly suppressed lung metastasis of 4T1 cells and ERK activation in PMNs in the lung. Intravenous injection of recombinant OPN restored the lung metastasis of OPN-deficient 4T1 cells, suggesting that OPN functioned in a paracrine manner. It has been reported that ERK activation of neutrophils causes NETosis and that PMNs promote metastasis of tumor cells by NETosis. In agreement with previous reports, the NETosis inhibitor DNase I inhibited lung metastasis of 4T1 cells. These observations suggest that OPN promotes metastasis of 4T1 cells by activating PMNs and inducing NETosis.

  18. Redox state and O2*- production in neutrophils of Crohn's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, Chiara; Favilli, Fabio; Catarzi, Serena; Marcucci, Tommaso; Fazi, Marilena; Tonelli, Francesco; Vincenzini, Maria T; Iantomasi, Teresa

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the intracellular redox state and respiratory burst (RB) in neutrophils of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The intracellular redox state and RB in neutrophils was assessed by the superoxide anion (O2*-) production induced in these cells after stimulation by various factors related to the molecular mechanisms that, if altered, may be responsible for an abnormal immune response. This can, in part, cause the onset of inflammation and tissue damage seen in CD. This study demonstrated a decreased glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio index of an increased oxidative state in CD patient neutrophils. Moreover, our findings showed a decrease in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha)- or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced O2*- production in CD patient neutrophils adherent to fibronectin as compared with controls. A decreased adhesion was also demonstrated. For this reason, the involvement of altered mechanisms of protein kinase C (PKC) and beta-integrin activation in CD patient neutrophils is suggested. These data also showed that the harmful effects of TNF-alpha cannot be caused by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production induced by neutrophils. Decreased cell viability after a prolonged time of adhesion (20 hrs) was also measured in CD patient neutrophils. The findings of this study demonstrate, for the first time, that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a compound recently used in CD therapy, is able to activate the RB for a prolonged time both in control and CD patient neutrophils. Increased viability of CD patient neutrophils caused by GM-CSF stimulation was also observed. In conclusion, our results indicate that decreased O2*- production and adhesion, caused, in part, by an anomalous response to TNF-alpha, together with low GSH level and low cell viability, may be responsible for the defective neutrophil function found in CD patients. This can contribute to the

  19. Treatment with Rutin - A Therapeutic Strategy for Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Bahareh Abd; Adineh, Mohtaram; Hajiali, Farid

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Neutrophils represent the front line of human defense against infections. Immediately after stimulation, neutrophilic enzymes are activated and produce toxic mediators such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). These mediators can be toxic not only to infectious agents but also to host tissues. Because flavonoids exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, they are subjects of interest for pharmacological modulation of inflammation. In the present study, the effects of rutin on stimulus-induced NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α productions and MPO activity in human neutrophils were investigated. Methods: Human peripheral blood neutrophils were isolated using Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation coupled with dextran T500 sedimentation. The cell preparations containing > 98% granulocytes were determined by morphological examination through Giemsa staining. Neutrophils were cultured in complete Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium, pre-incubated with or without rutin (25 μM) for 45 minutes, and stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). Then, the TNF-α, NO and MPO productions were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Griess Reagent, and MPO assay kits, respectively. Also, the viability of human neutrophils was assessed using tetrazolium salt 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), and neutrophils were treated with various concentrations of rutin (1 - 100 μM), after which MTT was appended and incubated at 37ºC for 4 hour. Results: Rutin at concentrations up to 100 μM did not affect neutrophil viability during the 4-hour incubation period. Rutin significantly decreased the NO and TNF-α productions in human peripheral blood neutrophils compared to PMA-control cells (P < 0.001). Also, MPO activity was significantly reduced by rutin (P < 0.001). Conclusion: In this in vitro study, rutin had an anti-inflammatory effect due to

  20. Sepsis-induced expansion of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells promotes tumour growth through Toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Llitjos, Jean-François; Auffray, Cédric; Alby-Laurent, Fanny; Rousseau, Christophe; Merdji, Hamid; Bonilla, Nelly; Toubiana, Julie; Belaïdouni, Nadia; Mira, Jean-Paul; Lucas, Bruno; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Pène, Frédéric

    2016-08-01

    Severe sepsis remains a frequent and dreaded complication in cancer patients. Beyond the often fatal short-term outcome, the long-term sequelae of severe sepsis may also impact directly on the prognosis of the underlying malignancy in survivors. The immune system is involved in all stages of tumour development, in the detection of transforming and dying cells and in the prevention of tumour growth and dissemination. In fact, the profound and sustained immune defects induced by sepsis may constitute a privileged environment likely to favour tumour growth. We investigated the impact of sepsis on malignant tumour growth in a double-hit animal model of polymicrobial peritonitis, followed by subcutaneous inoculation of MCA205 fibrosarcoma cells. As compared to their sham-operated counterparts, post-septic mice exhibited accelerated tumour growth. This was associated with intratumoural accumulation of CD11b(+) Ly6G(high) polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) that could be characterized as granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs). Depletion of granulocytic cells in post-septic mice inhibited the sepsis-enhanced tumour growth. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 (Tlr4) and Myd88 deficiencies prevented sepsis-induced expansion of G-MDSCs and tumour growth. Our results demonstrate that the myelosuppressive environment induced by severe bacterial infections promotes malignant tumour growth, and highlight a critical role of CD11b(+) Ly6G(high) G-MDSCs under the control of TLR-dependent signalling. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Circumventing Y. pestis Virulence by Early Recruitment of Neutrophils to the Lungs during Pneumonic Plague.

    PubMed

    Vagima, Yaron; Zauberman, Ayelet; Levy, Yinon; Gur, David; Tidhar, Avital; Aftalion, Moshe; Shafferman, Avigdor; Mamroud, Emanuelle

    2015-05-01

    Pneumonic plague is a fatal disease caused by Yersinia pestis that is associated with a delayed immune response in the lungs. Because neutrophils are the first immune cells recruited to sites of infection, we investigated the mechanisms responsible for their delayed homing to the lung. During the first 24 hr after pulmonary infection with a fully virulent Y. pestis strain, no significant changes were observed in the lungs in the levels of neutrophils infiltrate, expression of adhesion molecules, or the expression of the major neutrophil chemoattractants keratinocyte cell-derived chemokine (KC), macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). In contrast, early induction of chemokines, rapid neutrophil infiltration and a reduced bacterial burden were observed in the lungs of mice infected with an avirulent Y. pestis strain. In vitro infection of lung-derived cell-lines with a YopJ mutant revealed the involvement of YopJ in the inhibition of chemoattractants expression. However, the recruitment of neutrophils to the lungs of mice infected with the mutant was still delayed and associated with rapid bacterial propagation and mortality. Interestingly, whereas KC, MIP-2 and G-CSF mRNA levels in the lungs were up-regulated early after infection with the mutant, their protein levels remained constant, suggesting that Y. pestis may employ additional mechanisms to suppress early chemoattractants induction in the lung. It therefore seems that prevention of the early influx of neutrophils to the lungs is of major importance for Y. pestis virulence. Indeed, pulmonary instillation of KC and MIP-2 to G-CSF-treated mice infected with Y. pestis led to rapid homing of neutrophils to the lung followed by a reduction in bacterial counts at 24 hr post-infection and improved survival rates. These observations shed new light on the virulence mechanisms of Y. pestis during pneumonic plague, and have implications for the development of novel

  2. Brief review on the effect of low-power laser irradiation on neutrophils with emphasis on emerging fungal infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperandio, F. F.; Bani, G. M. A. C.; Mendes, A. C. S. C.; Brigagão, M. R. P. L.; Santos, G. B.; Malaquias, L. C. C.; Chavasco, J. K.; Verinaud, L. M.; Burger, E.

    2015-03-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) participate in an active way in the innate immunity developed after the fungal infection paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). Nevertheless, the sole participation of neutrophils is not sufficient to eradicate PCM`s pathogenic fungus: Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb). In that way, we aimed to develop a treatment capable of stimulating PMN to the site of injury through low-level laser therapy (LLLT). (LLLT) is safe to use and has not been linked to microorganism resistance so far; in addition, based on previous studies we understand that LLLT may be useful to treat several medical conditions through the stimulation and activation of certain types of cells. This brief review is based on the novel attempt of activating PMN against a fungal infection.

  3. Ultra-structure and localisation of formazan formed by human neutrophils and amoebae phagocytosing virulent and avirulent Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Halablab, M A; Bazin, M; Richards, L; Pacy, J

    1990-12-01

    Legionella pneumophila (LP) strains of differing virulence were incubated with a solution of nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT) at a concentration of 1 mg.ml-1 in the presence of Acanthamoeba polyphaga or human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). Reduction of NBT to formazan occurred at a faster rate in the presence of virulent strains. Reduction appeared to be temperature dependent; at 37 degrees C the reaction rate was higher than at 20 degrees C. On microscopic examination, deposits of formazan around Legionella cells were observed inside amoebae similar to those deposited in human neutrophils. Electron microscopy revealed electron-dense particles surrounding virulent legionellae, which appeared to be associated with formazan formation. Formazan formation inside amoebae may suggest the presence of a respiratory burst against LP, which is more intense with virulent strains.

  4. CXCR4+ granulocytes reflect fungal cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Carevic, Melanie; Singh, Anurag; Rieber, Nikolaus; Eickmeier, Olaf; Griese, Matthias; Hector, Andreas; Hartl, Dominik

    2015-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis airways are frequently colonised with fungi. However, the interaction of these fungi with immune cells and the clinical relevance in cystic fibrosis lung disease are incompletely understood.We characterised granulocytes in airway fluids and peripheral blood from cystic fibrosis patients with and without fungal colonisation, non-cystic fibrosis disease controls and healthy control subjects cross-sectionally and longitudinally and correlated these findings with lung function parameters.Cystic fibrosis patients with chronic fungal colonisation by Aspergillus fumigatus were characterised by an accumulation of a distinct granulocyte subset, expressing the HIV coreceptor CXCR4. Percentages of airway CXCR4(+) granulocytes correlated with lung disease severity in patients with cystic fibrosis.These studies demonstrate that chronic fungal colonisation with A. fumigatus in cystic fibrosis patients is associated with CXCR4(+) airway granulocytes, which may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target in fungal cystic fibrosis lung disease.

  5. Assessment of Granulocyte Subset Activation: New Information from Image-Based Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    McFarlin, Brian K; Venable, Adam S; Henning, Andrea L; Williams, Randall R; Prado, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of granulocyte function can provide important information about the state of the body's innate immune system. Existing flow cytometry methods that lack image-based analysis capabilities fail to fully evaluate granulocyte function. In the present method, we combine simultaneous detection of phagocytosis and oxidative burst in granulocytes to identify unique subsets of activated granulocytes. This analysis method provides novel information about granulocytes that allows our lab and others to evaluate the effectiveness of nutritional and lifestyle countermeasures, designed to improve immunity.

  6. Neutrophil Functions in Periodontal Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Vieyra, Ricarda; Rosales, Carlos; Uribe-Querol, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Oral tissues are constantly exposed to damage from the mechanical effort of eating and to microorganisms, mostly bacteria. In healthy gingiva tissue remodeling and a balance between bacteria and innate immune cells are maintained. However, excess of bacteria biofilm (plaque) creates an inflammation state that recruits more immune cells, mainly neutrophils to the gingiva. Neutrophils create a barrier for bacteria to reach inside tissues. When neutrophils are insufficient, bacteria thrive causing more inflammation that has been associated with systemic effects on other conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. But paradoxically when neutrophils persist, they can also promote a chronic inflammatory state that leads to periodontitis, a condition that leads to damage of the bone-supporting tissues. In periodontitis, bone loss is a serious complication. How a neutrophil balance is needed for maintaining healthy oral tissues is the focus of this review. We present recent evidence on how alterations in neutrophil number and function can lead to inflammatory bone loss, and how some oral bacteria signal neutrophils to block their antimicrobial functions and promote an inflammatory state. Also, based on this new information, novel therapeutic approaches are discussed.

  7. Neutrophil Functions in Periodontal Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Vieyra, Ricarda; Rosales, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Oral tissues are constantly exposed to damage from the mechanical effort of eating and to microorganisms, mostly bacteria. In healthy gingiva tissue remodeling and a balance between bacteria and innate immune cells are maintained. However, excess of bacteria biofilm (plaque) creates an inflammation state that recruits more immune cells, mainly neutrophils to the gingiva. Neutrophils create a barrier for bacteria to reach inside tissues. When neutrophils are insufficient, bacteria thrive causing more inflammation that has been associated with systemic effects on other conditions such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer. But paradoxically when neutrophils persist, they can also promote a chronic inflammatory state that leads to periodontitis, a condition that leads to damage of the bone-supporting tissues. In periodontitis, bone loss is a serious complication. How a neutrophil balance is needed for maintaining healthy oral tissues is the focus of this review. We present recent evidence on how alterations in neutrophil number and function can lead to inflammatory bone loss, and how some oral bacteria signal neutrophils to block their antimicrobial functions and promote an inflammatory state. Also, based on this new information, novel therapeutic approaches are discussed. PMID:27019855

  8. Neutrophil elastase activity in differentiating HL-60 promyelocytes is decreased by culture with ethanol and elastase deficient neutrophils are produced in alcoholics

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, C.; Christianson, R.; Pratt, P.; Lynn, W.

    1987-05-01

    Serum-free culture of HL-60 in the presence of recombinant Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor in four days elicits a five-fold increase in esterolytic neutrophil elastase (NE) like activity measured with methoxy-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-val p-nitroanilide and purified NE standard but does not cause terminal differentiation. Simultaneous exposure to 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6% (vol./vol.) ethanol blocks this increase in NE activity. Exposure to 0.85% ethanol promotes terminal differentiation to elastase-deficient granulocytes which as been described using DMSO. To ascertain if ethanol may have similar effects on granulocytic differentiation in vivo, they compared oxidase and elastase activities of PMN's in male alcoholics on a binge (ethanol > 200 mg/dl.). In 29 patients an average of 872 (+/- 237) (SD) ng./10/sup 6/ PMN's of active NE was found compared to 1571 (+/- 177) in 13 controls. Patients admitted for treatment of alcoholism had similar NE activity in 3-4 days, showed a slight increase in activity within one week and had NE activity comparable to controls within 2-3 weeks. These findings support the previous observation that smoking related emphysema is less prevalent and severe in patients who regularly consume alcohol. They conclude that ethanol may visibly alter responsiveness of promyelocytic precursors to regulatory differentiating factors.

  9. CD66b Overexpression and Loss of C5a Receptors as Surface Markers for Staphylococcus aureus-Induced Neutrophil Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Norbert; Grüger, Thomas; Brandenburg, Kerstin; Zinserling, Jörg; Zündorf, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil granulocytes constitute the main component of innate immunity in the clearance of bacterial infections. However, during systemic inflammation, immunoparalysis may occur resulting in neutrophil dysfunction. This study presents a new in vitro model for analyzing the dysfunction of human peripheral blood neutrophils resulting from the interaction with Staphylococcus aureus components in whole blood. After induction of a massive complement activation by S. aureus supernatant, the neutrophils exhibit a reduced phagocytic capacity resulting in a dramatic reduction of the antibacterial activity similar to that of neutrophils isolated from septic patients. The number of phagocytozing neutrophils is drastically reduced as well as the phagocytic capacity designated by a significantly lower number of ingested microbes. This dysfunction correlates with the loss of complement component 5a receptor 1 from the neutrophil cell surface and can be further characterized by a C5a-induced CD66b overexpression. The presented in vitro model offers a new platform for preclinical testing of immunosuppressive drugs and delivers new information for the understanding of neutrophil dysfunctions under the conditions described. PMID:26176669

  10. Absolute counting of neutrophils in whole blood using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Brunck, Marion E G; Andersen, Stacey B; Timmins, Nicholas E; Osborne, Geoffrey W; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-12-01

    Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is used clinically to monitor physiological dysfunctions such as myelosuppression or infection. In the research laboratory, ANC is a valuable measure to monitor the evolution of a wide range of disease states in disease models. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a fast, widely used approach to confidently identify thousands of cells within minutes. FCM can be optimised for absolute counting using spiked-in beads or by measuring the sample volume analysed. Here we combine the 1A8 antibody, specific for the mouse granulocyte protein Ly6G, with flow cytometric counting in straightforward FCM assays for mouse ANC, easily implementable in the research laboratory. Volumetric and Trucount™ bead assays were optimized for mouse neutrophils, and ANC values obtained with these protocols were compared to ANC measured by a dual-platform assay using the Orphee Mythic 18 veterinary haematology analyser. The single platform assays were more precise with decreased intra-assay variability compared with ANC obtained using the dual protocol. Defining ANC based on Ly6G expression produces a 15% higher estimate than the dual protocol. Allowing for this difference in ANC definition, the flow cytometry counting assays using Ly6G can be used reliably in the research laboratory to quantify mouse ANC from a small volume of blood. We demonstrate the utility of the volumetric protocol in a time-course study of chemotherapy induced neutropenia using four drug regimens.

  11. Oxidatively fragmented phosphatidylcholines activate human neutrophils through the receptor for platelet-activating factor.

    PubMed

    Smiley, P L; Stremler, K E; Prescott, S M; Zimmerman, G A; McIntyre, T M

    1991-06-15

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF, 1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) activates neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMN) through a receptor that specifically recognizes short sn-2 residues. We oxidized synthetic [2-arachidonoyl]phosphatidylcholine to fragment and shorten the sn-2 residue, and then examined the phospholipid products for the ability to stimulate PMN. 1-Palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine was fragmented by ozonolysis to 1-palmitoyl-2-(5-oxovaleroyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. This phospholipid activated human neutrophils at submicromolar concentrations, and is effects were inhibited by specific PAF receptor antagonists WEB2086, L659,989, and CV3988. 1-Palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine next was fragmented by an uncontrolled free radical-catalyzed reaction: it was treated with soybean lipoxygenase to form its sn-2 15-hydroperoxy derivative (which did not activate neutrophils) and then allowed to oxidize under air. The secondary oxidation resulted in the formation of numerous fragmented phospholipids (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., and McIntyre, T. M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 11095-11103), some of which activated PMN. Hydrolysis of sn-2 residues with phospholipase A2 destroyed biologic activity, as did hydrolysis with PAF acetylhydrolase. PAF acetylhydrolase is specific for short or intermediate length sn-2 residues and does not hydrolyze the starting material (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., and McIntyre, T. M. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 11095-11103). Neutrophil activation was completely blocked by L659,989, a specific PAF receptor antagonist. We conclude that diacylphosphatidylcholines containing an sn-2 polyunsaturated fatty acyl residue can be oxidatively fragmented to species with sn-2 residues short enough to activate the PAF receptor of neutrophils. This suggests a new mechanism for the appearance of biologically active phospholipids, and shows

  12. Deficient Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Jared W; Cody, Mark J; McManus, Meghann P; Pulsipher, Michael A; Schiffman, Joshua D; Yost, Christian Con

    2016-01-01

    Overwhelming infection causes significant morbidity and mortality among patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for primary immune deficiencies, syndromes of bone marrow failure, or cancer. The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN; neutrophil) is the first responder to microbial invasion and acts within the innate immune system to contain and clear infections. PMNs contain, and possibly clear, infections in part by forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are extensive lattices of extracellular DNA and decondensed chromatin decorated with antimicrobial proteins and degradative enzymes, such as histones, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil elastase. They trap and contain microbes, including bacteria and fungi, and may directly affect extracellular microbial killing. Whether or not deficient NET formation contributes to the increased risk for overwhelming infection in patients undergoing BMT remains incompletely characterized, especially in the pediatric population. We examined NET formation in vitro in PMNs isolated from 24 patients who had undergone BMT for 13 different clinical indications. For these 24 study participants, the median age was 7 years. For 6 of the 24 patients, we examined NET formation by PMNs isolated from serial, peripheral blood samples drawn at three different clinical time points: pre-BMT, pre-engraftment, and post-engraftment. We found decreased NET formation by PMNs isolated from patients prior to BMT and during the pre-engraftment and post-engraftment phases, with decreased NET formation compared with healthy control PMNs detected even out to 199 days after their BMT. This decrease in NET formation after BMT did not result from neutrophil developmental immaturity as we demonstrated that >80% of the PMNs tested using flow cytometry expressed both CD10 and CD16 as markers of terminal differentiation along the neutrophilic lineage. These pilot study results mandate further exploration regarding the mechanisms or factors

  13. Deficient Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation in Patients Undergoing Bone Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Jared W.; Cody, Mark J.; McManus, Meghann P.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Schiffman, Joshua D.; Yost, Christian Con

    2016-01-01

    Overwhelming infection causes significant morbidity and mortality among patients treated with bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for primary immune deficiencies, syndromes of bone marrow failure, or cancer. The polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN; neutrophil) is the first responder to microbial invasion and acts within the innate immune system to contain and clear infections. PMNs contain, and possibly clear, infections in part by forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are extensive lattices of extracellular DNA and decondensed chromatin decorated with antimicrobial proteins and degradative enzymes, such as histones, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil elastase. They trap and contain microbes, including bacteria and fungi, and may directly affect extracellular microbial killing. Whether or not deficient NET formation contributes to the increased risk for overwhelming infection in patients undergoing BMT remains incompletely characterized, especially in the pediatric population. We examined NET formation in vitro in PMNs isolated from 24 patients who had undergone BMT for 13 different clinical indications. For these 24 study participants, the median age was 7 years. For 6 of the 24 patients, we examined NET formation by PMNs isolated from serial, peripheral blood samples drawn at three different clinical time points: pre-BMT, pre-engraftment, and post-engraftment. We found decreased NET formation by PMNs isolated from patients prior to BMT and during the pre-engraftment and post-engraftment phases, with decreased NET formation compared with healthy control PMNs detected even out to 199 days after their BMT. This decrease in NET formation after BMT did not result from neutrophil developmental immaturity as we demonstrated that >80% of the PMNs tested using flow cytometry expressed both CD10 and CD16 as markers of terminal differentiation along the neutrophilic lineage. These pilot study results mandate further exploration regarding the mechanisms or factors

  14. Vitamin C: A Novel Regulator of Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Bassem M.; Fisher, Bernard J.; Kraskauskas, Donatas; Farkas, Daniela; Brophy, Donald F.; Fowler, Alpha A.; Natarajan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation was recently identified as a novel mechanism to kill pathogens. However, excessive NET formation in sepsis can injure host tissues. We have recently shown that parenteral vitamin C (VitC) is protective in sepsis. Whether VitC alters NETosis is unknown. Methods: We used Gulo−/− mice as they lack the ability to synthesize VitC. Sepsis was induced by intraperitoneal infusion of a fecal stem solution (abdominal peritonitis, FIP). Some VitC deficient Gulo−/− mice received an infusion of ascorbic acid (AscA, 200 mg/kg) 30 min after induction of FIP. NETosis was assessed histologically and by quantification for circulating free DNA (cf-DNA) in serum. Autophagy, histone citrullination, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, NFκB activation and apoptosis were investigated in peritoneal PMNs. Results: Sepsis produced significant NETs in the lungs of VitC deficient Gulo−/− mice and increased circulating cf-DNA. This was attenuated in the VitC sufficient Gulo−/− mice and in VitC deficient Gulo−/− mice infused with AscA. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from VitC deficient Gulo−/− mice demonstrated increased activation of ER stress, autophagy, histone citrullination, and NFκB activation, while apoptosis was inhibited. VitC also significantly attenuated PMA induced NETosis in PMNs from healthy human volunteers. Conclusions: Our in vitro and in vivo findings identify VitC as a novel regulator of NET formation in sepsis. This study complements the notion that VitC is protective in sepsis settings. PMID:23939536

  15. Regulation of Human Neutrophil Apoptosis and Lifespan in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, Jenna M; Allen, Lee-Ann H

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils (also called polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMNs) are the most abundant white blood cells in humans and play a central role in innate host defense. Another distinguishing feature of PMNs is their short lifespan. Specifically, these cells survive for less than 24 hours in the bloodstream and are inherently pre-programed to die by constitutive apoptosis. Recent data indicate that this process is regulated by intracellular signaling and changes in gene expression that define an “apoptosis differentiation program.” Infection typically accelerates neutrophil turnover, and as such, phagocytosis-induced cell death (PICD) and subsequent clearance of the corpses by macrophages are essential for control of infection and resolution of the inflammatory response. Herein we reprise recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neutrophil apoptosis with a focus on regulatory factors and pathway intermediates that are specific to this cell type. In addition, we summarize mechanisms whereby perturbation of PMN death contributes directly to the pathogenesis of many infectious and inflammatory disease states. PMID:25278783

  16. Canine Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Release Induced by the Apicomplexan Parasite Neospora caninum In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhengkai; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja; He, Xuexiu; Wang, Xiaocen; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Zhengtao; Zhang, Xichen

    2016-01-01

    Neosporosis is considered as one of the main causes of abortion and severe economic losses in dairy industry. The Canis genus serving as one of the confirmed definitive hosts of the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum (N. caninum) plays a critical role in its life cycle. However, the effects of N. caninum on its definitive hosts of neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs) formation remain unclear. In the present study, N. caninum tachyzoite-induced canine NETs formation was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Visualization of DNA decorated with H3, neutrophil elastase (NE), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) within N. caninum tachyzoite-induced NETs were examined using fluorescence confocal microscopy analyses. Furthermore, the formation of canine NETs was quantified using Sytox Green staining, and the LDH levels in supernatants were examined by an LDH Cytotoxicity Assay(®) kit. The results clearly showed that NETs-like structures were induced by N. caninum tachyzoites, and the major components within these structures induced by N. caninum tachyzoite were further confirmed by fluorescence confocal microscopy visualization. These results suggest that N. caninum tachyzoites strongly induced NETs formation in canine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). In functional inhibition assays, the blockings of NADPH oxidase, NE, MPO, SOCE, ERK 1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways significantly inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite-induced NETs formation. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the formation of NETs in canine PMN against N. caninum infection.

  17. Canine Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Release Induced by the Apicomplexan Parasite Neospora caninum In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhengkai; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja; He, Xuexiu; Wang, Xiaocen; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Jianhua; Yang, Zhengtao; Zhang, Xichen

    2016-01-01

    Neosporosis is considered as one of the main causes of abortion and severe economic losses in dairy industry. The Canis genus serving as one of the confirmed definitive hosts of the apicomplexan parasite Neospora caninum (N. caninum) plays a critical role in its life cycle. However, the effects of N. caninum on its definitive hosts of neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs) formation remain unclear. In the present study, N. caninum tachyzoite-induced canine NETs formation was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Visualization of DNA decorated with H3, neutrophil elastase (NE), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) within N. caninum tachyzoite-induced NETs were examined using fluorescence confocal microscopy analyses. Furthermore, the formation of canine NETs was quantified using Sytox Green staining, and the LDH levels in supernatants were examined by an LDH Cytotoxicity Assay® kit. The results clearly showed that NETs-like structures were induced by N. caninum tachyzoites, and the major components within these structures induced by N. caninum tachyzoite were further confirmed by fluorescence confocal microscopy visualization. These results suggest that N. caninum tachyzoites strongly induced NETs formation in canine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). In functional inhibition assays, the blockings of NADPH oxidase, NE, MPO, SOCE, ERK 1/2, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways significantly inhibited N. caninum tachyzoite-induced NETs formation. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report the formation of NETs in canine PMN against N. caninum infection. PMID:27843440

  18. Evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and caspase-4 activation occur in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis can result from activation of three major pathways: the extrinsic, the intrinsic, and the most recently identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway. While the two former pathways are known to be operational in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), the existence of the ER stress-mediated pathway, generally involving caspase-4, has never been reported in these cells. Recently, we have documented that arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced apoptosis in human PMNs by a mechanism that needs to be further investigated. In this study, using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we present evidence of ER alterations in PMNs activated by the ER stress inducer arsenic trioxide (ATO). Several key players of the unfolded protein response, including GRP78, GADD153, ATF6, XBP1 and eIF2alpha are expressed and activated in PMNs treated with ATO or other ER stress inducers. Although caspase-4 is expressed and activated in neutrophils, treatment with a caspase-4 inhibitor did not attenuate the pro-apoptotic effect of ATO at a concentration that reverses caspase-4 processing and activation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway operates in human neutrophils.

  19. Development and Identification of a Novel Subpopulation of Human Neutrophil-derived Giant Phagocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Lena; Dyugovskaya, Larissa; Polyakov, Andrey; Rogovoy, Oksana; Leder, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMN) are best known for their phagocytic functions against invading pathogens and microorganisms. They have the shortest half-life amongst leukocytes and in their non-activated state are constitutively committed to apoptosis. When recruited to inflammatory sites to resolve inflammation, they produce an array of cytotoxic molecules with potent antimicrobial killing. Yet, when these powerful cytotoxic molecules are released in an uncontrolled manner they can damage surrounding tissues. In recent years however, neutrophil versatility is increasingly evidenced, by demonstrating plasticity and immunoregulatory functions. We have recently identified a new neutrophil-derived subpopulation, which develops spontaneously in standard culture conditions without the addition of cytokines/growth factors such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/interleukin (IL)-4. Their phagocytic abilities of neutrophil remnants largely contribute to increase their size immensely; therefore they were termed giant phagocytes (Gϕ). Unlike neutrophils, Gϕ are long lived in culture. They express the cluster of differentiation (CD) neutrophil markers CD66b/CD63/CD15/CD11b/myeloperoxidase (MPO)/neutrophil elastase (NE), and are devoid of the monocytic lineage markers CD14/CD16/CD163 and the dendritic CD1c/CD141 markers. They also take-up latex and zymosan, and respond by oxidative burst to stimulation with opsonized-zymosan and PMA. Gϕ also express the scavenger receptors CD68/CD36, and unlike neutrophils, internalize oxidized-low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Moreover, unlike fresh neutrophils, or cultured monocytes, they respond to oxLDL uptake by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Additionally, these phagocytes contain microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3B (LC3B) coated vacuoles, indicating the activation of autophagy. Using specific inhibitors it is evident that both phagocytosis and autophagy are prerequisites for their development and

  20. Very-late-antigen-4 (VLA-4)-mediated brain invasion by neutrophils leads to interactions with microglia, increased ischemic injury and impaired behavior in experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Jens; Riek-Burchardt, Monika; Herz, Josephine; Doeppner, Thorsten R; König, Rebecca; Hütten, Heiko; Etemire, Eloho; Männ, Linda; Klingberg, Anika; Fischer, Thomas; Görtler, Michael W; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Reichardt, Peter; Schraven, Burkhart; Hermann, Dirk M; Reymann, Klaus G; Gunzer, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Neuronal injury from ischemic stroke is aggravated by invading peripheral immune cells. Early infiltrates of neutrophil granulocytes and T-cells influence the outcome of stroke. So far, however, neither the timing nor the cellular dynamics of neutrophil entry, its consequences for the invaded brain area, or the relative importance of T-cells has been extensively studied in an intravital setting. Here, we have used intravital two-photon microscopy to document neutrophils and brain-resident microglia in mice after induction of experimental stroke. We demonstrated that neutrophils immediately rolled, firmly adhered, and transmigrated at sites of endothelial activation in stroke-affected brain areas. The ensuing neutrophil invasion was associated with local blood-brain barrier breakdown and infarct formation. Brain-resident microglia recognized both endothelial damage and neutrophil invasion. In a cooperative manner, they formed cytoplasmic processes to physically shield activated endothelia and trap infiltrating neutrophils. Interestingly, the systemic blockade of very-late-antigen-4 immediately and very effectively inhibited the endothelial interaction and brain entry of neutrophils. This treatment thereby strongly reduced the ischemic tissue injury and effectively protected the mice from stroke-associated behavioral impairment. Behavioral preservation was also equally well achieved with the antibody-mediated depletion of myeloid cells or specifically neutrophils. In contrast, T-cell depletion more effectively reduced the infarct volume without improving the behavioral performance. Thus, neutrophil invasion of the ischemic brain is rapid, massive, and a key mediator of functional impairment, while peripheral T-cells promote brain damage. Acutely depleting T-cells and inhibiting brain infiltration of neutrophils might, therefore, be a powerful early stroke treatment.

  1. Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF): cloning, overexpression, purification and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Vanz, Ana LS; Renard, Gaby; Palma, Mario S; Chies, Jocelei M; Dalmora, Sérgio L; Basso, Luiz A; Santos, Diógenes S

    2008-01-01

    Background Biopharmaceutical drugs are mainly recombinant proteins produced by biotechnological tools. The patents of many biopharmaceuticals have expired, and biosimilars are thus currently being developed. Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is a hematopoietic cytokine that acts on cells of the neutrophil lineage causing proliferation and differentiation of committed precursor cells and activation of mature neutrophils. Recombinant hG-CSF has been produced in genetically engineered Escherichia coli (Filgrastim) and successfully used to treat cancer patients suffering from chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. Filgrastim is a 175 amino acid protein, containing an extra N-terminal methionine, which is needed for expression in E. coli. Here we describe a simple and low-cost process that is amenable to scaling-up for the production and purification of homogeneous and active recombinant hG-CSF expressed in E. coli cells. Results Here we describe cloning of the human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor coding DNA sequence, protein expression in E. coli BL21(DE3) host cells in the absence of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, efficient isolation and solubilization of inclusion bodies by a multi-step washing procedure, and a purification protocol using a single cationic exchange column. Characterization of homogeneous rhG-CSF by size exclusion and reverse phase chromatography showed similar yields to the standard. The immunoassay and N-terminal sequencing confirmed the identity of rhG-CSF. The biological activity assay, in vivo, showed an equivalent biological effect (109.4%) to the standard reference rhG-CSF. The homogeneous rhG-CSF protein yield was 3.2 mg of bioactive protein per liter of cell culture. Conclusion The recombinant protein expression in the absence of IPTG induction is advantageous since cost is reduced, and the protein purification protocol using a single chromatographic step should reduce cost even further for large

  2. AUTOINFLAMMATORY PUSTULAR NEUTROPHILIC DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Haley B.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The inflammatory pustular dermatoses constitute a spectrum of non-infectious conditions ranging from localized involvement to generalized disease with associated acute systemic inflammation and multi-organ involvement. Despite the variability in extent and severity of cutaneous presentation, each of these diseases is characterized by non-infectious neutrophilic intra-epidermal microabscesses. Many share systemic findings including fever, elevated inflammatory markers, inflammatory bowel disease and/or osteoarticular involvement, suggesting potential common pathogenic links (Figure 1). The recent discoveries of several genes responsible for heritable pustular diseases have revealed a distinct link between pustular skin disease and regulation of innate immunity. These genetic advances have led to a deeper exploration of common pathways in pustular skin disease and offer the potential for a new era of biologic therapy which targets these shared pathways. This chapter provides a new categorization of inflammatory pustular dermatoses in the context of recent genetic and biologic insights. We will discuss recently-described monogenic diseases with pustular phenotypes, including deficiency of IL-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA), deficiency of the IL-36 receptor antagonist (DITRA), CARD14-associated pustular psoriasis (CAMPS), and pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne (PAPA). We will then discuss how these new genetic advancements may inform how we view previously described pustular diseases, including pustular psoriasis and its clinical variants, with a focus on historical classification by clinical phenotype. PMID:23827244

  3. IL-1 Coordinates the Neutrophil Response to C. albicans in the Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Altmeier, Simon; Toska, Albulena; Sparber, Florian; Teijeira, Alvaro; Halin, Cornelia; LeibundGut-Landmann, Salomé

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal infections with Candida albicans belong to the most frequent forms of fungal diseases. Host protection is conferred by cellular immunity; however, the induction of antifungal immunity is not well understood. Using a mouse model of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) we show that interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling is critical for fungal control at the onset of infection through its impact on neutrophils at two levels. We demonstrate that both the recruitment of circulating neutrophils to the site of infection and the mobilization of newly generated neutrophils from the bone marrow depended on IL-1R. Consistently, IL-1R-deficient mice displayed impaired chemokine production at the site of infection and defective secretion of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the circulation in response to C. albicans. Strikingly, endothelial cells were identified as the primary cellular source of G-CSF during OPC, which responded to IL-1α that was released from keratinocytes in the infected tissue. The IL-1-dependent crosstalk between two different cellular subsets of the nonhematopoietic compartment was confirmed in vitro using a novel murine tongue-derived keratinocyte cell line and an established endothelial cell line. These data establish a new link between IL-1 and granulopoiesis in the context of fungal infection. Together, we identified two complementary mechanisms coordinating the neutrophil response in the oral mucosa, which is critical for preventing fungal growth and dissemination, and thus protects the host from disease. PMID:27632536

  4. Radiation Therapy for Chloroma (Granulocytic Sarcoma)

    SciTech Connect

    Bakst, Richard; Wolden, Suzanne; Yahalom, Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Objectives: Chloroma (granulocytic sarcoma) is a rare, extramedullary tumor of immature myeloid cells related to acute nonlymphocytic leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Radiation therapy (RT) is often used in the treatment of chloromas; however, modern studies of RT are lacking. We reviewed our experience to analyze treatment response, disease control, and toxicity associated with RT to develop treatment algorithm recommendations for patients with chloroma. Patients and Methods: Thirty-eight patients who underwent treatment for chloromas at our institution between February 1990 and June 2010 were identified and their medical records were reviewed and analyzed. Results: The majority of patients that presented with chloroma at the time of initial leukemia diagnosis (78%) have not received RT because it regressed after initial chemotherapy. Yet most patients that relapsed or remained with chloroma after chemotherapy are in the RT cohort (90%). Thirty-three courses of RT were administered to 22 patients. Radiation subsite breakdown was: 39% head and neck, 24% extremity, 9% spine, 9% brain, 6% genitourinary, 6% breast, 3% pelvis, and 3% genitourinary. Median dose was 20 (6-36) Gy. Kaplan-Meier estimates of progression-free survival and overall survival in the RT cohort were 39% and 43%, respectively, at 5 years. At a median follow-up of 11 months since RT, only 1 patient developed progressive disease at the irradiated site and 4 patients developed chloromas at other sites. RT was well tolerated without significant acute or late effects and provided symptom relief in 95% of cases. Conclusions: The majority of patients with chloromas were referred for RT when there was extramedullary progression, marrow relapse, or rapid symptom relief required. RT resulted in excellent local disease control and palliation of symptoms without significant toxicity. We recommend irradiating chloromas to at least 20 Gy, and propose 24 Gy in 12 fractions as an appropriate regimen.

  5. Role of Serum Amyloid A, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor, and Bone Marrow Granulocyte-Monocyte Precursor Expansion in Segmented Filamentous Bacterium-Mediated Protection from Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Stacey L.; Saleh, Mahmoud; Cowardin, Carrie A.; Buonomo, Erica; Noor, Zannatun; Watanabe, Koji; Abhyankar, Mayuresh; Lajoie, Stephane; Wills-Karp, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) protect from ameba infection, and protection is transferable with bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs). SFB cause an increase in serum amyloid A (SAA), suggesting that SAA might mediate SFB's effects on BMDCs. Here we further explored the role of bone marrow in SFB-mediated protection. Transient gut colonization with SFB or SAA administration alone transiently increased the H3K27 histone demethylase Jmjd3, persistently increased bone marrow Csf2ra expression and granulocyte monocyte precursors (GMPs), and protected from ameba infection. Pharmacologic inhibition of Jmjd3 H3K27 demethylase activity during SAA treatment or blockade of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling in SFB-colonized mice prevented GMP expansion, decreased gut neutrophils, and blocked protection from ameba infection. These results indicate that alteration of the microbiota and systemic exposure to SAA can influence myelopoiesis and susceptibility to amebiasis via epigenetic mechanisms. Gut microbiota-marrow communication is a previously unrecognized mechanism of innate protection from infection. PMID:27456830

  6. Glibenclamide impairs responses of neutrophils against Burkholderia pseudomallei by reduction of intracellular glutathione

    PubMed Central

    Kewcharoenwong, Chidchamai; Rinchai, Darawan; Nithichanon, Arnone; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Ato, Manabu; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana

    2016-01-01

    The major risk factor for melioidosis, an infectious disease caused by B. pseudomallei, is diabetes mellitus. More than half of diabetic melioidosis patients in Thailand were prescribed glibenclamide. Recent evidence demonstrates that glibenclamide reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) of diabetic individuals in response to this bacterial infection. However, the mechanisms by which glibenclamide affects cytokine production are unknown. We found that PMNs from glibenclamide-treated diabetic individuals infected with live B. pseudomallei in vitro showed lower free glutathione (GSH) levels compared with those of healthy individuals. Glibenclamide decreased GSH levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of PMNs after exposed to live B. pseudomallei. Moreover, glibenclamide reduced cytokine production and migration capacity of infected PMNs, whereas GSH could restore these functions. Taken together, our data show a link between the effect of glibenclamide on GSH and PMN functions in response to B. pseudomallei that may contribute to the susceptibility of diabetic individuals to B. pseudomallei infection. PMID:27713554

  7. Carbohydrate supplementation affects blood granulocyte and monocyte trafficking but not function after 2.5 h or running.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C; Fagoaga, O R; Butterworth, D E; Warren, B J; Utter, A; Davis, J M; Henson, D A; Nehlsen-Cannarella, S L

    1997-07-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to determine the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on the granulocyte and monocyte response to 2.5 h of high-intensity running [76.7 +/- 0.4% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)]. Thirty experienced marathon runners (VO2max 53.4 +/- 1.0 mL.kg-1.min-1, age 41.5 +/- 1.4 y) were randomly assigned to carbohydrate-supplement (n = 17) and placebo (n = 13) groups. Subjects rested for 10-15 min before a blood sample was taken at 0715, and then ingested 0.75 L carbohydrate beverage or placebo. At 0730 subjects began running at 75-80% of VO2max for 2.5 h, and drank 0.25 L carbohydrate or placebo fluid every 15 min. Immediately after the 2.5-h run (1000), another blood sample was taken, followed by 1.5-h, 3-h, and 6-h recovery samples. Carbohydrate supplementation had a significant effect compared with placebo on the pattern of change in plasma glucose and cortisol, and the blood concentration of neutrophils (F[14, 112] = 5.13, P = 0.001) and monocytes (F[14, 112] = 4.78, P = 0.001), but not on blood granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis or oxidative burst activity after 2.5 h of intensive running.

  8. [Signaling of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and its clinical application: host-defense and organ protection].

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kanji

    2013-03-01

    Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a cytokine with multipotent properties. It has not only an activity to generate both granulocyte and macrophage lineages in the bone marrow, but also is capable of inducing terminal maturation of alveolar macrophages that is central for pulmonary host defense and pulmonary surfactant homeostasis. GM-CSF can stimulate mature myeloid cells (i.e. neutrophils and monocytes) with a known mechanism called "priming" to efficiently eliminate invading pathogens. Several clinical trials to evaluate therapeutic efficacy of GM-CSF in patients with diseases related to functional impairment of mature myeloid cells were reported. Inhalation of GM-CSF improved clinical severity of pulmonary alveolar proteionosis. Administration of GM-CSF for patients with immune compromised situation such as sepsis showed marginal benefits so far. Several animal experiments indicated neuroprotective effect of GM-CSE In the clinical setting, establishing reliable biomarkers to distinguish patients who will have benefit by administering GM-CSF may maximize its clinical efficacy.

  9. Myeloperoxidase deficient polymorphonuclear leucocytes in leukaemia and allied disorders.

    PubMed

    Bendix-Hansen, K

    1988-12-01

    This thesis is a survey of nine previously published articles on MPO deficient PMN. The incidences in leukaemia and allied disorders of the presence of this abnormal subpopulation of mature neutrophils and the relationship to clinical course in AML, susceptibility to infections in AML, FAB classification in AML and MDS, cytogenetically defined aberrations in MDS and morphometrical characteristics were investigated. The aims of the studies were to examine the diagnostic as well as the prognostic value of the parameter, to examine the usefulness of the parameter as an predictive indicator of CR and relapse in AML and to examine the concept that MPO deficient PMN may originate from leukaemic precursors. MPO deficient PMN were found to occur in a minor number (less than 4% of the total number of PMN) in normal humans and the incidences of an abnormal number (greater than 4%) were found to be about 40% in AML (I, II, III, IV, VIII), 60% in CML (I, VII), 30% in MPD other than CML (VII) and 30% in MDS (V). The highest incidences in AML were found in the FAB subtypes possessing the most myeloid differentiation potential i.e. FAB M2 and FAB M4 (IV). In ALL, CLL, HCL, Hodgkin's disease, anaemia not related to leukaemia and leukaemoid reactions the incidences all were 0% (I, unpublished data). The abnormal MPO deficient PMN subpopulation, if present, disappeared when CR was achieved and reappeared when relapse eventually was developed (II, VIII). In both situations serial determinations showed that the change occurred before the usual routine blood examinations predicted CR and relapse; several days and several months prior, respectively (VIII). The probability of obtaining CR was lower in the AML patients with the abnormal subpopulation and the risk of developing relapse higher than in AML patients without the anomaly (II, VIII). These differences were not statistically significant, however. AML patients, showing an increased number of MPO deficient PMN, revealed a

  10. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Go Viral

    PubMed Central

    Schönrich, Günther; Raftery, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are the most numerous immune cells. Their importance as the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens is well described. In contrast, the role of neutrophils in controlling viral infections is less clear. Bacterial and fungal pathogens can stimulate neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs) in a process called NETosis. Although NETosis has previously been described as a special form of programmed cell death, there are forms of NET production that do not end with the demise of neutrophils. As an end result of NETosis, genomic DNA complexed with microbicidal proteins is expelled from neutrophils. These structures can kill pathogens or at least prevent their local spread within host tissue. On the other hand, disproportionate NET formation can cause local or systemic damage. Only recently, it was recognized that viruses can also induce NETosis. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which NETs are produced in the context of viral infection and how this may contribute to both antiviral immunity and immunopathology. Finally, we shed light on viral immune evasion mechanisms targeting NETs. PMID:27698656

  11. Characterization of canine neutrophil granules.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, R T; Andersen, B R

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to isolate distinct populations of canine neutrophil granules and to compare them with neutrophil granules from other species. Size, shape, density, and content of canine neutrophil granules were determined. Neutrophils obtained by Ficoll-Hypaque sedimentation were homogenized, and granule populations were separated by isopycnic centrifugation on a linear sucrose gradient (rho, 1.14 to 1.22 g/ml). The most dense granule population (rho, 1.197 g/ml) contained all of the myeloperoxidase, beta-glucuronidase, and elastase, more than half of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase, and most of the lysozyme. The population with intermediate density (rho, 1.179 g/ml) contained lactoferrin, vitamin B12-binding protein, and the remainder of the acid beta-glycerophosphatase and lysozyme. The least dense granule population did not contain a major peak of any of the enzymes or binding proteins tested but was distinguished by density and morphology. The size and shape of the granules were determined from scanning electron micrographs and assessment of shape was aided by transmission electron micrographs. By these methods three populations of canine neutrophil granules were characterized and named: myeloperoxidase granules, vitamin B12-binding protein granules, and low-density granules. Images PMID:6292095

  12. Inhibition of GATE-16 attenuates ATRA-induced neutrophil differentiation of APL cells and interferes with autophagosome formation.

    PubMed

    Brigger, Daniel; Torbett, Bruce E; Chen, Joy; Fey, Martin F; Tschan, Mario P

    2013-08-23

    Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation process involved in cell survival upon stress induction, but also with a newly identified function in myeloid differentiation. The autophagy-related (ATG)8 protein family, including the GABARAP and LC3 subfamilies, is crucial for autophagosome biogenesis. In order to evaluate the significance of the GABARAPs in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we compared their expression in primary AML patient samples, CD34(+) progenitor cells and in granulocytes from healthy donors. GABARAPL1 and GABARAPL2/GATE-16, but not GABARAP, were significantly downregulated in particular AML subtypes compared to normal granulocytes. Moreover, the expression of GABARAPL1 and GATE-16 was significantly induced during ATRA-induced neutrophil differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (APL). Lastly, knocking down GABARAPL2/GATE-16 in APL cells attenuated neutrophil differentiation and decreased autophagic flux. In conclusion, low GABARAPL2/GATE-16 expression is associated with an immature myeloid leukemic phenotype and these proteins are necessary for neutrophil differentiation of APL cells.

  13. Inhibition of GATE-16 attenuates ATRA-induced neutrophil differentiation of APL cells and interferes with autophagosome formation

    PubMed Central

    Brigger, Daniel; Torbett, Bruce E.; Chen, Joy; Fey, Martin F.; Tschan, Mario P.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation process involved in cell survival upon stress induction, but also with a newly identified function in myeloid differentiation. The autophagy-related (ATG)8 protein family, including the GABARAP and LC3 subfamilies, is crucial for autophagosome biogenesis. In order to evaluate the significance of the GABARAPs in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia, we compared their expression in primary AML patient samples, CD34+ progenitor cells and in granulocytes from healthy donors. GABARAPL1 and GABARAPL2/GATE-16, but not GABARAP, were significantly downregulated in particular AML subtypes compared to normal granulocytes. Moreover, the expression of GABARAPL1 and GATE-16 was significantly induced during ATRA-induced neutrophil differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Lastly, knocking down GABARAPL2/GATE-16 in APL cells attenuated neutrophil differentiation and decreased autophagic flux. In conclusion, low GABARAPL2/GATE-16 expression is associated with an immature myeloid leukemic phenotype and these proteins are necessary for neutrophil differentiation of APL cells. PMID:23891751

  14. Expression of GPI-80, a beta2-integrin-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, requires neutrophil differentiation with dimethyl sulfoxide in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Yuji; Fu, Junfen; Suzuki, Kichiya; Sendo, Dai; Nitto, Takeaki; Sendo, Fujiro; Araki, Yoshihiko

    2003-06-10

    GPI-80 is a member of the amidohydrolase family that has been proposed as a potential regulator of beta2-integrin-dependent leukocyte adhesion. GPI-80 is expressed mainly in human neutrophils. Our previous studies suggested that GPI-80 expression might be associated with myeloid differentiation. To verify this, we examined whether GPI-80 is expressed on the human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 following treatment with differentiation inducers. GPI-80 expression was induced in cells treated with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) to stimulate differentiation down the neutrophil pathway. On the other hand, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), another neutrophil-inducing reagent, induced no clear GPI-80 expression. Potent monocyte-inducing reagents such as 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate also had no significant effect on the protein expression. GPI-80-positive cells were found in the well-differentiated CD11b-positive and transferrin-receptor-negative cell population. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which augments neutrophil differentiation of HL-60 cells, up-regulated GPI-80 expression in the presence of DMSO. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which is known to suppress the neutrophil maturation of cells, inhibited expression. Adhesion of DMSO-induced cells was regulated by anti-GPI-80 monoclonal antibody, similar to the regulation observed in neutrophils. These results suggest that use of DMSO to induce neutrophil differentiation provides suitable conditions for GPI-80 expression, and that this culture system may be a helpful model for further study of the regulation of GPI-80 expression during myeloid differentiation.

  15. GRANULOCYTE TRANSFUSION IN NEUTROPENIC PATIENTS-EBMT Educational Meeting from the Severe Aplastic Anaemia and Infectious Diseases Working Parties, Naples, Italy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Averbuch, Diana; Engelhard, Dan; Pegoraro, Anna; Cesaro, Simone

    2016-07-05

    Neutropenic patients with malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients are prone to severe infections. Reversal of neutropenia with granulocyte transfusion (GTX) from donors stimulated with GCSF with/without steroids aims to improve outcome of infection. Cochrane analysis of randomized controlled studies, however, failed to show reduced mortality following GTX in conjunction with antibiotics. Non-randomized studies published during the last 20 years produced a very broad spectrum of results. The most important factors predicting favorable response to GTX are high number of granulocytes transfused and recovery from neutropenia. The response in patients with bad performance status, septic shock, multiple co-morbidities, multi-organ dysfunction and those in intensive care was poor. The response in fungal infections is generally worse than in bacterial infections. Cochrane analysis of prospective GTX clinical trials in preventing infection also failed to show reduced overall mortality. Adverse reactions in recipients are usually mild, although severe reactions, including respiratory deterioration, have been observed. Based on current evidence, GTX, at the amount at least 1x1010 per dose, can be considered in certain patients with severe neutropenia or congenital disorder of neutrophil function with proven or highly probable fungal or bacterial infection unresponsive to appropriate antimicrobial therapy with expected duration of neutropenia for at least 5 days; in cases where neutrophil recovery is anticipated.

  16. Inflammatory granulocytes decrease subcutaneous growth of melanoma in mice.

    PubMed

    Costa, Madalena M; Aguas, Artur P

    2004-12-01

    Growing melanomas invade the subcutaneous tissues. We have compared the size of tumors implanted in the subcutaneous cavities of C57BL/6 mice where inflammatory reactions were induced before the injection of 5 x 10(5) melanoma cells (B16F10 cell line). Granulocytic inflammation of the subcutaneous cavities resulted in a significant decrease in the growth of the implanted melanomas, whereas monocytic inflammation had no effect on tumor growth. We conclude that granulocytes, but not monocytes/macrophages, have anti-tumor action on melanoma that invade the subcutaneous tissues.

  17. Effect of human polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes on chromosomal and plasmid DNA of Escherichia coli. Role of acid DNase

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenberg-Arska, M.; van Strijp, J.A.; Hoekstra, W.P.; Verhoef, J.

    1984-05-01

    Phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes are important host resistance factors against invading microorganisms. Evidence showing that killing is rapidly followed by degradation of bacterial components is limited. Therefore, we studied the fate of Escherichia coli DNA following phagocytosis of E. coli by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. (/sup 3/H)Thymidine-labeled, unencapsulated E. coli PC2166 and E. coli 048K1 were incubated in serum, washed, and added to leukocytes. Uptake and killing of the bacteria and degradation of DNA were measured. Although phagocytosis and killing by mononuclear leukocytes was less efficient than that by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, only mononuclear leukocytes were able to degrade E. coli PC2166 DNA. Within 2 h, 60% of the radioactivity added to mononuclear leukocytes was released into the supernate, of which 40% was acid soluble. DNA of E. coli 048K1 was not degraded. To further analyze the capacity of mononuclear leukocytes to degrade E. coli DNA, chromosomal and plasmid DNA was isolated from ingested bacteria and subjected to agarose gel-electrophoresis. Only chromosomal DNA was degraded after phagocytosis. Plasmid DNA of E. coli carrying a gene coding for ampicillin resistance remained intact for a 2-h period after ingestion, and was still able to transform recipient E. coli cells after this period. Although we observed no DNA degradation during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lysates of both polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes contained acid-DNase activity with a pH optimum of 4.9. However, the DNase activity of mononuclear leukocytes was 20 times higher than that of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No difference was observed between DNase activity from polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes from a chronic granulomatous disease patient with DNase activity from control polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes.

  18. Effects of mode and carbohydrate on the granulocyte and monocyte response to intensive, prolonged exercise.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C; Nehlsen-Cannarella, S L; Fagoaga, O R; Henson, D A; Utter, A; Davis, J M; Williams, F; Butterworth, D E

    1998-04-01

    The influence of exercise mode and 6% carbohydrate (C) vs. placebo (P) beverage ingestion on granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity (GMPOB) after prolonged and intensive exertion was measured in 10 triathletes. The triathletes acted as their own controls and ran or cycled for 2.5 h at approximately 75% maximal O2 uptake, ingesting C or P (4 total sessions, random order, with beverages administered in double-blind fashion). During the 2. 5-h exercise bouts, C or P (4 ml/kg) was ingested every 15 min. Five blood samples were collected (15 min before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 1.5, 3, and 6 h after exercise). The pattern of change over time for GMPOB was significantly different between C and P conditions (P neutrophil and monocyte cell counts. These data indicate that C vs. P ingestion is associated with higher plasma glucose levels, an attenuated cortisol response, and lower GMPOB.

  19. Enhanced and Secretory Expression of Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor by Bacillus subtilis SCK6

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Shaista; Sadaf, Saima; Ahmad, Sajjad; Akhtar, Muhammad Waheed

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a simplified approach for enhanced expression and secretion of a pharmaceutically important human cytokine, that is, granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF), in the culture supernatant of Bacillus subtilis SCK6 cells. Codon optimized GCSF and pNWPH vector containing SpymwC signal sequence were amplified by prolonged overlap extension PCR to generate multimeric plasmid DNA, which was used directly to transform B. subtilis SCK6 supercompetent cells. Expression of GCSF was monitored in the culture supernatant for 120 hours. The highest expression, which corresponded to 17% of the total secretory protein, was observed at 72 hours of growth. Following ammonium sulphate precipitation, GCSF was purified to near homogeneity by fast protein liquid chromatography on a QFF anion exchange column. Circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis showed that the secondary structure contents of the purified GCSF are similar to the commercially available GCSF. Biological activity, as revealed by the regeneration of neutrophils in mice treated with ifosfamine, was also similar to the commercial preparation of GCSF. This, to our knowledge, is the first study that reports secretory expression of human GCSF in B. subtilis SCK6 with final recovery of up to 96 mg/L of the culture supernatant, without involvement of any chemical inducer. PMID:26881203

  20. Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-Activated Eosinophils Promote Interleukin-23 Driven Chronic Colitis.

    PubMed

    Griseri, Thibault; Arnold, Isabelle C; Pearson, Claire; Krausgruber, Thomas; Schiering, Chris; Franchini, Fanny; Schulthess, Julie; McKenzie, Brent S; Crocker, Paul R; Powrie, Fiona

    2015-07-21

    The role of intestinal eosinophils in immune homeostasis is enigmatic and the molecular signals that drive them from protective to tissue damaging are unknown. Most commonly associated with Th2 cell-mediated diseases, we describe a role for eosinophils as crucial effectors of the interleukin-23 (IL-23)-granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) axis in colitis. Chronic intestinal inflammation was characterized by increased bone marrow eosinopoiesis and accumulation of activated intestinal eosinophils. IL-5 blockade or eosinophil depletion ameliorated colitis, implicating eosinophils in disease pathogenesis. GM-CSF was a potent activator of eosinophil effector functions and intestinal accumulation, and GM-CSF blockade inhibited chronic colitis. By contrast neutrophil accumulation was GM-CSF independent and dispensable for colitis. In addition to TNF secretion, release of eosinophil peroxidase promoted colitis identifying direct tissue-toxic mechanisms. Thus, eosinophils are key perpetrators of chronic inflammation and tissue damage in IL-23-mediated immune diseases and it suggests the GM-CSF-eosinophil axis as an attractive therapeutic target.

  1. Adjunctive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for treatment of septic shock due to melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Allen C; Stephens, Dianne P; Anstey, Nicholas M; Currie, Bart J

    2004-01-01

    Melioidosis, caused by the intracellular pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia. Risk factors for this infection have also been associated with functional neutrophil defects. Because of this, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was adopted for use in patients with septic shock due to melioidosis in December 1998. We compared the mortality rates from before and after the introduction of G-CSF therapy at the Royal Darwin Hospital (Darwin, Australia) during the period of 1989-2002. The mortality rate decreased from 95% to 10% after the introduction of G-CSF. Risk factors, the duration of illness before presentation, and the severity of illness were similar in both groups. A smaller decrease in mortality among patients in the intensive care unit who did not have melioidosis was observed, suggesting that other changes in management did not account for the magnitude of the benefit seen. We conclude that G-CSF may have contributed to the reduction in the mortality rate among patients with septic shock due to melioidosis.

  2. Nicotinamide Effects Oxidative Burst Activity of Neutrophils in Patients with Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Samanci, Tülay; Demirel, Gülderen Yanikkaya; Damci, Taner; Ilkova, Hasan

    2004-01-01

    , 1994) and compared in diabetic subjects and healthy controls. Diabetic patients were grouped to receive either 50 mg/kg oral nicotinamide (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15) for a period of 1 month. The 2 groups did not differ in terms of treatment, frequency of hypertension, BMI, diabetes duration, age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), HbA1c, CRP, ESR, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PNL) and neutrophil counts. Neutrophil functions were reassessed after the treatment period. Phagocytic activity represented as indexes were lower in diabetic patients when compared to healthy subjects, but the differences were not statistically significant (P > .05). Patients with diabetes mellitus had significantly lower oxidative burst indexes when compared to healthy controls (P values < .05). In diabetic patients, a negative correlation between neutrophil functions and HbA1c was found which was not statistically significant (P values > .05). Phagocytic indexes were similar in nicotinamide and placebo groups after treatment period (P > .05). But oxidative burst activity in patients receiving nicotinamide was greater when compared with placebo and the difference was statistically significant at 30 and 45 minutes (P values .04 and .03). This effect of nicotinamide may be due to increased NADH content and NADPH oxidase activity of the cell, which needs to be further studied. Impaired neutrophil functions may aggravate various infections in patients with diabetes mellitus and blood glucose regulation is an important target of treatment to improve neutrophil functions. But nicotinamide treatment may help to improve prognosis in diabetic patients with severe infections. PMID:15203886

  3. Neutrophil adhesion and activation under flow

    PubMed Central

    Zarbock, Alexander; Ley, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment into inflamed tissue in response to injury or infection is tightly regulated. Reduced neutrophil recruitment can result in a reduced ability to fight invading microorganisms. During inflammation, neutrophils roll along the endothelial wall of postcapillary venules and integrate inflammatory signals. Neutrophil activation by selectins and chemokines regulates integrin adhesiveness. Binding of activated integrins to their counter-receptors on endothelial cells induces neutrophil arrest and firm adhesion. Adherent neutrophils can be further activated to undergo cytoskeletal rearrangement, crawling, transmigration, superoxide production and respiratory burst. Signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, selectin ligands, Fc receptors and outside-in signaling of integrins are all involved in neutrophil activation, but their interplay in the multistep process of recruitment are only beginning to emerge. This review provides an overview of signaling in rolling and adherent neutrophils. PMID:19037827

  4. Complement (C5)-derived chemotactic activity accounts for accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits with pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Ernst, J D; Hartiala, K T; Goldstein, I M; Sande, M A

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were performed to identify the chemoattractant for polymorphonuclear leukocytes that appears in the cerebrospinal fluid of rabbits with experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Meningitis was induced in anesthetized New Zealand white rabbits by injecting 10(4) cells of stationary-phase Streptococcus pneumoniae type III intracisternally. Before bacteria were injected, cerebrospinal fluid contained neither polymorphonuclear leukocytes nor chemotactic activity. Significant chemotactic activity for rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes was detected 12 h after inoculation with bacteria and was maximal after 18 to 20 h. Chemotactic activity appeared in cerebrospinal fluid while concentrations of pneumococci and total protein were increasing but before there was any accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The chemotactic activity in cerebrospinal fluid was heat stable (56 degrees C for 30 min), eluted from Sephadex G-75 with a profile identical to that of the chemotactic activity in zymosan-activated rabbit serum, and was inhibited by treatment with antibodies to native human C5. In addition, preincubation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes with partially purified rabbit C5a selectively inhibited their subsequent chemotactic responses to cerebrospinal fluid. These data indicate that complement (C5)-derived chemotactic activity appears in cerebrospinal fluid during the course of experimental pneumococcal meningitis in rabbits and suggest that this activity accounts for the accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes observed in this infection. PMID:6480117

  5. Opsonic activity of anti-flagellar serum against Clostridium chauvoei by mouse polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Y; Tanaka, M

    1987-05-01

    The role of anti-flagellar serum against Clostridium chauvoei in phagocytosis by mouse polymorphonuclear leucocytes was examined. Anti-flagellar serum markedly increased phagocytic rate against the flagellated strain Okinawa but not against a non-flagellated mutant (NFM) derived from the same strain, while anti-NFM serum increased the phagocytic rate against both strains. These results indicate that anti-flagellar serum exerts its protective effect by opsonic activity.

  6. Defect of In Vitro Digestive Ability of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Goihman-Yahr, Mauricio; Essenfeld-Yahr, Ervin; De Albornoz, María C.; Yarzábal, Luis; De Gómez, MaríA H.; Martín, Blanca San; Ocanto, Ana; Gil, Francisco; Convit, Jacinto

    1980-01-01

    Selected functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes were studied in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis), in healthy control individuals, and in patients with diseases unrelated to paracoccidioidomycosis. Patients with paracoccidioidomycosis were also evaluated by standard immunological techniques. Phagocytosis and digestion of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeastlike cells in vitro was estimated by an original method. It was based on the appearance of phagocytosed P. brasiliensis in preparations stained by a modification of the Papanicolaou method and examined with phase-contrast optics. Interpretation of such findings was confirmed by electron microscopy. Two strains of P. brasiliensis were used. Strain 8506 was freshly isolated from a patient. Strain Pb9 was known to be nonpathogenic and to have a peculiar cell wall composition. Yeastlike cells of the Pb9 strain were digested significantly better than those of strain 8506. A higher number of leukocytes per fungus cells led to a higher proportion of digested P. brasiliensis. Leukocytes from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis phagocytosed the fungus in a normal way, but had a significant lower ability to digest it in vitro. When individual cases were analyzed, there was an excellent correlation between clinical evolution and digestive ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There was good correlation between both of these and immunological parameters. Leukocytes from all groups behaved comparably in tests of general leukocyte function and in their abilities to kill and digest Candida albicans. Our results indicate that, as a group, polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis had a significant, rather specific, defect in their in vitro digestive capacity against phagocytosed P. brasiliensis. There was also an inverse correlation between strain pathogenicity and its susceptibility to in vitro digestion by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Our findings are

  7. Assessment of attachment, ingestion, and killing of Escherichia coli by bovine polymorphonuclear cells with combined micromethods.

    PubMed

    Rainard, P

    1985-11-01

    A set of microassays separately measuring attachment, ingestion, and overall killing of Escherichia coli by bovine granulocytes was devised and its analytical potential used to test the effect of drugs which block intracellular killing: sodium azide, phenylbutazone, chloroquine phosphate were all inactive, suggesting that O2-dependent systems were not the sole pathway involved in the killing of E.coli by granulocytes. The microtechniques were also used to investigate the opsonic requirements for phagocytosis of two E.coli strains. Absorption of normal bovine serum with the homologous and the heterologous strains showed that specific antibodies were necessary to induce attachment of bacteria to phagocytes. Once bound to granulocytes, the unencapsulated strain P4 was engulfed, whereas for the encapsulated strain B117, complement was required for the internalization step of phagocytosis. With immune serum the need for complement was not absolute.

  8. Effect of cigarette smoke extract on the polymorphonuclear leukocytes chemiluminescence: influence of a filter containing glutathione.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Persichilli, S; Minucci, A; Fasanella, S; Scribano, D; Giardina, B; De Sole, P

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to be a risk factor for several chronic and neoplastic diseases. Many compounds formed by cigarette burning, ranging from particulate materials to water solutes and gaseous extracts, are considered to be noxious agents, and many biochemical and molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the toxic effects of cigarette smoke. The oral cavity and the upper respiratory tract represent the first contact areas for smoke compounds; even a single cigarette can produce marked effects on some components of the oral cavity, either chemical compounds, such as glutathione and enzymes, or cellular elements, such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Several studies suggest a protective role of glutathione against the noxious effects of tobacco smoke; the sulphydril groups of glutathione, in fact, could react with some smoke products, such as unsaturated aldehydes, leading to the formation of harmless intermediate compounds and simultaneously preventing the inactivation of metabolically essential molecules, such as some enzymes. In this paper we analyse the effect of a filter containing glutathione on the respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes exposed to aqueous extract of cigarette smoke, measuring their chemiluminescence activity. The results of this paper indicate that the GSH-containing filter has a likely protective effect against the inhibition of cigarette smoke extract on polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity.

  9. Chemotactic activity of Helicobacter pylori sonicate for human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, H; Andersen, L P

    1992-01-01

    The immunopathology of Helicobacter pylori associated active chronic gastritis, which is characterised by predominance of polymorphonuclear leucocyte infiltration, is largely unknown. To evaluate the role of bacterial components as inflammatory mediators ultracentrifuged sonicated preparations were made of clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. The crude sonicates were shown to exhibit chemotactic activity for human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and blood monocytes in a concentration dependent fashion. The potency was comparable with previously described bacterial derived cytotaxins. The cytotaxin(s) was non-dialysable and completely destroyed by proteinase. Heat treatment did not decrease the chemotactic activity, but in sonicate subjected to 100 degrees C for 15 minutes all activity disappeared after dialysis suggesting the breakdown of a larger protein to small fragments that are still biological active. By ammonium sulphate precipitation at increasing concentrations the cytotaxin(s) was selectively found in 10% ammonium sulphate saturation, and by further molecular gel separation the chemotactic activity was found in the molecular size range from 25 to 35 kDa. The demonstration of a polymorphonuclear leucocyte and monocyte cytotaxin from Helicobacter pylori sonicate may help in understanding the mucosal immune response in gastric inflammatory diseases. PMID:1624151

  10. Immunostimulation using granulocyte- and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Schefold, Joerg C

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis is associated with failure of multiple organs, including failure of the immune system. The resulting 'sepsis-associated immunosuppression' resembles a state of immunological anergy that is characterized by repeated 'infectious hits', prolonged multiple-organ failure, and death. As a consequence, adjunctive treatment approaches using measures of immunostimulation with colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) were tested in animal experiments and clinical trials. Herein, data from randomized clinical trials will be discussed in the context of a recently published meta-analysis investigating the effects of granulocyte- and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock.

  11. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) transiently suppresses mitogen-stimulated T-cell proliferative response

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, E; García-Castro, I; Esquivel, F; Hornedo, J; Cortes-Funes, H; Solovera, J; Alvarez-Mon, M

    1999-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulation factor (G-CSF) is a cytokine that selectively promotes growth and maturation of neutrophils and may modulate the cytokine response to inflammatory stimuli. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of G-CSF on ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) functions. Ten patients with breast cancer were included in a clinical trial in which r-metHuG-CSF was administrered daily for 5 days to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells. Ten healthy women were also included as controls. Our data show that G-CSF treatment induces an increase in peripheral blood leucocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. We have found a modulation in the percentages of CD19+, CD45+CD14+, CD4+CD45RA+ and CD4+CD45RO+ cells in PBMC fractions during G-CSF treatment. We have also found a significant reduction in the proliferative response of PBMC to mitogenic stimulation that reverted 14 days after the fifth and the last dose of G-CSF. Furthermore, it was not associated with significant changes in the pattern of cytokine production. The mechanism of this immunoregulatory effect is probably indirect since G-CSF receptor has not been found in T lymphocytes. This mechanism and its potential clinical applications remain to be elucidated. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10390001

  12. Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor therapy for pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Shende, Ruchira P; Sampat, Bhavin K; Prabhudesai, Pralhad; Kulkarni, Satish

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of 58 year old female diagnosed with Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) with recurrence of PAP after 5 repeated whole lung lavage, responding to subcutaneous injections of Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor therapy (GM-CSF). Thus indicating that GM-CSF therapy is a promising alternative in those requiring repeated whole lung lavage

  13. The origin of the chemiluminescence of phagocytosing granulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Cheson, B D; Christensen, R L; Sperling, R; Kohler, B E; Babior, B M

    1976-01-01

    Granulocytes engaged in the phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan emit light by a process that is inhibited by superoxide dismutase and catalase. In the present report is is shown that light emission is the result of reactions between certain unspecified constituents of the ingested particles and some or all of the oxidizing agents (H2O2, O2),and possibly the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen) produced by the activated cells. This conclusion is based on a study of light emission by both activated cells ans artificial O2 generating system containing xanthine oxidase and purine. With these two systems light production required the presence of both zymosan and oxidizing agent, suggesting that the oxidation of particle components is necessary for luminescence to occur. The characteristics of the emission spectrum as well as the finding that granulocytes activated by a nonparticulate agent (F-) fail to liminesce show that light emission by the relaxation of singlet oxygen to the ground state does not contribute in a major way to the chemiluminescence of phagocytosing granulocytes; whether singlet oxygen contributes to chemiluminescence in other ways cannot be decided from the data available. Inasmuch as the oxidation of constituents of ingested particles is an important bacterial killing mechanism in the granulocyte, chemiluminescence may be viewed as a manifestation of the microbicidal activity of the cell. PMID:965486

  14. Indium-granulocyte scanning in the painful prosthetic joint

    SciTech Connect

    Pring, D.J.; Henderson, R.G.; Keshavarzian, A.; Rivett, A.G.; Krausz, T.; Coombs, R.R.; Lavender, J.P.

    1986-07-01

    The value of indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning to determine the presence of infection was assessed in 50 prosthetic joints (41 of which were painful) in 40 patients. Granulocytes were obtained from the patients' blood and labeled in plasma with indium 111 tropolonate. Abnormal accumulation of indium 111 in the region of the prosthesis was noted. Proven infection occurred in 11 prostheses, and all of the infections were detected by indium-111-labeled granulocyte scanning. Nineteen were not infected (including nine asymptomatic controls) and only two produced false-positive scans. This represents a specificity of 89.5%, sensitivity of 100%, and overall accuracy of 93.2%. These results compare favorably with plain radiography. There was no radiologic evidence of infection in three of the infected prostheses, and 10 of the noninfected prostheses had some radiologic features that suggested sepsis. We conclude that indium-granulocyte scanning can reliably detect or exclude infection in painful prosthetic joints and should prove useful in clinical management.

  15. G-CSF-induced sympathetic tone provokes fever and primes antimobilizing functions of neutrophils via PGE2.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Yuko; Fukui, Chie; Shinohara, Masakazu; Wakahashi, Kanako; Ishii, Shinichi; Suzuki, Tomohide; Sato, Mari; Asada, Noboru; Kawano, Hiroki; Minagawa, Kentaro; Sada, Akiko; Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Satoshi; Akira, Shizuo; Uede, Toshimitsu; Narumiya, Shuh; Matsui, Toshimitsu; Katayama, Yoshio

    2017-02-02

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is widely used for peripheral blood stem/progenitor mobilization. G-CSF causes low-grade fever that is ameliorated by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), suggesting the activation of arachidonic acid (AA) cascade. How G-CSF regulated this reaction was assessed. G-CSF treatment in mice resulted in fever, which was canceled in prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES-1)-deficient mice. Mobilization efficiency was twice as high in chimeric mice lacking mPGES-1, specifically in hematopoietic cells, suggesting that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from hematopoietic cells modulated the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Neutrophils from steady-state BM constitutively expressed mPGES-1 and significantly enhanced PGE2 production in vitro by β-adrenergic stimulation, but not by G-CSF, which was inhibited by an NSAID. Although neutrophils expressed all β-adrenergic receptors, only β3-agonist induced this phenomenon. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry traced β-agonist-induced PGE2 synthesis from exogenous deuterium-labeled AA. Spontaneous PGE2 production was highly efficient in Gr-1(high) neutrophils among BM cells from G-CSF-treated mice. In addition to these in vitro data, the in vivo depletion of Gr-1(high) neutrophils disrupted G-CSF-induced fever. Furthermore, sympathetic denervation eliminated both neutrophil priming for PGE2 production and fever during G-CSF treatment. Thus, sympathetic tone-primed BM neutrophils were identified as one of the major PGE2 producers. PGE2 upregulated osteopontin, specifically in preosteoblasts, to retain progenitors in the BM via EP4 receptor. Thus, the sympathetic nervous system regulated neutrophils as an indispensable PGE2 source to modulate BM microenvironment and body temperature. This study provided a novel mechanistic insight into the communication of the nervous system, BM niche components, and hematopoietic cells.

  16. Platelet, monocyte and neutrophil activation and glucose tolerance in South African Mixed Ancestry individuals

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Glenda M.; Nkambule, Bongani B.; Mkandla, Zibusiso; Hon, Gloudina M.; Kengne, Andre P.; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Matsha, Tandi E.

    2017-01-01

    Platelet activation has been described in patients with chronic inflammation, however in type 2 diabetes mellitus it remains controversial. We compared levels of platelet leucocyte aggregates, monocyte and granulocyte activation across glucose tolerance statuses in mixed ancestry South Africans. Individuals (206) were recruited from Bellville-South, Cape Town, and included 66% with normal glucose tolerance, 18.7% pre-diabetes, 8.7% screen-detected diabetes and 6.3% known diabetes. Monocyte and neutrophil activation were measured by calculating the percentage of cells expressing CD142 and CD69 while platelet monocyte aggregates were defined as CD14++ CD42b+ events and platelet neutrophil aggregates as CD16++ CD42b+ events. The percentage of monocytes and neutrophils expressing CD69 and CD142 was significantly higher in known diabetes and prediabetes, but, lowest in screen-detected diabetes (both p ≤ 0.016). The pattern was similar for platelet monocyte and neutrophil aggregates (both p ≤ 0.003). In robust linear regressions adjusted for age and gender, known diabetes was significantly and positively associated with the percentage of monocytes expressing CD69 [beta 11.06 (p = 0.016)] and CD42b (PMAs) [19.51 (0.003)] as well as the percentage of neutrophils expressing CD69 [14.19 (<0.0001)] and CD42b [17.7 (0.001)]. We conclude that monitoring platelet activation in diagnosed diabetic patients may have a role in the management and risk stratification. PMID:28091589

  17. Synergy of interleukin 1 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor: in vivo stimulation of stem-cell recovery and hematopoietic regeneration following 5-fluorouracil treatment of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.A.S.; Warren, D.J.

    1987-10-01

    The human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637 produces hematopoietic growth factors (granulocyte and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF and GM-CSF)) and hemopoietin 1, which synergizes with CSFs to stimulate colony formation by primitive hematopoietic stem cells in 5-fluorouracil-treated mouse bone marrow. Molecular and functional properties of hemopoietin 1 identified it as identical to interleukin 1..cap alpha.. (IL-1..cap alpha..). When bone marrow cells from 5-fluorouracil-treated mice were cultured in suspension for 7 days with recombinant human IL-1..cap alpha.. and/or G-CSF, it was found that the two factors synergized to enhance recovery of myelopoietic cells and colony-forming cells of both high and low proliferative potential. G-CSF alone did not sustain these populations, but the combination had greater-than-additive stimulating capacity. In vivo, 5-fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) produced profound myelosuppression and delayed neutrophil regeneration for up to 2 weeks in C3H/HeJ mice. Daily administration of recombinant human G-CSF or human IL-1..cap alpha.. accelerated recovery of stem cells, progenitor cells, and blood neutrophils by up to 4 days in 5-fluorouracil-treated C3H/HeJ and B6D2F/sub 1/ mice. The combination of IL-1..cap alpha.. and G-CSF acted synergistically, reducing neutropenia and accelerating recovery of normal neutrophil numbers by up to 7 days. These results indicate the possible therapeutic potential of combination therapy with IL-1 and hematopoietic growth factors such as G-CSF in the treatment of chemotherapy- or radiation-induced myelosuppression.

  18. Neutrophils in cancer: neutral no more.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Seth B; Wellenstein, Max D; de Visser, Karin E

    2016-07-01

    Neutrophils are indispensable antagonists of microbial infection and facilitators of wound healing. In the cancer setting, a newfound appreciation for neutrophils has come into view. The traditionally held belief that neutrophils are inert bystanders is being challenged by the recent literature. Emerging evidence indicates that tumours manipulate neutrophils, sometimes early in their differentiation process, to create diverse phenotypic and functional polarization states able to alter tumour behaviour. In this Review, we discuss the involvement of neutrophils in cancer initiation and progression, and their potential as clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  19. Expansion of polymorphonuclear myeloid-derived suppressor cells in patients with end-stage renal disease may lead to infectious complications.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yan-Fang; Cai, Rui-Ming; Lin, Qu; Ye, Qing-Jian; Ren, Jian-Hua; Yin, Liang-Hong; Li, Xing

    2017-02-16

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are recently identified immune suppressive cells in multiple chronic inflammations. Here, we investigated MDSCs in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and their clinical significance in these patients and healthy individuals (49 each). Polymorphonuclear and mononuclear MDSCs were investigated by flow cytometry. Patients with ESRD before hemodialysis presented a significantly higher level of polymorphonuclear MDSCs. Depletion of polymorphonuclear-MDSCs resolved T cell IFN-γ responses. By co-culture, T cell proliferation and the production of IFN-γ were abrogated by the addition of polymorphonuclear MDSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Both of these effects were reversed by a reactive oxygen species inhibitor. The levels of reactive oxygen species were higher in polymorphonuclear MDSCs derived from patients with ESRD than from normal individuals. The mRNA level of NOX2, the key protein complex responsible for reactive oxygen species production, was higher in ESRD-related polymorphonuclear MDSCs. The phospho-STAT3 level, a key activator of MDSCs, was higher in ESRD-related polymorphonuclear MDSCs. Finally, the polymorphonuclear MDSC level before and after hemodialysis was positively related to infectious diseases. Patients with ESRD were dichotomized into 2 groups by the amount of polymorphonuclear MDSCs. Patients with high levels of polymorphonuclear MDSCs presented with a higher incidence of infectious events. Thus, polymorphonuclear MDSCs were elevated in ESRD patients with strong immune-suppressive capability through a phospho-STAT3/reactive oxygen species pathway. Hence, polymorphonuclear MDSCs might increase the risk of infectious complications.

  20. Neutrophils: Cinderella of innate immune system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Sharma, A

    2010-11-01

    Neutrophils are the first line of innate immune defense against infectious diseases. However, since their discovery by Elie Metchnikoff, they have always been considered tissue-destructive cells responsible for inflammatory tissue damage occurring during acute infections. Now, extensive research in the field of neutrophil cell biology and their role skewing the immune response in various infections or inflammatory disorders revealed their importance in the regulation of immune response. Along with releasing various antimicrobial molecules, neutrophils also release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) for the containment of infection and inflammation. Activated neutrophils provide signals for the activation and maturation of macrophages as well as dendritic cells. Neutrophils are also involved in the regulation of T-cell immune response against various pathogens and tumor antigens. Thus, the present review is intended to highlight the emerging role of neutrophils in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immunity during acute infectious or inflammatory conditions.

  1. Neutrophil extracellular traps - the dark side of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Ole E; Borregaard, Niels

    2016-05-02

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were discovered as extracellular strands of decondensed DNA in complex with histones and granule proteins, which were expelled from dying neutrophils to ensnare and kill microbes. NETs are formed during infection in vivo by mechanisms different from those originally described in vitro. Citrullination of histones by peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) is central for NET formation in vivo. NETs may spur formation of autoantibodies and may also serve as scaffolds for thrombosis, thereby providing a link among infection, autoimmunity, and thrombosis. In this review, we present the mechanisms by which NETs are formed and discuss the physiological and pathophysiological consequences of NET formation. We conclude that NETs may be of more importance in autoimmunity and thrombosis than in innate immune defense.

  2. Lumican is required for neutrophil extravasation following corneal injury and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yasuhito; Call, Mindy K; Chikama, Tai-ichiro; Liu, Hongshan; Carlson, Eric C; Sun, Yan; Pearlman, Eric; Funderburgh, James L; Babcock, George; Liu, Chia-Yang; Ohashi, Yuichi; Kao, Winston W-Y

    2010-09-01

    An important aspect of wound healing is the recruitment of neutrophils to the site of infection or tissue injury. Lumican, an extracellular matrix component belonging to the small leucine rich proteoglycan (SLRP) family, is one of the major keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs) within the corneal stroma. Increasing evidence indicates that lumican can serve as a regulatory molecule for several cellular processes, including cell proliferation and migration. In the present study, we addressed the role of lumican in the process of extravasation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) during the early inflammatory phase present in the healing of the corneal epithelium following debridement. We used Lum(-/-) mice and a novel transgenic mouse, Lum(-/-),Kera-Lum, which expresses lumican only in the corneal stroma, to assess the role of lumican in PMN extravasation into injured corneas. Our results showed that PMNs did not readily invade injured corneas of Lum(-/-) mice and this defect was rescued by the expression of lumican in the corneas of Lum(-/-),Kera-Lum mice. The presence of lumican in situ facilitates PMN infiltration into the peritoneal cavity in casein-induced inflammation. Our findings are consistent with the notion that in addition to regulating the collagen fibril architecture, lumican acts to aid neutrophil recruitment and invasion following corneal damage and inflammation.

  3. Elevated granulocyte strontium in inflammatory arthritides is related to the inflammatory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haellgren, R.; Svensson, K.; Johansson, E.; Lindh, U.

    1984-12-01

    Total cellular strontium and calcium were measured by the nuclear microprobe technique. Increased mass fraction of both elements was found in granulocytes isolated from patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and other kinds of inflammatory arthritides. Increased granulocyte calcium but only marginally elevated granulocyte strontium was demonstrated in patients with scleroderma. The granulocyte accumulation of strontium and calcium seems to be linked to the degree of inflammatory activity, because the granulocyte content of both elements was positively correlated to the plasma concentration of acute-phase proteins. Corticosteroid therapy induced a marked reduction of granulocyte strontium but a more modest decrease of granulocyte calcium. The serum levels of strontium and calcium were within the normal ranges in all patients and were not significantly altered by corticosteroids. 21 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Leishmania amazonensis Amastigotes Trigger Neutrophil Activation but Resist Neutrophil Microbicidal Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, Eric D.; Hay, Christie; Henard, Calvin A.; Popov, Vsevolod; Garg, Nisha Jain

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils are the first cells to infiltrate to the site of Leishmania promastigote infection, and these cells help to reduce parasite burden shortly after infection is initiated. Several clinical reports indicate that neutrophil recruitment is sustained over the course of leishmaniasis, and amastigote-laden neutrophils have been isolated from chronically infected patients and experimentally infected animals. The goal of this study was to compare how thioglycolate-elicited murine neutrophils respond to L. amazonensis metacyclic promastigotes and amastigotes derived from axenic cultures or from the lesions of infected mice. Neutrophils efficiently internalized both amastigote and promastigote forms of the parasite, and phagocytosis was enhanced in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated neutrophils or when parasites were opsonized in serum from infected mice. Parasite uptake resulted in neutrophil activation, oxidative burst, and accelerated neutrophil death. While promastigotes triggered the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), uptake of amastigotes preferentially resulted in the secretion of interleukin-10 (IL-10) from neutrophils. Finally, the majority of promastigotes were killed by neutrophils, while axenic culture- and lesion-derived amastigotes were highly resistant to neutrophil microbicidal mechanisms. This study indicates that neutrophils exhibit distinct responses to promastigote and amastigote infection. Our findings have important implications for determining the impact of sustained neutrophil recruitment and amastigote-neutrophil interactions during the late phase of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:23918780

  5. Human Neutrophil-Mediated Nonoxidative Antifungal Activity against Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Mambula, Salamatu S.; Simons, Elizabeth R.; Hastey, Ryan; Selsted, Michael E.; Levitz, Stuart M.

    2000-01-01

    It has long been appreciated that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) kill Cryptococcus neoformans, at least in part via generation of fungicidal oxidants. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of nonoxidative mechanisms to the inhibition and killing of C. neoformans. Treatment of human PMN with inhibitors and scavengers of respiratory burst oxidants only partially reversed anticryptococcal activity, suggesting that both oxidative and nonoxidative mechanisms were operative. To define the mediators of nonoxidative anticryptococcal activity, PMN were fractionated into cytoplasmic, primary (azurophil) granule, and secondary (specific) granule fractions. Incubation of C. neoformans with these fractions for 18 h resulted in percents inhibition of growth of 67.4 ± 3.4, 84.6 ± 4.4, and 29.2 ± 10.5 (mean ± standard error, n = 3), respectively. Anticryptococcal activity of the cytoplasmic fraction was abrogated by zinc and depletion of calprotectin. Antifungal activity of the primary granules was significantly reduced by pronase treatment, boiling, high ionic strength, and magnesium but not calcium. Fractionation of the primary granules by reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatography on a C4 column over an acetonitrile gradient revealed multiple peaks with anticryptococcal activity. Of these, peaks 1 and 6 had substantial fungistatic and fungicidal activity. Peak 1 was identified by acid-urea polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and mass spectroscopy as human neutrophil proteins (defensins) 1 to 3. Analysis of peak 6 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE revealed multiple bands. Thus, human PMN have nonoxidative anticryptococcal activity residing principally in their cytoplasmic and primary granule fractions. Calprotectin mediates the cytoplasmic activity, whereas multiple proteins, including defensins, are responsible for activity of the primary granules. PMID:11035733

  6. Lectinlike interactions of Fusobacterium nucleatum with human neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, D F; Novak, M J; Vora, S A; Mourad, J; Kriger, P S

    1989-01-01

    Fusobacterium nucleatum expresses lectinlike adherence factors which mediate binding to a variety of human tissue cells. Adherence is selectively inhibited by galactose, lactose, and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. In this study, adherence of F. nucleatum to human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was investigated. The results indicated that the fusobacteria adhered to live and metabolically inactivated or fixed PMNs. Adherence of F. nucleatum resulted in activation of PMNs as determined by PMN aggregation, membrane depolarization, increased intracellular free Ca2+, superoxide anion production, and lysozyme release. Transmission electron micrographs showed that F. nucleatum was phagocytized by the PMNs. Microbicidal assays indicated that greater than 98% of F. nucleatum organisms were killed by PMNs within 60 min. Adherence to and activation of PMNs by F. nucleatum were inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine or lactose greater than galactose, whereas equal concentrations of glucose, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, mannose, and fucose had little or no effect on F. nucleatum-PMN interactions. Pretreatment of the fusobacteria with heat (80 degrees C, 20 min) or proteases inhibited adherence to and activation of PMNs, but superoxide production was also stimulated by heated bacteria. The results indicate that interaction of F. nucleatum with PMNs is lectinlike and is probably mediated by fusobacterial proteins which bind to other human tissue cells. Adherence of F. nucleatum to PMNs in the absence of serum opsonins, such as antibodies and complement, may play an important role in PMN recognition and killing of F. nucleatum in the gingival sulcus and in the subsequent release of PMN factors associated with tissue destruction. Images PMID:2553609

  7. The effect of neutrophil migration and prolonged neutrophil contact on epithelial permeability.

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, P. E.; Sugahara, K.; Cott, G. R.; Mason, R. J.; Henson, P. M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of neutrophil migration and prolonged neutrophil contact on epithelial permeability was examined. Although neutrophil migration was not associated with a change in epithelial permeability, prolonged neutrophil-epithelial contact following migration resulted in an increase in epithelial permeability. These results were not altered by catalase, a specific neutrophil elastase inhibitor, methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val-chloromethyl ketone or cyclohexamide. This suggests that neutrophil migration does not occur via an H2O2-induced reversible mechanism of junctional opening, which we describe herein. PMID:3314530

  8. The effects and comparative differences of neutrophil specific chemokines on neutrophil chemotaxis of the neonate.

    PubMed

    Fox, Samuel E; Lu, Wenge; Maheshwari, Akhil; Christensen, Robert D; Calhoun, Darlene A

    2005-02-07

    Neutrophil specific chemokines are potent chemoattractants for neutrophils. IL-8/CXCL8 is the most extensively studied member of this group, and its concentrations increase during inflammatory conditions of the newborn infant including sepsis and chronic lung disease. A significant amount of information exists on the effects of IL-8/CXCL8 on neutrophil chemotaxis of neonates, but little is known about the other neutrophil specific chemokines. The aim of this study was to determine the relative potency of the neutrophil specific chemokines on chemotaxis of neonatal neutrophils and to compare this effect with the effect on adult neutrophils. Neutrophils were isolated from cord blood or healthy adult donors and incubated in a Neuroprobe chemotaxis chamber. Chemokine concentrations ranging from 1-1000 ng/mL were used. Differences in chemotactic potency existed among the seven neutrophil specific chemokines. Specifically, at 100 ng/mL, the order was IL-8/CXCL8>GRO-alpha/CXCL1>GCP-2/CXCL6>NAP-2/CXCL7>ENA-78/CXCL5>GRO-gamma/CXCL2>GRO-beta/CXCL3. This pattern was observed for adult and neonatal neutrophils. We conclude that (1) neutrophils from cord blood exhibit the same pattern of potency for each ELR chemokine as neutrophils from adults, and (2) migration of neonatal neutrophils is significantly less than that of adults at every concentration examined except the lowest (1 ng/mL).

  9. Killing of Pseudomonas pseudomallei by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and peritoneal macrophages from chicken, sheep, swine and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Markova, N; Kussovski, V; Radoucheva, T

    1998-07-01

    Differences in the kinetics of Pseudomonas pseudomallei killing by peritoneal macrophages (PM) and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) from chickens, sheep, swine and rabbits were found. P. pseudomallei was rapidly killed by porcine PM and PMNL. However the bacterial killing by ovine and lapine PM and PMNL proceeded at a slower rate. In contrast, chicken PM and PMNL ingested and killed the lowest number of P. pseudomallei bacteria. The differences in the bactericidal activity of PM and PMNL from different animal species correlated with the level of their acid phosphatase and glycolytic activity.

  10. Impaired metabolic function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in glycogen storage disease Ib.

    PubMed

    Gahr, M; Heyne, K

    1983-09-01

    To elucidate the basis for the recurrent infections in patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD) Ib we tested polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function in one patient. Bactericidal capacity and phagocytosis-induced O2 consumption were reduced. Also, phorbol myristate acetate-stimulated superoxide production and glucose oxidation through the hexose monophosphate shunt were diminished compared to control subjects. Therefore it could be speculated that in PMN of patients with GSD Ib, glucose-6-phosphate has no access to the enzymes of the hexose monophosphate shunt due to a transport-related defect as shown for glucogenesis in hepatocytes.

  11. Antibiotic-Enhanced Phagocytosis of ’Borrelia recurrentis’ by Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-30

    ANTIBIOTIC-ENHANCED P)4ASOCYTOSIS OF ’ BORRELIA RECURRENT!S* BY B-ETC(U) UCNOV 79 T BUTLER N00014-77-C-0050 W4CLASSIFIEO TR-3 N LIM,1 li 13 2 . 1112...enhanced Phagocytosis of Borrelia recurrentis by Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes 0 ( ---- by rm 046omas / t’e Prepared for Publication in W Infection...jo? Butler 2 Abstract. "The removal of Borrelia spirochetes from the blood in relapsing fever was studied by examining patients’ blood phagocytic

  12. Separation of granulocytes from whole blood by leukoadhesion, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Capillary glass tubes are investigated for the separation and retrieval of large quantities of viable granulocytes and monocytes from whole blood on a continuous basis from a single donor. This effort represented the feasibility demonstration of a three phase program for development of a capillary tube cell separation device. The activity included the analysis and parametric laboratory testing with subscale models required to design a prototype device. Capillary tubes 40 cm long with a nominal 0.030 cm internal diameter yielded the highest total process efficiency. Recovery efficiencies as high as 89% of the adhering cell population were obtained. Granulocyte phagocytosis of latex particles indicated approximately 90% viability. Monocytes recovered from the separation column retained their capability to stimulate human bone marrow colony growth, as demonstrated in an in vitro cell culture assay.

  13. Monosodium urate crystals induce extracellular DNA traps in neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils but not in mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Schorn, Christine; Janko, Christina; Latzko, Melanie; Chaurio, Ricardo; Schett, Georg; Herrmann, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are fibers of extracellular DNA released from neutrophils due to overwhelming phagocytic stimuli. The function of NETs is to trap and kill microbes to avoid spreading of potential pathogens. NETs are formed after encounter with various gram-positive and -negative bacteria but also in response to mediators causing sterile inflammation like interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Here we show the formation of NETs (NETting) in response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as further model for sterile inflammation. We identified monocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils as MSU phagocytosing cells. Basophils did not take up the crystals, instead they upregulated their activation marker CD203c after contact with MSU. Nevertheless, MSU crystals induced extracellular trap formation also in basophils, like in eosinophils and neutrophils, which phagocytose the crystals. In contrast, monocytes do not form NETs despite uptake of the MSU crystals. In contrast to the canonical stimuli like bacteria and PMA, MSU-induced NETosis was not abrogated by plasma. Our data show that MSU crystals induce extracellular DNA trap formation in all three granulocytes lineages (NETs, EETs, and BETs) but not in monocytes, and DNA externalization does not necessitate the uptake of the crystals.

  14. PU.1 is linking the glycolytic enzyme HK3 in neutrophil differentiation and survival of APL cells.

    PubMed

    Federzoni, Elena A; Valk, Peter J M; Torbett, Bruce E; Haferlach, Torsten; Löwenberg, Bob; Fey, Martin F; Tschan, Mario P

    2012-05-24

    The transcription factor PU.1 is a master regulator of myeloid differentiation and function. On the other hand, only scarce information is available on PU.1-regulated genes involved in cell survival. We now identified the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 3 (HK3), a gene with cytoprotective functions, as transcriptional target of PU.1. Interestingly, HK3 expression is highly associated with the myeloid lineage and was significantly decreased in acute myeloid leukemia patients compared with normal granulocytes. Moreover, HK3 expression was significantly lower in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) compared with non-APL patient samples. In line with the observations in primary APL patient samples, we observed significantly higher HK3 expression during neutrophil differentiation of APL cell lines. Moreover, knocking down PU.1 impaired HK3 induction during neutrophil differentiation. In vivo binding of PU.1 and PML-RARA to the HK3 promoter was found, and PML-RARA attenuated PU.1 activation of the HK3 promoter. Next, inhibiting HK3 in APL cell lines resulted in significantly reduced neutrophil differentiation and viability compared with control cells. Our findings strongly suggest that HK3 is: (1) directly activated by PU.1, (2) repressed by PML-RARA, and (3) functionally involved in neutrophil differentiation and cell viability of APL cells.

  15. Low DICER1 expression is associated with attenuated neutrophil differentiation and autophagy of NB4 APL cells.

    PubMed

    Wampfler, Julian; Federzoni, Elena A; Torbett, Bruce E; Fey, Martin F; Tschan, Mario P

    2015-09-01

    Successful myeloid differentiation depends on the expression of a series of miRNAs. Thus, it is hardly surprising that miRNAs are globally repressed in AML, a disease mainly characterized by a block in cellular myeloid differentiation. Studies investigating the mechanisms for low miRNA expression in AML has mostly focused on altered transcriptional regulation or deletions, whereas defective miRNA processing has received less attention. In this study, we report that the expression of the key miRNA processing enzyme DICER1 is down-regulated in primary AML patient samples and healthy CD34(+) progenitor cells as compared with granulocytes. In line with these findings, Dicer1 expression was induced significantly in AML cell lines upon neutrophil differentiation. The knocking down of DICER1 in AML cells significantly attenuated neutrophil differentiation, which was paralleled by decreased expression of miRNAs involved in this process. Moreover, we found that inhibiting DICER1 attenuated the activation of autophagy, a cellular recycling process that is needed for proper neutrophil differentiation of AML cells. Our results clearly indicate that DICER1 plays a novel role in neutrophil differentiation as well as in myeloid autophagy of AML cells.

  16. Low DICER1 expression is associated with attenuated neutrophil differentiation and autophagy of NB4 APL cells

    PubMed Central

    Wampfler, Julian; Federzoni, Elena A.; Torbett, Bruce E.; Fey, Martin F.; Tschan, Mario P.

    2015-01-01

    Successful myeloid differentiation depends on the expression of a series of miRNAs. Thus, it is hardly surprising that miRNAs are globally repressed in AML, a disease mainly characterized by a block in cellular myeloid differentiation. Studies investigating the mechanisms for low miRNA expression in AML has mostly focused on altered transcriptional regulation or deletions, whereas defective miRNA processing has received less attention. In this study, we report that the expression of the key miRNA processing enzyme DICER1 is down-regulated in primary AML patient samples and healthy CD34+ progenitor cells as compared with granulocytes. In line with these findings, Dicer1 expression was induced significantly in AML cell lines upon neutrophil differentiation. The knocking down of DICER1 in AML cells significantly attenuated neutrophil differentiation, which was paralleled by decreased expression of miRNAs involved in this process. Moreover, we found that inhibiting DICER1 attenuated the activation of autophagy, a cellular recycling process that is needed for proper neutrophil differentiation of AML cells. Our results clearly indicate that DICER1 plays a novel role in neutrophil differentiation as well as in myeloid autophagy of AML cells. PMID:25990244

  17. PU.1 is linking the glycolytic enzyme HK3 in neutrophil differentiation and survival of APL cells

    PubMed Central

    Federzoni, Elena A.; Valk, Peter J. M.; Torbett, Bruce E.; Haferlach, Torsten; Löwenberg, Bob; Fey, Martin F.

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor PU.1 is a master regulator of myeloid differentiation and function. On the other hand, only scarce information is available on PU.1-regulated genes involved in cell survival. We now identified the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase 3 (HK3), a gene with cytoprotective functions, as transcriptional target of PU.1. Interestingly, HK3 expression is highly associated with the myeloid lineage and was significantly decreased in acute myeloid leukemia patients compared with normal granulocytes. Moreover, HK3 expression was significantly lower in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) compared with non-APL patient samples. In line with the observations in primary APL patient samples, we observed significantly higher HK3 expression during neutrophil differentiation of APL cell lines. Moreover, knocking down PU.1 impaired HK3 induction during neutrophil differentiation. In vivo binding of PU.1 and PML-RARA to the HK3 promoter was found, and PML-RARA attenuated PU.1 activation of the HK3 promoter. Next, inhibiting HK3 in APL cell lines resulted in significantly reduced neutrophil differentiation and viability compared with control cells. Our findings strongly suggest that HK3 is: (1) directly activated by PU.1, (2) repressed by PML-RARA, and (3) functionally involved in neutrophil differentiation and cell viability of APL cells. PMID:22498738

  18. Neutrophil function in gram-negative rod bacteremia. The interaction between phagocytic cells, infecting organisms, and humoral factors.

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, R J; Young, L S

    1976-01-01

    To assess the phagocytic and bactericidal function of neutrophils in the acute stages of gram-negative rod bacteremia, cells from 30 nonleukopenic patients were studied in a test system utilizing plasma obtained simultaneously with culture-positive blood, the autologous infecting strain, and two laboratory test strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results were compared to those obtained with normal neutrophils and plasma. Patient and control plasma were simultaneously tested with each source of phagocytic cells to localize any abnormalities. Four patients had a defect against their infecting strain, 33% of the inoculum phagocytized and killed versus 80% by controls. In these cases differences were localized to the patients' plasma, as normal plasma tested with patients' cells reversed the defect. Thus, four patients had impaired opsonization when compared to normal controls, but we also observed that 11 of 30 bacteremic isolates, all Escherichia coli, showed absolute or relative resistance to phagocytosis in the patient and control assay system. No intrinsic granulocyte killing abnormalities were noted. There was poor correlation between results obtained with infecting strains compared to laboratory test organisms. We conclude that in patients without evidence of an inherited neutrophil bactericidal disorder, recurrent infection, or treatment with cytotoxic drugs, intrinsic bactericidal defects are uncommon at the onset of gram-negative bacteremia, and impaired opsonization is the most commonly encountered cause of neutrophil dysfunction. PMID:819460

  19. Effect of leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of indium-111-labeled granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, J.; Weiblen, B.J.; Clay, M.E.; Forstrom, L.

    1981-07-01

    The effect of different leukocyte antibodies on the fate in vivo of granulocytes is not known. Thus, the optimum in vitro serologic tests to determine a safe and effective granulocyte transfusion or to diagnose immune destruction of granulocytes in other clinical situations have not been identified. We have studied the effect of granulocyte agglutinating (GA), granulocytotoxic (GC), and lymphocytotoxic (LC) antibodies on the intravascular recovery and half-life (t 1/2) and the extravascular localization of Indium-111-granulocytes in 50 patients. GA antibodies caused reduced granulocyte recovery and t 1/2 in three of three non-neutropenic patients (one with anti-NB1), increased sequestration of cells in the liver, and failure of granulocytes to localize at sites of infection in two of two patients (one with anti-NA1). In contrast, GC antibodies in five patients and LC antibodies in one patient did not cause reduced intravascular recovery or t 1/2 of granulocytes. In nine patients with GC and six patients with LC antibodies, incompatible granulocytes localized at known sites of infection. It appears that GA, but not GC nor LC, antibodies alter the fate in vivo of granulocytes.

  20. Alarmins Link Neutrophils and Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yang, De; de la Rosa, Gonzalo; Tewary, Poonam; Oppenheim, Joost J.

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils are the first major population of leukocyte to infiltrate infected or injured tissues and are crucial for initiating host innate defense and adaptive immunity. Although the contribution of neutrophils to innate immune defense is mediated predominantly by phagocytosis and killing of microorganisms, neutrophils also participate in the induction of adaptive immune responses. At sites of infection and/or injury, neutrophils release numerous mediators upon degranulation or death, among these are alarmins which have a characteristic dual capacity to mobilize and activate antigen-presenting cells. We describe here how alarmins released by neutrophil degranulation and/or death can link neutrophils to dendritic cells by promoting their recruitment and activation, resulting in the augmentation of innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:19699678

  1. The Role of Neutrophils in Transplanted Organs.

    PubMed

    Scozzi, D; Ibrahim, M; Menna, C; Krupnick, A S; Kreisel, D; Gelman, A E

    2017-02-01

    Neutrophils are often viewed as nonspecialized effector cells whose presence is a simple indicator of tissue inflammation. There is new evidence that neutrophils exist in subsets and have specialized effector functions that include extracellular trap generation and the stimulation of angiogenesis. The application of intravital imaging to transplanted organs has revealed novel requirements for neutrophil trafficking into graft tissue and has illuminated direct interactions between neutrophils and other leukocytes that promote alloimmunity. Paradoxically, retaining some neutrophilia may be important to induce or maintain tolerance. Neutrophils can stimulate anti-inflammatory signals in other phagocytes and release molecules that inhibit T cell activation. In this article, we will review the available evidence of how neutrophils regulate acute and chronic inflammation in transplanted organs and discuss the possibility of targeting these cells to promote tolerance.

  2. The Role of Neutrophils in Transplanted Organs

    PubMed Central

    Menna, Cecilia; Krupnick, Alexander S.; Kreisel, Daniel; Gelman, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are often viewed as non-specialized effector cells whose presence is a simple indicator of tissue inflammation. There is new evidence that neutrophils exist in subsets and have specialized effector functions that include extracellular trap generation and the stimulation of angiogenesis. The application of intravital imaging to transplanted organs has revealed novel requirements for neutrophil trafficking into graft tissue and illuminated direct interactions between neutrophils and other leukocytes that promote alloimmunity. Paradoxically, retaining some neutrophilia may be important to induce or maintain tolerance. Neutrophils can stimulate anti-inflammatory signals in other phagocytes and release molecules that inhibit T cell activation. Here we will review the available evidence of how neutrophils regulate acute and chronic inflammation in transplanted organs and discuss the possibility of targeting these cells to promote tolerance. PMID:27344051

  3. Catecholamine stress alters neutrophil trafficking and impairs wound healing by β2-adrenergic receptor-mediated upregulation of IL-6.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ho; Gorouhi, Farzam; Ramirez, Sandra; Granick, Jennifer L; Byrne, Barbara A; Soulika, Athena M; Simon, Scott I; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2014-03-01

    Stress-induced hormones can alter the inflammatory response to tissue injury; however, the precise mechanism by which epinephrine influences inflammatory response and wound healing is not well defined. Here we demonstrate that epinephrine alters the neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN))-dependent inflammatory response to a cutaneous wound. Using noninvasive real-time imaging of genetically tagged PMNs in a murine skin wound, chronic, epinephrine-mediated stress was modeled by sustained delivery of epinephrine. Prolonged systemic exposure of epinephrine resulted in persistent PMN trafficking to the wound site via an IL-6-mediated mechanism, and this in turn impaired wound repair. Further, we demonstrate that β2-adrenergic receptor-dependent activation of proinflammatory macrophages is critical for epinephrine-mediated IL-6 production. This study expands our current understanding of stress hormone-mediated impairment of wound healing and provides an important mechanistic link to explain how epinephrine stress exacerbates inflammation via increased number and lifetime of PMNs.

  4. Glibenclamide reduces pro-inflammatory cytokine production by neutrophils of diabetes patients in response to bacterial infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewcharoenwong, Chidchamai; Rinchai, Darawan; Utispan, Kusumawadee; Suwannasaen, Duangchan; Bancroft, Gregory J.; Ato, Manabu; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana

    2013-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for melioidosis, which is caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Our previous study has shown that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) from diabetic subjects exhibited decreased functions in response to B. pseudomallei. Here we investigated the mechanisms regulating cytokine secretion of PMNs from diabetic patients which might contribute to patient susceptibility to bacterial infections. Purified PMNs from diabetic patients who had been treated with glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker for anti-diabetes therapy), showed reduction of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8 secretion when exposed to B. pseudomallei. Additionally, reduction of these pro-inflammatory cytokines occurred when PMNs from diabetic patients were treated in vitro with glibenclamide. These findings suggest that glibenclamide might be responsible for the increased susceptibility of diabetic patients, with poor glycemic control, to bacterial infections as a result of its effect on reducing IL-1β production by PMNs.

  5. Inducible nitric oxide synthase is expressed in synovial fluid granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Cedergren, J; Forslund, T; Sundqvist, T; Skogh, T

    2002-10-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the NO-producing potential of synovial fluid (SF) cells. SF from 15 patients with arthritis was compared with blood from the same individuals and with blood from 10 healthy controls. Cellular expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analysed by flow cytometry. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure l-arginine and l-citrulline. Nitrite and nitrate were measured colourimetrically utilizing the Griess' reaction. Compared to whole blood granulocytes in patients with chronic arthritis, a prominent iNOS expression was observed in SF granulocytes (P < 0.001). A slight, but statistically significant, increase in iNOS expression was also recorded in lymphocytes and monocytes from SF. l-arginine was elevated in SF compared to serum (257 +/- 78 versus 176 +/- 65 micro mol/l, P = 0.008), whereas a slight increase in l-citrulline (33 +/- 11 versus 26 +/- 9 micro mol/l), did not reach statistical significance. Great variations but no significant differences were observed comparing serum and SF levels of nitrite and nitrate, respectively, although the sum of nitrite and nitrate tended to be elevated in SF (19.2 +/- 20.7 versus 8.6 +/- 6.5 micro mol/l, P = 0.054). Synovial fluid leucocytes, in particular granulocytes, express iNOS and may thus contribute to intra-articular NO production in arthritis.

  6. Modification of granulocytopoietic cell proliferation by granulocyte extracts.

    PubMed

    Lord, B I

    1975-07-31

    Saline extracts of mature granulocytes have been partially purified by an ultrafiltration technique. The fraction in the 500-2000 daltons molecular weight range was retained and tested in a variety of experimental systems. Comparable fractions of erythrocyte and lymphocyte extracts were used for control purposes. Measurement of the structuredness of the cytoplasmic matrix (SCM) of cells is shown to be a very sensitive measure of the effects of the extract. Specific and reversible increases in SCM of proliferating granulocytic cell populations indicate changes compatible with reduced proliferation and these are confirmed by autoradiographic observations following tritiated thymidine labelling. Repeated labelling experiments to obtain the rate of flow of cells through the cycle gave a mean cell cycle time of 15 hrs in the controls but in animals treated with the granulocyte extract this was increased to about 30 hrs. The duration of DNA synthesis was increased slightly but there was no effect on G2 as measured by the stathmokinetic index method. Cell production in developing spleen colonies was reduced by repeated doses of the extract over a period of 4 days. Approximately two cell doublings were lost during this period due to the prolonged cell cycle.

  7. Biphasic control of polymorphonuclear cell migration by Kupffer cells. Effect of exposure to metabolic products of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Fainsilber, Z.; Feinman, L.; Shaw, S.; Lieber, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of the Kupffer cells in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction seen in alcoholic hepatitis, rat liver Kupffer cells were cultured and exposed to products of ethanol metabolism. The resultant supernatants were tested to study their ability to stimulate or inhibit polymorphonuclear cell chemotaxis. Kupffer cells produced increased chemokinetic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes; when incubated with soluble products of microsomal peroxidation, the Kupffer cells engendered more chemokinetic activity than that produced by untreated Kupffer cells. When Kupffer cells were incubated with acetaldehyde, the chemokinetic activity that appeared in the supernatant did not differ from control. Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear cells was not observed when the Kupffer cell supernatants were tested by checkerboard analysis.

  8. Eimeria bovis-triggered neutrophil extracellular trap formation is CD11b-, ERK 1/2-, p38 MAP kinase- and SOCE-dependent.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Caro, Tamara; Mena Huertas, Sandra Jaqueline; Conejeros, Ivan; Alarcón, Pablo; Hidalgo, María A; Burgos, Rafael A; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja

    2015-03-05

    Eimeria bovis is an important coccidian parasite that causes high economic losses in the cattle industry. We recently showed that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) react upon E. bovis sporozoite exposure by neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. We focused here on the molecular mechanisms that are involved in this process. The sporozoite encounter led to an enhanced surface expression of neutrophil CD11b suggesting a potential role of this receptor in E. bovis-mediated NETosis. Antibody-mediated blockage of CD11b confirmed this assumption and led to a significantly decreased sporozoite-triggered NET. In addition, E. bovis-induced NETosis was found to be Ca(2+)-dependent since the inhibition of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) significantly diminished NET. Furthermore, NADPH oxidase, neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were confirmed as key molecules in sporozoite-triggered NETosis, as inhibition thereof blocked parasite-triggered NET. PMN degranulation analyses revealed a significant release of matrix metalloprotease-9 containing granules upon sporozoite exposure. We further show a significantly enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in sporozoite-exposed PMN indicating a key role of this signaling pathway in E. bovis-mediated NETosis. Accordingly, ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK inhibition led to a significant decrease in NET formation. Finally, we demonstrate that sporozoite-induced NETosis is neither a stage-, species-, nor host-specific process.

  9. Two neutrophilic dermatoses captured simultaneously on histology

    PubMed Central

    Wlodek, Christina; Bhatt, Nidhi; Kennedy, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    A number of neutrophilic dermatoses are associated with malignancies and their treatment. These rarely occur together in the same patient. A Caucasian 72-year-old male was treated for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with chemotherapy including daunorubicin and cytarabine. Within 48 hours of commencing treatment, he developed pyrexia and, two days later, disseminated non-tender pink plaques on the limbs and trunk. A skin biopsy showed a dermal interstitial infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytoid cells and predominantly neutrophils. This extended into the subcutis, where a neutrophilic lobular panniculitis was seen. These findings are consistent with Sweet’s syndrome. In addition, a neutrophilic and lymphocytic infiltrate was also present around eccrine coils and lower ducts. The eccrine epithelium showed squamous metaplasia with dyskeratosis and sloughing into the lumen. These latter findings are consistent with neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis (NEH). These two histologically distinct entities form part of the neutrophilic dermatoses that have been described in oncology patients with reports of concurrent or sequential occurrence of various neutrophilic dermatoses in the same patient. Ours, however, is only the second reported case of simultaneously captured Sweet’s and NEH in the setting of AML. The most likely explanation is that of an epiphenomenon, whereby the neutrophilic infiltrate extended around the sweat glands in the context of the neutrophilic dermatosis. PMID:27648385

  10. Bordetella parapertussis Circumvents Neutrophil Extracellular Bactericidal Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gorgojo, Juan; Scharrig, Emilia; Gómez, Ricardo M.; Harvill, Eric T.; Rodríguez, Maria Eugenia

    2017-01-01

    B. parapertussis is a whooping cough etiological agent with the ability to evade the immune response induced by pertussis vaccines. We previously demonstrated that in the absence of opsonic antibodies B. parapertussis hampers phagocytosis by neutrophils and macrophages and, when phagocytosed, blocks intracellular killing by interfering with phagolysosomal fusion. But neutrophils can kill and/or immobilize extracellular bacteria through non-phagocytic mechanisms such as degranulation and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In this study we demonstrated that B. parapertussis also has the ability to circumvent these two neutrophil extracellular bactericidal activities. The lack of neutrophil degranulation was found dependent on the O antigen that targets the bacteria to cell lipid rafts, eventually avoiding the fusion of nascent phagosomes with specific and azurophilic granules. IgG opsonization overcame this inhibition of neutrophil degranulation. We further observed that B. parapertussis did not induce NETs release in resting neutrophils and inhibited NETs formation in response to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation by a mechanism dependent on adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA)-mediated inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Thus, B. parapertussis modulates neutrophil bactericidal activity through two different mechanisms, one related to the lack of proper NETs-inducer stimuli and the other one related to an active inhibitory mechanism. Together with previous results these data suggest that B. parapertussis has the ability to subvert the main neutrophil bactericidal functions, inhibiting efficient clearance in non-immune hosts. PMID:28095485

  11. Plasticity of neutrophils reveals modulatory capacity

    PubMed Central

    Perobelli, S.M.; Galvani, R.G.; Gonçalves-Silva, T.; Xavier, C.R.; Nóbrega, A.; Bonomo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils are widely known as proinflammatory cells associated with tissue damage and for their early arrival at sites of infection, where they exert their phagocytic activity, release their granule contents, and subsequently die. However, this view has been challenged by emerging evidence that neutrophils have other activities and are not so short-lived. Following activation, neutrophil effector functions include production and release of granule contents, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Neutrophils have also been shown to produce a wide range of cytokines that have pro- or anti-inflammatory activity, adding a modulatory role for this cell, previously known as a suicide effector. The presence of cytokines almost always implies intercellular modulation, potentially unmasking interactions of neutrophils with other immune cells. In fact, neutrophils have been found to help B cells and to modulate dendritic cell (DC), macrophage, and T-cell activities. In this review, we describe some ways in which neutrophils influence the inflammatory environment in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity, regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. These cells can switch phenotypes and exert functions beyond cytotoxicity against invading pathogens, extending the view of neutrophils beyond suicide effectors to include functions as regulatory and suppressor cells. PMID:26108096

  12. CFTR targeting during activation of human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hang Pong; Valentine, Vincent G; Wang, Guoshun

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel, plays critical roles in phagocytic host defense. However, how activated neutrophils regulate CFTR channel distribution subcellularly is not well defined. To investigate, we tested multiple Abs against different CFTR domains, to examine CFTR expression in human peripheral blood neutrophils by flow cytometry. The data confirmed that resting neutrophils had pronounced CFTR expression. Activation of neutrophils with soluble or particulate agonists did not significantly increase CFTR expression level, but induced CFTR redistribution to cell surface. Such CFTR mobilization correlated with cell-surface recruitment of formyl-peptide receptor during secretory vesicle exocytosis. Intriguingly, neutrophils from patients with ΔF508-CF, despite expression of the mutant CFTR, showed little cell-surface mobilization upon stimulation. Although normal neutrophils effectively targeted CFTR to their phagosomes, ΔF508-CF neutrophils had impairment in that process, resulting in deficient hypochlorous acid production. Taken together, activated neutrophils regulate CFTR distribution by targeting this chloride channel to the subcellular sites of activation, and ΔF508-CF neutrophils fail to achieve such targeting, thus undermining their host defense function.

  13. Maintenance of α1-antitrypsin activity by means of co-application of hypochlorous acid-scavengers in vitro and in the supernatant of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Schönberg, Maria; Reibetanz, Uta; Rathmann, Sophie; Leßig, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Tissue destruction, pain and loss of function in chronically inflamed tissues can result from noxious agents released from myeloperoxidase (MPO) and its highly reactive product hypochlorous acid (HOCl) or proteases such as neutrophil elastase (NE). Currently there exists a high demand for medications that provide gentle treatments, free from side effects inherent in those prescribed today. One method to circumvent side effects is through the use of locally applied drug delivery. In contrast to systemic therapy, the main advantages of transport systems are the low dosages of drug with a time-controlled delivery. The aim of this study was to ascertain interactions of NE and its inhibitor α1-antitrypsin (AT), the influence of hypochlorous acid (HOCl), as well as its scavengers, in order to define an effective mixture of drugs acting in a synergistic way which can be applied by means of drug delivery systems. These investigations determine the effective amounts of AT/HOCl-scavengers that drug mixtures need for delivery under inflammatory conditions in order to prevent tissue damage. AT was shown to inhibit NE in a dose-dependent manner, whereas a physiological concentration of 1.14 µM AT caused a significant NE inhibition (78%, pH 7.5). The concomitant existence of MPO/HOCl inactivated AT in a dose-dependent manner as well. To regain AT efficacy, HOCl-scavengers, such as l-methionine, α-aminosalicylic acid and cefoperazone were additionally applied. Finally, AT was assembled as surface layer onto layer-by-layer biopolymer-coated microcarriers and carrier phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes could be shown. PMID:23507783

  14. Presence of factors chemotactic for granulocytes in hypereosinophilic syndrome sera: relation with alterations in eosinophil migration.

    PubMed Central

    Gosset, P; Prin, L; Capron, M; Auriault, C; Tonnel, A B; Capron, A

    1986-01-01

    Recent work has underlined a structural and metabolic heterogeneity amongst blood eosinophils in various hypereosinophilic diseases. Little is known about the factors responsible for this variability. We have identified granulocyte chemotactic factors, termed GCFs in the sera of five patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Sera from normal controls or from 20 patients with blood hypereosinophilia of various causes, but with little or no hypodense blood eosinophils, did not demonstrate any chemotactic activity. Two distinct GCFs were characterized, either by gel filtration or isoelectric focusing (molecular weights of 600 kD and 240 kD; pIs of approximately 5 and 7). These fractions are sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and to heating to 100 degrees C but not to 56 degrees C. The activity of GCFs has been tested towards neutrophils and eosinophils. The fractions of 240 kD and pI 7 appear more selective for the eosinophil lineage. Checkerboard analysis shows that such fractions are primarily chemotactic. In addition, hypodense eosinophils appear defective in random motility and chemotaxis towards chemotactic agents which are effective on normodense eosinophils. Moreover, preincubation of normodense eosinophils with HES sera rendered these cells unresponsive to very efficient chemotactic agents such as leukotriene B4 (LTB4) (decrease in migration of 91%; P less than 10(-3), formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanyl (Fmlp) (decrease of 95%; P less than 10(-2)), HES sera (decrease of 91 to 93%). These findings suggest a process of deactivation of blood eosinophils with the possible retention within the circulation of activated hypodense eosinophils in HES. PMID:3780047

  15. O6.04GRANULOCYTIC MYELOID-DERIVED CELLS OBTAINED FROM BLOOD MAINLY SUPPRESS T-CELL PROLIFERATION IN PATIENTS WITH GLIOBLASTOMA

    PubMed Central

    Grauer, O.M.; Wölfer, J.; Hasselblatt, M.; Dubinski, D.; Bogdahn, U.; Stummer, W.; Wiendl, H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the importance of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in primary glioblastomas, we investigated the frequency, phenotype, and immune-suppressive function of different myeloid-derived cells (MDC) in the blood and freshly resected tumors of 40 patients. RESULTS: Multicolour flow cytometric analysis showed that the frequency of CD14lowCD15+ granulocytic CD11bhighCD33b+ MDC was higher in peripheral blood and tumor samples of glioblastoma patients compared to healthy controls and positively correlated with the tumor volume before resection. Granulocytic MDC expressed CD16, CD66b, CD114, CD195 and could be further divided into CD14lowCD15high neutrophilic and CD14lowCD15int eosinophilic MDC. Moreover, we could detect an intratumoral accumulation of CD14highCD15+ monocytic CD11bhighCD33b+ MDC expressing CD115, CD124, CD184, CD206 and CX3CR1. All MDC subsets stained positively for reactive oxygen species, but Arginase 1 was specifically expressed in tumor-infiltrating MDC. T cell suppression assays with FACS-sorted MDC revealed that granulocytic and most prominently eosinophilic MDC obtained from the blood, but not the tumor could efficiently suppress non-specific T cell proliferative responses. Contrary to blood-derived MDC, HLA-DR expression was significantly increased on tumor-infiltrating MDC. Upon LPS or R848 stimulation, blood-derived MDC showed an increased production of IL-10, in contrast to tumor-infiltrating MDC that were resistant to Toll-like-receptor (TLR) stimulation. Although the frequency of granulocytic MDC inversely correlated with CD4+ and CD8+ T memory cells in the blood, no association with time to tumor progression in glioblastoma patients could be found. CONCLUSION: Our findings provide a detailed characterization of the nature and suppressive function of MDC in glioblastoma patients and indicate that granulocytic MDC obtained from the blood but not from the tumor mainly suppress T-cell proliferation.

  16. Antimicrobial mechanisms against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus of rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte granule extract.

    PubMed Central

    Loeffelholz, M J; Modrzakowski, M C

    1988-01-01

    The antimicrobial mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte granule extract and isolated extract fractions against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were examined. Crude granule extract and a fraction containing low-molecular-weight cationic peptides (peak D) reduced the viability of A. calcoaceticus and inhibited the uptake of radiolabeled macromolecule precursors by cells. The inhibitory activity observed with peak D was not as great as that of crude granule extract containing equivalent amounts of peak D protein. Crude extract also inhibited incorporation of uracil into trichloroacetic acid-precipitable material, while no isolated fraction, including peak D, had any substantial effect on incorporation. The antimicrobial activities of crude granule extract were more sensitive to boiling than those of isolated peak D. Preincubation of A. calcoaceticus with either crude granule extract or a fraction (peak B) possessing proteolytic activity but lacking any antimicrobial activity caused cells to become sensitive to a subinhibitory concentration of actinomycin D, suggesting that granule extract and peak B increase the outer membrane permeability of A. calcoaceticus. The antimicrobial granule extract fraction, peak D, did not affect outer membrane permeability. These results suggest that rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte granule extract reduces the viability of A. calcoaceticus by inhibiting the transport and incorporation of macromolecule precursors and that either whole granule extract is required for complete antimicrobial activity or an unidentified component is responsible for antimicrobial activity in addition to peak D. The granule extract activity that increases outer membrane permeability does not appear to be directly responsible for the observed decrease in viability. PMID:2449397

  17. Relationship between somatic cell count, polymorphonuclear leucocyte count and quality parameters in bovine bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Wickström, Erik; Persson-Waller, Karin; Lindmark-Månsson, Helena; Ostensson, Karin; Sternesjö, Ase

    2009-05-01

    The somatic cell count (SCC) in bovine bulk tank milk is presently used as an indicator of raw milk quality, reflecting the udder health status of the herd. During mastitis, SCC increases, mostly owing to an influx of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) from blood into milk, with a concomitant change in milk composition. Bulk tank milk samples were categorized according to their SCC, as well as polymorphonuclear leucocyte count (PMNC), to study relationships between SCC, PMNC and various raw milk quality traits, i.e. contents of total protein, whey protein, casein, fat and lactose, casein number, proteolysis and rheological properties. The proportion of PMN, obtained by direct microscopy, was significantly higher in samples with high SCC compared with low SCC samples. SCC and PMNC were strongly correlated, yielding a correlation coefficient of 0.85. High SCC samples had lower lactose and casein contents, lower casein number and more proteolysis than low SCC samples. Samples with high PMNC had a lower casein number than low PMNC samples. Samples with high and low SCC or PMNC did not differ in respect to rheological properties. Our results do not indicate that PMNC is a better biomarker than SCC for raw bulk tank milk quality, as previously proposed.

  18. Shielding of a lipooligosaccharide IgM epitope allows evasion of neutrophil-mediated killing of an invasive strain of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed

    Langereis, Jeroen D; Weiser, Jeffrey N

    2014-07-22

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is a frequent cause of noninvasive mucosal inflammatory diseases but may also cause invasive diseases, such as sepsis and meningitis, especially in children and the elderly. Infection by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is characterized by recruitment of neutrophilic granulocytes. Despite the presence of a large number of neutrophils, infections with nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae are often not cleared effectively by the antimicrobial activity of these immune cells. Herein, we examined how nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae evades neutrophil-mediated killing. Transposon sequencing (Tn-seq) was used on an isolate resistant to neutrophil-mediated killing to identify genes required for its survival in the presence of human neutrophils and serum, which provided a source of complement and antibodies. Results show that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae prevents complement-dependent neutrophil-mediated killing by expression of surface galactose-containing oligosaccharide structures. These outer-core structures block recognition of an inner-core lipooligosaccharide epitope containing glucose attached to heptose HepIII-β1,2-Glc by replacement with galactose attached to HepIII or through shielding HepIII-β1,2-Glc by phase-variable attachment of oligosaccharide chain extensions. When the HepIII-β1,2-Glc-containing epitope is expressed and exposed, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae is opsonized by naturally acquired IgM generally present in human serum and subsequently phagocytosed and killed by human neutrophils. Clinical nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae isolates containing galactose attached to HepIII that are not recognized by this IgM are more often found to cause invasive infections. Importance: Neutrophils are white blood cells that specialize in killing pathogens and are recruited to sites of inflammation. However, despite the presence of large numbers of neutrophils in the middle ear cavity and lungs of patients with

  19. Transendothelial migration enhances integrin-dependent human neutrophil chemokinesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transendothelial migration of neutrophils induces phenotypic changes that influence the interactions of neutrophils with extravascular tissue components. To assess the influence of transmigration on neutrophil chemokinetic motility, we used polyethylene glycol hydrogels covalently modified with spec...

  20. Neutrophil-induced injury of rat pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Simon, R H; DeHart, P D; Todd, R F

    1986-01-01

    The damage to pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells that occurs in many inflammatory conditions is thought to be caused in part by phagocytic neutrophils. To investigate this process, we exposed monolayers of purified rat alveolar epithelial cells to stimulated human neutrophils and measured cytotoxicity using a 51Cr-release assay. We found that stimulated neutrophils killed epithelial cells by a process that did not require neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen metabolites. Pretreatment of neutrophils with an antibody (anti-Mo1) that reduced neutrophil adherence to epithelial cells limited killing. Although a variety of serine protease inhibitors partially inhibited cytotoxicity, we found that neutrophil cytoplasts, neutrophil lysates, neutrophil-conditioned medium, purified azurophilic or specific granule contents, and purified human neutrophil elastase did not duplicate the injury. We conclude that stimulated neutrophils can kill alveolar epithelial cells in an oxygen metabolite-independent manner. Tight adherence of stimulated neutrophils to epithelial cell monolayers appears to promote epithelial cell killing. Images PMID:3771800

  1. RhoA/ROCK downregulates FPR2-mediated NADPH oxidase activation in mouse bone marrow granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Filina, Julia V; Gabdoulkhakova, Aida G; Safronova, Valentina G

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) express the high and low affinity receptors to formylated peptides (mFPR1 and mFPR2 in mice, accordingly). RhoA/ROCK (Rho activated kinase) pathway is crucial for cell motility and oxidase activity regulated via FPRs. There are contradictory data on RhoA-mediated regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes. We have shown divergent Rho GTPases signaling via mFPR1 and mFPR2 to NADPH oxidase in PMNs from inflammatory site. The present study was aimed to find out the role of RhoA/ROCK in the respiratory burst activated via mFPR1 and mFPR2 in the bone marrow PMNs. Different kinetics of RhoA activation were detected with 0.1μM fMLF and 1μM WKYMVM operating via mFPR1 and mFPR2, accordingly. RhoA was translocated in fMLF-activated cells towards the cell center and juxtamembrane space versus uniform allocation in the resting cells. Specific inhibition of RhoA by CT04, Rho inhibitor I, weakly depressed the respiratory burst induced via mFPR1, but significantly increased the one induced via mFPR2. Inhibition of ROCK, the main effector of RhoA, by Y27632 led to the same effect on the respiratory burst. Regulation of mFPR2-induced respiratory response by ROCK was impossible under the cytoskeleton disruption by cytochalasin D, whereas it persisted in the case of mFPR1 activation. Thus we suggest RhoA to be one of the regulatory and signal transduction components in the respiratory burst through FPRs in the mouse bone marrow PMNs. Both mFPR1 and mFPR2 binding with a ligand trigger the activation of RhoA. FPR1 signaling through RhoA/ROCK increases NADPH-oxidase activity. But in FPR2 action RhoA/ROCK together with cytoskeleton-linked systems down-regulates NADPH-oxidase. This mechanism could restrain the reactive oxygen species dependent damage of own tissues during the chemotaxis of PMNs and in the resting cells.

  2. High frequency oscillatory ventilation attenuates the activation of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils in lung injury.

    PubMed

    Shimaoka; Fujino; Taenaka; Hiroi; Kiyono; Yoshiya

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent investigations have shown that leukocyte activation is involved in the pathogenesis of ventilator-associated lung injury. This study was designed to investigate whether the inflammatory responses and deterioration of oxygenation in ventilator-associated lung injury are attenuated by high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO). We analyzed the effects of HFO compared with conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) on the activation of pulmonary macrophages and neutrophils in 10 female rabbits. RESULTS: After surfactant depletion, the rabbits were ventilated by CMV or HFO at the same mean airway pressure. Surfactant-depletion followed by 4 h mechanical ventilation hindered pulmonary oxygenation in both groups. Impairment of oxygenation was less severe in the HFO group than in the CMV group. In the HFO group the infiltration of granulocytes into alveolar spaces occurred more readily than in the CMV group. Compared with CMV, HFO resulted in greater attenuation of beta2-integrin expression, not only on granulocytes, but also on macrophages. CONCLUSIONS: In the surfactant-depleted lung, the activation of leukocytes was attenuated by HFO. Reduced inflammatory response correlated with decreased impairment of oxygenation. HFO may reduce lung injury via the attenuation of pulmonary inflammation.

  3. Effect of histocompatibility factors on pulmonary retention of indium-111-labeled granulocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dutcher, J.P.; Riggs, C. Jr.; Fox, J.J.; Johnston, G.S.; Norris, D.; Wiernik, P.H.; Schiffer, C.A. )

    1990-04-01

    Granulocyte transfusions are associated with a number of side effects including febrile transfusion reactions and occasionally pulmonary infiltrates. There is evidence that the presence of preformed antibodies may be a cause of these complications. In this study, allogeneic 111Indium-labeled granulocytes were used to evaluate the pulmonary retention of radioactivity in alloimmunized and non-alloimmunized patients in an attempt to assess antibody effect on granulocyte migration. After injection of labeled allogeneic granulocytes into neutropenic patients, the ratios of lung to heart activity were calculated for the first 30 min of scanning. There was significantly greater retention of radioactivity from cells in the lungs of patients who were alloimmunized, having both lymphocytotoxic (anti-HLA) and leuko-agglutinating antibodies, compared to the activity in the lungs of non-alloimmunized patients (P less than .001) or of patients receiving autologous granulocytes (P less than .001). This study demonstrates that labeled, mismatched granulocytes may be retained in the lungs for a significantly longer time in patients with preformed antibodies. This implies that transfusion of large numbers of such mismatched granulocytes, i.e., granulocyte transfusions, may also be retained in the lungs of alloimmunized patients, which could lead to pulmonary compromise. Therefore, granulocyte transfusions from random donors should not be given to alloimmunized patients.

  4. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) can allow treatment with clozapine in a patient with severe benign ethnic neutropaenia (BEN): a case report.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Benjamin W J; Williams, Hugh R J; Gee, Siobhan H; Whiskey, Eromona; Rodrigues, Joseph P; Mijovic, Aleksandar; MacCabe, James H

    2012-09-01

    Clozapine is the treatment of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but it is associated with a risk of neutropaenia and agranulocytosis. Clozapine use is regulated by mandatory blood monitoring in the UK, requiring cessation of treatment should the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) drop below specified values. Benign reductions in the ANC in non-white populations are common, and this can preclude a patient from receiving treatment with clozapine. A diagnosis of benign ethnic neutropaenia can reduce these treatment restrictions (UK specific), but the degree of neutropaenia can be significant enough to still prevent treatment. In this report, we show that response to granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) may be quite variable and difficult to predict, but with careful monitoring it can be used to increase the ANC count and allow continued treatment with clozapine.

  5. Reduced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells of salivary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibition of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytotoxicity by saliva.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, M; Kohl, S

    1990-06-15

    Blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (BPMN) have been shown to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HSV-infected cells. Although HSV infections are frequently found in the oral cavity, the ADCC capacity of salivary PMN (SPMN) has not been studied, mainly because methods to isolate SPMN were not available. We have recently developed a method to isolate SPMN, and in this study have evaluated their ADCC activity against HSV-infected cells. SPMN were obtained by repeated washings of the oral cavity, and separated from epithelial cells by nylon mesh filtration. ADCC was quantitatively determined by 51Cr release from HSV-infected Chang liver cells. SPMN in the presence of antibody were able to destroy HSV-infected cells, but SPMN were much less effective in mediating ADCC than BPMN (3.4% vs 40.7%, p less than 0.0001). In the presence of antiviral antibody, SPMN were able to adhere to HSV-infected cells, but less so than BPMN (34% vs 67%), and specific antibody-induced adherence was significantly lower in SPMN (p less than 0.04). The spontaneous adherence to HSV-infected cells was higher for SPMN than BPMN. SPMN demonstrated up-regulation of the adhesion glycoprotein CD18, but down-regulation of the FcRIII receptor. Incubation with saliva decreased ADCC capacity of BPMN, up-regulated CD18 expression, and down-regulated FcRIII expression.

  6. Chronic neutrophilic leukaemia and plasma cell-related neutrophilic leukaemoid reactions.

    PubMed

    Bain, Barbara J; Ahmad, Shahzaib

    2015-11-01

    Many cases reported as 'chronic neutrophilic leukaemia' have had an associated plasma cell neoplasm. Recent evidence suggests that the great majority of such cases represent a neutrophilic leukaemoid reaction to the underlying multiple myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We have analysed all accessible reported cases to clarify the likely diagnosis and to ascertain whether toxic granulation, Döhle bodies and an increased neutrophil alkaline phosphatase score were useful in making a distinction between chronic neutrophilic leukaemia and a neutrophilic leukaemoid reaction. We established that all these changes occur in both conditions. Toxic granulation and Döhle bodies are more consistently present in leukaemoid reactions but also occur quite frequently in chronic neutrophilic leukaemia. The neutrophil alkaline phosphatase score is increased in both conditions and is of no value in making a distinction.

  7. WIPI-dependent autophagy during neutrophil differentiation of NB4 acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Brigger, D; Proikas-Cezanne, T; Tschan, M P

    2014-07-03

    Members of the WD-repeat protein interacting with phosphoinositides (WIPI) family are phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI3P) effectors that are essential for the formation of autophagosomes. Autophagosomes, unique double-membraned organelles, are characteristic for autophagy, a bulk degradation mechanism with cytoprotective and homeostatic function. Both, WIPI-1 and WIPI-2 are aberrantly expressed in several solid tumors, linking these genes to carcinogenesis. We now found that the expression of WIPI-1 was significantly reduced in a large cohort of 98 primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient samples (complex karyotypes; t(8;21); t(15,17); inv(16)). In contrast, the expression of WIPI-2 was only reduced in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a distinct subtype of AML (t(15,17)). As AML cells are blocked in their differentiation, we tested if the expression levels of WIPI-1 and WIPI-2 increase during all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-induced neutrophil differentiation of APL. According to the higher WIPI-1 expression in granulocytes compared with immature blast cells, WIPI-1 but not WIPI-2 expression was significantly induced during neutrophil differentiation of NB4 APL cells. Interestingly, the induction of WIPI-1 expression was dependent on the transcription factor PU.1, a master regulator of myelopoiesis, supporting our notion that WIPI-1 expression is reduced in AML patients lacking proper PU-1 activity. Further, knocking down WIPI-1 in NB4 cells markedly attenuated the autophagic flux and significantly reduced neutrophil differentiation. This result was also achieved by knocking down WIPI-2, suggesting that both WIPI-1 and WIPI-2 are functionally required and not redundant in mediating the PI3P signal at the onset of autophagy in NB4 cells. In line with these data, downregulation of PI3KC3 (hVPS34), which generates PI3P upstream of WIPIs, also inhibited neutrophil differentiation. In conclusion, we demonstrate that both WIPI-1 and WIPI-2 are required for the

  8. Neutrophil uptake of vaccinia virus in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.C.; Eschete, M.L.; Cox, M.E.; King, J.W.

    1987-10-01

    We studied human neutrophils for uptake of vaccinia virus. Uptake was determined radiometrically and by electron microscopy. Vaccinia virus was labeled with /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H, incubated with neutrophils, and quantified in neutrophil pellets in a new radiometric phagocytosis assay. Better results were obtained from assays of (/sup 3/H)thymidine-labeled virus; uptake increased through 1 hr and then plateaued. Phagocytosis of 3H-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was normal. Uptake of virus was serum dependent. Hexose monophosphate shunt activity was measured by two methods. No /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from (/sup 14/C)1-glucose accompanied uptake of vaccinia virus, in contrast to the respiratory burst accompanying bacterial phagocytosis. Electron microscopy showed intact to slightly digested intraphagolysosomal vaccinia virus. Pock reduction assay showed a decrease in viral content due to neutrophils until 6 hr of incubation, when a modest but significant increase was observed. Thus, neutrophil uptake of vaccinia virus is distinguished from bacterial phagocytosis.

  9. Administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor with radiotherapy promotes tumor growth by stimulating vascularization in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong Sun; Son, Yeonghoon; Bae, Min Ji; Lee, Minyoung; Lee, Chang Geun; Jo, Wol Soon; Kim, Sung Dae; Yang, Kwangmo

    2015-07-01

    Although granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is commonly used to support recovery from radiation-induced side-effects, the precise effects of G-CSF on colon cancer under radiotherapy remain poorly understood. In the present study, to investigate the effects of tumor growth following radiotherapy and G-CSF administration in a murine xenograft model of colon cancer, female BALB/c mice were injected with cells of a colon carcinoma cell line (CT26) with irradiation and G-CSF, alone or in combination. Mice received 2 Gy of focal radiation daily for 5 days and intraperitoneal injection of G-CSF (100 µg/kg/day) after irradiation for 7 days. Changes in the levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase type 9 (MMP-9) and CD31 were assessed in the mouse cancer induced by injection of colon cancer cells. We observed that G-CSF increased the number of circulating neutrophils, but facilitated tumor growth. However, G-CSF treatment did not affect radiation-induced cytotoxicity and cell viability in CT26 cells in vitro. Increased levels of myeloperoxidase, a neutrophil marker and those of vascular endothelial growth factor were observed in tumors with G-CSF supplementation. In addition, we found that increased levels of CD31 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were correlated with the enhanced tumor growth after G-CSF treatment. Therefore, these data suggest that G-CSF may contribute to tumor growth and decrease the antitumor effect of radiotherapy, possibly by promoting vascularization in cancer lesions.

  10. Human neutrophils in auto-immunity.

    PubMed

    Thieblemont, Nathalie; Wright, Helen L; Edwards, Steven W; Witko-Sarsat, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Human neutrophils have great capacity to cause tissue damage in inflammatory diseases via their inappropriate activation to release reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteases and other tissue-damaging molecules. Furthermore, activated neutrophils can release a wide variety of cytokines and chemokines that can regulate almost every element of the immune system. In addition to these important immuno-regulatory processes, activated neutrophils can also release, expose or generate neoepitopes that have the potential to break immune tolerance and result in the generation of autoantibodies, that characterise a number of human auto-immune diseases. For example, in vasculitis, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) that are directed against proteinase 3 or myeloperoxidase are neutrophil-derived autoantigens and activated neutrophils are the main effector cells of vascular damage. In other auto-immune diseases, these neutrophil-derived neoepitopes may arise from a number of processes that include release of granule enzymes and ROS, changes in the properties of components of their plasma membrane as a result of activation or apoptosis, and via the release of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps (NETs). NETs are extracellular structures that contain chromatin that is decorated with granule enzymes (including citrullinated proteins) that can act as neo-epitopes to generate auto-immunity. This review therefore describes the processes that can result in neutrophil-mediated auto-immunity, and the role of neutrophils in the molecular pathologies of auto-immune diseases such as vasculitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We discuss the potential role of NETs in these processes and some of the debate in the literature regarding the role of this phenomenon in microbial killing, cell death and auto-immunity.

  11. Accuracy of Diagnosis of Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in China

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) was reported from China. However, the clinical and laboratory findings, including reports of nosocomial transmission, were inconsistent with those reported for HGA in the United States. In 2012, it was demonstrated that the patients described in the 2008 report had all been infected with a newly discovered bunyavirus, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus, which causes an illness with the same clinical features described for the patients in the 2008 report. This finding raises the question of HGA misdiagnosis in China and establishes the need for further studies to determine whether HGA occurs there. PMID:27648639

  12. Proteolytic enzyme levels are increased during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced hematopoietic stem cell mobilization in human donors but do not predict the number of mobilized stem cells.

    PubMed

    van Os, R; van Schie, M L J; Willemze, R; Fibbe, W E

    2002-06-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory indicate that functional, mature neutrophils are essential for interleukin-8 (IL-8)-induced stem cell mobilization. To study a possible role of neutrophils in granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induced hematopoietic mobilization, we assessed the number of circulating CD34+ cells in healthy allogeneic stem cell donors on days 3, 4, and 5 of mobilization for comparison with the number of peripheral blood neutrophils and the plasma levels of IL-8, Flt3 ligand (FL), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Thirty-seven of 45 donors required 1 day of apheresis to obtain 5 x 10(6) CD34+/kg recipient body weight (high responders), the remaining 8 donors required 1 extra day of apheresis on day 6 (low responders). On day 5, CD34+ numbers in the blood were significantly highe in high responders (116 x 10(3) +/- 10.4/ml) than in low responders (54.1 x 10(3) +/- 10.3, p < 0.001). In all donors, MMP-9 and HNE levels were increased compared to nonmobilized individuals, but in high responders, plasma MMP-9 levels on days 3-5 of mobilization were substantially higher than in low responders (p < or = 0.02 for MMP-9 and p = 0.89, p = 0.05 and p = 0.52 for HNE on days 3, 4, and 5, respectively). These results are in accordance with the hypothesis that neutrophils play a role in G-CSF-induced mobilization through the release of proteases such as MMP-9 and elastase. No change in plasma levels of IL-8 or Flt3 ligand was observed, suggesting that these cytokines do not play a role in stem cell mobilization. However, because stem cell numbers could not be predicted by proteolytic enzyme levels and/or neutrophil numbers, other undefined factors may be more important.

  13. [Chemiluminescence in a stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes--luminol system: suppression by thiols].

    PubMed

    Murina, M A; Roshchupkin, D I; Belakina, N S; Filippov, S V

    2005-01-01

    The effect of some scavengers of thiol nature, which eliminate all reactive oxygen species and oxidants with reactive chlorine, on the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied. The use of two scavengers of this type (penetrating and not penetrating into the cell) made it possible to separate the luminescence of cell structures from the luminescence generated by oxidants in the surrounding medium. It was found that about a half of luminol luminescence is due to its oxidation in the medium surrounding the cell, and it is completely inhibited by the nonpenetrating reduced glutathione. The cell itself is a source of a considerable portion of luminescence, and this luminescence is quenched by penetrating sulfhydryl compounds such as dithiothreitol and N-acethyl cysteine. Reduced glutathione, which penetrates into cells and whose action is due only to the sulfhydryl group, is recommended as a candidate for the selective neutralization of extracellular oxidants.

  14. The effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocyte response experiment MA-032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    In a series of studies performed at intervals from 30 day before flight to 30 days after recovery, blood samples were obtained from the three astronauts of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and from eight control subjects. To determine the effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocytes, tests were performed on blood samples obtained as quickly as possible after splashdown and on the day following recovery. The astronauts' inhalation of propellant gases and the inception of corticosteroid therapy 1 day after recovery provided an additional opportunity to investigate the possible effects of these factors on leukocyte function. Data were obtained during each time period on the total leukocyte count, differential count, leukocyte adhesion, leukocyte migration and chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and histochemical staining for leukocyte acid and alkaline phosphatase. These observations present a variety of in vitro correlates to white blood cell function within the body. Taken together, they serve as a reasonable approximation of the effects of space flight on leukocyte function.

  15. Phagocytosis of bovine blood and milk polymorphonuclear leukocytes after ozone gas administration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ducusin, Rio John T; Nishimura, Masakazu; Sarashina, Takao; Uzuka, Yuji; Tanabe, Shigeyuki; Otani, Masayuki

    2003-04-01

    To determine the effects of ozone on the phagocytosis of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), ozone gas was administered in vitro on the blood and milk of healthy lactating cows, cows with acute mastitis, and cows with milk fever. In the blood of healthy dairy cattle, although there was no significant effect of ozone gas on the viability of the leukocytes, phagocytosis of PMNs significantly decreased. In contrast, ozone gas administration in vitro significantly increased phagocytosis of PMNs from the blood of cows with acute mastitis and milk fever, and from mastitic milk. These findings showed that ozone administration in vitro has positive and negative effects on bovine PMN phagocytosis, depending on the health status of the animal.

  16. Shigella flexneri is trapped in polymorphonuclear leukocyte vacuoles and efficiently killed.

    PubMed Central

    Mandic-Mulec, I; Weiss, J; Zychlinsky, A

    1997-01-01

    We examined the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) against an invasive wild-type strain of Shigella flexneri (M90T) and a plasmid-cured noninvasive derivative (BS176). Both Shigella strains, as well as a rough strain of Escherichia coli, were killed with similar efficiencies by intact inflammatory PMN in room air and under N2 (i.e., killing was O2 independent). Bacterial killing by PMN extracts was substantially inhibited by antibodies to the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI). Whereas wild-type Shigella escapes from the phagosome to the cytoplasm in epithelial cells and macrophages, wild-type Shigella was trapped in the phagolysosome of PMN as visualized by electron microscopy. The efficient killing of Shigella by PMN suggests that these inflammatory cells may not only contribute initially to the severe tissue damage characteristic of shigellosis but also ultimately participate in clearance and resolution of infection. PMID:8975899

  17. [Chemiluminescence of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes-luminol system in the presence of biogenic chloramines].

    PubMed

    Murina, M A; Belakina, N S; Roshchupkin, D I

    2004-01-01

    It was demonstrated that N-chlorphenylalanine and other chloramines strengthen sharply chemiluminescence in the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PML)-luminol system without special activation of cells. The intensity of chemiluminescence is higher than the intensity of luminol solution emission induced by N-chlorphenylalanine. But it was nearly equal to chemiluminescence intensity of a mixture of luminol, N-chlorphenylalanine and 20-30 nM H2O2. The increase in chemiluminescence in the PML-luminol system in the presence of N-chlorphenylalanine is not related to PML activation but is the result of direct oxidation of luminol by N-chlorphenylalanine. Chloramine derivatives of amino acids and taurine at final concentrations of 0.01-0.1 mM do not suppress luminol chemiluminescence in suspension of PML stimulated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. At the same time, hypochlorite inhibits sharply luminol emission induced by stimulated cells.

  18. Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

    1984-04-01

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

  19. Effect of Phenylbutazone on Phagocytosis and Intracellular Killing by Guinea Pig Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes1

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Robert R.; Paul, Benoy B.; Sbarra, Anthony J.

    1968-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone has been found to inhibit both engulfment and intracellular killing of E. coli by guinea pig peritoneal polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes. The bactericidal activity of leukocytic homogenates was also inhibited by the drug. Addition of the drug at various time intervals to a phagocytic reacting system caused an almost immediate cessation of bactericidal activity. Metabolic studies showed that the drug sharply curtailed glucose-l-14C and 14C-formate oxidation of both resting and phagocytizing PMN leukocytes. These data indicated an effect upon the hexose monophosphate shunt and H2O2 formation. Further investigation showed that the sites of inhibition were on glucose-6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. These inhibitions resulted in decreased H2O2 production. It is suggested that H2O2 activates lysosomes and subsequently complexes with the lysosomal enzyme, myeloperoxidase. This complex is a potent bactericidal agent in the phagocyte. PMID:4881700

  20. Effects of polymorphonuclear leucocyte depletion on the pathogenesis of experimental Legionnaires' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgeorge, R. B.; Featherstone, A. S.; Baskerville, A.

    1988-01-01

    Guinea-pigs were depleted of circulating polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) by administration of anti-polymorph serum. Groups of animals were then infected by aerosols containing different doses of Legionella pneumophila and the effects compared with those in intact infected controls. Elimination of PMN lowered the dose of L. pneumophila necessary to establish infection, increased bacterial numbers in the lungs and caused much higher mortality. It did not change the nature or extent of pulmonary lesions. The findings confirm the importance of PMN in defence of the lung against L. pneumophila infection and indicate that PMN and their enzymes are not responsible for the pulmonary lesions, which are probably caused directly by the bacteria. PMID:3348954

  1. Combination of stem cell factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilizes the highest number of primitive haemopoietic progenitors as shown by pre-colony-forming unit (pre-CFU) assay.

    PubMed

    Horsfall, M J; Hui, C H; To, L B; Begley, C G; Basser, R L; Simmons, P J

    2000-06-01

    Fifty-two patients with poor prognosis carcinoma of the breast underwent peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization using five different regimens. The yields of primitive haemopoietic progenitors were quantified by a recently described pre-colony-forming unit (pre-CFU) assay using limiting dilution analysis (LDA). Results of days 14 and 35 pre-CFU were also correlated with conventional CD34+ cell enumeration, CFU-GM (granulocyte-macrophage) and long-term culture-initiating cell (LTCIC) assays. The yield of pre-CFUs with the combination of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and stem cell factor (SCF) was significantly higher than with G-CSF alone, cyclophosphamide (Cyclo) and granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-3 and GM-CSF, or Cyclo alone. No significant correlation between neutrophil engraftment and pre-CFU could be demonstrated. Furthermore, CFU-GM was shown to bear a stronger correlation with pre-CFU and LTCIC than CD34+ cell measurement; thus, CFU-GM remains a useful biological tool for haemopoietic stem cell assay. We conclude that the combination of G-CSF and SCF mobilizes the highest number of pre-CFUs as measured by functional pre-CFU assay, which provides an alternative measurement of primitive haemopoietic progenitors to the LTCIC assay.

  2. G-CSF-Induced Suppressor IL-10+ Neutrophils Promote Regulatory T Cells That Inhibit Graft-Versus-Host Disease in a Long-Lasting and Specific Way.

    PubMed

    Perobelli, Suelen Martins; Mercadante, Ana Carolina Terra; Galvani, Rômulo Gonçalves; Gonçalves-Silva, Triciana; Alves, Ana Paula Gregório; Pereira-Neves, Antonio; Benchimol, Marlene; Nóbrega, Alberto; Bonomo, Adriana

    2016-11-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is the main complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and many efforts have been made to overcome this important limitation. We showed previously that G-CSF treatment generates low-density splenic granulocytes that inhibit experimental aGVHD. In this article, we show that aGVHD protection relies on incoming IL-10(+) neutrophils from G-CSF-treated donor spleen (G-Neutrophils). These G-Neutrophils have high phagocytic capacity, high peroxide production, low myeloperoxidase activity, and low cytoplasmic granule content, which accounts for their low density. Furthermore, they have low expression of MHC class II, costimulatory molecules, and low arginase1 expression. Also, they have low IFN-γ, IL-17F, IL-2, and IL-12 levels, with increased IL-10 production and NO synthase 2 expression. These features are in accordance with the modulatory capacity of G-Neutrophils on regulatory T cell (Treg) generation. In vivo, CD25(+) Treg depletion shortly after transplantation with splenic cells from G-CSF-treated donors blocks suppression of aGVHD, suggesting Treg involvement in the protection induced by the G-Neutrophils. The immunocompetence and specificity of the semiallogeneic T cells, long-term after the bone marrow transplant using G-Neutrophils, were confirmed by third-party skin graft rejection; importantly, a graft-versus-leukemia assay showed that T cell activity was maintained, and all of the leukemic cells were eliminated. We conclude that G-CSF treatment generates a population of activated and suppressive G-Neutrophils that reduces aGVHD in an IL-10- and Treg-dependent manner, while maintaining immunocompetence and the graft versus leukemia effect.

  3. Exacerbation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in ceramide synthase 6 knockout mice is associated with enhanced activation/migration of neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Max; Ebel, Philipp; Mayer, Christoph A; Barthelmes, Julia; Tafferner, Nadja; Ferreiros, Nerea; Ulshöfer, Thomas; Henke, Marina; Foerch, Christian; de Bazo, Anika Männer; Grösch, Sabine; Geisslinger, Gerd; Willecke, Klaus; Schiffmann, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    Ceramides are mediators of inflammatory processes. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), we observed that CerS6 mRNA expression was upregulated 15-fold in peripheral blood leukocytes before the onset of EAE symptoms. In peripheral blood leukocytes from MS patients, a 3.9-fold upregulation was found. Total genetic deletion of CerS6 and the selective deletion of CerS6 in peripheral blood leucocytes exacerbated the progression of clinical symptoms in EAE mice. This was associated with enhanced leukocyte, predominantly neutrophil infiltration and enhanced demyelination in the lumbar spinal cord of EAE mice. Interferon-gamma/tumor necrosis factor alpha (IFN-γ/TNF-α) and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) both drive EAE development and induce expression of the integrin CD11b and the chemokine receptor C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), and we found they also induce CerS6 expression. In vivo, the genetic deletion of CerS6 enhanced the activation/migration of neutrophils, as reflected by an enhanced upregulation of CD11b and CXCR2. In vitro, the genetic deletion of CerS6 enhanced the activation status of IFN-γ/TNF-α-stimulated neutrophils, as shown by increased expression of nitric oxide and CD11b and an increased adhesion capacity. In G-CSF-stimulated neutrophils, the migration status was enhanced, as reflected by an elevated level of CXCR2 and an increased migration capacity. These data suggest that CerS6/C16-Cer mediates feedback regulation by inhibiting the formation of CD11b and CXCR2, which are induced either by IFN-γ/TNF-α or by G-CSF, respectively. We conclude that CerS6/C16-Cer mediates anti-inflammatory effects during the development of EAE and MS possibly by suppressing the migration and deactivation of neutrophils.

  4. Ascites’ neutrophil function is significantly impaired in patients with decompensated cirrhosis but can be restored by autologous plasma incubation

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Cornelius; Becker, Christina; Boldt, Andreas; Herta, Toni; Boehlig, Albrecht; Splith, Katrin; Schmelzle, Moritz; Mueller, Niklas; Krohn, Sandra; Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael; Bartels, Michael; Sack, Ulrich; Berg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Systemic immune cell dysfunction is a typical feature of liver diseases and increases the risk of bacterial infection, especially spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. We evaluated functional properties of neutrophil granulocytes in blood and ascites of patients both with and without decompensated cirrhosis. We collected blood and ascites samples from 63 patients with cirrhosis and eight without cirrhosis. Phagocytosis activity (PA) and oxidative burst activity (OBA) were evaluated after ex vivo stimulation with E. coli, while fluorescence signals were measured by flow cytometry. Ascites’ neutrophil function tests were repeated after incubation with autologous plasma. Ascites’ neutrophils showed an impaired PA and OBA (median blood PA 98.1% (86.8–99.8) vs. ascites’ PA 50.5% (0.4–97.3), p < 0.0001; median blood OBA 98.7% (27.5–100) vs. ascites’ OBA 27.5% (0.3–96.7), p < 0.0001). Patients with non-cirrhotic ascites showed higher PA but equally suppressed OBA. Ascites’ neutrophil function could be partially restored after incubation with autologous plasma (median increase PA: 22.5% (−49.7 – +93.2), p = 0.002; OBA: 22.8% (−10.4 – +48.8), p = 0.002). Ascites’ neutrophils of patients with cirrhosis are functionally impaired, but could be partially restored after incubation with plasma. Further investigations are needed to identify the factors in ascites that are associated with neutrophils’ function. PMID:27917877

  5. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps and Microcrystals

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophil extracellular traps represent a fascinating mechanism by which PMNs entrap extracellular microbes. The primary purpose of this innate immune mechanism is thought to localize the infection at an early stage. Interestingly, the ability of different microcrystals to induce NET formation has been recently described. Microcrystals are insoluble crystals with a size of 1–100 micrometers that have different composition and shape. Microcrystals have it in common that they irritate phagocytes including PMNs and typically trigger an inflammatory response. This review is the first to summarize observations with regard to PMN activation and NET release induced by microcrystals. Gout-causing monosodium urate crystals, pseudogout-causing calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate crystals, cholesterol crystals associated with atherosclerosis, silicosis-causing silica crystals, and adjuvant alum crystals are discussed. PMID:28373994

  6. Phospholipase C Activity in Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes: Partial Characterization and Effect of Indomethacin

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    phospholipase C activity alone, and in the presence of 0.5 mM and I mM indomethacin, is plotted according to Lineweaver and Burke as described previously...The data were plotted according to the method of Lineweaver and Burke (26). The values represent the mean + S.E.M. of values derived from neutrophils of 4 subjects. 18

  7. Emperipolesis of neutrophils by dysmorphic megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Parmley, R T; Kim, T H; Austin, R L; Alvarado, C S; Ragab, A H

    1982-12-01

    Neutrophil engulfment by megakaryocytes was observed within 20 to 30% of megakaryocytes from two children: one with metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma, the other with fever of unknown origin. Other cell types and neutrophil precursors were not observed within megakaryocytes. Only late megakaryocytes were involved in the process, and often these cells appeared vacuolated or degenerating at the light and electron microscope level. Ultrastructurally the engulfed neutrophils were intact and were within the open canalicular system of the megakaryocyte cytoplasm. No evidence of neutrophil granule exocytosis could be demonstrated in ultrastructural morphologic and peroxidase preparations; however, many neutrophils appeared to be endocytosing portions of the megakaryocyte cytoplasm. The phenomenon could not be transferred to normal marrow incubated with patient serum or plasma. Thus, our patients differ from previous observations of emperipolesis in: 1) the extreme frequency of the observation; 2) the selective involvement of neutrophils; and 3) the association of the anomaly with dysmorphic and/or disrupted megakaryocytes. These observations are consistent with a neutrophil response to altered and/or injured megakaryocytes.

  8. Characterization of arginase expression by equine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lavoie-Lamoureux, Anouk; Martin, James G; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2014-02-15

    Neutrophils are the predominant cells recruited in the airways of horses suffering from heaves. These cells have been shown to express arginase in some species. The metabolism of l-arginine is thought to be involved in chronic inflammation, and airway obstruction and remodeling. The aim of this study was to assess the expression, regulation, activity, and functional role of arginase isoforms in equine neutrophils. Arginase I, arginase II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and ornithine aminotransferase (OAT) expression were assessed in resting and stimulated (IL-4, LPS/fMLP, PMA; 5 and 18 h) blood neutrophils using quantitative PCR. Arginase expression was also studied by Western blot and enzyme activity assay. The effect of nor-NOHA (1mM), a specific arginase inhibitor, was assessed on arginase activity in vitro and ex vivo on neutrophil's inflammatory gene expression and viability. Results showed that equine neutrophils constitutively express arginase isoform 2, ODC and OAT. Neutrophil ex vivo stimulation did not induce arginase I or influence arginase II mRNA expression. Ex vivo inhibition of arginase activity by nor-NOHA had no effect on neutrophils inflammatory gene expression induced by LPS/fMLP (5h) but significantly reversed the cell loss observed after this stimulation.

  9. Altitude-Dependent Prevalence of Canine Granulocytic Anaplasmosis in Romania.

    PubMed

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Corduneanu, Alexandra; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Lefkaditis, Menelaos; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis (CGA) is an important tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution. The importance of this disease resides in the ability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum to infect humans and several animal species. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence rate of CGA in different altitudinal areas of Romania. A total of 357 canine blood samples were collected during 2010-2013 from eight counties. To assess the influence of the altitude on A. phagocytophilum prevalence, the samples were collected from four different altitude areas (coastal 0-5 meters; lowland 6-100 meters; hilly areas 200-300 meters; low mountain areas >500 meters). These samples were evaluated for the presence of A. phagocytophilum DNA by amplifying part of the Ankyrin repeat protein (AnkA) gene. A higher prevalence was obtained for coastal compared with remaining areas, suggesting an influence of altitude on the CGA. Moreover, the results suggest an influence of climate and rainfall. In the present research work, we highlight the risk of granulocytic anaplasmosis in Central and Southern Romania, with a greater risk associated to Southern lowland region, especially in coastal areas. The importance of these results resides in the zoonotic potential of the canine A. phagocytophilum strains. In conclusion, the altitude and precipitation level may be risk factors for A. phagocytophilum infection in dogs and other hosts, including humans.

  10. Efficacy of a Novel Granulocyte Monocyte Apheresis Adsorber Device in the Treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Maria; Sartini, Alessandro; Critelli, Rosina; Bertani, Angela; Merighi, Alberto; Villa, Erica

    2016-12-01

    Granulocyte monocyte apheresis (GMA) is a non-pharmacological treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. In our study, we tested a novel GMA adsorber device in terms of clinical efficacy and safety in patients' non-response to pharmacological therapy. Secondary outcomes were the evaluation of adsorber's technical performance, the reduction of inflammatory markers and the improvement of patients' life quality. The prospective study included 18 patients enrolled from 2011 to 2012 with a monitoring of 48 weeks. All patients with Crohn's disease achieved a clinical remission after GMA treatments, sustained until the end of follow up, while 80% of ulcerative colitis patients obtained a clinical benefit, maintained after 48 weeks of monitoring. Leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and platelets, compared to erythrocytes and lymphocytes, were effectively removed from peripheral blood. There was no statistically significant result about serological markers of inflammation. A consistent improvement of the patients' quality of life was observed up to the end of follow up. No significant side-effects were recorded. Our study underlines the efficacy and the safety of this novel GMA adsorber device; a prospective randomized clinical trial with adequate sample size should be performed.

  11. Effects of a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, Neulasta, in mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Shuman, Anne L.; Diener, Antonia K.; Lin, Liyong; Mai, Wilfried; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts could be exposed to solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is comprised mostly of proton radiation. Proton radiation is also a treatment option for certain cancers. Both astronauts and clinical patients exposed to ionizing radiation are at risk for white blood cell (WBC) loss, which are the body’s main defense against infection. In this report, the effect of Neulasta treatment, a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, after proton radiation exposure is discussed. Mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy received 4 treatments of either Neulasta or saline injections. Peripheral blood cell counts and thromboelastography parameters were recorded up to 30 days post-irradiation. Neulasta significantly improved white blood cell (WBC), specifically neutrophil, loss in irradiated animals by approximately 60% three days after the first injection, compared to the saline treated irradiated animals. Blood cell counts quickly decreased after the last Neulasta injection, suggesting a transient effect on WBC stimulation. Statistically significant changes in hemostasis parameters were observed after proton radiation exposure in both the saline and Neulasta treated irradiated groups, as well internal organ complications such as pulmonary changes. In conclusion, Neulasta treatment temporarily alleviates proton radiation-induced WBC loss, but has no effect on altered hemostatic responses. PMID:25909052

  12. Effects of a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, Neulasta, in mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanzari, Jenine K.; Krigsfeld, Gabriel S.; Shuman, Anne L.; Diener, Antonia K.; Lin, Liyong; Mai, Wilfried; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2015-04-01

    Astronauts could be exposed to solar particle event (SPE) radiation, which is comprised mostly of proton radiation. Proton radiation is also a treatment option for certain cancers. Both astronauts and clinical patients exposed to ionizing radiation are at risk for loss of white blood cells (WBCs), which are the body's main defense against infection. In this report, the effect of Neulasta treatment, a granulocyte colony stimulating factor, after proton radiation exposure is discussed. Mini pigs exposed to total body proton irradiation at a dose of 2 Gy received 4 treatments of either Neulasta or saline injections. Peripheral blood cell counts and thromboelastography parameters were recorded up to 30 days post-irradiation. Neulasta significantly improved WBC loss, specifically neutrophils, in irradiated animals by approximately 60% three days after the first injection, compared to the saline treated, irradiated animals. Blood cell counts quickly decreased after the last Neulasta injection, suggesting a transient effect on WBC stimulation. Statistically significant changes in hemostasis parameters were observed after proton radiation exposure in both the saline and Neulasta treated irradiated groups, as well as internal organ complications such as pulmonary changes. In conclusion, Neulasta treatment temporarily alleviates proton radiation-induced WBC loss, but has no effect on altered hemostatic responses.

  13. Key role for neutrophils in radiation-induced antitumor immune responses: Potentiation with G-CSF

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Tsuguhide; Pop, Laurentiu M.; Laine, Aaron; Iyengar, Puneeth; Vitetta, Ellen S.; Hannan, Raquibul

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT), a major modality for treating localized tumors, can induce tumor regression outside the radiation field through an abscopal effect that is thought to involve the immune system. Our studies were designed to understand the early immunological effects of RT in the tumor microenvironment using several syngeneic mouse tumor models. We observed that RT induced sterile inflammation with a rapid and transient infiltration of CD11b+Gr-1high+ neutrophils into the tumors. RT-recruited tumor-associated neutrophils (RT-Ns) exhibited an increased production of reactive oxygen species and induced apoptosis of tumor cells. Tumor infiltration of RT-Ns resulted in sterile inflammation and, eventually, the activation of tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells, their recruitment into the tumor site, and tumor regression. Finally, the concurrent administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) enhanced RT-mediated antitumor activity by activating RT-Ns. Our results suggest that the combination of RT and G-CSF should be further evaluated in preclinical and clinical settings. PMID:27651484

  14. Neutrophilic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cord blood modulate innate and adaptive immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Rieber, N; Gille, C; Köstlin, N; Schäfer, I; Spring, B; Ost, M; Spieles, H; Kugel, H A; Pfeiffer, M; Heininger, V; Alkhaled, M; Hector, A; Mays, L; Kormann, M; Zundel, S; Fuchs, J; Handgretinger, R; Poets, C F; Hartl, D

    2013-01-01

    Neonates show an impaired anti-microbial host defence, but the underlying immune mechanisms are not understood fully. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent an innate immune cell subset characterized by their capacity to suppress T cell immunity. In this study we demonstrate that a distinct MDSC subset with a neutrophilic/granulocytic phenotype (Gr-MDSCs) is highly increased in cord blood compared to peripheral blood of children and adults. Functionally, cord blood isolated Gr-MDSCs suppressed T cell proliferation efficiently as well as T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 cytokine secretion. Beyond T cells, cord blood Gr-MDSCs controlled natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in a cell contact-dependent manner. These studies establish neutrophilic Gr-MDSCs as a novel immunosuppressive cell subset that controls innate (NK) and adaptive (T cell) immune responses in neonates. Increased MDSC activity in cord blood might serve as key fetomaternal immunosuppressive mechanism impairing neonatal host defence. Gr-MDSCs in cord blood might therefore represent a therapeutic target in neonatal infections. PMID:23701226

  15. Neutrophilic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cord blood modulate innate and adaptive immune responses.

    PubMed

    Rieber, N; Gille, C; Köstlin, N; Schäfer, I; Spring, B; Ost, M; Spieles, H; Kugel, H A; Pfeiffer, M; Heininger, V; Alkhaled, M; Hector, A; Mays, L; Kormann, M; Zundel, S; Fuchs, J; Handgretinger, R; Poets, C F; Hartl, D

    2013-10-01

    Neonates show an impaired anti-microbial host defence, but the underlying immune mechanisms are not understood fully. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) represent an innate immune cell subset characterized by their capacity to suppress T cell immunity. In this study we demonstrate that a distinct MDSC subset with a neutrophilic/granulocytic phenotype (Gr-MDSCs) is highly increased in cord blood compared to peripheral blood of children and adults. Functionally, cord blood isolated Gr-MDSCs suppressed T cell proliferation efficiently as well as T helper type 1 (Th1), Th2 and Th17 cytokine secretion. Beyond T cells, cord blood Gr-MDSCs controlled natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in a cell contact-dependent manner. These studies establish neutrophilic Gr-MDSCs as a novel immunosuppressive cell subset that controls innate (NK) and adaptive (T cell) immune responses in neonates. Increased MDSC activity in cord blood might serve as key fetomaternal immunosuppressive mechanism impairing neonatal host defence. Gr-MDSCs in cord blood might therefore represent a therapeutic target in neonatal infections.

  16. Neutrophil-Mediated Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    van Kessel, Kok P. M.; Bestebroer, Jovanka; van Strijp, Jos A. G.

    2014-01-01

    Initial elimination of invading Staphylococcus aureus from the body is mediated by professional phagocytes. The neutrophil is the major phagocyte of the innate immunity and plays a key role in the host defense against staphylococcal infections. Opsonization of the bacteria with immunoglobulins and complement factors enables efficient recognition by the neutrophil that subsequently leads to intracellular compartmentalization and killing. Here, we provide a review of the key processes evolved in neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis of S. aureus and briefly describe killing. As S. aureus is not helpless against the professional phagocytes, we will also highlight its immune evasion arsenal related to phagocytosis. PMID:25309547

  17. Platelet–neutrophil interactions under thromboinflammatory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Kim, Kyungho; Barazia, Andrew; Tseng, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Platelets primarily mediate hemostasis and thrombosis, whereas leukocytes are responsible for immune responses. Since platelets interact with leukocytes at the site of vascular injury, thrombosis and vascular inflammation are closely intertwined and occur consecutively. Recent studies using real-time imaging technology demonstrated that platelet–neutrophil interactions on the activated endothelium are an important determinant of microvascular occlusion during thromboinflammatory disease in which inflammation is coupled to thrombosis. Although the major receptors and counter receptors have been identified, it remains poorly understood how heterotypic platelet–neutrophil interactions are regulated under disease conditions. This review discusses our current understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of platelet– neutrophil interactions in thromboinflammatory disease. PMID:25650236

  18. Glycoengineered CD20 antibody obinutuzumab activates neutrophils and mediates phagocytosis through CD16B more efficiently than rituximab.

    PubMed

    Golay, Josée; Da Roit, Fabio; Bologna, Luca; Ferrara, Claudia; Leusen, Jeanette H; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Klein, Christian; Introna, Martino

    2013-11-14

    Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a glycoengineered type 2 CD20 antibody with enhanced CD16A-binding and natural killer-mediated cytotoxicity. CD16B is highly homologous to CD16A and a major FcγR on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). We show here that glycoengineered obinutuzumab or rituximab bound CD16B with approximately sevenfold higher affinity, compared with nonglycoengineered wild-type parental antibodies. Furthermore, glycoengineered obinutuzumab activated PMNs, either purified or in chronic lymphoblastic leukemia whole blood, more efficiently than wild-type rituximab. Activation resulted in a 50% increase in CD11b expression and 70% down-modulation of CD62L on neutrophils and in release of tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-6, and IL-8. Activation was not accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activity, but led to up to 47% phagocytosis of glycoengineered anti-CD20 opsonized chronic lymphoblastic leukemia targets by purified PMNs. Significant phagocytosis was observed in whole blood, but only in the presence of glycoengineered antibodies, and was followed by up to 50% PMN death. Finally we show, using anti-CD16B and anti-CD32A Fab and F(ab')2 fragments, that both of these receptors are involved in PMN activation, phagocytosis, and cell death induced by glycoengineered antibodies. We conclude that phagocytosis by PMNs is an additional mechanism of action of obinutuzumab mediated through its higher binding affinity for CD16B.

  19. E-selectin ligands as mechanosensitive receptors on neutrophils in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chase, S. D.; Magnani, J. L.; Simon, S. I.

    2012-01-01

    Application of mechanical force to bonds between selectins and their ligands is a requirement for these adhesion receptors to optimally perform functions that include leukocyte tethering and activation of stable adhesion. Although all three selectins are reported to signal from the outside-in subsequent to ligand binding, E-selectin is unique in its capacity to bind multiple sialyl Lewisx presenting ligands and mediate slow rolling on the order of a micron per second. A diverse set of ligands are recognized by E-selectin in the mouse, including ESL-1, CD44, and PSGL-1 which are critical in transition from slow rolling to arrest and for efficient transendothelial migration. The molecular recognition process is different in humans as L-selectin is a major ligand, which along with glycolipids constitute more than half of the E-selectin receptors on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). In addition, E-selectin is most efficient at raising the affinity and avidity of CD18 integrins that supports PMN deceleration and trafficking to sites of acute inflammation. The mechanism is only partially understood but known to involve a rise in cytosolic calcium and tyrosine phosphorylation that activates p38 MAP kinase and Syk kinase, both of which transduce signals from clustered E-selectin ligands. In this review we highlight the molecular recognition and mechanical requirements of this process to reveal how E-selectin confers selectivity and efficiency of signaling for extravasation at sites of inflammation and the mechanism of action of a new glycomimetic antagonist targeted to the lectin domain that has shown efficacy in blocking neutrophil activation and adhesion on inflamed endothelium. PMID:22271244

  20. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine selectively inhibits interleukin 8 (IL-8)-induced neutrophil chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Capannolo, Marta; Fasciani, Irene; Romeo, Stefania; Aloisi, Gabriella; Rossi, Mario; Bellio, Pierangelo; Celenza, Giuseppe; Cinque, Benedetta; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Scarselli, Marco; Maggio, Roberto

    2015-03-01

    Clozapine is the most effective antipsychotic to date, but its benefits are counterbalanced by the risk of severe hematological effects. In this study, we analyzed whether clozapine inhibits polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte chemotaxis. We found that clozapine, within the therapeutic concentration range, potently and selectively inhibits PMN chemotaxis induced by interleukin 8 (IL-8), a chemokine inducing neutrophil migration. The effect was not due to its action at dopamine, serotonin and muscarinic receptors, or to a direct antagonism to IL-8 receptors. Furthermore, clozapine did not inhibit PMN chemotaxis by its presumed toxic mechanism. In fact, after an overnight incubation in cell culture, the drug did not increase the physiological PMN apoptosis. An interference of clozapine with the autocrine release of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), a secondary chemoattractant secreted by neutrophils in response to the primary chemoattractant IL-8, was hypothesized. In agreement with this hypothesis, clozapine attenuated the IL-8-induced release of LTB4 in PMNs. A series of experiments with an antagonist of the LTB4 receptor, U75302, and an inhibitor of LTB4 synthesis, zileuton, provided support to this conjecture. Intriguingly MK-571, an inhibitor of the multi-drug resistance protein MRP4, playing a pivotal role in effluxing LTB4, completely blocked PMN chemotaxis induced by IL-8, but gave conflicting results when tested for its ability to reduce LTB4 release, increasing LTB4 efflux by itself but reducing the release when in combination with IL-8. The reduction of PMN chemotaxis due to clozapine could predispose patients to infections. Whether this effect is a prelude to clozapine agranulocytosis requires further investigation.

  1. Multiple organ damage caused by tumor necrosis factor and prevented by prior neutrophil depletion.

    PubMed

    Mallick, A A; Ishizaka, A; Stephens, K E; Hatherill, J R; Tazelaar, H D; Raffin, T A

    1989-05-01

    The effect of TNF on nonpulmonary multiple organ damage (MOD) was studied. Since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are thought to play an important role in septic or TNF-induced MOD, we investigated both neutrophil sufficient (PMN+) and neutropenic (PMN-) guinea pigs. Sepsis was induced by Escherichia coli administration (2 x 10(9)/kg) or recombinant human TNF (1.4 x 10(6) U/kg) was infused into PMN+ and PMN- guinea pigs. During necropsy, the PMN+/TNF and PMN+/E coli animals exhibited marked damage in the adrenal glands, kidneys and liver as evidenced by hemorrhage, congestion, and PMN sequestration on histopathologic examination. There was also increased tissue albumin accumulation in the adrenal glands, kidneys, spleen, heart, and liver as demonstrated by 125I-labeled albumin determinations. In contrast, the PMN-/TNF group did not reveal histopathologic damage in any organ system and there was no abnormal organ accumulation of 125I-albumin. However, in PMN-/E coli animals, marked histopathologic damage in the adrenal glands and liver was evident. Furthermore, there were marked accumulations of 125I-albumin in the adrenals, heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen. Moreover, the PMN-/E coli guinea pigs had a much greater accumulation (p less than 0.01) of 125I-albumin in the kidneys than any other group including the PMN+/E coli group. Thus, nonpulmonary MOD in guinea pigs is caused by TNF administration and can be prevented by PMN depletion. However, while E coli administration also caused marked nonpulmonary MOD in neutrophil sufficient guinea pigs, equivalent or greater damage was produced in neutropenic animals. This suggests that while TNF-induced MOD may be primarily mediated by PMN, E coli-induced MOD seems to be mediated by more than PMN.

  2. Multiple organ damage caused by tumor necrosis factor and prevented by prior neutrophil depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Mallick, A.A.; Ishizaka, A.; Stephens, K.E.; Hatherill, J.R.; Tazelaar, H.D.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1989-05-01

    The effect of TNF on nonpulmonary multiple organ damage (MOD) was studied. Since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are thought to play an important role in septic or TNF-induced MOD, we investigated both neutrophil sufficient (PMN+) and neutropenic (PMN-) guinea pigs. Sepsis was induced by Escherichia coli administration (2 x 10(9)/kg) or recombinant human TNF (1.4 x 10(6) U/kg) was infused into PMN+ and PMN- guinea pigs. During necropsy, the PMN+/TNF and PMN+/E coli animals exhibited marked damage in the adrenal glands, kidneys and liver as evidenced by hemorrhage, congestion, and PMN sequestration on histopathologic examination. There was also increased tissue albumin accumulation in the adrenal glands, kidneys, spleen, heart, and liver as demonstrated by {sup 125}I-labeled albumin determinations. In contrast, the PMN-/TNF group did not reveal histopathologic damage in any organ system and there was no abnormal organ accumulation of {sup 125}I-albumin. However, in PMN-/E coli animals, marked histopathologic damage in the adrenal glands and liver was evident. Furthermore, there were marked accumulations of {sup 125}I-albumin in the adrenals, heart, kidneys, liver, and spleen. Moreover, the PMN-/E coli guinea pigs had a much greater accumulation (p less than 0.01) of {sup 125}I-albumin in the kidneys than any other group including the PMN+/E coli group. Thus, nonpulmonary MOD in guinea pigs is caused by TNF administration and can be prevented by PMN depletion. However, while E coli administration also caused marked nonpulmonary MOD in neutrophil sufficient guinea pigs, equivalent or greater damage was produced in neutropenic animals. This suggests that while TNF-induced MOD may be primarily mediated by PMN, E coli-induced MOD seems to be mediated by more than PMN.

  3. Endothelin-1 downregulates sperm phagocytosis by neutrophils in vitro: A physiological implication in bovine oviduct immunity

    PubMed Central

    MAREY, Mohamed Ali; YOUSEF, Mohamed Samy; LIU, Jinghui; MORITA, Kazuhiro; SASAKI, Motoki; HAYAKAWA, Hiroyuki; SHIMIZU, Takashi; ELSHAHAWY, Ibrahim I.; MIYAMOTO, Akio

    2016-01-01

    The oviduct is an active contractile tube that provides the proper environment for sperm transport, capacitation and survival. Oviductal contractions are regulated by autocrine/paracrine secretion of several factors, such as prostaglandins (PGs) and endothelin-1 (EDN-1). We have previously shown that during the preovulatory stage, sperm are exposed to polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in the bovine oviduct, and the bovine oviduct epithelial cells (BOECs) secrete molecules including PGE2 that suppress sperm phagocytosis by PMNs in vitro. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of EDN-1 on the phagocytic activity of PMNs toward sperm. The local concentrations of EDN-1 in oviduct fluid and BOEC culture medium ranged from 10–10 to 10–11 M as determined by EIA. Phagocytosis and superoxide production were assayed by co-incubation of sperm pretreated to induce capacitation with PMNs exposed to EDN-1 (0, 10–11, 10–10, 10–9, and 10–8 M) for 2 h. EDN-1 suppressed dose dependently (10–11 to 10–8 M) the phagocytic activity for sperm and superoxide production of PMNs in response to capacitated sperm. Moreover, this suppression was eliminated by an ETB receptor antagonist (BQ-788). EDN-1 suppressed mRNA expression of EDN-1 and ETB but not ETA receptors in PMNs, suggesting the ETB receptor-mediated pathway. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that incubation of PMNs with EDN-1 (10–9 M) completely suppressed the formation of DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps for sperm entanglement. The results provide evidence indicating that EDN-1 may be involved in the protection of sperm from phagocytosis by PMNs in the bovine oviduct, supporting sperm survival until fertilization. PMID:26781611

  4. Moesin regulates neutrophil rolling velocity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masanori; Hirata, Takako

    2016-01-01

    During inflammation, the selectin-induced slow rolling of neutrophils on venules cooperates with chemokine signaling to mediate neutrophil recruitment into tissues. Previous studies identified P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and CD44 as E-selectin ligands that activate integrins to induce slow rolling. We show here that in TNF-α-treated cremaster muscle venules, slow leukocyte rolling was impaired in mice deficient in moesin, a member of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) family. Accordingly, neutrophil recruitment in a peritonitis model was decreased in moesin-deficient mice when chemokine signaling was blocked with pertussis toxin. These results suggest that moesin contributes to the slow rolling and subsequent recruitment of neutrophils during inflammation.

  5. Neutrophil extracellular traps in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Cools-Lartigue, Jonathan; Spicer, Jonathan; Najmeh, Sara; Ferri, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    Neutrophils are being increasingly recognized as an important element in tumor progression. They have been shown to exert important effects at nearly every stage of tumor progression with a number of studies demonstrating that their presence is critical to tumor development. Novel aspects of neutrophil biology have recently been elucidated and its contribution to tumorigenesis is only beginning to be appreciated. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are neutrophil-derived structures composed of DNA decorated with antimicrobial peptides. They have been shown to trap and kill microorganisms, playing a critical role in host defense. However, their contribution to tumor development and metastasis has recently been demonstrated in a number of studies highlighting NETs as a potentially important therapeutic target. Here, studies implicating NETs as facilitators of tumor progression and metastasis are reviewed. In addition, potential mechanisms by which NETs may exert these effects are explored. Finally, the ability to target NETs therapeutically in human neoplastic disease is highlighted.

  6. Neutrophil function in pregnancy and rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, I; Baker, P; Fletcher, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Pregnancy exerts suppressive effects on rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An attenuation in neutrophil function in late pregnancy which may explain this amelioration has previously been reported.
OBJECTIVE—A longitudinal investigation of neutrophil activity in healthy pregnant women (n=9) and pregnant patients with RA (n=9), compared with age matched non-pregnant patients with RA (n=12) and healthy controls (n=22).
METHODS—Neutrophil activation was measured in response to the physiological receptor agonists, n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and zymosan activated serum (ZAS). Superoxide anion production (respiratory burst) was determined by lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence (LUCL); secondary granule lactoferrin release by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and CD11b, CD18, and CD62L expression by flow cytometric analysis.
RESULTS—Stimulated neutrophil LUCL was significantly reduced in both pregnant women with RA and healthy pregnant women in the second (fMLP 43% and 69%, ZAS 43% and 59%, respectively) and third trimesters (fMLP 24% and 44%, ZAS 32% and 38%, respectively). Responses returned to normal within eight weeks of delivery and unstimulated levels remained unchanged throughout pregnancy. Basal and stimulated CD11b, CD18, and CD62L expression showed no variations throughout gestation for both pregnancy groups. Likewise, stimulated lactoferrin release and plasma lactoferrin remained unchanged. Certain morphological differences in RA neutrophils were highlighted by the flow cytometric analysis. Moreover, resting neutrophils and stimulated cells from patients with RA, including pregnant subjects, showed a marked increase in LUCL, but a reduction in CD11b, CD18, and CD62L. Low dose prednisolone and methylprednisolone had no effect on neutrophil parameters over the period of treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
CONCLUSION—The attenuation to neutrophil respiratory burst in both healthy and RA

  7. Photothermal image cytometry of human neutrophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapotko, Dmitry

    2001-07-01

    Photothermal imaging, when being applied to the study of living cells, provides morpho-functional information about the cell populations. In technical terms, the method is complementary to optical microscopy. The photothermal method was used for cell imaging and quantitative studies. Preliminary results of the studies on living human neutrophils are presented. Differences between normal and pathological neutrophil populations from blood of healthy donors and patients with saracoidosis and pleuritis are demonstrated.

  8. Identification of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) in the peripheral blood of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Olivia; Spina, Cecilia; Mimiola, Elda; Cassaro, Adriana; Malerba, Giovanni; Todeschini, Giuseppe; Perbellini, Omar; Scupoli, Maria; Carli, Giuseppe; Facchinelli, Davide; Cassatella, Marco; Scapini, Patrizia; Tecchio, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Human granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) have been described as low-density immunosuppressive CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR-granulocytes that co-purify with mononuclear cells after density gradient centrifugation of blood from cancer patients. The role of G-MDSCs in Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) remains unclear. The percentage and immunophenotype of CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR-cells were analyzed in PBMCs from HL and B-cell NHL patients (n = 124) and healthy donors (n = 48). The immunosuppressive functions of these cells were tested in vitro. Correlations between CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR-cells and patient clinicopathological features and outcome, were evaluated. CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR-cells were increased in PBMCs from HL and B-cell NHL patients as compared to healthy donors: 2.18 (0.02–70.92) vs 0.42 (0.04–2.97), p < 0.0001. Their percentage remained significantly higher even considering HL (n = 31), indolent (n = 31) and aggressive (n = 62) B-cell NHL patients separately: 1.54 (0.28–26.34), 2.15 (0.02–20.08), and 2.96 (0.25–70.92), respectively, p < 0.0001. CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR-cells in patient PBMCs were mostly composed of mature CD11b+CD16+ low-density neutrophils in an activated status, as revealed by their higher CD11b and CD66b expression as compared to conventionally isolated (normal-density) autologous or healthy donor neutrophils. The in vitro depletion of CD66b+ cells from patient PBMCs restored the proliferation of autologous T cells. Higher frequencies of CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR− G-MDSCs correlated significantly with unfavorable prognostic index scores and a shorter freedom from disease progression. PBMCs from HL and B-cell NHL patients contain a population of CD66b+CD33dimHLA-DR− G-MDSCs, mostly composed of activated low-density neutrophils with immunosuppressive properties. These findings disclose a previously unknown G-MDSC-mediated mechanism of immune-escape in lymphomas, therefore anticipating possible targets for therapeutic

  9. Stability analysis of micropipette aspiration of neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Derganc, J; Bozic, B; Svetina, S; Zeks, B

    2000-01-01

    During micropipette aspiration, neutrophil leukocytes exhibit a liquid-drop behavior, i.e., if a neutrophil is aspirated by a pressure larger than a certain threshold pressure, it flows continuously into the pipette. The point of the largest aspiration pressure at which the neutrophil can still be held in a stable equilibrium is called the critical point of aspiration. Here, we present a theoretical analysis of the equilibrium behavior and stability of a neutrophil during micropipette aspiration with the aim to rigorously characterize the critical point. We take the energy minimization approach, in which the critical point is well defined as the point of the stability breakdown. We use the basic liquid-drop model of neutrophil rheology extended by considering also the neutrophil elastic area expansivity. Our analysis predicts that the behavior at large pipette radii or small elastic area expansivity is close to the one predicted by the basic liquid-drop model, where the critical point is attained slightly before the projection length reaches the pipette radius. The effect of elastic area expansivity is qualitatively different at smaller pipette radii, where our analysis predicts that the critical point is attained at the projection lengths that may significantly exceed the pipette radius. PMID:10866944

  10. Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases Protect against Oxidative Stress in Staphylococcus aureus Encountering Exogenous Oxidants and Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yun Yun; Schwartz, Jamie; Bloomberg, Sarah; Boyd, Jeffrey M; Horswill, Alexander R.; Nauseef, William M.

    2013-01-01

    To establish infection successfully, S. aureus must evade clearance by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). We studied the expression and regulation of the methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msr) that are involved in the repair of oxidized staphylococcal proteins and investigated their influence over the fate of S. aureus exposed to oxidants or PMN. We evaluated a mutant deficient in msrA1 and msrB for susceptibility to hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid and PMN. The expression of msrA1 in wild-type bacteria ingested by human PMN was assessed by real-time PCR. The regulation of msr was studied by screening a library of two-component regulatory system (TCS) mutants for altered msr responses. Relative to the wild-type, bacteria deficient in Msr were more susceptible to oxidants and to PMN. Upregulation of staphylococcal msrA1 occurred within the phagosomes of normal PMN and PMN deficient in NADPH oxidase activity. Furthermore, PMN granule-rich extract stimulated the upregulation of msrA1. Modulation of msrA1 within PMN was shown to be partly dependent on the VraSR TCS. Msr contributes to staphylococcal responses to oxidative attack and PMN. Our study highlights a novel interaction between the oxidative protein repair pathway and the VraSR TCS that is involved in cell wall homeostasis. PMID:24247266

  11. Oxidative burst and neutrophil elastase contribute to clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia in mice.

    PubMed

    Prüfer, Steve; Weber, Michael; Stein, Pamela; Bosmann, Markus; Stassen, Michael; Kreft, Andreas; Schild, Hansjörg; Radsak, Markus P

    2014-02-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are important for the control of invasive aspergillosis (IA), a major threat to immunocompromised individuals. For clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus infections, PMN employ their potent oxidative and non-oxidative mechanisms. To clarify the relative contribution of these mechanisms, we analyzed p47(phox-/-), gp91(phox-/-) and elastase (ELA) deficient mice (ELANE) after intratracheal infection with A. fumigatus. Infected p47(phox-/-) and gp91(phox-/-) mice died within 4 days and had a significant higher fungal burden in the lungs compared to wild-type controls. Interestingly, the survival of ELANE mice after infection was unimpaired suggesting that ELA is not essential here. Nevertheless, A. fumigatus clearance was delayed in ELANE mice indicating a partial contribution of ELA to fungal immunity. Comparing p47(phox-/-), gp91(phox-/-) or ELANE mice for PMN activation and recruitment to the lungs, we were unable to detect significant differences in vitro or in vivo among mutant or wild-type strains suggesting intact PMN functionality of basic effector mechanisms. Fungal killing in vitro by ELA deficient PMN was comparably reduced as in p47(phox-/-) and gp91(phox-/-) deficient PMN corroborating the importance of oxidative and non-oxidative PMN mechanisms for the control of fungal outgrowth. Taken together, this suggests that intact oxidative as well as non-oxidative PMN effector functions are highly relevant for the control of A. fumigatus infections in vitro and in vivo. While ELA contributes to clearance of A. fumigatus, the oxidative functions are essential for survival.

  12. Neutrophil Interactions with Epithelial Expressed ICAM-1 Enhances Intestinal Mucosal Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Sumagin, R; Brazil, JC; Nava, P; Nishio, H; Alam, A; Luissint, AC; Weber, DA; Neish, AS; Nusrat, A; Parkos, CA

    2015-01-01

    A characteristic feature of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) transepithelial migration (TEM) and accumulation in the gut lumen. PMN accumulation within the intestinal mucosa contributes to tissue injury. While epithelial infiltration by large numbers of PMNs results in mucosal injury, we found that PMN interactions with luminal epithelial membrane receptors may also play a role in wound healing. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a PMN ligand that is upregulated on apical surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. In our study, increased expression of ICAM-1 resulted in enhanced PMN binding to the apical epithelium, which was associated with reduced PMN apoptosis. Following TEM, PMN adhesion to ICAM-1 resulted in activation of Akt and β-catenin signaling, increased epithelial-cell proliferation, and wound healing. Such responses were ICAM-1 dependent as engagement of epithelial ICAM-1 by antibody-mediated cross-linking yielded similar results. Furthermore, using an in-vivo biopsy-based, colonic-mucosal-injury model, we demonstrated epithelial ICAM-1 plays an important role in activation of epithelial Akt and β-catenin signaling and wound healing. These findings suggest that post-migrated PMNs within the intestinal lumen can regulate epithelial homeostasis, thereby identifying ICAM-1 as a potential therapeutic target for promoting mucosal wound healing. PMID:26732677

  13. Neutrophil interactions with epithelial-expressed ICAM-1 enhances intestinal mucosal wound healing.

    PubMed

    Sumagin, R; Brazil, J C; Nava, P; Nishio, H; Alam, A; Luissint, A C; Weber, D A; Neish, A S; Nusrat, A; Parkos, C A

    2016-09-01

    A characteristic feature of gastrointestinal tract inflammatory disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, is polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) transepithelial migration (TEM) and accumulation in the gut lumen. PMN accumulation within the intestinal mucosa contributes to tissue injury. Although epithelial infiltration by large numbers of PMNs results in mucosal injury, we found that PMN interactions with luminal epithelial membrane receptors may also play a role in wound healing. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a PMN ligand that is upregulated on apical surfaces of intestinal epithelial cells under inflammatory conditions. In our study, increased expression of ICAM-1 resulted in enhanced PMN binding to the apical epithelium, which was associated with reduced PMN apoptosis. Following TEM, PMN adhesion to ICAM-1 resulted in activation of Akt and β-catenin signaling, increased epithelial-cell proliferation, and wound healing. Such responses were ICAM-1 dependent as engagement of epithelial ICAM-1 by antibody-mediated cross-linking yielded similar results. Furthermore, using an in-vivo biopsy-based, colonic-mucosal-injury model, we demonstrated epithelial ICAM-1 has an important role in activation of epithelial Akt and β-catenin signaling and wound healing. These findings suggest that post-migrated PMNs within the intestinal lumen can regulate epithelial homeostasis, thereby identifying ICAM-1 as a potential therapeutic target for promoting mucosal wound healing.

  14. Neisseria gonorrhoeae Elicits Extracellular Traps in Primary Neutrophil Culture While Suppressing the Oxidative Burst

    PubMed Central

    Gunderson, Carl W.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Neisseria gonorrhoeae (the gonococcus) causes gonorrhea and is uniquely adapted to survive within the human reproductive tract. Gonococci evade host immune surveillance in part by varying their pili and opacity-associated proteins. These variable surface antigens influence interactions with host epithelial and immune cells. A potent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) response is a hallmark of symptomatic gonococcal infection, with vast numbers of PMNs recruited to the site of infection. A large body of literature describes gonococcus-PMN interactions, but the factors driving the outcome of infection are not fully understood. Gonococci have been described to both induce and suppress the PMN oxidative burst, but we determined that gonococci differentially affect induction of the PMN oxidative burst depending on the multiplicity of infection (MOI). Infecting PMN at an MOI of <20 gonococci elicits an oxidative burst, while an MOI of >20 suppresses the burst. Oxidative burst in response to gonococci is enhanced by, but does not require, expression of pili or opacity proteins. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were observed in gonococcus-infected PMNs, a process which requires an oxidative burst, yet gonococci induced NETs under suppressing conditions. The NETs were unable to kill gonococci despite killing the common vaginal bacterium Lactobacillus crispatus. Thus, gonococci influence PMN biology to promote their own survival by suppressing the oxidative burst of PMNs and stimulating the formation of NETs, which do not effectively kill gonococci, illustrating how N. gonorrhoeae has evolved to modulate PMN responses to promote infection. PMID:25670773

  15. Neutrophil adhesion and crawling dynamics on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells under shear flow.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao; Li, Ning; Du, Yu; Tong, Chunfang; Lü, Shouqin; Hu, Jinrong; Zhang, Yan; Long, Mian

    2017-02-01

    Neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte, PMN) recruitment in the liver sinusoid takes place in almost all liver diseases and contributes to pathogen clearance or tissue damage. While PMN rolling unlikely appears in liver sinusoids and Mac-1 or CD44 is assumed to play respective roles during in vivo local or systematic inflammatory stimulation, the regulating mechanisms of PMN adhesion and crawling dynamics are still unclear from those in vivo studies. Here we developed a two-dimensional in vitro sinusoidal model with primary liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and Kupffer cells (KCs) to investigate TNF-α-induced PMN recruitment under shear flow. Our data demonstrated that LFA-1 dominates the static or shear resistant adhesion of PMNs while Mac-1 decelerates PMN crawling on LSEC monolayer. Any one of LFA-1, Mac-1, and CD44 molecules is not able to work effectively for mediating PMN transmigration across LSEC monolayer. The presence of KCs only affects the randomness of PMN crawling. These findings further the understandings of PMN recruitment under shear flow in liver sinusoids.

  16. Neutrophils Exert a Suppressive Effect on Th1 Responses to Intracellular Pathogen Brucella abortus

    PubMed Central

    Ordoñez-Rueda, Diana; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Lepidi, Hubert; Malissen, Bernard; Malissen, Marie; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In addition to their role in innate immunity, PMNs may also regulate events related to adaptive immunity. To investigate the influence of PMNs in the immune response during chronic bacterial infections, we explored the course of brucellosis in antibody PMN-depleted C57BL/6 mice and in neutropenic mutant Genista mouse model. We demonstrate that at later times of infection, Brucella abortus is killed more efficiently in the absence of PMNs than in their presence. The higher bacterial removal was concomitant to the: i) comparatively reduced spleen swelling; ii) augmented infiltration of epithelioid histiocytes corresponding to macrophages/dendritic cells (DCs); iii) higher recruitment of monocytes and monocyte/DCs phenotype; iv) significant activation of B and T lymphocytes, and v) increased levels of INF-γ and negligible levels of IL4 indicating a balance of Th1 over Th2 response. These results reveal that PMNs have an unexpected influence in dampening the immune response against intracellular Brucella infection and strengthen the notion that PMNs actively participate in regulatory circuits shaping both innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:23458832

  17. Inhibitory effect of eight simple coumarins on the lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence of rabbit neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Kabeya, Luciana M; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Azzolini, Ana E C S; Soriani, Frederico M; Lopes, João L C; Lucisano-Valim, Yara M

    2002-01-01

    The generation of superoxide anion (O2*-) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as HO*, HOCl, NO, 1O2 and H2O2, by stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes during phagocytosis is a major mechanism of host defense against invading microorganisms. However, large amounts of ROS are suggested to be responsible for many diseases. In this work we studied the inhibitory effect of eight simple coumarins on O2*- generation by rabbit neutrophil upon stimulation with opsonized zymosan, using lucigenin enhanced chemiluminescence assay. We observed that coumarins containing hydroxy or acetoxy substituents at position 7 of the benzopyrone ring were the most active ones (IC50 values ranging from 6.0 +/- 2.8 to 18.6 +/- 2.6 micromol/L). Substitution of these groups by allyloxy or metoxy groups decreased the activity and unsubstituted coumarin had no effect. Cell damage after exposure to 200 micromol/L of each compound was determined by measurement of the activity of the released cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase and by Trypan Blue dye exclusion test. None of the drugs affected significantly the cellular viability.

  18. Targeting of Neutrophil Lewis X Blocks Transepithelial Migration and Increases Phagocytosis and Degranulation.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Jennifer C; Sumagin, Ronen; Cummings, Richard D; Louis, Nancy A; Parkos, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are innate immune cells whose principal function is to migrate from the blood to sites of inflammation, where they exert crucial anti-infectious and immunomodulatory effects. However, dysregulated migration of PMNs into mucosal epithelial tissues is characteristic of chronic inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease. Carbohydrate-mediated binding interactions between PMN Lewis glycans and endothelial glycan-binding proteins are critical for initial migration of PMN out of the vasculature. However, the role of Lewis glycans during transepithelial migration (TEM) has not been well characterized. Herein, we show that antibody blockade of Lewis X (Le(x)) displayed as terminal glycan residues on the PMN surface blocks chemotaxis and TEM while enhancing PMN-adhesive interactions with intestinal epithelia. Unexpectedly, targeting of subterminal Le(x) residues within glycan chains had no effect on PMN migration or adhesive interactions. There was increased surface expression of Le(x) on PMN after TEM, and blockade of terminal Le(x) regulated post-migratory PMN functions, increasing PMN phagocytosis and the surface mobilization of azurophilic (CD63, myeloperoxidase, and neutrophil elastase) and specific (CD66b and lactoferrin) granule markers. These findings suggest that terminal Le(x) represents a potential target for regulating PMN trafficking and function in inflamed mucosa. Furthermore, given its abundant expression on migrating PMN, Le(x) may be a rational target for modulating inflammation in diseases where dysregulated PMN influx is associated with host tissue damage.

  19. In vitro model of intestinal crypt abscess. A novel neutrophil-derived secretagogue activity.

    PubMed Central

    Nash, S; Parkos, C; Nusrat, A; Delp, C; Madara, J L

    1991-01-01

    In order to model crypt abscesses, a histological finding which correlates with disease activity in intestinal inflammation, human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were layered onto monolayers of the human intestinal epithelial cell line T84, a crypt-like epithelium which is capable of Cl- secretion. Such PMN-epithelial interaction had no substantial effect on monolayer integrity or function. However, when PMN were stimulated by conditions including those present naturally in the human colonic lumen, monolayers responded with a bumetanide-sensitive short circuit current (Isc) indicative of Cl- secretion, the basis of secretory diarrhea. This Isc response was induced by a neutrophil-derived secretagogue (NDS), which was only active when applied to the luminal surface of monolayers and did not require PMN-epithelial contact. NDS activity is resistant to boiling, acid, and trypsin and passes a 500 nominal mol wt cutoff filter. NDS activity is not secondary to the respiratory burst products O2- or H2O2 and does not appear to be a myeloperoxidase product. We speculate NDS elicited Cl- secretion may contribute to the secretory diarrhea seen in patients with intestinal inflammation and crypt abscesses. PMID:2010557

  20. Suilysin Stimulates the Release of Heparin Binding Protein from Neutrophils and Increases Vascular Permeability in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaolong; Xie, Wenlong; Wu, Kai; Li, Ping; Ren, Zhiqiang; Li, Lin; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Chunmao; Zheng, Yuling; Lv, Qingyu; Jiang, Hua; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Most of the deaths that occurred during two large outbreaks of Streptococcus suis infections in 1998 and 2005 in China were caused by streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), which is characterized by increased vascular permeability. Heparin-binding protein (HBP) is thought to mediate the vascular leakage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed mechanism underlying the release of HBP and the vascular leakage induced by S. suis. Significantly higher serum levels of HBP were detected in Chinese patients with STSS than in patients with meningitis or healthy controls. Suilysin (SLY) is an exotoxin secreted by the highly virulent strain 05ZYH33, and it stimulated the release of HBP from the polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mediated vascular leakage in mice. The release of HBP induced by SLY was caused by a calcium influx-dependent degranulation. Analyses using a pharmacological approach revealed that the release of HBP induced by SLY was related to Toll-like receptor 4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. It was also dependent on a G protein-coupled seven-membrane spanning receptor. The results of this study provide new insights into the vascular leakage in STSS associated with non-Group A streptococci, which could lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for STSS associated with S. suis. PMID:27617009

  1. Endotoxin priming of neutrophils requires endocytosis and NADPH oxidase-dependent endosomal reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Fred S; Hook, Jessica S; Hilkin, Brieanna M; Huber, Jody N; Volk, A Paige Davis; Moreland, Jessica G

    2012-04-06

    NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critical for neutrophil (polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)) microbicidal function. Nox2 also plays a role in intracellular signaling, but the site of oxidase assembly is unknown. It has been proposed to occur on secondary granules. We previously demonstrated that intracellular NADPH oxidase-derived ROS production is required for endotoxin priming. We hypothesized that endotoxin drives Nox2 assembly on endosomes. Endotoxin induced ROS generation within an endosomal compartment as quantified by flow cytometry (dihydrorhodamine 123 and Oxyburst Green). Inhibition of endocytosis by the dynamin-II inhibitor Dynasore blocked endocytosis of dextran, intracellular generation of ROS, and priming of PMN by endotoxin. Confocal microscopy demonstrated a ROS-containing endosomal compartment that co-labeled with gp91(phox), p40(phox), p67(phox), and Rab5, but not with the secondary granule marker CD66b. To further characterize this compartment, PMNs were fractionated by nitrogen cavitation and differential centrifugation, followed by free flow electrophoresis. Specific subfractions made superoxide in the presence of NADPH by cell-free assay (cytochrome c). Subfraction content of membrane and cytosolic subunits of Nox2 correlated with ROS production. Following priming, there was a shift in the light membrane subfractions where ROS production was highest. CD66b was not mobilized from the secondary granule compartment. These data demonstrate a novel, nonphagosomal intracellular site for Nox2 assembly. This compartment is endocytic in origin and is required for PMN priming by endotoxin.

  2. Neutrophils exert a suppressive effect on Th1 responses to intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus.

    PubMed

    Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Martirosyan, Anna; Ordoñez-Rueda, Diana; Arce-Gorvel, Vilma; Alfaro-Alarcón, Alejandro; Lepidi, Hubert; Malissen, Bernard; Malissen, Marie; Gorvel, Jean-Pierre; Moreno, Edgardo

    2013-02-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In addition to their role in innate immunity, PMNs may also regulate events related to adaptive immunity. To investigate the influence of PMNs in the immune response during chronic bacterial infections, we explored the course of brucellosis in antibody PMN-depleted C57BL/6 mice and in neutropenic mutant Genista mouse model. We demonstrate that at later times of infection, Brucella abortus is killed more efficiently in the absence of PMNs than in their presence. The higher bacterial removal was concomitant to the: i) comparatively reduced spleen swelling; ii) augmented infiltration of epithelioid histiocytes corresponding to macrophages/dendritic cells (DCs); iii) higher recruitment of monocytes and monocyte/DCs phenotype; iv) significant activation of B and T lymphocytes, and v) increased levels of INF-γ and negligible levels of IL4 indicating a balance of Th1 over Th2 response. These results reveal that PMNs have an unexpected influence in dampening the immune response against intracellular Brucella infection and strengthen the notion that PMNs actively participate in regulatory circuits shaping both innate and adaptive immunity.

  3. Granulocytic Sarcoma Presenting as a Palpable Breast Lump

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes Vieira, Victor; Vo, Quoc Duy; Bouquet de la Jolinière, Jean; Khomsi, Fathi; Feki, Anis; Hoogewoud, Henri-Marcel

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 45-year-old woman who palpated a voluminous painless lump in the superior outer quadrant of her left breast. Her past medical history revealed an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated and considered in remission 1 month prior to this discovery. Imaging work-up by mammogram, US, and MRI showed multiples masses suspect of malignancy in both breasts. US-guided needle biopsy was performed in the palpable mass and in one of the multiple lesions located in the right breast. Histologic findings were compatible with a granulocytic sarcoma in both breasts, which was considered as a relapse of the AML treated a few months earlier. PMID:28168190

  4. Micron-scale positioning of features influences the rate of polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, J; Shen, H; Saltzman, W M

    2001-01-01

    Microfabrication technology was used to create regular arrays of micron-size holes (2 microm x 2 microm x 210 nm) on fused quartz and photosensitive polyimide surfaces. The patterned surfaces, which possessed a basic structural element of a three-dimensional (3-D) network (i.e., spatially separated mechanical edges), were used as a model system for studying the effect of substrate microgeometry on neutrophil migration. The edge-to-edge spacing between features was systematically varied from 6 microm to 14 microm with an increment of 2 microm. In addition, collagen was used to coat the patterned quartz surfaces in an attempt to change the adhesive properties of the surfaces. A radial flow detachment assay revealed that cell adhesion was the strongest on the quartz surface (approximately 50% cell attached), whereas it was relatively weaker on polyimide and collagen-coated quartz (approximately 25% cell attached). Cell adhesion to each substrate was not affected either by the presence of holes or by the spacing between holes. A direct visualization assay showed that neutrophil migration on each patterned surface could be characterized as a persistent random walk; the dependence of the random motility coefficient (mu) as a function of spacing was biphasic with the optimal spacing at approximately 10 microm on each substrate. The presence of evenly distributed holes at the optimal spacing of 10 microm enhanced mu by a factor of 2 on polyimide, a factor of 2.5 on collagen-coated quartz, and a factor of 10 on uncoated quartz. The biphasic dependence on the mechanical edges of neutrophil migration on 2-D patterned substrate was strikingly similar to that previously observed during neutrophil migration within 3-D networks, suggesting that microfabricated materials provide relevant models of 3-D structures with precisely defined physical characteristics. In addition, our results demonstrate that the microgeometry of a substrate, when considered separately from adhesion, can

  5. Separation of haemocyte subpopulations in shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis by immunomagnetic bead using monoclonal antibody against granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jing; Chang, Yanhong; Tang, Xiaoqian; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Zhan, Wenbin

    2017-01-01

    In our previous work, two monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) against granulocytes of shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) had been produced, in this paper, haemocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry (FCM) using the Mabs. Then immunomagnetic bead (IMB) method was applied for separation hyalinocytes and granulocytes using the Mabs. The separated hyalinocytes and granulocytes were analyzed by FCM, indirect immunofluorescence assay, Giemsa staining and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. The results showed the proportion of hyalinocytes in haemolymph of F. chinensis was 15.14 ± 1.22%, and that of granulocytes was 75.43 ± 2.31%. After two times separation by IMB, the purity rate of hyalinocytes and granulocytes was 96.27 ± 1.06% and 98.13 ± 0.86%, respectively. The hyalinocytes possessed 0.60-0.85 in nucleus/cytoplasm (N/C) ratio and had few granule in cytoplasm, whereas the separated granulocytes with N/C ratio of 0.12-0.36 and high electronic density of double membrane granules. The results reported the separation of haemocyte subpopulations using Mabs in shrimp for the first time, and the hyalinocytes and granulocytes isolated by IMB could be used for their differential protein analysis.

  6. Alloimmunization prevents the migration of transfused indium-111-labeled granulocytes to sites of infection

    SciTech Connect

    Dutcher, J.P.; Schiffer, C.A.; Johnston, G.S.; Papenburg, D.; Daly, P.A.; Aisner, J.; Wiernik, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    111In-labeled granulocytes were used to study the effects of histocompatibility factors on the migration of transfused granulocytes to infected sites. Fourteen alloimmunized and 20 nonalloimmunized patients received approximately 10(8) 111In-labeled granulocytes from ABO-compatible, non-HLA-matched donors, and scans were performed over known infected sites. All 14 alloimmunized patients had lymphocytotoxic antibody (LCTAb) and required HLA-matched platelet transfusions. Of the nonalloimmunized patients, 20/20 had positive scans at sites of infection. None of the 20 had LCTAb, 0/17 had a positive lymphocytotoxic crossmatch (LCTXM) with the donor, and 3/18 had a positive leukoagglutinin crossmatch (LAXM). Thus, histocompatibility testing was not found to be important in nonalloimmunized patients. In contrast, only 3/14 alloimmunized patients had positive scans at sites of infection (p . 0.00001 compared to nonalloimmunized patients). One of 3 had a positive LCTXM and 2/3 had a positive LAXM. Of the alloimmunized patients, 10/11 with negative scans had a positive LCTXM and 8/11 had a positive LAXM. Labeled granulocytes failed to reach sites of infection in 11/14 (78%) alloimmunized patients, demonstrating that histocompatibility factors can be of major importance in affecting the outcome of granulocyte transfusions. Granulocytes from random donors are unlikely to be effective in alloimmunized patients. The lack of an adequate crossmatching technique is a major problem limiting the ability to provide granulocyte transfusions for alloimmunized patients.

  7. Characterization of the Hemocytes in Larvae of Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis: Involvement of Granulocyte-Mediated Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Saeyoull

    2014-01-01

    Hemocytes are key players in the immune response against pathogens in insects. However, the hemocyte types and their functions in the white-spotted flower chafers, Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis (Kolbe), are not known. In this study, we used various microscopes, molecular probes, and flow cytometric analyses to characterize the hemocytes in P. brevitarsis seulensis. The circulating hemocytes were classified based on their size, morphology, and dye-staining properties into six types, including granulocytes, plasmatocytes, oenocytoids, spherulocytes, prohemocytes, and adipohemocytes. The percentages of circulating hemocyte types were as follows: 13% granulocytes, 20% plasmatocytes, 1% oenocytoids, 5% spherulocytes, 17% prohemocytes, and 44% adipohemocytes. Next, we identified the professional phagocytes, granulocytes, which mediate encapsulation and phagocytosis of pathogens. The granulocytes were immunologically or morphologically activated and phagocytosed potentially hazardous substances in vivo. In addition, we showed that the phagocytosis by granulocytes is associated with autophagy, and that the activation of autophagy could be an efficient way to eliminate pathogens in this system. We also observed a high accumulation of autophagic vacuoles in activated granulocytes, which altered their shape and led to autophagic cell death. Finally, the granulocytes underwent mitotic division thus maintaining their number in vivo. PMID:25083702

  8. Expression and function of the human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Jubinsky, P T; Laurie, A S; Nathan, D G; Yetz-Aldepe, J; Sieff, C A

    1994-12-15

    To determine the expression and function of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor alpha chain (GMR alpha) during hematopoiesis and on leukemic cells, monoclonal antibodies were raised by immunizing mice with cells expressing high levels of human GMR alpha. A pool of five antibodies isolated from three different mice was used to characterize GMR alpha. This antibody pool (anti-GMR alpha) immunoprecipitated a protein with the expected molecular weight of GMR alpha from COS cells transiently transfected with the GMR alpha gene. In factor-dependent cells, GMR alpha existed as a phosphoprotein. However, its phosphorylation was not stimulated by the presence of GM-CSF. Anti-GMR alpha inhibited the GM-CSF-dependent growth of cell lines and normal bone marrow cells and inhibited the binding of iodinated GM-CSF to its receptor. Cell surface expression of GMR alpha was examined using anti-GMR alpha and flow cytometry. GMR alpha was readily detectable on both blood monocytes and neutrophils. In adherence-depleted normal bone marrow, two separate populations expressed GMR alpha. The most positive cells were predominantly macrophages, whereas the cells that expressed less GMR alpha were largely myelocytes and metamyelocytes. A small population of lin-CD34+ or CD34+CD38- cells also expressed GMR alpha, but they were not capable of significant growth in colony-forming assays. In contrast, the majority of lin-CD34+ and CD34+CD38- cells were GMR alpha-, yet they produced large numbers of myeloid and erythroid colonies in the same assay. Malignant cells from patients with leukemia were also tested for GMR alpha expression. All of the myeloid leukemias and only rare lymphoid leukemias surveyed tested positive for GMR alpha. These results show that anti-GMR alpha is useful for the functional characterization of the GMR alpha and for the detection of myeloid leukemia and that GMR alpha is expressed on certain lineages throughout hematopoietic

  9. Fate of surface proteins of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes during phagocytosis. I. Identification of surface proteins

    PubMed Central

    1979-01-01

    To study the fate of external membrane proteins during phagocytosis, rabbit peritoneal neutrophils were labeled by enzymatic iodination. Iodine was incorporated into at least 13 proteins ranging in size from approximately 250,000 to 18,000 daltons as judged from autoradiography of gels after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of labeled cells. The major contractile proteins of neutrophils, actin and myosin, were not labeled when intact cells were iodinated but were labeled when homogenates of these cells were iodinated. Nine of the iodinated proteins were released by mild protease treatment of intact cells. A plasma membrane-rich fraction was isolated by density centrifugation. This fraction was enriched at least 10-fold for lactoperoxidase-labeled acid-insoluble proteins. It was enriched to the same extent for the presence of iodinated wheat germ agglutinin that had been bound to intact cells at 4 degrees C before homogenization. Analysis of SDS- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the proteins of this fraction were predominantly of high molecular weight. However, only 8 of the 13 proteins iodinated on intact cells were found in this fraction. The remaining five were enriched in a dense fraction containing nuclei, intact cells, and membranous vesicles, and may represent a specialized segment of the neutrophil cell surface. PMID:479301

  10. Effects of inhibitors of inflammatory mediators and cytokines on eosinophil and neutrophil accumulation induced by Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin in mouse pleurisy.

    PubMed

    Menezes-de-Lima-Júnior, O; Werneck-Barroso, E; Cordeiro, R S; Henriques, M G

    1997-12-01

    In this work we characterize the Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) -induced pleurisy and investigate the role of chemical mediators and cytokines in BCG-induced granulocyte accumulation at 24 h. Intrathoracic injection of BCG in C57B1/6 mice induces a biphasic inflammatory reaction with intense leukocyte accumulation at 24 h and 15 days. Neutrophils were observed in the pleural cavity at 4-24 h, mononuclear cells and eosinophils after 24 h. A new wave of mononuclear cells and neutrophils were observed after 15 days. Pretreatments with dexamethasone, BW 755C, BW A4C, WEB 2170, L-NAME, and monoclonal antibody (mAb) anti-interleukin-5 (IL-5; TRFK-5) had inhibited the eosinophil accumulation. On the other hand, only the pretreatments with dexamethasone, L-NAME, or mAb anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha; MP6-XT3) had inhibited the neutrophil influx. These results suggest the involvement of leukotrienes, platelet-activating factor, nitric oxide, and IL-5 in the eosinophil accumulation, and a role for nitric oxide and TNF-alpha in the neutrophil influx induced by BCG.

  11. Differences in leukocyte differentiation molecule abundances on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) neutrophils identified by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Highland, Margaret A; Schneider, David A; White, Stephen N; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Knowles, Donald P; Davis, William C

    2016-06-01

    Although both domestic sheep (DS) and bighorn sheep (BHS) are affected by similar respiratory bacterial pathogens, experimental and field data indicate BHS are more susceptible to pneumonia. Cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for use in flow cytometry (FC) are valuable reagents for interspecies comparative immune system analyses. This study describes cross-reactive mAbs that recognize leukocyte differentiation molecules (LDMs) and major histocompatibility complex antigens on DS and BHS leukocytes. Characterization of multichannel eosinophil autofluorescence in this study permitted cell-type specific gating of granulocytes for evaluating LDMs, specifically on neutrophils, by single-label FC. Evaluation of relative abundances of LDMs by flow cytometry revealed greater CD11a, CD11b, CD18 (β2 integrins) and CD 172a (SIRPα) on DS neutrophils and greater CD14 (lipopolysaccharide receptor) on BHS neutrophils. Greater CD25 (IL-2) was identified on BHS lymphocytes following Concavalin A stimulation. While DS and BHS have similar total peripheral blood leukocyte counts, BHS have proportionately more neutrophils.

  12. Inhibition of superoxide anion production in guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes by a seleno-organic compound, ebselen.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, S; Omura, K; Katayama, T; Okamura, N; Ohtsuka, T; Ishibashi, S; Masayasu, H

    1987-10-01

    Production of superoxide anion (O2-) induced by tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA) in intact guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) was markedly inhibited by a seleno-organic compound, 2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one (Ebselen), with glutathione peroxidase-like activity. The compound almost completely inhibited O2- production by a particulate fraction prepared from TPA-treated PMNL at a concentration as low as 250 nM.

  13. Neutrophil migration across a cultured epithelial monolayer elicits a biphasic resistance response representing sequential effects on transcellular and paracellular pathways

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes across epithelia is a hallmark of many inflammatory disease states. Neutrophils traverse epithelia by migrating through the paracellular space and crossing intercellular tight junctions. We have previously shown (Nash, S., J. Stafford, and J.L. Madara. 1987. J. Clin. Invest. 80:1104-1113), that leukocyte migration across T84 monolayers, a model human intestinal epithelium, results in enhanced tight junction permeability--an effect quantitated by the use of a simple, standard electrical assay of transepithelial resistance. Here we show that detailed time course studies of the transmigration-elicited decline in resistance has two components, one of which is unrelated to junctional permeability. The initial decrease in resistance, maximal 5-13 min after initiation of transmigration, occurs despite inhibition of transmigration by an antibody to the common beta subunit of neutrophil beta 2 integrins, and is paralleled by an increase in transepithelial short-circuit current. Chloride ion substitution and inhibitor studies indicate that the early- phase resistance decline is not attributable to an increase in tight junction permeability but is due to decreased resistance across epithelial cells resulting from chloride secretion. Since T84 cells are accepted models for studies of the regulation of Cl- and water secretion, our results suggest that neutrophil transmigration across mucosal surfaces (for example, respiratory and intestinal tracts) may initially activate flushing of the surface by salt and water. Equally important, these studies, by providing a concrete example of sequential transcellular and paracellular effects on transepithelial resistance, highlight the fact that this widely used assay cannot simply be viewed as a direct functional probe of tight junction permeability. PMID:1577855

  14. Group B Streptococcus Induces Neutrophil Recruitment to Gestational Tissues and Elaboration of Extracellular Traps and Nutritional Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kothary, Vishesh; Doster, Ryan S.; Rogers, Lisa M.; Kirk, Leslie A.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Romano-Keeler, Joann; Haley, Kathryn P.; Manning, Shannon D.; Aronoff, David M.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a gram-positive bacterial pathogen associated with infection during pregnancy and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Infection of the extraplacental membranes surrounding the developing fetus, a condition known as chorioamnionitis, is characterized histopathologically by profound infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs, neutrophils) and greatly increases the risk for preterm labor, stillbirth, or neonatal GBS infection. The advent of animal models of chorioamnionitis provides a powerful tool to study host-pathogen relationships in vivo and ex vivo. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the innate immune response elicited by GBS and evaluate how antimicrobial strategies elaborated by these innate immune cells affect bacteria. Our work using a mouse model of GBS ascending vaginal infection during pregnancy reveals that clinically isolated GBS has the capacity to invade reproductive tissues and elicit host immune responses including infiltration of PMNs within the choriodecidua and placenta during infection, mirroring the human condition. Upon interacting with GBS, murine neutrophils elaborate DNA-containing extracellular traps, which immobilize GBS and are studded with antimicrobial molecules including lactoferrin. Exposure of GBS to holo- or apo-forms of lactoferrin reveals that the iron-sequestration activity of lactoferrin represses GBS growth and viability in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data indicate that the mouse model of ascending infection is a useful tool to recapitulate human models of GBS infection during pregnancy. Furthermore, this work reveals that neutrophil extracellular traps ensnare GBS and repress bacterial growth via deposition of antimicrobial molecules, which drive nutritional immunity via metal sequestration strategies. PMID:28217556

  15. Recombinant gamma interferon causes