Science.gov

Sample records for polyolefin hazy film

  1. Transparent Polyolefin Film Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Routing is then accomplished with an 18,000 RPM hand held router using a 0.500 inch diameter, two flute carbide inlaid router bit. As long as the... router bit was kept sharp, there was no delarnination. 1" " I ROUTER COLLAR M" ,OLDED POLYOLEFIN _ 0,25 ACRYLIC 0,500 DIAM ETERROUTER BIT PRESSURE AREA...F-) LL- 0) 00 0-(N ) C0 co C cnc ) *(NJ 0) Cl C) 00. m) m -c 0) CC r~ )- 0~0 4-- C:. :3 (v 40 U) a) CL Lu CL E t,4- ’.) -x E E a) N~E -C0 0) 4- 0 C

  2. Porous Polyolefin Films via Polymer Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macosko, Chris

    Porous polymer films have broad application including battery separators, membrane supports and filters. Polyolefins are attractive for these applications because of their solvent resistance, low electrical and thermal conductivity, easy fabrication and cost. We will describe fabrication of porous films using cocontinuous blends of a polyolefin with another polymer which can be readily removed with a solvent. Methods to image and control the cocontinuous morphology will be presented.Bell, J. R., K. Chang, C. R. Lopez-Barron, C. W. Macosko, and D. C. Morse, ''Annealing of cocontinuous polymer blends: effect of block copolymer molecular weight and architecture,'' Macromolecules 43, 5024-5032 (2010).Lopez-Barron, C. R., and C. W. Macosko, ''Direct measurement of interface anisotropy of bicontinuous structures via 3D image analysis,'' Langmuir 26, 14284-14293 (2010).Trifkovic, M., A. T. Hedegaard, K. Huston, M. Sheikhzadeh, and C. W. Macosko, ''Porous films via PE/PEO cocontinuous blends,'' Macromolecules 45, 6036-6044 (2012).Hedegaard, A.T., L.L. Gu and C. W. Macosko, ``Effect of Extensional Viscosity on Cocontinuity of Immiscible Polymer Blends'' J. Rheol. 59, 1397-1417 (2015).

  3. Biodegradable lignin/polyolefin composite films

    SciTech Connect

    Kosikova, B.; Demjanova, V.; Mikulasova, M.; Lora, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    From the view point of environmental protection, the plastic wastes, especially from packing materials, represent a potential waste problem. Various approaches were examined to develop partially or completely biodegradable plastics. New type of partially biodegradable polyolefins was prepared by blending of polypropylene with lignin, which was recovered in the ALCELL process, an organosolv pulping process that uses ethanol-water as the delignifying agent. Films of blends with up to 10% wt ALCELL lignin, prepared in absence of commercial stabilizers, had acceptable mechanical strengths. The effect of lignin on biodegradability of the composite films was examined by comparison of behaviour of both pure and lignin containing films during treatment with fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium. It was found that this fungus is able to grow and to produce lignolytic enzymes in the presence of the films containing lignin. Biodegradation of lignin in the composite film was confirmed by the releasing of lignin fragments into the extracellular fluid. Because of measurement of mechanical properties offers a mean of direct estimation of polymer degradation, the degree of biodegradation of the films tested was followed by monitoring of elongation at break. The changes of break at elongation in the course of enzymatic treatment revealed that the lignin/PP composite films are potentially environmentally nonpersisting. The micrographs of the lignin containing films obtained by scanning electron microscopy show the significant changes of the film surface upon degradation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium in contrast to unchanged lignin free film.

  4. Nanocomposite fibers and film containing polyolefin and surface-modified carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Chu,Benjamin; Hsiao, Benjamin S.

    2010-01-26

    Methods for modifying carbon nanotubes with organic compounds are disclosed. The modified carbon nanotubes have enhanced compatibility with polyolefins. Nanocomposites of the organo-modified carbon nanotubes and polyolefins can be used to produce both fibers and films having enhanced mechanical and electrical properties, especially the elongation-to-break ratio and the toughness of the fibers and/or films.

  5. Extruded blend films of poly(vinyl alcohol) and polyolefins: common and hard-elastic nanostructure evolution in the polyolefin during straining as monitored by SAXS

    PubMed Central

    Stribeck, Norbert; Zeinolebadi, Ahmad; Fakirov, Stoyko; Bhattacharyya, Debes; Botta, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Straining of PVA/PE and PVA/PP blends (70:30) is monitored by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Sheet-extruded films with different predraw ratio are investigated. The discrete SAXS of predrawn samples originates from polyolefin nanofibrils inside of polyolefin microfibrils immersed in a PVA matrix. PE nanofibrils deform less than the macroscopic strain without volume change. PP nanofibrils experience macroscopic strain. They lengthen but their diameter does not decrease. This is explained by strain-induced crystallization of PP from an amorphous depletion shell around the core of the nanofibril. The undrawn PVA/PE film exhibits isotropic semicrystalline nanostructure. Undrawn PVA/PP holds PP droplets containing oriented stacks of semicrystalline PP like neat precursors of hard-elastic thermoplasts. Respective predrawn films are softer than the undrawn material, indicating conversion into the hard-elastic state. Embedding of the polyolefin significantly retards neck formation. The polyolefin microfibrils can easily be extracted from the water-soluble matrix. PMID:27877579

  6. Hazy Transparent Cellulose Nanopaper

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Koga, Hirotaka; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Nogi, Masaya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify light scattering mechanism of hazy transparent cellulose nanopaper. Clear optical transparent nanopaper consists of 3–15 nm wide cellulose nanofibers, which are obtained by the full nanofibrillation of pulp fibers. At the clear transparent nanopaper with 40 μm thickness, their total transmittance are 89.3–91.5% and haze values are 4.9–11.7%. When the pulp fibers are subjected to weak nanofibrillation, hazy transparent nanopapers are obtained. The hazy transparent nanopaper consists of cellulose nanofibers and some microsized cellulose fibers. At the hazy transparent nanopaper with 40 μm thickness, their total transmittance were constant at 88.6–92.1% but their haze value were 27.3–86.7%. Cellulose nanofibers are solid cylinders, whereas the pulp fibers are hollow cylinders. The hollow shape is retained in the microsized cellulose fibers, but they are compressed flat inside the nanopaper. This compressed cavity causes light scattering by the refractive index difference between air and cellulose. As a result, the nanopaper shows a hazy transparent appearance and exhibits a high thermal durability (295–305 °C), and low thermal expansion (8.5–10.6 ppm/K) because of their high density (1.29–1.55 g/cm3) and crystallinity (73–80%). PMID:28128326

  7. Hazy Transparent Cellulose Nanopaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ming-Chun; Koga, Hirotaka; Suganuma, Katsuaki; Nogi, Masaya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify light scattering mechanism of hazy transparent cellulose nanopaper. Clear optical transparent nanopaper consists of 3–15 nm wide cellulose nanofibers, which are obtained by the full nanofibrillation of pulp fibers. At the clear transparent nanopaper with 40 μm thickness, their total transmittance are 89.3–91.5% and haze values are 4.9–11.7%. When the pulp fibers are subjected to weak nanofibrillation, hazy transparent nanopapers are obtained. The hazy transparent nanopaper consists of cellulose nanofibers and some microsized cellulose fibers. At the hazy transparent nanopaper with 40 μm thickness, their total transmittance were constant at 88.6–92.1% but their haze value were 27.3–86.7%. Cellulose nanofibers are solid cylinders, whereas the pulp fibers are hollow cylinders. The hollow shape is retained in the microsized cellulose fibers, but they are compressed flat inside the nanopaper. This compressed cavity causes light scattering by the refractive index difference between air and cellulose. As a result, the nanopaper shows a hazy transparent appearance and exhibits a high thermal durability (295–305 °C), and low thermal expansion (8.5–10.6 ppm/K) because of their high density (1.29–1.55 g/cm3) and crystallinity (73–80%).

  8. Polyolefin-based aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Je Kyun (Inventor); Gould, Gerogle L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to cross-linked polyolefin aerogels in simple and fiber-reinforced composite form. Of particular interest are polybutadiene aerogels. Especially aerogels derived from polybutadienes functionalized with anhydrides, amines, hydroxyls, thiols, epoxies, isocyanates or combinations thereof.

  9. Polyolefin catalyst manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Inkrott, K.E.; Scinta, J.; Smith, P.D. )

    1989-10-16

    Statistical process control (SPC) procedures are absolutely essential for making new-generation polyolefin catalysts with the consistent high quality required by modern polyolefin processes. Stringent quality assurance is critical to the production of today's high-performance catalysts. Research and development efforts during the last 20 years have led to major technological improvements in the polyolefin industry. New generation catalysts, which once were laboratory curiosities, must now be produced commercially on a regular and consistent basis to meet the increasing requirements of the plastics manufacturing industry. To illustrate the more stringent requirements for producing the new generation polyolefin catalysts, the authors compare the relatively simple, first-generation polypropylene catalyst production requirements with some of the basic requirements of manufacturing a more complex new-generation catalyst, such as Catalyst Resources Inc.'s LYNX 900. The principles which hold true for the new-generation catalysts such as LYNX 900 are shown to apply equally to the scale-up of other advanced technology polyolefin catalysts.

  10. Hazy Archean Earth as an Analog for Hazy Earthlike Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arney, Giada; Meadows, Victoria; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Claire, Mark; Schwieterman, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Hazy exoplanets may be common (Bean et al. 2010, Sing et al. 2011, Kreidberg et al 2014), and in our solar system, Venus and Titan have photochemically-produced hazes. There is evidence that Earth itself had a hydrocarbon haze in the Archean (Zerkle et al. 2012, Domagal-Goldman et al. 2008) with important climatic effects (Pavlov et al. 2001, Trainer et al. 2006, Haqq-Misra et al. 2008, Wolf and Toon 2012). We use a 1D coupled photochemical-climate model and a line-by-line radiative transfer model to investigate the climactic and spectral impacts of a fractal hydrocarbon haze on Archean Earth. The haze absorbs significantly at shorter wavelengths and can strongly suppress the Rayleigh scattering tail, a broadband effect that would be remotely detectable at low spectral resolution at wavelengths less than 0.5 μm. Hazes may have a more significant impact on transit transmission spectra. Using the transit transmission radiative transfer model developed by Misra et al. (2014) to generate hazy Archean spectra, we find that even a thin hydrocarbon haze masks the lower atmosphere from the visible into the near infrared where the haze optical depth exceeds unity. The transit transmission spectra we generate for hazy Archean Earth are steeply sloped like the Titan solar occultation spectrum observed by Robinson et al. (2014). Thick hazes can also cool the planet significantly: for example, the thick fractal haze generated around Archean Earth with 0.3% CH4, 1% CO2 and 1 ppm C2H6 cools the planet from roughly 290 K without the haze to below freezing with the haze. Finally, we investigate the impact of host star spectral type on haze formation, comparing the hazes generated around a solar-type star to those generated at an Earth analog planet around the M dwarf AD Leo. Our results indicate hazes around M dwarfs for the same initial atmospheric composition may be thinner due to decreased UV photolysis of methane and other hydrocarbons needed for haze formation. Earthlike

  11. Polyolefin composites containing a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1991-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyolefin matrix having a phase change material such as a crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein, said polyolefin being thermally form stable; the composite is useful in forming pellets, sheets or fibers having thermal energy storage characteristics; methods for forming the composite are also disclosed.

  12. A Hazy Day in Mexico City

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of 2200 meters, and is surrounded on three sides by mountains and snow-capped volcanoes. Since incident solar radiation does not vary significantly with season at tropical latitudes, photochemical smog is produced much of the year. In winter, air quality can worsen significantly when thermal inversions keep polluted air masses close to the surface.

    Atmospheric particulates (aerosols) are readily visible at oblique view angles, and differences in aerosol amount on two days are indicated by these images of central Mexico from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). The images at left and center are natural color views acquired by MISR's 70-degree forward-viewing camera on April 9 and December 5, 2001, respectively. Mexico City can be identified in the center panel by the large area of haze accumulation above image center. Two small brighter patches within the hazy area indicate low fog. In the left-hand panel, the city basin appears significantly clearer, but some haze remains apparent across the Sierra Madre mountains in the lower portion of the images. On the right is an elevation field corresponding to the December 5 view. Automated MISR stereoscopic retrievals reveal the clouds at lower right to be at very high altitudes, in contrast to the low-lying haze and fog near Mexico City. When the stereo retrieval determines that a location is not covered by clouds, digital terrain elevation data are displayed instead. High clouds appear as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are slightly southward of their location in the elevation map as a consequence of geometric parallax.

    Major sources of air pollutants within the basin enclosing the Mexico City urban area include exhaust from 3.5 million vehicles, thousands of industries, and

  13. Pale Orange Dots: Hazy Archean Earth as an Analog for Hazy Earthlike Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Meadows, Victoria S.; Claire, Mark; Schwieterman, Edward

    2014-11-01

    Of the four terrestrial worlds with significant atmospheres in our solar system - Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan - two of these worlds are presently enshrouded by hazes, and observations suggest that hazy exoplanets are also common (Bean et al. 2010, Sing et al. 2011, Kreidberg et al 2014, Knutson et al. 2014). The early (Archean) Earth may have had a photochemical hydrocarbon haze similar to Titan's (Zerkle et al. 2012), with important climactic effects (Pavlov et al. 2001, Trainer et al. 2006, Haqq-Misra et al. 2008, Domagal-Goldman et al. 2008, Wolf and Toon 2012). Here, we considered Archean Earth as an analog for hazy Earthlike exoplanets and used a modified version of the 1-D photochemical code developed originally by Kasting et al. (1979) to generate model Archean atmospheres with fractal hydrocarbon haze particles. A 1-D line-by-line fully multiple scattering radiative transfer model (Meadows and Crisp 1996) was then used to generate synthetic spectra of early Earth with haze. We have used the resulting synthetic spectra to examine the effect of haze on the detectability of putative biosignatures and the Rayleigh scattering slope, which has been suggested as a means for constraining atmospheric pressure (Benneke and Seager 2012). We also examined haze's impact on the spectral energy distribution reaching the planetary surface. Because the atmospheric pressure and haze particle composition of the Archean Earth are poorly constrained, and because exoplanets will occupy a range of parameter space, we tested the influence of atmospheric pressure and particle density on haze formation, and explored how various particle size distributions affect the spectrum. We find that haze strongly affects the spectral region of the Rayleigh slope, a change detectable at low spectral resolution that impacts the ability to constrain pressure with Rayleigh scattering. The spectral energy distribution at the surface is modulated by haze thickness and the assumed particle size

  14. Local friction in polyolefin blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2005-07-01

    Processes on different length scales affect the dynamics of chain molecules. The friction experienced by a short chain segment depends on both small-scale chain properties and on the local environment of the segment. As a consequence, the (monomeric) friction coefficients of the two components of a binary polymer blend will, in general, differ from each other and from the friction coefficients of the corresponding melts. In this work, we investigate local friction in polyolefin blends with the aid of a small-scale simulation approach. The polymer chains, in united atom representation, are assumed to occupy the sites of a partially filled simple cubic lattice. The simulation focuses on short chain sections with straight backbones and enumerates all possible binary contacts and relative movements of such sections. By evaluating the exact enumeration results in conjunction with equations of state for the blends, we are able to make predictions about the variation of the friction coefficients with local chain architecture and thermodynamic state (temperature, pressure, and composition). We calculate relative values of friction coefficients at temperatures well above the glass transition for blends of PEP, an alternating copolymer of polyethylene and polypropylene, with polyethylene and polyisobutylene and for blends of polyethylene and atactic polypropylene. We also investigate a blend of PEP with head-to-head polypropylene and compare our results with experimental data.

  15. Ultrahigh mobility in polyolefin-supported graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Kuo, Chin-Lun; Hofmann, Mario

    2016-01-01

    A high carrier mobility is an important parameter for graphene-based electronics. While the recent reports have shown impressive results for individual micro-scale devices, scalable production of high mobility graphene has been challenging. We here show that centimeter-scale graphene devices with room temperature carrier mobilities in excess of 10 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 can be achieved on polyolefinic substrates. Measurements on Parafilm-supported graphene devices show, on average, a fivefold-enhancement in mobility over traditional devices. We find that a decreased charged-impurity scattering is the origin of this behavior. Spectroscopic characterization reveals oxygen-containing polymer residue as the main source of such charged impurities. A comparison of different polyolefins highlights the positive impact of oxygen-free polymers as support materials for high mobility graphene devices. Finally, moldable and wearable graphene devices for biosensors were shown to be enabled by polyolefinic substrates.A high carrier mobility is an important parameter for graphene-based electronics. While the recent reports have shown impressive results for individual micro-scale devices, scalable production of high mobility graphene has been challenging. We here show that centimeter-scale graphene devices with room temperature carrier mobilities in excess of 10 000 cm2 V-1 s-1 can be achieved on polyolefinic substrates. Measurements on Parafilm-supported graphene devices show, on average, a fivefold-enhancement in mobility over traditional devices. We find that a decreased charged-impurity scattering is the origin of this behavior. Spectroscopic characterization reveals oxygen-containing polymer residue as the main source of such charged impurities. A comparison of different polyolefins highlights the positive impact of oxygen-free polymers as support materials for high mobility graphene devices. Finally, moldable and wearable graphene devices for biosensors were shown to be enabled by

  16. A Retina Inspired Model for Enhancing Visibility of Hazy Images

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xian-Shi; Gao, Shao-Bing; Li, Chao-Yi; Li, Yong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian retina seems far smarter than scientists have believed so far. Inspired by the visual processing mechanisms in the retina, from the layer of photoreceptors to the layer of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), we propose a computational model for haze removal from a single input image, which is an important issue in the field of image enhancement. In particular, the bipolar cells serve to roughly remove the low-frequency of haze, and the amacrine cells modulate the output of cone bipolar cells to compensate the loss of details by increasing the image contrast. Then the RGCs with disinhibitory receptive field surround refine the local haze removal as well as the image detail enhancement. Results on a variety of real-world and synthetic hazy images show that the proposed model yields results comparative to or even better than the state-of-the-art methods, having the advantage of simultaneous dehazing and enhancing of single hazy image with simple and straightforward implementation. PMID:26733857

  17. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  18. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  19. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  20. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.7375 - Potassium salt of polyolefin acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. 721... Substances § 721.7375 Potassium salt of polyolefin acid. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a potassium salt of...

  2. Tribiological properties of oil-soluble polyolefins

    SciTech Connect

    Ustrekhova, O.A.; Ezhikova-Babakhanova, T.G.; Basov, G.B.

    1994-07-01

    Polyolefins, in the form of either dispersions or homogeneous solutions, are used extensively as lube oil additives. However, the information available on their tribological properties is fragmentary and often contradictory. In order to select additives of this type and in order to understand the mechanism of their lubricating action, comparative evaluations of their tribological properties are required. We have investigated the tribological properties of high-pressure polyethylene PE (Grade 12003-200), polypropylene PP (Grade 21060-61), and polyisobutene PIB (Grade P-85). In order to determine the properties of the polymers that are pertinent to their use as an active component of a lubricating medium, we investigated two-component systems consisting of a mineral oil and a polymer. The compatibility of the polyolefins with the oil base was determined visually by a polythermal method. Blends were prepared in I-12A mineral oil [industrial oil] by dissolving up to 1% polymer at various temperatures: PE at 125-130{degrees}C for 5 h, PP at 140-150{degrees} for 4 h, and PIB at 110-120{degrees}C for 3 h. The 1% concentration is within the optimal range for lubricating-cooling process fluids used in metalworking processes. The tribological properties of the polyolefins were evaluated in two friction testers: a four-ball friction tester (GOST 9490-75), and a Falex tester. The wear scar diameter D{sub w}, which characterizes the antiwear properties of the medium, was determined as the arithmetical average of the wear scar diameters on the three lower balls in the four-ball tester after a 1-h run with an axial load of 0.15 kN and a sliding speed of 0.54 m/sec. The influence of the oil solutions of polyolefins on the process of metal failure or wear was rated on the basis of the energy criterion A{sub s} - the specific work of surface breakdown or wear of metal, defining the quantity of work of friction consumed in removing unit volume of metal from the contacting surfaces.

  3. Transit Spectra of a Hazy World Revealed by Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Maltagliati, Luca; Marley, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Hazes dramatically influence exoplanet observations by obscuring deeper atmospheric layers. This effect is especially pronounced in transit spectroscopy, which probes large pathlengths through an exoplanet atmosphere as it crosses the disk of its host star. While hazes are proposed to explain observed featureless transit spectra, it is difficult to make inferences from the observations because of the need to disentangle effects of noise, gas absorption, and haze extinction. Here, we turn to Titan, an extremely well studied world with a hazy atmosphere, to better understand how high altitude hazes can impact exoplanet transit observations. We use solar occultation observations from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) aboard NASA's Cassini spacecraft to generate transit spectra. Our approach exploits symmetry between occultations and transits, producing transit radius spectra that inherently include the effects of haze multiple scattering, refraction, and gas absorption. The data, which span 0.88-5 microns at a resolution of 12-18 nm, show strong methane absorption features, and weaker features due to other gases, including acetylene and carbon monoxide. Unlike the usual assumption made when modeling and interpreting transit observations of potentially hazy worlds, the slope set by haze in our spectra is not flat, and creates a variation in transit height whose magnitude is comparable to those from the strongest gaseous absorption features. We use a simple model of haze extinction to explore how Titan's haze affects its transit spectrum, and demonstrate how high altitude hazes can severely limit the atmospheric depths probed by transit spectra, bounding our observations to pressures smaller than 0.1-10 mbar, depending on wavelength. Overall, these new data challenge our understanding of how hazes influence exoplanet transit observations, and provide a means of testing proposed approaches for exoplanet characterization. Additionally, our findings will

  4. Titan Reveals Transit Spectra of a Definitively Hazy World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Maltagliati, Luca; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2014-11-01

    Hazes dramatically influence exoplanet observations by obscuring deeper atmospheric layers. This effect is especially pronounced in transit spectroscopy, which probes large pathlengths through an exoplanet atmosphere as it crosses the disk of its host star. While hazes are proposed to explain observed featureless transit spectra, it is difficult to make inferences from the observations because of the need to disentangle effects of noise, gas absorption, and haze extinction. Here, we turn to Titan, an extremely well studied world with a hazy atmosphere, to better understand how high altitude hazes can impact exoplanet transit observations. We use solar occultation observations from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) aboard NASA's Cassini spacecraft to generate transit spectra. Our approach exploits symmetry between occultations and transits, producing transit radius spectra that inherently include the effects of haze multiple scattering, refraction, and gas absorption. The data, which span 0.88-5 microns at a resolution of 12-18 nm, show strong methane absorption features, and weaker features due to other gases, including acetylene and carbon monoxide. Unlike the usual assumption made when modeling and interpreting transit observations of potentially hazy worlds, the slope set by haze in our spectra is neither flat nor has a pure Rayleigh slope, and creates a variation in transit height whose magnitude is comparable to those from the strongest gaseous absorption features. We use a simple model of haze extinction to explore how Titan's haze affects its transit spectrum, and demonstrate how high altitude hazes can severely limit the atmospheric depths probed by transit spectra, bounding our observations to pressures smaller than 0.1-10 mbar, depending on wavelength. Overall, these new data challenge our understanding of how hazes influence exoplanet transit observations, and provide a means of testing proposed approaches for exoplanet characterization

  5. A molecular picture of motion in polyolefins.

    PubMed

    Boland, Erin K; Liu, Jiahong; Maranas, Janna K

    2010-04-14

    We examined three united atom models in light of their description of polyolefin dynamics and investigated the relative influence of various potentials on the resulting dynamics. Results were compared with a collection of experimental data on polyethylene, poly(ethylene-alt-propylene), polypropylene, and head-to-head polypropylene, including quasielastic neutron scattering measurements that we report for two of these materials. For materials with branching, differences between force fields are apparent at low temperature, with the NERD force field most accurate. Differences between NERD and the others are the strength of nonbonded interactions and the height of torsional barriers. We artificially raised each, both of which leads to a slow down in dynamics similar to that observed when lowering temperature. Increasing nonbonded interaction strength slows dynamics with the Vogel dependence of the alpha-relaxation, while raising torsional barriers, slows dynamics with the Arrhenius dependence of the beta-relaxation.

  6. Aerosol retrieval in hazy atmosphere by using polarization and radiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, S.; Sano, I.; Nakata, M.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol retrieval is achieved by radiative transfer simulation in the Earth atmosphere model. This work intends to propose an algorithm for multiple light scattering simulations in the hazy polarized radiation field. We have already solved the scalar radiative transfer problem in the case of haze episodes with dense concentrations of atmospheric aerosols by the method of successive order of scattering, which is named scalar-MSOS. The term "scalar" indicates radiance alone in the treatment of radiative transfer problem against "vector" involving polarized radiation field. The satellite polarimetric sensor POLDER-1, 2, 3 has shown that the spectro-photopolarimetry of terrestrial atmosphere is very useful for observation of the Earth, especially for aerosols. JAXA has been developing the new Earth observing system, GCOM satellite. GCOM-C will board the polarimetric sensor SGLI in 2017. It is highly likely that large-scale aerosol episodes will continue to occur, because the air pollution becomes to be severe due to both the increasing emissions of the anthropogenic aerosols and the complicated behavior of natural aerosols. Then many potential applications for the kind of radiation simulation by MSOS considering the polarization information denoted by Stokes parameters (I, Q, U, V), named vector-MSOS, are desired. It is shown here that dense aerosol episodes can be well simulated by a semi-infinite radiation model composed of the proposed aerosol models. In addition our vector-MSOS is examined in practice by combination use of PARASOL/POLDER, GOSAT/CAI and Aqua/MODIS data.

  7. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN CLOUDY, HAZY, AND CLEAR SKY EXOPLANETS USING REFRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Misra, Amit K.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a method to distinguish between cloudy, hazy, and clear sky (free of clouds and hazes) exoplanet atmospheres that could be applicable to upcoming large aperture space- and ground-based telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These facilities will be powerful tools for characterizing transiting exoplanets, but only after a considerable amount of telescope time is devoted to a single planet. A technique that could provide a relatively rapid means of identifying haze-free targets (which may be more valuable targets for characterization) could potentially increase the science return for these telescopes. Our proposed method utilizes broadband observations of refracted light in the out-of-transit spectrum. Light refracted through an exoplanet atmosphere can lead to an increase of flux prior to ingress and subsequent to egress. Because this light is transmitted at pressures greater than those for typical cloud and haze layers, the detection of refracted light could indicate a cloud- or haze-free atmosphere. A detection of refracted light could be accomplished in <10 hr for Jovian exoplanets with JWST and <5 hr for super-Earths/mini-Neptunes with E-ELT. We find that this technique is most effective for planets with equilibrium temperatures between 200 and 500 K, which may include potentially habitable planets. A detection of refracted light for a potentially habitable planet would strongly suggest the planet was free of a global cloud or haze layer, and therefore a promising candidate for follow-up observations.

  8. Concentration and size distribution of total airborne microbes in hazy and foggy weather.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lijie; Qi, Jianhua; Shao, Congcong; Zhong, Xi; Gao, Dongmei; Cao, Wanwan; Gao, Jiawei; Bai, Ran; Long, Gaoyuan; Chu, Congcong

    2016-01-15

    Atmospheric bioaerosol particles were collected using a bioaerosol sampler from Oct. 2013 to Aug. 2014 in the coastal region of Qingdao. The total microbes were measured using an epifluorescence microscope after staining with DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole). The concentration of total airborne microbes showed seasonal variation, with the highest value in winter and the lowest in summer. The mean concentration of total microbes was 6.55 × 10(5)Cells/m(3) on non-hazy days. The total microbe concentration increased to 7.09 × 10(5) and 9.00 × 10(5)Cells/m(3) on hazy and foggy days, respectively. The particle sizes of the total microbes presented a bimodal distribution on sunny days, with one peak at 1.1-2.1 μm and another at 4.7-7.0 μm. The size distribution of total microbes showed an increase in the fine fraction on hazy days and an increase in the coarse fraction on foggy days. However, the size distribution became unimodal during a heating period. Spearman correlation analysis showed that temperature and O3 had a significant negative correlation with the airborne microbe concentration, while PM2.5, SO2, NO2, CO and the air quality index (AQI) had significant positive correlations with the airborne microbe concentration during hazy days. The increased number of airborne microbes will affect the air quality on hazy days.

  9. Phosphorylcholine substituted polyolefins: New syntheses, solution assemblies, and polymer vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, Katrina A.

    This thesis describes the synthesis and applications of a new series of amphiphilic homopolymers and copolymers consisting of hydrophobic polyolefin backbone and hydrophilic phosphorylcholine (PC) pendant groups. These polymers are synthesized by ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a novel PC- cyclooctene monomer, and copolymerization of various functionalized cyclooctene comonomers. Incorporation of different comonomers into the PC-polyolefin backbone affords copolymers with different functionalities, including crosslinkers, fluorophores, and other reactive groups, that tune the range of applications of these polymers, and their hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance. The amphiphilic nature of PC-polyolefins was exploited in oil-water interfacial assembly, providing robust polymer capsules to encapsulate and deliver nanoparticles to damaged regions of a substrate in a project termed `repair-and-go.' In repair-and-go, a flexible microcapsule filled with a solution of nanoparticles probes an imperfection-riddled substrate as it rolls over the surface. The thin capsule wall allows the nanoparticles to escape the capsules and enter into the cracks, driven in part by favorable interactions between the nanoparticle ligands and the cracked surface (i.e., hydrophobic-hydrophobic interactions). The capsules then continue their transport along the surface, filling more cracks and depositing particles into them. The amphiphilic nature of PC-polyolefins was also exploited in aqueous assembly, forming novel polymer vesicles in water. PC-polyolefin vesicles ranged in size from 50 nm to 30 µm. The mechanical properties of PC-polyolefin vesicles were measured by micropipette aspiration techniques, and found to be more robust than conventional liposomes or polymersomes prepared from block copolymers. PC-polyolefin vesicles have potential use in drug delivery; it was found that the cancer drug doxorubicin could be encapsulated efficiently in PC-polyolefin vesicles. In

  10. Recanalized chronic coronary thrombus: unraveling a hazy coronary lesion by intravascular ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chotai, Shayna; Khokhar, Azhar A.; Kelly, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Hazy lesions in coronary angiography can often be a puzzle for the interventional cardiologist. Recanalized chronic coronary thrombus, although rare, is one of the potential diagnoses. Intracoronary imaging with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) are tools that can guide to the correct diagnosis. We present the images of a case where IVUS was used to unravel such a lesion. PMID:27054109

  11. [Light scattering extinction properties of atmospheric particle and pollution characteristics in hazy weather in Hangzhou].

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang; Ye, Hui; Shen, Jian-Dong; Sun, Hong-Liang; Hong, Sheng-Mao; Jiao, Li; Huang, Kan

    2014-12-01

    In order to evaluate the influence of particle scattering on visibility, light scattering coefficient, particle concentrations and meteorological factor were simultaneously monitored from July 2011 to June 2012 in Hangzhou. Daily scattering coefficients ranged from 108.4 to 1 098.1 Mm(-1), with an annual average concentration of 428.6 Mm(-1) ± 200.2 Mm(-1). Seasonal variation of scattering coefficients was significant, with the highest concentrations observed in autumn and winter and the lowest in summer. It was found there were two peaks for the average diurnal variations of the scattering coefficient, which could be observed at 08:00 and 21:00. The scattering efficiencies of PM2.5 and PM10 were 7.6 m2 x g(-1) and 4.4 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The particle scattering was about 90.2 percent of the total light extinction. The scattering coefficients were 684.4 Mm(-1) ± 218.1 Mm(-1) and 1 095.4 Mm(-1) ± 397.7 Mm(-1) in hazy and heavy hazy days, respectively, which were 2.6 and 4.2 times as high as in non-hazy weather, indicating that particle scattering is the main factor for visibility degradation and the occurrence of hazy weather in Hangzhou.

  12. Nonmethane Hydrocarbons in Ambient Air of Hazy and Normal Days in Foshan, South China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Songjun; Yang, Fumo; Tan, Jihua; Duan, Jingchun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A first study of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) on hazy and normal days was performed in Foshan for providing deep insight into the local deteriorating air quality. Ethane, propane, i-pentane, ethene, propene, ethyne, benzene, and toluene were eight most abundant compounds, accounting for 71%–85% of total NMHCs. Most hydrocarbons showed much higher levels on hazy days than normal days together with hydrocarbon/ethyne ratios and diurnal variations, indicating hazy days are more dominated by vehicular emission. Correlation coefficients (R2) of ethane, propane, ethane, propene, benzene, and total NMHCs with ethyne were 0.62–0.83, indicating these compounds are mainly related to vehicular emission. R2 analysis indicated that solvent usage is responsible for toluene and other aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g., ethylbezene). Benzene/toluene (B/T) ratio was 0.44±0.23 during whole sampling periods, again indicating vehicular emission is the dominant source. Lower B/T ratio (0.30±0.14) on hazy days than that (0.58±0.21) on normal days suggested that solvent usage emitted toluene. PMID:22493559

  13. Method for preparing polyolefin composites containing a phase change material

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, Ival O.

    1990-01-01

    A composite useful in thermal energy storage, said composite being formed of a polyolefin matrix having a phase change material such as a crystalline alkyl hydrocarbon incorporated therein. The composite is useful in forming pellets, sheets or fibers having thermal energy storage characteristics; methods for forming the composite are also disclosed.

  14. Characterization of Hexsyn, a polyolefin rubber.

    PubMed

    McMillin, C R

    1987-07-01

    Hexsyn is the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company tradename for a polyolefin rubber synthesized from 1-hexene with 3-5% methylhexadiene as the source of residual double bonds for vulcanization. Under license from Goodyear, this same polymer has been manufactured by Lord Corporation for the hinge portion of finger joint prostheses using the tradename Bion. This rubber is currently licensed to the University of Akron and to the Cleveland Clinic Foundation for use in biomedical applications, and is being used primarily for biocompatible and highly fatigue resistant rubber components in ventricular assist and artificial heart systems. Results are presented from the physical, mechanical, and biological characterization of Hexsyn. Procedures are described for the synthesis, compounding, and post-molding extraction for Hexsyn. The physical testing of Hexsyn reported includes determinations of its density at 23 and 37 degrees C, initial hardness and hardness after aging in oxygen, blood, pseudoextracellular fluid and polyethylene glycol 600, typical molecular weights determined by gel permeation chromatography/low angle laser light scattering and intrinsic viscosity, thermal analyses by differential scanning calorimetry of Hexsyn gum, and vulcanized Hexsyn after exposure to blood and blood/fatigue conditions. Also reported are results of differential thermal analyses, thermomechanical analyses of virgin and annealed samples, and thermogravimetric analyses conducted in helium and in air. Dynamic mechanical analyses of Hexsyn include Clash-Berg and Rheovibron tests. Swelling was conducted to determine lot-to-lot and sheet-to-sheet variation for quality control and also a number of solvents were used so that the polymer-solvent interaction parameters could be determined. The permeability of Hexsyn to water, water vapor, and a variety of gases is reported. The permeability by contact angle measurements, refractive index, residual solvent analyses, migration of blood components

  15. Woven glass fabric reinforced laminates based on polyolefin wastes: Thermal, mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pietro; Acierno, Domenico; Simeoli, Giorgio; Lopresto, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Potentialities of polyolefin wastes in place of virgin polypropylene to produce composite laminates have been investigated. Plaques reinforced with a woven glass fabric were prepared by film-stacking technique and systematically analyzed in terms of thermal, mechanical and dynamic-mechanical properties. In case of PP matrices, the use of a typical compatibilizer to improve the adhesion at the interface has been considered. Thermal properties emphasized the chemical nature of plastic wastes. About mechanical properties, static tests showed an increase of flexural parameters for compatibilized systems due to the coupling effect between grafted maleic anhydride and silane groups on the surface of the glass fabric. These effects, maximized for composites based on car bumper wastes, is perfectly reflected in terms of storage modulus and damping ability of products as determined by single-cantilever bending dynamic tests.

  16. Processing of polyolefin blends in supercritical propane solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Suh Joon

    New polymer blending methods are developed and studied by processing polyolefins in supercritical propane in this research. Polypropylene and ethylene copolymers were dissolved in supercritical propane, and processed via various paths and reactions, i.e., RESS (rapid expansion of supercritical solution), ICSS (isobaric crystallization from supercritical solution), and thermoplastic vulcanizate (TPV) formation. Each process resulted in a unique morphology of polyolefin blends. The effect of polyolefin microstructure on the solution behavior in supercritical propane was investigated, and the relationship between the morphology of the polyolefin blends and processing paths in supercritical propane solutions was established. To understand the thermodynamic properties of polyolefins in bulk and solutions, the solubility parameter was estimated by measurement of the internal pressure from the experimental P-V-T data for polyolefins in the melt state. As the short chain branch content in the ethylene copolymers increased, the internal pressure decreased. The cloud-point pressures of binary polymer solutions in propane decreased as the extent of short chain branching increased in the ethylene copolymers. At the same degree of branching, the cloud-point pressure decreased slightly with increasing branch length. The cloud-point pressures of a ternary polymer solution in the pressure-temperature phase diagrams were higher than those of binary polymer solutions at the same composition (indicating poorer solubility). Microfibers and microparticles (10 ˜ 50 mum diameter) were precipitated from the RESS process while microcellular foams were obtained from the ICSS process. The phase domains of the ethylene-butene (EB) copolymer in the polypropylene from the RESS process were smaller for highly branched EB copolymer. The surface morphology of ethylene copolymers in the microcelluar foams was also changed by increasing the branch content from microparticles to a viscous layer. New

  17. Acid-functionalized polyolefin materials and their use in acid-promoted chemical reactions

    DOEpatents

    Oyola, Yatsandra; Tian, Chengcheng; Bauer, John Christopher; Dai, Sheng

    2016-06-07

    An acid-functionalized polyolefin material that can be used as an acid catalyst in a wide range of acid-promoted chemical reactions, wherein the acid-functionalized polyolefin material includes a polyolefin backbone on which acid groups are appended. Also described is a method for the preparation of the acid catalyst in which a precursor polyolefin is subjected to ionizing radiation (e.g., electron beam irradiation) of sufficient power and the irradiated precursor polyolefin reacted with at least one vinyl monomer having an acid group thereon. Further described is a method for conducting an acid-promoted chemical reaction, wherein an acid-reactive organic precursor is contacted in liquid form with a solid heterogeneous acid catalyst comprising a polyolefin backbone of at least 1 micron in one dimension and having carboxylic acid groups and either sulfonic acid or phosphoric acid groups appended thereto.

  18. Rheological properties of polyolefin composites highly filled with calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobile, Maria Rossella; Fierro, Annalisa; Jakubowska, Paulina; Sterzynski, Tomasz

    2016-05-01

    In this paper the rheological properties of highly filled polyolefin composites (HFPCs) have been investigated. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3), with stearic acid modified surface, was used as filler. Ternary compounds have been obtained by the inclusion of a CaCO3/polypropylene master batch into the high density polyethylene matrix. The highly filled polyolefin composites with CaCO3 content in the range between 40 and 64 wt% have been prepared in the molten state using a single-screw extruder, the temperature of the extrusion die was set at 230°C. The melt rheological properties of the HFPCs have been extensively investigated both in oscillatory and steady shear flow.

  19. Catalyst system for the polymerization of alkenes to polyolefins

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stephen A.; Bercaw, John E.

    2002-01-01

    The invention provides metallocene catalyst systems for the controlled polymerization of alkenes to a wide variety of polyolefins and olefin coplymers. Catalyst systems are provided that specifically produce isotactic, syndiotactic and steroblock polyolefins. The type of polymer produced can be controlled by varying the catalyst system, specifically by varying the ligand substituents. Such catalyst systems are particularly useful for the polymerization of polypropylene to give elastomeric polypropylenes. The invention also provides novel elastomeric polypropylene polymers characterized by dyad (m) tacticities of about 55% to about 65%, pentad (mmmm) tacticities of about 25% to about 35%, molecular weights (M.sub.w)in the range of about 50,000 to about 2,000,000, and have mmrm+rrmr peak is less than about 5%.

  20. Catalyst system for the polymerization of alkenes to polyolefins

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stephen A.; Bercaw, John E.

    2004-02-17

    The invention provides metallocene catalyst systems for the controlled polymerization of alkenes to a wide variety of polyolefins and olefin coplymers. Catalyst systems are provided that specifically produce isotactic, syndiotactic and steroblock polyolefins. The type of polymer produced can be controlled by varying the catalyst system, specifically by varying the ligand substituents. Such catalyst systems are particularly useful for the polymerization of polypropylene to give elastomeric polypropylenes. The invention also provides novel elastomeric polypropylene polymers characterized by dyad (m) tacticities of about 55% to about 65%, pentad (mmmm) tacticities of about 25% to about 35%, molecular weights (M.sub.W) in the range of about 50,000 to about 2,000,000, and have mmrm+rrmr peak is less than about 5%.

  1. Polyolefin Thermoplastics for Multiple Shape and Reversible Shape Memory.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Liu, Weifeng; Zhu, Shiping

    2017-02-08

    This work reports the first pure hydrocarbon thermoplastic polyolefin material with reversible shape memory effect under stress-free or very small external loading condition. A thermoplastic ethylene/1-octene diblock copolymer with designed chain microstructure was synthesized. The polyolefin material performed not only the conventional one-way multishape memory effects, but also a two-way reversible shape memory effect (RSME). The elongation and contraction induced by oriented crystallization with heating was confirmed as the mechanism of RSME without chemical cross-linking. This work demonstrated that the thermoplastic reversible shape memory could be achieved through careful design of chain microstructure, based on sole hydrocarbon materials such as ethylene-1-octene copolymer.

  2. Method of solution preparation of polyolefin class polymers for electrospinning processing included

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabolt, John F. (Inventor); Lee, Keun-Hyung (Inventor); Givens, Steven R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A process to make a polyolefin fiber which has the following steps: mixing at least one polyolefin into a solution at room temperature or a slightly elevated temperature to form a polymer solution and electrospinning at room temperature said polymer solution to form a fiber.

  3. Surface components of PM2.5 during clear and hazy days in Shanghai by ToF-SIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Di; Xiu, Guangli; Li, Meng; Hua, Xin; Long, Yitao

    2017-01-01

    The compositions of atmospheric particles change greatly on hazy days and could threaten human health. In this study, fine mode particles (PM2.5) were collected and divided according to hazy and non-hazy days in Shanghai from December 8th, 2015 to January 12th, 2016. Versatile ToF-SIMS was performed on the samples to reveal chemical information from the surface of PM2.5. Normalized intensities of Na, Mn, K, V, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Cl, NOx and ammonia were higher on clear days while peak intensities of detected bromine and sulfur-contained species were much higher on hazy days. Some hazardous species (Pb, Cr, Ni, As, CHS, SO2) and high-mass aromatic hydrocarbon fractions could only be detected by ToF-SIMS from PM2.5 collected on hazy days. Comparison of metallic elements and phthalates implied that haze pollution in Shanghai was mainly the mixing of coal combustion with vehicle emission. In addition, comparison of different haze pollution was also exhibited. Some nitrogen-containing organic compounds were detected only from PM2.5 of December 15th, and ToF-SIMS ion signals of N2H5+, NH4+, CN-, NO2- and NO3- from PM2.5 of December 15th were much more intense, compared with PM2.5 collected on December 25th.

  4. Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers' recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Donaj, Pawel J.; Kaminsky, W.; Buzeto, F.; Yang, W.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of mixed polyolefins in fluidized bed has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We tested applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta catalyst (Z-N: TiCl{sub 4}/MgCl{sub 2}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst has a strong influence on product distribution, increasing gas fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 650 Degree-Sign C the monomer generation increased by 55% when the catalyst was used. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed the concept of treatment of mixed polyolefins without a need of separation. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta (Z-N): TiCl{sub 4}/MgCl{sub 2} for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46% wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30% wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24% wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650 Degree-Sign C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z-N catalyst) and at 650 and 730 Degree-Sign C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1-3 kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7% wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9% wt. at 650 and 730 Degree-Sign C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5% wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8% wt. at 500 and 650 Degree-Sign C, respectively. At 650 Degree-Sign C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6% wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained

  5. Thermoplastic Adhesives based on polyolefin and olefinic copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Rituparna

    2014-03-01

    H.B. Fuller has been a leading global industrial adhesive manufacturer for over 125 years. It is a company with a rich history of consistently delivering adhesive innovations for enhancing product performance in the market place. H.B. Fuller technologies/products find application in several markets including packaging, personal hygiene and nonwovens, durable assembly and electronics. In this presentation, H. B. Fuller's technology innovation journey will be shared with emphasis on groundbreaking technologies/products based on polyolefin and olefin copolymers.

  6. Stability of nitroglycerin solutions in polyolefin and glass containers.

    PubMed

    Wagenknecht, D M; Baaske, D M; Alam, A S; Carter, J E; Shah, J

    1984-09-01

    The stability of nitroglycerin in concentrations of 200 and 400 micrograms/ml in eight common intravenous solutions was studied. Two containers of each solution at each concentration, one glass and one polyolefin, were stored under each of the following conditions: intense light (1400-2000 foot-candles) and ambient room temperature (18-27 degrees C), normal light and ambient room temperature, dark and 40 degrees C, and dark and 5 degrees C. All samples were tested at 0 and 24 hours. Room temperature and refrigerated samples were also tested at 48 hours, 7 days, and 1 month. Testing included measurement for optical density at 400 and 600 nm, pH, and nitroglycerin content as determined by HPLC. The admixtures remained clear and colorless, and no appreciable changes in pH were observed. HPLC assays showed no significant changes in nitroglycerin concentrations. There were no differences in the stability of the admixtures stored in the glass and polyolefin containers. Nitroglycerin is compatible with each of the common intravenous solutions tested under the storage conditions and in the containers used for this study.

  7. Migration of polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH) into food.

    PubMed

    Biedermann-Brem, S; Kasprick, N; Simat, T; Grob, K

    2012-01-01

    POSH are polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons, such as oligomers from polyethylene or polypropylene. POSH that have migrated into foods are easily mistaken for mineral oil-saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH). In fact, both POSH and MOSH largely consist of highly isomerised branched and possibly cyclic hydrocarbons, both forming humps of unresolved components in gas chromatography. Chromatograms are reported to show typical elution patterns of POSH and help analysts distinguishing POSH from MOSH as far as possible. Since the structures of the POSH are not fundamentally different from those of the MOSH, it would be prudent to apply the evaluation of the MOSH. However, the migration is frequently beyond that for which safety has been demonstrated. This is shown for a few examples, particularly for powdered formula for babies.

  8. Rheological characterization of polyolefin composites with reduced flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habrova, Veronika; Kalendova, Alena; Paravanova, Gordana

    2012-07-01

    In this work, the low-flammability halogen-free polyolefin composites were characterized with three rheological methods. In the extrusion process of the studied materials the end-products with a dissimilar surface quality were produced. Therefore, the diverse melt flow behaviours evaluated with common rheological techniques were also expected. Nevertheless, the conventional rotational and capillary rheometries were not able to describe the differences between investigated flame retarded composites in optimal way. Thus, the non-conventional rheological die Shark skin, originally designed to detect flow instabilities, was tested as a third possibility in order to better understand rheology of the filled polymer melts. It was found that the Shark skin technique is able to characterize the studied two kind flame retardants composites and can also be helpful to qualify the production bathes with identical additives/polymer formulation.

  9. Rapid analysis of polyolefin antioxidants and light stabilisers by supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kithinji, J P; Bartle, K D; Raynor, M W; Clifford, A A

    1990-02-01

    Nineteen commercial antioxidants and light stabilisers, with a wide range of relative molecular masses and boiling-points, present in polyolefins were analysed by packed column supercritical fluid chromatography on four different phases with CO2 or 10% MeOH-CO2 as the mobile phase and with UV detection. The technique is shown to yield short analysis times and sufficient resolution for a number of additives present in a given polyolefin.

  10. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, and carbon fibers made thereby

    DOEpatents

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-08-04

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  11. Pyrolysis of polyolefins for increasing the yield of monomers' recovery.

    PubMed

    Donaj, Pawel J; Kaminsky, W; Buzeto, F; Yang, W

    2012-05-01

    Pyrolysis of plastic waste is an alternative way of plastic recovery and could be a potential solution for the increasing stream of solid waste. The objective of this work was to increase the yield the gaseous olefins (monomers) as feedstock for polymerization process and to test the applicability of a commercial Ziegler-Natta (Z-N): TiCl(4)/MgCl(2) for cracking a mixture of polyolefins consisted of 46%wt. of low density polyethylene (LDPE), 30%wt. of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 24%wt. of polypropylene (PP). Two sets of experiments have been carried out at 500 and 650°C via catalytic pyrolysis (1% of Z-N catalyst) and at 650 and 730°C via only-thermal pyrolysis. These experiments have been conducted in a lab-scale, fluidized quartz-bed reactor of a capacity of 1-3kg/h at Hamburg University. The results revealed a strong influence of temperature and presence of catalyst on the product distribution. The ratios of gas/liquid/solid mass fractions via thermal pyrolysis were: 36.9/48.4/15.7%wt. and 42.4/44.7/13.9%wt. at 650 and 730°C while via catalytic pyrolysis were: 6.5/89.0/4.5%wt. and 54.3/41.9/3.8%wt. at 500 and 650°C, respectively. At 650°C the monomer generation increased by 55% up to 23.6%wt. of total pyrolysis products distribution while the catalyst was added. Obtained yields of olefins were compared with the naphtha steam cracking process and other potentially attractive processes for feedstock generation. The concept of closed cycle material flow for polyolefins has been discussed, showing the potential benefits of feedstock recycling in a plastic waste management.

  12. The Pale Orange Dot: The Spectrum and Habitability of Hazy Archean Earth.

    PubMed

    Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Meadows, Victoria S; Wolf, Eric T; Schwieterman, Edward; Charnay, Benjamin; Claire, Mark; Hébrard, Eric; Trainer, Melissa G

    2016-11-01

    Recognizing whether a planet can support life is a primary goal of future exoplanet spectral characterization missions, but past research on habitability assessment has largely ignored the vastly different conditions that have existed in our planet's long habitable history. This study presents simulations of a habitable yet dramatically different phase of Earth's history, when the atmosphere contained a Titan-like, organic-rich haze. Prior work has claimed a haze-rich Archean Earth (3.8-2.5 billion years ago) would be frozen due to the haze's cooling effects. However, no previous studies have self-consistently taken into account climate, photochemistry, and fractal hazes. Here, we demonstrate using coupled climate-photochemical-microphysical simulations that hazes can cool the planet's surface by about 20 K, but habitable conditions with liquid surface water could be maintained with a relatively thick haze layer (τ ∼ 5 at 200 nm) even with the fainter young Sun. We find that optically thicker hazes are self-limiting due to their self-shielding properties, preventing catastrophic cooling of the planet. Hazes may even enhance planetary habitability through UV shielding, reducing surface UV flux by about 97% compared to a haze-free planet and potentially allowing survival of land-based organisms 2.7-2.6 billion years ago. The broad UV absorption signature produced by this haze may be visible across interstellar distances, allowing characterization of similar hazy exoplanets. The haze in Archean Earth's atmosphere was strongly dependent on biologically produced methane, and we propose that hydrocarbon haze may be a novel type of spectral biosignature on planets with substantial levels of CO2. Hazy Archean Earth is the most alien world for which we have geochemical constraints on environmental conditions, providing a useful analogue for similar habitable, anoxic exoplanets. Key Words: Haze-Archean Earth-Exoplanets-Spectra-Biosignatures-Planetary habitability

  13. The Pale Orange Dot: The Spectrum and Habitability of Hazy Archean Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arney, Giada; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Wolf, Eric T.; Schwieterman, Edward; Charnay, Benjamin; Claire, Mark; Hébrard, Eric; Trainer, Melissa G.

    2016-11-01

    Recognizing whether a planet can support life is a primary goal of future exoplanet spectral characterization missions, but past research on habitability assessment has largely ignored the vastly different conditions that have existed in our planet's long habitable history. This study presents simulations of a habitable yet dramatically different phase of Earth's history, when the atmosphere contained a Titan-like, organic-rich haze. Prior work has claimed a haze-rich Archean Earth (3.8-2.5 billion years ago) would be frozen due to the haze's cooling effects. However, no previous studies have self-consistently taken into account climate, photochemistry, and fractal hazes. Here, we demonstrate using coupled climate-photochemical-microphysical simulations that hazes can cool the planet's surface by about 20 K, but habitable conditions with liquid surface water could be maintained with a relatively thick haze layer (τ ˜ 5 at 200 nm) even with the fainter young Sun. We find that optically thicker hazes are self-limiting due to their self-shielding properties, preventing catastrophic cooling of the planet. Hazes may even enhance planetary habitability through UV shielding, reducing surface UV flux by about 97% compared to a haze-free planet and potentially allowing survival of land-based organisms 2.7-2.6 billion years ago. The broad UV absorption signature produced by this haze may be visible across interstellar distances, allowing characterization of similar hazy exoplanets. The haze in Archean Earth's atmosphere was strongly dependent on biologically produced methane, and we propose that hydrocarbon haze may be a novel type of spectral biosignature on planets with substantial levels of CO2. Hazy Archean Earth is the most alien world for which we have geochemical constraints on environmental conditions, providing a useful analogue for similar habitable, anoxic exoplanets.

  14. Titan solar occultation observations reveal transit spectra of a hazy world.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tyler D; Maltagliati, Luca; Marley, Mark S; Fortney, Jonathan J

    2014-06-24

    High-altitude clouds and hazes are integral to understanding exoplanet observations, and are proposed to explain observed featureless transit spectra. However, it is difficult to make inferences from these data because of the need to disentangle effects of gas absorption from haze extinction. Here, we turn to the quintessential hazy world, Titan, to clarify how high-altitude hazes influence transit spectra. We use solar occultation observations of Titan's atmosphere from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer aboard National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Cassini spacecraft to generate transit spectra. Data span 0.88-5 μm at a resolution of 12-18 nm, with uncertainties typically smaller than 1%. Our approach exploits symmetry between occultations and transits, producing transit radius spectra that inherently include the effects of haze multiple scattering, refraction, and gas absorption. We use a simple model of haze extinction to explore how Titan's haze affects its transit spectrum. Our spectra show strong methane-absorption features, and weaker features due to other gases. Most importantly, the data demonstrate that high-altitude hazes can severely limit the atmospheric depths probed by transit spectra, bounding observations to pressures smaller than 0.1-10 mbar, depending on wavelength. Unlike the usual assumption made when modeling and interpreting transit observations of potentially hazy worlds, the slope set by haze in our spectra is not flat, and creates a variation in transit height whose magnitude is comparable to those from the strongest gaseous-absorption features. These findings have important consequences for interpreting future exoplanet observations, including those from NASA's James Webb Space Telescope.

  15. Titan solar occultation observations reveal transit spectra of a hazy world

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Maltagliati, Luca; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2014-01-01

    High-altitude clouds and hazes are integral to understanding exoplanet observations, and are proposed to explain observed featureless transit spectra. However, it is difficult to make inferences from these data because of the need to disentangle effects of gas absorption from haze extinction. Here, we turn to the quintessential hazy world, Titan, to clarify how high-altitude hazes influence transit spectra. We use solar occultation observations of Titan’s atmosphere from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer aboard National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Cassini spacecraft to generate transit spectra. Data span 0.88–5 μm at a resolution of 12–18 nm, with uncertainties typically smaller than 1%. Our approach exploits symmetry between occultations and transits, producing transit radius spectra that inherently include the effects of haze multiple scattering, refraction, and gas absorption. We use a simple model of haze extinction to explore how Titan’s haze affects its transit spectrum. Our spectra show strong methane-absorption features, and weaker features due to other gases. Most importantly, the data demonstrate that high-altitude hazes can severely limit the atmospheric depths probed by transit spectra, bounding observations to pressures smaller than 0.1–10 mbar, depending on wavelength. Unlike the usual assumption made when modeling and interpreting transit observations of potentially hazy worlds, the slope set by haze in our spectra is not flat, and creates a variation in transit height whose magnitude is comparable to those from the strongest gaseous-absorption features. These findings have important consequences for interpreting future exoplanet observations, including those from NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope. PMID:24876272

  16. The Pale Orange Dot: The Spectrum and Habitability of Hazy Archean Earth

    PubMed Central

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Wolf, Eric T.; Schwieterman, Edward; Charnay, Benjamin; Claire, Mark; Hébrard, Eric; Trainer, Melissa G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recognizing whether a planet can support life is a primary goal of future exoplanet spectral characterization missions, but past research on habitability assessment has largely ignored the vastly different conditions that have existed in our planet's long habitable history. This study presents simulations of a habitable yet dramatically different phase of Earth's history, when the atmosphere contained a Titan-like, organic-rich haze. Prior work has claimed a haze-rich Archean Earth (3.8–2.5 billion years ago) would be frozen due to the haze's cooling effects. However, no previous studies have self-consistently taken into account climate, photochemistry, and fractal hazes. Here, we demonstrate using coupled climate-photochemical-microphysical simulations that hazes can cool the planet's surface by about 20 K, but habitable conditions with liquid surface water could be maintained with a relatively thick haze layer (τ ∼ 5 at 200 nm) even with the fainter young Sun. We find that optically thicker hazes are self-limiting due to their self-shielding properties, preventing catastrophic cooling of the planet. Hazes may even enhance planetary habitability through UV shielding, reducing surface UV flux by about 97% compared to a haze-free planet and potentially allowing survival of land-based organisms 2.7–2.6 billion years ago. The broad UV absorption signature produced by this haze may be visible across interstellar distances, allowing characterization of similar hazy exoplanets. The haze in Archean Earth's atmosphere was strongly dependent on biologically produced methane, and we propose that hydrocarbon haze may be a novel type of spectral biosignature on planets with substantial levels of CO2. Hazy Archean Earth is the most alien world for which we have geochemical constraints on environmental conditions, providing a useful analogue for similar habitable, anoxic exoplanets. Key Words: Haze—Archean Earth

  17. Catalytic regioselective introduction of allyl alcohol into the nonpolar polyolefins: development of one-pot synthesis of hydroxyl-capped polyolefins mediated by a new metallocene IF catalyst.

    PubMed

    Imuta, Jun-ichi; Kashiwa, Norio; Toda, Yoshihisa

    2002-02-20

    A new catalytic regioselective one-pot synthesis of hydroxyl-capped polyolefins is reported. This synthesis employs a new stereorigid bridged metallocene having an indenyl and a fluorenyl ligand named IF catalyst 1, exhibiting high catalytic performances. Here, we report on (1) the first example of allyl alcohol incorporation into the nonpolar polymer backbone using IF catalyst 1 and methylaluminoxane with high activity, high molecular weight, and high polar monomer uptake at high temperature, and (2) the first example of predominant end-site-selective introduction of an alcohol group into the polyolefins. Moreover, we observed the mixed regioselectivity by the type of alkylaluminum.

  18. VOC characteristics, emissions and contributions to SOA formation during hazy episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jie; Wu, Fangkun; Hu, Bo; Tang, Guiqian; Zhang, Junke; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are important precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The pollution processes in Beijing were investigated from 18th October to 6th November 2013 to study the characteristics, SOA formation potential and contributing factors of VOC during hazy episodes. The mean concentrations of VOC were 67.4 ± 33.3 μg m-3 on clear days and have 5-7-fold increase in polluted periods. VOC concentrations rapidly increased at a visibility range of 4-5 km with the rate of 25%/km in alkanes, alkenes and halocarbons and the rate of 45%/km in aromatics. Analysis of the mixing layer height (MLH); wind speed and ratios of benzene/toluene (B/T), ethylbenzene/m,p-xylene (E/X), and isopentane/n-pentane (i/n) under different visibility conditions revealed that the MLH and wind speed were the 2 major factors affecting the variability of VOC during clear days and that local emissions and photochemical reactions were main causes of VOC variation on polluted days. Combined with the fractional aerosol coefficient (FAC) method, the SOA formation potentials of alkanes, alkenes and aromatics were 0.3 ± 0.2 μg m-3, 1.1 ± 1.0 μg m-3 and 6.5 ± 6.4 μg m-3, respectively. As the visibility deteriorated, the SOA formation potential increased from 2.1 μg m-3 to 13.2 μg m-3, and the fraction of SOA-forming aromatics rapidly increased from 56.3% to 90.1%. Initial sources were resolved by a positive matrix factorization (PMF) model. Vehicle-related emissions were an important source of VOC at all visibility ranges, accounting for 23%-32%. As visibility declined, emissions from solvents and the chemical industry increased from 13.2% and 6.3% to 34.2% and 23.0%, respectively. Solvents had the greatest SOA formation ability, accounting for 52.5% on average on hazy days, followed by vehicle-related emissions (20.7%).

  19. Predictive modeling of metal-catalyzed polyolefin processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Neeraj Prasad

    2003-10-01

    This dissertation describes the essential modeling components and techniques for building comprehensive polymer process models for metal-catalyzed polyolefin processes. The significance of this work is that it presents a comprehensive approach to polymer process modeling applied to large-scale commercial processes. Most researchers focus only on polymerization mechanisms and reaction kinetics, and neglect physical properties and phase equilibrium. Both physical properties and phase equilibrium play key roles in the accuracy and robustness of a model. This work presents the fundamental principles and practical guidelines used to develop and validate both steady-state and dynamic simulation models for two large-scale commercial processes involving the Ziegler-Natta polymerization to produce high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). It also provides a model for the solution polymerization of ethylene using a metallocene catalyst. Existing modeling efforts do not include physical properties or phase equilibrium in their calculations. These omissions undermine the accuracy and predictive power of the models. The forward chapters of the dissertation discuss the fundamental concepts we consider in polymer process modeling. These include physical and thermodynamic properties, phase equilibrium, and polymerization kinetics. The later chapters provide the modeling applications described above.

  20. Thermal properties of polyolefin composites with copper silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klozinski, Arkadiusz; Jakubowska, Paulina; Ambrozewicz, Damian; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to specify thermal properties of polyolefin composites with copper silicate. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) composites with 2, 4 and 8 wt % of the filler (CuO.SiO2) were analyzed. Characteristic temperatures of the polymer compositions, i.e. the melting (Tm) and crystallization temperatures (Tc), obtained by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), were determined. The impact of the applied additives on composites thermal stability was established using thermogravimetry measurements (TGA). Afterwards, the flammability test was performed. The measurement was complemented with the establishment of the maximum combustion temperature using infrared recording techniques and image analysis (infrared camera). One of the most important parameter of thermoplastics is the softening point which was also determined. The measurement was carried out using a Vicat apparatus. Thermal characteristic was also supplemented with an assessment of the thermal diffusivity (the parameter determining the cooling time in an injection mold). The tests were conducted using the modified Angstrom method and an infrared camera.

  1. Control of PM2.5 in Guangzhou during the 16th Asian Games period: implication for hazy weather prevention.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Zhisheng; Huang, Ruijin; Wu, Yunfei; Zhang, Renjian; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Yuanhang

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the integrated control measures for reducing PM2.5 (aerosol particles with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm) and hazy weather, day- and night-time PM2.5 samples were collected at an urban site in Guangzhou during the 16th Asian Games period in November 2010. PM2.5 samples were subject to chemical analysis for major water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), element carbon (EC), and biomass burning tracers-anhydrosugar levoglucosan (LG). In addition, aerosol scattering coefficient (bsp) at dry condition and aerosol absorption coefficient (bap) and visibility at ambient condition were measured. The seven major control measures were effective for reducing PM2.5 mass concentration and improving visibility during the Asian Games period. All monitored air pollutants except PM2.5 satisfied the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). However, daily PM2.5 concentrations still exceeded the NAAQS on 47% of the days and hazy weather also occurred on 80% of the days during this period. One factor causing the high frequency of hazy weather occurrence was the increased relative humidity during the Asian Games period. To avoid hazy weather occurrence, new PM2.5 standard was recommended based on visibility calculations using three available aerosol hygroscopic curves previously obtained for this city. The recommended PM2.5 standard was 63 μgm(-3) under dry condition and lower than 42 μg m(-3) under humid condition (RH ≥ 70%). These recommended value s were much stricter than the NAAQS value of 75 μg m(-3). To reach the new standard, more rigorous control measures for coal industries should be established in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region.

  2. Investigation of relationships between linears, total and hazy areas, and petroleum production in the Williston Basin: An ERTS approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, J. M.; Street, J. S. (Principal Investigator); Munsell, C. J.; Obrien, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 imagery in a variety of formats was used to locate linear, tonal, and hazy features and to relate them to areas of hydrocarbon production in the Williston Basin of North Dakota, eastern Montana, and northern South Dakota. Derivative maps of rectilinear, curvilinear, tonal, and hazy features were made using standard laboratory techniques. Mapping of rectilinears on both bands 5 and 7 over the entire region indicated the presence of a northeast-southwest and a northwest-southeast regional trend which is indicative of the bedrock fracture pattern in the basin. Curved lines generally bound areas of unique tone, maps of tonal patterns repeat many of the boundaries seen on curvilinear maps. Tones were best analyzed on spring and fall imagery in the Williston Basin. It is postulated that hazy areas are caused by atmospheric phenomena. The ability to use ERTS imagery as an exploration tool was examined where petroleum and gas are presently produced (Bottineau Field, Nesson and Antelope anticlines, Redwing Creek, and Cedar Creek anticline). It is determined that some tonal and linear features coincide with location of present production in Redwing and Cedar Creeks. In the remaining cases, targets could not be sufficiently well defined to justify this method.

  3. Process for applying light- or radiation-curable resin composition to polyolefin moldings

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Y.; Kitadono, K.; Kondo, T.; Shinonaga, H.

    1984-08-28

    A process for applying a light- or radiation-curable resin composition onto a polyolefin molding comprising surface treating a molding of polyolefin composition composed of 99.99 to 0 wt % of a polyolefin and 0.01 to 100 wt % of an olefinic polymeric compound, having polar groups represented by the formula, COOR, -OR-, -COO-CO-, -N(-R)-R', OR -C(-R)<(-O-CH(-R')-) wherein R and R' are each a hydrogen atom or a hydrocarbon group having 1 to 8 carbon atoms, by at least one pretreatment method selected from the group consisting of a treatment with a halogenated hydrocarbon solvent, a low temperature plasma treatment, a corona discharge treatment, a flame treatment and an alkali degreasing treatment, and applying onto the thus treated molding surface a light- or radiation-curable resin composition, is disclosed.

  4. Reaction in the Melt of Post-consumer Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) with Ester Functionalized Polyolefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, Maria-Beatrice; Savi, Stefania; Aglietto, Mauro; Ciardelli, Francesco

    2010-06-01

    The blending of PET from post-consumer packaging products with polyolefins can provide toughened materials. PET and polyolefins are immiscible polymers and to the above purpose, different method of reactive compatibilization are investigated to achieve a fine dispersion of polyolefin domains into a PET matrix. The use of a functionalized polyolefin, bearing reactive groups toward PET terminals, is a promising route to obtain grafted copolymers acting as interface stabilizers. In particular the use in the melt blending of ester or hydroxyl functionalized polyolefins in the presence of transesterification catalysts and or anhydride functionalized polyolefins as compatibilizer precursors were both investigated by focusing onto the relevant chemical aspects. The prepared blends were analyzed through suitable fractionation methods, such as selective extractions, and spectroscopic analysis in order to identify the molecular architecture of the PET-polyolefin copolymers macromolecules resulting from the process and study their effectiveness at the interface region. Moreover the phase morphology and the thermo-mechanical properties were investigated and correlated to structure of the macromolecular species in the system.

  5. Preparation and characterization of polyolefin/nanosilica composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailly, Mathieu

    Polypropylene (PP) and ethylene-co-octene copolymer (EOC) blends were prepared at various component ratios and reinforced with silica nanoparticles (SiO2). Strategies to improve filler dispersion involved the grafting of a silane coupling agent on the PP matrix, the addition of a maleated PP (PP-g-MA) as a compatibilizer and the use of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles. These approaches resulted in a fine dispersion of the nanoparticles within the PP phase and induced a reduction of the size of the EOC domains, due to a barrier effect. Tensile and flexural properties were significantly increased, whereas ductility and impact properties were not affected. These enhancements are attributed to the favourable microstructure of the blends, featuring a segregated microstructure, and to the improved interfacial adhesion between the functionalized polymer matrix and the surface of the nanoparticles. The microstructure and rheology of model melt compounded EOC-based nanocomposites were investigated. Functionalization of the polyolefin matrix was accomplished through silane grafting, or addition of a maleated EOC (EOC-g-MA) compatibilizer. Various grades of unmodified SiO2 having different specific surface areas (SSA), as well as a surface-modified grade were added to the EOC matrix at various loadings. The formation of covalent and hydrogen bonds between the silanol groups and the functionalized polymer generated strong polymer/filler (P/F) interactions, resulting in improved filler dispersion. Bound polymer characterization revealed that in the compatibilized materials, the amount of polymer physically attached to the nanoparticles was higher than in the non-compatibilized samples. In the absence of a compatibilizer, larger SiO2 aggregates formed upon increasing SSA because of increased probability of hydrogen bonding between the particles. The increased propensity for aggregation was revealed by time sweeps as well as by the increased strain sensitivity in stress sweeps

  6. Size distributions and elemental compositions of particulate matter on clear, hazy and foggy days in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yongjie; Wang, Yuesi; Huang, Weiwei; Hu, Bo; Wen, Tianxue; Zhao, Ya'nan

    2010-05-01

    Total suspended particulates (TSP) samples were collected using low pressure impactors (Andersen Series 20-800, USA) on typical clear, hazy and foggy days in Beijing in order to investigate the characteristics of size distributions and elemental compositions of particulate matter (PM) in different weather conditions. The concentrations of sixteen elements, including Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Ba, Tl and Pb were detected using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed that Ca, Al, Fe, Mg and Ba on foggy days were 2.0-2.6 times higher than on clear days, and 2.3-2.9 times higher than on hazy days. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, As, Se and Pb on foggy days were 163.5, 1186.7, 65.9, 32.0 and 708.2 ng m-3, respectively, in fine particles, and 68.1, 289.5, 19.8, 1.6 and 103.8 ng m-3, respectively, in coarse particles. This was 1.0-8.4 times higher and 1.4-7.4 times higher than on clear and hazy days, respectively. It is then shown that Mg, Al, Fe, Ca and Ba were mainly associated with coarse particles, peaking at 4.7-5.8 µm; that Cd, Se, Zn, As, Tl and Pb were most dominant in fine particles, peaking at 0.43-1.1 µm; and that Na, K, Ni, Cu and Mn had a multi-mode distribution, with peaks at 0.43-1.1 µm and 4.7-5.8 µm. The enrichment factors indicated that coal combustion along with vehicle and industry emissions may be the main sources of pollution elements.

  7. The Pale Orange Dot: Spectral Effects of a Hazy Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arney, G.; Domagal-Goldman, S.; Meadows, V.

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have suggested that the Archean Earth atmosphere had a photochemically generated hydrocarbon haze similar to that of Titan, with important climactic implications for our early planet (Pavlov et al. 2001, Trainer al al. 2006, Haqq-Misra et al. 2008, Domagal-Goldman et al. 2008, Wolf and Toon 2012, Zerkle et al. 2012). Haze forms when the ratio of CH4 to CO2 in the atmosphere reaches ~0.1 (Haqq-Misra et al. 2008), and the resultant hydrocarbon haze can contain fractal particles. Compared to spherical particles, fractal particles produce less antigreenhouse cooling and can act as a UV shield (Wolf and Toon 2012), potentially enhancing the habitability of our young planet. If hazy exoplanets are common, the effects of hazes on planetary spectra will be relevant to future exoplanet spectral characterization missions. Previous studies of the detectability of biosignatures on early Earth (e.g. Kaltenegger et al. 2007) have not incorporated the effect of hazes. We consider the implications of spherical and fractal organic aerosol hazes on the spectrum of Archean Earth, examining in particular the impact of a haze layer in discerning spectral features from H2O, CH4, and other gases that have been suggested as putative biosignatures on anoxic planets such as C2H6 (Domagal-Goldman et al. 2011). We use a modified version of the 1-D photochemical code developed originally by Kasting et al. (1979) to generate a self-consistent haze in the model Archean atmosphere. The 1-D line-by-line fully multiple scattering Spectral Mapping Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Model (SMART) (Meadows and Crisp 1996) is then used to generate synthetic spectra of early Earth with haze. In the thermal IR, haze decreases the effective emitting temperature, so the planet appears colder than its surface temperature would dictate. Haze scattering significantly depletes the radiation at short wavelengths, but at longer visible wavelengths the haze increases the reflectivity making the planet

  8. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) degradation of poly(olefin sulfone)s: Towards applications as EUV photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrie, Kirsten; Blakey, Idriss; Blinco, James; Gronheid, Roel; Jack, Kevin; Pollentier, Ivan; Leeson, Michael J.; Younkin, Todd R.; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2011-02-01

    Poly(olefin sulfone)s, formed by the reaction of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and an olefin, are known to be highly susceptible to degradation by radiation and thus have been identified as candidate materials for chain scission-based extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) resist materials. In order to investigate this further, the synthesis and characterisation of two poly(olefin sulfone)s namely poly(1-pentene sulfone) (PPS) and poly(2-methyl-1-pentene sulfone) (PMPS), was achieved and the two materials were evaluated for possible chain scission EUVL resist applications. It was found that both materials possess high sensitivities to EUV photons; however; the rates of outgassing were extremely high. The only observed degradation products were found to be SO 2 and the respective olefin suggesting that depolymerisation takes place under irradiation in a vacuum environment. In addition to depolymerisation, a concurrent conversion of SO 2 moieties to a sulfide phase was observed using XPS.

  9. Versatile pathways for in situ polyolefin functionalization with heteroatoms: catalytic chain transfer.

    PubMed

    Amin, Smruti B; Marks, Tobin J

    2008-01-01

    Chain-transfer processes represent highly effective chemical means to achieve selective, in situ d- and f-block-metal catalyzed functionalization of polyolefins. A diverse variety of electron-poor and electron-rich chain-transfer agents, including silanes, boranes, alanes, phosphines, and amines, effect efficient chain termination with concomitant carbon-heteroelement bond formation during single-site olefin-polymerization processes. High polymerization activities, control of polyolefin molecular weight and microstructure, and selective chain functionalization are all possible, with distinctly different mechanisms operative for the electron-poor and electron-rich reagents. A variety of metal centers (early transition metals, lanthanides, late transition metals) and single-site ancillary ligand arrays (metallocene, half-metallocene, non-metallocene) are able to mediate these selective chain-termination/functionalization processes.

  10. Determination of antioxidants in polyolefins using total dissolution methodology followed by RPLC.

    PubMed

    Green, Shayne; Bai, Snow; Cheatham, Mike; Cong, Rongjuan; Yau, Wallace

    2010-11-01

    Antioxidants are added to polyolefins to improve the stability of the resin from oxidation and degradation during processing of the finished article and to increase product lifetime. Without antioxidants, polyolefins would quickly degrade during and after the extrusion or thermoforming process, which would cause inferior appearance and physical properties. The proper level must be added to protect the polymer and to minimize cost. Antioxidants are usually extracted from the resin and the extract is analyzed by RPLC, GC, or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Unfortunately, many of these procedures require significant manual labor, time, and solvent, rendering them impractical for high-throughput work processes. In addition, they may not provide complete extraction of the additives depending upon the type of resin. A validated analytical method was needed for the determination of three common antioxidants, Irganox(®) 1010, Irganox(®) 1076, and Irgafos(®) 168 in polyolefin resins. This paper shows the determination of these antioxidants using dissolution followed by precipitation with o-xylene and methanol. Direct analysis of the solution is achieved in 8 min using RPLC.

  11. Material recycling of post-consumer polyolefin bulk plastics: Influences on waste sorting and treatment processes in consideration of product qualities achievable.

    PubMed

    Pfeisinger, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Material recycling of post-consumer bulk plastics made up of polyolefins is well developed. In this article, it is examined which effects on waste sorting and treatment processes influence the qualities of polyolefin-recyclats. It is shown that the properties and their changes during the product life-cycle of a polyolefin are defined by its way of polymerisation, its nature as a thermoplast, additives, other compound and composite materials, but also by the mechanical treatments during the production, its use where contact to foreign materials is possible and the waste sorting and treatment processes. Because of the sum of the effects influencing the quality of polyolefin-recyclats, conclusions are drawn for the material recycling of polyolefins to reach high qualities of their recyclats. Also, legal requirements like the EU regulation 1907/2006 concerning the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restrictions on chemicals are considered.

  12. Stability of Glutamate-Aspartate Cardioplegia Additive Solution in Polyolefin IV Bags

    PubMed Central

    Rush, Steven D.; Kim, Stephanie E.; Hughes, Susan E.; Gilbert, Justine M.; Ciancaglini, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Glutamate-aspartate cardioplegia additive solution (GACAS) is used to enhance myocardial preservation and left ventricular function during some cardiac surgeries. This study was designed to evaluate the stability of compounded GACAS stored in sterile polyolefin intravenous (IV) bags. The goal is to extend the default USP beyond-use date (BUD) and reduce unnecessary inventory waste. Methods: GACAS was compounded and packaged in sterile polyolefin 250 mL IV bags. The concentration was 232 mM for each amino acid. The samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C-8°C) and analyzed at 0, 1, and 2 months. At each time point, the samples were evaluated by pH measurement and visual inspection for color, clarity, and particulates. The samples were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for potency and degradation products. Due to the lack of ultraviolet (UV) chromophores of glutamate and aspartate, the samples were derivatized by ortho-phthalaldehyde prior to HPLC analysis. Results: The time zero samples of GACAS passed the physical, chemical, and microbiological tests. Over 2 months of storage, there was no significant change in pH or visual appearance for any of the stability samples. The HPLC results also indicated that the samples retained 101% to 103% of the label claim strengths for both amino acids. Conclusion: The physical and chemical stability of extemporaneously prepared GACAS has been confirmed for up to 2 months in polyolefin IV bags stored under refrigeration. With proper sterile compounding practice and microbiology testing, the BUD of this product can be extended to 2 months. PMID:26405344

  13. Thermotropic rod-like mesogens as stabilizers for polyolefins and polyvinyl chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmistrov, V. A.; Kuvshinova, S. A.; Koifman, O. I.

    2016-02-01

    The main approaches to stabilization of polymers and requirements to anti-ageing agents are discussed. Considerable attention is paid to the progress in the studies of the stabilizing activity of various substances in polyolefin- and polyvinyl chloride-based compositions. Particular demand for environmentally benign organic heat stabilizers and antioxidants is noted. The so-called mesogenic structures serving as effective light and heat stabilizers for polymer composites are presented. The effects of mesogens on the supramolecular structure of polyethylene, deformation and relaxation properties and thermal parameters as well as melt flow index, tribological properties and other properties of polymer materials are discussed. The bibliography includes 112 references.

  14. Hydrocracking of polyolefins to liquid fuels over strong solid acid catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatesh, K.R.; Hu, J.; Tierney, J.W.; Wender, I.

    1995-12-31

    Post-consumer plastic makes up about 13 wt% of the 48 million tons of total packaging wastes generated annually. Plastics are non-biodegradable, constitute a increasingly large volume of solid wastes (20 vol. % in 1990), and are not being recycled to a significant extent. Pyrolysis, as an alternative for plastic waste recycling, usually results in unsaturated and unstable oils of low yield and value. Significant amounts of char are formed on pyrolyzing plastic wastes. This paper describes the results of hydrocracking of polyolefins over sulfated zirconia catalysts.

  15. Evaluation of oxidative behavior of polyolefin geosynthetics utilizing accelerated aging tests based on temperature and pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengjia

    Polyolefin geosynthetics are susceptible to oxidation, which eventually leads to the reduction in their engineering properties. In the application of polyolefin geosynthetics, a major issue is an estimate of the materials durability (i.e. service lifetime) under various aging conditions. Antioxidant packages are added to the polyolefin products to extend the induction time, during which antioxidants are gradually depleted and polymer oxidation reactions are prevented. In this PhD study, an improved laboratory accelerating aging method under elevated and high pressure environments was applied to evaluate the combined effect of temperature and pressure on the depletion of the antioxidants and the oxidation of polymers. Four types of commercial polyolefn geosynthetic materials selected for aging tests included HDPE geogrid, polypropylene woven and nonwoven geotextiles. A total of 33 different temperature/pressure aging conditions were used, with the incubation duration up to 24 months. The applied oven temperature ranged from 35°C to 105°C and the partial oxygen pressure ranged from 0.005 MPa to 6.3 MPa. Using the Oxidative Induction Time (OIT) test, the antioxidant depletion, which is correlated to the decrease of the OIT value, was found to follow apparent first-order decay. The OIT data also showed that, the antioxidant depletion rate increased with temperature according to the Arrhenius equation, while under constant temperatures, the rate increased exponentially with the partial pressure of oxygen. A modified Arrhenius model was developed to fit the antioxidant depletion rate as a function of temperature and pressure and to predict the antioxidant lifetime under various field conditions. This study has developed new temperature/pressure incubation aging test method with lifetime prediction models. Using this new technique, the antioxidant lifetime prediction results are close to regular temperature aging data while the aging duration can be reduced considerably

  16. Neutral, single-component nickel (II) polyolefin catalysts that tolerate heteroatoms

    PubMed

    Younkin; Connor; Henderson; Friedrich; Grubbs; Bansleben

    2000-01-21

    More than half of the 170 million metric tons of polymers produced each year are polyolefins. Current technology uses highly active cationic catalysts, which suffer from an inability to tolerate heteroatoms such as oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur. These systems require scrupulously clean starting materials and activating cocatalysts. A family of catalysts has been developed whose members are tolerant of both heteroatoms and less pure starting materials. These heteroatom-tolerant neutral late transition metal complexes are in fact highly active systems that produce high-molecular-weight polyethylene, polymerize functionalized olefins, and require no cocatalyst.

  17. Structure-Property Relationships in Polyolefin Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansour, Ameara Salah

    Poly(cyclohexylethylene) (PCHE for a homopolymer or C in a block copolymer) is created by hydrogenating polystyrene, and this polymer exhibits interesting properties, such as a high glass transition temperature (147 °C), high flexural modulus (2.8 GPa), low stress optical coefficient (-0.2 * 10-9 Pa-1), and low cost. However, the inherently brittle nature of PCHE prevents it from being used in applications that simultaneously require high modulus, ductility, thermal stability, and optical clarity. Previous research has shown that incorporating PCHE into a block copolymer with rubbery poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (P) or poly(ethylethylene) (EE) or semicrystalline polyethylene (E) results in a tough material. In some cases, applications also require specific mechanical or optical properties. In order to tune these properties, this research examined tuning crystallinity using two methods: (1) by controlling the microstructure of the soft block by synthesizing a random copolymer of E and EE, and (2) by blending high C content pentablock copolymers with semicrystalline and rubbery minority components. In the first study, diblock copolymers of C(EcoEE) also were used to understand how the microstructure of the random copolymer affects the thermodynamics of the system. In the second study, CECEC and CPCPC, designed to form the same morphology (hexagonally packed cylinders with glassy C matrices), and have similar order-to-disorder transition temperatures and domain spacings, were blended together. Isothermal crystallization experiments were used to determine how the confining E and P in one domain affects the crystallization process. The effect of architecture, the state of the minority component, and the percent crystallinity on the mechanical properties of high glass content materials was also examined. These results were compared to the mechanical properties of homopolymer PCHE, polystyrene, and polycarbonate. The processing conditions needed to create smooth films of

  18. The use of thermal analysis to assess oxidative damage in polyolefins

    SciTech Connect

    Horrocks, A.R.; Liu, M.; Mwila, J.

    1997-12-31

    During the thermal oxidation of polyolefins, exemplified by isotactic polypropylene, few observable physical and chemical changes occur until embrittlement or similar failure. The increasing oxidative and auto-oxidative behavior that accompanies oxidation can be measured as a reducing oxidation induction time using isothermal thermal analysis. Alternatively, dynamic thermal analysis (DSC or TGA) may be used more conveniently to record the shift to lower temperatures of the post-fusion, oxidative exotherm quantified as an onset (T{sub on}) temperature. This paper collates data from a number of previous and current studies on the oxidative behavior of oriented polypropylene tapes and filaments exposed at elevated (130 C) temperature in air. During exposure, T{sub on} values decrease according to a power law dependence with time and these shifts may be used to assess degrees of oxidation present in aged specimens. The implications of these shifts are discussed in terms of monitoring in-service behavior of exposed polyolefins and their relationship to oxidative and auto-oxidative mechanisms are discussed.

  19. Polyolefin-supported recoverable/reusable Cr(III)-salen catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bergbreiter, David E; Hobbs, Christopher; Hongfa, Chayanant

    2011-01-21

    The design of functional soluble polyolefins for use as supports for salen ligands and metal complexes is described. Examples and applications that use both polyisobutylene (PIB)- and polyethylene (PE(Olig))-bound recoverable/recyclable salen ligands/metal complexes are detailed. In the case of using PIB as a support, the polymer-bound complexes can be recovered through the use of latent biphasic or a thermomorphic mixed solvent systems. In the case of PE(Olig)-supported complexes, the thermomorphic PE(Olig)-bound salen species can be dissolved in "hot" solvents and quantitatively recovered as solids upon cooling to room temperature. Both the PIB- and PE(Olig)-bound salen catalysts were shown to catalyze the ring-opening of epoxides with various nucleophiles. Both sorts of polyolefin-bound catalysts can be recycled and reused with no observed loss in activity. However, limitations of catalyst concentration make chiral versions of these complexes uncompetitive in comparison to conventional chiral salen catalysts that can be used in neat substrate at higher concentration to produce high enantioselectivity in the ring-opening products. The preparation of a PIB-bound "half-salen" catalyst was also briefly examined.

  20. Separation of short-chain branched polyolefins by high-temperature gradient adsorption liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Macko, Tibor; Brüll, Robert; Alamo, Rufina G; Stadler, Florian J; Losio, Simone

    2011-02-01

    A new separation principle was recently introduced into the analytical characterization of polyolefins by researchers from the German Institute for Polymers in Darmstadt. It was demonstrated that polyolefins can be selectively separated via high-performance liquid chromatography on the basis of their adsorption/desorption behaviours at temperatures as high as 160 °C. A Hypercarb® column packed with porous graphite gave the best results. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 1-decanol and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene. In this work, the same chromatographic system is applied to the separation of ethylene/alkene and ethylene/norbornene copolymers. It was found that the elution volumes of the samples correlate linearly with the average chemical composition of samples. The elution volume is indirectly proportional to the concentration of branches in the ethylene/alkene copolymer. Branching shortens the length of continuous methylene sequences of the polymer backbone, thus decreasing the probability of orientation of a methylene sequence in a flat conformation on the graphite surface, which enables the most intensive van der Waals interactions between the methylene backbone and the carbon surface. An opposite trend in the elution order has been found for ethylene/norbornene copolymers. The elution volume of the ethylene/norbornene copolymers increased with the concentration of norbornene. It indicates pronounced attractive interactions between graphite and the cyclic comonomer.

  1. Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Board of Education, PA. Div. of Instructional Materials.

    The Affective Curriculum Research Project produced five films and two records during a series of experimental summer programs. The films and records form part of a curriculum designed to teach to the concerns of students. The films were an effort to describe the Philadelphia Cooperative Schools Program, to explain its importance, and to…

  2. 21 CFR 175.320 - Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... room temperature. Dimerized vegetable oil or tall oil acids containing not more than 20 percent of... vegetable oil acids (containing not more than 20% of monomer acids) and ethylenediamine, as the basic resin... dimerized vegetable oil acids (containing not more than 10 percent of monomer acids), ethylenediamine, and...

  3. 21 CFR 175.320 - Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... room temperature. Dimerized vegetable oil or tall oil acids containing not more than 20 percent of... vegetable oil acids (containing not more than 20% of monomer acids) and ethylenediamine, as the basic resin... dimerized vegetable oil acids (containing not more than 10 percent of monomer acids), ethylenediamine, and...

  4. 21 CFR 175.320 - Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contact food at temperatures not to exceed room temperature. Dimerized vegetable oil or tall oil acids... Polyamide resins, derived from dimerized vegetable oil acids (containing not more than 20% of monomer acids... and a maximum amine value of 8.5 derived from dimerized vegetable oil acids (containing not more...

  5. 21 CFR 175.320 - Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... room temperature. Dimerized vegetable oil or tall oil acids containing not more than 20 percent of... vegetable oil acids (containing not more than 20% of monomer acids) and ethylenediamine, as the basic resin... dimerized vegetable oil acids (containing not more than 10 percent of monomer acids), ethylenediamine, and...

  6. 21 CFR 175.320 - Resinous and polymeric coatings for polyolefin films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... room temperature. Dimerized vegetable oil or tall oil acids containing not more than 20 percent of... vegetable oil acids (containing not more than 20% of monomer acids) and ethylenediamine, as the basic resin... dimerized vegetable oil acids (containing not more than 10 percent of monomer acids), ethylenediamine, and...

  7. 13C and 1H NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) studies of solid polyolefines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudby, M. E. A.; Harris, R. K.; Metcalfe, K.; Packer, K. J.; Smith, P. W. R.

    1983-01-01

    The basis of H-1 and C-13 high-resolution NMR investigations of solid polymers is outlined. The C-13 NMR spectra of solid syndiotactic and isotactic polypropene are discussed and their interpretation in terms of conformation and chain-packing effects are reviewed. The effects of decreasing temperature on the C-13 high-resolution spectrum of an annealed sample of isotactic polypropene is described and interpreted in terms of the crystal structure. The question of the proportion of the sample giving rise to C-13 signals is addressed and some results reported. The main cause for observing only part of the total sample is shown to be the H-1 rotating frame spin-lattice relaxation behavior. The H-1 spin-lattice relaxation and spectral characteristics of a number of polyolefin samples are summarized and the role of spin-diffusion discussed.

  8. Effect of Composition and Chain Length on χ Parameter of Polyolefin Blends: A Molecular Dynamics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Rajesh; Ravichandran, Ashwin; Chen, Chau-Chyun

    Polymer blends exhibit complex phase behavior which is governed by several factors including temperature, composition and molecular weight of components. The thermodynamics of polymer blends is commonly described using the χ parameter. While variety of experimental studies exist on identifying the factors affecting the χ parameter, a detailed molecular scale understanding of these is a topic of current research. We have studied the effect of blend composition and chain length on χ parameter values for two model polyolefin blends. The blends studied are: polyisobutylene (PIB)/polybutadiene (PBD) and polyethylene (PE)/atactic polypropylene (aPP). Molecular dynamics simulations in combination with the integral equation theory formalism proposed by Schweizer and Curro [Journal of Chemical Physics, 91, 5059 (1989)] are used to determine the χ parameter for these systems and thereby study the effect of blend composition and chain length. The resulting χ parameter values are explained in terms of the molecular structure of these polymeric systems.

  9. Effect of microstructure on the thermo-oxidation of solid isotactic polypropylene-based polyolefins

    PubMed Central

    Hoyos, Mario; Tiemblo, Pilar; Gómez-Elvira, José Manuel

    2008-01-01

    In the present work we aim to clarify the role of the microstructure and the crystalline distribution from the thermo-oxidation of solid isotactic PP (iPP) and ethylene-propylene (EP) copolymers. The effects of the content and quality of the isotacticity interruptions, together with the associated average isotactic length, on the induction time (ti) as well as on the activation energy (Eact) of the thermo-oxidation are analysed. Both parameters have been found to change markedly at an average isotactic length (n1) of 30 propylene units. While ti reaches a minimum when n1 is approximately 30 units, Eact increases quasi-exponentially as the number of units decreases from 30. This variation can be explained in terms of changes induced in the crystalline interphase, i.e. local molecular dynamics, which are closely linked to the initiation of the thermo-oxidation of isotactic PP-based polyolefins. PMID:27877971

  10. Flow-Enhanced Crystallization and Morphology Development of Blends of Isotactic Polypropylene and Elastomeric Polyolefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Ballester, Lucia; Thurman, Derek W.; Korfield, Julia A.

    2002-03-01

    Studies on flow-induced crystallization and morphology were conducted on impact polyolefin materials by in situ rheo-optical measurements and ex situ microscopic observations. An homologous series of materials consisting of an isotactic polypropylene base resin (PP), that resin with nucleant added (PPN), and the nucleated resin with elastomer blended as a minor component (PPNB) was examined. All materials were subjected to a short shear pulse, after which enhanced crystallization kinetics was observed. The influence on crystallization and structure of the heterogeneous nucleant on these samples was studied for different shear wall stresses and shearing times. Their effect decreased at higher shear stresses, which suggests that at such conditions the amount of homogeneous flow-induced nuclei dominates. Also, the role of melt rheology was investigated by shearing samples near the nominal melting point and allowing to relax before cooling to crystallization.

  11. Effect of LOCA simulation procedures on cross-linked polyolefin cable's performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1984-04-01

    Electrical and mechanical properties of three commercial cross-linked polyolefin (XLPO) materials, typically used as electrical cable insulation, have been monitored during these simulations of nuclear power plant aging and accident stresses. For one XLPO cable accelerated thermal aging is performed, then the samples are irradiated to the combined aging and LOCA total dose. Finally, a steam exposure is applied. For a second and third set of XLPO cables simultaneous applications of elevated temperature and radiation stresses are used to preaccident age specimens. These aging exposures are followed by simultaneous and steam exposures to simulate a LOCA environment. The measurement parameters during these tests included: dc insulation resistance, ac leakage current, ultimate tensile strength, ultimate tensile elongation, percentage dimensional changes, and percentage moisture absorption. Test results for three XLPO materials are presented.

  12. Processing integral-skin polyolefin foams in single-charge rotational foam molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop-Iliev, Remon

    This thesis focuses on establishing the scientific and engineering foundations for gaining a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms and critical parameters governing the processing of integral-skin low-density polyolefin foams in rotational foam molding. The presented research is particularly intended to broaden the knowledge in the field of manufacturing adjacent, but clearly distinct, layers of non-cellular and cellular structures, consisting of identical or compatible plastic grades, using a single-charge processing concept. Although this technology is beneficial for the efficacy of the molding process and the structural homogeneity of the moldings, its optimization raised a fairly large number of fundamental issues that had to be resolved through further research. In this context, an attempt has been made to establish rigorous, experimentally validated, theoretical models that describe the phenomena identified as the fundamental challenges of this technology. The major contributions of this thesis include: (i) optimization of the single-charge rotational foam molding process for the manufacture of both PE/PE and PE/PP integral-skin cellular composites, (ii) development of a two-step oven temperature profile that prevents the foamable resins invading the solid skin layer and ensures that skin formation always completes prior to the activation of the foamable resin, (iii) fundamental study of the adherence behavior of powders and foamable pellets to a high-temperature rotating mold wall, (iv) fundamental study of the lifespan of CBA-blown bubbles in non-pressurized non-isothermal polymer melts using hot-stage optical microscopy and digital imaging, (v) development of a detailed theoretical model involving diffusion, surface tension, and viscosity to simulate the observed foaming mechanism, and (vi) fundamental study of the rotofoamablility of polyolefin resins using both dry blending and melt compounding based methods and characterization of rheological and

  13. Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Yayun; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Zhang; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Liu, J.-M.; Ishiwara, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we investigated the microstructure and electrical properties of Bi2SiO5 (BSO) doped SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) films deposited by chemical solution deposition. X-ray diffraction observation indicated that the crystalline structures of all the BSO-doped SBT films are nearly the same as those of a pure SBT film. Through BSO doping, the 2Pr and 2Ec values of SBT films were changed from 15.3 μC/cm2 and 138 kV/cm of pure SBT to 1.45 μC/cm2 and 74 kV/cm of 10 wt.% BSO-doped SBT. The dielectric constant at 1 MHz for SBT varied from 199 of pure SBT to 96 of 10 wt.% BSO-doped SBT. The doped SBT films exhibited higher leakage current than that of non-doped SBT films. Nevertheless, all the doped SBT films still had small dielectric loss and low leakage current. Our present work will provide useful insights into the BSO doping effects to the SBT films, and it will be helpful for the material design in the future nonvolatile ferroelectric memories.

  14. Polyolefin nanocomposites

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, David J.

    2007-01-02

    The present invention relates to methods for the preparation of clay/polymer nanocomposites. The methods include combining an organophilic clay and a polymer to form a nanocomposite, wherein the organophilic clay and the polymer each have a peak recrystallization temperature, and wherein the organophilic clay peak recrystallization temperature sufficiently matches the polymer peak recrystallization temperature such that the nanocomposite formed has less permeability to a gas than the polymer. Such nanocomposites exhibit 2, 5, 10, or even 100 fold or greater reductions in permeability to, e.g., oxygen, carbon dioxide, or both compared to the polymer. The invention also provides a method of preparing a nanocomposite that includes combining an amorphous organophilic clay and an amorphous polymer, each having a glass transition temperature, wherein the organophilic clay glass transition temperature sufficiently matches the polymer glass transition temperature such that the nanocomposite formed has less permeability to a gas than the polymer.

  15. [Characterization of chemical compositions in PM2.5 and its impact on hazy weather during 16th Asian Games in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Tao, Jun; Chai, Fa-He; Gao, Jian; Cao, Jun-Ji; Liu, Sui-Xin; Zhang, Ren-Jian

    2013-02-01

    Aerosol samples for PM2.5 were collected days and nights from 4 to 30 November 2010 in Guangzhou. The concentrations of organic carbon, element carbon, and water-solubility ions of all particle samples were determined by thermal/optical carbon analyzer and ion chromatography, respectively. In-situ online PM,, mass concentrations, light extinction coefficients (bext), and selected meteorological parameters for this period were also measured. Temporal variation of PM,, mass concentrations and its relationship with bext were discussed, and bext was reconstructed by revised IMPROVE formula. The results showed that the average mass concentration ol PM2.5 was (77.0 +/- 24.4) microg.m-3 during the Asian Games period, which was 27.8% lower than that of the period before Asian Games. PM2.5 and relative humidity were the dominant factors contributing to hazy weather. The average value of bx, was 418 Mm-1 during the Asian Games period, which was 28.3% lower than that of the period before Asian Games. The major contributors to bext included (NH4) 2SO4, POM, and LAC, which accounted for 87.0% of bext during the Asian Games period. A series of stringent air quality control measures were implemented by the Guangzhou Municipal Government and other cooperative cities, which greatly alleviated the hazy weathers in Guangzhou urban area during the Asian Games period.

  16. Functionalization of polyolefins via borane/oxygen chemistry: Synthesis and reaction mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janvikul, Wanida

    This dissertation describes a novel method to functionalize polyolefins by the borane approach. Although the borane/oxygen chemistry has been extensively studied since 1950, its reaction mechanism is still ambiguous. It has been generally accepted that the reaction proceeds via a free radical process, and a boronperoxide is an initial product of the autoxidation of an alkylborane. Many speculations have been made on how this peroxide decomposes and how free radicals are formed at room temperature. We have studied the autoxidation of alkyl-9-BBN compounds by means of sp1H NMR, sp{13}C NMR, sp{11}B NMR and ESR. The alkyl-9-BBN compounds essentially differ from other alkylboranes in that they can be selectively oxidized by oxygen under a controlled condition. The oxidative selectivity was proved by sp{13}C NMR. The decomposition of the boronperoxide was trailed by ESR analysis. An alkoxyl radical, not an alkyl radical, was detected at room temperature, which was contradictory to the mechanism that has been postulated by several authors. The oxidated adducts from the alkyl-9-BBN/oxygen system were used as initiators in the polymerization of some vinyl monomers, i.e., methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethyl methacrylate, vinyl acetate, and t-butyl methacrylate. The polymerization, under a well-controlled condition, seemed to have a "pseudo-living" nature as the molecular weights of the resulting polymers increased with the reaction times. The synthese of polyolefin graft copolymers were carried out based on the autoxidation and polymerization studies. The process involves hydroboration of some commercial polymers containing unsaturation with 9-borabicyclononane (9-BBN). The resulting secondary alkyl-9-BBN moieties in the starting materials were then exposed to oxygen in the presence of free radical polymerizable monomers, i.e., MMA and acrylonitrile. Under certain conditions, the selective autoxidation reaction of secondary alkyl-9-BBN took place to create desirable polymeric

  17. Wasp-17b versus other hot-Jupiters being surveyed with HST: A clear versus dusty/hazy atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, G. E.; Nikolov, N.; Wakeford, H.; Thompson, R.

    2014-03-01

    A large HST optical and near-IR spectral survey of eight hot-Jupiter exoplanets is being carried out (D. Sing, PI) in which we are studying planets spanning a large temperature regime (1000-3000 K). Together with previous HST observations, this program is showing hot Jupiters with lower atmospheres where the optical and near-IR transit signatures are dominated by, or have a significant contribution from, scattering by aerosols. This is the well-known case for the relatively cooler HD 189733b on which fine silicate grains may have been detected (Pont et al. 2008, 2013; Lecavelier et al. 2008; Sing et al. 2011; Evans et al. 2013), the more recent case of the hotter Hat-P-1b (Wakeford et al. 2013; Nikolov et al. 2013), and the surprising case of the very-hot-Jupiter Wasp-12b on which fine-grains of corundum may have been detected (Sing et al. 2013). Evidence for aerosols has also been found with Kepler for Kepler-7b (Demory et al. 2013). Under this large HST survey, we have recently observed transits of Wasp-17b in the optical with HST/STIS, and we are combining these data with archival HST/WFC3 near-IR (1.09-1.69 microns) transit data and with Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 and 8 um transit photometry (Ballester et al. 2014). Wasp-17b presents an interesting case of the most highly inflated hot Jupiter (0.49 MJup, 1.99 RJup) known to date that is also on a retrograde orbit (at 0.0515 AU around a hot F6V star) indicating a violent history for the system (Anderson et al. 2010). The average dayside temperature for the planet is 1580-1880 K (Anderson et al. 2011). In contrast to the above cases of dusty/hazy atmospheres, our preliminary results show a clear atmosphere on Wasp-17b. The planet presents the best case so far of a hot Jupiter that is consistent with a cloud-free atmosphere given that the optical radius is much smaller than the near-IR radius (i.e., scattering by dust or haze is not obscuring the expected transit signatures of a clear lower atmosphere). Water absorption is

  18. Multiresonant layered plasmonic films

    SciTech Connect

    DeVetter, Brent M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Schemer-Kohrn, Alan; Alvine, Kyle J.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-resonant nanoplasmonic films have numerous applications in areas such as nonlinear optics, sensing, and tamper indication. While techniques such as focused ion beam milling and electron beam lithography can produce high-quality multi-resonant films, these techniques are expensive, serial processes that are difficult to scale at the manufacturing level. Here, we present the fabrication of multi-resonant nanoplasmonic films using a layered stacking technique. Periodically-spaced gold nanocup substrates were fabricated using self-assembled polystyrene nanospheres followed by oxygen plasma etching and metal deposition via magnetron sputter coating. By adjusting etch parameters and initial nanosphere size, it was possible to achieve an optical response ranging from the visible to the near-infrared. Singly resonant, flexible films were first made by performing peel-off using an adhesive-coated polyolefin film. Through stacking layers of the nanofilm, we demonstrate fabrication of multi-resonant films at a fraction of the cost and effort as compared to top-down lithographic techniques.

  19. Aging predictions in nuclear power plants: Crosslinked polyolefin and EPR cable insulation materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, K.T.; Clough, R.L.

    1991-06-01

    In two earlier reports, we derived a time-temperature-dose rate superposition methodology, which, when applicable, can be used to predict cable degradation versus dose rate, temperature and exposure time. This methodology results in long-term predictive capabilities at the low dose rates appropriate to ambient nuclear power plant aging environments. The methodology was successfully applied to numerous important cable materials used in nuclear applications and the extrapolated predictions were verified by comparisons with long-term (7 to 12 year) results for similar or identical materials aged in nuclear environments. In this report, we test the methodology on three crosslinked polyolefin (CLPO) and two ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable insulation materials. The methodology applies to one of the CLPO materials and one of the EPR materials, allowing predictions to be made for these materials under low dose-rate, low temperature conditions. For the other materials, it is determined that, at low temperatures, a decrease in temperature at a constant radiation dose rate leads to an increase in the degradation rate for the mechanical properties. Since these results contradict the fundamental assumption underlying time-temperature-dose rate superposition, this methodology cannot be applied to such data. As indicated in the earlier reports, such anomalous results might be expected when attempting to model data taken across the crystalline melting region of semicrystalline materials. Nonetheless, the existing experimental evidence suggests that these CLPO and EPR materials have substantial aging endurance for typical reactor conditions. 28 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Physico-chemical modification of polyolefins irradiated by swift heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, P. Yu.; Didyk, A. Yu.; Salina, A. G.

    1996-02-01

    The physico-chemical modifications of polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene (PE) induced by 1 MeV/u Xe ions were studied. The irradiated samples were investigated ex situ by means of ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, solubility measurements and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The formation of double bonds, dienes and trienes was observed both in PE and PP. The efficiency of the generation of unsaturated chemical bonds was found to depend on small amounts of aromatic additives in PP. Similarly, the track etch rate in PP increases with increasing concentration of antioxidant molecules. Rough estimates of radiolytic yields of different structures were carried out on the basis of the UV and GPC measurements. It is apparent that there are two basically different processes induced by swift heavy ions passing through the polyolefin: (a) local intratrack reactions; (b) reactions induced by active species leaving the tracks and diffusing into surrounding matrix. The former process leads to the formation of etchable damage. The latter one may cause a mutual influence of tracks even at fairly low ion fluences.

  1. Critical role of morphology on the dielectric constant of semicrystalline polyolefins.

    PubMed

    Misra, Mayank; Mannodi-Kanakkithodi, Arun; Chung, T C; Ramprasad, Rampi; Kumar, Sanat K

    2016-06-21

    A particularly attractive method to predict the dielectric properties of materials is density functional theory (DFT). While this method is very popular, its large computational requirements allow practical treatments of unit cells with just a small number of atoms in an ordered array, i.e., in a crystalline morphology. By comparing DFT and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations on the same ordered arrays of functional polyolefins, we confirm that both methodologies yield identical estimates for the dipole moments and hence the ionic component of the dielectric storage modulus. Additionally, MD simulations of more realistic semi-crystalline morphologies yield estimates for this polar contribution that are in good agreement with the limited experiments in this field. However, these predictions are up to 10 times larger than those for pure crystalline simulations. Here, we show that the constraints provided by the surrounding chains significantly impede dipolar relaxations in the crystalline regions, whereas amorphous chains must sample all configurations to attain their fully isotropic spatial distributions. These results, which suggest that the amorphous phase is the dominant player in the context, argue strongly that the proper polymer morphology needs to be modeled to ensure accurate estimates of the ionic component of the dielectric constant.

  2. The use of polyolefins-based hot melts for wood bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajaks, J. A.; Bakradze, G. G.; Viksne, A. V.; Reihmane, S. A.; Kalnins, M. M.; Krutohvostov, R.

    2009-11-01

    The shear strength of three-layer birch veneer/polyolefin/birch veneer lap joints has been investigated. It was found that the optimum technological parameters for producing three-layer laminated systems (plywood) at 180°C were a pressure time of 1-3 min (plus 3-min preheating) and pressure of 5-10 MPa. All the systems investigated exhibited relatively high values of shear strength, which were higher than those of the industrially produced plywood based on phenol-formaldehyde glues (3.5-5 MPa). It is shown that the use of interfacial modifiers can increase the shear strength by 50% compared with its initial values. The high shear resistance is explained by the high mechanical adhesion between the hot melts and the wood substrate. After a prolonged moisture influence (70 days at relative air humidity of 80%), all the systems investigated showed a considerable (up to 25%) increase in the shear strength. This can be explained by swelling of birch veneer, which gives rise to additional resistance forces between the hot melt and the substrate.

  3. Cross-linking of polyolefins: a study by thermoporosimetry with benzene derivatives as swelling solvents.

    PubMed

    Billamboz, Nicolas; Nedelec, Jean-Marie; Grivet, Manuel; Baba, Mohamed

    2005-06-13

    The solvents o-, m-, p-xylene, p-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, and naphthalene were calibrated as condensates used in the thermoporosimetry technique. Exponential relationships were found connecting the pore radii R(p) (in nm) and the freezing-point depression of the swelling solvent deltaT (in degrees C) on the one hand and the apparent energy of crystallization W(a) (in J cm(-3)) and deltaT on the other hand: R(p) = t exp[-1/(c deltaT)]; W(a) = W0 exp(deltaT/f). Pore- or mesh-size distributions can be derived from differential scanning calorimetry results by using the following equation: dV(p)/dR(p) = k{[cY(T)deltaT2]/[W(a)R(p)]}. All the numerical parameters were determined. Polyethylene and polypropylene samples, cross-linked with high-energy electrons or gamma-rays, were submitted to thermoporosimetry study. Relative mesh-size distributions, which depend on the polymer/solvent pair, were calculated for these polyolefins with o-, m-, and p-xylene as solvent and were found to be in the same sequence as those of their degrees of swelling and the irradiation doses received.

  4. Use of Taylor rod-on-anvil impact experiments to investigate high strain rate behavior in polyolefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luce, Amanda; Breidenich, Jennifer; Kannan, Abhiram; Thadhani, Naresh; Bucknall, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Taylor rod-on-anvil impact experiments have been performed on a range of polyolefins. At impact velocity greater than 250 m/s there are significant differences observed in the deformation behavior between the four polymers, which cannot be explained based on current understanding. During the initial stages of impact, mechno-luminescence is observed in all polymers and at all impact velocities. The location and length scale of this luminescence is consistent with the observed location of temperature increases that approach, and in some instances, exceed the melt point of the polymers.

  5. The single chain limit of structural relaxation in a polyolefin blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, Andrew F.; Maranas, Janna K.

    2006-07-01

    The influence of composition on component dynamics and relevant static properties in a miscible polymer blend is investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. Emphasis is placed on dynamics in the single chain dilution limit, as this limit isolates the role of inherent component mobility in the polymer's dynamic behavior when placed in a blend. For our systems, a biased local concentration affecting dynamics must arise primarily from chain connectivity, which is quantified by the self-concentration, because concentration fluctuations are minimized due to restraints on chain lengths arising from simulation considerations. The polyolefins simulated [poly(ethylene-propylene) (PEP) and poly(ethylene-butene) (PEB)] have similar structures and glass transition temperatures, and all interactions are dispersive in nature. We find that the dependence of dynamics upon composition differs between the two materials. Specifically, PEB (slower component) is more influenced by the environment than PEP. This is linked to a smaller self-concentration for PEB than PEP. We examine the accuracy of the Lodge-McLeish model (which is based on chain connectivity acting over the Kuhn segment length) in predicting simulation results for effective concentration. The model predicts the simulation results with high accuracy when the model's single parameter, the self-concentration, is calculated from simulation data. However, when utilizing the theoretical prediction of the self-concentration the model is not quantitatively accurate. The ability of the model to link the simulated self-concentration with biased local compositions at the Kuhn segment length provides strong support for the claim that chain connectivity is the leading cause of distinct mobility in polymer blends. Additionally, the direct link between the willingness of a polymer to be influenced by the environment and the value of the self-concentration emphasizes the importance of the chain connectivity. Furthermore, these

  6. Nitrate leaching and nitrogen recovery following application of polyolefin-coated urea to potato.

    PubMed

    Zvomuya, Francis; Rosen, Carl J; Russelle, Michael P; Gupta, Satish C

    2003-01-01

    High N fertilizer and irrigation amounts applied to potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) on coarse-textured soils often result in nitrate (NO3) leaching and low recovery of applied fertilizer N. This 3-yr study compared the effects of two rates (140 and 280 kg N ha(-1)) of a single polyolefin-coated urea (PCU) application versus split applications of urea on 'Russet Burbank' potato yield and on NO3 leaching and N recovery efficiency (RE) on a loamy sand. Standard irrigation was applied in all years and excessive irrigation was used in another experiment in the third year. At the recommended rate of 280 kg N ha(-1), NO3 leaching during the growing season was 34 to 49% lower with PCU than three applications of urea. Under standard irrigation in the third year, leaching from five applications of urea (280 kg N ha(-1)) was 38% higher than PCU. Under leaching conditions in the first year (> or = 25 mm drainage water in at least one 24-h period) and excessive irrigation in the third year, PCU at 280 kg N ha(-1) improved total and marketable tuber yields by 12 to 19% compared with three applications of urea. Fertilizer N RE estimated by the difference and 15N isotope methods at the 280 kg N ha(-1) rate was, on average, higher with PCU (mean 50%) than urea (mean 43%). Fertilizer N RE values estimated by the isotope method (mean 51%) were greater than those estimated by the difference method (mean 47%). Results from this study indicate that PCU can reduce leaching and improve N recovery and tuber yield during seasons with high leaching.

  7. Application of NIR hyperspectral imaging for post-consumer polyolefins recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serranti, Silvia; Gargiulo, Aldo; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-06-01

    An efficient large-scale recycling approach of particulate solid wastes is always accomplished according to the quality of the materials fed to the recycling plant and/or to any possible continuous and reliable control of the different streams inside the processing plants. Processing technologies addressed to recover plastics need to be extremely powerful, since they must be relatively simple to be cost-effective, but also accurate enough to create high-purity products and able to valorize a substantial fraction of the plastic waste materials into useful products of consistent quality in order to be economical. On the other hand, the potential market for such technologies is large and the boost of environmental regulations, and the oil price increase, has made many industries interested both in "general purpose" waste sorting technologies, as well as in developing more specialized sensing devices and/or inspection logics for a better quality assessment of plastic products. In this perspective recycling strategies have to be developed taking into account some specific aspects as i) mixtures complexity: the valuable material has to be extracted from the residue, ii) overall production: the profitability of plastic can be achieved only with mass production and iii) costs: low-cost sorting processes are required. In this paper new analytical strategies, based on hyperspectral imaging in the near infrared field (1000-1700 nm), have been investigated and set up in order to define sorting and/or quality control logics that could be profitably applied, at industrial plant level, for polyolefins recycling.

  8. Nonlinear rheology and strain recovery of short chain branched polyolefin elastomers and thermoplastic olefin blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patham, Bhaskar

    Polyolefin elastomers are random copolymers having a polyethylene backbone with the higher olefinic comonomer incorporated as short-chain branches. These random copolymers are widely used as polymer modifiers for thermoplastic materials such as polypropylenes, resulting in thermoplastic olefin (TPO) blends. This thesis addresses the nonlinear rheological behavior of the elastomers and then of the TPO blends. The effects of varying short chain branch density (SCB) on the melt rheology of three ethylene-octene random copolymers have been investigated. In particular, the strain-hardening behavior in extensional flow and strain recovery following nonlinear shear creep has been evaluated. The zero-shear viscosity followed trends in the backbone molecular weight closely. While the three copolymers were indistinguishable in linear viscoelastic creep and recovery, recovery following nonlinear shear creep decreased progressively with increasing SCB density. This reveals that the extent of rapid chain equilibration that occurs over Rouse time scales at higher strains was progressively lower with increasing SCB density. Strain hardening in uniaxial extensional flow was observed for all three copolymers. At strain rates below the primitive chain equilibration rates, strain hardening increases progressively with increasing SCB density. At higher rates, upon onset of primitive chain stretch, the strain hardening behavior for the three melts merges. Two thermoplastic olefin (TPO) blends were characterized in the context of injection molding; the surface morphology of injection molded tensile bars with these materials showed surface defects or flow marks to different extents. The flow marks were traced to different degrees of strain recovery in the dispersed phases of the two blends. This recovery occurred over injection molding timescales of the order of a few seconds. Strain recovery after shear creep was higher in the blend that displayed more severe flow marks in injection

  9. Heterogeneous polymer modification: Polyolefin maleation in supercritical carbon dioxide and amorphous fluoropolymer surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Heather J.

    1999-11-01

    Three distinct heterogeneous polymer modification reactions are explored in this work. The first is a bulk reaction commonly conducted on polyolefins---the free radical addition of maleic anhydride. This reaction was run using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) as the solvent. The second was the chemical surface modification of an amorphous fluorocopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and a perfluorodioxole monomer (Teflon AF). Several reactions were explored to reduce the surface of the fluorocopolymer for the enhancement of wettability. The last modification was also on Teflon AF and involved the physical modification of the surface through the transport polymerization of xylylene in order to synthesize a novel bilayer membrane. The bulk maleation of poly-4-methyl-1-pentene (PMP) was the focus of the first project. SC CO2 was utilized as both solvent and swelling agent to promote this heterogeneous reaction and led to successful grafting of anhydride groups on both PMP and linear low density polyethylene. Varying the reaction conditions and reagent concentrations allowed optimization of the reaction. The grafted anhydride units were found to exist as single maleic and succinic grafts, and the PMP became crosslinked upon maleation. The surface of a fluoropolymer can be difficult to alter. An examination of three reactions was made to determine the reactivity of Teflon AF: sodium naphthalenide treatment (Na-Nap), aluminum metal modification through deposition and dissolution, and mercury/ammonia photosensitization. The fluorocopolymer with the lower perfluorodioxole percentage was found to be more reactive towards modification with the Na-Nap treatment. The other modification reactions appeared to be nearly equally reactive toward both fluorocopolymers. The functionality of the Na-Nap-treated surface was examined in detail with the use of several derivatization reactions. In the final project, an asymmetric gas separation membrane was synthesized using Teflon AF as

  10. The use of thermovision technique to estimate the properties of highly filled polyolefins composites with calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Jakubowska, Paulina; Klozinski, Arkadiusz

    2015-05-22

    The aim of this work was to determine the possibility of thermovision technique usage for estimating thermal properties of ternary highly filled composites (PE-MD/iPP/CaCO{sub 3}) and polymer blends (PE-MD/iPP) during mechanical measurements. The ternary, polyolefin based composites that contained the following amounts of calcium carbonate: 48, 56, and 64 wt % were studied. All materials were applying under tensile cyclic loads (x1, x5, x10, x20, x50, x100, x500, x1000). Simultaneously, a fully radiometric recording, using a TESTO infrared camera, was created. After the fatigue process, all samples were subjected to static tensile test and the maximum temperature at break was also recorded. The temperature values were analyzed in a function of cyclic loads and the filler content. The changes in the Young’s modulus values were also investigated.

  11. The use of thermovision technique to estimate the properties of highly filled polyolefins composites with calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowska, Paulina; Klozinski, Arkadiusz

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the possibility of thermovision technique usage for estimating thermal properties of ternary highly filled composites (PE-MD/iPP/CaCO3) and polymer blends (PE-MD/iPP) during mechanical measurements. The ternary, polyolefin based composites that contained the following amounts of calcium carbonate: 48, 56, and 64 wt % were studied. All materials were applying under tensile cyclic loads (x1, x5, x10, x20, x50, x100, x500, x1000). Simultaneously, a fully radiometric recording, using a TESTO infrared camera, was created. After the fatigue process, all samples were subjected to static tensile test and the maximum temperature at break was also recorded. The temperature values were analyzed in a function of cyclic loads and the filler content. The changes in the Young's modulus values were also investigated.

  12. Synthesis of chain-end functionalized polyolefins and fluoropolymers and applications in nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiming

    temperature of 75°C, the high concentration of hydrogen suppresses catalytic activity. The chain ends consist of predominately terminal p-MS and a small amount of unsaturated end groups. A higher p-MS concentration or introduction of hydrogen eliminates the undesirable unsaturated chain ends. Furthermore, we also study a new chemical route to prepared side chain functionalized polyolefin, especially the desirable MA (maleic anhydride) -modified PE and PP polymers with well-controlled molecular structures. The chemistry involves a post-polymerization process using borane/O2 stable radical initiators to create polymeric radicals that are simultaneously stabilized by in situ formed *O-BR2 stable radicals. The dormant polymeric radicals do not undergo undesirable side reactions (crosslinking and degradation, etc.), but can react with maleic anhydride. Some MAH-modified PP polymers with high molecular weight and controlled MAH content have been obtained. They have been proven to be the effective compatibilizers to improve the interfacial adhesion in the PP/Nylon 11 blends. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  13. Analysis of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons migrating from a polyolefin-based hot-melt adhesive into food.

    PubMed

    Lommatzsch, Martin; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Simat, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Hot-melt adhesives are widely utilised to glue cardboard boxes used as food packaging material. They have to comply with the requirements of Article 3 of the European Framework Regulation for food contact materials (1935/2004). The hot melt raw materials analysed mainly consisted of paraffinic waxes, hydrocarbon resins and polyolefins. The hydrocarbon resins, functioning as tackifiers, were the predominant source of hydrocarbons of sufficient volatility to migrate into dry foods: the 18 hydrocarbon resins analysed contained 8.2-118 g kg(-1) saturated and up to 59 g kg(-1) aromatic hydrocarbons eluted from GC between n-C16 and n-C24, substantially more than the paraffinic waxes and the polyolefins. These tackfier resins, especially the oligomers ≤ C24, have been characterised structurally by GC×GC-MS and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Migration into food was estimated using a simulating system with polenta as food simulant, which was verified by the analysis of a commercial risotto rice sample packed in a virgin fibre folding box sealed with a hot melt. About 0.5-1.5% of the potentially migrating substances (between n-C16 and n-C24) of a hot melt were found to be transferred into food under storage conditions, which can result in a food contamination in the order of 1 mg kg(-1) food (depending on the amount of potentially migrating substances from the hot melt, the hot melt surface, amount of food, contact time etc.). Migrates from hot melts are easily mistaken for mineral oil hydrocarbons from recycled cardboard.

  14. Acute Degradation of Surface-Bound Unsaturated Polyolefins in Common Solvents under Ambient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lerum, Maria Felisa Z.; Chen, Wei

    2009-01-01

    We describe the detachment of covalently grafted polybutadiene and polynorbornenechains – which were prepared by surface-initiated ring-opening metathesis polymerization (SiROMP) – from Si/SiO2 substrates upon brief exposure to common solvents in air. Degradation and disappearance of grafted polybutadiene films after successive rinses with dichloromethane was monitored by ellipsometry. Changes in surface topography were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The rapid auto-oxidation of allylic carbon-hydrogen bonds renders these thin films extremely susceptible to degradation under ambient conditions. Polymers in the tethered state suffer more acute degradation (on the time scale of seconds) compared to those dissolved in solution (not detectable after days). To prevent degradation, unsaturated polymersprepared by SiROMP and the subsequent conversion (of unsaturated groups) need to be carriedout under inert atmosphere. For example, smooth polybutadiene thin films of ~ 100 Å thick were covalently attached to silicon substrates via SiROMP of cyclooctadiene in the vapor phase. Solvent rinsing to remove unreacted monomers and free oligomers/polymers was carried out prior to the conversion of double bonds to epoxide groups. When these steps were carried out under nitrogen, negligible film loss was observed and surface topography of the thin film was preserved. Once the unsaturation was removed from polybutadiene, the epoxidized and hydroxylated polybutadiene films were stable toward solvent exposure in air. PMID:19788207

  15. [Pollution Characteristics and Light Extinction Effects of Water-soluble Ions in PM2.5 During Winter Hazy Days at North Suburban Nanjing].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yao-yao; Ma, Yan; Zheng, Jun; Cui, Fen-ping; Wang, Li

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the characteristics of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 and their contribution to light extinction in haze days, on-line monitoring of PM2.5. was conducted at North Suburban Nanjing from 25 January through 3 February, 2013. Water-soluble components were collected with a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS), and analyzed by ion chromatography (IC) for the contents of SO4(2-), NO3-, NH4+, Cl-, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ Simultaneously particle size distributions were measured using scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The absorption and scattering coefficients were measured by three-wavelength photoacoustic soot spectrometer (PASS-3). Trace gases (SO2, NO2 etc.) were also monitored. The results showed that the average concentrations of total water-soluble ions were 70.3 and 22.9 microg x m(-3) in haze and normal days, respectively. Secondary hygroscopic components including SO4(2-), NO3- and NH4+ were the major ionic pollutants. Hazy days favored the conversion of SO2 and NOx, to SO4(2-) and NO3-, respectively, and in particular the oxidation of NOx. Using multiple linear regression statistical method, the empirical relationship between the dry aerosol extinction coefficient and the chemical composition was established. NH4NO3 was found to be the largest contributor to aerosol extinction in winter in Nanjing, followed by (NH4)2SO4, OC and EC. In two heavy pollution events, the increase of ion concentrations was influenced by the increase of primary emissions and secondary transformation.

  16. Polylactic acid/zinc oxide biocomposite films for food packaging application.

    PubMed

    Marra, Antonella; Silvestre, Clara; Duraccio, Donatella; Cimmino, Sossio

    2016-07-01

    Although PLA is much more expensive than polyolefins, such as PP and PE, there is a great interest to propose PLA based material as alternative films for food packaging being PLA derivable from natural source, compostable and biodegradable. For this purpose the research has the task to investigate and propose PLA materials with enhanced properties to be effectively and efficiently alternative to polyolefin films for food packaging application. In this contribution, biocomposite films of PLA with 1, 3 and 5wt% of ZnO have been investigated to determine mechanical, barrier and antimicrobial (against Escherichia coli) properties. It is found that the biocomposite films are characterized by a good dispersion of the ZnO particles in PLA matrix, although no previous treatment was performed on ZnO particles, such as silanization, to decrease its incompatibility with the polymer. The biocomposite films have shown good mechanical properties, decrease of permeability to CO2 and O2, and only a slight increase to water vapour. Particularly important is that, for the biocomposite with 5wt% of ZnO, the % Reduction for E. Coli test reached the value of 99.99 already after 24h.

  17. Characterization and quantitation of polyolefin microplastics in personal-care products using high-temperature gel-permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hintersteiner, Ingrid; Himmelsbach, Markus; Buchberger, Wolfgang W

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the development of reliable methods for the quantitation of microplastics in different samples, including evaluating the particles' adverse effects in the marine environment, has become a great concern. Because polyolefins are the most prevalent type of polymer in personal-care products containing microplastics, this study presents a novel approach for their quantitation. The method is suitable for aqueous and hydrocarbon-based products, and includes a rapid sample clean-up involving twofold density separation and a subsequent quantitation with high-temperature gel-permeation chromatography. In contrast with previous procedures, both errors caused by weighing after insufficient separation of plastics and matrix and time-consuming visual sorting are avoided. In addition to reliable quantitative results, in this investigation a comprehensive characterization of the polymer particles isolated from the product matrix, covering size, shape, molecular weight distribution and stabilization, is provided. Results for seven different personal-care products are presented. Recoveries of this method were in the range of 92-96 %.

  18. Use of Taylor Rod-on-Anvil Impact Experiments to Investigate High Strain Rate Behaviour in Polyolefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucknall, David; Luce, Amanda; Kannan, Abhiram; Breidenich, Jennifer; Thadhani, Naresh

    2015-06-01

    The high strain rate deformation and mechano-lumination of various polyethylenes and polypropylene is studied using Taylor rod-on-anvil impact testing. Polypropylene and low density (LDPE), high density (HDPE), and ultra high molecular weight (UHMWPE) polyethylene samples were impacted against a hardened steel anvil at velocities ranging from 50-500 m/s. High-speed imaging, time-resolved spectroscopy, and thermal imaging are employed to track the macroscopic shape change and observe mechano-lumination and heating during impact. Additionally, electron spin resonance (ESR) and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) measurements were performed on recovered impacted samples to explain the observed deformation behavior in the various polyolefins. Time-resolved spectroscopy, coupled with ESR and GPC measurements indicate that chain scission occurs during the first few microseconds of the impact event. The observed macroscopic deformation that occurs after the observed mechano-illumination event is therefore influenced by the loss of mechanical strength associated with a drop in the molecular weight of the polymer.

  19. Long-term Stability of Vancomycin Hydrochloride in Glucose 5% Polyolefin Bags: The Brand Name Versus a Generic Product.

    PubMed

    Huvelle, Sophie; Godet, Marie; Hecq, Jean-Daniel; Gillet, Patricia; Jamart, Jacques; Galanti, Laurence M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if the preparation of vancomycin hydrochloride in advance of infusion could improve the quality of the drug, time management of drug delivery, cost savings of drug delivery, and to investigate the long-term stability of vancomycin hydrochloride (brand name Vancocin®) infusion in glucose 5% polyolefin bags versus the generic (Vancomycine®) at 5°C ± 3°C. Five bags of each infusion 1 g/100 mL vancomycin hydrochloride in 5% glucose (Vancocin ® and Vancomycine®) were stored up to 57 days at 5°C ± 3°C. A visual inspection and pH measurement were performed periodically during the storage, and the concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection. No color change or precipitation in the solution was observed throughout the study period. As recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the lower confidence limit at 95% of the concentration for the solutions remained superior to 90% of the initial concentration up to 43 days for the brand vancomycin (Vancocin®) infusion (96% ± 2%) and up to 57 days for the generic (Vancomycine®) (95% ± 4%). The solutions prepared either from brand or generic vancomycin hydrochloride were chemically stable more than one month (43 days for the brand and 57 days for the generic solution) and could be prepared in advance in a centralized intravenous additive service facility.

  20. Physicochemical stability of ternary admixtures of butorphanol, ketamine, and droperidol in polyolefin bags for patient-controlled analgesia use

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Baoxia; Wang, Linhai; Gu, Junfeng; Chen, Fuchao; Shi, Xiao-ya

    2016-01-01

    Background Delivery of drug admixtures by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia is a common practice for the management of postoperative pain; however, analytical confirmation of the compatibility and stability of butorphanol tartrate, ketamine hydrochloride, and droperidol combined in ternary admixtures is not available. Methods Butorphanol tartrate, ketamine hydrochloride, and droperidol have been examined for compatibility and stability when combined with 0.9% sodium chloride injection stored at 4°C and 25°C with light protection for a total of 14 days. Concentrations were 0.067 mg/mL, 1.33 mg/mL, and 0.033 mg/mL for butorphanol tartrate, ketamine hydrochloride, and droperidol, respectively. Drug concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Results All three drugs were very stable (>97%) at 4°C and 25°C for 14 days. The ternary admixtures were initially clear and colorless throughout the observation period, and the pH value did not change significantly. Conclusion The results confirm that the ternary admixture of butorphanol tartrate 0.067 mg/mL, ketamine hydrochloride 1.33 mg/mL, and droperidol 0.033 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light. PMID:27920502

  1. Quantum Darwinism in hazy environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwolak, Michael; Quan, H. T.; Zurek, Wojciech

    2010-03-01

    Quantum Darwinism provides an information-theoretic framework for the emergence of the classical world from the quantum substrate. It recognizes that we - the observers - acquire our information about the ``systems of interest'' indirectly from their imprints on the environment. Objectivity, a key property of the classical world, arises via the proliferation of redundant information into the environment where many observers can then intercept it and independently determine the state of the system. After a general introduction to this framework, we demonstrate how non-ideal initial states of the environment (e.g., mixed states) affect its ability to act as a communication channel for information about the system. The environment's capacity for transmitting information is directly related to its ability to increase its entropy. Therefore, environments that remain nearly invariant under the Hamiltonian dynamics, such as very mixed states, have a diminished ability to transmit information. However, despite this, the environment almost always redundantly transmits information about the system.

  2. Surface characteristics of PLA and PLGA films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paragkumar N, Thanki; Edith, Dellacherie; Six, Jean-Luc

    2006-12-01

    Surface segregation and restructuring in polylactides (poly( D, L-lactide) and poly( L-lactide)) and poly( D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) films of various thicknesses were investigated using both attenuated total reflection FTIR (ATR-FTIR) and contact angle relaxation measurements. In case of poly( D,L-lactide) (DLPLA), it was observed that the surface segregation and the surface restructuring of methyl side groups are influenced by the polymer film thickness. This result has been confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In the same way, PLGA thick films were also characterized by an extensive surface segregation of methyl side groups. Finally, surface restructuring was investigated by dynamic contact angle measurements and it was observed when film surface comes into contact with water. In parallel, we also found that poly( L-lactide) (PLLA) thin and clear films with thickness ˜15 μm undergo conformational changes on the surface upon solvent treatment with certain solvents. The solvent treated surface of PLLA becomes hazy and milky white and its hydrophobicity increases compared to untreated surface. FTIR spectroscopic analysis indicated that polymer chains at the surface undergo certain conformational changes upon solvent treatment. These changes are identified as the restricted motions of C-O-C segments and more intense and specific vibrations of methyl side groups. During solvent treatment, the change in water contact angle and FTIR spectrum of PLLA is well correlated.

  3. Alignment mechanism of liquid crystal in a stretched porous polymer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikake, Hideo; Kuboki, Masashi; Murashige, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroto; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Kurita, Taiichiro

    2003-09-01

    This article discusses the mechanism of nematic liquid crystal alignment in stretched porous polymer films. The polymer films were formed by extreme stretching of an isotropic porous polyolefin, such that the draw ratio was 12:1. A 6-μm-thick porous film with a high porosity coefficient of 92% revealed fine string-shaped areas that exhibited optical anisotropy due to their possessing a high degree of molecular alignment. The porous film was filled with nematic liquid crystal and then the composite film was sandwiched between transparent electrodes coated onto glass substrates, without the use of conventional alignment layers. From polarizing microscopy observations it was found that the string-like polymer areas induce liquid crystal molecular alignment. The liquid crystal cells can exhibit an electrically controlled birefringence effect. This alignment technique enables us to realize three-dimensional control of liquid crystal alignment.

  4. Preparation of cadmium selenide-polyolefin composites from functional phosphine oxides and ruthenium-based metathesis.

    PubMed

    Skaff, Habib; Ilker, M Firat; Coughlin, E Bryan; Emrick, Todd

    2002-05-22

    Cadmium selenide nanoparticles, prepared by known methods, were stabilized with functional phosphine oxide 1, then used to support the polymerization of cyclic olefins radially outward from the surface by ruthenium-catalyzed ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). The conversion of compound 1 into the new metathesis catalyst 3 by carbene exchange and the subsequent polymerization of cyclic olefins were observed spectroscopically by (1)H NMR to afford for example CdSe-polycyclooctene composite 6. Transmission electron micrographs on thin films of these composites showed good nanoparticle dispersion. This is in stark contrast to the substantial nanoparticle aggregation observed when similar polymerizations were performed in the presence of conventional TOPO-covered nanoparticles. The methods reported here to prepare composite product 6 are applicable to other cyclic olefins, and suggest that this chemistry will be useful for incorporating CdSe nanoparticles into a wide variety of polymer matrices.

  5. Unimpeded permeation of water through biocidal graphene oxide sheets anchored on to 3D porous polyolefinic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mural, Prasanna Kumar S.; Jain, Shubham; Kumar, Sachin; Madras, Giridhar; Bose, Suryasarathi

    2016-04-01

    3D porous membranes were developed by etching one of the phases (here PEO, polyethylene oxide) from melt-mixed PE/PEO binary blends. Herein, we have systematically discussed the development of these membranes using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The 3D tomograms of the extruded strands and hot-pressed samples revealed a clear picture as to how the morphology develops and coarsens over a function of time during post-processing operations like compression molding. The coarsening of PE/PEO blends was traced using X-ray micro-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of annealed blends at different times. It is now understood from X-ray micro-computed tomography that by the addition of a compatibilizer (here lightly maleated PE), a stable morphology can be visualized in 3D. In order to anchor biocidal graphene oxide sheets onto these 3D porous membranes, the PE membranes were chemically modified with acid/ethylene diamine treatment to anchor the GO sheets which were further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface Raman mapping. The transport properties through the membrane clearly reveal unimpeded permeation of water which suggests that anchoring GO on to the membranes does not clog the pores. Antibacterial studies through the direct contact of bacteria with GO anchored PE membranes resulted in 99% of bacterial inactivation. The possible bacterial inactivation through physical disruption of the bacterial cell wall and/or reactive oxygen species (ROS) is discussed herein. Thus this study opens new avenues in designing polyolefin based antibacterial 3D porous membranes for water purification.3D porous membranes were developed by etching one of the phases (here PEO, polyethylene oxide) from melt-mixed PE/PEO binary blends. Herein, we have systematically discussed the development of these membranes using X-ray micro-computed tomography. The 3D tomograms of the extruded strands and

  6. Super hydrogen and helium barrier with polyelectolyte nanobrick wall thin film.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Ping; Lugo, Elva L; Mai, Garret D; Wilhite, Benjamin A; Grunlan, Jaime C

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to impart light gas (i.e., H2 and He) barrier to polymer substrates, thin films of polyethylenimine (PEI), poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), and montmorrilonite (MMT) clay are deposited via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly. A five "quadlayer" (122 nm) coating deposited on 51 μm polystyrene is shown to lower both hydrogen and helium permeability three orders of magnitude against bare polystyrene, demonstrating better performance than thick-laminated ethylene vinyl-alcohol (EVOH) copolymer film and even metallized polyolefin/polyester film. These excellent barrier properties are attributed to a "nanobrick wall" structure. This highly flexible coating represents the first demonstration of an LbL deposited film with low hydrogen and helium permeability and is an ideal candidate for several packaging and protection applications.

  7. Nanosized carbon black combined with Ni2O3 as "universal" catalysts for synergistically catalyzing carbonization of polyolefin wastes to synthesize carbon nanotubes and application for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Chen, Xuecheng; Tian, Nana; Gong, Jiang; Liu, Jie; Rümmeli, Mark H; Chu, Paul K; Mijiwska, Ewa; Tang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    The catalytic carbonization of polyolefin materials to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a promising strategy for the processing and recycling of plastic wastes, but this approach is generally limited due to the selectivity of catalysts and the difficulties in separating the polyolefin mixture. In this study, the influence of nanosized carbon black (CB) and Ni2O3 as a novel combined catalyst system on catalyzing carbonization of polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and their blends was investigated. We showed that this combination was efficient to promote the carbonization of these polymers to produce CNTs with high yields and of good quality. Catalytic pyrolysis and model carbonization experiments indicated that the carbonization mechanism was attributed to the synergistic effect of the combined catalysts rendered by CB and Ni2O3: CB catalyzed the degradation of PP, PE, and PS to selectively produce more aromatic compounds, which were subsequently dehydrogenated and reassembled into CNTs via the catalytic action of CB together with Ni particles. Moreover, the performance of the synthesized CNTs as the electrode of supercapacitor was investigated. The supercapacitor displayed a high specific capacitance as compared to supercapacitors using commercial CNTs and CB. This difference was attributed to the relatively larger specific surface areas of our synthetic CNTs and their more oxygen-containing groups.

  8. Long-term stability of morphine hydrochloride in 0.9% NaCl infusion polyolefin bags after freeze-thaw treatment and in polypropylene syringes at 5 degrees C + 3 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Hecq, J-D; Godet, M; Gillet, P; Jamart, J; Galanti, L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term stability of morphine hydrochloride in 0.9% NaCI infusion polyolefin bags and polypropylene syringes after storage at 5 degrees C + 3 degrees C and to evaluate the influence of initial freezing and microwave thawing on this stability. Ten polyolefin bags and five polypropylene syringes containing 100 mL of 1 mg/mL of morphine hydrochloride solution in 0.9% NaCI were prepared under aseptic conditions. Five polyolefin bags were frozen at -20 degrees C for 90 days before storage. Immediately after the preparation and after thawing, 2 mL of each bag were withdrawn for the initial concentration measurements. All polyolefin bags and polypropylene syringes were then refrigerated at 5 degrees C + 3 degrees C for 58 days during which the morphine concentrations were measured periodically by high-performance liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase column, naloxone as internal standard, a mobile phase consisting of 5% acetonitrile and 95% of KH2PO4 buffer (pH 3.50), and detection with diode array detector at 254 nm. Visual and microscopic observations and spectrophotometric and pH measurements were also performed. Solutions were considered stable if the concentration remained superior to 90% of the initial concentration. The degradation products peaks were not quantitatively significant and were resolved from the native drug. Polyolefin bag and polypropylene syringe solutions were stable when stored at 5 degrees C + 3 degrees C during these 58 days. No color change or precipitation in the solutions was observed. The physical stability was confirmed by visual, microscopic, and spectrophotometric inspection. There was no significant change in pH during storage. Freezing and microwave thawing didn't influence the infusion stability. Morphine hydrochloride infusions may be prepared in advance by centralized intravenous additive service, frozen in polyolefin bags, and microwave thawed before storage under refrigeration

  9. Shrink film patterning by craft cutter: complete plastic chips with high resolution/high-aspect ratio channel.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Douglas; Dyer, David; Lew, Valerie; Khine, Michelle

    2010-09-21

    This paper presents a rapid, ultra-low-cost approach to fabricate microfluidic devices using a polyolefin shrink film and a digital craft cutter. The shrinking process (with a 95% reduction in area) results in relatively uniform and consistent microfluidic channels with smooth surfaces, vertical sidewalls, and high aspect ratio channels with lateral resolutions well beyond the tool used to cut them. The thermal bonding of the layers results in strongly bonded devices. Complex microfluidic designs are easily designed on the fly and protein assays are also readily integrated into the device. Full device characterization including channel consistency, optical properties, and bonding strength are assessed in this technical note.

  10. Polyolefin-Based Aerogels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Je Kyun; Gould, George

    2012-01-01

    An organic polybutadiene (PB) rubberbased aerogel insulation material was developed that will provide superior thermal insulation and inherent radiation protection, exhibiting the flexibility, resiliency, toughness, and durability typical of the parent polymer, yet with the low density and superior insulation properties associated with the aerogels. The rubbery behaviors of the PB rubber-based aerogels are able to overcome the weak and brittle nature of conventional inorganic and organic aerogel insulation materials. Additionally, with higher content of hydrogen in their structure, the PB rubber aerogels will also provide inherently better radiation protection than those of inorganic and carbon aerogels. Since PB rubber aerogels also exhibit good hydrophobicity due to their hydrocarbon molecular structure, they will provide better performance reliability and durability as well as simpler, more economic, and environmentally friendly production over the conventional silica or other inorganic-based aerogels, which require chemical treatment to make them hydrophobic. Inorganic aerogels such as silica aerogels demonstrate many unusual and useful properties. There are several strategies to overcoming the drawbacks associated with the weakness and brittleness of silica aerogels. Development of the flexible fiber-reinforced silica aerogel composite blanket has proven one promising approach, providing a conveniently fielded form factor that is relatively robust toward handling in industrial environments compared to silica aerogel monoliths. However, the flexible silica aerogel composites still have a brittle, dusty character that may be undesirable, or even intolerable, in certain applications. Although the cross-linked organic aerogels such as resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), polyisocyanurate, and cellulose aerogels show very high impact strength, they are also very brittle with little elongation (i.e., less rubbery). Also, silica and carbon aerogels are less efficient radiation shielding materials due to their lower content of hydrogen element. The present invention relates to maleinized polybutadiene (or polybutadiene adducted with maleic anhydride)- based aerogel monoliths and composites, and the methods for preparation. Hereafter, they are collectively referred to as polybutadiene aerogels. Specifically, the polybutadiene aerogels of the present invention are prepared by mixing a maleinized polybutadiene resin, a hardener containing a maleic anhydride reactive group, and a catalyst in a suitable solvent, and maintaining the mixture in a quiescent state for a sufficient period of time to form a polymeric gel. After aging at elevated temperatures for a period of time to provide uniformly stronger wet gels, the micro porous maleinized polybutadiene- based aerogel is then obtained by removing interstitial solvent by supercritical drying. The mesoporous maleinized polybutadiene-based aerogels contain an open-pore structure, which provides inherently hydrophobic, flexible, nearly unbreakable, less dusty aerogels with excellent thermal and physical properties. The materials can be used as thermal and acoustic insulation, radiation shielding, and vibration-damping materials. The organic PB-based rubber aerogels are very flexible, no-dust, and hydrophobic organics that demonstrated the following ranges of typical properties: densities of 0.08 to 0.255 grams per cubic centimeters, shrinkage factor (raerogel/rtarget) = 1.2 to 2.84, and thermal conductivity values of 20.0 to 35.0 mW/m-K.

  11. Long-term Stability of Esomeprazole in 5% Dextrose Infusion Polyolefin Bags at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C after Microwave Freeze-thaw Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hecq, Jean-daniel; Rolin, Catherine; Godet, Marie; Gillet, Patricia; Jamart, Jacques; Galanti, Laurence M

    2015-01-01

    To improve quality assurance, security, time management, and cost saving of drug delivery, preparation in advance of intravenous solutions has been developed for several infusion solutions. The objective of this study was to investigate the stability of esomeprazole 0.4 mg/mL and 0.8 mg/mL in 5% dextrose polyolefin bags after freezing, long-term storage, and microwave thawing. The stability of five polyolefin bags containing approximately 0.4 mg/mL of esomeprazole and five other bags containing approximately 0.8 mg/mL in 5% dextrose prepared under aseptic conditions was studied after freezing for 1 month at -20 degrees C, thawing in a microwave oven with a validated cycle, and stored at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C. Esomeprazole concentration was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography using a reversed-phase column C8, a mobile phase consisting of 35% of acetonitrile and 65% of Na2HPO4 buffer at pH 7.59 with HPO4 (2 M) and NaOH (0.5 M), and detection with a diode array detector at 280 nm. Visual, microscopic, and spectrophotometric observation and pH measurements were also performed. No precipitation occurred in the preparations but little change of color was observed. No microaggregate was observed with optical microscopy or revealed by a change of absorbance at 350, 410, and 550 nm. Based on a shelf life of 90% residual potency, esomeprazole solutions (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) were stable for at least 20 or 29 days, respectively, after a freezing and microwave thawing period, where 95% one-side lower confidence limit of the concentration-time profile remained superior to 90% of the initial concentration. During this period, the pH values of drug solutions have been observed to decrease without affecting chromatographic parameters. Within these limits, esomeprazole (0.4 and 0.8 mg/mL) in 5% dextrose infusions may be prepared and frozen in advance by a centralized intravenous admixture service, thawed, and stored at least 20 days at 5 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C

  12. Fogging Control on LDPE/EVA Coextruded Films: Wettability Behavior and Its Correlation with Electric Performance

    PubMed Central

    Waldo-Mendoza, Miguel A.; Quiñones-Jurado, Zoe V.; Pérez-Medina, Juan C.; Yañez-Soto, Bernardo; Ramírez-González, Pedro E.

    2017-01-01

    The transformation of fog at a non-visible water layer on a membrane of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) was evaluated. Nonionic surfactants of major demand in the polyolefin industry were studied. A kinetic study using a hot fog chamber showed that condensation is controlled by both the diffusion and permanency of the surfactant more than by the change of the surface energy developed by the wetting agents. The greatest permanency of the anti-fog effect of the LDPE/EVA surface was close to 3000 h. The contact angle results demonstrated the ability of the wetting agent to spread out to the surface. Complementarily, the migration of nonionic surfactants from the inside of the polymeric matrix to the surface was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy. Additionally, electrical measurement on the anti-fogging membrane at alternating currents and at a sweep frequency was proposed to test the conductivity and wetting ability of nonionic surfactants. We proved that the amphiphilic molecules had the ability to increase the conductivity in the polyolefin membrane. A correlation between the bulk electrical conductivity and the permanency of the fogging control on the LDPE/EVA coextruded film was found. PMID:28241433

  13. Fogging Control on LDPE/EVA Coextruded Films: Wettability Behavior and Its Correlation with Electric Performance.

    PubMed

    Waldo-Mendoza, Miguel A; Quiñones-Jurado, Zoe V; Pérez-Medina, Juan C; Yañez-Soto, Bernardo; Ramírez-González, Pedro E

    2017-02-22

    The transformation of fog at a non-visible water layer on a membrane of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) was evaluated. Nonionic surfactants of major demand in the polyolefin industry were studied. A kinetic study using a hot fog chamber showed that condensation is controlled by both the diffusion and permanency of the surfactant more than by the change of the surface energy developed by the wetting agents. The greatest permanency of the anti-fog effect of the LDPE/EVA surface was close to 3000 h. The contact angle results demonstrated the ability of the wetting agent to spread out to the surface. Complementarily, the migration of nonionic surfactants from the inside of the polymeric matrix to the surface was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscopy. Additionally, electrical measurement on the anti-fogging membrane at alternating currents and at a sweep frequency was proposed to test the conductivity and wetting ability of nonionic surfactants. We proved that the amphiphilic molecules had the ability to increase the conductivity in the polyolefin membrane. A correlation between the bulk electrical conductivity and the permanency of the fogging control on the LDPE/EVA coextruded film was found.

  14. Effect of contact angle hysteresis on the removal of the sporelings of the green alga Ulva from the fouling-release coatings synthesized from polyolefin polymers.

    PubMed

    Ucar, Ikrime O; Cansoy, C Elif; Erbil, H Yildirim; Pettitt, Michala E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A

    2010-09-01

    Wettability is one of the surface characteristics that is controlled by the chemical composition and roughness of a surface. A number of investigations have explored the relationship between water contact angle and surface free energy of polymeric coatings with the settlement (attachment) and adhesion strength of various marine organisms. However, the relationship between the contact angle hysteresis and fouling-release property is generally overlooked. In the present work, coatings were prepared by using commercial hydrophobic homopolymer and copolymer polyolefins, which have nearly the same surface free energy. The effects of contact angle hysteresis, wetting hysteresis, and surface free energy on the fouling-release properties for sporelings of the green alga Ulva from substrates were then examined quantitatively under a defined shear stress in a water channel. The ease of removal of sporelings under shear stress from the polymer surfaces was in the order of PP>HDPE>PPPE>EVA-12 and strongly and positively correlated with contact angle and wetting hysteresis; i.e., the higher the hysteresis, the greater the removal.

  15. Characterization of Polyolefin Pyrolysis Species Produced Under Ambient Conditions by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farenc, Mathilde; Witt, Matthias; Craven, Kirsten; Barrère-Mangote, Caroline; Afonso, Carlos; Giusti, Pierre

    2017-03-01

    Polyolefins such as polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) are often characterized from their pyrolysis products by Py-MS. Nowadays the development of plasma-based direct probe atmospheric pressure sources allow the direct analysis of these polymers. These sources operate at atmospheric pressure, which implies a limited control of the ionization conditions. It was shown that side reactions could occur with species present in air, such as O2, which may lead to the formation of oxidized compounds. In this work, ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR) were used for the exhaustive characterization of the PP and PE pyrolysis ions produced using plasma-based atmospheric pressure ion sources. Both PP and PE yielded distributions of pyrolysis products presenting different amounts of unsaturation but also different numbers of oxygen atoms. In addition, the ions produced from PP presented a lower collision cross-section (CCS) than those produced from PE. In the same way, both PP and PE present repeated patterns separated by 14 m/z in the bidimensional drift time versus m/z plots. Within these plots, several trend lines can be evidenced, which are specific of each polymer investigated. Differences were observed between isotactic and atactic samples concerning the pyrolysis profile relative abundance and collision cross-section.

  16. Characterization of Polyolefin Pyrolysis Species Produced Under Ambient Conditions by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farenc, Mathilde; Witt, Matthias; Craven, Kirsten; Barrère-Mangote, Caroline; Afonso, Carlos; Giusti, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Polyolefins such as polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) are often characterized from their pyrolysis products by Py-MS. Nowadays the development of plasma-based direct probe atmospheric pressure sources allow the direct analysis of these polymers. These sources operate at atmospheric pressure, which implies a limited control of the ionization conditions. It was shown that side reactions could occur with species present in air, such as O2, which may lead to the formation of oxidized compounds. In this work, ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR) were used for the exhaustive characterization of the PP and PE pyrolysis ions produced using plasma-based atmospheric pressure ion sources. Both PP and PE yielded distributions of pyrolysis products presenting different amounts of unsaturation but also different numbers of oxygen atoms. In addition, the ions produced from PP presented a lower collision cross-section (CCS) than those produced from PE. In the same way, both PP and PE present repeated patterns separated by 14 m/z in the bidimensional drift time versus m/z plots. Within these plots, several trend lines can be evidenced, which are specific of each polymer investigated. Differences were observed between isotactic and atactic samples concerning the pyrolysis profile relative abundance and collision cross-section.

  17. Filter-based infrared detectors for high temperature size exclusion chromatography analysis of polyolefins: calibration with a small number of standards and error analysis.

    PubMed

    Ortín, A; López, E; Monrabal, B; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Álvarez-Coque, M C

    2012-09-28

    Infrared detection has been shown to be very appropriate for high temperature analysis of polyolefins. After some early reports in which dispersive or single-band filter-based detectors were applied, Fourier transform detectors have been described for this application, in order to improve the method sensitivity. Modern simple filter-based detectors prove, however, comparable sensitivity while providing a number of practical advantages when coupled to chromatographic systems: reduced cell volume, simplified hardware, continuous generation of absorbance chromatograms, as well as simpler data collection and processing. A practical method for calibration, using multiple-band signals obtained with filter-based detectors and a small number of reference materials, is here discussed. Calibration data are used to compare the performance of detectors based on different opto-electronic technologies and filter designs. A procedure for estimation of errors in the slice-by-slice measured methyl frequency, based on signal-to-noise ratio considerations, is described. The good accuracy provided by the filter-based IR detectors was noticeable, considering that it was obtained using a small set of reference materials. A minimal concentration of 0.009 mg/mL was estimated to be required at the detector cell, in order to keep the errors below one unit of methyl per one thousand total carbons. This low minimal concentration requirement allows using standard SEC conditions, without compromising the molar mass distribution accuracy and resolution.

  18. Film Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  19. Radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid onto polypropylene film and its biodegradability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dev K.; Bhunia, Haripada; Bajpai, Pramod K.; Chaudhari, C. V.; Dubey, K. A.; Varshney, L.

    2016-06-01

    Polypropylene based commodity polyolefins are widely used in packaging, manufacturing, electrical, pharmaceutical and other applications. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of grafting of acrylic acid on the biodegradability of acrylic acid grafted polypropylene. The effect of different conditions showed that grafting percentage increased with increase in monomer concentration, radiation dose and inhibitor concentration but decreased with increase in radiation dose rate. The maximum grafting of 159.4% could be achieved at optimum conditions. The structure of grafted polypropylene films at different degree of grafting was characterized by EDS, FTIR, TGA, DSC, SEM and XRD. EDS studies showed that the increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the hydrophilicity of the grafted films. FTIR studies indicated the presence of acrylic acid on the surface of polypropylene film. TGA studies revealed that thermal stability decreased with increase in grafting percentage. DSC studies showed that melting temperature and crystallinity of the grafted polypropylene films lower than polypropylene film. SEM studies indicated that increase in acrylic acid grafting percentage increased the wrinkles in the grafted films. The maximum biodegradability could be achieved to 6.85% for 90.5% grafting. This suggested that microorganisms present in the compost could biodegrade acrylic acid grafted polypropylene.

  20. Properties and Performance Attributes of Novel Co-Extruded Polyolefin Battery Separator Materials. Part 1; Mechanical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Guzik, Monica; Skierski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    As NASA prepares for its next era of manned spaceflight missions, advanced energy storage technologies are being developed and evaluated to address future mission needs and technical requirements and to provide new mission-enabling technologies. Cell-level components for advanced lithium-ion batteries possessing higher energy, more reliable performance and enhanced, inherent safety characteristics are actively under development within the NASA infrastructure. A key component for safe and reliable cell performance is the cell separator, which separates the two energetic electrodes and functions to prevent the occurrence of an internal short-circuit while enabling ionic transport. Recently, a new generation of co-extruded separator films has been developed by ExxonMobil Chemical and introduced into their battery separator product portfolio. Several grades of this new separator material have been evaluated with respect to dynamic mechanical properties and safety-related performance attributes. This paper presents the results of these evaluations in comparison to a current state-ofthe-practice separator material. The results are discussed with respect to potential opportunities to enhance the inherent safety characteristics and reliability of future, advanced lithium-ion cell chemistries.

  1. Properties and Performance Attributes of Novel Co-extruded Polyolefin Battery Separator Materials. Part 2; Electrical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    As NASA prepares for its next era of manned spaceflight missions, advanced energy storage technologies are being developed and evaluated to address and enhance future mission needs and technical requirements. Cell-level components for advanced lithium-ion batteries possessing higher energy, more reliable performance and enhanced, inherent safety characteristics have been under development within the NASA infrastructure. A key component for safe and reliable cell performance is the cell separator, which separates the two energetic electrodes and functions to inhibit the occurrence of an internal short circuit but preserves an ionic current. Recently, a new generation of co-extruded separator films has been developed by ExxonMobil Chemical and introduced into their battery separator product portfolio. Several grades of this new separator material were evaluated with respect to dynamic mechanical properties and safety-related performance attributes, and the results of these evaluations were previously reported in "Part 1: Mechanical Properties" of this publication. This current paper presents safety-related performance results for these novel materials obtained by employing a complementary experimental methodology, which involved the analysis of separator impedance characteristics as a function of temperature. The experimental results from this study are discussed with respect to potential cell safety enhancement for future aerospace as well as for terrestrial energy storage needs, and they are compared with pertinent mechanical properties of these materials, as well as with current state-of-the practice separator materials.

  2. A hazy outlook for cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Perna, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Because of competing priorities as well as cost, security, and implementation concerns, cloud-based storage development has gotten off to a slow start in healthcare. CIOs, CTOs, and other healthcare IT leaders are adopting a variety of strategies in this area, based on their organizations' needs, resources, and priorities.

  3. In Digital Age, Sunshine Laws Turn Hazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    School board members are struggling to interpret laws that govern where and how they do business now that as many conversations take place digitally as they do face to face. As online and digital interactions increase, so too does public concern that officials have more opportunities to violate state open-meetings and open-records laws meant to…

  4. Film Boxes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art lesson in which students created three-dimensional designs for 35mm film packages to improve graphic arts learning. Describes how the students examined and created film boxes using QuarkXPress software. (CMK)

  5. Film Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, John, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews five instructional films on: P-N junctions; crystal diodes; nuclear fusion research; Schlieren photography; and the energy crisis; including discussions of solar, nuclear, and fossil fuel energy. Also lists numerous other available films. (MLH)

  6. On Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Marty

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the role of window films in enhancing indoor air quality in schools. Historically, window film has been used to reduce temperatures in buildings prone to overheating. Too much solar energy entering through windows makes occupants uncomfortable and air conditioning more costly. Film has been a simple solution…

  7. Nanocomposite films

    DOEpatents

    Mitlin, David; , Ophus, Colin; Evoy, Stephane; Radmilovic, Velimir; Mohammadi, Reza; Westra, Ken; Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel; Lee, Zonghoon

    2010-07-20

    A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

  8. Rep-rated long-life capacitor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galperin, I.

    1983-03-01

    The characterization of polypropylene and polyolefin resins for capacitor film usage was studied. One polypropylene resin was selected for capacitor POP film fabrication. A polyolefin resin was upgraded for POP film fabrication. Two new capacitor films were developed - a post orientation processed, two layer, polypropylene film and a polyolefin resin film. New criteria for judging film quality are developed and instituted. A capacitor film test plan has been formulated. Test capacitor designs and a capacitor test plan have been devised.

  9. Quality changes of 'Sanguinello' oranges wrapped with different plastic films under simulated marketing conditions.

    PubMed

    D'Aquino, S; Malinconico, M; Avella, M; Di Lorenzo, M L; Mura; Palma, A

    2013-01-01

    Chemical and eating quality of citrus fruit changes slowly after harvest, and quality alteration is mainly due to shrinkage, loss of firmness, excessive weight loss and decay rather than a reduction of nutritional value and taste features. Film wrapping may be a suitable means to reduce transpiration and preserve market quality provided film permeability to gases does not lead to: 1) a reduction of in-package O2 partial pressure at a point that would induce anaerobic respiration; 2) an increase of CO2 concentration to toxic levels. This experiment was carried out to study quality changes of 'Sanguinello' oranges treated or not treated with 500 mg/L imazalil (IMZ) and wrapped with continuous, macro- or micro-perforated polyolefinic films. Wrapped and no-wrapped fruit were stored at 20 degrees C and 60% RH for 20 or 30 days. In-package gas composition of the macro-perforated film showed no significant difference compared to air composition, while in-package partial pressure of CO2 and O2 ranged between 4 (continuous film) and 9.8 kPa (micro-perforated films), and 14.8 (continuous film) and 5 kPa (micro-perforated films), respectively. After 30 days of storage weight loss in fruit wrapped with the macro-perforated film was (4.3%) slightly lowerthan un-packed fruit (5%), while in all other packages weight loss never exceeded 0.7%.Quality changes were quite stable over storage in all treatments, although slight but significantly lower levels of total soluble solids and ascorbic acid were detected in micro-perforated films with the lowest degree of perforation. However, the sensory analysis denoted a remarkable decrease of firmness in un-wrapped or wrapped fruit with macro-perforated film, while a moderate build-up of off-flavour, which reduced the eating quality, developed in micro-perforated films. Decay ranged between 6 and 12% in not treated fruit, with the lowest incidence detected in un-wrapped fruit, whereas differences among the different films were not

  10. Tunable nano bead arrays on film for controlling propogation of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharac, Nicholas; Sharma, Himanshu; Khine, Michelle; Ragan, Regina

    2013-09-01

    Periodic arrays of sub-wavelength structures have garnered significant interest for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF), and for anti-reflective coating properties. For SERS and MEF, coupling metal nanoparticles with nanometer scale spacing can induce strong local electromagnetic field enhancements at the plasmon resonance, significantly increasing the Raman signal or fluorescence of a molecule. Inspired by moth eyes, metal nanoparticle arrays can reduce the reflection of incident light, shown useful for improving the efficiency of solar cells. Here, we present fabrication of robust, tunable, inexpensive and quickly reproducible gold coated, nanopillar arrays for applications in enhancing Raman/fluorescence signals or antireflective surfaces for efficient solar cells. To create homogenous metallic nanostructures with controllable sizes and interparticle spacings, we have integrated conventional nanosphere lithography techniques with thermally responsive polyolefin (PO) films. Spin coating 500 nm PS beads onto PO substrates, followed by oxygen plasma etching, is used to vary the size and periodicity of the resulting PS nanopillar bead array. A 50 nm thick gold film can then be added using chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Nanostructures were characterized with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. When heated from room temperature up to 115oC, structures on PO films undergo a reduction in feature size and interparticle spacing by up to 35 % in length and 50% in surface area.

  11. Film ispalators

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu

    2002-05-31

    New physical objects, ispalators based on free soap films, exhibit persistent flows of the soap solution in open and closed volumes in air with additions of gases of the C{sub 8}F{sub 18} type (p = 20 Torr) at temperature drops on the films of the order of tenths and hundredths of kelvin. The flows move continuously at a velocity of 5 - 20 cm s{sup -1}. It is found that the parts of an inclined ispalator film show anomalous behaviour upon heating: their weight increases and they move downward over the film, whereas the unheated parts of the film move upward. Continuous radial vortex flows accompanied by the formation and washing of the regions of a thin black film are observed on circular films in closed volumes upon their uniform external cooling by evaporating water for 5 - 10 hours. The rapid flows make film ispalators the efficient heat carriers, which operate at small temperature drops (tenths and hundredths of kelvin) and surpass copper in the amount of thermal energy being transferred. The outlook for the further study and applications of film ispalators for detecting thermal fields and laser radiation is discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  12. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Hughes, R.C.; Kepler, R.G.; Kurtz, S.R.

    1984-07-16

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 21/ molecules of dopant/cm/sup 3/. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  13. Radiation-hardened polymeric films

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., Charles; Hughes, Robert C.; Kepler, R. Glen; Kurtz, Steven R.

    1986-01-01

    The radiation-induced conductivity of polymeric dielectrics with low electronic mobility is reduced by doping with electron donor or electron acceptor compounds at a level of 10.sup.15 to 10.sup.21 molecules of dopant/cm.sup.3. Polyesters, polyolefins, perfluoropolyolefins, vinyl polymers, vinylidene polymers, polycarbonates, polysulfones and polyimides can benefit from such a treatment. Usable dopants include 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone, tetracyanethylene, 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane, m-dinitrobenzene, 2-isopropylcarbazole, and triphenylamine.

  14. About Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christman, Robert; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and briefly describes 46 college-level films. Films are arranged in the following categories: volcanism and earthquakes; plate tectonics; energy, water, and environmental concerns; petroleum and coal; astronomy; space exploration, space shuttle; paleontology; geomorphology; and mineralogy, petrology, and economic geology. (BC)

  15. Film Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudlin, Edward W.

    1979-01-01

    The author briefly surveys some of the claims made about the presumed nature of film as language and some of the problems that arise. He considers the views of two influential schools of film criticism: the Russian formalists (Pudovkin and Eisenstein) and the British semiologist (Peter Wollen). (Author/SJL)

  16. Thin Film?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kariper, İ. Afşin

    2014-09-01

    This study focuses on the critical surface tension of lead sulfite (PbSO3) crystalline thin film produced with chemical bath deposition on substrates (commercial glass).The PbSO3 thin films were deposited at room temperature at different deposition times. The structural properties of the films were defined and examined according to X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the XRD results such as dislocation density, average grain size, and no. of crystallites per unit area. Atomic force microscopy was used to measure the film thickness and the surface properties. The critical surface tension of the PbSO3 thin films was measured with an optical tensiometer instrument and calculated using the Zisman method. The results indicated that the critical surface tension of films changed in accordance with the average grain size and film thickness. The film thickness increased with deposition time and was inversely correlated with surface tension. The average grain size increased according to deposition time and was inversely correlated with surface tension.

  17. A fully integrated high-throughput screening methodology for the discovery of new polyolefin catalysts: discovery of a new class of high temperature single-site group (IV) copolymerization catalysts.

    PubMed

    Boussie, Thomas R; Diamond, Gary M; Goh, Christopher; Hall, Keith A; LaPointe, Anne M; Leclerc, Margarete; Lund, Cheryl; Murphy, Vince; Shoemaker, James A W; Tracht, Ursula; Turner, Howard; Zhang, Jessica; Uno, Tetsuo; Rosen, Robert K; Stevens, James C

    2003-04-09

    For the first time, new catalysts for olefin polymerization have been discovered through the application of fully integrated high-throughput primary and secondary screening techniques supported by rapid polymer characterization methods. Microscale 1-octene primary screening polymerization experiments combining arrays of ligands with reactive metal complexes M(CH(2)Ph)(4) (M = Zr, Hf) and multiple activation conditions represent a new high-throughput technique for discovering novel group (IV) polymerization catalysts. The primary screening methods described here have been validated using a commercially relevant polyolefin catalyst, and implemented rapidly to discover the new amide-ether based hafnium catalyst [eta(2)-(N,O)[bond](2-MeO[bond]C(6)H(4))(2,4,6-Me(3)C(6)H(2))N]Hf(CH(2)Ph)(3) (1), which is capable of polymerizing 1-octene to high conversion. The molecular structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray diffraction. Larger scale secondary screening experiments performed on a focused 96-member amine-ether library demonstrated the versatile high temperature ethylene-1-octene copolymerization capabilities of this catalyst class, and led to significant performance improvements over the initial primary screening discovery. Conventional one gallon batch reactor copolymerizations performed using selected amide-ether hafnium compounds confirmed the performance features of this new catalyst class, serving to fully validate the experimental results from the high-throughput approaches described herein.

  18. Film Makers On Film Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    This collection includes essays by and interviews with more than 30 film-makers, both classic and contemporary, on the subjects of their major interests and procedures in making films. The directors are: Louis Lumiere, Cecil Hepworth, Edwin S. Porter, Mack Sennett, David W. Griffith, Robert Flaherty, Charles Chaplin, Eric von Stroheim, Dziga…

  19. Piezoelectric Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities that utilize piezoelectric film to familiarize students with fundamental principles of electricity. Describes classroom projects involving chemical sensors, microbalances, microphones, switches, infrared sensors, and power generation. (MDH)

  20. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2004-05-25

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  1. Polymer films

    DOEpatents

    Granick, Steve; Sukhishvili, Svetlana A.

    2008-12-30

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  2. Film Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladd, George T.

    1974-01-01

    Briefly describes films about the following topics: water cycles, the energy crisis, the eruption of Mt. Aetna, the hot springs of Yellowstone National Park, and methods of using pine cones to determine the ages of ancient civilizations. (MLH)

  3. Migration of selected hydrocarbon contaminants into dry semolina and egg pasta packed in direct contact with virgin paperboard and polypropylene film.

    PubMed

    Barp, Laura; Suman, Michele; Lambertini, Francesca; Moret, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Migration of mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH), polyolefin oligomeric saturated hydrocarbons (POSH), and polyalphaolefins (PAO from hot melts) into dry semolina and egg pasta packed in direct contact with virgin paperboard or polypropylene (PP) flexible film was studied. Migration was monitored during shelf life (up to 24 months), through storage in a real supermarket (packs kept on shelves), conditions preventing exchange with the surrounding environment (packs wrapped in aluminium foil), and storage in a warehouse (packs inside of the transport box of corrugated board). Semolina pasta packed in virgin paperboard (without hot melts) had a MOSH content lower than 1.0 mg kg(-1). An increasing contamination with PAO belonging to the adhesives used to close the boxes was detected in egg pasta, wrapped in aluminium (1.5 and 5 mg kg(-1) after 3 and 24 months, respectively). An environmental contribution to total hydrocarbon contamination was observed in egg pasta kept on shelves that, after 3 and 24 months, showed levels of PAO/MOSH < C25 around 3 and 10 mg kg(-1), respectively. The migration of POSH from PP film into egg pasta wrapped in aluminium was around 0.6 mg kg(-1) after 3 months of contact and reached 1.7 mg kg(-1) after 24 months of contact. After 9 months of contact, semolina pasta packed in PP film and stored in the transport box showed that some MOSH migrated into the pasta from the board of the transport box (through the plastic film).

  4. Nitrous oxide emissions during biological soil disinfestation with different organic matter and plastic mulch films in laboratory-scale tests.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Morihiro; Kayano, Eisuke; Fujiwara, Taku; Nagare, Hideaki; Akao, Satoshi

    2015-10-23

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), which is a greenhouse gas, may be more emitted as an intermediate product of denitrification during biological soil disinfestation. The biological soil disinfestation is a method to suppress soil-borne pathogens under reductive soil conditions produced by the application of organic matter and water irrigation with plastic film. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of different organic matter and mulch films on N2O emissions during biological soil disinfestation. Grey lowland soil amended with cattle compost plus rice bran (0.2%), rice husk (0.2%) or dent corn (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.4%) was incubated at 100% water-holding capacity with or without plastic films made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and triple-layer polyolefin (3PO) for 72 h at 50°C. Permeation of the two films was also measured at 25°C and 50°C. Results showed that incorporation of organic matter increased N2O emissions compared with no organic matter addition at 50°C. Incorporation of rice bran and dent corn with easily decomposable C and low C:N ratios increased N2O emissions for the first 12 h, but thereafter, available C supply from these amendments suppressed N2O emissions. Permeability of mulch films increased at a higher temperature and was larger for PVC than for 3PO. Our study indicated that rice husk should not be used for soil disinfestation and that application rates of organic matter must be determined based on their decomposability. Moreover, mulch film covering would not suppress N2O emission in biological soil disinfestation because of high temperature.

  5. Science Fiction on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burmester, David

    1985-01-01

    Reviews science fiction films used in a science fiction class. Discusses feature films, short science fiction films, short story adaptations, original science fiction pieces and factual science films that enrich literature. (EL)

  6. Film Credits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of easy-to-use digital technology, schools are responding to the interests of their media-savvy students by offering more courses in filmmaking. In this article, the author features different films produced by students. Among other things, she discusses the students' growing interest in filmmaking.

  7. Black Films and Film-Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Lindsay, Ed.

    The development of black films and the attitudes of the film industry toward black films and black actors are some of the topics examined in this anthology of essays. Section 1, "Nigger to Supernigger," contains such articles as "The Death of Rastus: Negroes in American Films" by Thomas R. Cripps and "Folk Values in a New Medium" by Alain Locke…

  8. Film and History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaber, Robin L.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on using film to teach history. Includes Web sites in five areas: (1) film and education; (2) history of cinema; (3) film and history resources; (4) film and women; and (5) film organizations. (CMK)

  9. War. Peace. Film Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougall, Lucy

    The revised and expanded film guide designed for educators includes annotations of over 200 films, plus a large number of program resources for intelligent film use. Selected from over five hundred films previewed from 1969, up-to-date films were chosen that would help interpret the causes of war, increase awareness of the dehumanizing effects of…

  10. Nanoscale chemical and mechanical characterization of thin films:sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy at buriedinterfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Kweskin, Sasha Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) surface vibrational spectroscopy was used to characterize interfaces pertinent to current surface engineering applications, such as thin film polymers and novel catalysts. An array of advanced surface science techniques like scanning probe microscopy (SPM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), gas chromatography (GC) and electron microscopy were used to obtain experimental measurements complementary to SFG data elucidating polymer and catalyst surface composition, surface structure, and surface mechanical behavior. Experiments reported in this dissertation concentrate on three fundamental questions: (1) How does the interfacial molecular structure differ from that of the bulk in real world applications? (2) How do differences in chemical environment affect interface composition or conformation? (3) How do these changes correlate to properties such as mechanical or catalytic performance? The density, surface energy and bonding at a solid interface dramatically alter the polymer configuration, physics and mechanical properties such as surface glass transition, adhesion and hardness. The enhanced sensitivity of SFG at the buried interface is applied to three systems: a series of acrylates under compression, the compositions and segregation behavior of binary polymer polyolefin blends, and the changes in surface structure of a hydrogel as a function of hydration. In addition, a catalytically active thin film of polymer coated nanoparticles is investigated to evaluate the efficacy of SFG to provide in situ information for catalytic reactions involving small mass adsorption and/or product development. Through the use of SFG, in situ total internal reflection (TIR) was used to increase the sensitivity of SFG and provide the necessary specificity to investigate interfaces of thin polymer films and nanostructures previously considered unfeasible. The dynamic nature of thin film surfaces is examined and it is found that the non

  11. Filming The Man Hunters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockings, Paul

    1976-01-01

    "The Man Hunters" is a film about paleoanthropology. This article is a personal account of how the film was put together using anthropological knowledge and numerous anthropologists and how the film was received by the American public. (Author)

  12. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    DOEpatents

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  13. A revised, hazy methane greenhouse for the Archean Earth.

    PubMed

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob D; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Kasting, Patrick J; Kasting, James F

    2008-12-01

    Geological and biological evidence suggests that Earth was warm during most of its early history, despite the fainter young Sun. Upper bounds on the atmospheric CO2 concentration in the Late Archean/Paleoproterozoic (2.8-2.2 Ga) from paleosol data suggest that additional greenhouse gases must have been present. Methanogenic bacteria, which were arguably extant at that time, may have contributed to a high concentration of atmospheric CH4, and previous calculations had indicated that a CH4-CO2-H2O greenhouse could have produced warm Late Archean surface temperatures while still satisfying the paleosol constraints on pCO2. Here, we revisit this conclusion. Correction of an error in the CH4 absorption coefficients, combined with the predicted early onset of climatically cooling organic haze, suggest that the amount of greenhouse warming by CH4 was more limited and that pCO2 must therefore have been 0.03 bar, at or above the upper bound of the value obtained from paleosols. Enough warming from CH4 remained in the Archean, however, to explain why Earth's climate cooled and became glacial when atmospheric O2 levels rose in the Paleoproterozoic. Our new model also shows that greenhouse warming by higher hydrocarbon gases, especially ethane (C2H6), may have helped to keep the Late Archean Earth warm.

  14. Film Presentation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monod, Pierre

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses three types of films and their use in the second language classroom. The description film is objective and static, and elicits adjectives and adverbs. This kind of film should be presented three times, each time followed by a different set of learning exercises. The culture film - characterized by descriptions, scenes from…

  15. Films on Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzon du Rest, R. P.

    This film list compiled by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office is separated into six categories: general oceanography, biology, chemistry, engineering, geology, and physics. An index of films is followed by addresses of Naval Districts and lists of distribution centers. Each film listed is described as to content, running time, type of film,…

  16. Thin film interference of colloidal thin films.

    PubMed

    Cong, Hailin; Cao, Weixiao

    2004-09-14

    A stairlike colloidal crystal thin film composed of poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (P(St-MMA-AA)) monodispersed colloids was fabricated on an inclined silicon substrate. Different bright colors were observed on the various parts of the film with different layers as white light irradiated perpendicularly on it. The relationship between the colors and layers of the film was investigated and discussed according to the principle of thin film interference. On the basis of the phenomenon of thin film interference, a one-layer colloidal film having uniform color was researched and it would display diverse colors before and after swollen by styrene (St). A circular stairlike colloidal film was achieved to mimic the colors of the peacock tail feather.

  17. Carbon thin film thermometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Sparks, L. L.; Strobridge, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    The work concerning carbon thin film thermometry is reported. Optimum film deposition parameters were sought on an empirical basis for maximum stability of the films. One hundred films were fabricated for use at the Marshall Space Flight Center; 10 of these films were given a precise quasi-continuous calibration of temperature vs. resistance with 22 intervals between 5 and 80 K using primary platinum and germanium thermometers. Sensitivity curves were established and the remaining 90 films were given a three point calibration and fitted to the established sensitivity curves. Hydrogen gas-liquid discrimination set points are given for each film.

  18. Durable solar mirror films

    DOEpatents

    O'Neill, Mark B.; Henderson, Andrew J.; Hebrink, Timothy J.; Katare, Rajesh K.; Jing, Naiyong; North, Diane; Peterson, Eric M.

    2017-02-14

    The present disclosure generally relates to durable solar mirror films, methods of making durable solar mirror films, and constructions including durable solar mirror films. In one embodiment, the present disclosure relates to a solar mirror film comprising: a multilayer optical film layer including having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion of less than about 30 ppm per percent relative humidity; and a reflective layer having a coefficient of hygroscopic expansion.

  19. Structure development of polypropylenes of varying stereoregular form and tacticity in melt spinning, tubular blown film extrusion and injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Dongman

    2002-08-01

    Polypropylene has become an important commercial thermoplastic since the isotactic form was first synthesized in the 1950's by Natta and his coworkers using Ziegler's catalysts. In recent years, new types of polypropylenes different than the existing Ziegler-Natta polypropylenes have also been commercially available through the application of the improved catalysts, i.e. metallocene. These include isotactic polypropylenes possessing lower stereoregularities and syndiotactic polypropylene. In this dissertation, we study structure development in processing these new polypropylenes and conventional high tacticity isotactic polypropylenes. We begin with the study of formation of structure in crystallization from quiescent melts and investigation of the crystallization kinetics of these polypropylenes. These are carried out by both isothermal and non-isothermal experiments. Then, we turn to the study of structure development during processing of these polymers. This is carried out in three major polyolefin processing processes: (i) melt spinning, (ii) tubular blown film extrusion and (iii) injection molding. The crystal structure and orientation of fabricated samples were characterized by wide angle X-ray diffraction (WARD), birefringence and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). We seek to correlate the formation of structure and orientation development with processing conditions (e.g. stress field and cooling rate) and material characters (e.g. tacticity and crystallization rate) and find processing-structure-properties relationships in processing these polymers.

  20. 21 CFR 178.3610 - α-Methylstyrene-vinyltoluene resins, hydrogenated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... safely used as components of polyolefin film intended for use in contact with food, subject to the... polyolefin film is produced from olefin polymers complying with § 177.1520 of this chapter, and the average thickness of the film in the form in which it contacts food does not exceed 0.002 inch....

  1. Crystallization in Ordered Polydisperse Polyolefin Diblock Copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sheng; Register, Richard A.; Landes, Brian G.; Hustad, Phillip D.; Weinhold, Jeffrey D.

    2010-12-07

    The morphologies of polydisperse ethylene-octene diblock copolymers, synthesized via a novel coordinative chain transfer polymerization process, are examined using two-dimensional synchrotron small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering on flow-aligned specimens. The diblock copolymers comprise one amorphous block with high 1-octene content and one semicrystalline block with relatively low 1-octene content, and each block ideally exhibits the most-probable distribution. Near-symmetric diblocks with a sufficiently large octene differential between the amorphous and semicrystalline blocks show well-ordered lamellar domain structures with long periods exceeding 100 nm. Orientation of these domain structures persists through multiple melting/recrystallization cycles, reflecting a robust structure which self-assembles in the melt. The domain spacings are nearly 3-fold larger than those in near-monodisperse polyethylene block copolymers of similar molecular weights. Although the well-ordered lamellar domain structure established in the melt is preserved in the solid state, the crystallites are isotropic in orientation. These materials display crystallization kinetics consistent with a spreading growth habit, indicating that the lamellae do not confine or template the growing crystals. The exceptionally large domain spacings and isotropic crystal growth are attributed to interblock mixing resulting from the large polydispersity; short hard blocks dissolved in the soft-block-rich domains swell the domain spacing in the melt and allow hard block crystallization to proceed across the lamellar domain interfaces.

  2. Crystallization in Ordered Polydisperse Polyolefin Diblock

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sheng; Register, Richard A.; Landes, Brian G.; Hustad, Phillp D.; Weinhold, Jeffrey D.

    2010-08-27

    The morphologies of polydisperse ethylene-octene diblock copolymers, synthesized via a novel coordinative chain transfer polymerization process, are examined using two-dimensional synchrotron small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scattering on flow-aligned specimens. The diblock copolymers comprise one amorphous block with high 1-octene content and one semicrystalline block with relatively low 1-octene content, and each block ideally exhibits the most-probable distribution. Near-symmetric diblocks with a sufficiently large octene differential between the amorphous and semicrystalline blocks show well-ordered lamellar domain structures with long periods exceeding 100 nm. Orientation of these domain structures persists through multiple melting/recrystallization cycles, reflecting a robust structure which self-assembles in the melt. The domain spacings are nearly 3-fold larger than those in near-monodisperse polyethylene block copolymers of similar molecular weights. Although the well-ordered lamellar domain structure established in the melt is preserved in the solid state, the crystallites are isotropic in orientation. These materials display crystallization kinetics consistent with a spreading growth habit, indicating that the lamellae do not confine or template the growing crystals. The exceptionally large domain spacings and isotropic crystal growth are attributed to interblock mixing resulting from the large polydispersity; short hard blocks dissolved in the soft-block-rich domains swell the domain spacing in the melt and allow hard block crystallization to proceed across the lamellar domain interfaces.

  3. Exxon - Baton Rouge Polyolefins Plant Decision

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  4. The Educational Film Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortora, Vincent R.; Schillaci, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Increased dialog is needed among educational film producers, distributors, and consumers in order to be sure that what is being produced meets educators' needs and also to help solve the financial problems of the film industry. (LS)

  5. Microstructure of Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-07

    optical properties ." (Final text in preparation). John Lehan, "Microstructural analysis of thin films by Rutherford Backscattering...correlation of optical properties and micro- Ion assisted deposition (IAD) is known to produce structure of IAD thin films with ion beam parameters thin films ...1.5-eV interband absorption. P (eV) R (%) P (, -V) R %) Optical properties of metal thin films in the spectral 0 98.3 0 88.8 range of

  6. Film as Film; Understanding and Judging Movies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, V. F.

    The criteria for judging movies which are presented here are based on the belief that film criticism becomes rational, if not "objective", when it displays and inspects the nature of its evidence and the bases of its arguments. The author dissents from the view of early film theorists that montage is the essence of cinema, and that cinema is to be…

  7. Getting into Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Mel

    This book describes the various aspects of the film industry and the many jobs related to filmmaking, stressing that no "formula" exists for finding a successful career in the film industry. Chapters provide information on production, writing for film, cinematography, editing, music, sound, animation and graphics, acting and modeling, the "unsung…

  8. Australian Film Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Myles P.

    Although Australia had a vigorous film industry in the silent film era, it was stifled in the 1930s when United States and British interests bought up the Australian distribution channels and closed down the indigenous industry. However, the industry and film study have undergone a renaissance since the advent of the Labor government in 1972,…

  9. The Language of Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Rod

    This book, designed for the film maker, critic, and serious filmgoer, explores elements of filmic expression from the creative and perceptual points of view. Chapters (1) trace the linguistic and mechanical development of film, (2) discuss the contributions of image and sound to film content, (3) suggest the contributions of editing and montage,…

  10. Playing With Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Maureen, Ed.

    1980-01-01

    Designed for media specialists and educators, this issue includes five articles on innovative museum film programs. The first article describes a successful film program conducted at the Staten Island Children's Museum. The second article describes inventive children's programs at the Delaware Museum of Art. The programs use films and activities…

  11. 99 Films on Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, David O., Ed.

    This catalog describes and evaluates 16-millimeter films about various aspects of drug use. Among the subjects covered by the 99 films are the composition and effects of different drugs, reasons why people use drugs, life in the drug culture, the problem of law enforcement, and various means of dealing with drug users. Each film is synopsized. Two…

  12. Focus on Shakespearean Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Charles W., Ed.

    This is an anthology of reviews and critical pieces of the significant and available Shakespearean films made between 1935 and 1966. Included are three general essays on Shakespearean film by Ian Johnson, Henri Lemaitre, and Geoffrey Reeves. The specific films and their reviewers are: A Midsummer's Night Dream (1935) Allardyce Nicoll and Richard…

  13. Health Careers Film Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower Education.

    This document, which represents a survey of the entire health career film field, was designed to provide information for people interested in a health career. The guide indicates that a major criteria for film selection was recency; however, some older films that give a fairly accurate image of a profession were included, with some emphasis given…

  14. Thick Film Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefil, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)

  15. Marine Science Film Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Frank L.

    Forty-eight motion picture films and filmstrips in the field of marine science are catalogued in this booklet. Following the alphabetical index, one page is devoted to each film indicating its type, producer, recommended grade level, running time, and presence of color and/or sound. A summary of film content, possible uses, and outstanding…

  16. Film Program Notes from the Current Holdings of the Anthology Film Archives; Outlines of 41 Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthology Film Archives, New York, NY.

    This collection of film program notes includes mixed commentary on some of the films held in the Anthology Film Archives (a film and book library in New York City). Some of the films are described by synopsis of the episodes and others by translation into English of the foreign language subtitles. However, each film noted is identified by full…

  17. Electrically Conductive Polyimide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, Anne K.; Ezzel, Stephen A.; Taylor, Larry T.; Boston, Harold G.

    1993-01-01

    Semiconducting surfaces of SnO2 formed by curing polyamic acids containing tin complexes. Polyimide films made semiconductive via incorporation of semiconductive surface layers of SnO2. If SnO2-surfaced polyimide film used as free-standing film, then semiconductive layer protected by top coat of polyimide, deposited as film from solution directly onto SnO2. Resultant films flexible and resistant to both weather and high temperature. Used on aircraft to provide resistance to lightning strikes, and in microelectronics and flexible circuitry.

  18. Pyrolyzed thin film carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Liger, Matthieu (Inventor); Harder, Theodore (Inventor); Konishi, Satoshi (Inventor); Miserendino, Scott (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of making carbon thin films comprises depositing a catalyst on a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon in contact with the catalyst and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon. A method of controlling a carbon thin film density comprises etching a cavity into a substrate, depositing a hydrocarbon into the cavity, and pyrolyzing the hydrocarbon while in the cavity to form a carbon thin film. Controlling a carbon thin film density is achieved by changing the volume of the cavity. Methods of making carbon containing patterned structures are also provided. Carbon thin films and carbon containing patterned structures can be used in NEMS, MEMS, liquid chromatography, and sensor devices.

  19. Chronicles of foam films.

    PubMed

    Gochev, G; Platikanov, D; Miller, R

    2016-07-01

    The history of the scientific research on foam films, traditionally known as soap films, dates back to as early as the late 17th century when Boyle and Hooke paid special attention to the colours of soap bubbles. Their inspiration was transferred to Newton, who began systematic study of the science of foam films. Over the next centuries, a number of scientists dealt with the open questions of the drainage, stability and thickness of foam films. The significant contributions of Plateau and Gibbs in the middle/late 19th century are particularly recognized. After the "colours" method of Newton, Reinold and Rücker as well as Johhonnot developed optical methods for measuring the thickness of the thinner "non-colour" films (first order black) that are still in use today. At the beginning of the 20th century, various aspects of the foam film science were elucidated by the works of Dewar and Perrin and later by Mysels. Undoubtedly, the introduction of the disjoining pressure by Derjaguin and the manifestation of the DLVO theory in describing the film stability are considered as milestones in the theoretical development of foam films. The study of foam films gained momentum with the introduction of the microscopic foam film methodology by Scheludko and Exerowa, which is widely used today. This historical perspective serves as a guide through the chronological development of knowledge on foam films achieved over several centuries.

  20. Ceramic Composite Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, Rodney S. (Inventor); Stankovich, Sasha (Inventor); Dikin, Dmitriy A. (Inventor); Nguyen, SonBinh T. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ceramic composite thin film or layer includes individual graphene oxide and/or electrically conductive graphene sheets dispersed in a ceramic (e.g. silica) matrix. The thin film or layer can be electrically conductive film or layer depending the amount of graphene sheets present. The composite films or layers are transparent, chemically inert and compatible with both glass and hydrophilic SiOx/silicon substrates. The composite film or layer can be produced by making a suspension of graphene oxide sheet fragments, introducing a silica-precursor or silica to the suspension to form a sol, depositing the sol on a substrate as thin film or layer, at least partially reducing the graphene oxide sheets to conductive graphene sheets, and thermally consolidating the thin film or layer to form a silica matrix in which the graphene oxide and/or graphene sheets are dispersed.

  1. "Silent" Films Revisited: Captioned Films for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalik, Gail L.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a history of the Captioned Films/Videos for the Deaf program and describes the kinds of films and videos available, including feature films and educational materials. Silent films are discussed; captioning processes are described; implications for librarians are discussed; and regional depository libraries for captioned films for the deaf…

  2. Coating of plasma polymerized film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morita, S.; Ishibashi, S.

    1980-01-01

    Plasma polymerized thin film coating and the use of other coatings is suggested for passivation film, thin film used for conducting light, and solid body lubrication film of dielectrics of ultra insulators for electrical conduction, electron accessories, etc. The special features of flow discharge development and the polymerized film growth mechanism are discussed.

  3. Film Music. Factfile No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsas, Diana, Ed.; And Others

    Organizations listed here with descriptive information include film music clubs and music guilds and associations. These are followed by a representative list of schools offering film music and/or film sound courses. Sources are listed for soundtrack recordings, sound effects/production music, films on film music, and oral history programs. The…

  4. Documentary Elements in Early Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Richard A.

    Focusing on documentary elements, this study examines the film content and film techniques of 681 motion pictures produced in the United States prior to 1904. Analysis of films by type, subject matter, and trends in subject matter shows that one-third of the early films are documentary in type and three-fourths of the films use subject matter of a…

  5. Renaissance of the Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellone, Julius, Ed.

    The post-World War II period was one of the liveliest in the history of the cinema. This is a collection of 33 critical articles on some of the best films of the perd. Most of the essays explicate the themes and symbols of the films. The essays deal with these films: "The Apu Trilogy,""L'Avventura,""Balthazar,""Blow-Up,""Bonnie and Clyde," Citizen…

  6. Clinical careers film.

    PubMed

    2015-09-01

    Those interested in developing clinical academic careers might be interested in a short animated film by Health Education England (HEE) and the National Institute for Health Research. The three-minute film, a frame from which is shown below, describes the sort of opportunities that are on offer to all professionals as part of the HEE's clinical academic careers framework. You can view the film on YouTube at tinyurl.com/pelb95c.

  7. Daylight Redirecting Window Film

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    EW-201014) Daylight Redirecting Window Film December 2013 This document has been cleared for public release; Distribution...DEC 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Daylight Redirecting Window Film 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...CCE cost of conserved energy DoD Department of Defense DRF daylight redirecting film EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ESTCP

  8. Solution-based Syntheses of Iron Pyrite Thin Films for Photovoltaic and Protein Foot-printing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Makkaoui, Mohammed

    -printing application in collaboration with the Brenowitz lab at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and the Khine lab at the University of California, Irvine. A thin film of pyrite nano-crystals is spray deposited (Video in supplementary ) onto a shape memory polymer that is then thermally treated with a heat gun, causing the sheet to retract and stiffen as the nanocrystalline layer crumples and integrates into the polyolefin, forming a mechanically robust and highly reactive laminate of pyrite nano-crystals. Micro-wells are thermoformed into the laminate under negative pressure. ˙OH dose-oxidation response relationship were established via varying the H2O 2 concentration and reaction time. The flexibility, cost effectiveness and scalability of this platform enables integration into macro-structural analysis systems. Pyrite shrink laminates and hydrazine ink films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Raman Spectroscopy. Drop deposition oxidation experiments and MALDI-TOF "Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight" Mass Spectroscopy of protein aliquots reacted on PSWL were conducted in the Brenowitz lab at the department of biochemistry at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York.

  9. Thermally processed keratin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Justin; Schmidt, Walter

    2004-03-01

    Keratin obtained from poultry feathers is blended with -OH containing second phases. Films are prepared by pressing the blended keratin at temperatures concurrent with typical polymer processing temperatures. The films are completely cohesive as opposed to partially cohesive if pressed under the same conditions without blending. The films are "tough" and the mechanical properties show similarities to the properties of commercially available commodity thermoplastics. The keratin films are produced in a few minutes without reducing or oxidizing agents. The mobility of the keratin chains during blending is shown to relate to the serine (S), threonine (T), and tyrosine (Y) contents in the amino acid sequence relative to cystine (C).

  10. Protective overcoating of films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Kodak Film Type SO-212 was emulsion overcoated with gelatin and lacquer to evaluate the feasibility of application of the coatings, any image degradation, and the relative protection offered against abrasion. Evaluated were: Eastman motion picture film lacquer Type 485, water solutions of Eastman purified Calfskin gelatin, and experimental Eastman gelatin stripping film of 4 and 6 microns. Conclusions reached were: (1) All coatings can be applied with relative ease with the only limitation being that of equipment. (2) None of the coatings degrade the processed image. (3) All of the coatings provide protection to the emulsion. These conclusions apply to any film which may be considered for overcoating.

  11. Film tension of liquid nano-film from molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Tiefeng; Yang, Siyuan; Xiang, Fan; Liang, Yunpei; Li, Qibin; Gao, Xuechao; Liu, Sanjun

    2017-02-01

    Due to its geometry simplicity, the forces of thin liquid film are widely investigated and equivalently employed to explore the phys-chemical properties and mechanical stability of many other surfaces or colloid ensembles. The surface tension of bulk liquid (σ∞) and film tension (γ) are the most important parameters. Considering the insufficiency of detailed interpretation of film tension under micro-scale circumstances, a method for film tension was proposed based on numerical modeling. Assuming surface tension at different slab thicknesses being identical to the surface tension of film, the surface tension and disjoining pressure were subsequently used to evaluate the film tension based on the derivation of film thermodynamics, and a decreasing tendency was discovered for low temperature regions. The influence of saline concentration on nano-films was also investigated, and the comparison of film tensions suggested that higher concentration yielded larger film tension, with stronger decreasing intensity as a function of film thickness. Meanwhile, at thick film range (15-20 nm), film tension of higher concentration film continued to decrease as thickness increase, however it arrived to constant value for that of lower concentration. Finally, it was found that the film tension was almost independent on the film curvature, but varied with the thickness. The approach is applicable to symmetric emulsion films containing surfactants and bi-layer lipid films.

  12. The Possibility of Film Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poague, Leland; Cadbury, William

    1989-01-01

    Examines the role of critical language in film criticism. Compares and contrasts Monroe Beardsley's philosophy on film aesthetics with the New Criticism. Outlines some of the contributions Beardsley has made to the study of film criticism. (KM)

  13. Optical thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Shuzheng

    1991-11-01

    Thin film devices are applied to almost all modern scientific instruments, and these devices, especially optical thin film devices, play an essential role in the performances of the instruments, therefore, they are attracting more and more attention. Now there are numerous kinds of thin film devices and their applications are very diversified. The 300-page book, 'Thin Film Device and Applications,' by Prof. K. L. Chopra gives some general ideas, and my paper also outlines the designs, fabrication, and applications of some optical thin film devices made in my laboratory. Optical thin film devices have been greatly developed in the recent decades. Prof. A. Thelan has given a number of papers on the theory and techniques, Prof. H. A. Macleod's book, 'Thin Film Optical Filters,' has concisely concluded the important concepts of optical thin film devices, and Prof. J. A. Dobrowobski has proposed many successful designs for optical thin film devices. Recently, fully-automatic plants make it easier to produce thin film devices with various spectrum requirements, and some companies, such as Balzers, Leybold AG, Satis Vacuum AG, etc., have manufactured such kinds of coating plants for research or mass-production, and the successful example is the production of multilayer antireflection coatings with high stability and reproducibility. Therefore, it could be said that the design of optical thin film devices and coating plants is quite mature. However, we cannot expect that every problem has been solved, the R&D work still continues, the competition still continues, and new design concepts, new techniques, and new film materials are continually developed. Meanwhile, the high-price of fully-automatic coating plants makes unpopular, and automatic design of coating stacks is only the technique for optimizing the manual design according to the physical concepts and experience, in addition, not only the optical system, but also working environment should be taken into account when

  14. Microfilm--Which Film Type, Which Application?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Suzanne Cates

    1985-01-01

    Report on characteristics of different kinds of microfilm available indicates proper film for specific needs. Silver halide and nonsilver films, diazo film, vesicular film, reaction of films to light, effect of heat and humidity on films, film susceptibility to scratching, and potential longevity of film types are covered. (35 references) (EJS)

  15. Water depth penetration film test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.; Sauer, G. E.; Lamar, N. T.

    1974-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Resources Program, a comparative and controlled evaluation of nine film-filter combinations was completed to establish the relative effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail if exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. The films tested, with one exception, were those which prior was suggested had potential. These included an experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and a black-and-white infrared film. Selective filtration was used with all films.

  16. Thin-film forces in pseudoemulsion films

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. |

    1991-06-01

    Use of foam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has shown recent success in steam-flooding field applications. Foam can also provide an effective barrier against gas coning in thin oil zones. Both of these applications stem from the unique mobility-control properties a stable foam possesses when it exists in porous media. Unfortunately, oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important for EOR applications to understand how oil destroys foam. Studies all indicate that stabilization of the pseudoemulsion film is critical to maintain foam stability in the presence of oil. Hence, to aid in design of surfactant formulations for foam insensitivity to oil the authors pursue direct measurement of the thin-film or disjoining forces that stabilize pseudoemulsion films. Experimental procedures and preliminary results are described.

  17. Creative Film-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smallman, Kirk

    The fundamentals of motion picture photography are introduced with a physiological explanation for the illusion of motion in a film. Film stock formats and emulsions, camera features, and lights are listed and described. Various techniques of exposure control are illustrated in terms of their effects. Photographing action with a stationary or a…

  18. Abstract Film and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grice, Malcolm

    A theoretical and historical account of the main preoccupations of makers of abstract films is presented in this book. The book's scope includes discussion of nonrepresentational forms as well as examination of experiments in the manipulation of time in films. The ten chapters discuss the following topics: art and cinematography, the first…

  19. Film Canister Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferstl, Andrew; Schneider, Jamie L.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque film canisters are readily available, cheap, and useful for scientific inquiry in the classroom. They can also be surprisingly versatile and useful as a tool for stimulating scientific inquiry. In this article, the authors describe inquiry activities using film canisters for preservice teachers, including a "black box" activity and several…

  20. Films for Childhood Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winick, Mariann Pezzella

    This is a review of films in six thematic groupings: (1) The Open Classroom on Film, (2) The Developing Child, (3) Readiness and the Natural Abilities of Children, (4) Schools as Mirrors, (5) Families: Weavers of Civilization, (6) Children: The Legacy. Each review describes strengths and weaknesses, and gives guidance for follow-up usage. All…

  1. Authors on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    Different authors' attitudes toward film are revealed through five different sections of this book: (1) articles, essays, and reviews pertaining to the silent cinema and the transition to sound; (2) general statements on the film medium or filmmakers and their messages; (3) essays dealing with the problems, involvements, and reflections of the…

  2. Construction of Meaning: Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryluck, Calvin

    1995-01-01

    Notes that film has no clear set of rules, unlike all languages, which are deductive systems interpreted according to clear sets of rules. Suggests that film is an inductive system whose interpretation is based on a general understanding of events depicted as modified by production variables such as lighting, camera angles, and the context of…

  3. Protolytic carbon film technology

    SciTech Connect

    Renschler, C.L.; White, C.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents a technique for the deposition of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) on virtually any surface allowing carbon film formation with only the caveat that the substrate must withstand carbonization temperatures of at least 600 degrees centigrade. The influence of processing conditions upon the structure and properties of the carbonized film is discussed. Electrical conductivity, microstructure, and morphology control are also described.

  4. FAA Film Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Some 75 films from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration are listed in this catalog. Topics dealt with include aerodynamics, airports, aviation history and careers, flying clubs, navigation and weather. Most of the films are 16mm sound and color productions. Filmstrips requiring a 35mm projector and phonograph or…

  5. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOEpatents

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  6. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOEpatents

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  7. Dental Training Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veterans Administration Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    This dental training films catalog is organized into two sections. Section I is a category listing of the films by number and title, indexed according to generalized headings; categories are as follow: anatomy, articulator systems, complete dentures, dental assisting, dental laboratory technology, dental materials, dental office emergencies,…

  8. Radiographic film package

    SciTech Connect

    Muylle, W. E.

    1985-08-27

    A radiographic film package for non-destructive testing, comprising a radiographic film sheet, an intensifying screen with a layer of lead bonded to a paper foil, and a vacuum heat-sealed wrapper with a layer of aluminum and a heat-sealed easy-peelable thermoplastic layer.

  9. On Teaching Ethnographic Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarfield, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article, a developmental anthropologist, illustrates how the instructor can use ethnographic films to enhance the study of anthropology and override notions about the scope and efficacy of Western intervention in the Third World, provided the instructor places such films in their proper historical and cultural context. He…

  10. Film and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, John E., Ed.

    This report on a conference, which brought together representatives of various humanistic disciplines to explore the cross-disciplinary appeal of film study as well as the use of film in stimulating scholarship and teaching, includes a narrative summary of the day's conversations and issues raised, as well as of reprints of articles that suggest…

  11. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  12. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  13. Mechanics of Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-06

    S. Hwang, Thermal conductivity of thin films: measurement and microstructural effects, in Thin- film heat transfer, properties and processing, ed...thermal, electrical, optical and magnetic properties . As typical examples we mention microelectronics, optical coatings and multilayers for use in optical...interplay between mechanical properties (elastic moduli), thermal properties (thermal conductivity, thermal expansion coefficient), and optical

  14. Filming for Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englander, A. Arthur; Petzold, Paul

    Film makers, professional or amateur, will find in this volume an extensive discussion of the adaptation of film technique to television work, of the art of the camera operator, and of the productive relationships between people, organization, and hardware. Chapters include "The Beginnings," an overview of the interrelationship between roles in…

  15. Film Study Hang Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenier, Charles F.

    1969-01-01

    The interest and delight which students find in film should be preserved from a teacher's excessive zeal to analyze and explain. As the beauty of poetry is frequently diminished through exhaustive analyses of similes, rhyme schemes, and other technical devices, the value of film to high school students can be weakened through too great an emphasis…

  16. Selective inorganic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Weisenbach, L.A.; Anderson, M.T.

    1995-05-01

    This project is developing inorganic thin films as membranes for gas separation applications, and as discriminating coatings for liquid-phase chemical sensors. Our goal is to synthesize these coatings with tailored porosity and surface chemistry on porous substrates and on acoustic and optical sensors. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, air, and natural gas constituents at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. We are focusing on improving permeability and molecular sieve properties of crystalline zeolitic membranes made by hydrothermally reacting layered multicomponent sol-gel films deposited on mesoporous substrates. We also used acoustic plate mode (APM) oscillator and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor elements as substrates for sol-gel films, and have both used these modified sensors to determine physical properties of the films and have determined the sensitivity and selectivity of these sensors to aqueous chemical species.

  17. The National Film Registry: Acquiring Our Film Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Roy A.

    The National Film Registry, which is primarily a designated list of films to be preserved by the Library of Congress, is also a valuable tool for selecting "films that are culturally, historically, and aesthetically significant." Following a brief discussion of the history and selection process of the National Film Registry, Southeast…

  18. Film Theory and Hugo Munsterberg's "The Film": A Psychological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicclair, Mark R.

    1978-01-01

    Hugo Munsterberg's "The Film: A Psychological Study" is one of the earliest essays in the area of film theory. Unfortunately, it has remained relatively unknown since its publication in 1916. The author discusses two concepts raised by Munsterberg: the contrast between films in the theatrical mode and films in the cinematic mode.…

  19. Chiral atomically thin films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm(-1)) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  20. Chiral atomically thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol-Joo; Sánchez-Castillo, A.; Ziegler, Zack; Ogawa, Yui; Noguez, Cecilia; Park, Jiwoong

    2016-06-01

    Chiral materials possess left- and right-handed counterparts linked by mirror symmetry. These materials are useful for advanced applications in polarization optics, stereochemistry and spintronics. In particular, the realization of spatially uniform chiral films with atomic-scale control of their handedness could provide a powerful means for developing nanodevices with novel chiral properties. However, previous approaches based on natural or grown films, or arrays of fabricated building blocks, could not offer a direct means to program intrinsic chiral properties of the film on the atomic scale. Here, we report a chiral stacking approach, where two-dimensional materials are positioned layer-by-layer with precise control of the interlayer rotation (θ) and polarity, resulting in tunable chiral properties of the final stack. Using this method, we produce left- and right-handed bilayer graphene, that is, a two-atom-thick chiral film. The film displays one of the highest intrinsic ellipticity values (6.5 deg μm-1) ever reported, and a remarkably strong circular dichroism (CD) with the peak energy and sign tuned by θ and polarity. We show that these chiral properties originate from the large in-plane magnetic moment associated with the interlayer optical transition. Furthermore, we show that we can program the chiral properties of atomically thin films layer-by-layer by producing three-layer graphene films with structurally controlled CD spectra.

  1. Feature Films in Your Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spehr, Paul

    1970-01-01

    Trained film librarians, given a well planned and carefully developed program can answer the needs of the new film students. Includes lists of motion picture distributors, cinema periodicals, significant feature films, and classic American feature-length films. (Author/JB)

  2. Film Images of Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines public debate over private education in the context of the Hollywood dramatic feature film. Analyses four recent films that all portray private schools negatively. Film representation of public schools is more optimistic. Asserts that the films ignore or misrepresent three strengths of private education: effective leadership, small school…

  3. Reference for radiographic film interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Reference of X-ray film images provides examples of weld defects, film quality, stainless steel welded tubing, and acceptable weld conditions. A summary sheet details the discrepancies shown on the film strip. This reference aids in interpreting and evaluating radiographic film of weldments.

  4. Film: The Reality of Being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheratsky, Rodney E.

    The visual media, particularly film, has challenged today's educators by competing for students' time and interests and by providing a relevancy that books designed for school use do not have. Using film study to combat the supposed immorality of theatrical films and employing instructional film to transmit information has provided a negative…

  5. The Art of the Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Ernest

    The author prefaces his consideration of films as an art form with a discussion of the mechanics of filmmaking. He describes the division of talent on a movie set, details the history of the tools of filmmakers, and explains the production and reproduction of a film. The influence of film techniques on plot development in a fiction film is…

  6. Children's Film Programming: A Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallery Association of New York State, Inc.

    Directed at the staffs of art institutions, community centers, libraries, historical societies, and schools, this practical guide is intended to help in the selection and use of films for children. "Film," in this handbook refers to 16mm films presented in public screenings--not videotape versions of films, and not material originally…

  7. Diagnosing Disputes in Film Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Robert A.

    1979-01-01

    By classifying and analyzing actual disputes in film criticism, the author considers the following questions: Are there connections between film theory and film criticism? If so, which are healthy and which are diseased? If not, what alternative healthy function might film theory have? (Author/SJL)

  8. Biomimetic thin film synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, G.L.; Campbell, A.A.; Gordon, N.R.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for forming thin film coatings and to demonstrate that the biomimetic thin film technology developed at PNL is useful for industrial applications. In the biomimetic process, mineral deposition from aqueous solution is controlled by organic functional groups attached to the underlying substrate surface. The coatings process is simple, benign, inexpensive, energy efficient, and particularly suited for temperature sensitive substrate materials (such as polymers). In addition, biomimetic thin films can be deposited uniformly on complex shaped and porous substrates providing a unique capability over more traditional line-of-sight methods.

  9. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Yang-Tse; Poli, Andrea A.; Meltser, Mark Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

  10. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Y.T.; Poli, A.A.; Meltser, M.A.

    1999-03-23

    A thin film hydrogen sensor includes a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end. 5 figs.

  11. Negative birefringent polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor); Cheng, Stephen Z. D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A negative birefringent film, useful in liquid crystal displays, and a method for controlling the negative birefringence of a polyimide film is disclosed which allows the matching of an application to a targeted amount of birefringence by controlling the degree of in-plane orientation of the polyimide by the selection of functional groups within both the diamine and dianhydride segments of the polyimide which affect the polyimide backbone chain rigidity, linearity, and symmetry. The higher the rigidity, linearity and symmetry of the polyimide backbone, the larger the value of the negative birefringence of the polyimide film.

  12. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

    2000-01-27

    Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

  13. Ion beam deposited protective films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Single or dual ion beam sources were used to deposit thin films for different applications. Metal and metal oxide films were evaluated as protective coatings for the materials. Film adherence was measured and the most promising films were then tested under environments similar to operating conditions. It was shown that some materials do protect die material (H-13 steel) and do reduce thermal fatigue. Diamondlike films have many useful applications. A series of experiments were conducted to define and optimize new approaches to the manufacture of such films. A dual beam system using argon and methane gases was developed to generate these films.

  14. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  15. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  16. TAMPERPROOF FILM BADGE

    DOEpatents

    Kocher, L.F.

    1958-10-01

    A persornel dosimeter film badge made of plastic, with provision for a picture of the wearer and an internal slide containing photographic film that is sensitive to various radiations, is described. Four windows made of differing material selectively attenuate alpha, beta, gamma rays, and neutrons so as to distinguish the particular type of radiation the wearer was subjected to. In addition, a lead shield has the identification number of the wearer perforated thereon so as to identify the film after processing. An internal magnetically actuated latch securely locks the slide within the body, and may be withdrawn only upon the external application of two strong magnetic forces in order to insure that the wearer or other curious persons will not accidentally expose the film to visual light.

  17. Sprites on Film

    NASA Video Gallery

    Filmed at 10,000 frames per second by Japan's NHK television, movies like this of electromagnetic bursts called "sprites" will help scientists better understand how weather high in the atmosphere r...

  18. Amorphous diamond films

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.

    1998-06-09

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  19. Nanostructured thermoplastic polyimide films

    DOEpatents

    Aglan, Heshmat

    2015-05-19

    Structured films containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes ("MWCNTs") have enhanced mechanical performance in terms of strength, fracture resistance, and creep recovery of polyimide ("PI") films. Preferably, the loadings of MWCNTs can be in the range of 0.1 wt % to 0.5 wt %. The strength of the new PI films dried at 60.degree. C. increased by 55% and 72% for 0.1 wt % MWCNT and 0.5 wt % MWCNT loadings, respectively, while the fracture resistance increased by 23% for the 0.1 wt % MWCNTs and then decreases at a loading of 0.5 wt % MWCNTs. The films can be advantageously be created by managing a corresponding shift in the annealing temperature at which the maximum strength occurs as the MWCNT loadings increase.

  20. Multifunctional thin film surface

    DOEpatents

    Brozik, Susan M.; Harper, Jason C.; Polsky, Ronen; Wheeler, David R.; Arango, Dulce C.; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2015-10-13

    A thin film with multiple binding functionality can be prepared on an electrode surface via consecutive electroreduction of two or more aryl-onium salts with different functional groups. This versatile and simple method for forming multifunctional surfaces provides an effective means for immobilization of diverse molecules at close proximities. The multifunctional thin film has applications in bioelectronics, molecular electronics, clinical diagnostics, and chemical and biological sensing.

  1. Oxide Films RF Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    different stabilities and properties . Certain applications, such as integrated dielectrics or photoelectrochemical cells, require thin films of TiO2 that...interesting dielectric properties . Another is that the (001) plane of anatase TiO2 is one of the two main layers stacked along the (100) direction in...Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES .bDib ibuUl I U 1 iited 14. ABSTRACT TiO2 films were grown using a reactive molecular beam epitaxy system

  2. Thin film tritium dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

  3. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, D. L.; Song, X. H.; Zhang, X.; ...

    2014-12-10

    Measurement of the magnetoresistance (MR) of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler s rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms.

  4. Dielectric Composite Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    more compressive under deposition conditions, such as high temperature, low pressure or energetic ion bombardment, that produce a more densely packed...film porosity and silica content. Thus, films formed at high temperatures and low pressures , as well as under ion bombardment during deposition, have...and their mixtures were deposited on 100-300 *C substrates and under reactive gas III. RESULTS pressures of 1-10x 10- Torr 02. 02 was UHP grade with A

  5. Polymer film composite transducer

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.

    2005-09-20

    A composite piezoelectric transducer, whose piezoeletric element is a "ribbon wound" film of piezolectric material. As the film is excited, it expands and contracts, which results in expansion and contraction of the diameter of the entire ribbon winding. This is accompanied by expansion and contraction of the thickness of the ribbon winding, such that the sound radiating plate may be placed on the side of the winding.

  6. Capacitor film surface assessment studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galperin, I.; White, W.

    1985-02-01

    In the present investigation of the optical surface of the three widely used, biaxially oriented capacitor films, polypropylene, polyvinylidene fluoride, and polyester, with attention to film surface defects and thickness variation, the defects and their rate of occurrence proved traceable in terms of polymer structure, chemical grouping, and fabrication processing. Film thickness variation was small, yet differed for each film type. Film breakdown voltages have been determined, and alternative causes for the voltage values obtained are proposed. A reciprocal relation is noted between the film breakdown voltage and the dielectric constant.

  7. Epitaxial thin films

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  8. Dewetting of Thin Polymer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, P. S.; Sorensen, J. L.; Kent, M.; Jeon, H. S.

    2001-03-01

    DEWETTING OF THIN POLYMER FILMS P. S. Dixit,(1) J. L. Sorensen,(2) M. Kent,(2) H. S. Jeon*(1) (1) Department of Petroleum and Chemical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801, jeon@nmt.edu (2) Department 1832, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Dewetting of thin polymer films is of technological importance for a variety of applications such as protective coatings, dielectric layers, and adhesives. Stable and smooth films are required for the above applications. Above the glass transition temperature (Tg) the instability of polymer thin films on a nonwettable substrate can be occurred. The dewetting mechanism and structure of polypropylene (Tg = -20 ^circC) and polystyrene (Tg = 100 ^circC) thin films is investigated as a function of film thickness (25 Åh < 250 Åand quenching temperature. Contact angle measurements are used in conjunction with optical microscope to check the surface homogeneity of the films. Uniform thin films are prepared by spin casting the polymer solutions onto silicon substrates with different contact angles. We found that the stable and unstable regions of the thin films as a function of the film thickness and quenching temperature, and then constructed a stability diagram for the dewetting of thin polymer films. We also found that the dewetting patterns of the thin films are affected substantially by the changes of film thickness and quenching temperature.

  9. Virus-PEDOT Biocomposite Films

    PubMed Central

    Donavan, Keith C.; Arter, Jessica A.

    2012-01-01

    Virus-poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (virus-PEDOT) biocomposite films are prepared by electropolymerizing 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) in aqueous electrolytes containing 12 mM LiClO4 and the bacteriophage M13. The concentration of virus in these solutions, [virus]soln, is varied from 3 nM to 15 nM. A quartz crystal microbalance is used to directly measure the total mass of the biocomposite film during its electrodeposition. In combination with a measurement of the electrodeposition charge, the mass of the virus incorporated into the film is calculated. These data show that concentration of the M13 within the electropolymerized film, [virus]film, increases linearly with [virus]soln. The incorporation of virus particles into the PEDOT film from solution is efficient, resulting in a concentration ratio: [virus]film:[virus]soln ≈450. Virus incorporation into the PEDOT causes roughening of the film topography that is observed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The electrical conductivity of the virus-PEDOT film, measured perpendicular to the plane of the film using conductive tip AFM, decreases linearly with virus loading, from 270 μS/cm for pure PE-DOT films to 50 μS/cm for films containing 100 μM virus. The presence on the virus surface of displayed affinity peptides did not significantly influence the efficiency of incorporation into virus-PEDOT biocomposite films. PMID:22856875

  10. Filming eugenics: teaching the history of eugenics through film.

    PubMed

    Ooten, Melissa; Trembanis, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    In teaching eugenics to undergraduate students and general public audiences, film should he considered as a provocative and fruitful medium that can generate important discussions about the intersections among eugenics, gender, class, race, and sexuality. This paper considers the use of two films, A Bill of Divorcement and The Lynchburg Story, as pedagogical tools for the history of eugenics. The authors provide background information on the films and suggestions for using the films to foster an active engagement with the historical eugenics movement.

  11. Thin films and uses

    DOEpatents

    Baskaran, Suresh; Graff, Gordon L.; Song, Lin

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

  12. Holographic thin film analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Norden, B. N. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A system for the analysis and measurement of thin films in which the light output of a laser is split into two beams is discribed. The first beam is focused to illuminate the entire area of a photographic plate and the second beam is colummated and directed through a relatively small portion of the photographic plate onto the sample with the film to be observed. The surface of the sample is positioned at a slight angle with respect to a plane normal to the second beam and the light reflected from the sample arrives back at the photographic plate in a region other than through which the second beam originally passes. By making two successive exposures during the deposition of material on the surface of the sample, holograms are recorded on the photographic plate. The plate is then developed and interference lines of the hologram provide a measurement of the film or material deposited between exposure.

  13. Thin θ -film optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta, Luis

    2016-12-01

    A Chern-Simons theory in 3D is accomplished by the so-called θ term in the action (θ /2 )∫F ∧F , which contributes only to observable effects on the boundaries of such a system. When electromagnetic radiation interacts with the system, the wave is reflected and its polarization is rotated at the interface, even when both the θ system and the environment are pure vacuum. These topics have been studied extensively. Here, we investigate the optical properties of a thin θ film, where multiple internal reflections could interfere coherently. The cases of pure vacuum and a material with magnetoelectric properties are analyzed. It is found that the film reflectance is enhanced compared to ordinary non-θ systems and the interplay between magnetoelectric properties and the θ parameter yield film opacity and polarization properties which could be interesting in the case of topological insulators, among other topological systems.

  14. Photographic film image enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A series of experiments were undertaken to assess the feasibility of defogging color film by the techniques of optical spatial filtering. A coherent optical processor was built using red, blue, and green laser light input and specially designed Fourier transformation lenses. An array of spatial filters was fabricated on black and white emulsion slides using the coherent optical processor. The technique was first applied to laboratory white light fogged film, and the results were successful. However, when the same technique was applied to some original Apollo X radiation fogged color negatives, the results showed no similar restoration. Examples of each experiment are presented and possible reasons for the lack of restoration in the Apollo films are discussed.

  15. Thin film temperature sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Przybyszewski, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Thin film surface temperature sensors were developed. The sensors were made of platinum-platinum/10 percent rhodium thermocouples with associated thin film-to-lead wire connections and sputtered on aluminum oxide coated simulated turbine blades for testing. Tests included exposure to vibration, low velocity hydrocarbon hot gas flow to 1250 K, and furnace calibrations. Thermal electromotive force was typically two percent below standard type S thermocouples. Mean time to failure was 42 hours at a hot gas flow temperature of 1250 K and an average of 15 cycles to room temperature. Failures were mainly due to separation of the platinum thin film from the aluminum oxide surface. Several techniques to improve the adhesion of the platinum are discussed.

  16. The Nuclear Debate in Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, John

    1977-01-01

    Provides a nuclear film bibliography grouped into the areas of: building and using the bomb; living with the bomb; and living with nuclear power. These films are for mature high school students and older. (MLH)

  17. Thin film solar cell workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Joe; Jeffrey, Frank

    1993-01-01

    A summation of responses to questions posed to the thin-film solar cell workshop and the ensuing discussion is provided. Participants in the workshop included photovoltaic manufacturers (both thin film and crystalline), cell performance investigators, and consumers.

  18. Thin films for material engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasa, Kiyotaka

    2016-07-01

    Thin films are defined as two-dimensional materials formed by condensing one by one atomic/molecular/ionic species of matter in contrast to bulk three-dimensional sintered ceramics. They are grown through atomic collisional chemical reaction on a substrate surface. Thin film growth processes are fascinating for developing innovative exotic materials. On the basis of my long research on sputtering deposition, this paper firstly describes the kinetic energy effect of sputtered adatoms on thin film growth and discusses on a possibility of room-temperature growth of cubic diamond crystallites and the perovskite thin films of binary compound PbTiO3. Secondly, high-performance sputtered ferroelectric thin films with extraordinary excellent crystallinity compatible with MBE deposited thin films are described in relation to a possible application for thin-film MEMS. Finally, the present thin-film technologies are discussed in terms of a future material science and engineering.

  19. Current Film Periodicals in English. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Adam, Comp.

    This bibliography of about 200 periodicals dealing with film covers several types of magazine: scholarly journals on film aesthetics, like "The Film Journal"; news notes for movie fans, like "Film Nut News"; magazines which cover films as well as the other arts, like "Cue" and "After Dark"; film education periodicals, like "Media and Methods";…

  20. Biomimetic thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, P. C.; Campbell, A. A.; Tarasevich, B. J.; Fryxell, G. E.; Bentjen, S. B.

    1991-04-01

    Surfaces derivatized with organic functional groups were used to promote the deposition of thin films of inorganic minerals. These derivatized surfaces were designed to mimic the nucleation proteins that control mineral deposition during formation of bone, shell, and other hard tissues in living organisms. By the use of derivatized substrates control was obtained over the phase of mineral deposited, the orientation of the crystal lattice and the location of deposition. These features are of considerable importance in many technically important thin films, coatings, and composite materials. Methods of derivatizing surfaces are considered and examples of controlled mineral deposition are presented.

  1. Superconducting Electronic Film Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-02-14

    superconductors, yttrium , barium, copper, oxides, high, critical, temperature, thin films, tunneling, barriers, thallium, sputtering. 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...50*C lower than that required for YBCO. In common with YBCO, the best films grew epitaxially with a c-axis orientation on SrTiO3 , LaAIO 3, and NdGaO 3...for c-axis growth were (001) faces of LaAIO 3, NdGaO 3 , SrTiO3 , MgO. yttria-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ), 11 and (1102) sapphire. Low substrate

  2. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Catalano, Anthony W.; Bhushan, Manjul

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  3. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  4. Thin Film Phosphor Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    followed in Fig. 1. Two different garnet phases are observed in the fired films. The "low temperature " phase observed in the film treated at 9(X)°C has a... garnets ,1 121 thle experimentall~v-ob,•crved lattice constar.als correspond to the followving lmh composition for the low and high temperature phases...deposited, which is probably an yttrium rich garnet (see Figure 1). At I100)°C we start to see the appearance of both phases. As the firing temperature

  5. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  6. VACUUM DEPOSITION OF THIN FILMS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The book deals with methods of obtaining and processing thin films , methods of measuring the deposition rate and thickness of thin-film layers, and...the main fields of application of thin films . Vacuum requirements and the requirements for the composition of the residual medium in thermal...evaporation and cathode sputtering are given, and modern methods of producing and measuring vacuums and the equipment used in obtaining thin films are described. (Author)

  7. Center for Thin Film Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-22

    techniques for reducing roughness were developed and tested . Substrate Preparation We deposited Si films by sputtering on a variety of substrates, and...deposition," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 3, 1039 (1989). 41 42 Nd: YAG LASER ABLATION OF BaTiO 3 THIN FILMS *URSULA J. GIBSON, **J.A. RUFFNER,***J.J. MCNALLY...thin films of barium titanate onto a variety of substrates, using picosecond and nanosecond pulsed Nd: YAG lasers. The films were deposited from a hot

  8. Teaching Argumentative Writing through Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluitt-Dupuy, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how watching and discussing feature films and writing reviews of these films in the English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classroom can be instrumental in teaching the principles of good argumentative writing within the confines of the simple movie review. Six steps for teaching a film review unit are provided. (Author/VWL)

  9. Longevity Of Dry Film Lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannel, J. W.; Stockwell, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes evaluation of dry film lubricants candidate for use in rotary joints of proposed Space Station. Study included experiments and theoretical analyses focused on longevity of sputtered molybdenum disulfide films and ion-plated lead films under conditions partially simulating rolling contact.

  10. Coated Aluminized Film Resists Corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rockoff, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    Commercially available corrosion-protection coating allows less costly metals - aluminum in particular used in heat-reflecting films for thermal barriers. Previously, such films had to incorporate gold as reflective layer to withstand humidity, moisture, and salt spray without corroding. This protective coating prevents corrosion of metalized films during evironmental exposure yet remains flexible, thermally stable and clear.

  11. Radical Pedagogy, Prison, and Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Dierdre

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the work of The Inside Film project. Inside Film works with a specific group of people (prisoners and ex-prisoners) in a particular set of circumstances (in prison or on parole) exploring how film making can be used within prison education or with people who have been to prison as a means of fostering a critical engagement…

  12. Analysis of Film as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupp, Vicki O'Donnell

    Films function as a persuasive process in that they bring about a reinforcement or change in attitude, belief, or behavior by producing a cognitive restructuring of the audience's frame of reference. Organized research into the effects of films falls into two categories: macro-media studies exploring the way films reflect the psychological…

  13. Polyheterocycle Langmuir-Blodgett Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-29

    3-alkyl thiophene) and Stearic acid LB films. Thc oricntation of single- and Multi-laycr films on platinum substrates have bccn studicd by Ncar Edgc...not surface active. The LB films were obtained by spreading a mixture of the poly(3-alkvl thiophenes) and stearic acid (C,71-5 COOH ) onto the water

  14. Making Diamondlike Films More Transparent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, Michael J.; Kussmaul, Michael T.; Sovey, James S.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1994-01-01

    Diamondlike carbon films highly transparent to visible light made by dual-ion-beam deposition process. Hard, resistant to scratching, and hermetic. Used as protective coatings on eyeglasses, magnetic recording heads, computer hard disks, and windows in bar-code scanners. Amorphous diamondlike carbon films preferable to polycrystalline diamond films in these and other applications. Smooth and adherent and deposited at room temperature.

  15. Methods for producing complex films, and films produced thereby

    DOEpatents

    Duty, Chad E.; Bennett, Charlee J. C.; Moon, Ji -Won; Phelps, Tommy J.; Blue, Craig A.; Dai, Quanqin; Hu, Michael Z.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jellison, Jr., Gerald E.; Love, Lonnie J.; Ott, Ronald D.; Parish, Chad M.; Walker, Steven

    2015-11-24

    A method for producing a film, the method comprising melting a layer of precursor particles on a substrate until at least a portion of the melted particles are planarized and merged to produce the film. The invention is also directed to a method for producing a photovoltaic film, the method comprising depositing particles having a photovoltaic or other property onto a substrate, and affixing the particles to the substrate, wherein the particles may or may not be subsequently melted. Also described herein are films produced by these methods, methods for producing a patterned film on a substrate, and methods for producing a multilayer structure.

  16. Developpement d'un film antibacterien ayant des proprietes de glissement pour une meilleure processabilite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverwood, Richard

    . This rearrangement, due to the polar nature of particles, inhibits the antibacterial effect of the particles, causing them to migrate to a critical distance, outside their scope. Furthermore, we evaluated briefly some other antibacterial agents. Calcium oxide (CaO) demonstrated, although lower than ZnO, an interesting antibacterial potential. The specificity of the bactericidal for gram-positive bacteria for this variance. The addition of iron oxide (Fe2O3) did not, by its hydrophilic properties, increase the bactericidal properties of CaO, simply by mixing them. Also, the use of thymol (component of essential oil of thyme) was effective, even at very low doses. A question mark hangs, however, the sustainability of such an agent. Its use in conjunction with a compatibilizer could result in a much more persistent bactericidal effect, slowing the process of migrating to the film surface. This effect is reduced when the bactericidal thymol is mixed with ZnO in the polyethylene matrix. Finally, a tool for optimizing slip additives was developed. To do this, a correlation that links the absorbance in infrared spectroscopy (ATR reflection) to the surface concentration of the lubricant was developed. By using this correlation, also called master curve, and an infrared spectrometer to test an unknown film, it is possible to find the initial concentration of slip additive. These studies highlight the potential use of zinc oxide and thymol as efficient bactericidal agent for the food industry. This work represents the first effort to develop an antibacterial film, involving nanoscale metal oxides and a polymer matrix of polyolefin.

  17. A Film Canister Colorimeter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen

    2002-01-01

    A low-cost, low-tech colorimeter was constructed from a film canister. The student-constructed colorimeter was used to show the Beer-Lambert relationship between absorbance and concentration and to calculate the value of the molar absorptivity for permanganate at the wavelength emission maximum for an LED. Makes comparisons between this instrument…

  18. Rating Films on TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Ginette; Leyens, Jacques-Philippe

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the film viewing habits of Belgian television viewers reveals that movies with advisories regarding sex and violence are watched more than the movies without them. However, movies with qualifications tend to be judged less interesting than movies without qualifications. (JMF)

  19. Surrealism and Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, J. H.

    This book is a critical, genre study of surrealist films including a general discussion of the backgrounds, influences, and overall traits of surrealism as a mode of artistic response to an absurdist world. Citing the impetus of Jacques Vache and Andre Breton as the originators of surrealism, the work expands upon the themes of fractured realism…

  20. Paradoxes in Film Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    The author selected a simple random sample of 100 movies from the "Movie and Video Guide" (1996), by Leonard Maltin. The author's intent was to obtain some basic information on the population of roughly 19,000 movies through a small sample. The "Movie and Video Guide" by Leonard Maltin is an annual ratings guide to movies. While not all films ever…

  1. Film as Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, William

    1986-01-01

    Describes the development of a freshman English program based on the analogy of film as composition and discusses implications of this program for other teachers of writing at a time when television and movies are giving unprecedented competition to the printed page for students' attention. (HTH)

  2. Films in Depth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrievogel, Paul A.; Prete, Anthony T.

    Bound in a slipcover rather than in signatures, this "book" is made up of thirteen separately bound booklets. The first booklet is an introduction to the use of film in the classroom both in teaching the filmic art and in increasing the visual literacy of students on the high school and early college levels. The twelve other booklets each treat a…

  3. Protein thin film machines.

    PubMed

    Federici, Stefania; Oliviero, Giulio; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Bergese, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fueled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity stimulus the drive can be completely reversed in its direction by introducing a surface coating ligand. Experimental results are throughout discussed within a general yet simple thermodynamic model.

  4. Films on Deafness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parlato, Salvatore J., Jr., Comp.

    This filmography on deafness, which contains summaries of 192 16mm films arranged in alphabetical order by title, covers a wide variety of topics as evidenced by the categorical title index: communication, the nature of deafness, detection and measurement of deafness, education and training, multi-handicaps, and noise pollution. Running time, date…

  5. Intercultural Training with Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roell, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Films are a great medium to use not only to practice English, but also to facilitate intercultural learning. Today English is a global language spoken by people from many countries and cultural backgrounds. Since culture greatly impacts communication, it is helpful for teachers to introduce lessons and activities that reveal how different…

  6. Balloon film strain measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, James L.

    In order to understand the state of stress in scientific balloons, a need exists for the measurement of film deformation in flight. The results of a flight test program are reported where material strain was measured for the first time during the inflation, launch, ascent and float of a typical natural shape, zero pressure scientific balloon.

  7. Introduction to Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Gary

    There are numerous ways to structure the introduction to film course so as to meet the needs of the different types of students who typically enroll. Assuming there is no production component in the course, the teacher is left with two major approaches to choose from--historical and aesthetic. The units in the course will typically be built around…

  8. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Messier, R.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  9. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOEpatents

    Meakin, John D.; Bragagnolo, Julio

    1982-01-01

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  10. Film: The Creative Eye.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, David A.

    Short films are often experimental in nature. They can place aspects of the environment which are usually unnoticed in such a way as to sharpen our observations of the world, and "create a new awareness, a fuller sense of life and being." Based on the premise that visual literacy is becoming increasingly important, this book describes several…

  11. Film, Radio, and Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This journal issue covers the history of film, radio, and television in Iowa. The first article, "When Pictures and Sound Came to Iowa," summarizes the origin of movies and radio and their early beginnings in Iowa. Using old photographs and measurement charts, the viewing, reading, and listening habits of young people in 1950 and 1958…

  12. Films: 1971/72 Catalog of Films, Film Loops and Filmstrips for Schools, Colleges and Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Corp. of America, New York, NY.

    The films in this catalog are available for sale or rent from Learning Corporation of America. For elementary grades, films are available for use in the language arts and social studies classes. For junior and senior high, college, and adult courses, films are listed for instruction in art, music, and dance; environmental studies; United States…

  13. Colorless, Transparent, Aromatic Polyimide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Ezzell, K. S.; Ely, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    New process yields aromatic condensation polyimide films essentially colorless. Films between 90- and 100-percent transparent at visible wavelength of 500 nm. Optically transparent polyimide films made from variety of aromatic condensation polyimides. Range from very pale in color to colorless, compared to bright yellow color of conventional/ commercial aromatic polyimide film. Increased transparency achieved at no sacrifice in thermal stability, flexibility, toughness, or mechanical properties. These features extremely attractive as films or coating materials for aerospace applications or for any other applications where high optical transparency or thermal stability is required.

  14. Orientation filtering for crystalline films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Henry I.; Atwater, Harry A.; Thompson, Carl V.; Geis, Michael W.

    1986-12-30

    A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations.

  15. Orientation filtering for crystalline films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, H.I.; Atwater, H.A.; Thompson, C.V.; Geis, M.W.

    1986-12-30

    A substrate is coated with a film to be recrystallized. A pattern of crystallization barriers is created in the film, for example, by etching voids in the film. An encapsulation layer is generally applied to protect the film, fill the voids and otherwise enhance a recrystallization process. Recrystallization is carried out such that certain orientations pass preferentially through the barrier, generally as a result of growth-velocity anisotropy. The result is a film of a specific predetermined crystallographic orientation, a range of orientations or a set of discrete orientations. 7 figs.

  16. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  17. Process to form mesostructured films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Anderson, Mark T.; Ganguli, Rahul; Lu, Yunfeng

    1999-01-01

    This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films film with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts.

  18. Method for making carbon films

    DOEpatents

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  19. Method for making carbon films

    DOEpatents

    Tan, Ming X.

    1999-01-01

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

  20. Professor Camillo Negro's Neuropathological Films.

    PubMed

    Chiò, Adriano; Gianetto, Claudia; Dagna, Stella

    2016-01-01

    Camillo Negro, Professor in Neurology at the University of Torino, was a pioneer of scientific film. From 1906 to 1908, with the help of his assistant Giuseppe Roasenda and in collaboration with Roberto Omegna, one of the most experienced cinematographers in Italy, he filmed some of his patients for scientific and educational purposes. During the war years, he continued his scientific film project at the Military Hospital in Torino, filming shell-shocked soldiers. In autumn 2011, the Museo Nazionale del Cinema, in partnership with the Faculty of Neurosciences of the University of Torino, presented a new critical edition of the neuropathological films directed by Negro. The Museum's collection also includes 16 mm footage probably filmed in 1930 by Doctor Fedele Negro, Camillo's son. One of these films is devoted to celebrating the effects of the so-called "Bulgarian cure" on Parkinson's disease.

  1. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOEpatents

    Weinberger, Bernard R.

    1995-12-26

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  2. Lonsdaleite Films with Nanometer Thickness.

    PubMed

    Kvashnin, Alexander G; Sorokin, Pavel B

    2014-02-06

    We investigate the properties of potentially the stiffest quasi-2-D films with lonsdaleite structure. Using a combination of ab initio and empirical potential approaches, we analyze the elastic properties of lonsdaleite films in both elastic and inelastic regimes and compare them with graphene and diamond films. We review possible fabrication methods of lonsdaleite films using the pure nanoscale "bottom-up" paradigm: by connecting carbon layers in multilayered graphene. We propose the realization of this method in two ways: by applying direct pressure and by using the recently proposed chemically induced phase transition. For both cases, we construct the phase diagrams depending on temperature, pressure, and film thickness. Finally, we consider the electronic properties of lonsdaleite films and establish the nonlinear dependence of the band gap on the films' thicknesses and their lower effective masses in comparison with bulk crystal.

  3. Combustion effects on film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousar, D. C.; Ewen, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of: (1) a reactive environment on film cooling effectiveness, and (2) film cooling on rocket engine performance were determined experimentally in a rocket thrust chamber assembly operating with hydrogen and oxygen propellants at 300 psi chamber pressure. Tests were conducted using hydrogen, helium, and nitrogen film coolants in an instrumented, thin walled, steel thrust chamber. The film cooling, performance loss, and heat transfer coefficient data were correlated with the ALRC entrainment film cooling model which relates film coolant effectiveness and mixture ratio at the wall to the amount of mainstream gases entrained with the film coolant in a mixing layer. In addition, a comprehensive thermal analysis computer program, HOCOOL, was prepared from previously existing ALRC computer programs and analytical techniques.

  4. Host thin films incorporating nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, Uzma

    The focus of this research project was the investigation of the functional properties of thin films that incorporate a secondary nanoparticulate phase. In particular to assess if the secondary nanoparticulate material enhanced a functional property of the coating on glass. In order to achieve this, new thin film deposition methods were developed, namely use of nanopowder precursors, an aerosol assisted transport technique and an aerosol into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition system. Aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) was used to deposit 8 series of thin films on glass. Five different nanoparticles silver, gold, ceria, tungsten oxide and zinc oxide were tested and shown to successfully deposit thin films incorporating nanoparticles within a host matrix. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised and doped within a titania film by AACVD. This improved solar control properties. A unique aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition (AACVD) into atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) system was used to deposit films of Au nanoparticles and thin films of gold nanoparticles incorporated within a host titania matrix. Incorporation of high refractive index contrast metal oxide particles within a host film altered the film colour. The key goal was to test the potential of nanopowder forms and transfer the suspended nanopowder via an aerosol to a substrate in order to deposit a thin film. Discrete tungsten oxide nanoparticles or ceria nanoparticles within a titanium dioxide thin film enhanced the self-cleaning and photo-induced super-hydrophilicity. The nanopowder precursor study was extended by deposition of zinc oxide thin films incorporating Au nanoparticles and also ZnO films deposited from a ZnO nanopowder precursor. Incorporation of Au nanoparticles within a VO: host matrix improved the thermochromic response, optical and colour properties. Composite VC/TiC and Au nanoparticle/V02/Ti02 thin films displayed three useful

  5. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  6. Molecular films associated with LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crutcher, E. R.; Warner, K. J.

    1992-01-01

    The molecular films deposited on the surface of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) originated from the paints and room-temperature-vulcanized (RTV) silicone materials intentionally used on the satellite and not from residual contaminants. The high silicone content of most of the films and the uniformity of the films indicates a homogenization process in the molecular deposition and suggests a chemically most favored composition for the final film. The deposition on interior surfaces and vents indicated multiple bounce trajectories or repeated deposition-reemission cycles. Exterior surface deposits indicated a significant return flux. Ultraviolet light exposure was required to fix the deposited film as is indicated by the distribution of the films on interior surfaces and the thickness of films at the vent locations. Thermal conditions at the time of exposure to ultraviolet light seems to be an important factor in the thickness of the deposit. Sunrise facing (ram direction) surfaces always had the thicker film. These were the coldest surfaces at the time of their exposure to ultraviolet light. The films have a layered structure suggesting cyclic deposition. As many as 34 distinct layers were seen in the films. The cyclic nature of the deposition and the chemical uniformity of the film one layer to the next suggest an early deposition of the films though there is evidence for the deposition of molecular films throughout the nearly six year exposure of the satellite. A final 'spray' of an organic material associated with water soluble salts occurred very late in the mission. This may have been the result of one of the shuttle dump activities.

  7. Advanced thin film thermocouples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreider, K. G.; Semancik, S.; Olson, C.

    1984-01-01

    The fabrication, materials characterization, and performance of thin film platinum rhodium thermocouples on gas turbine alloys was investigated. The materials chosen for the study were the turbine blade alloy systems MAR M200+Hf with NiCoCrAlY and FeCrAlY coatings, and vane alloy systems MAR M509 with FeCrAlY. Research was focussed on making improvements in the problem areas of coating substrate stability, adhesion, and insulation reliability and durability. Diffusion profiles between the substrate and coating with and without barrier coatings of Al2O3 are reported. The relationships between fabrication parameters of thermal oxidation and sputtering of the insulator and its characterization and performance are described. The best thin film thermocouples were fabricated with the NiCoCrAlY coatings which were thermally oxidized and sputter coated with Al2O3.

  8. Magnetoresistance of Au films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D. L. Song, X. H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, X.-G.

    2014-12-14

    Classical magnetoresistance (MR) in nonmagnetic metals are conventionally understood in terms of the Kohler rule, with violation usually viewed as anomalous electron transport, in particular, as evidence of non-Fermi liquid behavior. Measurement of the MR of Au films as a function of temperature and film thickness reveals a strong dependence on grain size distribution and clear violation of the Kohler rule. Using a model of random resistor network, we show that this result can be explained if the MR arises entirely from inhomogeneity due to grain boundary scattering and thermal activation of grain boundary atoms. Consequently, the Kohler rule should not be used to distinguish normal and anomalous electron transport in solids.

  9. Falling film evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Bruns, Lester E.

    1976-01-01

    A falling film evaporator including a vertically oriented pipe heated exteriorly by a steam jacket and interiorly by a finned steam tube, all heating surfaces of the pipe and steam tube being formed of a material wet by water such as stainless steel, and packing within the pipe consisting of Raschig rings formed of a material that is not wet by water such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

  10. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Schucker, Robert C.

    2007-08-14

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  11. Nonlinear optical thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leslie, Thomas M.

    1993-01-01

    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  12. Waterborne Polymeric Films.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    Parameters of Test Fluids I " 3. Energies of Vaporization and Molar Volumes of Some Acrylic Monomers 29 4. Physical Properties of Synthetic Polymers 31 S...Physical Properties of Synthetic Acrylic Aqueous Dispersions 33 6. Anionic Acrylic Clear-film Formulations 35 7 Fluid Resistance of Anionic Acrylic...41 11. Energeis of Vaporization and Molar Volumes of Some Polyurethanes 45 12. Solution Properties of Synthetic Polyurethanes 47 13. Aqueous

  13. Spring magnet films.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, S. D.; Fullerton, E. E.; Gornakov, V. S.; Inomata, A.; Jiang, J. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Shapiro, A. J.; Shull, R. D.; Sowers, C. H.

    1999-03-29

    The properties of exchange-spring-coupled bilayer and superlattice films are highlighted for Sm-Co hard magnet and Fe or Co soft magnet layers. The hexagonal Sm-Co is grown via magnetron sputtering in a- and b-axis epitaxial orientations. In both cases the c-axis, in the film plane, is the easy axis of magnetization. Trends in coercivity with film thickness are established and related to the respective microstructure of the two orientations. The magnetization reversal process for the bilayers is examined by magnetometry and magneto-optical imaging, as well as by simulations that utilize a one-dimensional model to provide the spin configuration for each atomic layer. The Fe magnetization is pinned to that of the Sm-Co at the interface, and reversal proceeds via a progressive twisting of the Fe magnetization. The Fe demagnetization curves are reversible as expected for a spring magnet. Comparison of experiment and simulations indicates that the spring magnet behavior can be understood from the intrinsic properties of the hard and soft layers. Estimated are made of the ultimate gain in performance that can potentially be realized in this system.

  14. Effect of Repetitive Film Showings on Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mc Tavish, C. L.

    In a study made in 1949 to determine the increment in learning that could be attributed to repetition, four general science films were shown to each of four groups of college students in such a way that each group saw one of the films once, a second film twice, a third film three times, and a fourth film four times. The experimental population…

  15. Short Films for Physics Teaching, A Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluestone, Barbara Z.; Roth, Richard F.

    This annotated film catalog is a product of the Conference on Single Concept Films in College Physics Teaching sponsored by the Commission on College Physics. Both 8mm and 16mm single concept films are listed for physics and related disciplines. The catalog includes commercial, noncommercial, and foreign films. However, the film coverage was…

  16. Films on the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, J.

    1983-01-01

    Films convey the historical perspectives, the biographical stories, the insights of the participants, and the horror of nuclear war - far better than can any physicist. While films are not very efficient for covering details, derivation, or numbers, they can not be beaten in showing what really happens in a nuclear explosion, in getting across general concepts, in illustrating the parameters of a problem, and the problem itself. Most importantly, films and TV can reach the people who must be informed about these issues if we are to resolve the problems. The author points out how films can contribute to an understanding of the issues of the arms race and nuclear war, with references to specific films. An annotated bibliography of 37 films is then presented.

  17. Elasticity of Flowing Soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas

    2016-11-01

    The robustness of soap films and bubbles manifests their mechanical stability. The single most important factor underlying the mechanical stability of soap films is its elasticity. Non-destructive measurement of the elasticity in these films has been cumbersome, because of its flowing nature. Here we provide a convenient, reproducible, and non-destructive method for measuring the elasticity by generating and inspecting Marangoni waves. Our method is based on generating an oblique shock by inserting a thin cylindrical obstacle in the flowing film, and converting the measured the shock angle to elasticity. Using this method, we find a constant value for the elasticity of 22 dyne/cm in the commonly used range of film widths, thicknesses or flow rates, implying that the surface of the film is chemically saturated with soap molecules.

  18. Fracture characteristics of balloon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portanova, Marc A.

    1989-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the failure modes of high altitude scientific balloons through an investigation of the fracture characteristics of the thin polyethylene films. Two films were the subject of the evaluation, Winzen Int.'s Stratafilm SF-85 and Raven Industries' Astro-E. Research began with an investigation of the film's cold brittleness point and it's effect on the ultimate strength and elasticity of the polyethylene film. A series of preliminary investigations were conducted to develop an understanding of the material characteristics. The primary focus of this investigation was on the notch sensitivity of the films. Simple stress strain tests were also conducted to enable analysis employing fracture toughness parameters. Studies were conducted on both film types at 23 C (room temperature), -60 C, -90 C, and -120 C.

  19. Characterization of Nanostructured Polymer Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-23

    of the film for complete polymer chain relaxation, including relaxation of surface features . The presence of intact surface globules at a substrate...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0059 Characterization of Nanostructured Polymer Films RODNEY PRIESTLEY TRUSTEES OF PRINCETON UNIVERSITY Final Report 12/23/2014...Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 06/01/2012-08/31/2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterization of Nanostructured Polymer Films 5a. CONTRACT

  20. Diamond films for laser hardening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, S.; Watkins, L.; Ravi, K.; Yokota, S.

    1989-01-01

    Laser-damage experiments were performed on free-standing polycrystalline diamond films prepared by plasma-enhanced CVD. The high laser-induced stress resistance found for this material makes it useful for thin-film coatings for laser optics. Results for diamond-coated silicon substrates demonstrate the enhanced damage threshold imparted by diamond thin-film coatings to materials susceptible to laser damage.

  1. Frequency mixer having ferromagnetic film

    DOEpatents

    Khitun, Alexander; Roshchin, Igor V.; Galatsis, Kosmas; Bao, Mingqiang; Wang, Kang L.

    2016-03-29

    A frequency conversion device, which may include a radiofrequency (RF) mixer device, includes a substrate and a ferromagnetic film disposed over a surface of the substrate. An insulator is disposed over the ferromagnetic film and at least one microstrip antenna is disposed over the insulator. The ferromagnetic film provides a non-linear response to the frequency conversion device. The frequency conversion device may be used for signal mixing and amplification. The frequency conversion device may also be used in data encryption applications.

  2. Communicating Science: Lessons from Film.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Heather A

    2016-04-01

    Films engage us visually, aurally, viscerally, and emotionally. Incorporating science themes into films has the potential to open up new audiences to scientific ideas, pique their interests, and inspire them to engage in a broader discussion of the science itself. Here, I discuss several narrative techniques and strategies employed in film to effectively engage the audience around science themes, which may be useful tools for scientists looking to become better communicators.

  3. Drying of thin colloidal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routh, Alexander F.

    2013-04-01

    When thin films of colloidal fluids are dried, a range of transitions are observed and the final film profile is found to depend on the processes that occur during the drying step. This article describes the drying process, initially concentrating on the various transitions. Particles are seen to initially consolidate at the edge of a drying droplet, the so-called coffee-ring effect. Flow is seen to be from the centre of the drop towards the edge and a front of close-packed particles passes horizontally across the film. Just behind the particle front the now solid film often displays cracks and finally the film is observed to de-wet. These various transitions are explained, with particular reference to the capillary pressure which forms in the solidified region of the film. The reasons for cracking in thin films is explored as well as various methods to minimize its effect. Methods to obtain stratified coatings through a single application are considered for a one-dimensional drying problem and this is then extended to two-dimensional films. Different evaporative models are described, including the physical reason for enhanced evaporation at the edge of droplets. The various scenarios when evaporation is found to be uniform across a drying film are then explained. Finally different experimental techniques for examining the drying step are mentioned and the article ends with suggested areas that warrant further study.

  4. Slow rupture of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliakhandler, Igor

    2004-11-01

    Bursting of soap film is a fast and fascinating process. It turns out that certain polymer films rupture in a somewhat similar fashion, but much slower. The slowness of the process allows one to study the rupture of polymer films with details. The rupture process in Hele-Shaw-like fashion shows remarkable properties, and is a very simple system. It turns out that propagation speed of the rupture is a function of the film thickness, and rheologic properties of the polymer. Experimental results will be compared with theory, together with demonstration of the experiment.

  5. Evaluation of the Blood Film.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Terry W

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of hemic cell morphology in stained blood film may be the most important part of the hematologic evaluation of exotic animals. The blood film provides important information regarding red blood cell abnormalities, such as changes in cell shape and color, presence of inclusions, and, in the case of lower vertebrates, changes in the position of the cell nucleus. Stained blood film also provides information about changes in leukocyte numbers and morphology, and shows important hemic features of mammalian platelets and the thrombocytes of lower vertebrates. The blood film is needed in the detection and identification of blood parasites.

  6. Oxide Films for RF Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    structured thin film superlattices of (AEO)m( TiO2 )n - type with varying m and n numbers in order to generate a homologous series of materials having...mechanisms in MBE oxide films The proposed goal was to identify, isolate, and reduce sources of loss in thin film dielectrics. It is important to note...that the loss in bulk single crystals is often orders of magnitude below that of their thin film counterparts. It is believed that defects in thin

  7. Process to form mesostructured films

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C.J.; Anderson, M.T.; Ganguli, R.; Lu, Y.F.

    1999-01-12

    This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts. 12 figs.

  8. "Kuleshov on Film": A Spectator-Centered Film Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Trisha

    This paper describes some of the theories of cinematography of Soviet film theorist and filmmaker Lev Kuleshov. It points out that for him, film was communication portraying people's activities emanating from the environment. It explains that he was especially interested in audience response, particularly that of the proletariat, and that he felt…

  9. Electrically conductive palladium-containing polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; Furtsch, T. A.; Taylor, L. T.

    1981-01-01

    Palladium addition makes light, flexible film with low resistivity to relieve space charging. Polyimide film is prepared in four steps: preparation of polyamic acid in polar solvent; addition of soluable palladium complex salt; fabrication of film of "palladium polyamic acid" solution; and thermal imidization of film to palladium-containing polyimide by 300 C heating. Lowered resistivities were achieved without loss in film flexibility or increase in film weight.

  10. Radiation grafting on natural films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M.; Khan, R.; Senna, M.; Sharmin, N.; Salmieri, S.; Safrany, A.

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of polymer grafting using gamma irradiation are reported in the present study for the preparation of newly functionalized biodegradable films, and some important properties related to their mechanical and barrier properties are described. Biodegradable films composed of zein and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were gamma-irradiated in presence of different ratios of acrylic acid (AAc) monomer for compatibilization purpose. Resulting grafted films (zein/PVA-g-AAc) had their puncture strength (PS=37-40 N mm-1) and puncture deformation (PD=6.5-9.8 mm) improved for 30% and 50% PVA in blend, with 5% AAc under 20 kGy. Methylcellulose (MC)-based films were irradiated in the presence of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) or silane, in order to determine the effect of monomer grafting on the mechanical properties of films. It was found that grafted films (MC-g-HEMA and MC-g-silane) using 35% monomer performed higher mechanical properties with PS values of 282-296 N mm-1 and PD of 5.0-5.5 mm under 10 kGy. Compatibilized polycaprolactone (PCL)/chitosan composites were developed via grafting silane in chitosan films. Resulting trilayer grafted composite film (PCL/chitosan-g-silane/PCL) presented superior tensile strength (TS=22 MPa) via possible improvement of interfacial adhesion (PCL/chitosan) when using 25% silane under 10 kGy. Finally, MC-based films containing crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) as a filling agent were prepared and irradiated in presence of trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) as a grafted plasticizer. Grafted films (MC-g-TMPTMA) presented superior mechanical properties with a TS of 47.9 MPa and a tensile modulus (TM) of 1792 MPa, possibly due to high yield formation of radicals to promote TMPTMA grafting during irradiation. The addition of CNC led to an additional improvement of the barrier properties, with a significant 25% reduction of water vapor permeability (WVP) of grafted films.

  11. Protective Film Moves Aside

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Relatively warmer daytime temperatures on Mars have allowed the biobarrier -- a shiny, protective film -- to peel away a little more from the robotic arm of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    This image shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with the biobarrier unpeeled on landing day, or Sol (Martian day) 0, and the lander's first full day on Mars, Sol 1.

    The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    These images were taken on May 25, 2008 and May 26, 2008 by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Plasma deposition of organic thin films: Control of film chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, B.D.

    1993-12-31

    Plasma deposition of thin, polymeric films represent a versatile surface modification technology. Although these thin films are exploited for many applications, complaints heard about plasma deposited films are that their structures are uncharacterizable, that organic functionality is lost in their production and that reproducibility is difficult. Recently, new methods for film production, reactor control and surface characterization have led to well characterized plasma deposited thin polymeric films (PDTPF) with defined structure and organic functionality. Such PDTPF often closely resemble conventionally prepared homopolymers. Methods that can be used to control the chemistry of PDTPF are the minimization of the plasma power, pulsing the RF field to reduce the {open_quotes}plasma on{close_quotes} time, use of a Faraday cage to reduce electron bombardment, positioning the sample downfield from the glow zone, the use of monomers containing polymerizable double bonds and the use of a cold substrate to condense vapor simultaneously with plasma deposition.

  13. Antireflective polyimide based films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yuanmei

    The goal of this work was to prepare antireflective and anti-abrasion films using polyimide and organically modified silica nanoparticle thin films. A series of thin film were prepared from colorless and soluble polyimide with organically modified silica colloids via a solution casting method. The polyimide was selected for its optical properties. Three type of organically modified silica nanoparticles were prepared by grafting polysiloxane, polyfluoroester and fluoroalkyl groups onto silica nanoparticles. The molecular weight of the polysiloxane, polyfluoroester and the amount of fluorinated alkyl groups were varied. The organically modified silica colloids were characterized by TEM, DLS, FTIR, 1H NMR, solid state 13C NMR and solid state 29Si NMR. The coatings were characterized by UV-Vis transmittance spectra and SEM. The effect of modified silica loading, the molecular weight of polymer and type of solvent on AR properties were studied. An enhancement in antireflective activity was observed for 1 wt% LPDMS modified (low molecular weight) silica coatings, 3 wt% fluorosilica-10 and 3% L-MPS-PF-SILICA nanoparticles (low molecular weight polyfluoroester modified silica) in dimethylacetamide (DMAc). In comparison with cyclopentanone (CPT), DMAc favors migration of silica particles towards coating-air interface giving higher transmittance. The migration of particles to the surface and consequent increased surface roughness were observed by SEM. The present study suggested a roll to roll solution casting method to create antireflective coatings. This approach had potential to be used for a one-step large-scale manufacturing of antireflective coating. Four acrylated bismaleimide were made via two-step process. The first step involved the solution imidization to form hydroxylated bismaleimide. In the second step, hydroxylated bismaleimide was reacted with acryloyl chloride to form acrylated bismaleimide. The acrylated bismaleimide were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C

  14. Carbonaceous film coating

    DOEpatents

    Maya, Leon

    1989-01-01

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris[1,3,2]diazaborine[1,2-a:1'2'-c:1"2"-e]borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  15. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Fleming, Pamela H.

    1994-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

  16. Cardiovascular Cine Film Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, Carl C.

    1983-12-01

    The detection of a cardiovascular stenosis involves the complex interaction of technique selection, system performance and anatomy. Technique selection for instance involves choosing the correct focal spot, pulse width, KVp, and frame rate for a given patient and projection angle. In order to provide guidance in this selection process, these variables were investigated in terms of their impact on image quality. Conclusions which were confirmed clinically are summarized in terms of recommended techniques for a range of patient sizes. The confirmation includes clinical films which demonstrates the effects of parameter changes.

  17. Carbonaceous film coating

    DOEpatents

    Maya, L.

    1988-04-27

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  18. Turbine airfoil film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hylton, Larry D.

    1986-01-01

    Emphasis is placed on developing more accurate analytical models for predicting turbine airfoil external heat transfer rates. Performance goals of new engines require highly refined, accurate design tools to meet durability requirements. In order to obtain improvements in analytical capabilities, programs are required which focus on enhancing analytical techniques through verification of new models by comparison with relevant experimental data. The objectives of the current program are to develop an analytical approach, based on boundary layer theory, for predicting the effects of airfoil film cooling on downstream heat transfer rates and to verify the resulting analytical method by comparison of predictions with hot cascade data obtained under this program.

  19. High Performance YBCO Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    growing high quality MgO films on SrF2 substrates is the oxygen partial pressure during the growth. The x-ray data presented in Fig. 13 indicates a...fluo-ide and quartz substrates. The best result with two buffer layers (MgO and YSZ) on SrF2 was an onset temperature (Tc) of 82K and a transition...With a YSZ buffer an onset temperature of 85K and a transition width of 5K was achieved. Recent success was demonstrated by Neocera ( under a NASA

  20. A Film Canister Colorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, James; James, Alan; Harman, Stephanie; Weiss, Kristen

    2002-08-01

    A low-cost, low-tech colorimeter was constructed from a film canister. The light source and filter monochromator was an interchangeable LED. The detector for this system was a voltage-divider circuit composed of a photoresistor in series with a fixed resistor. The student-constructed colorimeter was used to show the Beer–Lambert relationship between absorbance and concentration and to calculate the value of the molar absorptivity for permanganate at the wavelength emission maximum for the LED. Comparisons were made between this instrument and three commercial spectrometers and colorimeters.

  1. Predicting film genres with implicit ideals.

    PubMed

    Olney, Andrew McGregor

    2012-01-01

    We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories.

  2. Beryllium thin films for resistor applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiet, O.

    1972-01-01

    Beryllium thin films have a protective oxidation resistant property at high temperature and high recrystallization temperature. However, the experimental film has very low temperature coefficient of resistance.

  3. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester.

  4. ADVANCED THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SEMICONDUCTING FILMS), (* SOLAR CELLS , MANUFACTURING, GALLIUM ALLOYS, ARSENIC ALLOYS, PLATINUM, OXIDES, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES, MOLYBDENUM, METAL FILMS, COPPER, HYDROGEN, GERMANIUM ALLOYS, TIN ALLOYS, ZINC, CRYSTAL GROWTH.

  5. Liquid film demonstration experiment Skylab SL-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darbro, W.

    1975-01-01

    The liquid film demonstration experiment performed on Skylab 4 by Astronaut Gerald Carr, which involved the construction of water and soap films by boundary expansion and inertia, is discussed. Results include a 1-ml globule of water expanded into a 7-cm-diameter film as well as complex film structures produced by inertia whose lifetimes are longer in the low-g environment. Also discussed are 1-g acceleration experiments in which the unprovoked rupture of films was photographed and film lifetimes of stationary and rotated soap films were compared. Finally, there is a mathematical discussion regarding minimal surfaces, an isoperimetric problem, and liquid films.

  6. Predicting Film Genres with Implicit Ideals

    PubMed Central

    Olney, Andrew McGregor

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach to defining film genre based on implicit ideals. When viewers rate the likability of a film, they indirectly express their ideal of what a film should be. Across six studies we investigate the category structure that emerges from likability ratings and the category structure that emerges from the features of film. We further compare these data-driven category structures with human annotated film genres. We conclude that film genres are structured more around ideals than around features of film. This finding lends experimental support to the notion that film genres are set of shifting, fuzzy, and highly contextualized psychological categories. PMID:23423823

  7. Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film

    DOEpatents

    Tringe, Joseph W.; Gash, Alexander E.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2010-03-30

    A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

  8. Cinemabilia; Catalogue of Film Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinemabilia, New York, NY.

    The catalog lists and briefly annotates more than 3,500 current, second-hand, and out-of-print books about film that are available from Cinemabilia, New York City. The catalog is divided into 37 categories. The section on special genre lists works on horror, science fiction, Westerns, and Tarzan films, ranging from "Drums of Fu-Manchu" to "Movie…

  9. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOEpatents

    Goldner, Ronald B.; Haas, Terry; Wong, Kwok-Keung; Seward, George

    1989-01-01

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  10. Teaching the Holocaust through Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalczyk, John J.

    The use of Holocaust-related films and Holocaust survivors as classroom resources is analyzed. The perspective and function of four film genres are outlined as follows. Newsreels, made by the Nazis to chronicle their "progress," provide powerful raw footage of the concentration camp experience. Documentaries, generally made by Allied…

  11. Improved Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.; Cygan, Peter J.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Dielectric films made from blends of some commercially available high-dielectric-constant cyanoresins with each other and with cellulose triacetate (CTA) have both high dielectric constants and high breakdown strengths. Dielectric constants as high as 16.2. Films used to produce high-energy-density capacitors.

  12. Latino Film and Video Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" examines media stereotypes of Latinos and presents examples of alternatives. "From Assimilation to Annihilation: Puerto Rican Images in U.S. Films" (R. Perez) traces the representation of Puerto Ricans from the early days of television to the films of the 1970s. "The Latino 'Boom'…

  13. Methods of Producing Thin Films,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report describes various methods of producing thin films , especially for microelectronics. In addition to the classical methods of forming thin ... films by vacuum vapor deposition, it also describes processes of diode sputtering and modern methods of cathode sputtering by means of a third

  14. Films for Sociology, First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBeau, Bryan, Comp.

    This catalog contains a listing of over 1,000 16mm films of interest to students, teachers, and researchers in sociology. Whenever possible, content reflects current trends toward increased interdisciplinary investigation. In the main body of the catalog, the films are listed alphabetically by title. For each entry, information is given on…

  15. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOEpatents

    Gavin, Basil F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  16. The Thin Oil Film Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, James L.; Naughton, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    A thin film of oil on a surface responds primarily to the wall shear stress generated on that surface by a three-dimensional flow. The oil film is also subject to wall pressure gradients, surface tension effects and gravity. The partial differential equation governing the oil film flow is shown to be related to Burgers' equation. Analytical and numerical methods for solving the thin oil film equation are presented. A direct numerical solver is developed where the wall shear stress variation on the surface is known and which solves for the oil film thickness spatial and time variation on the surface. An inverse numerical solver is also developed where the oil film thickness spatial variation over the surface at two discrete times is known and which solves for the wall shear stress variation over the test surface. A One-Time-Level inverse solver is also demonstrated. The inverse numerical solver provides a mathematically rigorous basis for an improved form of a wall shear stress instrument suitable for application to complex three-dimensional flows. To demonstrate the complexity of flows for which these oil film methods are now suitable, extensive examination is accomplished for these analytical and numerical methods as applied to a thin oil film in the vicinity of a three-dimensional saddle of separation.

  17. Thin film atomic hydrogen detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    Thin film and bead thermistor atomic surface recombination hydrogen detectors were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Devices were constructed on a thin Mylar film substrate. Using suitable Wheatstone bridge techniques sensitivities of 80 microvolts/2x10 to the 13th power atoms/sec are attainable with response time constants on the order of 5 seconds.

  18. Films in the ESL Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gex, Judith Coppock

    The most important consideration with regard to classroom use of films in an English as a second language (ESL) class is that it should be previewed by the teacher and selected according to criteria such as those suggested here. In example, short silent films that are uncluttered in appearance are good vehicles for teaching vocabulary. Some…

  19. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xin D.; Tiwari, Prabhat

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  20. Symbolism in the Feature Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakony, Edward

    A study of symbolism in feature films reveals how the symbolism employed by film makers can serve as a bridge between feeling and thought, and between aesthetics and cognition. What individuals read from and learn through a symbol varies with what they bring to it. The filmmaker's symbolims must be universal and not private. However, symbolism in…

  1. Uses for Free Film Cans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batoff, Mitchell E.; Harmen, Jerry

    1973-01-01

    Describes multiple uses of empty film cans for equipping an elementary school science classroom. Instructional units in which film cans may be useful include buoyancy, mobiles, growing seeds, peas and particles, rocks and minerals, structures, field studies, sound, balancing, electricity, pedulums, chemical change, and optics, light, color. (PS)

  2. Magnetochromatic thin-film microplates.

    PubMed

    He, Le; Janner, Michael; Lu, Qipeng; Wang, Mingsheng; Ma, Hua; Yin, Yadong

    2015-01-07

    A new type of magnetochromatic material is developed based on thin-film interference of microplates self-assembled from super-paramagnetic nanocrystals. Dynamic optical tuning can be achieved through orientational manipulation of free-standing super-paramagnetic thin-film microplates using external magnetic fields.

  3. Thin Film Inorganic Electrochemical Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-07-01

    determined that thin film cathodes of LiCoO2 can be readily performed by either spray pyrolysis or spin coating . These cathodes are electrochemically...active. We have also determined that thin film anodes of Li4Ti5O12 can be prepared by spray pyrolysis or spin coating . These anodes are also

  4. Feminist Film Theory and Criticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayne, Judith

    1985-01-01

    Discusses Laura Mulvey's 1975 essay, "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema," and the ideas about feminist film theory and psychoanalysis as a critical tool which it raises. Suggests contradiction is the central issue in feminist film theory. Explores definitions of women's cinema. (SA)

  5. System for measuring film thickness

    DOEpatents

    Batishko, Charles R.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Peters, Timothy J.; Rasmussen, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

  6. Films and the English Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donelson, Kenneth, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    The importance of film in the English classroom and its vitality in the English curriculum are discussed. Articles that comprise this issue of the bulletin are: The Trouble with Film Teaching by James E. Cutts; "You Ain't Heard Nothin' Yet" or Send Your Students to the Flicks Tonight by Bob Haskett; It's the Reel Thing: The Verite of Cinema Is…

  7. The Public Library Film Redefined.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, Euclid

    1978-01-01

    An historical discussion of three types of film--teaching, information, and entertainment--is presented. The numbers of films in each category, especially the last, which includes the animated, unnarrated, iconographic, underground, and avant-garde, has grown substantially. Libraries have quickly accepted all except the revolutionary philosophies…

  8. Selective inorganic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, M.L.F.; Pohl, P.I.; Brinker, C.J.

    1997-04-01

    Separating light gases using membranes is a technology area for which there exists opportunities for significant energy savings. Examples of industrial needs for gas separation include hydrogen recovery, natural gas purification, and dehydration. A membrane capable of separating H{sub 2} from other gases at high temperatures could recover hydrogen from refinery waste streams, and facilitate catalytic dehydrogenation and the water gas shift (CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} H{sub 2} + CO{sub 2}) reaction. Natural gas purification requires separating CH{sub 4} from mixtures with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, H{sub 2}O, and higher alkanes. A dehydrating membrane would remove water vapor from gas streams in which water is a byproduct or a contaminant, such as refrigeration systems. Molecular sieve films offer the possibility of performing separations involving hydrogen, natural gas constituents, and water vapor at elevated temperatures with very high separation factors. It is in applications such as these that the authors expect inorganic molecular sieve membranes to compete most effectively with current gas separation technologies. Cryogenic separations are very energy intensive. Polymer membranes do not have the thermal stability appropriate for high temperature hydrogen recovery, and tend to swell in the presence of hydrocarbon natural gas constituents. The authors goal is to develop a family of microporous oxide films that offer permeability and selectivity exceeding those of polymer membranes, allowing gas membranes to compete with cryogenic and adsorption technologies for large-scale gas separation applications.

  9. Soap film gas flowmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Lalin, H.S.; Bermudez, J.E.; Fleming, W.T.

    1987-09-08

    A soap film gas flowmeter is described comprising: a flow tube having a hollow body with opposite open ends through which a soap film is propelled and a first closed chamber housing a soap solution. It also includes means for supporting the flow tube in a substantially vertical position with the open bottom end of the flow tube disposed in the first chamber above the soap solution; a second closed chamber into which the open top end of the flow tube extends and gas inlet means for introducing gas into the first chamber at a flow rate to be measured using the flowmeters. A gas exit means is included for discharging the gas introduced into the first chamber through the second chamber. Plus there are means for generating a single soap bubble from the soap solution substantially at the bottom end of the flow tube and a relatively large opening in the flowtube for providing an open passageway for inlet gas to pass through the flowtube when the bottom open end of the flowtube is covered by the soap solution.

  10. Thermopower of thin iron films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepis, Randy; Schröder, Klaus

    1992-02-01

    Thin iron films were prepared by evaporation in a high vacuum system (pressure in the 10 -5 MPa range). The thermopower was measured in situ near room temperature as a function of film thickness. Iron films with rather high resistivity values showed a strong thickness effect of the Seeback coefficient, S, with the difference between S (bulk) and S (film) reaching values of up to (19±3) μV/K for a sample 5 nm thick. The difference between S (bulk) and S (film) decreased with increasing d values. However, a sample with a resistance value of 50 μΩ cm at d = 5 n had an S value which differed by less than 3 μV/K from S (bulk).

  11. A new radiochromic dosimeter film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidney, L. N.; Lynch, D. C.; Willet, P. S.

    By employing acid-sensitive leuco dyes in a chlorine-containing polymer matrix, a new radiochromic dosimeter film has been developed for gamma, electron beam, and ultraviolet radiation. These dosimeter films undergo a color change from colorless to royal blue, red fuchsia, or black, depending on dye selection, and have been characterized using a visible spectrophotometer over an absorbed dose range of 1 to 100 kGy. The primary features of the film are improved color stability before and after irradiation, whether stored in the dark or under artificial lights, and improved moisture resistance. The effects of absorbed dose, dose rate, and storage conditions on dosimeter performance are discussed. The dosimeter material may be produced as a free film or coated onto a transparent substrate and optionally backed with adhesive. Potential applications for these materials include gamma sterilization indicator films for food and medical products, electron beam dosimeters, and in-line radiation monitors for electron beam and ultraviolet processing.

  12. Anode film formation and control

    DOEpatents

    Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

    1990-05-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

  13. Anode film formation and control

    DOEpatents

    Koski, Oscar; Marschman, Steven C.

    1990-01-01

    A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film function to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film.

  14. Film Fabrication Technologies at NREL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has extensive capabilities for fabricating a variety of high-technology films. Much of the in-house work in NREL's large photovoltaics (PV) program involves the fabrication of multiple thin-film semiconducting layers constituting a thin-film PV device. NREL's smaller program in superconductivity focuses on the fabrication of superconducting films on long, flexible tape substrates. This paper focuses on four of NREL's in-house research groups and their film fabrication techniques, developed for a variety of elements, alloys, and compounds to be deposited on a variety of substrates. As is the case for many national laboratories, NREL's technology transfer efforts are focusing on Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA's) between NREL researchers and private industry researchers.

  15. PBS/chitosan and polyolefin nanocomposites: Synthesis, properties and biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwary, Md. Fakhruddin

    The current study focuses on the synthesis of biodegradable polymer nanocomposites as alternative to conventional composite systems. In this study, biodegradable nanocomposites of chitosan and PBS blend were generated (type 1 composites) utilizing graphene, silica and silicate as fillers. Nanocomposites of non-biodegradable PE and PP were also produced using the same fillers along with a functional additive, which enables the polymers to degrade (type 2 composites). Suitable weight ratio of poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) and chitosan (Cs) to prepare nanocomposites was identified based on the ease of processing, better mixing ability of the fillers with the matrix materials and the mechanical properties of the composites. The nanocomposites were characterized for their thermal, rheological, mechanical and morphological properties. It was observed that graphene incorporation provided the best improvement in Young's modulus and storage modulus in all cases. Thermal degradation resistance of the graphene nanocomposites was also the highest. Storage modulus, loss modulus and viscosity of nano-composites enhanced as a function of filler content. XRD analysis indicated that chitosan was well mixed with PBS and slight changes in crystallinity for both PE and PP nanocomposites were observed on incorporation of filler. The chitosan-PBS nanocomposites were observed to biodegrade as a function of time during the soil burial test. Bio-degradation was, in general, slowed down by the presence of fillers. MINITAB 16 software could be utilized to model and predict the elastic modulus of PBS-Cs nanocomposites based on DMA and shear rheology data. The preliminary degradation studies of PE and PE nanocomposites with 2.5% additive exhibited varying degrees of degradation in all the samples.

  16. Environmental degradation study of multilevel biocomposites based on polyolefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastalygina, E. E.; Kolesnikova, N. N.; Popov, A. A.; Olkhov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    The properties and dynamics of degradation of composite materials based on isotactic polypropylene/low density polyethylene blends and cellulose filler have been investigated. The composite materials with a high PP content (as PP is a continuous phase) more sensitive to oxidative destruction have higher values of weight loss at the initial period of environmental degradation. However, the materials with the low PP content characterized by a lower degree of crystallinity and density of amorphous regions show a higher capacity for biofouling by microorganisms that may has a significant effect on the period of ultimate degradation.

  17. The chemical behavior of terminally tert-butylated polyolefins.

    PubMed

    Klein, Dagmar; Hopf, Henning; Jones, Peter G; Dix, Ina; Hänel, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    The chemical behavior of various oligoenes 2 has been studied. The catalytic hydrogenation of diene 3 yielded monoene 4. Triene 7 was hydrogenated to diene 8, monoene 9 and saturated hydrocarbon 10. Bromine addition to 3 and 7 yielded the dibromides 17 and 18, respectively, i.e., the oligoene system has been attacked at its terminal olefinic carbon atoms. Analogously, the higher vinylogs 19 and 20 yielded the 1,8- and 1,10-bromine adduts 23 and 24, respectively, when less than 1 equivalent of bromine was employed. Treatment of tetraene 19 with excess bromine provided tetrabromide 25. In epoxidation reactions, both with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (MCPBA) and dimethyldioxirane (DMDO) two model oligoenes were studied: triene 7 and tetraene 19. Whereas 7 furnished the rearrangement product 31 with MCPBA, it yielded the symmetrical epoxide 32 with DMDO. Analogously, 19 was converted to mono-epoxide 33 with MCPBA and to 34 with DMDO. Diels-Alder addition of 7 with N-phenyltriazolinedione (PTAD) did not take place. Extension of the conjugated π-system to the next higher vinylog, 19, caused NPTD-addition to the symmetrical adduct 37 in good yield. Comparable results were observed on adding NPTD (equivalent amount) to pentaene 20 and hexaene 21. Using 36 in excess provided the 2:1-adduct 40 from 21 and led to a complex mixture of adducts from heptaene 22. With tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) as the dienophile, tetraolefin 19 yielded the symmetrical adduct 43, although the reaction temperature had to be increased. Pentaene 20 and hexaene 21 led to corresponding results, adducts 44 and 45 being produced in acceptable yields. With nonaene 42 and TCNE the 2:1-adduct 48 was generated according to its spectroscopic data. Exploratory photochemical studies were carried out with tetraene 19 as the model compound. On irradiation this reacted with oxygen to the stable endo-peroxide 52.

  18. The chemical behavior of terminally tert-butylated polyolefins

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Dagmar; Jones, Peter G; Dix, Ina; Hänel, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Summary The chemical behavior of various oligoenes 2 has been studied. The catalytic hydrogenation of diene 3 yielded monoene 4. Triene 7 was hydrogenated to diene 8, monoene 9 and saturated hydrocarbon 10. Bromine addition to 3 and 7 yielded the dibromides 17 and 18, respectively, i.e., the oligoene system has been attacked at its terminal olefinic carbon atoms. Analogously, the higher vinylogs 19 and 20 yielded the 1,8- and 1,10-bromine adduts 23 and 24, respectively, when less than 1 equivalent of bromine was employed. Treatment of tetraene 19 with excess bromine provided tetrabromide 25. In epoxidation reactions, both with meta-chloroperbenzoic acid (MCPBA) and dimethyldioxirane (DMDO) two model oligoenes were studied: triene 7 and tetraene 19. Whereas 7 furnished the rearrangement product 31 with MCPBA, it yielded the symmetrical epoxide 32 with DMDO. Analogously, 19 was converted to mono-epoxide 33 with MCPBA and to 34 with DMDO. Diels–Alder addition of 7 with N-phenyltriazolinedione (PTAD) did not take place. Extension of the conjugated π-system to the next higher vinylog, 19, caused NPTD-addition to the symmetrical adduct 37 in good yield. Comparable results were observed on adding NPTD (equivalent amount) to pentaene 20 and hexaene 21. Using 36 in excess provided the 2:1-adduct 40 from 21 and led to a complex mixture of adducts from heptaene 22. With tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) as the dienophile, tetraolefin 19 yielded the symmetrical adduct 43, although the reaction temperature had to be increased. Pentaene 20 and hexaene 21 led to corresponding results, adducts 44 and 45 being produced in acceptable yields. With nonaene 42 and TCNE the 2:1-adduct 48 was generated according to its spectroscopic data. Exploratory photochemical studies were carried out with tetraene 19 as the model compound. On irradiation this reacted with oxygen to the stable endo-peroxide 52. PMID:26425183

  19. Precision Polyolefin Structure: Modeling Polyethylene Containing Methyl and Ethyl Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, Giovanni; Wagener, Kenneth B.

    Sequenced copolymers of ethylene and diverse species have been created using acyclic diene metathesis (ADMET) polymerization, a step growth, condensation- type polymerization driven to high conversion by the removal of ethylene. ADMET permits control over branch content and branch length, which can be predetermined during the monomer synthesis, allowing sequence control in the resultant unsaturated polymer. Monomers are symmetrical α,ωdienes with a pendant functionality. Diverse functional groups are compatible with ADMET polymerization when Schrock’s or first-generation Grubb’s catalysts are used. Saturation with hydrogen after ADMET polymerization affords a polyethylene (PE) backbone bearing specific functionalities in precise places. Varying both the pendant functional group and the spacing between functionalities alters the physical and chemical properties of the polymer. Incorporation of alkyl chains into the PE backbone via ADMET leads to the study of perfect structures modeling the copolymerization of ethylene with α-olefins such as 1-propene, 1-butene, 1-hexene, and 1-octene.

  20. Miscibility and structure-property relationships in some novel polyolefins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamdar, Akshay Rajprakash

    In the first chapter, miscibility of homogeneous propylene/ethylene (P/E) copolymers of relatively narrow molecular weight distribution was studied as a function of constituent comonomer content. Polymers with up to 31 mol% ethylene were blended in pairs in order to vary the comonomer content difference. Copolymers of molecular weight about 200 kg mol-1 were miscible if the difference in ethylene content was less than about 18 mol%, and immiscible if the ethylene content difference was greater than about 20 mol%. Blends with constituent composition difference in the range of 18-20 mol% exhibited partial miscibility in the melt. In the second chapter, the effect of chain microstructure on the miscibility and phase behavior of ethylene-octene (EO) copolymer blends was studied. Binary blends of two statistical copolymers (EO/EO blends) that differed in comonomer content were compared with blends of an EO with an olefinic blocky ethylene-octene copolymer, OBC (EO/OBC blends). Two EOs of molecular weight about 100 kg/mol were miscible if the difference in octene content was less than about 10 mol% and immiscible if the octene content difference was greater than about 13 mol%. The blocky nature of the OBCs reduced the miscibility and broadened the partial miscibility window of EO/OBC blends compared to EO/EO blends. The EO/OBC blends were miscible if the octene content difference was less than 7 mol% and immiscible above 13 mol% octene content difference. In the third chapter, the adhesion of some ethylene-octene copolymers to polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) was studied in order to evaluate their suitability as compatibilizers for PP/HDPE blends. A one-dimensional model of the compatibilized blend was fabricated by layer-multiplying coextrusion. The microlayered tapes consisted of many alternating layers of PP and HDPE with a thin tie-layer inserted at each interface. The thickness of the tie-layer varied from 0.1 to 14 mum, which included thicknesses comparable to those of the interfacial layer in a compatibilized blend. A blocky copolymer (OBC) consistently exhibited better adhesion to PP than statistical copolymers (EO). Inspection of the crack-tip damage zone revealed a change from a continuous plastic damage zone in tie-layers 2 mum or thicker to a highly fibrillated damage zone in thinner tie-layers.

  1. Observation of boson peaks by inelastic neutron scattering in polyolefins

    SciTech Connect

    Annis, B.K.; Lohse, D.J.; Trouw, F.

    1999-07-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering was used to probe the nature of the boson peak in atactic polypropylene (aPP), head-to-head polypropylene (hhPP), polyisobutylene (PIB) and a 1/1 mass ratio hhPP/PIB blend. Atactic polypropylene is among the most {open_quotes}fragile{close_quotes} of glass formers and was found to have a shoulder rather than the distinctive peak exhibited by the other three polymers. This difference is already apparent at 15 K where relaxations are not expected to occur. The results suggest that the fragility of hhPP is intermediate between aPP and PIB. Within this group of polymers which have similar chemical structures the position of the boson peak appears to correlate with the glass transition temperature and the cohesive energy density. The possibility of a correlation with chain stiffness as expressed by the characteristic ratio is also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Precision Morphology in Sulfonic, Phosphonic, Boronic, and Carboxylic Acid Polyolefins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-15

    S. Aitken, C. Francisco Buitrago , Jason D. Heffley, Minjae Lee, Harry W. Gibson, Karen I. Winey, Kenneth B. Wagener. Precision Ionomers: Synthesis...Seitz, C. Francisco Buitrago , Karen I. Winey, Kathleen L. Opper, Travis W. Baughman, Kenneth B. Wagener, Todd M. Alam. The impact of zinc

  3. Application of integral equation theory to polyolefin liquids and blends

    SciTech Connect

    Curro, J.G.; Weinhold, J.D.

    1997-11-01

    The ability to model the packing of polymers in melts and blends is important in many polymer applications. One significant application is the development of new polymer blends. It would be exceedingly helpful to the materials chemist if molecular modeling could be employed to predict the thermodynamics and phase behavior of hypothetical polymer alloys before embarking on a time consuming and expensive synthesis program. The well known Flory-Huggins theory has been remarkably successful in describing many aspects of polymer mixing from a qualitative point of view. This theory is known, however, to suffer from several deficiencies which can be traceable to the fact that: (1) it is a lattice model requiring both monomer components to have the same volume; and (2) a mean field or random mixing approximation is made which effectively ignores chain connectivity. Because of these limitations the Flory-Huggins theory does not include packing effects and cannot be used to make quantitative molecular engineering calculations. Recently Curro and Schweizer developed a new approach for treating polymer liquids and mixtures which the authors call PRISM theory. This is an extension to polymers of the Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM Theory) developed by Chandler and Andersen to describe the statistical mechanics of small molecule liquids. The PRISM theory is a continuous space description of a polymer liquid, which includes chain connectivity and nonrandom mixing effects in a computationally tractable manner. The primary output from PRISM calculations is the average structure or packing of the amorphous liquid given by the radial distribution function denoted as g(r). This radial distribution function is employed to deduce thermodynamic or structural properties of interest. Here, the authors describe the theoretical approach and demonstrate its application to polyethylene, isotactic polypropylene, syndiotactic polypropylene, and polyisobutylene liquids and blends.

  4. Contributions of Film Introductions and Film Summaries to Learning from Instructional Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lathrop, C. W., Jr.; Norford, C. A.

    An exploratory study of the contribution to learning of typical introductory and summarizing sequences in instructional films underlined the need for further experimental work to determine what kinds of introductory and concluding sequences are most useful in promoting learning from films. The first part of the study was concerned with film…

  5. Film thickness for different regimes of fluid-film lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    Film thickness equations are provided for four fluid-film lubrication regimes found in elliptical contacts. These regimes are isoviscous-rigid; viscous-rigid; elastohydrodynamic lubrication of low-elastic-modulus materials (soft EHL), or isoviscous-elastic; and elastohydrodynamic lubrication of high-elastic-modulus materials (hard EHL), or viscous-elastic. The influence or lack of influence of elastic and viscous effects is the factor that distinguishes these regimes. The results are presented as a map of the lubrication regimes, with film thickness contours on a log-log grid of the viscosity and elasticity for three values of the ellipticity parameter.

  6. Investigation of structure and properties of novel multi-layer clay nanocomposite films produced controllably by continuous chaotic advection blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesha, Chaitra

    consistent with results of other investigators. Concentrating and orienting the clay platelets within layers increases the path length of the diffusing molecule and hence may improve barrier properties. The effect of multi-layering and platelet orientation on the gas permeability of the nanocomposite films was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Experimental measurements of 2% clay films showed that a multi-layered structure with oriented clay platelets gives a 40% greater reduction in oxygen permeability compared to a structure with a homogenous dispersion of oriented clay platelets. Also, the nanocomposite films with homogenous dispersion of platelets produced by chaotic advection due to their high degree of platelet alignment exhibited improved barrier properties than nanocomposites produced by mixing. The combination of high degree of orientation and multi-layering conferred to the 2 wt% clay film produced with the chaotic advection blender a relative permeability lower than a 6 wt% clay film produced with a single screw extruder. A theoretical model was formulated to explore the barrier properties of nanocomposites comprising a wide range of clay contents and platelet aspect ratio. The model showed the importance of orientation and layered structure. Permeabilities close to the intrinsic platelet permeability (i.e., near zero) can be realized by localizing and orienting a relatively low volume fraction (4%) of very high aspect ratio platelets (≥350) in the matrix or high volume fractions (20%) of platelets with aspect ratios around 100 (typical of the montmorillonite (MMT) clay). The chaotic advection blender was unable, however, to process such masterbatches due to limitations of available screw extruders intended for polyolefins. Experiments considered low volume fractions of MMT clay less than 4%. Other physical properties of the films important for packaging applications were also evaluated. The presence of die lines, particulate contaminations and

  7. Effects on film structure on mechanical and adhesion properties of latex films

    SciTech Connect

    Charmeau, J.Y.; Holl, Y.; Kientz, E.

    1995-12-31

    In order to investigate the effect of the particular structure of latex films on mechanical (stress-strain behavior) and adhesion (measured by peeling) properties, this work compares these characteristics for latex films and corresponding {open_quotes}solution films{close_quotes}. Solution films were obtained by dissolving the latex film in an appropriate solvent and forming a new film by evaporating the solvent. Four different systems were studied. It was shown that latex films have Young`s moduli systematically much higher than the corresponding solution films. This is due to the fact that the hydrophilic shells of the latex particles form a continuous phase in the latex film which increases the modulus thanks to polar interactions. However, adhesion energy for latex films is always smaller than for solution films. This is interpreted in terms of structure of the film-support interface and dissipative processes within the bulk of the films.

  8. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, K.M.

    1994-12-20

    A ferromagnetic [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of [delta]-Mn[sub 1[minus]x]Ga[sub x] and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4[+-]0.05. 7 figures.

  9. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  10. Ferromagnetic thin films

    DOEpatents

    Krishnan, Kannan M.

    1994-01-01

    A ferromagnetic .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x thin film having perpendicular anisotropy is described which comprises: (a) a GaAs substrate, (b) a layer of undoped GaAs overlying said substrate and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 50 to about 100 nanometers, (c) a layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x overlying said layer of undoped GaAs and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 20 to about 30 nanometers, and (d) a layer of GaAs overlying said layer of .delta.-Mn.sub.1-x Ga.sub.x and bonded thereto having a thickness ranging from about 2 to about 5 nanometers, wherein x is 0.4 .+-.0.05.

  11. Polyimide Aerogel Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann; Guo, Haiquan

    2012-01-01

    Polyimide aerogels have been crosslinked through multifunctional amines. This invention builds on "Polyimide Aerogels With Three-Dimensional Cross-Linked Structure," and may be considered as a continuation of that invention, which results in a polyimide aerogel with a flexible, formable form. Gels formed from polyamic acid solutions, end-capped with anhydrides, and cross-linked with the multifunctional amines, are chemically imidized and dried using supercritical CO2 extraction to give aerogels having density around 0.1 to 0.3 g/cubic cm. The aerogels are 80 to 95% porous, and have high surface areas (200 to 600 sq m/g) and low thermal conductivity (as low as 14 mW/m-K at room temperature). Notably, the cross-linked polyimide aerogels have higher modulus than polymer-reinforced silica aerogels of similar density, and can be fabricated as both monoliths and thin films.

  12. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings.

    PubMed

    Cagri, Arzu; Ustunol, Zeynep; Ryser, Elliot T

    2004-04-01

    Increasing consumer demand for microbiologically safer foods, greater convenience, smaller packages, and longer product shelf life is forcing the industry to develop new food-processing, cooking, handling, and packaging strategies. Nonfluid ready-to-eat foods are frequently exposed to postprocess surface contamination, leading to a reduction in shelf life. The food industry has at its disposal a wide range of nonedible polypropylene- and polyethylene-based packaging materials and various biodegradable protein- and polysaccharide-based edible films that can potentially serve as packaging materials. Research on the use of edible films as packaging materials continues because of the potential for these films to enhance food quality, food safety, and product shelf life. Besides acting as a barrier against mass diffusion (moisture, gases, and volatiles), edible films can serve as carriers for a wide range of food additives, including flavoring agents, antioxidants, vitamins, and colorants. When antimicrobial agents such as benzoic acid, sorbic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, nisin, and lysozyme have been incorporated into edible films, such films retarded surface growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds on a wide range of products, including meats and cheeses. Various antimicrobial edible films have been developed to minimize growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, including Listeria monocytogenes, which may contaminate the surface of cooked ready-to-eat foods after processing. Here, we review the various types of protein-based (wheat gluten, collagen, corn zein, soy, casein, and whey protein), polysaccharide-based (cellulose, chitosan, alginate, starch, pectin, and dextrin), and lipid-based (waxes, acylglycerols, and fatty acids) edible films and a wide range of antimicrobial agents that have been or could potentially be incorporated into such films during manufacture to enhance the safety and shelf life of ready-to-eat foods.

  13. Rep rated long life capacitor development: Phase 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galperin, I.; White, W.; Haskell, K.; Ennis, J.

    1984-09-01

    Polypropylene and polyolefin resins were characterized and processed into capacitor films. New capacitor films were developed--a post oriented processed, two layer polypropylene film and upgraded polyolefin film. Criteria for judging film quality were developed. Field life data were verified with paper/polypropylene capacitors on the Maxwell rep rate facility. A11 polypropylene film capacitors were developed with lifetimes in excess of 10 to the 7th power discharges at energy densities for the finished capacitor of 18.3 J/lb and projected to more than 20 J/lb.

  14. Language, Culture, and the Feature Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straub, Hans

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that one way to provide cultural contexts for language learning is by using feature films for instructional purposes. Highlights the benefits of feature films, discusses the selection of films, and describes a process for using feature films in the language classroom. (Author/VWL)

  15. FILM WORKSHOP SUCCESSFUL WITH TSU STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAHRENBERG, JIM

    AN UPWARD BOUND FILM WORKSHOP AT TEXAS SOUTHERN UNIVERSITY EXPOSED STUDENTS TO FILMS AS A CREATIVE ART FORM, A MEANS OF COMMUNICATION, AND A BASIS FOR DISCUSSING VALUES. IN ADDITION TO VIEWING SEVERAL SHORT, PROFESSIONALLY-DEVELOPED FILMS, STUDENTS WROTE AND PRODUCED TWO OF THEIR OWN. ONE STUDENT-PRODUCED FILM--A LIGHT SHOW--ILLUMINATED THE UNITY…

  16. EFFECT OF REPETITIVE FILM SHOWINGS ON LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCTAVISH, C.L.; AND OTHERS

    A DETERMINATION OF THE INCREMENT IN LEARNING ATTRIBUTABLE SOLELY TO ONE, TWO, AND THREE REPETITIONS OF A FILM OVER AND ABOVE A SINGLE SHOWING WAS INVESTIGATED. THE SUBJECTS WERE 319 COLLEGE FRESHMEN WHO WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS AND WHO WERE SHOWN FOUR GENERAL SCIENCE FILMS. EACH GROUP SAW ONE OF THE FILMS ONCE, A SECOND FILM TWICE, A THIRD…

  17. Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

  18. Historical Films in the Latin Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Jeffrey L.

    Guidelines and lesson plans are presented for teachers of Latin using historical films as instructional and support materials. A discussion of the use of historical films addresses these issues in classroom practice: the legality of using films in the classroom (copyrights); techniques for using historical films as sources of cultural information;…

  19. "Space slitter" for film or tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Device cuts film or tape into strips by guiding film in channel under cutting blades. Device is operated by lifting pressure bar to insert blades into film. Film is then pulled through blades. Cutter has potential uses in advertising, commercial art, and publishing fields.

  20. 19 CFR 12.41 - Prohibited films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prohibited films. 12.41 Section 12.41 Customs... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Immoral Articles § 12.41 Prohibited films. (a) Importers of films, shall certify on Customs Form 3291 that the imported films contain no obscene or immoral matter, nor any...

  1. 19 CFR 12.41 - Prohibited films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited films. 12.41 Section 12.41 Customs... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Immoral Articles § 12.41 Prohibited films. (a) Importers of films, shall certify on Customs Form 3291 that the imported films contain no obscene or immoral matter, nor any...

  2. 19 CFR 12.41 - Prohibited films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prohibited films. 12.41 Section 12.41 Customs... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Immoral Articles § 12.41 Prohibited films. (a) Importers of films, shall certify on Customs Form 3291 that the imported films contain no obscene or immoral matter, nor any...

  3. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk...

  4. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk...

  5. 19 CFR 12.41 - Prohibited films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prohibited films. 12.41 Section 12.41 Customs... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Immoral Articles § 12.41 Prohibited films. (a) Importers of films, shall certify on Customs Form 3291 that the imported films contain no obscene or immoral matter, nor any...

  6. 19 CFR 12.41 - Prohibited films.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prohibited films. 12.41 Section 12.41 Customs... SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Immoral Articles § 12.41 Prohibited films. (a) Importers of films, shall certify on Customs Form 3291 that the imported films contain no obscene or immoral matter, nor any...

  7. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk...

  8. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk...

  9. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the net... should be expressed, provided: (a) The net quantity of contents on packages of movie film and bulk...

  10. Using Popular Children's Films in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Elle; Croker, Stev; Harrison, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Watching films is a common activity for children outside of school, and incorporating popular films that contain scientific references has the potential to spark interest in the classroom. Clips rather than entire films can be used, as the children will maintain focus on the lesson objectives while being excited by the appeal of the film. The use…

  11. Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

  12. A 3M high temperature dielectric film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampl, Edward, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a dielectric film are summarized. Additionally, the film's environmental and chemical properties are listed: low shrinkage to 300 C; moisture insensitive; low outgassing under vacuum; excellent surface qualities--easy metallization of film; flame retardant; and low smoke generation. A series of graphs that display the performance characteristics of the film are also presented.

  13. Focus on Young Film Makers: Student Film Making--Types and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putsch, Henry E.

    1968-01-01

    Brief descriptions of 10 styles of student film making include references to specific films employing the techniques. The styles of film making listed are animation, pixillation animation, collage, draw-on, documentary, bio-documentary, story line, impressionistic, commercials, and the school film. Directions for submitting films to the Young Film…

  14. American Film Genres: Approaches to a Critical Theory of Popular Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, Stuart M.

    This book is divided into twelve sections and contains photographs from many of the films discussed. The introduction defines film genre and describes the general theories behind this book; "The Individual Film" analyzes the film "Little Caesar" as it relates to the genre of gangster films; "Comparative Forms"…

  15. Surface wrinkling on polydopamine film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jieyun; Xie, Jixun; Han, Xue; Lu, Conghua

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we report a non-lithographic strategy to realize surface patterns on polydopamine films. It is based on surface wrinkling, which is induced on polydopamine (PDA) films that are grown on uniaxially pre-strained polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates through self-polymerization of dopamine, followed by the pre-strain release. We investigate the influences of the experimental conditions including polymerization time, prestrain and the dopamine solution concentration on the wrinkling patterns. Furthermore, we take advantage of the reducibility of PDA to fabricate silver nanoparticle-deposited PDA films with surface-wrinkled patterns, which may have potential applications in the related fields.

  16. Ultrathin Polymer Films for Microlithography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-13

    exposure the PINAA was developed in a solution made of 3:7 cellosolve : methanol for 13 seconds. Cellosolve was chosen because it is strong enough to...can achieve on thicker resist (> 100 nm) for the same exposure conditions. Recently, we have exposed 14.3 nrm L-B PMMA films on a high resolution...Polymer Films LB PMMA Spin-Cast PNMA Spin-Cast Novolac (10 wafers) (5 wafers) (5 wafers) Film Thickness 14.3 nrm 14 nrm 22 nm Pinhole Density < 10/cm 2

  17. Surface nanostructures in manganite films.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, A; Graziosi, P; Bergenti, I; Prezioso, M; Pullini, D; Milita, S; Biscarini, F; Dediu, V A

    2014-06-19

    Ultrathin manganite films are widely used as active electrodes in organic spintronic devices. In this study, a scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) investigation with atomic resolution revealed previously unknown surface features consisting of small non-stoichiometric islands. Based upon this evidence, a new mechanism for the growth of these complex materials is proposed. It is suggested that the non-stoichiometric islands result from nucleation centres that are below the critical threshold size required for stoichiometric crystalline growth. These islands represent a kinetic intermediate of single-layer growth regardless of the film thickness, and should be considered and possibly controlled in manganite thin-film applications.

  18. Film boiling of mercury droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. Diffusion from the upper surface of the drop appears as a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

  19. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond film properties

    DOEpatents

    Gruen, Dieter M.; McCauley, Thomas G.; Zhou, Dan; Krauss, Alan R.

    2003-07-15

    A method for controlling the crystallite size and growth rate of plasma-deposited diamond films. A plasma is established at a pressure in excess of about 55 Torr with controlled concentrations of hydrogen up to about 98% by volume, of unsubstituted hydrocarbons up to about 3% by volume and an inert gas of one or more of the noble gases and nitrogen up to about 98% by volume. The volume ratio of inert gas to hydrogen is preferably maintained at greater than about 4, to deposit a diamond film on a suitable substrate. The diamond film is deposited with a predetermined crystallite size and at a predetermined growth rate.

  20. Photovoltaic properties of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reucroft, P. J.; Ullal, H.

    1980-03-01

    The effect of metal electrode and film thickness on the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency in (1:1) mole ratio films of poly (N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone (TNF) has been investigated. Low work function metals increase the Schottky barrier height which leads to increases in the photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency. A ten-fold decrease in film thickness produces a thousand-fold increase in photovoltaic energy conversion efficiency. A theoretical model which assumes that the photovoltaic current is limited by Child's law predicts photovoltaic efficiencies which are in good agreement with the measured efficiencies.

  1. Surface Nanostructures in Manganite Films

    PubMed Central

    Gambardella, A.; Graziosi, P.; Bergenti, I.; Prezioso, M.; Pullini, D.; Milita, S.; Biscarini, F.; Dediu, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrathin manganite films are widely used as active electrodes in organic spintronic devices. In this study, a scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) investigation with atomic resolution revealed previously unknown surface features consisting of small non-stoichiometric islands. Based upon this evidence, a new mechanism for the growth of these complex materials is proposed. It is suggested that the non-stoichiometric islands result from nucleation centres that are below the critical threshold size required for stoichiometric crystalline growth. These islands represent a kinetic intermediate of single-layer growth regardless of the film thickness, and should be considered and possibly controlled in manganite thin-film applications. PMID:24941969

  2. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOEpatents

    Leemann, B.T.; Yourd, R.B.

    1982-03-09

    A thin freestanding oil film is produced in vacuum by directing an oil stream radially inward to the hollow-ground sharp outer edge of a rotating disc. The sides of the edge are roughened somewhat to aid in dispersing oil from the disc. Oil is removed from the surface of disc to prevent formation of oil droplets which might spin off the disc and disrupt the oil film. An ion beam is directed through the thin oil film so that electrons are stripped from the ions to increase their charge.

  3. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOEpatents

    Leemann, Beat T.; Yourd, Roland B.

    1984-01-01

    A thin freestanding oil film is produced in vacuum by directing an oil stream radially inward to the hollow-ground sharp outer edge of a rotating disc. The sides of the edge are roughened somewhat to aid in dispersing oil from the disc. Oil is removed from the surface of disc to prevent formation of oil droplets which might spin off the disc and disrupt the oil film. An ion beam is directed through the thin oil film so that electrons are stripped from the ions to increase their charge.

  4. Film boiling of mercury droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.; Schoessow, G. J.; Chmielewski, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    Vaporization times of mercury droplets in Leidenfrost film boiling on a flat horizontal plate are measured in an air atmosphere. Extreme care was used to prevent large amplitude droplet vibrations and surface wetting; therefore, these data can be compared to film boiling theory. For these data, diffusion from the upper surface of the drop is a dominant mode of mass transfer from the drop. A closed-form analytical film boiling theory is developed to account for the diffusive evaporation. Reasonable agreement between data and theory is seen.

  5. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOEpatents

    Smith, David C.; Pattillo, Stevan G.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Sattelberger, Alfred P.

    1992-01-01

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  6. Importance of combining convection with film cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    The interaction of film and convection cooling and its effect on wall cooling efficiency is investigated analytically for two cooling schemes for advanced gas turbine applications. The two schemes are full coverage- and counterflow-film cooling. In full coverage film cooling, the cooling air issues from a large number of small discrete holes in the surface. Counterflow film cooling is a film-convection scheme with film injection from a slot geometry. The results indicate that it is beneficial to utilize as much of the cooling air heat sink as possible for convection cooling prior to ejecting it as a film.

  7. Importance of combining convection with film cooling.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The interaction of film and convection cooling and its effect on wall cooling efficiency is investigated analytically for two cooling schemes for advanced gas turbine applications. The two schemes are full coverage- and counterflow-film cooling. In full coverage film cooling, the cooling air issues from a large number of small discrete holes in the surface. Counterflow film cooling is a film-convection scheme with film injection from a slot geometry. The results indicate that it is beneficial to utilize as much of the cooling air heat sink as possible for convection cooling prior to ejecting it as a film.

  8. Shortwave radiative heating rate profiles in hazy and clear atmosphere: a sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doppler, Lionel; Fischer, Jürgen; Ravetta, François; Pelon, Jacques; Preusker, René

    2010-05-01

    Aerosols have an impact on shortwave heating rate profiles (additional heating or cooling). In this survey, we quantify the impact of several key-parameters on the heating rate profiles of the atmosphere with and without aerosols. These key-parameters are: (1) the atmospheric model (tropical, midlatitude summer or winter, US Standard), (2) the integrated water vapor amount (IWV ), (3) the ground surface (flat and rough ocean, isotropic surface albedo for land), (4) the aerosol composition (dusts, soots or maritimes mixtures with respect to the OPAC-database classification), (5) the aerosol optical depth and (6) vertical postion, and (7) the single-scattering albedo (?o) of the aerosol mixture. This study enables us to evaluate which parameters are most important to take into account in a radiative energy budget of the atmosphere and will be useful for a future study: the retrieval of heating rates profiles from satellite data (CALIPSO, MODIS, MERIS) over the Mediterranean Sea. All the heating rates are computed by using the vector irradiances computed at each pressure level in the spectral interval 0.2 - 3.6μm (shortwave) by the 1D radiative transfer model for atmosphere and ocean: MOMO (Matrix-Operator MOdel) of the Institute for Space Science, FU Berlin 1

  9. Kickbacks, self-referrals, and false claims: the hazy boundaries of health-care fraud.

    PubMed

    Krause, Joan H

    2013-09-01

    The fraud and abuse laws that govern conduct related to the federal health-care programs, such as Medicare and Medicaid, impose broad and complex limitations on billing practices and financial relationships among providers. Given the potential consequences of engaging in fraudulent behavior, it is crucial that physicians appreciate the types of activities that may run afoul of these laws. This article summarizes the major aspects of the fraud laws that are most likely to have a daily impact on physician practice: the Civil False Claims Act, the Medicare and Medicaid Anti-Kickback Statute, and the so-called Stark Law prohibition on physician self-referrals.

  10. Research-Practice Interactions as Reported in Recent Design Studies: Still Promising, Still Hazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Bart J. B.; Pareja Roblin, Natalie N.; McKenney, Susan E.; Voogt, Joke M.; Pieters, Jules M.

    2012-01-01

    This study portrays recent research-practice connections found in 18 design research reports focusing on the creation of instructional solutions. Solutions in different stages of development varied greatly in duration, ranging from one lesson to a whole year curriculum, spanned all levels of education, many subjects (science, math, language,…

  11. Optoelectronic Nanocomposite Materials for Thin Film Photovoltaics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    CdTe and ZnO single-phase thin films , nanocomposite films ...for the CdTe -ZnO thin film system under these conditions. c. Optical Absorption The films produced in the present study consistently exhibited...optical absorbance spectra collected from CdTe -ZnO multilayer nanocomposite thin films . The effect of CdTe layer thickness used per deposition cycle

  12. Thin film characterization using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1990-01-01

    The application of the multiple angle and wavelength (MAW) technique to measure the dielectric function of semiconducting films is discussed. This technique evaluates unambiguously the complex dielectric function, epsilon (E), of the film without any pre-assumptions. In some cases the effective medium approximation (EMA) was used to determine the volume fraction of the film components. Application of the MAW technique to several semiconducting films was published previously. Different applications and examples are given, including metal and insulator films.

  13. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  14. Cellulose triacetate, thin film dielectric capacitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Jow, T. Richard (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Very thin films of cellulose triacetate are cast from a solution containing a small amount of high boiling temperature, non-solvent which evaporates last and lifts the film from the casting surface. Stretched, oriented, crystallized films have high electrical breakdown properties. Metallized films less than about 2 microns in thickness form self-healing electrodes for high energy density, pulsed power capacitors. Thicker films can be utilized as a dielectric for a capacitor.

  15. The Art of Teaching Social Studies with Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, William B., III

    2012-01-01

    Teaching with film is a powerful and meaningful instructional strategy. This article discusses five classroom-tested methods for teaching with film: (1) film as a visual textbook, (2) film as a depicter of atmosphere, (3) film as an analogy, (4) film as a historiography, and (5) film as a springboard. Each of the methods discussed includes…

  16. Film Growth on Nanoporous Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Joy, James; Zhao, Chenwei; Xu, J. M.; Valles, James

    Self-ordered nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) provides an easy way to fabricate nano structured material, such as nano wires and nano particles. We employ AAO as substrates and focus on the thermally evaporated film growth on the surface of the substrate. With various materials deposited onto the substrate, we find the films show different structures, e,g. ordered array of nano particles for Lead and nanohoneycomb structure for Silver. We relate the differing behaviors to the difference of surface energy and diffusion constant. To verify this, the effect of substrate temperature on the film growth has been explored and the structure of the film has been successfully changed through the process. We are grateful for the support of NSF Grants No. DMR-1307290.

  17. The thin film microwave iris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramey, R. L.; Landes, H. S.; Manus, E. A.

    1972-01-01

    Development of waveguide iris for microwave coupling applications using thin film techniques is discussed. Production process and installation of iris are described. Iris improves power transmission properties of waveguide window.

  18. Curved film cooling admission tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, R. W.; Papell, S. S. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Effective film cooling to protect a wall surface from a hot fluid which impinges on or flows along the surface is provided. A film of cooling fluid having increased area is provided by changing the direction of a stream of cooling fluid through an angle of from 135 deg. to 165 deg. before injecting it through the wall into the hot flowing gas. The 1, cooling fluid is injected from an orifice through a wall into a hot flowing gas at an angle to form a cooling fluid film. Cooling fluid is supplied to the orifice from a cooling fluid source via a turbulence control passageway having a curved portion between two straight portions. The angle through which the direction of the cooling fluid is turned results in less mixing of the cooling fluid with the hot gas, thereby substantially increasing the length of the film in a downstream direction.

  19. Applications of film thickness equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    A number of applications of elastohydrodynamic film thickness expressions were considered. The motion of a steel ball over steel surfaces presenting varying degrees of conformity was examined. The equation for minimum film thickness in elliptical conjunctions under elastohydrodynamic conditions was applied to roller and ball bearings. An involute gear was also introduced, it was again found that the elliptical conjunction expression yielded a conservative estimate of the minimum film thickness. Continuously variable-speed drives like the Perbury gear, which present truly elliptical elastohydrodynamic conjunctions, are favored increasingly in mobile and static machinery. A representative elastohydrodynamic condition for this class of machinery is considered for power transmission equipment. The possibility of elastohydrodynamic films of water or oil forming between locomotive wheels and rails is examined. The important subject of traction on the railways is attracting considerable attention in various countries at the present time. The final example of a synovial joint introduced the equation developed for isoviscous-elastic regimes of lubrication.

  20. Captioned Films for the Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norwood, Malcolm J.

    1976-01-01

    Described are the functions of the Captioned Films for the Deaf program, a free loan service of subtitled motion pictures similar in nature to the free loan service of Talking Books for the Blind. (SBH)

  1. Captioned Films for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatner, Edmund Burke

    1981-01-01

    The history of Captioned Films for the Deaf, an agency now called Media for the Handicapped, is traced along with the contributions of individuals and groups which led to the eventual passage of legislation in 1959. (CL)

  2. Manganite films: Tuning phase diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailovic, Dragan

    2016-09-01

    Strain engineering can tune a manganite film into an antiferromagnetic insulating state whose extreme photo-susceptibility allows for the ordinary ferromagnetic metal state to then be transiently realized.

  3. Fabrication of amorphous diamond films

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.

    1995-12-12

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  4. Antistatic additive for polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1978-01-01

    Thin polyimide films are given excellent antistatic properties even at high temperature by low-level loading with lithium salts. Extremely hygroscopic, these salts absorb a layer of atmospheric water that provides conductive paths allowing charges to dissipate.

  5. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  6. Measurement of opaque film thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. L.; Jaarinen, J.; Reyes, C.; Oppenheim, I. C.; Favro, L. D.; Kuo, P. K.

    1987-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental framework for thickness measurements of thin metal films by low frequency thermal waves is described. Although it is assumed that the films are opaque and the substrates are comparatively poor thermal conductors, the theory is easily extended to other cases of technological interest. A brief description is given of the thermal waves and the experimental arrangement and parameters. The usefulness of the technique is illustrated for making absolute measurements of the thermal diffusivities of isotropic substrate materials. This measurement on pure elemental solids provides a check on the three dimensional theory in the limiting case of zero film thickness. The theoretical framework is then presented, along with numerical calculations and corresponding experimental results for the case of copper films on a glass substrate.

  7. Nanodynamics of ferroelectric ultrathin films.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingteng; Herchig, R; Ponomareva, I

    2011-10-21

    The nanodynamics of ferroelectric ultrathin films made of PbTi(0.6)Zr(0.4)TiO(3) alloy is explored via the use of a first-principles-based technique. Our atomistic simulations predict that the nanostripe domains which constitute the ground state of ferroelectric ultrathin films under most electric boundary conditions oscillate under a driving ac field. Furthermore, we find that the atomically thin wall, or nanowall, that separates the nanodomains with different polarization directions behaves as an elastic object and has a mass associated with it. The nanowall mass is size-dependent and gives rise to a unique size-driven transition from resonance to relaxational dynamics in ultrathin films. A general theory of nanodynamics in such films is developed and used to explain all computational findings. In addition, we find an unusual dynamical coupling between nanodomains and mechanical deformations that could potentially be used in ultrasensitive electromechanical nanosensors.

  8. Metallo-organic decomposition films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, B. D.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of metallo-organic deposition (MOD) films for solar cells was presented. The MOD materials are metal ions compounded with organic radicals. The technology is evolving quickly for solar cell metallization. Silver compounds, especially silver neodecanoate, were developed which can be applied by thick-film screening, ink-jet printing, spin-on, spray, or dip methods. Some of the advantages of MOD are: high uniform metal content, lower firing temperatures, decomposition without leaving a carbon deposit or toxic materials, and a film that is stable under ambient conditions. Molecular design criteria were explained along with compounds formulated to date, and the accompanying reactions for these compounds. Phase stability and the other experimental and analytic results of MOD films were presented.

  9. Film holder for radiographing tubing

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Earl V.; Foster, Billy E.

    1976-01-01

    A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

  10. Science and film-making.

    PubMed

    Gouyon, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-01-01

    The essay reviews the literature, mostly historical, on the relationship between science and film-making, with a focus on the science documentary. It then discusses the circumstances of the emergence of the wildlife making-of documentary genre. The thesis examined here is that since the early days of cinema, film-making has evolved from being subordinate to science, to being an equal partner in the production of knowledge, controlled by non-scientists.

  11. Photoconductivity of thin organic films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Nikolai V.; Chukharev, Vladimir; Kaplas, Petra; Tolkki, Antti; Efimov, Alexander; Haring, Kimmo; Viheriälä, Jukka; Niemi, Tapio; Lemmetyinen, Helge

    2010-04-01

    Thin organic films were deposited on silicon oxide surfaces with golden interdigitated electrodes (interelectrode gap was 2 μm), and the film resistivities were measured in dark and under white light illumination. The compounds selected for the measurements include molecules widely used in solar cell applications, such as polythiophene ( PHT), fullerene ( C60), pyrelene tetracarboxylic diimide ( PTCDI) and copper phthalocyanine ( CuPc), as well as molecules potentially interesting for photovoltaic applications, e.g. porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The films were deposited using thermal evaporation (e.g. for C60 and CuPc films), spin coating for PHT, and Langmuir-Schaeffer for the layer-by-layer deposition of porphyrin-fullerene dyads. The most conducting materials in the series are films of PHT and CuPc with resistivities 1.2 × 10 3 Ω m and 3 × 10 4 Ω m, respectively. Under light illumination resistivity of all films decreases, with the strongest light effect observed for PTCDI, for which resistivity decreases by 100 times, from 3.2 × 10 8 Ω m in dark to 3.1 × 10 6 Ω m under the light.

  12. Quality assurance in film radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bellegem, L.; Vaessen, B.

    1993-12-31

    The ISO 9000 standards were originally developed during the 1980`s to provide uniform, worldwide quality assurance requirements. The EC (European Communities) adopted these standards as part of their modular approach to ``conformity assessment`` procedures, for several product categories. This includes the development of standards (specifications) which define what the purchaser wants and what the supplier agrees to provide, as well as quality system registration (certification) which increases confidence in the supplier`s ability to produce consistently. The requirements are typically most rigorous for regulated products that have a major impact on health and safety i.e film radiographic systems. This is the main reason for making available the necessary Q.C. tools in film radiography to comply with Q.A. specifications and guarantee the required consistent performance. These tools can only give satisfying support if they are dedicated, easy to use, precise and cost effective at the user`s level. The main topics for such a Q.A. package are: (1) standard for Film System classification for industrial radiography; (2) film system certification; and (3) standard for control of film processing by means of reference values i.e. pre-exposed film wedges and archiving quality control method.

  13. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Sheldon, Peter

    1998-01-01

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  14. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  15. The virtual blood film.

    PubMed

    Riley, Roger S; Ben-Ezra, Jonathan M; Massey, Davis; Cousar, John

    2002-03-01

    The computer and the digital camera offer unprecedented possibilities for improving hematology education, research, and patient service. Peripheral blood smear images of exceptional quality can be acquired rapidly and conveniently from the peripheral blood smear with a modern, high-resolution digital camera and a quality microscope. Digital cameras use CCD or CMOS image sensors to measure light energy and additional circuitry to convert the measured information into a digital signal. Because digital cameras do not use photographic film, images are immediately available for incorporation into web sites or digital publications, printing, transfer to other individuals by e-mail, or other applications. Several excellent consumer digital still cameras are now available for less than $1000 that capture high-quality images comprised of more than three megapixels. These images are essentially indistinguishable from conventional film images when viewed on a quality color monitor or printed on a quality color or black and white printer at sizes up to 8 x 10 in. Several recent dedicated digital photomicroscopy cameras provide an ultrahigh quality image output of more than 12 megapixels and have low noise circuit designs permitting the direct capture of darkfield and fluorescence images. There are many applications of digital images of peripheral blood smears. Because hematology is a visual science, the inclusion of quality digital images into lectures, teaching handouts, and electronic documents is essential. A few institutions have gone beyond the basic application of digital images to develop large electronic hematology atlases; animated, audio-enhanced learning experiences; multidisciplinary Internet conferences; and other innovative applications. Digital images of single microscopic fields (single-frame images) are the most widely used in hematology education at this time, but single images of many adjacent microscopic fields can be stitched together to prepare zoomable

  16. Thin film strain transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rand, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Previous attempts to develop an appropriate sensor for measuring the stress or strain of high altitude balloons during flight are reviewed as well as the various conditions that must be met by such a device. The design, development and calibration of a transducer which promises to satisfy the necessary design constraints are described. The thin film strain transducer has a low effective modulus so as not to interfere with the strain that would naturally occur in the balloon. In addition, the transducer has a high sensitivity to longitudinal strain (7.216 mV/V/unit strain) which is constant for all temperature from room temperature to -80 C and all strains from 5 percent compression to 10 percent tensile strain. At the same time, the sensor is relatively insensitive (0.27 percent) to transverse forces. The device has a standard 350 ohm impedance which is compatible with available bridge balance, amplification and telemetry instrumentation now available for balloon flight. Recommendations are included for improved coatings to provide passive thermal control as well as model, tethered and full scale flight testing.

  17. Covalently networked monolayer-protected nanoparticle films.

    PubMed

    Tognarelli, D J; Miller, Robert B; Pompano, Rebecca R; Loftus, Andrew F; Sheibley, Daniel J; Leopold, Michael C

    2005-11-22

    Covalently networked films of nanoparticles can be assembled on various substrates from functionalized monolayer-protected clusters (MPCs) via ester coupling reactions. Exposure of a specifically modified substrate to alternating solutions of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid exchanged and 11-mercaptoundecanol exchanged MPCs, in the presence of ester coupling reagents, 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine, results in the formation of a multilayer film with ester bridges between individual nanoparticles. These films can be grown in a controlled manner to various thicknesses and exhibit certain properties that are consistent with films having other types of interparticle connectivity, including chemical vapor response behavior and quantized double layer charging. Ester coupling of MPCs into assembled films is a straightforward and highly versatile approach that results in robust films that can endure harsher chemical environments than other types of films. The stability of these covalent films is assessed and compared to other more traditional MPC film assemblies.

  18. Thin films under chemical stress

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The goal of work on this project has been develop a set of experimental tools to allow investigators interested in transport, binding, and segregation phenomena in composite thin film structures to study these phenomena in situ. Work to-date has focuses on combining novel spatially-directed optical excitation phenomena, e.g. waveguide eigenmodes in thin dielectric slabs, surface plasmon excitations at metal-dielectric interfaces, with standard spectroscopies to understand dynamic processes in thin films and at interfaces. There have been two main scientific thrusts in the work and an additional technical project. In one thrust we have sought to develop experimental tools which will allow us to understand the chemical and physical changes which take place when thin polymer films are placed under chemical stress. In principle this stress may occur because the film is being swelled by a penetrant entrained in solvent, because interfacial reactions are occurring at one or more boundaries within the film structure, or because some component of the film is responding to an external stimulus (e.g. pH, temperature, electric field, or radiation). However all work to-date has focused on obtaining a clearer understanding penetrant transport phenomena. The other thrust has addressed the kinetics of adsorption of model n-alkanoic acids from organic solvents. Both of these thrusts are important within the context of our long-term goal of understanding the behavior of composite structures, composed of thin organic polymer films interspersed with Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) and self-assembled monolayers. In addition there has been a good deal of work to develop the local technical capability to fabricate grating couplers for optical waveguide excitation. This work, which is subsidiary to the main scientific goals of the project, has been successfully completed and will be detailed as well. 41 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Use of a horror film in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Turley, J M; Derdeyn, A P

    1990-11-01

    Modern improvements in the technology of cinematic special effects have ushered in a new genre of vivid and graphic horror film. The numerous sequels of these films attest to their popularity among adolescents and young adults. Considerable concern has arisen on the part of parents, professionals, and policymakers regarding adverse effects of these films upon children. The authors discuss the meaning of a horror film to a troubled 13-year-old boy and describe the use of the film in his psychotherapy. The modern horror film serves many of the same functions for the adolescent that the traditional fairy tale serves for the younger child.

  20. Flexible amorphous metal films with high stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Cao, C. R.; Lu, Y. M.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y.

    2017-01-01

    We report the formation of amorphous Cu50Zr50 films with a large-area of more than 100 cm2. The films were fabricated by ion beam assisted deposition with a slow deposition rate at moderate temperature. The amorphous films have markedly enhanced thermal stability, excellent flexibility, and high reflectivity with atomic level smoothness. The multifunctional properties of the amorphous films are favorites in the promising applications of smart skin or wearable devices. The method of preparing highly stable amorphous metal films by tuning the deposition rate instead of deposition temperature could pave a way for exploring amorphous metal films with unique properties.

  1. Plateau borders of smectic liquid crystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trittel, Torsten; Aldred, Ruth; Stannarius, Ralf

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the geometrical properties of Plateau borders in an arrangement of connected smectic A free standing films. The geometry is chosen such that a circular Plateau border surrounds a planar smectic film and connects it with two smectic catenoids. It is demonstrated that, similar to soap films, the smectic film geometry can be described by a negative line tension of the circular contact region. Thus, the equilibrium angle between the films depends upon the liquid content in this region, and with increasing liquid content, deviations from Plateau's rule are observed. The experimental results are qualitatively comparable to soap films. A possible origin of slight quantitative differences is discussed.

  2. Theory of the liquid film motor.

    PubMed

    Feiz, M S; Namin, R M; Amjadi, A

    2015-09-01

    The liquid film motor is a freely suspended liquid film placed between two capacitively coupled plates that rotates when an electric current is passed through it. Here we propose a theory for its rotation mechanism based on thin film electroconvection. The capacitively coupled plates induce free charges on the surfaces of the film, and the electric field on the film exerts a force that induces rotation. Results of the proposed theory and simulation are in good agreement with the experiments in different properties of the liquid film motor.

  3. Modeling Tear Film Evaporation and Breakup with Duplex Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapf, Michael; Braun, Richard; Begley, Carolyn; Driscoll, Tobin; King-Smith, Peter Ewen

    2015-11-01

    Tear film thinning, hyperosmolarity, and breakup can irritate and damage the ocular surface. Recent research hypothesizes deficiencies in the lipid layer may cause locally increased evaporation, inducing conditions for breakup. We consider a model for team film evolution incorporating two mobile fluid layers, the aqueous and lipid layers. In addition, we include the effects of salt concentration, osmosis, evaporation as modified by the lipid layer, and the polar portion of the lipid layer. Numerically solving the resulting model, we explore the conditions for tear film breakup and analyze the response of the system to changes in our parameters. Our studies indicate sufficiently fast peak values or sufficiently wide areas of evaporation promote TBU, as does diffusion of solutes. In addition, the Marangoni effect representing polar lipids dominates viscous dissipation from the non-polar lipid layer in the model. This work was supported in part by NSF grant 1412085 and NIH grant 1R01EY021794.

  4. The Foreign Language Feature Film and Language Teaching Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Martin

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of foreign language films, featuring consideration of film sequence, image and film analysis, and literary adaptation, is an effective teaching activity with foreign language students. An example illustrates film analysis activities in a first-year French class. (CB)

  5. Dynamics of turbulent falling films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Naraigh, Lennon; Matar, Omar

    2012-11-01

    The dynamics of laminar falling films have received considerable attention over the past several decades. In contrast, turbulent falling films have been the subject of far fewer studies. We seek to redress this balance by studying the stability of falling films which have already undergone a transition from a laminar to a turbulent flow regime. We derive a uniform-film base-state for this flow by assuming the averaged turbulent velocity field to be steady and fully-developed, and by employing a modified version of mixing-length theory. The latter features an interpolation function for the eddy viscosity, and van Driest-type functions for turbulence-damping near the wall and interface regions. The predicted base-state streamwise velocity component is in good agreement with experimental data. A linear stability analysis of this base-state is then carried out by solving a modified version of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. Our results suggest that the unstable mode is a long-wave one. This provides motivation for the derivation of long-wave equations for the nonlinear evolution of the film.

  6. Film Learning in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, R.; Liddicoat, J.

    2012-04-01

    Is a picture worth a thousand words? That is a bit of a trick question. We process films and photographs very differently from the way we wrestle with words. They literally work on a different part of our brain, and their testimony is typically weighed differently as well, both in terms of emotional and evidentiary value. Film rhetoric does not quite play with the same deck of cards as classical rhetoric: it shuffles in some jokers and wild cards. To effectively use film in the classroom, faculty need to understand that these visual texts resemble but at the same time differ from written texts. By training faculty in various disciplines in the social and natural sciences to become more aware of not just what a film they are showing in a course says, but how it says it, the faculty can help frame their discussions in a dramatic new way, underlining the crucial connections between content and form that are essential to all critical thinking. There is a real urgency to this task in a world where more and more of the information that students receive is transmitted through visual means from sources of varying degrees of integrity and objectivity. Although this is a life skill that needs to be developed at any age, it most definitely is required at the university level. Recognizing this need, we will share our experience using film in a constructive way for teaching students social and natural sciences at colleges and universities in New York City.

  7. Thin-film metal hydrides.

    PubMed

    Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the medieval alchemist, the chemical transformation of common metals into nobel metals, will forever be a dream. However, key characteristics of metals, such as their electronic band structure and, consequently, their electric, magnetic and optical properties, can be tailored by controlled hydrogen doping. Due to their morphology and well-defined geometry with flat, coplanar surfaces/interfaces, novel phenomena may be observed in thin films. Prominent examples are the eye-catching hydrogen switchable mirror effect, the visualization of solid-state diffusion and the formation of complex surface morphologies. Thin films do not suffer as much from embrittlement and/or decrepitation as bulk materials, allowing the study of cyclic absorption and desorption. Therefore, thin-metal hydride films are used as model systems to study metal-insulator transitions, for high throughput combinatorial research or they may be used as indicator layers to study hydrogen diffusion. They can be found in technological applications as hydrogen sensors, in electrochromic and thermochromic devices. In this review, we discuss the effect of hydrogen loading of thin niobium and yttrium films as archetypical examples of a transition metal and a rare earth metal, respectively. Our focus thereby lies on the hydrogen induced changes of the electronic structure and the morphology of the thin films, their optical properties, the visualization and the control of hydrogen diffusion and on the study of surface phenomena and catalysis.

  8. A STUDY OF IN-FLIGHT FILM PROCESSING TECHNIQUES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESSORS, PROCESSING, PHOTOGRAPHIC RECONNAISSANCE, PHOTOGRAPHIC DRIERS, PERFORMANCE(HUMAN), PHOTOGRAPHIC IMAGES, PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM , PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS, DIFFUSION, MOTION PICTURE FILM .

  9. A study of reactive plasma deposited thin films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilchrist, J.; Williams, E.

    1986-01-01

    A state-of-the-art research laboratory was established to grow and characterize amorphous thin films that are useful in semi-conductor devices. Two film systems, nitride films and silicon dioxide films were studied. Over seventy deposition runs for nitride films were made. The films were deposited on silicon substrate using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the uniformity of the films were affected by the location of the film on the platen.

  10. Single-layer nano-carbon film, diamond film, and diamond/nano-carbon composite film field emission performance comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Jinye; Wang, Lijun

    2016-05-01

    A series of single-layer nano-carbon (SNC) films, diamond films, and diamond/nano-carbon (D/NC) composite films have been prepared on the highly doped silicon substrate by using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission I-V measurements. The experimental results indicated that the field emission maximum current density of D/NC composite films is 11.8-17.8 times that of diamond films. And the field emission current density of D/NC composite films is 2.9-5 times that of SNC films at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm. At the same time, the D/NC composite film exhibits the advantage of improved reproducibility and long term stability (both of the nano-carbon film within the D/NC composite cathode and the SNC cathode were prepared under the same experimental conditions). And for the D/NC composite sample, a high current density of 10 mA/cm2 at an electric field of 3.0 V/μm was obtained. Diamond layer can effectively improve the field emission characteristics of nano-carbon film. The reason may be due to the diamond film acts as the electron acceleration layer.

  11. LTCC Thick Film Process Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Girardi, M. A.; Peterson, K. A.; Vianco, P. T.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology has proven itself in military/space electronics, wireless communication, microsystems, medical and automotive electronics, and sensors. The use of LTCC for high frequency applications is appealing due to its low losses, design flexibility and packaging and integration capability. Moreover, we summarize the LTCC thick film process including some unconventional process steps such as feature machining in the unfired state and thin film definition of outer layer conductors. The LTCC thick film process was characterized to optimize process yields by focusing on these factors: 1) Print location, 2) Print thickness, 3) Drying of tapes and panels, 4) Shrinkage upon firing, and 5) Via topography. Statistical methods were used to analyze critical process and product characteristics in the determination towards that optimization goal.

  12. LTCC Thick Film Process Characterization

    DOE PAGES

    Girardi, M. A.; Peterson, K. A.; Vianco, P. T.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology has proven itself in military/space electronics, wireless communication, microsystems, medical and automotive electronics, and sensors. The use of LTCC for high frequency applications is appealing due to its low losses, design flexibility and packaging and integration capability. Moreover, we summarize the LTCC thick film process including some unconventional process steps such as feature machining in the unfired state and thin film definition of outer layer conductors. The LTCC thick film process was characterized to optimize process yields by focusing on these factors: 1) Print location, 2) Print thickness, 3) Drying of tapes and panels,more » 4) Shrinkage upon firing, and 5) Via topography. Statistical methods were used to analyze critical process and product characteristics in the determination towards that optimization goal.« less

  13. Hydrogen film/conductive cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewen, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Small scale nozzle tests using heated nitrogen were run to obtain effectiveness and wall heat transfer data with hydrogen film cooling. Effectiveness data are compared with an entrainment model developed from planar, unaccelerated flow data. Results indicate significant effects due to flow turning and acceleration. With injection velocity effects accounted for explicitly, heat transfer correlation coefficients were found to be the same with and without film cooling when properties are evaluated at an appropriate reference temperature for the local gas composition defined by the coolant effectiveness. A design study for an O2/H2 application with 300 psia (207 N/sq cm) chamber pressure and 1500 lbs (6670 N) thrust indicates an adiabatic wall design requires 4 to 5 percent of the total flow as hydrogen film cooling. Internal regenerative cooling designs were found to offer no reduction in coolant requirements.

  14. Holographic films from carotenoid pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-López, S.; Lecona-Sánchez, J. F.; Santacruz-Vázquez, C.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    Carotenoids pigments presents in pineapple can be more than just natural dyes, which is one of the applications that now at day gives the chemical industry. In this research shown that can be used in implementing of holographic recording Films. Therefore we describe the technique how to obtain this kind of pigments trough spay drying of natural pineapple juice, which are then dissolved with water in a proportion of 0.1g to 1mL. The obtained sample is poured into glass substrates using the gravity method, after a drying of 24 hours in laboratory normal conditions the films are ready. The films are characterized by recording transmission holographic gratings (LSR 445 NL 445 nm) and measuring the diffraction efficiency holographic parameter. This recording material has good diffraction efficiency and environmental stability.

  15. Instability of electrified viscous films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savettaseranee, Knograt

    2002-01-01

    We examine the stability of a thin two-dimensional liquid film with a regular electric field applied in a direction parallel to an initially flat bounding fluid interface. We study the distinct physical effects of surface tension, van der Waals and electrically induced forces for a viscous incompressible fluid. The film is assumed to be sufficiently thin, and the surface tension and electrically induced forces are large enough that gravity can be ignored to the leading order. Our target is to analyse the nonlinear stability of the flow. We attain this by deriving and numerically solving a set of nonlinear evolution equations for the local film thickness and for symmetrical interfacial perturbations. We find that the electric field forces enhance the stability of the flow and can remove rupture.

  16. Teaching Interpersonal Communication with Feature Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Russell F., II; Adler, Ronald B.

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a rationale, resources, and suggestions for teaching interpersonal communication with feature films. Includes a table of 72 widely available feature films and the interpersonal communication topics illustrated in each one. (SR)

  17. Heat-shrinkable film improves adhesive bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johns, J. M.; Reed, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure is applied during adhesive bonding by wrapping parts in heat-shrinkable plastic film. Film eliminates need to vacuum bag or heat parts in expensive autoclave. With procedure, operators are trained quickly, and no special skills are required.

  18. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOEpatents

    Dinh, Long N.; McLean, II, William; Balooch, Mehdi; Fehring, Jr., Edward J.; Schildbach, Marcus A.

    2000-01-01

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  19. Laser tracks in rainbow films on water

    SciTech Connect

    Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu

    2012-08-31

    It is found that narrow non-diverging laser tracks, earlier studied in free soap films, can also arise in thin rainbow films, e.g., of petrol, on water. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  20. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester. Previously announced in STAR as N83-22320